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Sample records for isopropyl alcohol conversion

  1. Alkylation of toluene with isopropyl alcohol over SAPO-5 catalyst

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Isopropylation of toluene with isopropyl alcohol was studied over the large pore silicon alu- mino phosphate molecular sieves (SAPO-5) with varying Si content. Toluene conversion was found to increase with increase in the Si of the catalysts. The effect of temperature on yields of cymene was studied in the range ...

  2. 27 CFR 21.113 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21...

  3. 21 CFR 173.240 - Isopropyl alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Isopropyl alcohol. 173.240 Section 173.240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents...

  4. Ethanol-based cleanser versus isopropyl alcohol to decontaminate stethoscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecat, Paul; Cropp, Elliott; McCord, Gary; Haller, Nairmeen Awad

    2009-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 hospital admissions is complicated by a health care-associated infection. Stethoscopes may play a role in spreading nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an ethanol-based cleanser (EBC) compared with isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing bacterial contamination of stethoscope diaphragms. Stethoscopes were cultured from medical professionals on 4 medical floors before and after cleaning with either EBC or isopropyl alcohol pads. The numbers of colony-forming units (cfu) grown were compared between the 2 cleaners and to baseline values. A total of 99 stethoscopes were cultured (49 EBC; 50 isopropyl alcohol), and all were positive for growth. After cleaning, 28.28% of the stethoscopes were growth-free (12 EBC; 16 isopropyl alcohol). Cleaning with EBC and isopropyl alcohol pads significantly reduced the cfu counts (by 92.8% and 92.5%, respectively), but neither was found to be statistically superior (F = 1.22; P = .2721). Cleaning a stethoscope diaphragm using either EBC or isopropyl alcohol led to a significant reduction in bacterial growth in culture. As an extension of the hand, a stethoscope should be cleaned with the same frequency as the hands. The simultaneous cleaning of hands and stethoscope may further increase compliance with current standards.

  5. Study of catalysts prepared on the basis of synthetic zeolite of A-type in the reaction of oxidation of isopropyl alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.M; Matiev, K.I; Mirgashimov, F.M; Kuliev, F.D; Mejidov, N.J

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Partial oxidation of isopropyl alcohol into acetone at the zeolite of A-type modified by ions copper and palladium at the temperature interval 150-230 degree C, of volume velocity 2400 H - 1 under different ratio alcohol-oxygen-helium at atmoshpheric pressure has been studied. It has been established that the conversion of isopropyl alcohol on zeolites CuPdNaA and CuPdCaA is noticable however selective by acetone alcohol, modofoed zeolites, acetone

  6. Enhancement of Esterification of Propionic Acid with Isopropyl Alcohol by Pervaporation Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit P. Rathod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With increasing cost of raw materials and energy, there is an increasing inclination of chemical process industries toward new processes that result in lesser waste generation, greater efficiency, and substantial yield of the desired products. Esterification is a chemical reaction in which two reactants carboxylic acid and alcohol react to form an ester and water. This reaction is a reversible reaction and the equilibrium conversion can be altered by varying the process parameters. Pervaporation reactor can enhance the conversion by shifting the equilibrium of reversible esterification reactions. Polyvinyl alcohol-polyether sulfone composite hydrophilic membrane was used for pervaporation-assisted esterification of propionic acid with isopropyl alcohol. The experiments were carried out in the presence of sulphuric acid as a catalyst at 50°C to 80°C with various reactants ratios. The esterification was carried out for catalyst loadings of 0.089 kmol/m3 to 0.447 kmol/m3. The molar ratios of isopropyl to propionic acid used for the experiment were 1 to 1.5. Maximum conversion was obtained for the ratio of 1.4. Also effect of other parameters such as process temperature and catalyst concentration was discussed. It was found that the use of pervaporation reactor increased the conversion of the propionic acid considerably.

  7. Isopropyl alcohol tank installed at A-3 Test Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    An isopropyl alcohol (IPA) tank is lifted into place at the A-3 Test Stand being built at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center. Fourteen IPA, water and liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks are being installed to support the chemical steam generators to be used on the A-3 Test Stand. The IPA and LOX tanks will provide fuel for the generators. The water will allow the generators to produce steam that will be used to reduce pressure inside the stand's test cell diffuser, enabling operators to simulate altitudes up to 100,000 feet. In that way, operators can perform the tests needed on rocket engines being built to carry humans back to the moon and possibly beyond. The A-3 Test Stand is set for completion and activation in 2011.

  8. Iron (III) oxyhydroxide in isopropyl alcohol preparation, characterization and solvothermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, E.L.C.N.; Jafelicci Junior, M.

    1989-01-01

    Iron (III) nitrate hydrolysis was carried out in isopropyl alcohol solution by an aqueous amonia gas stream resulting in iron (III) oxyhydroxide sol. It has been investigated in this work the solvothermal treatment of this colloidal system at 120 0 C and 24 hours. Iron (III) oxyhydroxide freshly obtained and solvothermally treated. Samples were dryed by lyophilization. Products obtained were characterized by the following techniques: spectrophotometric iron analysis by 1,10-orthophenantroline complexation method, powder X-ray diffraction, vibrational infrared spectra and differential thermal analysis. After solvothermal treatment resulting product was crystallized into hematite, while freshly iron (III) oxyhydroxide was non crystalline. Both of them are very active powder, showing high water adsorption [pt

  9. Single-shot femtosecond laser ablation of gold surface in air and isopropyl alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, S. I.; Saraeva, I. N.; Lednev, V. N.; Pershin, S. M.; Rudenko, A. A.; Ionin, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    Single-shot IR femtosecond-laser ablation of gold surfaces in ambient air and liquid isopropyl alcohol was studied by scanning electron microscopy characterization of crater topographies and time-resolved optical emission spectroscopy of ablative plumes in regimes, typical for non-filamentary and non-fragmentation laser production of nanoparticle sols. Despite one order of magnitude shorter (few nanoseconds) lifetimes and almost two orders of magnitude lower intensities of the quenched ablative plume emission in the alcohol ambient at the same peak laser fluence, craters for the dry and wet conditions appeared with rather similar nanofoam-like spallative topographies and the same thresholds. These facts envision the underlying surface spallation as one of the basic ablation mechanisms relevant for both dry and wet advanced femtosecond laser surface nano/micro-machining and texturing, as well as for high-throughput femtosecond laser ablative production of colloidal nanoparticles by MHz laser-pulse trains via their direct nanoscale jetting from the nanofoam in air and fluid environments.

  10. The Use of Liquid Isopropyl Alcohol and Hydrogen Peroxide Gas Plasma to Biologically Decontaminate Spacecraft Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, J. K.; Tudryn, Carissa D.; Choi, Sun J.; Eulogio, Sebastian E.; Roberts, Timothy J.; Tudryn, Carissa D.

    2006-01-01

    Legitimate concern exists regarding sending spacecraft and their associated hardware to solar system bodies where they could possibly contaminate the body's surface with terrestrial microorganisms. The NASA approved guidelines for sterilization as set forth in NPG 8020.12C, which is consistent with the biological contamination control objectives of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), recommends subjecting the spacecraft and its associated hardware to dry heat-a dry heat regimen that could potentially employ a temperature of 110(deg)C for up to 200 hours. Such a temperature exposure could prove detrimental to the spacecraft electronics. The stimulated growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in metallic interconnects and/or thermal degradation of organic materials composing much of the hardware could take place over a prolonged temperature regimen. Such detrimental phenomena would almost certainly compromise the integrity and reliability of the electronics. Investigation of sterilization procedures in the medical field suggests that hydrogen peroxide (H202) gas plasma (HPGP) technology can effectively function as an alternative to heat sterilization, especially for heat-sensitive items. Treatment with isopropyl alcohol (IPA) in liquid form prior to exposure of the hardware to HPGP should also prove beneficial. Although IPA is not a sterilant, it is frequently used as a disinfectant because of its bactericidal properties. The use of IPA in electronics cleaning is widely recognized and has been utilized for many years with no adverse affects reported. In addition, IPA is the principal ingredient of the test fluid used in ionic contamination testers to assess the amount of ionic contamination found on the surfaces of printed wiring assemblies. This paper will set forth experimental data confirming the feasibility of the IPA/H202 approach to reach acceptable microbial reduction (MR) levels of spacecraft electronic hardware. In addition, a proposed process flow in

  11. Baby Shampoo Versus Povidone-Iodine or Isopropyl Alcohol in Reducing Eyelid Skin Bacterial Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Giancarlo A; Nguyen, Christine V; Yonkers, Marc A; Tao, Jeremiah P

    Baby shampoo is used as an alternative surgical skin preparation, but the evidence supporting its use is scarce with no descriptions of efficacy in the periocular region. The authors compare the efficacy of baby shampoo, povidone-iodine (PI, Betadine) and isopropyl alcohol (IA) in reducing eyelid skin bacterial load. Prospective, randomized, comparative, and interventional trial. Bacterial load on adult, human eyelid skin was quantitated before and after cleansing with 1) dilute baby shampoo, 2) 10% PI, or 3) 70% IA. Paired skin swabs were collected from a 1 cm area of the upper eyelid of subjects before and after a standardized surgical scrub technique. Samples were cultured on 5% sheep blood agar for 24 hours. The number of colony forming units (CFU) was assessed and bacterial load per square centimeter of eyelid skin was quantified. Baseline and postcleansing samples were assessed from 42 eyelids of 42 subjects (n = 14 for each of baby shampoo, PI, and IA). Before cleansing, similar amounts of bacterial flora were grown from all specimens (median log CFU/cm = 2.04 before baby shampoo, 2.01 before PI, 2.11 before IA; p > 0.05). All 3 cleansing agents significantly reduced the bacterial load (p shampoo, 0.39 after PI, 0.59 after IA; p > 0.05). Change from baseline in bacterial load was statistically similar for all 3 agents (median reduction in log CFU/cm = 1.28 with baby shampoo, 1.57 with PI, 1.40 with IA; p > 0.05). These corresponded to bacterial load reductions of 96.3%, 96.6%, and 98.4% for baby shampoo, PI, and IA, respectively. Baby shampoo achieved comparable diminution in eyelid skin bacterial load to PI or IA. These data suggest baby shampoo may be an effective preoperative cleansing agent.

  12. Effects of temperature and solvent concentration on the solvent crystallization of palm-based dihydroxystearic acid with isopropyl alcohol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory F.L.Koay; Teong-Guan Chuah; Sumaiya Zainal-Abidin; Salmiah Ahmad; Thomas S.Y.Choong

    2012-01-01

    Palm-based dihydroxystearic acid of 69.55% purity was produced in a 500-kg-per-batch operation pilot plant and purified through solvent crystallization in a custom fabricated simultaneous batch crystallizer unit.The effects of temperature and solvent concentration on yield,particle size distribution and purity were studied.The purity was higher,while the yield and particle size were lower and smaller,respectively,at higher temperature and solvent concentration.The solvent crystallization process efficiency was rated at 66-69% when carried out with 70-80% isopropyl alcohol at 20 ℃.

  13. A novel UV-photolysis approach with acetone and isopropyl alcohol for the rapid determination of fluoride in organofluorine-containing drugs by spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullapudi, Venkata Balarama Krishna; Dheram, Karunasagar

    2018-01-01

    A UV photolysis decomposition (UVPD) method for the determination of fluoride in fluorine containing pharmaceuticals by spectrophotometry is reported. It is based on the use of high intensity UV-irradiation in the presence of a digesting solution comprising a mixture of acetone and isopropanol. For the optimization of the UVPD procedure, three bulk drugs (levofloxacin, nebivolol and efavirenz) were chosen as representatives of three diverse compounds containing a single fluorine atom, two fluorine atoms, and trifluoromethyl groups respectively. Operational conditions of the UVPD method, such as concentration and volume of reagents (acetone and isopropyl alcohol), and UV irradiation time (1-6 minutes) were optimized. The efficiency of digestion was evaluated by the determination of fluoride in sample digests. Using the developed method, it was possible for complete conversion of the organofluoride to free fluoride ion for its subsequent determination by spectrophotometry based on bleaching of Zr-xylenol orange-color complex. Quantitative recovery (>98%) of the fluorine in the drug samples could be achieved using a mixture of 2% acetone + 2% isopropyl alcohol + 0.003% Na 2 CO 3 in just 5 minutes of UV irradiation, which can be considered an important aspect considering the difficulties involved in the cleavage of the CF bond. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results obtained by the UVPD method with the values estimated using formula weight of the compound and no statistical difference was observed between the results. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable for application in routine analysis of fluoride in organofluorine-containing drugs. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Effect of Al_2O_3 Nanoparticles Additives on the Density, Saturated Vapor Pressure, Surface Tension and Viscosity of Isopropyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelezny, Vitaly; Geller, Vladimir; Semenyuk, Yury; Nikulin, Artem; Lukianov, Nikolai; Lozovsky, Taras; Shymchuk, Mykola

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents results of an experimental study of the density, saturated vapor pressure, surface tension and viscosity of Al_2O_3 nanoparticle colloidal solutions in isopropyl alcohol. Studies of the thermophysical properties of nanofluids were performed at various temperatures and concentrations of Al_2O_3 nanoparticles. The paper gives considerable attention to a turbidimetric analysis of the stability of nanofluid samples. Samples of nanofluids remained stable over the range of parameters of the experiments, ensuring the reliability of the thermophysical property data for the Al_2O_3 nanoparticle colloidal solutions in isopropyl alcohol. The studies show that the addition of Al_2O_3 nanoparticles leads to an increase of the density, saturated vapor pressure and viscosity, as well as a decrease for the surface tension of isopropyl alcohol. The information reported in this paper on the various thermophysical properties for the isopropyl alcohol/Al_2O_3 nanoparticle model system is useful for the development of thermodynamically consistent models for predicting properties of nanofluids and correct modeling of the heat exchange processes.

  15. The Effect of Tin Addition to ZnO Nanosheet Thin Films for Ethanol and Isopropyl Alcohol Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Yuliarto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of green environmental and public health monitoring have become stricter along with greater world attention for global warming. The most common pollutants in the environment that need tightened control are volatile organic compounds (VOC. Compared to other kinds of sensors, semiconductor sensors have certain advantages, including high sensitivity, fast response, simplicity, high reliability and low cost. In this work, ZnO and Sn-doped ZnO nanostructure materials with high surface nanosheet areas were synthesized using chemical bath deposition. The X-ray diffraction patterns could be indexed according to crystallinity mainly to a hexagonal wurzite ZnO structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM results showed that in all samples, the thin films after the addition of Sn consisted of many kinds of microstructure patterns on a nanoscale, with various sheet shapes. The sensor performance characterizations showed that VOC levels as low as 3 vol% of isopropyl alcohol (IPA and ethanol could be detected at sensitivities of 83.86% and 85.57%, respectively. The highest sensitivity of all sensors was found at an Sn doping of 1.4 at%. This high sensor sensitivity is a result of the high surface area and Sn doping, which in turn produced a higher absorption of the targeted gas.

  16. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part I: Batch optimization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N; Odaneth, Annamma A; Lali, Arvind M

    2015-12-01

    Isopropyl myristate finds many applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as an emollient, thickening agent, or lubricant. Using a homogeneous reaction phase, non-specific lipase derived from Candida antartica, marketed as Novozym 435, was determined to be most suitable for the enzymatic synthesis of isopropyl myristate. The high molar ratio of alcohol to acid creates novel single phase medium which overcomes mass transfer effects and facilitates downstream processing. The effect of various reaction parameters was optimized to obtain a high yield of isopropyl myristate. Effect of temperature, agitation speed, organic solvent, biocatalyst loading and batch operational stability of the enzyme was systematically studied. The conversion of 87.65% was obtained when the molar ratio of isopropyl alcohol to myristic acid (15:1) was used with 4% (w/w) catalyst loading and agitation speed of 150 rpm at 60 °C. The enzyme has also shown good batch operational stability under optimized conditions.

  17. Analysis of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup collected from tubing systems sanitized with isopropyl alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Lagacé

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A plastic tubing system operated under vacuum is usually used to collect sap from maple trees during spring time to produce maple syrup. This system is commonly sanitized with isopropyl alcohol (IPA to remove microbial contamination colonizing the system during the sugar season. Questions have been raised whether IPA would contribute to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup coming from sanitized systems. First, an extraction experiment was performed in the lab on commercial plastic tubing materials that were submitted to IPA under harsh conditions. The results of the GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of many compounds that served has target for further tests. Secondly, tests were done on early and mid-season maple sap and syrup coming from many sugarbushes using IPA or not to determine potential concentrations of plastic residues. Results obtained from sap and syrup samples showed that no quantifiable (< 1–75 μg/L concentration of any plastic molecules tested was determined in all samples coming from IPA treated or not treated systems. However, some samples of first sap run used as a rinse solution to be discarded before the season start and that were coming from non sanitized or IPA sanitized systems, showed quantifiable concentrations of chemical residue such as ultraviolet protector (octabenzone. These results show that IPA can be safely used to sanitize maple sap collection system in regards to the leaching of plastic residues in maple sap and syrup and reinforced the need to thoroughly rinse the tubing system at the beginning of the season for both sanitized and non sanitized systems. Keywords: Food science, Food safety, Materials chemistry

  18. Linear free energy relationships in heterogeneous catalysis--13. The dehydration of aliphatic alcohols over silica-alumina. [N-butyl alcohol, sec. -butyl or isopropyl alcohol, tert. -butyl alcolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Take, J; Matsumoto, T; Yoneda, Y

    1978-01-01

    The dehydration of n-butyl alcohol at 120/sup 0/-166/sup 0/C, sec.-butyl or isopropyl alcohol at 100/sup 0/-145/sup 0/C, and tert.-butyl alcohol at 54/sup 0/-80/sup 0/C, over silica/alumina catalyst was zero order in alcohol at 0.01-0.1 atm, and the activation energies were 35.3, 31.7, 32.0, and 29.9 kcal/mol, respectively. The zero-order rate constants were mainly affected by the activation energies since the preexponential factors varied little except for tert.-butyl alcohol. A linear relationship was found between the activation energy or the logarithm of the zero-order rate constant and the heterolytic bond dissociation energy for the carbon-oxygen bond in alcohols D(R/sup +/OH/sup -/). The activation energy increased and the rate constant decreased with increasing D(R/sup +/OH/sup -/). The results indicate that dehydration is E1 over this catalyst, but a similar correlation was observed based on published data for dehydration over alumina, which follows an E2 mechanism, indicating that heterolytic cleavage of the C-O bond is rate-determining in both mechanisms.

  19. Isobaric (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for (di-n-propyl ether + n-propyl alcohol + water) and (diisopropyl ether + isopropyl alcohol + water) systems at 100 kPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lladosa, Estela; Monton, Juan B.; Burguet, MaCruz; Torre, Javier de la

    2008-01-01

    Isobaric (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria were measured for the (di-n-propyl ether + n-propyl alcohol + water) and (diisopropyl ether + isopropyl alcohol + water) system at 100 kPa. The apparatus used for the determination of (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibrium data was an all-glass dynamic recirculating still with an ultrasonic homogenizer couple to the boiling flask. The experimental data demonstrated the existence of a heterogeneous ternary azeotrope for both ternary systems. The (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria data were found to be thermodynamically consistent for both systems. The experimental data were compared with the estimation using UNIQUAC and NRTL models and the prediction of UNIFAC model

  20. Isopropanol alcohol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubbing alcohol poisoning; Isopropyl alcohol poisoning ... Isopropyl alcohol can be harmful if it is swallowed or gets in the eyes. ... These products contain isopropanol: Alcohol swabs Cleaning supplies ... Rubbing alcohol Other products may also contain isopropanol.

  1. Electrochemical and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of the Mechanism of Oxidation of Phenazine-di-N-oxide in the Presence of Isopropyl alcohol at Glassy Carbon and Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulakovskaya, S.I.; Kulikov, A.V.; Sviridova, L.N.; Stenina, E.V.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The mechanism of oxidation of phenazine-di-N-oxide in the presence of isopropyl alcohol was studied. • The results are explained in terms of the E 1 C 1 E 2 C 2 mechanism of the two-stage electrode process. • The total two-electron catalytic oxidation of i-PrOH in the complex with the phenazine-di-N-oxide radical cation was assumed to occur. - Abstract: The mechanism of oxidation of phenazine-di-N-oxide in the presence of isopropyl alcohol was studied by cyclic voltammetry at glassy carbon (GC) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) electrodes in 0.1 M LiClO 4 solutions in acetonitrile. The adsorption of phenazine-di-N-oxide at SWCNT electrode in 0.1 M LiClO 4 solution in acetonitrile was investigated by measurement of the dependence of the differential double layer capacitance of the electrode C on potential E. The effect of isopropyl alcohol on the shape of cyclic voltammograms (CVs) of phenazine-di-N-oxide and the intensity of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) signal of its radical cation was investigated. The catalytic currents were recorded at the oxidation of phenazine-di-N-oxide at SWCNT and GC electrodes in the presence of isopropyl alcohol. The results were explained in terms of the E 1 C 1 E 2 C 2 mechanism of two-stage electrode process characterized by catalytic current recorded at the second electrode stage. The overall two-electron catalytic oxidation of isopropyl alcohol in complex with the phenazine-di-N-oxide radical cation was assumed to occur. It was shown that SWCNT electrodes can be used in the electrocatalytic oxidation of organic compounds in the presence of electrochemically generated phenazine-di-N-oxide radical cation

  2. Zeolitic catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2018-04-10

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon, the method comprising contacting said alcohol with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein said alcohol can be produced by a fermentation process, said metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and said metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon.

  3. Study of dementia associated with alcoholism using N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) iodoamphetamine SPECT and 2 tesla magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Toshiro; Uchida, Tsunehisa; Yokoyama, Yoji and others

    1988-08-01

    Using DSM-III-R criteria, five patients (ages 46 approx. 76 years) were diagosed as having DAA (dementia associated with alcoholism). An investigation was conducted using a ring-type single proton emission tomography system with N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) iodoamphetamine (IMP) and a magnetic resonance imaging system with a superconductive 2 tesla magnet. IMP uptake was measured 25 approx. 30 minutes after injection. Bilateral IMP uptake reduction was seen in all of the patients. The distribution of the reduced IMP uptake showed in the temporal region of all patients ; the frontal region in four of the patients and the occipital region in two of the patients. The reduction of IMP uptake was irregular, generally mild, and less severe than that of Alzheimer type dementia. The MRI study showed cortical atrophy, especially in the frontal and temporal areas, and also showed enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. The reduced IMP uptake corresponded to cerebral atrophy and ventricular dilatation on the SE image (TR 3000, TE 60 or 82). These results indicate that the IMP SPECT and MRI studies are useful in examining DAA patients and in the classification of other types of dementia.

  4. Outbreak of carbon tetrachloride poisoning in a color printing factory related to the use of isopropyl alcohol and an air conditioning system in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J F; Wang, J D; Shih, T S; Lan, F L

    1987-01-01

    Three workers from a color printing factory were admitted to community hospitals in 1985 with manifestations of acute hepatitis. One of the three had superimposed acute renal failure and pulmonary edema. An investigation was subsequently conducted at the plant to determine the etiology of the outbreak and the prevalence of liver disease among the remaining workers. Comprehensive medical evaluations were conducted, which included physical examinations, liver function tests, and serological screening for hepatitis. Seventeen of 25 workers from the plant had abnormal liver function tests 10 days after the outbreak, and a significant association was found between the presence of abnormal liver function tests and a history of recently having worked inside any of three rooms in which an interconnecting air conditioning system had been installed to cool the printing machines. After further investigation, it was determined that the incident occurred following inadvertent use of carbon tetrachloride to clean a pump in the printing machine. A simulation of the pump cleaning operation revealed ambient air levels of carbon tetrachloride of 300-500 ppm. Ultimately, it was concluded that the outbreak was in all likelihood due to the combined use of carbon tetrachloride and isopropyl alcohol in the cleaning operation. This outbreak underscores the importance of adopting appropriate industrial hygiene measures in a rapidly industrializing nation such as Taiwan.

  5. Regeneration of granular activated carbon saturated with acetone and isopropyl alcohol via a recirculation process under H2O2/UV oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Richard S; Tseng, I-Chin

    2008-06-15

    This study examines a water-based system, coupling an adsorber and a photoreactor, for regeneration of granular activated carbon (GAC) saturated with acetone and isopropyl alcohol (IPA). Through water recirculation the regeneration reaction was operated in both intermittent and continuous ultraviolet illumination modes. With a periodic dosage of hydrogen peroxide not only was regeneration efficient but it was also catalyzed by GAC in the adsorber. The concentrations of acetone, solution chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH and organic residues on GAC surfaces were measured during regenerations. Both pH and solution COD were found to correlate with regeneration completion as measured by organic residue on GAC surfaces in four regeneration cycles with acetone. Solution pH decreased to the acidic values and then returned to near its original value when organic residues were 0.085-0.255 mg/g GAC, that is, destruction efficiency of adsorbed acetone on the GAC surface was more than 99%. Likewise, solution COD became low (properties in each of eight cycles: adsorptive capacities were 95+/-7 mg acetone/g GAC and 87+/-3 mg IPA/g GAC, and breakthrough time was 0.86+/-0.05 for acetone and 0.78+/-0.03 h for IPA. An economic assessment of the system showed that the operating cost was about 0.04 USD for treating every gram of acetone in the air.

  6. Study of dementia associated with alcoholism using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine SPECT and 2 tesla magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Toshiro; Uchida, Tsunehisa; Yokoyama, Yoji

    1988-01-01

    Using DSM-III-R criteria, five patients (ages 46 ∼ 76 years) were diagosed as having DAA (dementia associated with alcoholism). An investigation was conducted using a ring-type single proton emission tomography system with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine (IMP) and a magnetic resonance imaging system with a superconductive 2 tesla magnet. IMP uptake was measured 25 ∼ 30 minutes after injection. Bilateral IMP uptake reduction was seen in all of the patients. The distribution of the reduced IMP uptake showed in the temporal region of all patients ; the frontal region in four of the patients and the occipital region in two of the patients. The reduction of IMP uptake was irregular, generally mild, and less severe than that of Alzheimer type dementia. The MRI study showed cortical atrophy, especially in the frontal and temporal areas, and also showed enlargement of the lateral and third ventricles. The reduced IMP uptake corresponded to cerebral atrophy and ventricular dilatation on the SE image (TR 3000, TE 60 or 82). These results indicate that the IMP SPECT and MRI studies are useful in examining DAA patients and in the classification of other types of dementia. (author)

  7. Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; van den Putte, Bas; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Health campaign effects may be improved by taking interpersonal communication processes into account. The current study, which employed an experimental, pretest-posttest, randomized exposure design (N = 208), investigated whether the emotions induced by anti-alcohol messages influence conversational valence about alcohol and subsequent persuasion outcomes. The study produced three main findings. First, an increase in the emotion fear induced a negative conversational valence about alcohol. Second, fear was most strongly induced by a disgusting message, whereas a humorous appeal induced the least fear. Third, a negative conversational valence elicited healthier binge drinking attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behaviors. Thus, health campaign planners and health researchers should pay special attention to the emotional characteristics of health messages and should focus on inducing a healthy conversational valence.

  8. Catalytic Conversion of Syngas into Higher Alcohols over Carbide Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the use of the bulk carbides Mo2C, WC, and NbC as catalysts for the conversion of syngas into higher alcohols. K2CO3/WC produces mainly CH3OH and CH4 with a low activity. NbC has a very low activity in CO hydrogenation. K2CO3/Mo2C produces mixed alcohols with a reasonable...

  9. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part I: Batch optimization studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar N. Vadgama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Isopropyl myristate finds many applications in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries as an emollient, thickening agent, or lubricant. Using a homogeneous reaction phase, non-specific lipase derived from Candida antartica, marketed as Novozym 435, was determined to be most suitable for the enzymatic synthesis of isopropyl myristate. The high molar ratio of alcohol to acid creates novel single phase medium which overcomes mass transfer effects and facilitates downstream processing. The effect of various reaction parameters was optimized to obtain a high yield of isopropyl myristate. Effect of temperature, agitation speed, organic solvent, biocatalyst loading and batch operational stability of the enzyme was systematically studied. The conversion of 87.65% was obtained when the molar ratio of isopropyl alcohol to myristic acid (15:1 was used with 4% (w/w catalyst loading and agitation speed of 150 rpm at 60 °C. The enzyme has also shown good batch operational stability under optimized conditions.

  10. Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.; van den Putte, B.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Health campaign effects may be improved by taking interpersonal communication processes into account. The current study, which employed an experimental, pretest-posttest, randomized exposure design (N = 208), investigated whether the emotions induced by anti-alcohol messages influence conversational

  11. Analytical Method Development and Validation for the Quantification of Acetone and Isopropyl Alcohol in the Tartaric Acid Base Pellets of Dipyridamole Modified Release Capsules by Using Headspace Gas Chromatographic Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Valavala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, accurate, robust headspace gas chromatographic method was developed for the quantitative determination of acetone and isopropyl alcohol in tartaric acid-based pellets of dipyridamole modified release capsules. The residual solvents acetone and isopropyl alcohol were used in the manufacturing process of the tartaric acid-based pellets of dipyridamole modified release capsules by considering the solubility of the dipyridamole and excipients in the different manufacturing stages. The method was developed and optimized by using fused silica DB-624 (30 m × 0.32 mm × 1.8 µm column with the flame ionization detector. The method validation was carried out with regard to the guidelines for validation of analytical procedures Q2 demanded by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH. All the validation characteristics were meeting the acceptance criteria. Hence, the developed and validated method can be applied for the intended routine analysis.

  12. Molybdenum-catalyzed conversion of diols and biomass-derived polyols to alkenes using isopropyl alcohol as reductant and solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Johannes Rytter; Lupp, Daniel; Gorfo, Ayele Teshome

    2015-01-01

    %. The DODH of erythritol yields 39% 2,5-dihydrofuran, while the DODH of the proposed intermediate 1,4-anhydroerythritol yields 75%. The mechanism of the DODH of 1,4-anhydroerythritol was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT), and the rate-determining step (24.1 kcal/mol) was found...

  13. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de

    2014-01-01

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  14. Tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine: a new system for conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vitor S.C. de; Mattos, Marcio C.S. de, E-mail: mmattos@iq.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Organica

    2014-05-15

    An efficient and facile method has been developed for the conversion of alcohols into alkyl bromides under neutral conditions using tribromoisocyanuric acid and triphenylphosphine (molar ratio 1.0:0.7:2.0, alcohol/tribromoisocyanuric acid/triphenylphosphine) in dichloromethane at room temperature. This method can be applied for the conversion of primary, secondary, benzilic and allylic alcohols, and their corresponding bromides are obtained in 67-82 % yield. Tertiary alcohols do not react under these conditions. (author)

  15. Online and offline conversations about alcohol: Comparing the effects of familiar and unfamiliar discussion partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.; de Bruijn, G.-J.; Meehan, O.; van den Putte, B.

    2016-01-01

    Although research has demonstrated that interpersonal communication about alcohol influences drinking behaviors, this notion has mainly been examined in offline contexts with familiar conversation partners. The present study investigated how communication mode and familiarity influence

  16. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-03-08

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  17. Catalytic conversion of alcohols to hydrocarbons with low benzene content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.; Keller, Martin

    2016-09-06

    A method for converting an alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction having a lowered benzene content, the method comprising: converting said alcohol to a hydrocarbon fraction by contacting said alcohol, under conditions suitable for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon fraction, and contacting said hydrocarbon fraction with a benzene alkylation catalyst, under conditions suitable for alkylating benzene, to form alkylated benzene product in said hydrocarbon fraction. Also described is a catalyst composition useful in the method, comprising a mixture of (i) a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst catalytically active for converting said alcohol to said hydrocarbon, and (ii) a benzene alkylation catalyst, in which (i) and (ii) may be in a mixed or separated state. A reactor for housing the catalyst and conducting the reaction is also described.

  18. Isopropylation of benzene with 2-propanol over substituted large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The catalytic performance of these materials was tested for isopropylation of benzene with 2-propanol at 250, 300, 350 and 400°C. The products were cumene, -DIPB (-diisopropylbenzene) and -DIPB (-diisopropylbenzene). MnAPO-5 was found to be more active than the other catalysts. Maximum conversion (20%) ...

  19. Biomolecular Chemistry of Isopropyl Fibrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Niharika; Kotheimer, Amenda; Miller, Chad; Zeller, Matthias; Rath, Nigam P.

    2012-01-01

    Isopropyl 2-[4-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-phenoxy]-2-methylpropanoic acid and isopropyl 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropanoate, also known as fenofibrate and isopropyl clofibrate, are hypolipidemic agents of the fibrate family. In a previously reported triclinic structure of fenofibrate (polymorph I) the methyl groups of the isopropyl moiety (iPr) are located symmetrically about the carboxylate group. We report a new monoclinic form (polymorph II) of fenofibrate and a first structural description of isopropyl clofibrate, and in these the methyl groups are placed asymmetrically about the carboxylate group. In particular the dihedral (torsion) angle between the hydrogen atom on the secondary C and the C atom of the carboxyl group makes a 2.74° angle about the ester O-C bond in the symmetric fenofibrate structure of polymorph I, whereas the same dihedral angle is 45.94° in polymorph II and -30.9° in the crystal structure of isopropyl clofibrate. Gas phase DFT geometry minimizations of fenofibrate and isopropyl clofibrate result in lowest energy conformations for both molecules with a value of about ± 30° for this same angle between the O=C-O-C plane and the C-H bond of the iPr group. A survey of crystal structures containing an iPr ester group reveals that the asymmetric conformation is predominant. Although the hydrogen atom on the secondary C atom of the isopropyl group is located at a comparable distance from the carbonyl oxygen in the symmetric and asymmetric fenofibrate (2.52 and 2.28 Å) and the isopropyl clofibrate (2.36 Å) structures, this hydrogen atom participates in a puckered five membered ring arrangement in the latter two that is unlike the planar arrangement found in symmetric fenofibrate (polymorph I). Polar molecular surface area (PSA) values indicate fenofibrate and isopropyl clofibrate are less able to act as acceptors of hydrogen bonds than their corresponding acid derivatives. Surface area calculations show dynamic polar molecular surface area (PSAd

  20. Smooth isoindolinone formation from isopropyl carbamates via Bischler-Napieralski-type cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Satoshi; Onozuka, Masao; Yoshida, Yuko; Ide, Mitsuaki; Saikawa, Yoko; Nakata, Masaya

    2014-01-17

    Isopropyl carbamates derived from benzylamines provide isoindolinones by treatment with phosphorus pentoxide at room temperature. Utility of this Bischler-Napieralski-type cyclization and a new mechanism involving a carbamoyl cation for rationalization of this smooth conversion are discussed.

  1. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part II: Packed bed reactor (PBR) studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N.; Odaneth, Annamma A.; Lali, Arvind M.

    2015-01-01

    Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15) in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B fr...

  2. Enhanced Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol into Butyl Levulinate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carà, P.D..; Ciriminna, R.; Shiju, N.R.; Rothenberg, G.; Pagliaro, M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the catalytic condensation of furfuryl alcohol with 1-butanol to butyl levulinate. A screening of several commercial and as-synthesized solid acid catalysts shows that propylsulfonic acid-functionalized mesoporous silica outperforms the state-of-the-art phosphotungstate acid catalysts. The

  3. Conversion of alcohols to enantiopure amines through dual-enzyme hydrogen-borrowing cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Francesco G; Knaus, Tanja; Scrutton, Nigel S; Breuer, Michael; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-09-25

    α-Chiral amines are key intermediates for the synthesis of a plethora of chemical compounds at industrial scale. We present a biocatalytic hydrogen-borrowing amination of primary and secondary alcohols that allows for the efficient and environmentally benign production of enantiopure amines. The method relies on a combination of two enzymes: an alcohol dehydrogenase (from Aromatoleum sp., Lactobacillus sp., or Bacillus sp.) operating in tandem with an amine dehydrogenase (engineered from Bacillus sp.) to aminate a structurally diverse range of aromatic and aliphatic alcohols, yielding up to 96% conversion and 99% enantiomeric excess. Primary alcohols were aminated with high conversion (up to 99%). This redox self-sufficient cascade possesses high atom efficiency, sourcing nitrogen from ammonium and generating water as the sole by-product. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Synthesis of 2-Isopropyl Naphthalene Catalyzed by Et3NHCl-AlCl3 Ionic Liquids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Chenmin; Qi Xin; Tang Xiangyang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, 2-isopropyl naphthalene has been synthesized by the reaction of naphthalene and isopropyl bromide, using triethylamine hydrochloride-aluminum chloride ionic liquid as the catalyst. The effect of the catalyst composition, the reaction time, the reaction temperature, the ionic liquid dosage, as well as the molar ratio of the reagents on the 2-isopropyl naphthalene yield was systematically investigated. The optimal reaction conditions cover:an AlCl3 to Et3NHCl ratio of 2.0, a reaction time of 3 h, a reaction temperature of 15.0℃, a volume fraction of ionic liquid to the mixture (isopropyl bromide, n-dodecane and n-hexane) of 9%, and a naphthalene/isopropyl bromide molar ratio of 4.0. Under the optimal reaction condi-tions, the conversion of isopropyl bromide reached 98%and the selectivity of 2-isopropyl naphthalene was equal to 80%. The test results veriifed good catalytic activity upon using Et3NHCl-AlCl3 ionic liquid as the catalyst for alkylation of naph-thalene with isopropyl bromide. The activity of the ionic liquid remains unchanged after it has been recycled for 4 times.

  5. Conversion of hydrocarbons and alcohols for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joensen, Finn; Rostrup-Nielsen, Jens R.

    The growing demand for clean and efficient energy systems is the driving force in the development of fuel processing technology for providing hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gaseous fuels for power generation in fuel cells. Successful development of low cost, efficient fuel processing systems will be critical to the commercialisation of this technology. This article reviews various reforming technologies available for the generation of such fuels from hydrocarbons and alcohols. It also briefly addresses the issue of carbon monoxide clean-up and the question of selecting the appropriate fuel(s) for small/medium scale fuel processors for stationary and automotive applications.

  6. Plant design aspects of catalytic biosyngas conversion to higher alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atsonios, K.; Christodoulou, Ch.; Koytsoumpa, E.-I.; Panopoulos, K.D.; Kakaras, Em.

    2013-01-01

    Although biomethanol production has attracted most of the attention in the past years, there is a current trend for the synthesis of higher alcohols (i.e. ethanol, plus C 3 –C 4 ) from biomass gasification. These compounds could be used directly as fuel or fuel additives for octane or cetane number enhancement. These also serve as important intermediates for the chemical industry. In this paper a comparison is performed between the different process configurations a higher alcohols production plant from biomass gasification can take. These options are modelled in Aspenplus™; all steps and important unit operations are presented with the aim to correctly evaluate the peripheral energy requirements and conclude with the overall thermodynamic limitations of the processes. The differentiation between black liquor and solid biomass gasification, the type of catalyst employed, and the effect of the recycling scheme adopted for the reutilization of unreacted syngas are evaluated. The design has to cope with the limited yields and poor selectivity of catalysts developed so far. The gas cleaning is different depending on the different requirements of the catalysts as far as H 2 S purity. The process modelling results reveal that the hydrogenation of CO to higher alcohols is favoured by high pressure, temperature around 325 °C and high reactor residence times. A biorefinery using modified Fisher–Tropsch (FT) catalysts (MoS 2 ) prevail over modified MeOH catalyst (Cu–Zn based) for HA production. The efficiency of HA production in HHV terms can reach up to 25%. -- Graphical abstract: Process flow diagrams of different biorefinery systems derived from a) woody biomass and b) black liquor. Highlights: ► An integrated gasification/gas-cleaning/synthesis system was modelled in Aspenplus. ► HA production from wood and black liquor gasification is compared. ► Modified FT catalysts prevail over modified methanol catalyst for HA production. ► HA productivity is

  7. Regio- and Stereospecific Conversion of 4-Alkylphenols by the Covalent Flavoprotein Vanillyl-Alcohol Oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, Robert H.H. van den; Fraaije, Marco W.; Laane, Colja; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1998-01-01

    The regio- and stereospecific conversion of prochiral 4-alkylphenols by the covalent flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase was investigated. The enzyme was active, with 4-alkylphenols bearing aliphatic side chains of up to seven carbon atoms. Optimal catalytic efficiency occurred with 4-ethylphenol

  8. Preparation of Peleted Ni-Pt/Zeolite for Conversion of Amyl and Isoamyl Alcohol to Hydrocarbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Catalysts with Ni and Pt as active metals in peleted zeolite were used for conversion of amyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol and their mixture to hydrocarbon compounds. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation the peleted zeolite in NiCl2.6H2O and PtCI4 solution, while stirring for 24 hours then followed by oxidation with 02 gas at 350 °C for 2 hours and reduced by hydrogen gas at 400 °C for 1 hour. Ni and Pt in catalysts were determined by MS, specific surface area, total pore volume and gas sorption analyzer NOVA-1000 determined pore radius average. Determination of catalysts acidity was carried out by absorption of ammonia method. The activity of catalysts was evaluated in a micro reactor by flow system. Experimental temperature by varied between 300 and 400 °C with the increment of 25 °C. Products were analyzed by gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric method. The result shows that Ni-Pt/zeolite is more active than Ni/zeolite can be used for converting all of the alcohol. Products for conversion are 2-pentene, 2-methyl-1-butene, 2-methyl-2-butene, cyclopentane, 3-methyl-1-butanaldehide and acetone. The highest conversion was observed on isoamyl alcohol (31.37% at 400 °C.

  9. Efficient method for the conversion of agricultural waste into sugar alcohols over supported bimetallic catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tathod, Anup P; Dhepe, Paresh L

    2015-02-01

    Promoter effect of Sn in the PtSn/γ-Al2O3 (AL) and PtSn/C bimetallic catalysts is studied for the conversion of variety of substrates such as, C5 sugars (xylose, arabinose), C6 sugars (glucose, fructose, galactose), hemicelluloses (xylan, arabinogalactan), inulin and agricultural wastes (bagasse, rice husk, wheat straw) into sugar alcohols (sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, arabitol, galactitol). In all the reactions, PtSn/AL showed enhanced yields of sugar alcohols by 1.5-3 times than Pt/AL. Compared to C, AL supported bimetallic catalysts showed prominent enhancement in the yields of sugar alcohols. Bimetallic catalysts characterized by X-ray diffraction study revealed the stability of catalyst and absence of alloy formation thereby indicating that Pt and Sn are present as individual particles in PtSn/AL. The TEM analysis also confirmed stability of the catalysts and XPS study disclosed formation of electron deficient Sn species which helps in polarizing carbonyl bond to achieve enhanced hydrogenation activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Activity and selectivity of manganese oxides in alcohols Conversion as influenced by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doheim, M.M.; Ahmed, A.S.; El-Shobaky, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Manganese oxide samples obtained from thermal decomposition of manganese carbonate at 400 and 600 deg C were subjected to different doses of g-irradiation within the range 0.2 to 1.6 MGy. The surface and catalytic properties of the above samples were studied using nitrogen adsorption isotherms measured at -196 deg C and catalytic conversion of ethanol and isopropanol at 300-400 deg C using micropulse technique. The results obtained revealed that manganese oxides obtained at 400 deg C consisted of a mixture of Mn 2 O 3 and MnO 2 while the samples calcined at 600 deg C composed entirely of Mn 2 O 3 . Gamma-irradiation resulted in a decrease in the particle size of manganese oxide phases with subsequent increase in their specific surface areas. Gamma-irradiation with 0.2 and 0.8 MGy effected a measurable progressive decrease in the catalytic activity in dehydration and dehydrogenation of both alcohols. However, the treated catalyst retained their initial activity upon exposure to a dose of 1.6 MGy. Also, g-irradiation increased the selectivities of the investigated solids towards dehydrogenation of both alcohols. The catalyst samples precalcined at 600 deg C exhibited higher catalytic activities than those precalcined at 400 deg C. (author)

  11. Conversion of yellow crude sugar into alcohol. Conversion of yellow crude sugar in a mixture with sugar beet molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishtul, F B; Malchenko, A L; Poluyanova, M T; Gromovich, V F; Maskimova, E A; Golodovskaya, A I; Pal' gova, L S

    1963-01-01

    Crude sugar (96.5 to 98.4% sucrose) in a mixture with molasses can be converted into alcohol by either batchwise or continuous fermentation processes with good process characteristics. Best yields are obtained when the amount of crude sugar is not more than 50% of the total weight of fermenting material. The bakers' yeast and alcohol produced are of good quality.

  12. Application of Metal Catalysts for High Selectivity of Glycerol Conversion to Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the applicability of metal-based catalysts and optimize the process conditions for thermochemically producing primary alcohols. Metal catalysts were evaluated for their selectivities for producing alcohol...

  13. Polymerization of allyl alcohol by radiation to obtain microencapsulated structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usanmaz, A.; Saricilar, S.

    1989-01-01

    Allyl alcohol was polymerized by radiation under various conditions. The limiting conversions were about 30 % in bulk, 35 % when containing 0.03 mole fraction AlCl 3 and 50 % when water was contained at 27 % (v/v). Irradiation was done with Co-60 gamma rays at room temperature and under vacuum. The presence of oxygen did not cause any change in the reaction rate. Molecular weights were determined by viscosity and cryoscopic methods. K and α values were found to be 3.57 x 10 -4 and 0.62 for solutions in methanol at 25degC. The polymers up to about 10 % conversion were viscous liquids having microcapsular structures: at high conversions, they became hard and glassy. The microencapsulated structures were also retained in solutions in methanol, acetone, and isopropyl alcohol. The samples were insoluble in water, benzene, and toluence. (author)

  14. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part II: Packed bed reactor (PBR) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N; Odaneth, Annamma A; Lali, Arvind M

    2015-12-01

    Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15) in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B from Candida antartica was used as the biocatalyst based on our previous study. The process intensification resulted in a clean and green synthesis process comprising a series of packed bed reactors of immobilized enzyme and water dehydrant. In addition, use of the single phase reaction system facilitates efficient recovery of the product with no effluent generated and recyclability of unreacted substrates. The single phase reaction system coupled with a continuous operating bioreactor ensures a stable operational life for the enzyme.

  15. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part II: Packed bed reactor (PBR studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar N. Vadgama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15 in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B from Candida antartica was used as the biocatalyst based on our previous study. The process intensification resulted in a clean and green synthesis process comprising a series of packed bed reactors of immobilized enzyme and water dehydrant. In addition, use of the single phase reaction system facilitates efficient recovery of the product with no effluent generated and recyclability of unreacted substrates. The single phase reaction system coupled with a continuous operating bioreactor ensures a stable operational life for the enzyme.

  16. Treatment of chlorofluorocarbons in alcohol solutions by γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Toshinari; Nakagawa, Seiko; Sawai, Teruko

    1995-01-01

    A study was done on dechlorination of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC113) in neutral and alkaline alcohol solutions by means of γ-irradiation. The dechlorination yield (G (Cl - )) was found to depend on the kind of alcohol used as solvents and the presence of hydroxide ion. The order of G (Cl - ) value in alkaline solution was isopropyl alcohol>> ethyl alcohol > methyl alcohol. It was suggested that the high yield obtained in alkaline isopropyl alcohol solution is explained by a chain process in dechlorination reaction. In case of alkaline isopropyl alcohol solution, CFC113 was dechlorinated to lower chlorinated ethane, and 1,1-dichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroetane was a main product. We have discussed on the chain dechlorination mechanism in alkaline isopropyl alcohol solution. (author)

  17. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... because that's how many accidents occur. What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  18. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  19. Alcohol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro Junior, L.

    1988-01-01

    The alcohol production as a secondary energy source, the participation of the alcohol in Brazilian national economic and social aspects are presented. Statistical data of alcohol demand compared with petroleum by-products and electricity are also included. (author)

  20. Catalytic conversion of alcohols having at least three carbon atoms to hydrocarbon blendstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.

    2015-11-13

    A method for producing a hydrocarbon blendstock, the method comprising contacting at least one saturated acyclic alcohol having at least three and up to ten carbon atoms with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100°C and up to 550°C, wherein the metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and the metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting the alcohol to the hydrocarbon blendstock, wherein the method directly produces a hydrocarbon blendstock having less than 1 vol % ethylene and at least 35 vol % of hydrocarbon compounds containing at least eight carbon atoms.

  1. Catalytic conversion of alcohols having at least three carbon atoms to hydrocarbon blendstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Davison, Brian H.

    2018-04-17

    A method for producing a hydrocarbon blendstock, the method comprising contacting at least one saturated acyclic alcohol having at least three and up to ten carbon atoms with a metal-loaded zeolite catalyst at a temperature of at least 100.degree. C. and up to 550.degree. C., wherein the metal is a positively-charged metal ion, and the metal-loaded zeolite catalyst is catalytically active for converting the alcohol to the hydrocarbon blendstock, wherein the method directly produces a hydrocarbon blendstock having less than 1 vol % ethylene and at least 35 vol % of hydrocarbon compounds containing at least eight carbon atoms.

  2. Selective aerobic alcohol oxidation method for conversion of lignin into simple aromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Shannon S; Rahimi, Alireza

    2015-03-03

    Described is a method to oxidize lignin or lignin sub-units. The method includes oxidation of secondary benzylic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit to a corresponding ketone in the presence of unprotected primarily aliphatic alcohol in the lignin or lignin sub-unit. The optimal catalyst system consists of HNO.sub.3 in combination with another Bronsted acid, in the absence of a metal-containing catalyst, thereby yielding a selectively oxidized lignin or lignin sub-unit. The method may be carried out in the presence or absence of additional reagents including TEMPO and TEMPO derivatives.

  3. [Enzymatic conversion of tetradecanol in heterogenous phase by yeast-alcohol dehydrogenase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, U; Schöpp, W; Aurich, H

    1976-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase from yeast converts long-chain primary alcohols not only in the dissolved state, but also at the surface of undissolved particles. Tetradecanol beads with a defined surface can be produced and employed as model substrate. The reaction rate was determined by the proton release accomplished in the reaction. The initial reaction rate depends on the enzyme concentration. The relation is nonlinear (vi = k-[e]0,4); the numerical value of the exponent (n = 0.4) argues in favour of a reaction occurring at the interface. The Lineweaver-Burk plots become linear if the substrate concentrations are based on the molar surface concentrations of the particles. The pH optimum for the reaction at the surface is displaced by 0.25 pH units towards the alkaline region (compared with ethanol as substrate). The activation energy of the reaction with tetradecanol beads as substrate is 30% lower than that for the ethanol oxydation.

  4. Gas phase toluene isopropylation over high silica mordenite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    reaction on medium pore HZSM-5 zeolites differing in crystal size and ... effect of various parameters on the yield and cy- ... toluene. (DIPT) + water (cymene isopropylation) .... tain the stability of the mordenite catalysts. .... From the slope of the.

  5. The natural history of class I primate alcohol dehydrogenases includes gene duplication, gene loss, and gene conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Carrigan

    Full Text Available Gene duplication is a source of molecular innovation throughout evolution. However, even with massive amounts of genome sequence data, correlating gene duplication with speciation and other events in natural history can be difficult. This is especially true in its most interesting cases, where rapid and multiple duplications are likely to reflect adaptation to rapidly changing environments and life styles. This may be so for Class I of alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1s, where multiple duplications occurred in primate lineages in Old and New World monkeys (OWMs and NWMs and hominoids.To build a preferred model for the natural history of ADH1s, we determined the sequences of nine new ADH1 genes, finding for the first time multiple paralogs in various prosimians (lemurs, strepsirhines. Database mining then identified novel ADH1 paralogs in both macaque (an OWM and marmoset (a NWM. These were used with the previously identified human paralogs to resolve controversies relating to dates of duplication and gene conversion in the ADH1 family. Central to these controversies are differences in the topologies of trees generated from exonic (coding sequences and intronic sequences.We provide evidence that gene conversions are the primary source of difference, using molecular clock dating of duplications and analyses of microinsertions and deletions (micro-indels. The tree topology inferred from intron sequences appear to more correctly represent the natural history of ADH1s, with the ADH1 paralogs in platyrrhines (NWMs and catarrhines (OWMs and hominoids having arisen by duplications shortly predating the divergence of OWMs and NWMs. We also conclude that paralogs in lemurs arose independently. Finally, we identify errors in database interpretation as the source of controversies concerning gene conversion. These analyses provide a model for the natural history of ADH1s that posits four ADH1 paralogs in the ancestor of Catarrhine and Platyrrhine primates

  6. [Alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  7. Biodistribution of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Watanabe, Katsushi; Ueda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tadatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Biodistribution of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was experimentally studied for evaluating the usefullness of this radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral perfusion scintigraphy. IMP labeled with radioactive iodine (I-125, I-131), was injected intravenously in awake animals. The activity in the brain of male ddY mice injected 3.7 kBq (0.1 μCi) of I-125 IMP reached 8.0 (%Dose/g) at 10 min. after injection and it was almost constant till 120 min. Activity in the lung and heart was the highest just after injection, and rapidly decreased in the constant level lasting 30 min. to 120 min. Activity in the liver increased slowly and reached peak level at 60 min. Autoradiograms of male ddY mice injected 1.85 MBq (50 μCi) of I-131 IMP showed almost same activity in the spinal cord as the brain. Activities of I-131 IMP in normal brain of Sprague-Dawley rats injected 7.4 MBq (200 μCi) of I-131 IMP were 2.68 - 3.2 (%Dose/g) in the cerebral cortex and 0.59 - 0.66 (%Dose/g) in the white matter at 1 min. after injection. Activities in the cerebral cortex were slightly increased at 60 min. after injection and the activities in the white matter increased markedly at 60 min. and 6 hrs. after injection. The cerebral cortex to white matter ratios were about 5 at 1 min. or 10 min. and about 1 at 60 min. or 6 hrs. after injection. Autoradiograms of normal and ischemic rat brain showed local cerebral blood flow image, but the contrast between the gray matter and the white matter decreased at 60 min. or 6 hrs. Our study on the biodistribution of IMP showed the usefullness of this agent in cerebral perfusion imaging, and may be informative for the interpretation of images. (author)

  8. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Levulinic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Maldonado, Gretchen M.; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James A.; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2012-02-14

    The conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to levulinic acid over Amberlyst TM 15 in aqueous media was investigated using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements, isotopic labeling studies, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations using the G4MP2 method. The results of these combined studies showed that one of the major reaction pathways takes place via a geminal diol species (4,5,5- trihydroxypentan-2-one, denoted as intermediate A), formed by the addition of two water molecules to FAL, where two of the oxygen atoms from FAL are retained. This geminal diol species can also be produced from another intermediate found to be a dimer-like species, denoted as intermediate B. This dimer-like species is formed at the early stages of reaction, and it can also be converted to intermediate A, indicating that intermediate B is the product of the reaction of FAL with another early intermediate. Quantum chemical calculations suggested this to be a protonated acyclic species. Reaction of this early intermediate with water produces intermediate A, while reaction with FAL produces intermediate B.

  9. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of the Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Levulinic Acid in Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Maldonado, Gretchen; Assary, Rajeev S.; Dumesic, James A; Curtiss, Larry A

    2012-01-01

    The conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to levulinic acid over AmberlystTM 15 in aqueous media was investigated using a combination of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurements, isotopic labeling studies, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio quantum chemical calculations using the G4MP2 method. The results of these combined studies showed that one of the major reaction pathways takes place via a geminal diol species (4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one, denoted as intermediate A), formed by the addition of two water molecules to FAL, where two of the oxygen atoms from FAL are retained. This geminal diol species can also be produced from another intermediate found to be a dimer-like species, denoted as intermediate B. This dimer-like species is formed at the early stages of reaction, and it can also be converted to intermediate A, indicating that intermediate B is the product of the reaction of FAL with another early intermediate. Quantum chemical calculations suggested this to be a protonated acyclic species. Reaction of this early intermediate with water produces intermediate A, while reaction with FAL produces intermediate B.

  10. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria to change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  11. Isopropylation of benzene with 2-propanol over substituted large ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3. The major draw- back of these catalysts is their corrosive and envi- ronmentally hazardous ... catalytic activity towards vapor phase isopropylation of benzene with ... 2 cm i.d. The glass reactor was heated to the requi- site temperature with ...

  12. Gas phase toluene isopropylation over high silica mordenite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mordenite (HM) catalysts with three different Si/Al ratios were compared for their activity and selectivities in gas phase toluene isopropylation with isopropanol. Catalyst with Si/Al ratio 44.9 offered better cumene selectivity, hence, it was chosen for detailed kinetic investigations. The influence of various process parameters ...

  13. Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to do. Wondering if adding a glass of wine or beer might help lower your blood glucose if it is high? The effects of alcohol can be unpredictable and it is not recommended as a treatment for high blood glucose. The risks likely outweigh any benefit that may be seen in blood glucose alone. ...

  14. Removal of radioactive sodium from experimental breeder reactor-II components and conversion to a disposable solid waste: alcohol recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusl, J.R.; Washburn, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive sodium is removed from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II components by immersing the components in denatured alcohol until the sodium has reacted with the alcohol. The resulting radioactive sodium-alcohol solution must be processed to separate and convert the sodium to a solid waste for disposal. A process was developed and is described that converts radioactive sodium dissolved in alcohol to a dry powdered carbonate waste product and recovers the alcohol for reuse. The sodium-alcohol waste solution, after adjustment for proper sodium and water content, is fed to a wiped-film evaporator operated at 190 0 C and maintained with a CO 2 atmosphere that converts the dissolved sodium to anhydrous Na 2 CO 3 . The end product, about85 to 90 wt% Na 2 CO 3 , is directed into a 208-l (55-gal) drum for disposal. Alcohol distilled during the process is condensed, collected, and dried for immediate reuse. The composition of the alcohol is not altered in the process

  15. Interpersonal communication among vocational community college students about alcohol use and binge drinking : Causality, content, and conversation partner

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, E.H.G.

    2018-01-01

    In the Netherlands binge drinking among vocational community college students is a serious problem. Among this group, binge drinking is a serious health problem. Recent statistics show that 31% of vocational community students consume on average 5-10 alcoholic units, 19% consumes 11-20 alcoholic

  16. Structure-guided engineering of Lactococcus lactis alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA for improved conversion of isobutyraldehyde to isobutanol

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiang; Bastian, Sabine; Snow, Christopher D.; Brustad, Eric M.; Saleski, Tatyana E.; Xu, Jian-He; Meinhold, Peter; Arnold, Frances H.

    2013-01-01

    We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA from Lactococcus lactis and its laboratory-evolved variant LlAdhA(RE1) at 1.9Å and 2.5Å resolution, respectively. LlAdhA(RE1), which contains three

  17. The Hydrolysis of Di-Isopropyl Methylphosphonate in Ground Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sega, G.A., Tomkins, B.A., Griest, W.H., Bayne, C.K.

    1997-12-31

    Di-isopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP) is a byproduct from the manufacture of the nerve agent Sarin. The persistence of DIMP in the ground water is an important question in evaluating the potential environmental impacts of DIMP contamination. The half-life of DIMP in ground water at 10 deg C was estimated to be 500 years with a 95% confidence interval of 447 to 559 years from measurements of the hydrolysis rates at temperatures between 70 to 98 deg C.Extrapolation of the kinetics to 10 deg C used the Arrhenius equation, and calculation of the half-life assumed first-order kinetics. Inorganic phosphate was not detected.

  18. 2-Isopropyl-4,7-dimethyl-1-nitronaphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Benharref

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available All the non-H atoms of the title compound, C15H17NO2, except the CH3 groups of the isopropyl unit and the O atoms of the nitro group, lie on a crystallographic mirror plane. The dihedral angle between the naphthalene plane and the nitro group is constrained to be 90° by symmetry. In the crystal, molecules are linked by π–π interactions [centroid–centroid separation = 3.6591 (4 Å] and stacked along the b-axis direction.

  19. Selective heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of ketone (C═O) to alcohol (OH) by magnetite nanoparticles following Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Muhammad Tariq; Balouch, Aamna; Rajar, Kausar; Sirajuddin; Brohi, Imdad Ali; Umar, Akrajas Ali

    2015-04-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and effectively employed as heterogeneous catalyst for hydrogenation of ketone moiety to alcohol moiety by NaBH4 under the microwave radiation process. The improvement was achieved in percent recovery of isopropyl alcohol by varying and optimizing reaction time, power of microwave radiations and amount of catalyst. The catalytic study revealed that acetone would be converted into isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with 99.5% yield in short period of reaction time, using 10 μg of magnetite NPs (Fe3O4). It was observed that the catalytic hydrogenation reaction, followed second-order of reaction and the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic mechanism, which elucidated that both reactants get adsorb onto the surface of silica coated magnetite nanocatalyst to react. Consequently, the rate-determining step was the surface reaction of acetone and sodium borohydride. The current study revealed an environment friendly conversion of acetone to IPA on the basis of its fast, efficient, and highly economical method of utilization of microwave irradiation process and easy catalyst recovery.

  20. Modelling Chemical Kinetics of Soybean Oil Transesterification Process for Biodiesel Production: An Analysis of Molar Ratio between Alcohol and Soybean Oil Temperature Changes on the Process Conversion Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maicon Tait

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model describing chemical kinetics of transesterification of soybean oil for biodiesel production has been developed. The model is based on the reverse mechanism of transesterification reactions and describes dynamics concentration changes of triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, biodiesel, and glycerol production. Reaction rate constants were written in the Arrhenius form. An analysis of key process variables such as temperature and molar ratio soybean oil- alcohol using response surface analysis was performed to achieve the maximum soybean conversion rate to biodiesel. The predictive power of the developed model was checked for the very wide range of operational conditions and parameters values by fitting different experimental results for homogeneous catalytic and non-catalytic processes published in the literature. A very good correlation between model simulations and experimental data was observed.

  1. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes, Phase 3. Topical report, January 1990--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in the first simple, economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to an alcohol-rich oxygenated product which can either be used as an environmentally friendly, high-performance liquid fuel, or a precursor to a liquid hydrocarbon transportation fuel. The authors have entered the proof-of-concept stage for converting isobutane to tert butyl alcohol in a practical process and are preparing to enter proof-of-concept of a propane to isopropyl alcohol process in the near future. Methane and ethane are more refractory and thus more difficult to oxidize than the C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} hydrocarbons. Nonetheless, advances made in this area indicate that further research progress could achieve the goal of their direct conversion to alcohols. Progress in Phase 3 catalytic vapor phase methane and ethane oxidation over metals in regular oxidic lattices are the subject of this topical report.

  2. Alkali/TX sub 2 catalysts for CO/H sub 2 conversion to C sub 1 -C sub 4 alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R. G.; Bastian, R.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate and develop novel catalysts for the conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas into C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alcohols by a highly selective process. Therefore, the variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H{sub 2}/CO {le}1 synthesis gas for a series of A/TX{sub 2} compounds, where A is a surface alkali dopant, T is a transition metal, and X ia a S, Se, or Te, will be determined. This quarter, a fresh batch of MoS{sub 2} was synthesized, and new Cs/MoS{sub 2} catalysts were prepared by alkali doping and were tested to demonstrate that the preparation and testing procedures were reproducible by different personnel. Preparations of RuS{sub 2} and Cs/RuS{sub 2} catalysts were initiated, and the preparations and testing of these catalysts will be described in the next quarterly report. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Structure-guided engineering of Lactococcus lactis alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA for improved conversion of isobutyraldehyde to isobutanol

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Xiang

    2013-03-01

    We have determined the X-ray crystal structures of the NADH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase LlAdhA from Lactococcus lactis and its laboratory-evolved variant LlAdhA(RE1) at 1.9Å and 2.5Å resolution, respectively. LlAdhA(RE1), which contains three amino acid mutations (Y50F, I212T, and L264V), was engineered to increase the microbial production of isobutanol (2-methylpropan-1-ol) from isobutyraldehyde (2-methylpropanal). Structural comparison of LlAdhA and LlAdhA(RE1) indicates that the enhanced activity on isobutyraldehyde stems from increases in the protein\\'s active site size, hydrophobicity, and substrate access. Further structure-guided mutagenesis generated a quadruple mutant (Y50F/N110S/I212T/L264V), whose KM for isobutyraldehyde is ∼17-fold lower and catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) is ∼160-fold higher than wild-type LlAdhA. Combining detailed structural information and directed evolution, we have achieved significant improvements in non-native alcohol dehydrogenase activity that will facilitate the production of next-generation fuels such as isobutanol from renewable resources.

  4. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Talmadge, M.; Hensley, J.; Worley, M.; Dudgeon, D.; Barton, D.; Groendijk, P.; Ferrari, D.; Stears, B.; Searcy, E. M.; Wright, C. T.; Hess, J. R.

    2011-05-01

    This design report describes an up-to-date benchmark thermochemical conversion process that incorporates the latest research from NREL and other sources. Building on a design report published in 2007, NREL and its subcontractor Harris Group Inc. performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for a biomass-to-ethanol process via indirect gasification. The conceptual design presented herein considers the economics of ethanol production, assuming the achievement of internal research targets for 2012 and nth-plant costs and financing. The design features a processing capacity of 2,205 U.S. tons (2,000 metric tonnes) of dry biomass per day and an ethanol yield of 83.8 gallons per dry U.S. ton of feedstock. The ethanol selling price corresponding to this design is $2.05 per gallon in 2007 dollars, assuming a 30-year plant life and 40% equity financing with a 10% internal rate of return and the remaining 60% debt financed at 8% interest. This ethanol selling price corresponds to a gasoline equivalent price of $3.11 per gallon based on the relative volumetric energy contents of ethanol and gasoline.

  5. Brain SPECT with 123I-isopropyl amphetamine in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Reske, S.N.; Rasche, A.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.

    1983-01-01

    Ten patients were studied with N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was carried out by hand of a rotating gamma camera system (Gammatome T9000/CGR, high resolution collimator). During 1 rotation (360 0 ) 64 frames (4k matrix) were acquired within 20 min 1 hour after injection of 6.5 mCi I-123 labeled amphetamine. The content of I-124 was less than 2%. After reconstruction of transverse slices coronar and sagittal reconstructions were rapidly performed using an array processor. Nine patients suffered from epilepsy and one from severe migraine. Excellent differentiation between gray and white matter of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia was evident in all of the cases. In 2 out of 3 patients with epilepsy and negative CT results SPECT revealed circumscribed areas with increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the EEG findings. In 4 out of 6 cases with positive CT findings SPECT lesions with diminished amphetamine uptake could be established. One patient with severe migraine showed focal increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the respective clinical results. (orig.)

  6. Hydrophobic hydration of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide: a matter of the mean energetic state of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischofberger, I.; Calzolari, D. C. E.; de Los Rios, P.; Jelezarov, I.; Trappe, V.

    2014-03-01

    The enthalpically favoured hydration of hydrophobic entities, termed hydrophobic hydration, impacts the phase behaviour of numerous amphiphiles in water. Here, we show experimental evidence that hydrophobic hydration is strongly determined by the mean energetics of the aqueous medium. We investigate the aggregation and collapse of an amphiphilic polymer, poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide (PNiPAM), in aqueous solutions containing small amounts of alcohol and find that the thermodynamic characteristics defining the phase transitions of PNiPAM evolve relative to the solvent composition at which the excess mixing enthalpy of the water/alcohol mixtures becomes minimal. Such correlation between solvent energetics and solution thermodynamics extends to other mixtures containing neutral organic solutes that are considered as kosmotropes to induce a strengthening of the hydrogen bonded water network. This denotes the energetics of water as a key parameter controlling the phase behaviour of PNiPAM and identifies the excess mixing enthalpy of water/kosmotrope mixtures as a gauge of the kosmotropic effect on hydrophobic assemblies.

  7. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  8. Information draft on the development of air standards for isopropyl benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Isopropyl benzene, also commonly referred to as cumene, is a colourless liquid with a sharp, penetrating odour. It is derived from the distillation of coal tar, naphtha and petroleum. It is used mainly as an intermediate in the production of phenol, acetone, and alpha-methyl styrene, all of which are components in plastic resins. Isopropyl benzene is also used as a solvent and thinner for paints and enamels and as an octane booster in aviation gasoline. In 1996, reported atmospheric releases in Canada amounted to 16.4 tonnes, of which 9.1 tonnes were from Ontario sources. Isopropyl benzene is not a significant threat to health in low concentrations. Inhalation exposure can cause dizziness, light-headedness and fainting. Contact with isopropyl benzene can irritate the skin, eyes, nose and mouth. The current Ontario half-hour interim Point of Impingement (OPI) standard and the one-hour Ambient Air Quality Criterion (AAQC) are both set at 100 microgram/cubic meter on the basis of the odour nuisance property of the substance. A review of applicable literature from world-wide sources (and summarized in this report) reveal that four US agencies have developed air quality criteria for isopropyl benzene based on the health effects of the compound. These criteria range from 9 to 585 micrograms/cubic meter for an annual average basis and from 87 to 400 microgram/cubic meter on a 24-hour basis. 40 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  9. First Electrochemical Method of Nitrothal-Isopropyl Determination in Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Guziejewski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the use of square wave adsorptive stripping voltammetry (SWAdSV in conjunction with a hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE for the determination of nitrothal-isopropyl. It was found that optimal SW technique parameters were frequency, 200 Hz; amplitude, 50 mV; and step potential, 5 mV. Accumulation time and potential were studied to select the optimal conditions in adsorptive stripping voltammetry: 45 s at 0.0 V, respectively. The calibration curve (SWSV was linear in the nitrothal-isopropyl concentration range from 2.0 × 10−7 to 2.0 × 10−6 mol L−1 with detection limit of 3.46 × 10−8 mol L−1. The repeatability of the method was determined at a nitrothal-isopropyl concentration level equal to 6.0 × 10−7 mol L−1 and expressed as RSD = 5.5% (n=6. The proposed method was successfully validated by studying the recovery of nitrothal-isopropyl in spiked environmental samples.

  10. Synthesis 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5-isopropyl-1, 3, 5-triazacyclohexane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. LEFRADA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of an isopropylamine and an 4-bromoaniline with formaline in basic solution to give 1, 3-bis (4-bromophenyl-5- (isopropyl- 1, 3, 5- triazicyaclohexane. Through the interaction of rapid Schiff base, Structures of this compound have been elucidated by spectroscopic methods; IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR. Their purities were confirmed by elemental analyses.

  11. Thallium-201 diethyldithiocarbamate: an alternative to iodine-123 N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruine, J. F.; van Royen, E. A.; Vyth, A.; de Jong, J. M.; van der Schoot, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The study of cerebral blood flow by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) requires lipophilic radiopharmaceuticals. The high cost and limited availability of N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]-iodoamphetamine ( [123I]IMP) led us to search for alternatives. Following our recent development of

  12. Alcohol Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... 466 KB] No. 81: Exploring Treatment Options for Alcohol Use Disorders [ PDF - 539K] No. 80: Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: ...

  13. Catalytic properties of pure and K{sup +}-doped Cu O/Mg O system towards 2-propanol conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Molla, S. A.; Amin, N. H.; Hammed, M. N.; Sultan, S. N. [Ain Shams University, Faculty of Education, Chemistry Department, Roxy, Heliopolis, Cairo 11757 (Egypt); El-Shobaky, G. A., E-mail: saharelmolla@yahoo.com [National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)

    2013-08-01

    Cu O/Mg O system having different compositions was prepared by impregnation method followed by calcination at 400-900 C. The effect of Cu O content, calcination temperature and doping with small amounts of K{sup +} species (1-3 mol %) on physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of the system were investigated using X-ray diffraction, adsorption of N{sub 2} at - 196 C, and conversion of isopropyl alcohol at 150-400 C using a flow technique. The results revealed that the solids having the formulae 0.2 and 0.3 Cu O/Mg O calcined at 400 C consisted of nano sized Mg O and Cu O as major phases together with Cu{sub 2}O as minor phase. The Bet-surface areas of different absorbents are decreased by increasing Cu O content, calcination temperature and K{sup +}-doping. Mg O-support material showed very small catalytic activity in 2-propanol conversion. The investigated system behaved as selective catalyst for dehydrogenation of 2-propanol with selectivity >80%. The catalytic activity increased by increasing Cu O content and decreased by increasing the calcination temperature within 400-900 C. K{sup +}-doping increased the catalytic activity and catalytic durability. (Author)

  14. Catalytic properties of pure and K+-doped Cu O/Mg O system towards 2-propanol conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Molla, S. A.; Amin, N. H.; Hammed, M. N.; Sultan, S. N.; El-Shobaky, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Cu O/Mg O system having different compositions was prepared by impregnation method followed by calcination at 400-900 C. The effect of Cu O content, calcination temperature and doping with small amounts of K + species (1-3 mol %) on physicochemical, surface and catalytic properties of the system were investigated using X-ray diffraction, adsorption of N 2 at - 196 C, and conversion of isopropyl alcohol at 150-400 C using a flow technique. The results revealed that the solids having the formulae 0.2 and 0.3 Cu O/Mg O calcined at 400 C consisted of nano sized Mg O and Cu O as major phases together with Cu 2 O as minor phase. The Bet-surface areas of different absorbents are decreased by increasing Cu O content, calcination temperature and K + -doping. Mg O-support material showed very small catalytic activity in 2-propanol conversion. The investigated system behaved as selective catalyst for dehydrogenation of 2-propanol with selectivity >80%. The catalytic activity increased by increasing Cu O content and decreased by increasing the calcination temperature within 400-900 C. K + -doping increased the catalytic activity and catalytic durability. (Author)

  15. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (ether imide)s Containing Phthalazinone and Isopropyl Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A novel poly(ether imide)s containing phthalazinone and isopropyl moieties derived from 2-(4-aminophenyl)-4-[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]-phthalazin-l-one and bisphenol-A diphthalic anhydride was synthesized by one-step solution condensation polymerization in m-cresol. The polymer was characterized by FTIR, NMR, molecular weights, glass transition temperature,thermal degradation temperature and WAXD.

  16. Metabolic lung scanning with N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touya, J.; Akber, S.F.; Rashimian, J.; Bennett, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanisms of uptake of N-Isopropyl-I-123-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the lung was studied in dogs. It has been concluded that this amine is taken in low specificity - high capacity endothelial receptors. Competitive effect of propranolol guanethidine, amphetamine and ketanine for the binding sites of IMP in the pulmonary endothelial cells was observed. These results show that IMP can be an agent for nonparticulate lung perfusion scans as well as for metabolic lung scans

  17. Synthesis of N-isopropyl p-[123I]iodoamphetamine via organoborane chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.; Varma, R.S.; Gai, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Iodine-123 labeled amphetamines have proven to be excellent cerebral perfusion tracers. The radioiodination of aromatic amines is generally achieved via high temperature substitution reactions which are prone to side reactions. The authors report that N-isopropyl p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine, and other iodophenylamines, are readily synthesized from the corresponding air stable, boronic acids. The reaction is based on the no-carrier-added radioiodination sequence developed in their laboratory

  18. Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mandagarán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the correlation shows a good agreement for binary and ternary data. The correlation also shows good prediction for reactive quaternary data.

  19. Alkali/TX[sub 2] catalysts for CO/H[sub 2] conversion to C[sub 1]-C[sub 4] alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Bastian, R.D.; Flanagan, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    Ruthenium disulfide catalysts have been synthesized, tested, and characterized during this period of research. It was observed that both the undoped and Cs-doped RuS[sub 2] catalysts produced alcohols and lower amounts of hydrocarbons from H[sub 2]/CO = 1.0 synthesis gas at temperatures above 300[degree]C. Calcination and catalytic testing resulted in partial reduction of the RuS[sub 2] to Ru[sup o]. Calcination under H[sub 2]S prevented the partial reduction of the RuS[sub 2] catalyst, but subsequent catalytic testing again resulted in the formation of a quantity of Ru[sup o]. A Cs-doped RuS[sub 2] catalyst was prepared, but it might have had too high of a loading of Cs. Upon testing, a lower activity was observed for the doped catalyst compared with the undoped catalyst, but the alcohol selectivity was the same for the two catalysts.

  20. The effects of addition of poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) as a green corrosion inhibitor to the phosphate conversion coating on the anticorrosion and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on the steel substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezanzadeh, B., E-mail: ramezanzadeh-bh@icrc.ac.ir; Vakili, H.; Amini, R.

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Room temperature zinc phosphate coating was applied on the surface of steel sample. • Poly(vinyl) alcohol was added to the phosphating bath as a green corrosion inhibitor. • The adhesion and anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coating were investigated. • PVA decreased the phosphate crystal size and porosity. • PVA enhanced the corrosion protection and adhesion properties of the epoxy coating. - Abstract: Steel substrates were chemically treated by room temperature zinc phosphate conversion coating. Poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA) was added to the phosphate solution as a green corrosion inhibitor. Finally, the epoxy/polyamide coating was applied on the untreated and surface treated steel samples. The effects of PVA on the morphological properties of the phosphate coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measuring device. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coatings applied on the surface treated samples were investigated by pull-off and cathodic delamination tests. Also, the anticorrosion properties of the epoxy coatings were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results showed that addition of PVA to the phosphate coating increased the population density of the phosphate crystals and decreased the phosphate grain size. The contact angle of the steel surface treated by Zn-PVA was lower than Zn treated one. The corrosion resistance of the epoxy coating was considerably increased on the steel substrate treated by zinc phosphate conversion coating containing PVA. PVA also enhanced the adhesion properties of the epoxy coating to the steel surface and decreased the cathodic delamination significantly.

  1. Ruthenium Catalyzed Diastereo- and Enantioselective Coupling of Propargyl Ethers with Alcohols: Siloxy-Crotylation via Hydride Shift Enabled Conversion of Alkynes to π-Allyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tao; Zhang, Wandi; Chen, Te-Yu; Nguyen, Khoa D; Krische, Michael J

    2015-10-14

    The first enantioselective carbonyl crotylations through direct use of alkynes as chiral allylmetal equivalents are described. Chiral ruthenium(II) complexes modified by Josiphos (SL-J009-1) catalyze the C-C coupling of TIPS-protected propargyl ether 1a with primary alcohols 2a-2o to form products of carbonyl siloxy-crotylation 3a-3o, which upon silyl deprotection-reduction deliver 1,4-diols 5a-5o with excellent control of regio-, anti-diastereo-, and enantioselectivity. Structurally related propargyl ethers 1b and 1c bearing ethyl- and phenyl-substituents engage in diastereo- and enantioselective coupling, as illustrated in the formation of adducts 5p and 5q, respectively. Selective mono-tosylation of diols 5a, 5c, 5e, 5f, 5k, and 5m is accompanied by spontaneous cyclization to deliver the trans-2,3-disubstituted furans 6a, 6c, 6e, 6f, 6k, and 6m, respectively. Primary alcohols 2a, 2l, and 2p were converted to the siloxy-crotylation products 3a, 3l, and 3p, which upon silyl deprotection-lactol oxidation were transformed to the trans-4,5-disubstituted γ-butyrolactones 7a, 7l, and 7p. The formation of 7p represents a total synthesis of (+)-trans-whisky lactone. Unlike closely related ruthenium catalyzed alkyne-alcohol C-C couplings, deuterium labeling studies provide clear evidence of a novel 1,2-hydride shift mechanism that converts metal-bound alkynes to π-allyls in the absence of intervening allenes.

  2. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude bio-oil from pine chip fast pyrolysis was upgraded with olefins (1-octene, cyclohexene, 1,7-octadiene, and 2,4,4-trimethylpentene plus 1-butanol (iso-butanol, t-butanol and ethanol at 120 °C using a silica sulfuric acid (SSA catalyst that possesses a good catalytic activity and stability. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR analysis showed that upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, phenols, polyhydric alcohols and carboxylic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rose from 2.5 to >3.5, removed the unpleasant odor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content dramatically decreased from 37.2% to about 7.0% and the heating value increased from 12.6 MJ·kg−1 to about 31.9 MJ·kg−1. This work has proved that bio-oil upgrading with a primary olefin plus 1-butanol is a feasible route where all the original heating value of the bio-oil plus the added olefin and alcohol are present in the resulting fuel.

  3. What do Dutch college students talk about when they talk about alcohol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.; de Bruijn, G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Interpersonal communication about alcohol influences alcohol consumption, yet evidence is scarce about the content and valence of alcohol-related conversations and how these concepts predict alcohol consumption. Methods: By employing a correlational design among Dutch undergraduate

  4. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols -- FY 2007 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2008-12-05

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities.

  5. Alkali/TX[sub 2] catalysts for CO/H[sub 2] conversion to C[sub 1]-C[sub 4] alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Richards-Babb, M.; Bastian, R.; Kieke, M.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the patterns of variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H[sub 2]/CO synthesis gas. Since the source of carbon can be coal-derived synthesis gas, this research makes a contribution to the technology for high quality clean transportation fuels and for basic chemicals from coal. Catalysts prepared were principally based on MoS[sub 2], RuS[sub 2], TaS[sub 2], and NbS[sub 2]. Catalytic testing of these materials was carried out both before and after surface doping with Cs. In alcohol synthesis activation of hydrogen by the catalyst surface is essential. Knowledge of transition metal disulfide surface properties is important before the mechanism of hydrogen dissociation can be addressed. The electronic structures of MoS[sub 2], RuS[sub 2], and NbS[sub 2] were studied both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental valence bands were obtained by high resolution electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (HR-ESCA, also referred to as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and theoretical valence bands were calculated using solid state extended Hueckel theory. Comparison of two-dimensional (2-D) MoS[sub 2] theoretical valence bands with the experimental HR-ESCA valence bands of polycrystalline MoS[sub 2] led to parametrization of the S 3s, S 3p, and Mo 4d atomic ionization potentials and Slater-type coefficients and exponents. The S 3s and S 3p parameters obtained for MoS[sub 2] were used to obtain the NbS[sub 2] and RuS[sub 2] theoretical valence bands.

  6. Crystal morphology modification by the addition of tailor-made stereocontrolled poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Tommy; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Hietala, Sami

    2012-01-01

    . One such additive is the thermosensitive polymer poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM). The use of PNIPAM as a crystallization additive provides a possibility to affect viscosity at separation temperatures and nucleation and growth rates at higher temperatures. In this study, novel PNIPAM derivatives......; the morphology of crystals changed from needle to dendritic shape. Additionally, the amphiphilic nature of PNIPAM increased the solubility of nitrofurantoin in water. PNIPAMs with varying molecular weights and stereoregularities resulted in similar changes in the crystal habit of the drug regardless of whether...

  7. Synthesis, labelling and biodistribution of N-isopropyl 131I-p-iodoamhetamine (131IAMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, N.; Reveco, P.; Mena, P.; Gil, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    It is possible to synthesize N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IAMP) through differents schemes, being the most feasible the iodination of phenylacetic acid. The labelling of this compound with radioidine, by isotope exchange in presence or absence of Cu (II) as catalyst, presents less activity concentration in brain than using Cu (II) with an excess of ascorbic acid as reducing agent of Cu (II). The use of ascorbic acid in excess allow the formation of Cu (I) in-situ, which may form an Ar-Cu-I complex, favouring the isotope nucleophilic substitution reaction, obtaining 131 IAMP higher radiochemical purity and better cerebral uptake. (Author)

  8. Effects of low-molecular weight alcohols on bacterial viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Adrian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol based solutions are among the most convenient and wide spread aid in the prevention of nosocomial infections. The current study followed the efficacy of several types and isomers of alcohols on different bacterial species. Seven alcohols (ethyl, n-propyl, iso-propyl, n-butyl, iso-butyl, tert-butyl alcohol, and ethylene glycol were used to evaluate their minimal inhibitory and bactericidal effects by microdilution method on bacteria that express many phenotypical characteristics: different cell-wall structure (Gram positive/negative bacteria, capsule production (Klebsiella pneumoniae, antibiotic resistance (MRSA vs MSSA or high environmental adaptability (Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results: The best inhibitory effect was noticed for n-propyl, followed by iso-propyl, n-butyl, and iso-butyl alcohols with equal values. Ethylene glycol was the most inefficient alcohol on all bacteria. In K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa, the bactericidal concentrations were higher than the inhibitory one, and to a level similar to that encountered for most of the Gram-positive bacteria. Among Gram-positive cocci, E. faecalis presented the lowest susceptibility to alcohols. Conclusions: All alcohols presented good effect on bacteria, even in low concentrations. Compared to ethanol as standard, there are better alternatives that can be used as antimicrobials, namely longer-chain alcohols such as propyl or butyric alcohols and their iso- isomers. Ethylene glycol should be avoided, due to its toxicity hazard and low antimicrobial efficacy. Bacterial phenotype (highly adaptable bacteria, biofilm formation and structure (cell wall structure, presence of capsule may drastically affect the responsiveness to the antimicrobial activity of alcohols, leading to higher bactericidal than inhibitory concentrations.

  9. The role of parental alcohol-specific communication in early adolescents’ alcohol use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorst, H. van der; Burk, W.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Many alcohol prevention programs advocate conversations about alcohol between parents and children because verbal communication is the most direct way for parents to express their thoughts, rules, and concerns about alcohol to their children, so called alcohol-specific communication. Nevertheless,

  10. Analysis of the Effects of Compositional and Configurational Assumptions on Product Costs for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Mixed Alcohols – FY 2007 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine alternative biomass-to-ethanol conversion process assumptions and configuration options to determine their relative effects on overall process economics. A process-flow-sheet computer model was used to determine the heat and material balance for each configuration that was studied. The heat and material balance was then fed to a costing spreadsheet to determine the impact on the ethanol selling price. By examining a number of operational and configuration alternatives and comparing the results to the base flow sheet, alternatives having the greatest impact the performance and cost of the overall system were identified and used to make decisions on research priorities. This report, which was originally published in December 2008, has been revised primarily to correct information presented in Appendix B -- Base Case Flow Sheets and Model Results. The corrections to Appendix B include replacement of several pages in Table B.1 that duplicated previous pages of the table. Other changes were made in Appendix B to correct inconsistencies between stream labels presented in the tables and the stream labels in the figures.

  11. Brain perfusion image using N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) iodoamphetamine. Detection of interhemispheric difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Hiroko

    1984-12-01

    In brain perfusion images using N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I)iodoamphetamine and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography, brain maps showing laterality indices (LI) were made for the purpose of detecting intrahemispheric differences. Left (L) and right (R) leteral images were made by adding sagittal section images in each hemisphere, respectively. LI was calculated as follows. LI=100(1 + (R-L)/(R + L)). The normal ranges (mean +- 2 s.d.) of the indices determined by those obtained in five normal right-handed subjects were 103 +- 4 and 103 +- 10 for brain mean and each pixel, respectively. Out of 25 measurements in 22 right-handed patients with cerebrovascular accidents, brain mean LI beyond the normal limits and areas showing abnormal regional LI were observed in 5 (20%) and 21 (84%) measurements, respectively. On the other hand, X-ray CT showed low density areas in only 12 (48%). These brain maps were clinically useful for detecting and quantifying interhemispheric differences in brain perfusion images with N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I)iodoamphetamine. (author). Contains 48 refs.

  12. Laser photochemical studies on di-isopropyl ether for oxygen-18 enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathi, P.; Kumar, Awadhesh; Ghosh, Ayan; Nayak, A.K.; Parthasarathy, V.; Nataraju, V.; Jadhav, K.A.; Babu, K.Rajendra; Sarkar, S.K.

    2013-05-01

    Oxygen-18 is needed for the production of Fluorine-18 in medical cyclotron for use in positron emission tomography. This report deals with our work on Oxygen-18 selective photo dissociation of natural di-isopropyl ether under various conditions leading to various oxygen bearing products having different levels of 18 O enrichment. Apart from obtaining 18 O enrichment in products 2-propanol and acetaldehyde, we have observed unusually high enrichment (about 39%) in another photoproduct, acetone, as measured by mass spectrometry. This new finding is attributed to 18 O selective secondary reaction channels which is supported by molecular orbital calculations. The investigation required characterization and quantitative estimation of various chemical species, viz., di-isopropyl ether, acetaldehyde, acetone and isopropanol by various instrumental methods of analysis. These methods include gas chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry. Detailed Gas Chromatographic (GC) studies summarize the interference problems encountered for quantitatively identifying different photo-products and establish the right experimental conditions for optimum separation. This exercise is extremely useful for an isotope enrichment scheme as it generates a valuable database to understand the processes involved for both selectivity enhancement and degradation. (author)

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Iso-propyl cyanide rotational study (Kolesnikova+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, L.; Alonso, E. R.; Mata, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    A detailed analysis of the rotational spectra of the interstellar iso-propyl cyanide has been carried out up to 480GHz using three different high-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Jet-cooled broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy from 6 to 18GHz allowed us to measure and analyze the ground-state rotational transitions of all singly substituted 13C and 15N isotopic species in their natural abundances. The monohydrate of iso-propyl cyanide, in which the water molecule bounds through a stronger O-H...N and weaker bifurcated (C-H)2...O hydrogen bonds in a Cs configuration, has also been detected in the supersonic expansion. Stark-modulation spectroscopy in the microwave and millimeter wave range from 18 to 75GHz allowed us to analyze the vibrational satellite pattern arising from pure rotational transitions in the low-lying vibrational excited states. Finally, assignments and measurements were extended through the millimeter and submillimeter wave region. The room temperature rotational spectra made possible the assignment and analysis of pure rotational transitions in 19 vibrationally excited states. Significant perturbations were found above 100GHz in most of the observed excited states. Due to the complexity of the interactions and importance of this astrophysical region for future radioastronomical detection, both a graphical plot approach and a coupled fit have been used to assign and measure almost 10000 new lines. (1 data file).

  14. A Comprehensive Rotational Study of Interstellar Iso-propyl Cyanide up to 480 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesniková, L.; Alonso, E. R.; Mata, S.; Cernicharo, J.; Alonso, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    A detailed analysis of the rotational spectra of the interstellar iso-propyl cyanide has been carried out up to 480 GHz using three different high-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Jet-cooled broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy from 6 to 18 GHz allowed us to measure and analyze the ground-state rotational transitions of all singly substituted 13C and 15N isotopic species in their natural abundances. The monohydrate of iso-propyl cyanide, in which the water molecule bounds through a stronger O-H⋯N and weaker bifurcated (C-H)2⋯O hydrogen bonds in a C s configuration, has also been detected in the supersonic expansion. Stark-modulation spectroscopy in the microwave and millimeter wave range from 18 to 75 GHz allowed us to analyze the vibrational satellite pattern arising from pure rotational transitions in the low-lying vibrational excited states. Finally, assignments and measurements were extended through the millimeter and submillimeter wave region. The room temperature rotational spectra made possible the assignment and analysis of pure rotational transitions in 19 vibrationally excited states. Significant perturbations were found above 100 GHz in most of the observed excited states. Due to the complexity of the interactions and importance of this astrophysical region for future radioastronomical detection, both a graphical plot approach and a coupled fit have been used to assign and measure almost 10,000 new lines.

  15. Brain perfusion image using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Hiroko

    1984-01-01

    In brain perfusion images using N-Isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] Iodoamphetamine and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography, brain maps showing laterality indices (LI) were made for the purpose of detecting ineterhemispheric differences. Left (L) and right (R) leteral images were made by adding sagittal section images in each hemisphere, respectively. LI was calculated as follows. LI=100(1+(R-L)/(R+L)). The normal ranges (mean+-2 s.d.) of the indices determined by those obtained in five normal right-handed subjects were 103+-4 and 103+-10 for brain mean and each pixel, respectively. Out of 25 measurements in 22 righthanded patients with cerebrovascular accidents, brain mean LI beyond the normal limits and areas showing abnormal regional LI were observed in 5 (20%) and 21 (84%) measurements, respectively. On the other hand, X-ray CT showed low density areas in only 12 (48%). These brain maps were clinically useful for detecting and quantifying interhemispheric differences in brain perfusion images with N-Isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] Iodoamphetamine. (author)

  16. A clinical study of auditory hallucination by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyobu, Tsuyoshi; Inao, Gyoshun; Ii, Masayasu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Hisada, Kinichi.

    1988-01-01

    SPECT images with N-isopropyl-p-I-123 iodoamphetamine (IMP) were reviewed in 24 right-handed patients with hallucination (H Group), comprising schizophrenic disorder (20), alcohol hallucinosis (2), epileptic hallucinosis (one), and organic mental disorder (one), and 50 subjects without hallucination (non-H Group), consisting of 39 patients with mental or organic central nervous system disorder and 11 healthy volunteers. Early SPECT images showed an increased uptake of IMP in the auditory area and angular gyrus in 23 patients of H Group and 3 persons of non-H Group. A similar uptake of IMP was seen on delayed SPECT images in 12 patients of H Group and 4 patients with a history of hallucination of non-H Group. There were no SPECT findings specific to diseases. For schizophrenic patients, increased and decreased uptakes of IMP were seen in the striatolimbic region and in the bilateral frontal lobes, respectively, irrespective of hallucination. Factors contributing to increased uptake of IMP are discussed. (Namekawa, K.) 84 refs

  17. Use of technetium-99m-di-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid imaging in the demonstration of a biliary-bronchial fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savitch, I.; Esser, J.D.; Levin, J. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Krige, L.P.; Kew, M.C. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Medicine)

    1984-05-12

    A case is described in which technetium-99m-di-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid imaging was used to trace the passage of bile from its site of leakage into an amoebic liver abscess, through a fistulous tract connecting the liver abscess with an abscess in the right lower lobe of the lung, and into the upper respiratory tract.

  18. Synthesis of beta zeolite with mesopores from a milk containing precursor and its performance in naphthalene isopropylation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tokarová, V.; Šťávová, G.; Nováková, J.; Stiborová, S.; Kašpárek, A.; Zukal, Arnošt

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 222, č. 1 (2017), s. 343-356 ISSN 1878-5190 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Beta zeolite * Mesopores * Naphthalene isopropylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  19. Pathophysiologic study of chronic infarcts with I-123 isopropyl iodo-amphetamine (IMP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raynaud, C; Rancurel, G; Samson, Y

    1987-01-01

    Seventeen chronic cerebral infarcts were investigated by a highly sensitive, dedicated brain single photon emission computerized tomography system using 123I-isopropyl iodoamphetamine (IMP) and 133Xe. IMP uptake was measured 10 minutes, 2 hours, and 5 hours after injection, and regional cerebral...... blood flow was measured with 133Xe. In 4 cases a positron emission tomography system was used to measure the rCBF and the regional metabolic rate of oxygen with C15O2 and 15O2. The results obtained allowed us to identify 2 abnormal zones. One, the "central area," was characterized by a severe decrease...... ischemic neuronal loss. The results stress the important role played by the peripheral area, which may be useful in establishing the prognosis and evaluating the efficacy of therapy in individual stroke cases....

  20. Synthesis of 1-isopropyl-3-acyl-5-methyl-benzimidazolone Derivatives and Their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaopeng Wei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of N-acylated analogues of 1-isopropyl-3-acyl-5-methyl-benzimidazolone were synthesized. Bioassay results indicated that analogues 5-07 and 5-19 exhibited the most potency against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Analogues 5-02, 5-07, 5-12, 5-15, 5-19, 5-20 and 5-25 could effectively inhibit the spore germination of Botrytis cinerea. The relationship between structure and their antimicrobial activity (SAR has also been discussed according to aliphatic acids and aromatic acids derivatives, respectively. This implied that the N-acylated derivatives of 5-methyl-benzimidazolone might be potential antimicrobial agents.

  1. Crystal structure of 1-isopropyl-4,7-dimethyl-3-nitronaphthalene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Benharref

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C15H17NO2, was synthesized from a mixture of α-himachalene (2-methylene-6,6,9-trimethylbicyclo[5.4.01,7]undec-8-ene and β-himachalene (2,6,6,9-tetramethylbicyclo[5.4.01,7]undeca-1,8-diene, which were isolated from an oil of the Atlas cedar (Cedrus Atlantica. The naphthalene ring system makes dihedral angles of 68.6 (2 and 44.3 (2°, respectively, with its attached isopropyl C/C/C plane and the nitro group. In the crystal, molecules held together by a C—H...O interaction, forming a chain along [-101].

  2. Crystal structure of isopropyl 2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetate: a pharmacopoeia reference standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Isaiev

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H14O3, is used as a pharmacopoeia reference standard for determining impurities in the drug Pregabalin, used for the treatment of epilepsy and diabetic neuropathic pain. The molecule is far from being planar, with the dihedral angle between the planes of the aromatic ring and the carboxyl fragment (O—C=O being 76.1 (6°. The isopropyl substituent is located in a synperiplanar position relative to the C=O bond and is turned so that the C—O—C—H torsion angle is −43.7°. In the crystal, bifurcated O—H...(O,O hydrogen bonds, enclosing R12(5 ring motifs, lead to the formation of chains propagating along the c-axis direction. Inversion-related chains are linked by the C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming undulating layers lying parallel to the bc plane.

  3. SPECT brain imaging with N-isopropyl [123I]-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Hill, T.C.; Magistretti, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    N-isopropyl-[ 123 I]-p-iodoamphetamine is a lipophilic tracer that passes readily across the blood-brain barrier and is retained long enough to permit planar and tomographic imaging. Its distribution in the brain is proportional to blood flow, and its brain concentration remains unchanged between 30 min and 1 hr after intravenous injection. Tomographic imaging demonstrates increased activity in the gray matter, basal ganglia, and thalamus as would be expected with a cerebral perfusion tracer. In patients with acute cerebral infarction, decreased perfusion occurs immediately with the onset of symptoms. The technique also has utility in epilepsy in defining the abnormal focus in patients with medically intractable temporal-lobe epilepsy. This technique should prove to be a routine nuclear medicine procedure for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion

  4. Methyl and isopropyl N-methylanthranilates attenuate diclofenac- and ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Jovanović, Ivan; Ilić, Ivan R; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović, Nikola M; Miltojević, Ana B

    2013-11-19

    Two natural alkaloids, methyl (M) and isopropyl (I) N-methylanthranilates, with recently demonstrated significant pharmacological activities, were assayed for their possible overall effect on intact gastric mucosa and their protective properties towards the onset of gastric lesions induced by diclofenac (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID) or ethanol. The influence of I and M on gastric mucosa integrity was assessed by oral administration in doses of 200mg/kg. The gastroprotective action of I and M in doses of 50, 100 and 200mg/kg was analyzed in the diclofenac and ethanol-induced gastric lesion models in rats. After the treatment, the stomachs of the animals were analyzed (captured by a digital camera). Ulcer scoring, morphometric and histopathological analyses of the stomachs were done. The oral application of these compounds on their own, even in quite high doses (200mg/kg) did not induce gastric lesions. Both alkaloids exerted a very strong antiulcer activity, even in low doses (50mg/kg), by decreasing the number of lesions caused by the application of either diclofenac or ethanol, eliminating them completely or reducing them to a form of mucosal hyperemia. Their possible mechanism of action was discussed and due to their many positive properties including anxiolytic, antidepressant, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities, as well as a cheap and simple synthetic route for their preparation, methyl and isopropyl N-methylanthranilates, both alike, might represent a cost effective alternative sought for in the treatment of peptic ulcers and/or new safer NSAIDs for pain management. © 2013.

  5. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina

    2006-03-01

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF 6 and UF 4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  6. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  7. Post-Synthesis Modification of SSZ-35 Zeolite to Enhance the Selectivity in p-Xylene Alkylation with Isopropyl Alcohol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Zuzana; Zones, S. I.; Čejka, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, 3-4 (2010), s. 273-282 ISSN 1022-5528 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS400400560; GA ČR GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SSZ-35 * surface modification * p-xylene * 2,5-dimethylcumene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.359, year: 2010

  8. The Effect of Zeolite Structure on the Activity and Selectivity in p-Xylene Alkylation with Isopropyl Alcohol

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musilová, Zuzana; Kubů, Martin; Burton, A. W.; Zones, S. I.; Voláková, Martina; Čejka, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 131, 3-4 (2009), s. 393-400 ISSN 1011-372X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS400400560; GA ČR GD203/08/H032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SSZ-35 * SSZ-33 * p-xylene * alkylation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2009

  9. Catalytic activity of laminated compounds of graphite with transitions metals in decomposition of alcohols and formic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, Yu.N.; Lapkina, N.D.; Vol'pin, M.E.

    1976-01-01

    The catalytic activity is studied of laminated graphite compounds with Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Mo, W and Mn both in the reduced and oxidized forms in gas phase decomposition reactions of isopropyl, n-butyl, cyclohexyl, and 4-tret-butylcyclohexyl alcohols, and also formic acid. All the catalysts are shown to be active in the reactions where isopropyl and n-butyl alcohols undergo decomposition. The laminated compounds of graphite with Co and Ni both in the oxidized and reduction form are the most active catalysts of the selective decomposition of alcohols to aldehydes and ketones, and also formic acid to CO 2 and H 2 . The kinetics of a number of reactions is found to obey the second order equation with allowance made for the system volume

  10. A simple synthesis of 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-erythro-hexonic acid isopropyl ester, a key sugar for the bacterial population living under metallic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Claire M; Renard, Brice-Loïc; Grison, Claude

    2014-02-01

    2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-erythro-hexonic acid (KDG) is the key intermediate metabolite of the Entner Doudoroff (ED) pathway. A simple, efficient and stereoselective synthesis of KDG isopropyl ester is described in five steps from 2,3-O-isopropylidene-D-threitol with an overall yield of 47%. KDG isopropyl ester is studied as an attractive marker of a functional Entner Doudoroff pathway. KDG isopropyl ester is used to promote growth of ammonium producing bacterial strains, showing interesting features in the remediation of heavy-metal polluted soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. ALCOHOL I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the increase in alcohol marketing activities by the transnational alcohol corporations in Nigeria .... were recorded with a digital device with ..... era (i.e., before alcohol industry was es- tablished in ..... university student drinking: A na-.

  12. Theoretical investigation of molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 4,5-bis-(2-isopropyl-5- methylphenoxy) phthalonitrile molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, D.

    2005-01-01

    The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of 4,5-bis-(2-isopropyl-5- methylphenoxy) phthalonitrile in the ground state have been calculated using the Hartree- Fock (HF) and density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-31G(d) basis set. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using HF and DFT (B3LYP) show the best agreement with the experimental data. Comparison of the observed fundamental vibrational frequencies of 4,5-bis-(2-isopropyl-5-methylphenoxy) phthalonitrile with calculated results by density functional B3LYP and Hartree-Fock methods indicate that B3LYP is superior to the scaled Hartree-Fock approach for molecular vibrational problems

  13. A facile synthesis of sodium 3-[1-[sup 14]C]-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Takeshi; Yanagisawa, Takashi; Tomiyama, Tsuyoshi [Kotobuki Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., Nagano (Japan). Research Labs.; Okazaki, Mitsuo [Shinshu Univ., Nagano (Japan). Dept. of Applied Biology

    1994-01-01

    Sodium 3-ethyl-7-isopropyl-1-azulenesulfonate 1, a new therapeutic agent for stomatitis, pharyngitis and ophthalmia was labelled with carbon-14 in the ethyl group attached to the azulene ring for use in metabolic studies. [sup 14]C-labelled 1 with a specific activity of 1.98 GBq/mmol was prepared in four steps in 39.3% overall chemical yield from [1-[sup 14]C]acetic acid sodium salt. (Author).

  14. Pictorial Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    Provides the rationale for considering communication in a graphic domain and suggests a specific goal for designing work stations which provide graphic capabilities in educational settings. The central element of this recommendation is the "pictorial conversation", a highly interactive exchange that includes pictures as the central elements.…

  15. Experimental study on liver accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosuda, Shigeru (Tokyo Metropolitan Komagome Hospital (Japan)); Kawahara, Shunji; Ishibashi, Akihiko; Tamura, Kohei; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1990-06-01

    In order to clarify the mechanism of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) liver accumulation, liver dynamic study by the portal injection of {sup 123}I-IMP and liver microautoradiography by {sup 125}I-IMP were performed using 5, 2 male rats, respectively. The initial uptake of {sup 123}I-IMP in the liver was very high and thereafter {sup 123}I-IMP showed relatively rapid wash-out (count ratio of lung to liver at 10 min after the injection was 0.12, 0.15). On the other hand, the addition of 5 mg, 8 mg ketamine hydrochloride decreased the initial {sup 123}I-IMP liver uptake and its lung accumulation was noted immediately after the injection (count ratio of lung to liver at 10 min was 0.20). Microautoradiography of the liver using {sup 125}I-IMP showed grain density in the central vein and sinusoids, but not in the liver parenchymal cell. These results suggest that non-specific amine receptor (binding site) may exist in the endothelial cell in the central vein, although the number of experimental rats in this series was small for conclusion. (author).

  16. Evaluation of SPECT with N-isopropyl[I-123]-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in epileptic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Toshikazu; Itoh, Kazuo; Sumi, Tetsuo; Furudate, Masayori; Irie, Goro

    1988-01-01

    Brain SPECT scintigrams with N-Isopropyl[I-123]-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) were reviewed and compared with the EEG findings in 21 epileptic patients (22 SPECT images) with normal CT. Thirteen of 22 SPECT images showed abnormal low uptake and 7 of them corresponded to the EEG focus. In order to obtain the quantitative analysis, the count ratio of the focus side to the opposite I-123 content in fixed ROI was measured for each case, but no statistically significant correlation for the frequency or the duration of epilepsy was found. EEG is not considered to be favorite standard for localizing epileptic foci, especially in deep cerebral region, and that may be one of the main reason for the incomplete correlation. In the qualitative study, however, the cases with frequent epileptic attack were more likely to show abnormal findings. I-123 IMP SPECT can now be considered as having a significant clinical role for the diagnosis and management of patients with epilepsy. (author)

  17. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain SPECT in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Nishikawa, Junichi; Kosaka, Noboru; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Iio, Masahiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1989-09-01

    Eighteen patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 5 patients with Pick disease (PD), 6 patients with other types of degenerative dementia (O) and 12 age-matched normal control subjects (N) were studied using N-isopropyl p-(I-123)iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) with SPECT. Regional to cerebellar activity (R/CE) ratio and frontal to parietal (F/R) activity ratio were evaluated in each case. I-123 IMP-SPECT revealed focal abnormality in all cases in AD, PD, O group, while XCT and/or MRI were normal or showed cerebral atrophy without focal abnormal density or intensity. In AD group, R/CE ratio in all the regions except for bilateral Rolandic area and left primary visual cortex were significantly lower (p<0.05 or p<0.01) than that in N group, and F/P ratio were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that in P and O group. In conclusion, I-123 IMP-SPECT is useful to detect focal perfusion abnormality in dementia and may be of value in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from dementia of non-Alzheimer type. (author).

  18. Clinical evaluation of brain perfusion scintigraphy using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimbo, Shin-ichiro; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Yagi, Kenji; Misaki, Takashi; Dokoh, Shigeharu

    1989-01-01

    The present study includes 16 patients with symptoms related to cerebrovascular insufficiency, who were randomly selected from out outpatient clinic of internal medicine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 111∼185 MBq (3∼5 mCi) of N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was performed 20 min and 3 hr after intravenous administration of the tracer, and compared to the image of conventional X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Out of twelve cases with significant findings in X-CT, 9 showed corresponding changes in perfusion in SPECT with IMP, and the remaining 3 did not. In a patient with cerebral infarction, SPECT revealed a perfusion defect whereas her X-CT was negative, thereby proved to be useful in determining the focus of clinically suspected stroke. There were some other cases in which findings in SPECT and X-CT were discordant. From our series of scans, SPECT seemed useful in detecting responsible sites of neurological deficits in early and, occasionally, remote phases of cerebrovascular accidents, while X-CT appeared superior in finding smaller lesions. (author)

  19. N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine receptors in normal and cancerous tissue of the human lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Eiko; Mishima, Michiaki; Kawakami, Kenzo; Sakai, Naoki; Sugiura, Naoharu; Kuno, Kenshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Clinical Physiology; Taniguchi, Takashi [Kyoto Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Neurobiology

    1993-04-01

    N-Isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) receptors in normal human lung tissue were characterized using a radioligand binding assay with iodine-125 IMP as the ligand. Saturation binding studies revealed the presence of two binding sites with dissociation constant (K[sub d]) values of 53[+-]2 and 4687[+-]124 nM and maximum binding capacity (Bmax) values of 7[+-]1 and 133[+-]27 pmol/mg protein (n=5) respectively. The IC[sub 50] values of various amines were as follows: IMP, 9x10[sup -5] M; propranolol, 5x10[sup -4] M; haloperidol, 6x10[sup -4] M; ketamine, 9x10[sup -3] M; dopamine, 1x10[sup -2] M. The IMP receptors of cancerous tissue obtained from human lung also had two binding sites with K[sub d] values of 54[+-]2 and 5277[+-]652 nM and Bmax values of 7[+-]1 and 103[+-]21 pmol/mg protein (n=3) respectively. There was no significant difference in binding parameters between normal and cancerous lung tissue. These results demonstrate the existence of IMP receptors and suggest that cancer does not affect the nature of IMP receptors in human lung tissue. (orig.).

  20. Isopropyl Myristate-Modified Polyether-Urethane Coatings as Protective Barriers for Implantable Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohpour, Nima; Wasikiewicz, Jaroslaw M.; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Paul, Deepen; Rehman, Ihtesham U.; Vadgama, Pankaj

    2009-01-01

    Polyurethane films have potential applications in medicine, especially for packaging implantable medical devices. Although polyether-urethanes have superior mechanical properties and are biocompatible, achieving water resistance is still a challenge. Polyether based polyurethanes with two different molecular weights (PTMO1000, PTMO2000) were prepared from 4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and poly(tetra-methylene oxide). Polymer films were introduced using different concentrations (0.5-10 wt %) of isopropyl myristate lipid (IPM) as a non-toxic modifying agent. The physical and mechanical properties of these polymers were characterised using physical and spectroscopy techniques (FTIR, Raman, DSC, DMA, tensile testing). Water contact angle and water uptake of the membranes as a function of IPM concentration was also determined accordingly. The FTIR and Raman data indicate that IPM is dispersed in polyurethane at ≤ 2wt% and thermal analysis confirmed this miscibility to be dependent on soft segment length. Modified polymers showed increased tensile strength and failure strain as well as reduced water uptake by up to 24% at 1-2 wt% IPM.

  1. Isopropyl Myristate-Modified Polyether-Urethane Coatings as Protective Barriers for Implantable Medical Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Vadgama

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane films have potential applications in medicine, especially for packaging implantable medical devices. Although polyether-urethanes have superior mechanical properties and are biocompatible, achieving water resistance is still a challenge. Polyether based polyurethanes with two different molecular weights (PTMO1000, PTMO2000 were prepared from 4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate and poly(tetra-methylene oxide. Polymer films were introduced using different concentrations (0.5-10 wt % of isopropyl myristate lipid (IPM as a non-toxic modifying agent. The physical and mechanical properties of these polymers were characterised using physical and spectroscopy techniques (FTIR, Raman, DSC, DMA, tensile testing. Water contact angle and water uptake of the membranes as a function of IPM concentration was also determined accordingly. The FTIR and Raman data indicate that IPM is dispersed in polyurethane at ≤ 2wt% and thermal analysis confirmed this miscibility to be dependent on soft segment length. Modified polymers showed increased tensile strength and failure strain as well as reduced water uptake by up to 24% at 1-2 wt% IPM.

  2. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain SPECT in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Iwata, Makoto; Shimizu, Teruo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    Six patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), two patients of Pick disease (PD) and two patients of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were studied with N-Isopropyl I-123 p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) with SPECT. The pattern of IMP uptake in these demented groups were compared with that in five agematched normal controls and correlated with MRI and XCT. In all AD cases, SPECT revealed focal reduction of IMP uptake in frontal (6/6), parietal (6/6) and temporal (6/6) cortex, although MRI and XCT were normal. In both PD case, SPECT showed focal reduction of IMP uptake in frontal (1/2) and temporal (2/2) cortex with moderate labor atrophy on MRI and XCT. In both CJD case, SPECT showed diffuse reduction of IMP uptake in cerebral cortex in spite of no abnormality on MRI and XCT. These findings suggest that SPECT can detect earlier diseased process of AD and CJD than MRI or XCT and that SPECT may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of non-vascular dementia. (author)

  3. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain SPECT in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Iwata, Makoto; Shimizu, Teruo; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-12-01

    Six patients of Alzheimer's disease (AD), two patients of Pick disease (PD) and two patients of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were studied with N-Isopropyl I-123 p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) with SPECT. The pattern of IMP uptake in these demented groups were compared with that in five agematched normal controls and correlated with MRI and XCT. In all AD cases, SPECT revealed focal reduction of IMP uptake in frontal (6/6), parietal (6/6) and temporal (6/6) cortex, although MRI and XCT were normal. In both PD case, SPECT showed focal reduction of IMP uptake in frontal (1/2) and temporal (2/2) cortex with moderate labor atrophy on MRI and XCT. In both CJD case, SPECT showed diffuse reduction of IMP uptake in cerebral cortex in spite of no abnormality on MRI and XCT. These findings suggest that SPECT can detect earlier diseased process of AD and CJD than MRI or XCT and that SPECT may be helpful for the differential diagnosis of non-vascular dementia.

  4. Brain SPECT with /sup 123/I-isopropyl amphetamine in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Reske, S.N.; Rasche, A.; Reichmann, K.; Winkler, C.; Froescher, W.; Kluenenberg, H.

    1983-04-01

    Ten patients were studied with N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was carried out by hand of a rotating gamma camera system (Gammatome T9000/CGR, high resolution collimator). During 1 rotation (360/sup 0/) 64 frames (4k matrix) were acquired within 20 min 1 hour after injection of 6.5 mCi I-123 labeled amphetamine. The content of I-124 was less than 2%. After reconstruction of transverse slices coronar and sagittal reconstructions were rapidly performed using an array processor. Nine patients suffered from epilepsy and one from severe migraine. Excellent differentiation between gray and white matter of the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia was evident in all of the cases. In 2 out of 3 patients with epilepsy and negative CT results SPECT revealed circumscribed areas with increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the EEG findings. In 4 out of 6 cases with positive CT findings SPECT lesions with diminished amphetamine uptake could be established. One patient with severe migraine showed focal increased amphetamine uptake in accordance with the respective clinical results.

  5. Cerebral dynamics of N-isopropyl-(123I)p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, H.; Schober, O.; Gielow, P.; Friedrich, R.; Becker, H.; Dietz, H.; Hundeshagen, H.

    1986-01-01

    Temporal changes in the distribution of N-isopropyl-(123I)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) within the brain are measured with serial tomographic imaging. In the cerebellum there is a decrease in activity of 42% from the early [15-45 min postinjection (p.i.)] to the late (210-240 min p.i.) scan, while in the cortex the decrease is 18%, and in the basal ganglia there is no decrease within this time. In brain tumors there was no IMP uptake in the early as well as in the late scans, regardless of tumor type, perfusion rate, or blood-brain barrier dysfunction. In 11 of 43 patients with a cerebral infarction a real increase of 123I activity (mean +21%) was seen in the late images. This ''filling in'' phenomena might be useful in selecting patients for bypass surgery. In these patients the diaschisis cerebelli, seen in the early scans, disappeared in the late images. The regional distribution of IMP changes with time; spatial ratios might be blurred by temporal changes. High-flow areas such as visio-auditory centers can be delineated clearly after stimulation in fast early scans; in these areas the pharmacokinetics of 123I are different from other cortex regions. To get the full information from the IMP brain uptake, both spatial and temporal variation must be measured

  6. Anxiolytic-like effect of Carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) in mice: involvement with GABAergic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Francisca Helvira Cavalcante; Venâncio, Edith Teles; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de França Fonteles, Marta Maria; de Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Viana, Glauce Socorro Barros; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2010-08-01

    Carvacrol (5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol) is a monoterpenic phenol present in the essencial oil of many plants. It is the major component of the essential oil fraction of oregano and thyme. This work presents the behavioral effects of carvacrol in animal models of elevated plus maze (EPM), open field, Rotarod and barbiturate-induced sleeping time tests in mice. Carvacrol (CVC) was administered orally, in male mice, at single doses of 12.5; 25 and 50 mg/kg while diazepam 1 or 2 mg/kg was used as standard drug and flumazenil (2.5 mg/kg) was used to elucidate the possible anxiolytic mechanism of CVC on the plus maze test. The results showed that CVC, at three doses, had no effect on the spontaneous motor activity in the Rotarod test nor in the number of squares crossed in the open-field test. However, CVC decreased the number of groomings in the open-field test. In the plus maze test, CVC, at three doses significantly increased all the observed parameters in the EPM test and flumazenil was able to reverse the effects of diazepam and CVC. Therefore, CVC did not alter the sleep latency and sleeping time in the barbiturate-induced sleeping time test. These results show that CVC presents anxiolytic effects in the plus maze test which are not influenced by the locomotor activity in the open-field test.

  7. Clinical relevance of n-isopropyl-(/sup 123/I)p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT brain imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podreka, I.; Holl, K.; Dal Bianco, P.; Goldenberg, G.; Wimberger, D.; Auff, E.; Brucke, T.

    1986-01-01

    SPECT studies of the brain were performed by means of N-isopropyl-(/sup 123/I)p-iodoamphertamine and a double head rotating scintillation camera. Energy spectra showed an increase of scattered radiation proportional to the geometrical resolution of the used Tc-collimators. This is due to the higher lead content and thin septa (septum-penetration of high energy photons of /sup 123/I, scattering in the crystal) of HRES or UHRES collimators. A LEAP collimator (14 mm FWHM resolution in the reconstructed image) is the most suitable one (sufficient resolution - relatively low scatter-fraction) for /sup 123/I labeled tracers. With a multiple window technique scatter correction was performed. The width and position of the scatter windows were estimated in phantom studies. Further steps of data processing (prereconstructional filtering, analytical attenuation compensation), leading to an improvement of the final set of cross sections, are described. Clinical cases (Alzheimers, Huntingtons, Parkinson disease, Moya Moya, stroke and partial complex seizures) and stimulation (acoustic memory tasks, visual stimulations) studies in normal volunteers are presented, and results are compared with PET-data known from recent literature

  8. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) brain SPECT in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Nishikawa, Junichi; Kosaka, Noboru; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Iio, Masahiro

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), 5 patients with Pick disease (PD), 6 patients with other types of degenerative dementia (O) and 12 age-matched normal control subjects (N) were studied using N-isopropyl p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) with SPECT. Regional to cerebellar activity (R/CE) ratio and frontal to parietal (F/R) activity ratio were evaluated in each case. I-123 IMP-SPECT revealed focal abnormality in all cases in AD, PD, O group, while XCT and/or MRI were normal or showed cerebral atrophy without focal abnormal density or intensity. In AD group, R/CE ratio in all the regions except for bilateral Rolandic area and left primary visual cortex were significantly lower (p<0.05 or p<0.01) than that in N group, and F/P ratio were significantly higher (p<0.01) than that in P and O group. In conclusion, I-123 IMP-SPECT is useful to detect focal perfusion abnormality in dementia and may be of value in differentiating Alzheimer's disease from dementia of non-Alzheimer type. (author)

  9. Chloridrate of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine labeled with Iodine-131. Biological distribution in laboratory animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colturato, Maria Tereza; Muramoto, Emiko; Carvalho, Olga Goncalves de

    2000-01-01

    The development of this work was based on a great interest from the medical class in the utilization of chloridrate of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) labeled with 123 I, for brain perfusion evaluation. Studies were performed to optimize the labeling parameters of IMP with 131 I using nucleophilic substitution: temperature and, time reaction, ascorbic acid mass, pH and relation IMP mass/radioiodo activity, and stability of the final product. Radiochemistry purity method used showed to be efficient, quick and of easily handling for routine production. Biological distribution studies were performed in mice to determine the percent administered dose in the blood, different organs and whole body after intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The product crossed the intact blood brain barrier, allowing a follow up of further studies after the intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The principal elimination route 131 I-IMP was the urinary. Based on the results from radiochemical purity, stability and biological behavior in laboratory animals, we concluded that the studied radiopharmaceutical presents all ideal characteristics for clinical use in brain studies in nuclear medicine. (author)

  10. Effects of cigarette smoking on iodine 123 N-isopropyl-f-iodoamphetamine clearance from the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kunihiko; Harada, Satoshi; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Yanagisawa, Toru

    1991-01-01

    Iodine 123 N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), originally developed as a brain scanning agent, is also taken up by the lung. To evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on the kinetics of IMP in the lung, we studied 123 I-IMP clearance from the lung in 18 volunteers (8 non-smokers and 10 smokers). After the injection of 111 MBq of 123 I-IMP into the medial cubital vein, the time-activity curve for 60 min and the regional activity using 1 frame per minute and a 64x64 matrix were obtained. The 123 I-IMP clearance curve was described as follows: C(t)=A 1 e ( -k 1 t)+A 2 e ( -k 2 t)(A 1 , A 2 : intercepts, and k 1 , k 2 : slopes of the exponential components). 123 I-IMP clearance was delayed in smokers, and k 2 was smaller in smokers. Also, a correlation between k 1 , k 2 , and the number of cigarettes smoked per day was found (r=-0.65, r=-0.74, respectively, P 123 I-IMP in the lung indicate lung metabolic disorders due to cigarette smoking. (orig.)

  11. Clinical evaluation of brain perfusion scintigraphy using N-isopropyl-p-( sup 123 I)-iodoamphetamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimbo, Shin-ichiro; Yamamoto, Itsuo; Yagi, Kenji; Misaki, Takashi; Dokoh, Shigeharu (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan))

    1989-10-01

    The present study includes 16 patients with symptoms related to cerebrovascular insufficiency, who were randomly selected from out outpatient clinic of internal medicine. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 111{approx}185 MBq (3{approx}5 mCi) of N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I)-iodoamphetamine (IMP) was performed 20 min and 3 hr after intravenous administration of the tracer, and compared to the image of conventional X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Out of twelve cases with significant findings in X-CT, 9 showed corresponding changes in perfusion in SPECT with IMP, and the remaining 3 did not. In a patient with cerebral infarction, SPECT revealed a perfusion defect whereas her X-CT was negative, thereby proved to be useful in determining the focus of clinically suspected stroke. There were some other cases in which findings in SPECT and X-CT were discordant. From our series of scans, SPECT seemed useful in detecting responsible sites of neurological deficits in early and, occasionally, remote phases of cerebrovascular accidents, while X-CT appeared superior in finding smaller lesions. (author).

  12. Black Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  13. Quantum conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...

  14. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  15. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  16. Crystal morphology modification by the addition of tailor-made stereocontrolled poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk, Tommy; Baldursdottir, Stefania; Hietala, Sami; Rades, Thomas; Kapp, Sebastian; Nuopponen, Markus; Kalliomäki, Katriina; Tenhu, Heikki; Rantanen, Jukka

    2012-07-02

    The use of additives in crystallization of pharmaceuticals is known to influence the particulate properties critically affecting downstream processing and the final product performance. Desired functionality can be build into these materials, e.g. via optimized synthesis of a polymeric additive. One such additive is the thermosensitive polymer poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM). The use of PNIPAM as a crystallization additive provides a possibility to affect viscosity at separation temperatures and nucleation and growth rates at higher temperatures. In this study, novel PNIPAM derivatives consisting of both isotactic-rich and atactic blocks were used as additives in evaporative crystallization of a model compound, nitrofurantoin (NF). Special attention was paid to possible interactions between NF and PNIPAM and the aggregation state of PNIPAM as a function of temperature and solvent composition. Optical light microscopy and Raman and FTIR spectroscopy were used to investigate the structure of the NF crystals and possible interaction with PNIPAM. A drastic change in the growth mechanism of nitrofurantoin crystals as monohydrate form II (NFMH-II) was observed in the presence of PNIPAM; the morphology of crystals changed from needle to dendritic shape. Additionally, the amphiphilic nature of PNIPAM increased the solubility of nitrofurantoin in water. PNIPAMs with varying molecular weights and stereoregularities resulted in similar changes in the crystal habit of the drug regardless of whether the polymer was aggregated or not. However, with increased additive concentration slower nucleation and growth rates of the crystals were observed. Heating of the crystallization medium resulted in phase separation of the PNIPAM. The phase separation had an influence on the achieved crystal morphology resulting in fewer, visually larger and more irregular dendritic crystals. No proof of hydrogen bond formation between PNIPAM and NF was observed, and the suggested mechanism for

  17. Clinical applications of brain spect with N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.; Sergent, A.; Raynaud, C.; Baron, J.C.; Samson, Y.; Lassen, N.; Bourdoiseau, M.

    1985-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl- 123 I-p-iodoamphetamine (IAMP-I-123) was used for 250 patients suffering from brain disorders, comprising brain tumours (36), normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) (23), cerebrovascular pathologies (127) and partial epilepsy (64). Brain tumours were found to be hypoactive, whatever the grade and nature. Frontal hypoactivity was found in NPH patients, and IAMP-I-123 perfusion was improved after cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) lumbar drainage, giving a good predictive criterion of clinical outcome after CSF diversion. For cerebrovascular disorders, it was possible to obtain with IAMP-I-123 SPECT larger pictures of hypoactive areas than the pictures of hypodense lesions obtained with X-ray CT scans; other hypoactive areas that could not be observed with CT were also delineated by IAMP-I-123 SPECT. The hypoactive areas found in constituted infarctions can present two types of kinetics - those which are 'persistent' (still present on delayed scans performed 5 h after IAMP-I-123 injection) and those which disappear with time, thereby suggesting hypofunctional parenchyma without tissue impairment. IAMP-I-123 SPECT was proved to be useful in assessing ischaemia, especially in reversible ischaemia patients, by defining the affected arterial territory and guiding complementary arteriographic exploration in view of surgical procedures. IAMP-I-123 SPECT was able to accurately delineate the affected parenchymal areas. It could also be of help in the follow-up of the efficiency of drug therapy and surgery, and it can be regarded as a good predictive criterion for stroke rehabilitation. The results obtained with IAMP-I-123 indicate that the lesional and epileptogenic areas in epileptic patients are hypoactive. The localization of these territories by IAMP-I-123 SPECT correlates well with other, more accurate, neuroradiological and stereotactic techniques. (author)

  18. Distribution of N-isopropyl-p-(I-123)iodoamphetamine among the peripheral blood components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazaki, Satoshi; Oriuchi, Noboru; Tomiyoshi, Katsumi; Inoue, Tomio; Sasaki, Yasuhito.

    1990-01-01

    With the purpose to clarify dynamics of N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) in the blood stream its binding to the peripheral blood components was determined by in vitro experiment. I-123 IMP was added to the peripheral venous blood obtained from healthy volunteers to be incubated for different length of time (0-30 min) at 37deg C. The blood was then separated into blood cells and plasma. From the latter platelet rich plasma were separated. Radioactivity in each blood component was counted in a well type scintillation counter respectively. To evaluate the affinity of I-123 IMP to red blood cell the component containing blood cells were washed repeatedly with salines. It was found that the fraction of radioactivity in the blood cell component was 68.0±6.3% (m±1 S.D.), which was higher than that in the plasma (32.0%±6.3%). The radioactivity in the platelet-rich plasma was only 1.7±1.1% of the total I-123 IMP activity. This percentage did not change by the incubation time. When Tc-99m DTPA was incubated with blood, radioactivity in the blood cell component was only 22.5%, which is further lowered by 32±2.1% after each washing to reach 6.8% after three times washing. In contrast the radioactivity of I-123 IMP in blood cell component remained as high as 31.1% after eight times washing. Almost constant fraction (8.20±0.57%) of radioactivity was freed into supernate by each washing. These findings suggest that a certain specific binding mechanism is involved in the binding of I-123 IMP to red blood cells. (author)

  19. The distribution of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine in experimental ischemic brain of the mongolian gerbil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Katsushi; Ueda, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tadatoshi

    1988-01-01

    We studied the distribution of N-isopropyl-p-[I-131]-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in permanent and temporary ischemic brains of mongolian gerbils. For the permanent ischemic brain model, the right common carotid artery was ligated under ether anesthesia. For the temporary ischemic brain model, the right common carotid artery was clamped by a clip and recirculated at 3 hours thereafter. After given time intervals, 1.35 MBq (50 μCi) of IMP was injected intravenously into 17 gerbils (permanent ischemic brain model), 18 gerbils (temporary ischemic brain model) which had severe neurological symptoms, and 3 normal gerbils for controls. One minute, 10 minutes, 1 hour and 6 hours after the injection, gerbils were sacrified and autoradiography of the brain was performed. The activity of IMP in various parts of the brain was calculated from each autoradiogram. In permanent ischemic brains, low perfusion areas were observed in the right cerebral hemisphere, the brain stem (5 ∼ 20 % of normal value), and in the left hemisphere (40 ∼ 60 % of normal value). In temporary ischemic brains, focal areas of increased activity were observed in the right cerebral hemisphere and the thalamus from 10 minutes to 24 hours after recirculation. The high activity disappeared rapidly at 10 minutes after the injection. It seemed that this high activity represented luxury perfusion in the region with severe tissue damage. In the left hemisphere, almost complete recovery of perfusion occurred at 1 ∼ 3 days after recirculation. These results suggested the possibility of IMP to demonstrate cerebral ischemia, luxury perfusion and diaschisis. (author)

  20. A study on regional cerebral blood flow measurement by N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Hiroyasu

    1986-01-01

    In vivo characteristics of N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) as a potential agent for imaging regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were fundamentally studied, and the clinical value of gamma camera rotating SPECT with I-123 IMP was assessed. Brain autoradiography in rats revealed that brain uptake of I-123 IMP is comparable to that described for C-14 iodoantipyrin. In a healthy volunteer, brain uptake was 8.5 % of injected dose at 1.5 hr. Significant uptake of I-123 IMP was observed in the lungs and liver, but not observed in the eyeball or pancreas. Radiation absorbed doses per mCi of I-123 IMP were 0.142 in the brain, 0.178 in the lungs, 0.130 in the liver, 0.038 in the ovaries, 0.027 in the testes, and 0.042 in the total body. A rotating gamma camera for SPECT gave the same linear response to radioactivity as a ring detector, although the latter had better sensitivity and resolution than the former. An increased rCBF was observed with physiological stimulation including left hand movement, reading, and listening, providing three-dimensional mapping of regional cerebral function for kinesthesia. Fifty-three measurements of rCBF were clinically acquired in 42 patients with cerebrovascular disorder. Mean rCBF ranged from 11 to 40 ml/100 g/min. SPECT with I-123 IMP had a significantly high ability to detect ischemic lesions compared with X-ray CT (83 % vs. 41 %). These results indicate the potential benefits of this modality in evaluating cerebral pathophysiology, treatment efficacy, and surgical indications. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Extraction of hafnium with chelating agents from aqueous-alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hala, J.; Prihoda, J.

    1975-01-01

    The extraction was studied of hafnium into solutions of N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine, 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone and di-n-butylphosphoric acid in benzene, toluene, chloroform and tetrachloromethane from aqueous alcoholic solutions with a formal acidity of 2M-HClO 4 . Methyl-, ethyl-, n- and isopropyl- and tert-butyl alcohol were used as organic components in the mixed aqueous-organic phase. In the extraction into N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine the presence of the alcohols resulted in synergic effects analogous to the previously described extraction by substituted benzoylpyrazolone. With the other two extractants, the effect of the alcohols was antagonistic, due to the interaction of alcohol or water with the reagent in the organic phase, and to the decrease in the reagent distribution constant. (author)

  2. Alcohol Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Trkovská, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The thesis concerns itself with alcohol advertising. Alcohol is the most widespread habit-forming substance, yet its consumption is permitted in most countries all around the world, possibly restricted by the age of consumers only. Drinking alcohol cannot be either regulated or prohibited today. It has become commonplace for the majority of our lives. Being aware of its apparent risks, however, there is an effort to regulate at least alcohol advertising. The main objective of this work was to...

  3. The results of the toxicity and hazard studies of isopropyl meta-carborane with single administration to laboratory animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushkov G.G.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Intensive research on the chemistry of borohydrides and the creation of high-energy fuels led to the discovery of a completely new type of organoboron compounds, which were collectively called carboranes. Taking into account the scope of application of organoboron compounds in various branches of human economic activity, we present for publication the quantitative data of a toxicological study of the higher isomer of carboranes of isopropyl meta-carborane at the level of a single injection into the laboratory animals through the mouth and lungs. Background. Supplementing data on toxicity and the hazard of organoboron compounds requires the study of the response of the organism to the action of isopropyl meta-carborane. The purpose of the study: identification of possible features and specificity of the toxic effect of carboranes on the example of isopropyl meta-carborane. Methods. The object of the study is nonlinear laboratory animals: rats, mice and rabbits contained in standard vivarium conditions, with observance of the rules of humane treatment of animals. Traditional methods of research (physiological, hematological, morphological have been used. Statistical processing of data was carried out using the programs «Microsoft Office Excel 2007» and «Biostat». Differences were considered statistically significant at p ≤ 0.05, using a parametric test. Results. Acute toxicity parameters were obtained, which allowed the substance to be classified as moderately hazardous (3rd hazard class according to GOST 12.1.007, which does not have selective irritant, pneumotoxic and fibrogenic effects. Conclusion. Thus, the predominant influence of the substance is established objectively with a single exposure to the blood system as its toxicological feature, and its effect on spermatozoa is a specificity of the action, which stimulates the study of this carborane under conditions of chronic administration to the animals.

  4. Extraction of hafnium by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyralozone from aqueous-alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hala, J.; Prihoda, J.

    1975-01-01

    Extraction of hafnium by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (HL) in benzene, toluene, chloroform and tetrachloromethane from aqueous-alcoholic solutions of the formal acidity of 2M-HClO 4 was studied. Methyl, ethyl, n- and isopropyl, tert-butyl and allyl alcohol as well as ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and propylene glycol were used as organic components of the mixed aqueous-organic phase. Their presence in some cases resulted in a synergic increase in the distribution ratio of hafnium. The increase is interpreted using the results of a slope analysis and measurements of the alcohol distribution and the relative permittivity of the organic phase. It is suggested that HfL 4 molecules were solvated by alcohol molecules in the organic phase. At high alcohol concentration synergism changed into antagonism. This was caused by changes in the distribution of HL and its interaction with the alcohol in the organic phase. (author)

  5. Regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease measured with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Higuchi, Shoichi; Sakai, Kunio; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ibayashi, Katsuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT studies were performed on 21 patients (13 females; 45-73 yrs) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 age-matched normal controls (39-69 yrs). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantitatively measured by the arterial blood sampling method. When compared with normal controls, global CBF, and rCBF in the frontal cortex and in the basal ganglia were reduced 22.1% (p 123 I-IMP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluation and follow-up of patients with PD. (author)

  6. N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine SPECT in MELAS syndrome: Comparison with CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Yoshizawa, T.; Takeda, T.; Akisada, M.

    1991-01-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion was studied in three patients with the mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome, using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). Accumulation of the tracer was relatively decreased in the parietooccipital regions and also in the frontotemporal regions after stroke-like episodes. However, quantitative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurement showed that rCBF was relatively well preserved even at these sites, and a hyperemic state was observed at the sites of normal accumulation. IMP SPECT may be useful in the diagnosis and assessment of the progress of the MELAS syndrome

  7. Physicochemical studies of mixed surfactant microemulsions with isopropyl myristate as oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Soumik; Kundu, Kaushik; Saha, Swapan K; Paul, Bidyut K

    2013-07-15

    The present study is focused on evaluation of interfacial compositions and thermodynamic properties of w/o mixed surfactant [(sodium dodecylsulfate, SDS/polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether, Brij-35)/1-pentanol (Pn)/isopropyl myristate (IPM)] microemulsions under various physicochemical conditions by the dilution method. The number of moles of Pn at the interface (n(a)(i)) and bulk oil (n(a)(o)), and various thermodynamic parameters [viz. standard Gibbs free energy (ΔG(o→i)(0)), standard enthalpy (ΔH(o→i)(0)), and standard entropy (ΔS(o→i)(0)) of the transfer of Pn from bulk oil to the interface] have been found to be dependent on the molar ratio of water to surfactant (ω), concentration of Brij-35 (X(Brij-35)), and temperature. Temperature-insensitive microemulsions with zero specific heat capacity (ΔC(p)(0))(o→i) have been formed at specific compositions. The intrinsic enthalpy change of the transfer process (ΔH(0))(o→i)* has been evaluated from linear correlation between ΔH(o→i)(0) and ΔS(o→i)(0) at different experimental temperatures. The present report also aims at a precise characterization on the basis of molecular interactions between the constituents and provides insight into the nature of the oil/water interfaces of these systems by conductivity and dynamic light scattering studies as a function of ω and X(Brij-35). Conductivity studies reveal that incorporation of Brij-35 in non-percolating water/SDS/Pn/IPM systems makes them favorable for ω-induced percolation behavior up to X(Brij-35) ≤ 0.5. But further addition of Brij-35 causes a decrease in conductivity with increasing ω. Furthermore, the hydrodynamic diameters of the microemulsion droplets increase with increase in both X(Brij-35) and ω. Correlations of the results in terms of the evaluated physicochemical parameters have been attempted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  9. PREPARATION AND CATALYTIC ACTIVITY FOR ISOPROPYL BENZENE CRACKING OF Co, Mo AND Co/Mo-Al2O3-PILLARED MONTMORILLONITE CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanudin Hasanudin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been prepared Co, Mo and Co/Mo-Al2O3-pillared montmorillonite catalysts using montmorillonite clay  as raw material. The structure and porosity of the catalysts were determined using N2 adsorption-desorption and FT-IR spectroscopy analysis methods. Isopropyl benzene cracking using these catalysts were used to test the catalytic activity and performance of Co, Mo and Co/Mo-Al2O3-pillared montmorillonites.  Characterization results showed that pillarization resulted in the increase of the total pore volume and specific surface area of the clay. Meanwhile, transition metals (Co, Mo and Co/Mo loaded on Al2O3-pillared monmorillonites could increase the catalytic activity of the catalysts for isopropyl benzene cracking significantly.   Keywords: pillared monmorillonite, isopropyl benzene  and cracking catalyst

  10. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  11. Laboratory-evolved vanillyl-alcohol oxidase produces natural vanillin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den R.H.H.; Berg, van den W.A.M.; Rovida, S.; Berkel, van W.J.H.

    2004-01-01

    The flavoenzyme vanillyl-alcohol oxidase was subjected to random mutagenesis to generate mutants with enhanced reactivity to creosol (2-methoxy-4-methylphenol). The vanillyl-alcohol oxidase-mediated conversion of creosol proceeds via a two-step process in which the initially formed vanillyl alcohol

  12. Phase equilibrium properties of binary and ternary systems containing di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene at 313.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villamanan, Rosa M.; Martin, M. Carmen; Chamorro, Cesar R.; Villamanan, Miguel A.; Segovia, Jose J.

    2006-01-01

    (Vapour + liquid) equilibria data of (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene) (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol) and (1-butanol + benzene) have been measured at T = 313.15 K using an isothermal total pressure cell. Data reduction by Barker's method provides correlations for the excess molar Gibbs energy using the Margules equation for the binary systems and the Wohl expansion for the ternary. The Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models have been applied successfully to both the binary and the ternary systems reported here

  13. Effects of supplementation with 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester on splanchnic amino acid metabolism and essential amino acid mobilization in postpartum transition Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalbach, Kristine Foged; Larsen, Mogens; Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HMBi) supplementation on splanchnic AA metabolism, essential AA (EAA) mobilization, and plasma AA status in postpartum transition dairy cows. The EAA mobilization was calculated by differ......The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)-butanoic acid isopropyl ester (HMBi) supplementation on splanchnic AA metabolism, essential AA (EAA) mobilization, and plasma AA status in postpartum transition dairy cows. The EAA mobilization was calculated...

  14. Alkali/TX{sub 2} catalysts for CO/H{sub 2} conversion to C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alcohols. Technical progress report, March 1989--August 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Bastian, R.D.; Flanagan, K.L.

    1989-12-31

    Ruthenium disulfide catalysts have been synthesized, tested, and characterized during this period of research. It was observed that both the undoped and Cs-doped RuS{sub 2} catalysts produced alcohols and lower amounts of hydrocarbons from H{sub 2}/CO = 1.0 synthesis gas at temperatures above 300{degree}C. Calcination and catalytic testing resulted in partial reduction of the RuS{sub 2} to Ru{sup o}. Calcination under H{sub 2}S prevented the partial reduction of the RuS{sub 2} catalyst, but subsequent catalytic testing again resulted in the formation of a quantity of Ru{sup o}. A Cs-doped RuS{sub 2} catalyst was prepared, but it might have had too high of a loading of Cs. Upon testing, a lower activity was observed for the doped catalyst compared with the undoped catalyst, but the alcohol selectivity was the same for the two catalysts.

  15. 27 CFR 24.193 - Conversion into still wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion into still wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Effervescent Wine § 24.193 Conversion into still wine. Sparkling wine or artificially carbonated wine may be dumped for use as still wine. The dumping process will...

  16. Quantitative analysis of O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid in serum samples of Japanese citizens allegedly exposed to sarin: Estimation of internal dosage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Hulst, A.G.; Platenburg, D.H.J.M.; Polhuijs, M.; Benschop, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and rapid micro-anion exchange liquid chromatography (LC) tandem electrospray mass spectrometry (MS) procedure was developed for quantitative analysis in serum of O-isopropyl methylphosphonic acid (IMPA), the hydrolysis product of the nerve agent sarin. The mass spectrometric procedure

  17. The use of technetium-99m-di-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid imaging in the demonstration of a biliary-bronchial fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitch, I.; Esser, J.D.; Levin, J.; Krige, L.P.; Kew, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A case is described in which technetium-99m-di-isopropyl-iminodiacetic acid imaging was used to trace the passage of bile from its site of leakage into an amoebic liver abscess, through a fistulous tract connecting the liver abscess with an abscess in the right lower lobe of the lung, and into the upper respiratory tract

  18. Poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide)-block-poly(n-butyl acrylate) thermoresponsive amphiphilic copolymers: synthesis, characterization and self-assembly behavior in aqueous solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škvarla, J.; Zedník, J.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Pispas, S.; Štěpánek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, December (2014), s. 124-132 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : thermoresponsive block copolymers * poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) * light scattering Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.005, year: 2014

  19. Prediction of language and neurologic recovery after cerebral infarction with SPECT imaging using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushnell, D.L.; Gupta, S.; Mlcoch, A.G.; Barnes, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen patients (10 with left-sided and 4 with right-sided cerebral infarction) were prospectively studied with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-(I-123) iodoamphetamine (IMP, SPECTamine) to determine its usefulness in predicting neurologic/language recovery after cerebral infarction. All neuro-SPECT imaging was performed within 30 days after infarction. Detailed assessment of neurologic and/or language recovery (after 3 months) was carried out prospectively in each patient. Patients with smaller volume IMP defects in the region of infarction demonstrated significantly better neurologic and language recovery than patients with large IMP defects. Analysis of the IMP ''redistribution'' phenomenon failed to demonstrate definitively a relationship with clinical recovery. It was concluded that the volume of the IMP defect can aid in predicting recovery potential after cerebral infarction

  20. Brain scintigraphy with N-isopropyl [123I] p-iodoamphetamine (123I IMP) in patients with various cerebral diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshibuchi, Masao; Kanda, Teturo; Sato, Mitutaka; Miyagi, Jun; Ohtake, Hisasi; Suhara, Tetuya; Mori, Atuyoshi.

    1988-01-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography(SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]-iodoamphet amine(IMP) was utilized in 99 patients with various cerebral diseases and 3 healthy volunteers. By IMP SPECT, demaged area was observed as wider and faster in time than with X-ray CT or MRI. The nidus was visualized as defect of IMP in cases of AVM. In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, IMP SPECT was more useful for detecting of post hemorrhagic symptomatic vasospasm compared to X-ray CT or MRI. IMP SPECT was also useful to the differential diagnosis in cases of dementia. Grossed cerebellar diaschisis(CCD) was observed in 26 out of 67 cases (39 %) studied. In epilepsy the low uptake areas of IMP in the bilateral occipital lobes were observed in IMP SPECT. (author)

  1. Regional blood perfusion in childhood partial seizure using N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine and single photon emission CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michihiro, Narumi; Kurosawa, Yumiko; Hibio, Shuichi; Ishihara, Hiroaki; Ariizumi, Motomizu

    1989-01-01

    Single photon emission CT (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine was performed in 20 pediatric patients with partial seizure to examine regional blood perfusion. In detecting location of abnormality, SPECT and EEG were concordant in 13 patients (65%) and discordant in 4 patients (20%). In 7 patients undergoing SPECT one to 4 years after seizure onset, decreased blood perfusion corresponded to focal abnormality on EEG. In other 9 patiets in whom SPECT was performed within one year, however, location of abnormality on SPECT did not necessarily concur with that on EEG. These findings suggest that brain lesions are not focal but extensive at the early stage of partial seizure and that they are becoming focal with the mature of the central nervous system. (Namekawa, K)

  2. Crystal structure of N′-[(E-(1S,3R-(3-isopropyl-1-methyl-2-oxocyclopentylmethylidene]-4-methylbenzenesulfonohydrazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Tymann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H24N2O3S, was synthesized in order to determine the relative configuration of the corresponding β-keto aldehyde. In the U-shaped molecule, the five-membered ring approximates an envelope, with the methylene C atom adjacent to the quaternary C atom being the flap, and the methyl and isopropyl substituents lying to the same side of the ring. The dihedral angles between the four nearly coplanar atoms of the five-membered ring and the flap and the aromatic ring are 35.74 (15 and 55.72 (9°, respectively. The bond angles around the S atom are in the range from 103.26 (12 to 120.65 (14°. In the crystal, molecules are linked via N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a chain along the a axis.

  3. Clinical utility of N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) for SPECT in epileptic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taki, Kuniyasu; Seto, Hikaru; Futatsuya, Ryusuke; Kakishita, Masao; Seki, Hiroyasu.

    1989-01-01

    A regional cerebral perfusion study was performed in epileptic children using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP). A total of 22 patients with epilepsy underwent both a 123 I-IMP brain perfusion study and X-ray CT. Eighteen had positive and four had negative perfusion study results. Of the eighteen patients with positive perfusion study results, two were positive on X-ray CT. In these two patients, the areas of perfusion defects were larger than those of low density on X-ray CT. In only four patients did the areas of perfusion defects correspond to the sites of abnormal EEG. In conclusion, 123 I-IMP perfusion study is of great clinical value in pediatric epileptic cases. (author)

  4. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 33960 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  5. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... lead to lifelong damage. DANGERS OF ALCOHOL DURING PREGNANCY Drinking a lot of alcohol during pregnancy can ...

  6. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  7. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Rasmussen, S.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 whi...

  8. Alcohol Intolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ingredients commonly found in alcoholic beverages, especially in beer or wine, can cause intolerance reactions. These include: Sulfites or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some cases, reactions can be ...

  9. Alcohol Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than eight breaths a minute) Irregular breathing (a gap of more than 10 seconds between breaths) Blue- ... about alcohol by their parents and who report close relationships with their parents are less likely to ...

  10. Alcoholic neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently inspecting the feet and shoes to reduce injury caused by pressure or objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent ...

  11. Alkali/TX{sub 2} catalysts for CO/H{sub 2} conversion to C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} alcohols. Final technical progress report, September 1, 1988--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; Richards-Babb, M.; Bastian, R.; Kieke, M.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the patterns of variations of catalyst activity and selectivity for the synthesis of alcohols from H{sub 2}/CO synthesis gas. Since the source of carbon can be coal-derived synthesis gas, this research makes a contribution to the technology for high quality clean transportation fuels and for basic chemicals from coal. Catalysts prepared were principally based on MoS{sub 2}, RuS{sub 2}, TaS{sub 2}, and NbS{sub 2}. Catalytic testing of these materials was carried out both before and after surface doping with Cs. In alcohol synthesis activation of hydrogen by the catalyst surface is essential. Knowledge of transition metal disulfide surface properties is important before the mechanism of hydrogen dissociation can be addressed. The electronic structures of MoS{sub 2}, RuS{sub 2}, and NbS{sub 2} were studied both theoretically and experimentally. Experimental valence bands were obtained by high resolution electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (HR-ESCA, also referred to as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and theoretical valence bands were calculated using solid state extended Hueckel theory. Comparison of two-dimensional (2-D) MoS{sub 2} theoretical valence bands with the experimental HR-ESCA valence bands of polycrystalline MoS{sub 2} led to parametrization of the S 3s, S 3p, and Mo 4d atomic ionization potentials and Slater-type coefficients and exponents. The S 3s and S 3p parameters obtained for MoS{sub 2} were used to obtain the NbS{sub 2} and RuS{sub 2} theoretical valence bands.

  12. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... daily rhythm for various functions (e.g., body temperature or blood pressure) that is controlled by certain “ ... A special section delves more deeply into specific classes of genes and their relationship to alcoholism. The ...

  13. 27 CFR 31.161 - Conversion between metric and U.S. units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Wholesale Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.161 Conversion between metric and U.S. units. When liters are... number of cases to be converted, as follows: (a) If the conversion from liters to U.S. units is made... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion between metric...

  14. Effect of linear alcohol molecular size on the self-assembly of fullerene whiskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Maher S.; Todd, T. Kyle; Busbee, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The longer the alcohol molecule, the shorter the length of the assembled whisker. → Interaction between alcohol and fullerene solvent is the key factor. → The stronger the alcohol/solvent interaction, the longer the whisker. - Abstract: The recent development of self-assembled fullerene whiskers and wires has created an enormous potential and resolved a serious challenge for utilizing such unique class of carbon material in advanced nano-scale, molecular-based electronic, optical, and thermal devices. In this paper we investigate, the self-assembly of C 60 molecules into one-dimensional whiskers using a series of linear alcohols H(CH 2 ) n OH, with n changing from 1 (methanol) to 3 (isopropyl alcohol), to elucidate the effect of alcohol molecular size on the size distribution of the self-assemble fullerene whiskers. Our results show that the length of the produced fullerene whiskers is affected by the molecular size of the alcohol used in the process. The crucial role played by solvent/alcohol interaction in the assembly process is discussed. In addition, Raman spectroscopy measurements support the notion that the self-assembled whiskers are primarily held by depletion forces and no evidence of fullerene polymerization was observed.

  15. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and impaired proinsulin conversion as newly identified predictors of the long-term non-response to a lifestyle intervention for diabetes prevention: results from the TULIP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Vera; Wagner, Robert; Sailer, Corinna; Fritsche, Louise; Kantartzis, Konstantinos; Peter, Andreas; Heni, Martin; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Stefan, Norbert; Fritsche, Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Lifestyle intervention is effective to prevent type 2 diabetes. However, a considerable long-term non-response occurs to a standard lifestyle intervention. We investigated which risk phenotypes at baseline and their changes during the lifestyle intervention predict long-term glycaemic non-response to the intervention. Of 300 participants at high risk for type 2 diabetes who participated in a 24 month lifestyle intervention with diet modification and increased physical activity, 190 participants could be re-examined after 8.7 ± 1.6 years. All individuals underwent a five-point 75 g OGTT and measurements of body fat compartments and liver fat content with MRI and spectroscopy at baseline, 9 and 24 months during the lifestyle intervention, and at long-term follow-up. Fasting proinsulin to insulin conversion (PI/I ratio) and insulin sensitivity and secretion were calculated from the OGTT. Non-response to lifestyle intervention was defined as no decrease in glycaemia, i.e. no decrease in AUC for glucose at 0-120 min during OGTT (AUCglucose 0-120 min ). Before the lifestyle intervention, 56% of participants had normal glucose regulation and 44% individuals had impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance. At long-term follow-up, 11% had developed diabetes. Multivariable regression analysis with adjustment for age, sex, BMI and change in BMI during the lifestyle intervention revealed that baseline insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity, as well as change in insulin sensitivity during the lifestyle intervention, predicted long-term glycaemic control after 9 years. In addition, increased hepatic lipid content as well as impaired fasting proinsulin conversion at baseline were newly detected phenotypes that independently predicted long-term glycaemic control. Increased hepatic lipid content and impaired proinsulin conversion are new predictors, independent of change in body weight, for non-response to lifestyle intervention in addition to the

  16. Peroxide formation and kinetics of sodium dissolution in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Chandran, K.; Ganesan, V.; Periaswami, G.

    1997-01-01

    Suitable techniques for sodium removal and decontamination of sodium wetted components of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) are necessary both for repair, reuse and decommissioning of such components. Among the methods followed for sodium removal, alcohol dissolution is usually employed for small components like bellow sealed valves, gripping tools to handle core components and sodium sampling devices (primary and secondary). One of the concerns in the alcohol dissolution method is the possible role of peroxide formation in the ethoxy group during storage and handling leading to explosion. This paper describes the study of peroxide formation in ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve as well as some of the results of dissolution kinetic studies carried out in our laboratory using different alcohols. The peroxide formation of ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve were studied by iodometric technique. It has been found that the peroxide formation is less in sodium containing alcohol than in pure one. Ethyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve and Jaysol-SS (mixture of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone) were used in dissolution kinetics studies. The effects due to area and orientation of the fresh sodium surface have also been investigated. The reaction rates were studied in the temperature range of 303-343 K. The rate of dissolution was estimated by measuring the sodium content of alcohol at periodic intervals. It is found that the reaction rate varies in the order of ethyl alcohol-water mixture > Jaysol-SS > butyl cellosolve > ethyl carbitol. While cleaning sodium using alcohol, the concentration of alcohol is held essentially constant throughout the process. The rate of reaction depends only on the amount of sodium and follows pseudo-first order kinetics. Increase in surface area has a marked impact on the dissolution rate at lower temperatures while at higher temperatures, the temperature factor overrides the effect due to surface area

  17. (1S*,3R*,5S*,7S*-4,4,8,8-Tetrachloro-1-isopropyl-5-methyltricyclo[5.1.0.03,5]octane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblandy M. Turdybekov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H16Cl4, is a derivative of the natural product 1-isopropyl-4-methylcyclohexa-1,4-diene, and represents a diastereomer with two trans-fused cyclopropane rings. Both enantiomers are present in the non-centrosymmetric polar space group Pna21. The central cyclohexane ring is planar within 0.02 (1 Å. The C atoms of dichloromethylene groups deviate from this plane by 1.19 (1 and −1.26 (1 Å, whereas the isopropyl and methyl groups are oriented more equatorially, deviating by 0.71 (1 and −0.87 (1 Å, respectively.

  18. N-isopropyl- sup 123 I-p-iodoamphetamine uptake mechanism in the lung - is it dependent on pH, lipophilicity or pK sub a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akber, S.F. (Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-12-01

    The uptake and binding mechanism of biogenic amines in the lungs has been studied extensively with no conclusive results. The competition between N-isopropyl-{sup 123}I-p-iodo amphetamines ({sup 123}I-IMP) and propranolol and {sup 123}I-IMP and ketamine, in the lungs suggest that the pK{sub a} value of the biogenic amines has a significant role to play in the mechanism of uptake and retention of biogenic amines in the lungs. (orig.).

  19. N-isopropyl-123I-p-iodoamphetamine uptake mechanism in the lung - is it dependent on pH, lipophilicity or pKa?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, S.F.

    1991-01-01

    The uptake and binding mechanism of biogenic amines in the lungs has been studied extensively with no conclusive results. The competition between N-isopropyl- 123 I-p-iodo amphetamines ( 123 I-IMP) and propranolol and 123 I-IMP and ketamine, in the lungs suggest that the pK a value of the biogenic amines has a significant role to play in the mechanism of uptake and retention of biogenic amines in the lungs. (orig.) [de

  20. Frozen concentration fluctuations in a poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel studied by neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Koizumi, S; Richter, D; Schwahn, D; Faragó, B; Annaka, M

    2002-01-01

    By employing neutron spin echo and small-angle neutron scattering, we determined the structure factor of the frozen concentration fluctuations on nano-length scales in a swollen poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) gel. The frozen contribution, showing a plateau at the low scattering wavenumber q (0.02 A sup - sup 1), is intimately related to the abnormal butterfly scattering pattern appearing at low q under deformation. (orig.)

  1. Increased accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-(123I)-iodoamphetamine in two cases with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, K.; Ono, S.; Fukunaga, M.; Morita, R.; Yasuda, T.; Higashi, Y.; Terao, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present two cases with mitochondrial encephalopathy with lactic acidosis and strokelike episodes (MELAS), which showed both increased and decreased accumulation of N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The increased accumulation of the tracer occurred before low density appeared on conventional computed tomography, suggesting that 123 I-IMP SPECT may be useful in pathophysiological study of MELAS. (orig.)

  2. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  3. Demonstration and quantitation of pharmacological inhibition of pulmonary uptake of N-isopropyl-123I-p-Iodoamphetamine by propanolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akber, S.F.

    1989-01-01

    The first-pass pulmonary extraction values of N-Isopropyl- 123 I-p-Iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) in pretreated dogs decreases from 90 to 62% as the amount of propranolol increases from 0 to 20 mg. The first-pass pulmonary extraction values of 123 I-IMP in dogs with a simultaneous bolus injection of propranolol decreases from 90 to 62% as the amount of propranolol increases from 0 to 10 mg. The pulmonary extraction of 123 I-IMP with a simultaneous bolus injection of ketamine and 123 I-IMP decreases from 90 to 64% as the ketamine dose increases from 0 to 100 mg. These results suggest that the pulmonary uptake of 123 I-IMP may be at least partially mediated by receptors. They also indicate that endothelial metabolic cell function may be a useful index of early lung pathology. Furthermore, studies of the degree of lung uptake may be a sensitive index of pathologic states in which alterations of amine binding sites have occurred. (orig.) [de

  4. NMR Investigation of the complexation of (S-2-isopropyl- 1-(o-nitrophenylsulfonylaziridine with -cyclodextrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Z. Sliman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aziridines are known to undergo hydrolysis in the presence of cyclodextrins, whereas the latter are largely investigated as potential vectors of biologically active compounds. Despite this easy cyclodextrin-induced cleavage of aziridines in aqueous medium, it was of interest to find out a model aziridine derivative that would be sufficiently water-stable and form a stable complex with b-cyclodextrin in aqueous medium, so that it could be used as a reference in future formulations or vectorization work. Among compounds we have investigated, we found out that only (S-2-isopropyl-1-(o-nitrophenylsulfonylaziridine complied with the above-mentioned solubility and stability requirements. NMR studies of the inclusion complex of this derivative with b-cyclodextrin provided useful parameters related to the stoichiometry of the complex and the association constant Ka. The geometry of the complex was assessed by 2D-ROESY experiments, suggesting a deep insertion of the aziridine into the cavity of b-cyclodextrin.

  5. A new graphic method for evaluation of distribution volume on N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Ohtaki, Hiroh; Noguchi, Eikichi; Hatano, Masayoshi; Yamasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Mamiko; Ohkubo, Masaki; Yokoi, Takashi.

    1993-01-01

    We developed a new graphic method using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and SPECT of the brain, the graph on which all three parameters, cerebral blood flow, distribution volume (V d ) and delayed count to early count ratio (Delayed/Early ratio), were able to be evaluated simultaneously. The kinetics of 123 I-IMP in the brain was analyzed by a 2-compartment model, and a standard input function was prepared by averaging the time activity curves of 123 I-IMP in arterial blood on 6 patients with small cerebral infarction etc. including 2 normal controls. Being applied this method to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, we were able to differentiate both with a glance, because the distribution volume of the frontal lobe significantly decreased in Parkinson's disease (Mean±SD; 26±6 ml/g). This method was clinically useful. We think that the distribution volume of 123 I-IMP may reflect its retention mechanism in the brain, and the values are related to amine, especially to dopamine receptors and its metabolism. (author)

  6. Double-radionuclide autoradiographic method using N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine for sequential measurements of local cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrenovitch, T.P.; Clayton, C.B.; Strong, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    A double-radionuclide autoradiographic method has been assessed for sequential determinations of local CBF (LCBF). It is based on two successive intravascular injections of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) labelled with different radionuclides, whose concentrations can later be differentiated in the same tissue section using double-radionuclide autoradiography. Previous studies suggested that the distribution of IMP, up to 30 min after its administration, still represents LCBFs. Our data indicate that, provided the tracer is injected directly into the left ventricle, there is little back diffusion from normal brain to blood under physiological conditions for at least 35 min following the tracer injection and an injection of unlabelled IMP, in a dose larger than that used for blood flow determination, does not displace any labelled IMP previously taken up by the brain, nor does it displace any labelled IMP previously accumulated in the lung that would lead to secondary brain uptake. On the basis of these results, we conclude that sequential autoradiographic determinations of LCBF using IMP labelled with different radionuclides is possible. This is a promising experimental method for the simultaneous investigation of changes in LCBF in several CNS structures

  7. Monitoring of regional cerebral blood flow by single photon emission tomography of I123-N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine in epileptics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magistretti, P.L.; Uren, R.F.; Parker, J.A.; Royal, H.D.; Front, D.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    In some patients with epileptic disorders it is difficult to accurately localize the seizure focus especially in the case of deep lesions. In an attempt to provide better localization of such foci we have used single photon emission tomography (SPECT) of a new radiopharmaceutical I 123 -N-isopropyl-iodoamphetamine (IMP) to measure regional cerebral blood flow (RCBF) in the ictal and interictal phases. Eight patients were studied. The location of the seizure focus was determined by intraoperative corticography operative findings and pathology in 5 patients and by neuropsychological testing and long-term EEG monitoring in the other three. The SPECT scan accurately localized the seizure focus in all patients. This modality also allowed the functional state of the seizure focus to be assessed. In five of the thirteen studies there was increased RCBF at the seizure focus. On four of these occasions the patients reported symptoms typical of their seizures. In the asymptomatic patient the focally increased RCBF corresponded with a very active superficial epileptic focus on EEG. These preliminary results suggest that SPECT scans of RCBF, will have considerable utility in the management of epileptics. This is particularly the case as the necessary instrumentation is already available in many hospitals, thus minimizing the cost of widespread application

  8. Wetting, Solubility and Chemical Characteristics of Plasma-Polymerized 1-Isopropyl-4-Methyl-1,4-Cyclohexadiene Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakaria Ahmad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations on the wetting, solubility and chemical composition of plasma polymer thin films provide an insight into the feasibility of implementing these polymeric materials in organic electronics, particularly where wet solution processing is involved. In this study, thin films were prepared from 1-isopropyl-4-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene (γ-Terpinene using radio frequency (RF plasma polymerization. FTIR showed the polymers to be structurally dissimilar to the original monomer and highly cross-linked, where the loss of original functional groups and the degree of cross-linking increased with deposition power. The polymer surfaces were hydrocarbon-rich, with oxygen present in the form of O–H and C=O functional groups. The oxygen content decreased with deposition power, with films becoming more hydrophobic and, thus, less wettable. The advancing and receding contact angles were investigated, and the water advancing contact angle was found to increase from 63.14° to 73.53° for thin films prepared with an RF power of 10 W to 75 W. The wetting envelopes for the surfaces were constructed to enable the prediction of the surfaces’ wettability for other solvents. The effect of roughness on the wetting behaviour of the films was insignificant. The polymers were determined to resist solubilization in solvents commonly used in the deposition of organic semiconducting layers, including chloroform and chlorobenzene, with higher stability observed in films fabricated at higher RF power.

  9. Transplacental effects of 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine on fetal hypothyroidism in primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachrach, L.K.; Dibattista, D.; Burrow, G.N.; Holland, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Pregnant Rhesus monkeys treated with 131I at midgestation become hypothyroid and produce fetuses without demonstrable thyroid tissue. In an effort to prevent both maternal and fetal hypothyroidism, we treated 131I-treated pregnant monkeys with 3,5-dimethyl-3'-isopropyl-L-thyronine (DIMIT), a thyroid hormone analog with structural changes which facilitate placental transfer. Five pregnant monkeys were treated with 131I (mCi/kg) at 83-87 days of gestation. One week later, three monkeys were started on treatment with DIMIT (10 micrograms kg-1 day-1, im) and two on im L-T4 (2 micrograms kg-1 day-1). Treatment was continued until delivery by Caesarian section at 152-157 days of gestation. None of the DIMIT-treated mothers became clinically hypothyroid, nor did they have elevated serum TSH concentrations despite low serum levels of T3 and T4. T4-treated mothers were also maintained clinically and biochemically euthyroid. At delivery, infants of DIMIT-treated mothers had normal respiratory function and skeletal maturation. Basal and TRH-stimulated TSH concentrations were suppressed in two of the three infants. By contrast, both T4-treated infants resembled untreated cretinous newborns and died soon after delivery from respiratory failure. Serum TSH concentrations were elevated and skeletal maturation was markedly delayed in these animals. We conclude that DIMIT administration to 131I-treated monkeys prevents clinical and biochemical hypothyroidism in the mother and prevents the major clinical manifestations of cretinism in the fetus

  10. The influence of age on N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine accumulation in the human heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajo, Masayuki; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Iwashita, Shinji; Shinohara, Shinji

    1990-01-01

    Variations in heart intensity in the 30 min and 4 hr chest images of the radiolabelled lipophilic amine, N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) were observed in 130 patients with lung diseases, aged 23 to 85 yrs. The heart intensity had a significant positive linear correlation with age (r=0.43 at 30 min, 0.66 at 4 hr). The ratio of 4 hr heart intensity to 30 min heart intensity also had a positive linear correlation (r=0.59), suggesting slower clearance of the radioactivity from the heart in older than in younger patients during this interval. Other parameters including sex, EKG findings, liver function, blood pressure, the presence of diabetes mellitus and smoking history had no relationship to heart intensity. A significant difference between heart intensities in bronchogenic carcinoma and pneumonia patient groups might be probably due to the age difference between the two groups. Therefore heart intensity in the 4 hr 123 I-IMP image may reflect certain metabolic and/or myocardial changes with aging. (author)

  11. Formation, thermodynamic properties, microstructures and antimicrobial activity of mixed cationic/non-ionic surfactant microemulsions with isopropyl myristate as oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, Soumik; Kundu, Kaushik; Das, Sajal; Poddar, Madhumita; Saha, Swapan K; Paul, Bidyut K

    2014-09-15

    Modification of the interface by blending of surfactants produces considerable changes in the elastic rigidity of the interface, which in turn affects the physicochemical properties of w/o microemulsions. Hence, it could be possible to tune the thermodynamic properties, microstructures and antimicrobial activity of microemulsions by using ionic/non-ionic mixed surfactants and polar lipophilic oil, which are widely used in biologically relevant systems. The present report was aimed at precise characterization of mixed cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether microemulsions stabilized in 1-pentanol (Pn) and isopropyl myristate at different physicochemical conditions by employing phase studies, the dilution method, conductivity, DLS, FTIR (with HOD probing) and (1)H NMR measurements. Further, microbiological activities at different compositions were examined against two bacterial strains Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli at 303 K. The formation of mixed surfactant microemulsions was found to be spontaneous at all compositions, whereas it was endothermic at equimolar composition. FTIR and (1)H NMR measurements showed the existence of bulk-like, bound and trapped water molecules in confined environments. Interestingly, composition dependence of both highest and lowest inhibitory effects was observed against the bacterial strains, whereas similar features in spontaneity of microemulsion formation were also evidenced. These results suggested a close relationship between thermodynamic stability and antimicrobial activities. Such studies on polar lipophilic oil derived mixed surfactant microemulsions have not been reported earlier. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Studies on brain blood-flow with N-isopropyl-(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Akinori [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    1989-06-01

    A differentiation between patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) and patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) was attempted in this paper. Twenty normal subjects, 20 SDAT and 20 MID patients were studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP). SPECT was started 10 minutes after the injection of 3.0 mCi {sup 123}I-IMP. Eight anatomical regions (region of interest, ROI) were examined at the level of the basal ganglia and ten at the level of the centrum semiovale. The count ratio of each ROI to the average was calculated and tested with Student's t-test of mean differences. The ratios of right inferior frontal region and superior frontal region were significantly lower in the SDAT patients than in the normal subjects. The left superior frontal region showed lower mean ratios in SDAT patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. This study supports the suggestion that there is frontal region hypofunction in SDAT patients. SPECT with {sup 123}I-IMP is a useful method in the non-invasive assessment of cerebral pathophysiology in dementia. (author).

  13. Scintigraphy of cerebral blood flow with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine in cerebrovascular accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki

    1985-01-01

    In 20 patients with cerebrovascular accident, cerebral blood flow was estimated with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) using a rotating gamma camera, and the findings were compared with those of X-CT or angiography. 123 I-IMP study demonstrated the areas of diminished cerebral blood flow in 14 cases. X-CT also demonstrated lesions in 14 cases, however, 123 I-IMP study delineated the lesions more precisely corresponding to the neurological findings. In cases with cerebellar hemorrhage or reversible ischemic neurological deficit (RIND), the lesion could be established only by 123 I-IMP study. It was demonstrated by 123 I-IMP study that vascular stenosis or abnormal vessels seen on angiography in patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency or venous angioma was not necessarily accompanied by diminished blood flow. It was shown that scintigraphy with 123 I-IMP was a non-invasive, safe and extremely useful method to estimate the regional cerebral blood flow. (author)

  14. Studies on brain blood-flow with N-isopropyl-(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Akinori

    1989-01-01

    A differentiation between patients with senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT) and patients with multi-infarct dementia (MID) was attempted in this paper. Twenty normal subjects, 20 SDAT and 20 MID patients were studied with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-(I-123)p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP). SPECT was started 10 minutes after the injection of 3.0 mCi 123 I-IMP. Eight anatomical regions (region of interest, ROI) were examined at the level of the basal ganglia and ten at the level of the centrum semiovale. The count ratio of each ROI to the average was calculated and tested with Student's t-test of mean differences. The ratios of right inferior frontal region and superior frontal region were significantly lower in the SDAT patients than in the normal subjects. The left superior frontal region showed lower mean ratios in SDAT patients, but the difference was not statistically significant. This study supports the suggestion that there is frontal region hypofunction in SDAT patients. SPECT with 123 I-IMP is a useful method in the non-invasive assessment of cerebral pathophysiology in dementia. (author)

  15. Regional cerebral blood flow in Parkinson's disease measured with N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Hayashi, Hiroko; Higuchi, Shoichi; Sakai, Kunio [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ibayashi, Katsuhiko

    1992-09-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT studies were performed on 21 patients (13 females; 45-73 yrs) with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 10 age-matched normal controls (39-69 yrs). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was quantitatively measured by the arterial blood sampling method. When compared with normal controls, global CBF, and rCBF in the frontal cortex and in the basal ganglia were reduced 22.1% (p<0.01), 25.0% (p<0.05) and 25.6% (p<0.01), respectively. The reduction of rCBF in the basal ganglia was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with symptoms such as gait disturbance, frozen gait and motor disability score. However, no significant correlation was observed between the severity of dementia and any regional reduction of CBF, including the frontal or parietal cortices. These data show that the severity of dementia in PD may be related to other factors but not with CBF. Quantification of rCBF with [sup 123]I-IMP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluation and follow-up of patients with PD. (author).

  16. Single photon emission computed tomography with N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine in dementia of the Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunoda, Masahiko; Fujii, Tsutomu; Tanii, Yasuyuki; Yasui, Shinichi; Yuasa, Satoru; Shimizu, Akinori; Kurachi, Masayoshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Fukuta, Tsutomu.

    1989-01-01

    Correlation between brain uptake of N-isopropyl-p-[I-123]iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP), as shown on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans, and clinical stages was examined in 8 patients with Alzheimer type dementia. The patients were clinically staged as Stage I (3), Stage II (3), or Stage III (2). The count ratio of each cerebral lobe to the cerebellum was calculated on horizontal SPECT scans. Stage I patients had a decreased I-123 IMP uptake in the temporal and parietal lobes. The decreased uptake in these areas became marked in Stage II patients, with diffusely slight uptake of I-123 IMP in the brain. In Stage III patients, the uptake of I-123 IMP was markedly decreased in the whole brain, including temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. For five patients of Stage II and III, bilateral differences in the cerebral hemispheres were observed, corresponding to neurologic symptoms. Iodine-123 IMP SPECT was thus considered useful in clinically evaluating Alzheimer type dementia and in determining degenerative process of this disease. (Namekawa, K)

  17. Quantitative assessment of cerebral blood flow employing the Rutland method using N-isopropyl-(123I)-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigeru; Kitano, Tokio.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical usefulness as the quantitative assessment of the cerebral blood flow by venous sampling supersede arterial sampling using N-isopropyl-( 123 I)-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) and single-photon emission computed tomography. The method employed Ono's report using the Rutland method. The mean value of total cerebral blood flow by arterial sampling was 388.0±79.4 (standard deviation) ml/min, and that by venous sampling was 448.5±110.3 ml/min. The value of temporal lobe, including basal ganglia where there was no evidence of neurological, electroencephalographic, and other imaging findings was 44.0±3.8 ml/100g/min using arterial sampling and 49.7±6.0 ml/100g/min using venous sampling. (n=22, mean age 57.6) The value of cases with poor peripheral circulation varied a great deal between the arterial and venous samplings. There was a good correlation between arterial and venous samplings in 76 patients without poor peripheral circulation. In conclusion, this method is available for noninvasive quantitative assessment of the cerebral blood flow in patients without poor peripheral circulation. (author)

  18. Regional quantitative noninvasive assessment of cerebral perfusion and function with N-Isopropyl-[123I]p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Schulthess, G.K.; Ketz, E.; Schubiger, P.A.; Bekier, A.

    1985-01-01

    Although several reports on the clinical usefulness of N-isopropyl-[ 123 I]p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the diagnosis of cerebral disease have appeared in the literature, quantitative, noninvasive measurements of regional cerebral blood flow with this method pose difficulties because cerebral IMP uptake not only depends on cerebral perfusion but also on cerebral function. Rather than trying to develop a method to measure cerebral perfusion with IMP, the authors have chosen to test a method to quantitatively evaluate planar and emission computed tomographic (ECT) studies by comparing the data obtained in patients with established pathology with the data obtained in a group of normal individuals. Using this method, absolute cerebral IMP uptake (counts/pixel/mCi/min) and planar anterior right-left ratios were obtained. Also measured were right-left ratios obtained from 12 paired regions in three ECT slices. The evaluation of the patients cerebral IMP uptake asymmetries relative to the normal standard values is a useful adjunct to qualitative image analysis in assessing the presence ans severity of disease, as qualitative analysis is prone to false-positive and negative results. Cerebral IMP uptake as measured in cts/pixel/mCi/min is abnormal only in severe cerebral disease and therefore generally a less helpful parameter

  19. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine brain scintigraphy with SPECT in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-10-01

    Two patients of clinically diagnosed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were examined with N-Isopropyl I-123 p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT, MRI and XCT. Both patient has myoclonus and severe conscious disturbance with periodic synchronized discharge (PSD) on EEG. SPECT images were obtained using GE400AC/T. Regional IMP uptake was determined by calculating the ratio of each cortical regional to cerebellar IMP uptake (cortico-cerebellar ratio: CCR) and compared with that of five normal controls. In both case, CCR was remarkably decreased in all cortical areas, although XCT or MRI shows no abnormality except slight cortical atrophy. It suggests that metabolic and functional changes proceed morphological abnormality seen on XCT or MRI. In one case of CJD, serial studies of SPECT and XCT were performed after three months of interval. CCR in second study was higher than in first study, while XCT revealed remarkable brain atrophy including cerebrum, pons and cerebellum. It can be interpreted as regional differences of disease process. In conclusion, I-123 IMP-SPECT is useful for the earlier detection of lesions in CJD.

  20. N-isopropyl I-123 p-iodoamphetamine brain scintigraphy with SPECT in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momose, Toshimitsu; Kosaka, Noboru; Nishikawa, Junichi; Ohtake, Tohru; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Iio, Masahiro

    1988-01-01

    Two patients of clinically diagnosed Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) were examined with N-Isopropyl I-123 p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT, MRI and XCT. Both patient has myoclonus and severe conscious disturbance with periodic synchronized discharge (PSD) on EEG. SPECT images were obtained using GE400AC/T. Regional IMP uptake was determined by calculating the ratio of each cortical regional to cerebellar IMP uptake [cortico-cerebellar ratio: CCR] and compared with that of five normal controls. In both case, CCR was remarkably decreased in all cortical areas, although XCT or MRI shows no abnormality except slight cortical atrophy. It suggests that metabolic and functional changes proceed morphological abnormality seen on XCT or MRI. In one case of CJD, serial studies of SPECT and XCT were performed after three months of interval. CCR in second study was higher than in first study, while XCT revealed remarkable brain atrophy including cerebrum, pons and cerebellum. It can be interpreted as regional differences of disease process. In conclusion, I-123 IMP-SPECT is useful for the earlier detection of lesions in CJD. (author)

  1. Diagnosis of Joseph disease by means of N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoya; Nishihara, Mamiko; Odano, Ikuo; Sakai, Kunio; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko.

    1993-01-01

    Using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT), we studied the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in 4 Japanese patients who had been clinically diagnosed as having Joseph disease. This is the first report of rCBF measurement by means of [ 123 I]-IMP SPECT in patients with Joseph disease. Cerebellar atrophy was evaluated by means of a 5-rating scale as defined by X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). As compared with 10 normal controls (mean cerebellar CBF±SD: 66.9±6.6 ml/100 g/min), the regional CBF of the patients with Joseph disease was found to decrease significantly in the cerebellum (mean±SD: 52.8±5.3 ml/100 g/min). However, no significant relationship was found between the decrease in rCBF in the cerebellum and the degree of cerebellar atrophy as shown by X-CT. The regional CBF in the cerebellum decreased little in one patient who had severe cerebellar atrophy or in two who showed moderate atrophy. [ 123 I]-IMP SPECT demonstrates the pathological and metabolic changes in the cerebellum that do not appear on X-CT or MRI. IMP SPECT is thus shown to be useful for the diagnosis of patients with Joseph disease. (author)

  2. Fundamental Flotation Behaviors of Chalcopyrite and Galena Using O-Isopropyl-N-Ethyl Thionocarbamate as a Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Bu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Copper and lead are two important and widely used metals in industry. Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 is associated with galena (PbS in ore, and it has been a research hotspot in separating galena from chalcopyrite by flotation. In this study, the flotation behaviors of chalcopyrite and galena were studied through flotation tests, adsorption measurements, solution chemistry calculation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The results show that the floatability of chalcopyrite is better than that of galena in the presence of O-isopropyl-N-ethyl thionocarbamate (IPETC, and the recovery difference between chalcopyrite and galena is about 20% when IPETC is 7 × 10−4 mol/L at pH 9.5, while the floatability difference between the two minerals is significant. Competitive adsorption of OH− and IPETC on mineral surfaces leads to lower floatability of galena than that of chalcopyrite. IPETC is able to remove the hydration layer on mineral surfaces and then adsorb on active sites. The floatability of minerals is enhanced with the increase of their hydrophobicity. This study provides a reference to separate galena from chalcopyrite.

  3. Biphasic Equilibrium Dialysis of Poly(N-Isopropyl Acrylamide Nanogels Synthesized at Decreased Temperatures for Targeted Delivery of Thermosensitive Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Musial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogel nanoparticles, referred to also as nanogels, are of special interest for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Due to small size in the range below the diameter of the capillaries, they are proposed as drug delivery carriers. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of composition and reaction conditions during synthesis of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide cross-linked by polyethylene glycol diacrylate on the purification rates of the polymer. Six types of thermosensitive nanogels were prepared by surfactant-free dispersion polymerization and assessed in terms of process yield, composition, and size at temperatures below and over volume phase temperature. During the diffusion of impurities, in the course of dialysis, assessed by the conductometric method, the remarkable influence of temperature and initiator concentration on the process was revealed. The release rates varied in the range between 9.63 · 10−2 and 1.39 · 10−1 h−1 in the first stage of the process, whereas in the second stage they were between 2.09 · 10−2 and 6.28 · 10−2 h−1. The evaluated time to obtain acceptable purity of the preparation was estimated to be in the range of 18 days. More detailed research should be directed towards the influence of the structure of obtained material on the purification process.

  4. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...

  5. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  6. LET effect on irradiation of hydroxyphthal imide in alcohol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Murakami, T.

    2005-01-01

    Hydroxyphthalimide(C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 -NOH) was irradiated with C ion (290MeV/u) in isopropyl alcohol, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. LET was 13.2 and 26.5 keV/m. Dose was 5 and 10 kGy. A little amount of phthalimide was produced. The G value of the production of phthalimide by ion irradiation was less than that by -irradiation except for in methanol. In methanol solution, the production rate of phthalimide increased with increasing the value of LET. The amount of the substitution for C 6 H 4 (CO) 2 -NOD in methanol-d decreased by ion irradiation. These results suggest that the reaction mechanism in ion irradiation is different from -irradiation. (author)

  7. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special ... experience alcohol’s longer-term effects, which can include: Alcohol use disorder Health problems Increased risk for certain cancers In ...

  8. Development of technology for the alkylation of hydroquinone with aliphatic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bolotov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of technology of alkylation of hydroquinone, propyl, isopropyl, isobutyl and tert-butyl alcohols in the presence of concentrated phosphoric acid. The temperature of the alkylation reaction was maintained between 70–72 °С. On the basis of literature data and preliminary investigations the reaction was performed for 4 hours. Upon completion of the reaction, we removed the unreacted hydroquinone, aliphatic alcohol and phosphoric acid are added to a solution of distilled water (solvent corresponding connections and sodium bicarbonate to slightly acidic (pH 5–6. For separation from the reaction medium of alkylhydroquinones in the reaction mixture was added benzene in which the original hydroquinone dissolves much less. Concentration of the benzene extract alkylhydroquinones conducted by Stripping the solvent under vacuum at temperatures above 70 °С in air atmosphere. Higher temperature vacuum distillation AIDS in the oxidation of alkylhydroquinones to alkylphenones. Precipitated after crystallization, alkylhydroquinones were dried under vacuum in a drying pistol at 56 °С. Dried products were identified by defining the melting temperature, the study of spectral characteristics and qualitative reactions with FeCl3. We also studied the solubility of alkylhydroquinones in various solvents, which showed low solubility of alkylhydroquinones in water, benzene, toluene and higher solubility in propyl and isopropyl alcohols and in acetone. Analysis of the results shows that the obtained alkylhydroquinones are not chemically pure compounds, and contain in their composition of admixture source of hydroquinone. Qualitative reactions of solutions of alkylhydroquinones with FeCl3 solution differ from the corresponding reaction of a solution of hydroquinone. The results of investigations of electronic absorption spectra of alkylhydroquinones and source of hydroquinone in isopropyl alcohol solution did not

  9. Protection of aliphatic alcohols by thiols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanobashivili, E.M.; Chirakadze, G.G.; Panchvidze, M.V.; Gvilava, S.E.; Khidesheli, G.I.

    1973-01-01

    Study was made of methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl and penthyl alcohols. The aqueous solutions of the alcohols were X-irradiated. Results are presented of the action of high-energy particles on the solutions of ethyl, propyl and butyl alcohols in the presence and absence of the minor amounts of ethanthiol. Protective effect of the -SH group was established. Addition of 1.10 -6 mol/1 of ethanthiol to butyl alcohol protects it completely against radiation conversions up to a dose of 8.10 19 eV/ml. Consideration is given to the effect of thioalcohol additives on the formation of some products of alcohol radiation oxidation. Introduction of mercaptans to the system or that of the -SH group to the organic compound molecule enhances its radiation resistance [ru

  10. Small-angle neutron scattering study of D2O-alcohol solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arrigo, G.

    1990-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements have been carried out on heavy water solutions of ethanol, isopropyl alcohol, n-propyl alcohol, t-butyl alcohol and butoxyethanol between 5 and 37 0 C at the concentrations where ultrasonic attenuation exhibits peak values. The wavevector dependence and the absolute intensity of the scattered intensities were analysed according to a microscopic model of the solutions in terms of aggregated complexes. The results indicate that at 25 0 C there exist either alcohol 'micelle-like' structures or alcohol-heavy water complexes which increase on going from the lower to higher alcohol solutions. As temperature increases from 25 to 37 0 C a higher aggregation is observed in butyl alcohol and butoxyethanol solutions. This behaviour is attributed to the demixing tendency of these systems at high temperatures. On going from 25 to 5 0 C the aggregation increases again. This trend is associated with the anomalous behaviour of the specific heat and ultrasonic attenuation of these systems. The occurrence of a low-temperature phase transition suggested by these anomalies is supported by our results. (author)

  11. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  12. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  13. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  14. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  15. Characterization of brush cells of the cerebellum treated by prolonged exposure of the sample to isopropyl alcohol variant of argentic impregnation

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Graterol, Elbert Oberto; García Oduber, Sogeilys Milagro; Laguna Campos, Edgar José; Salas Méndez, Mario Javier

    2014-01-01

    Las células cepillo son neuronas glutamatérgicas de la capa granular en la corteza cerebelosa que constan de 3 (tres) o más subtipos, caracterizados por fenotipos químicamente distintos, propiedades intrínsecas para formar sinapsis y patrones de descarga particulares. Dichas células no fueron identificadas por métodos de impregnación argéntica hasta 1994, cuando Mugnaini realiza su descripción. En este trabajo presentamos una variante de impregnación argéntica, en el cual las muestras son sum...

  16. Optimization of labeling conditions of n-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine chloridate (IMP) with radioiodine. Biological distribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colturato, Maria Tereza

    2000-01-01

    The development of this work was based on a great interest from the medical community in the utilization of N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine chloridate (IMP) labeled with 123 l, for brain perfusion evaluation. The IMP was initially characterized by: Melting Point (MP), Infrared Spectrophotometry (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry (NMR), Elemental Analysis and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). After having chosen the ideal method (nucleophilic substitution) to label IMP with that used Cu(I) as reducing agent and ascorbic acid as catalyzing of Cu(II), studies were performed to optimize the labeling parameters of 123 l-IMP: temperature reaction, time reaction, ascorbic acid mass, pH and molar ratio, and stability of the final product. The quality control method (ascending paper chromatographic) used to determine the radiochemistry purity showed to be efficient, fast and of easily handling for routine production. Biological distribution studies were performed with laboratory animals (mice) to determine the percent administered dose in the blood, different organs and whole body after intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Toxicological evaluation and in vitro study to determine the plasmatic protein binding were also done. The data of the biological distribution in mice have shown that the product crossed the intact blood brain barrier, for a enough time to obtain brain scintigraphic image, thus, allowing a follow up of further studies after the intravenous administration of the radiopharmaceutical. The 123 l-IMP showed a blood clearance and then the principal elimination route was the urinary. The kinetic study of 123 l-IMP, submitting blood samples data to BIEXP.BAS program, showed a biexponential pattern which allowed demonstrating that the compound presents a first phase of quick distribution and a second one slower corresponding to the equilibrium and elimination. Based on the results from radiochemical purity, stability and

  17. Delayed lung scintigraphy with N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine in lung cancer and inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suematsu, Toru; Narabayashi, Isamu; Takada, Yoshiki and others

    1989-01-01

    Lung studies with N-Isopropyl-I-123-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) were performed on patients with lung cancer or inflammatory disease. In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of the delayed scintigraphy. The subjects consisted of 27 patients with lung cancer (34 lesions), 3 with radiation pneumonitis, 2 with interstitial pneumonitis, 2 with old tuberculous lesion (tuberculomas), 1 with diffuse panbronchiolitis, 1 with pneumonia and 1 with lung abscess. The delayed scintigraphy was performed 24 hr after intravenous injection of 3 mCi IMP, in sitting position. In 10 patients, SPECT images were obtained following the delayed scintigraphy. Delayed scintigraphic appearances of lung cancer were classified into 5 types, high IMP uptake in the area congruent with the lesion of atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonia (Type I), high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type II), a defect in the area consistent with the tumor and no high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type III), high IMP uptake in the area almost congruent with the tumor (Type IV) and no significant change (Type V). Excluding 10 lesions with Type IV or V, no IMP uptake was seen in the areas congruent with the tumors. Type II was the most frequently observed pattern. Normal scintigrams (Type V) were observed in 8 lesions, whose sizes were fairly small. There was no definite trend caused by difference in histological types of cancers. In 8 patients with viable inflammatory disease of the lung, the delayed scintigrams showed high IMP uptake in the areas congruent with the abnormalities on chest roentgenograms. On the other hand, no uptake was seen in the old tuberculous lesions. (J.P.N.).

  18. Delayed lung scintigraphy with N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine in lung cancer and inflammatory disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suematsu, Toru; Narabayashi, Isamu; Takada, Yoshiki

    1989-01-01

    Lung studies with N-Isopropyl-I-123-p-Iodoamphetamine (IMP) were performed on patients with lung cancer or inflammatory disease. In the present study, we evaluated the usefulness of the delayed scintigraphy. The subjects consisted of 27 patients with lung cancer (34 lesions), 3 with radiation pneumonitis, 2 with interstitial pneumonitis, 2 with old tuberculous lesion (tuberculomas), 1 with diffuse panbronchiolitis, 1 with pneumonia and 1 with lung abscess. The delayed scintigraphy was performed 24 hr after intravenous injection of 3 mCi IMP, in sitting position. In 10 patients, SPECT images were obtained following the delayed scintigraphy. Delayed scintigraphic appearances of lung cancer were classified into 5 types, high IMP uptake in the area congruent with the lesion of atelectasis and/or obstructive pneumonia (Type I), high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type II), a defect in the area consistent with the tumor and no high IMP uptake in the area surrounded the tumor (Type III), high IMP uptake in the area almost congruent with the tumor (Type IV) and no significant change (Type V). Excluding 10 lesions with Type IV or V, no IMP uptake was seen in the areas congruent with the tumors. Type II was the most frequently observed pattern. Normal scintigrams (Type V) were observed in 8 lesions, whose sizes were fairly small. There was no definite trend caused by difference in histological types of cancers. In 8 patients with viable inflammatory disease of the lung, the delayed scintigrams showed high IMP uptake in the areas congruent with the abnormalities on chest roentgenograms. On the other hand, no uptake was seen in the old tuberculous lesions. (J.P.N.)

  19. Effectiveness of isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 solution of removing cuticular hydrocarbons from human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Eric

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the treatment of human head lice infestation, healthcare providers are increasingly concerned about lice becoming resistant to existing pesticide treatments. Traditional pesticides, used to control these pests, have a neurological mechanism of action. This publication describes a topical solution with a non-traditional mechanism of action, based on physical disruption of the wax layer that covers the cuticle of the louse exoskeleton. This topical solution has been shown clinically to cure 82% of patients with only a 10-minute treatment time, repeated once after 7 days. All insects, including human head lice, have a wax-covered exoskeleton. This wax, composed of hydrocarbons, provides the insect with protection against water loss and is therefore critical to its survival. When the protective wax is disrupted, water loss becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, leading to dehydration and death. A specific pattern of hydrocarbons has been found in all of the head louse cuticular wax studied. Iso-octane effectively removes these hydrocarbons from human head lice’s cuticular wax. Methods A method of head louse cuticle wax extraction and analysis by gas chromatography was developed. Human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis were collected from infested patients and subjected to any of three extraction solvents comprising either the test product or one of two solvents introduced as controls. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID was used to determine the presence of hydrocarbons in the three head lice extracts. Results In the study reported herein, the test product isopropyl myristate/cyclomethicone D5 (IPM/D5 was shown to perform comparably with iso-octane, effectively extracting the target hydrocarbons from the cuticular wax that coats the human head louse exoskeleton. Conclusions Disruption of the integrity of the insect cuticle by removal of specific hydrocarbons found in the cuticular wax

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement using N-isopropyl-p-[123I] iodoamphetamine and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Hiroko

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-one regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements were performed on 26 patients with cerebrovascular accidents using N-Isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] Iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography (ECT). The equation for determining rCBF is as follows: F=100.R.Cb/(N.A), where F is rCBF in ml/100 g/min., R is the constant withdrawal rate of arterial blood in ml/min., Cb is the brain activity concentration in μCi/g, A is the total activity (5 min.) in the withdrawal arterial whole blood in μCi and N is the fraction of A that is true tracer activity (0.75). In determining Cb at 5 min. after injection, reconstructed counts from 35 min. to 59 min. were corrected to represent those from 4 min. to 5 min. with the use of time activity curve for the entire brain immediately after injection to 30 min. Reconstructed counts of central region in tomographic image were corrected 118% of the obtained values from the result of the countingrate ratio between peripheral and central regions of interests obtained from phantom study. Brain mean blood flow values were distributed from 11 to 39 ml/100 g/min. In 119 cortical regions obtained from 11 measurements in 9 patients, there was a significant correlation (r=0.41, p 123 I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT and those from 133 Xe inhalation method. rCBF measurement using 123 I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT is not only relatively noninvasive measurement for the entire brain but also three-dimensional evaluation. Besides, it is superior in spatial resolution and accuracy to conventional 133 Xe clearance method. (author)

  1. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum.Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Veeger, Cees; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(methoxymethyl)phenols. During the conversion of vanillylamine to vanillin, a transient intermediate, most probably vanillylimine, is observed. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase weakly interacts with 4-hydroxyph...

  2. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  3. Reported Adverse Health Effects in Children from Ingestion of Alcohol-Based Hand Sanitizers - United States, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Cynthia; Kieszak, Stephanie; Wang, Alice; Law, Royal; Schier, Joshua; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-03-03

    Hand sanitizers are effective and inexpensive products that can reduce microorganisms on the skin, but ingestion or improper use can be associated with health risks. Many hand sanitizers contain up to 60%-95% ethanol or isopropyl alcohol by volume, and are often combined with scents that might be appealing to young children. Recent reports have identified serious consequences, including apnea, acidosis, and coma in young children who swallowed alcohol-based (alcohol) hand sanitizer (1-3). Poison control centers collect data on intentional and unintentional exposures to hand sanitizer solutions resulting from various routes of exposure, including ingestion, inhalation, and dermal and ocular exposures. To characterize exposures of children aged ≤12 years to alcohol hand sanitizers, CDC analyzed data reported to the National Poison Data System (NPDS).* The major route of exposure to both alcohol and nonalcohol-based (nonalcohol) hand sanitizers was ingestion. The majority of intentional exposures to alcohol hand sanitizers occurred in children aged 6-12 years. Alcohol hand sanitizer exposures were associated with worse outcomes than were nonalcohol hand sanitizer exposures. Caregivers and health care providers should be aware of the potential dangers associated with hand sanitizer ingestion. Children using alcohol hand sanitizers should be supervised and these products should be kept out of reach from children when not in use.

  4. Alcoholism and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alec; Linnoila, Markku

    1986-01-01

    Reviews knowledge about suicide in alcoholism: how commonly suicide among alcoholics occurs; which alcoholics commit suicide and why; suicide among alcoholic women and alcoholic physicians; possible predisposing biological factors; possible linkages with depression, adverse life events, and personality disorder; and future research and directions.…

  5. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  6. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  7. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  8. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. A facile stereospecific synthesis of the ( sup 2 H sub 6 )-isopropyl-labelled metoprolol enantiomers from (2R)- and (2S)-glycidyl 3-nitrobenzenesulfonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, S.S.; Nelson, W.L. (Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (USA). Dept. of Medicinal Chemistry)

    1990-12-01

    Enantiomers of metoprolol containing six deuterium atoms in the isopropyl methyl groups were prepared in two steps from the sodium salt of 4-(2-methoxyethyl)phenol (3) and the commercially available (2R)-and (2S)-glycidyl 3-nitrobenzenesulfonates ((2R)-2 and (2S)-2). The resulting (2R)- and (2S)-epoxides were opened using ({sup 2}H{sub 6})-isopropylamine. The enantiomeric excesses were 93 and 95% for the deuterated (2R)- and (2S)-enantiomers of metoprolol ((2R)-1 and (2S)-1), respectively, as determined by chiral column HPLC. (author).

  10. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  11. The Molecular Circadian Clock and Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak S. Udoh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence from both experimental animal studies and clinical human investigations demonstrates strong connections among circadian processes, alcohol use, and alcohol-induced tissue injury. Components of the circadian clock have been shown to influence the pathophysiological effects of alcohol. Conversely, alcohol may alter the expression of circadian clock genes and the rhythmic behavioral and metabolic processes they regulate. Therefore, we propose that alcohol-mediated disruption in circadian rhythms likely underpins many adverse health effects of alcohol that cut across multiple organ systems. In this review, we provide an overview of the circadian clock mechanism and showcase results from new studies in the alcohol field implicating the circadian clock as a key target of alcohol action and toxicity in the liver. We discuss various molecular events through which alcohol may work to negatively impact circadian clock-mediated processes in the liver, and contribute to tissue pathology. Illuminating the mechanistic connections between the circadian clock and alcohol will be critical to the development of new preventative and pharmacological treatments for alcohol use disorders and alcohol-mediated organ diseases.

  12. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  13. Alcohol Use Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  14. Alcohol Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use disorder” or AUD. AUD is a chronic relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive alcohol use, loss of control over alcohol intake, and a negative emotional state when not using. ...

  15. Percutaneous Absorption and Metabolism of Ketoprofen Isopropyl Ester via Excised Nude Mouse‘s and Monkey’s Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUQuan-gang; HUJin-hong

    2003-01-01

    Aim:To study percutaneous absorption and metabolism of ketoprofen isopropyl ester (KPE)via excised nude mouse's and monkey's skin.Methods:Excised skin was prepared by surgical excision and enzyme digestion.Sideby-side diffusion cells were used for in vitro permeation studies.The concentrations of KPE and its metabolite in samples were assayed by HPLC.Results:All KPE penetration through whole thickness skin and stripped skin was metabolized to ketoprofen(KP).the concentration of which in the reciiver solution increased linearly with time.As to the nude mouse skin.the steady-state flux of KP through whole thickness skin was 2.5 times that of KPE through the whloe thickness skin,but the KP and KPE remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finishing of KPE penetration was 22.2 times in compered with the KP remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finshing of KP penetration.The rate of formation of the steady state KP from KPE throught dermis was significantly lower than that of KPE through the whole thickness skin.In he monkey skin,the rate of formation of the steady-state KP from KPE through the whole thickness skin was 0.7 times that from KPE through stripped skin.The KP and KPE remaining in the whole thickness skin after the finishing of KPE penetration was 2.0 time that in the stripped skin after the finishing of KPE penetration.The rate of fornation of the steady-state KP from KPE through dermis was lower than that from KPE through the whole thickness skin and the stripped skin.the KP remaining in dermis after the finsihing of KPE penetration was also significantly lower than the KP remaining in the whole thickness skin and the stripped skin after the finishing of KPE penetration.Conclusion:KP esters are of benefit to imporove the local action of KP.and skin esterase metabolism mainly develops in the epidermis.

  16. Flex cars and the alcohol price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Alex Luiz; Da Silveira, Jaylson Jair; De Almeida Prado, Fernando Pigeard

    2009-01-01

    We build a model that incorporates the effect of the innovative 'flex' car, an automobile that is able to run with either gasoline or alcohol, on the dynamics of fuel prices in Brazil. Our model shows that differences regarding fuel prices will now depend on the proportions of alcohol, gasoline and flex cars in the total stock. Conversely, the demand for each type of car will also depend on the expected future prices of alcohol and gasoline (in addition to the car prices). The model reflects our findings that energy prices are tied in the long run and that causality runs stronger from gasoline to alcohol. The estimated error correction parameter is stable, implying that the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium remains unchanged. The latter result is probably due to a still small fraction of flex cars in the total stock (approx. 5%), despite the fact that its sales nearly reached 100% in 2006. (author)

  17. 21 CFR 177.2280 - 4,4′-Isopropyl-idenedi-phenol-epichloro-hydrin thermo-setting epoxy resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... with mixed dimers and trimers of unsaturated C18 monobasic fatty acids derived from animal and... basic thermosetting epoxy resin is made by reacting 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol with epi-chloro-hydrin...′-isopropylidenediphenol-epichlorohydrin basic resin and limited to use in contact with alcoholic beverages containing not...

  18. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs): Alcohol Use Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links to Other Websites About Us More CDC Alcohol Topics CDC Alcohol Portal Excessive Alcohol Use Binge ... of alcohol screening and counseling for all women Alcohol Use Quiz Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  19. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  20. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  1. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  2. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  3. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Uranium conversion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1989-12-01

    A set of mathematical equations was developed and used to estimate the radiological significance of each radionuclide potentially present in the uranium refining industry effluents. The equations described the evolution in time of the radionuclides activities in the uranium fuel cycle, from mining and milling, through the yellowcake, till the conversion effluents. Some radionuclides that are not usually monitored in conversion effluents (e.g. Pa-231 and Ac-227) were found to be potentially relevant from the radiological point of view in conversion facilities, and are certainly relevant in mining and milling industry, at least in a few waste streams. (author) [pt

  5. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of existing norms, roles and beliefs. In the end however we rely...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  6. Synthesis of 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol amended to 9-isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. Final technical report, July 25, 1991--January 25, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenbraun, E.J.

    1992-02-17

    This is a draft final technical report on Task 1 of a contract to synthesize 6-Methyl-9-propyldibenzothiophene-4-ol, as amended to 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. This report is a compilation of data presented in earlier reports. The first annual report dealt with an attempted synthesis of 4-methoxy-6-methyl-9- propyldibenzothiophene (the original target compound), the successful synthesis and delivery of 200 grams of the sulfide 1,4-diethyl-2- [(2{prime}-methoxyphenyl)-thio]benzene, and initial work on a new synthesis route for the preparation of the new target compound 9- isopropyl-6-methyldibenzothiophene-4-ol. The change to the new target compound and the new synthesis route became necessary when it was learned that the sulfide mixture could not be cyclized to the substituted dibenzothiophene mixture. The second annual report described the successful preparation of 45 g of the new target compound using the new synthesis route. Subsequently funds were provided to synthesize an additional 45 g of the new target using the same reaction scheme. This task was recently completed.

  7. Conversion of defective molasses into alcohol and yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luchev, S.

    1966-01-01

    The addition of small quantities (0.05 to 0.75%) of dried malt roots, green malt roots, green malt, yeast hydrolyzate, corn extraction, and tomato juice improved the quality and accelerated the brewing process in defective molasses. Dried malt roots and yeast hydrolyzate were the least expensive preparations.

  8. Mining Conversational Social Video

    OpenAIRE

    Biel, Joan-Isaac

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of social media in our daily life, the intense user participation, and the explo- sion of multimedia content have generated an extraordinary interest from computer and social scientists to investigate the traces left by users to understand human behavior online. From this perspective, YouTube can be seen as the largest collection of audiovisual human behavioral data, among which conversational video blogs (vlogs) are one of the basic formats. Conversational vlogs have evolved fro...

  9. Persuasion detection in conversation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Henry T.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In this thesis, we present a system for annotating persuasion in conversation based on a social-psychological model. We augmented the social model developed by James Cialdini with some of our own categories for annotators to label. The conversations consisted of 37 hostage negotiation transcripts from private and public sources, with all personal information removed from the private source transcripts. We evaluated the level of agre...

  10. Perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1963-10-15

    The objective of direct conversion is high electrical output for minimum total cost, and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment, and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy, and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (auth)

  11. Features of changes in concentration of pituitary thyroid hormone and thyroid hormones in the blood of two-month rats with experimental hypothyroidism before and after operations with N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl-α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, T.S.; Topuzyan, V.O.

    2013-01-01

    The features of pituitary thyroid hormone concentration and thyroid hormones in the blood of rats with experimental hypothyroidism before and after injections of N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl-α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester were investigated. A sharp increase of pituitary thyroid hormone level and a sharp decrease of the level of thyroid hormones in the blood of two-month rats with hypothyroidism have been established. Under the action of N-(2-methoxybenzoyl)-O-isopropyl--α, β-dehydrothyrozine choline ester the decrease of pituitary thyroid hormone concentration and the increase of thyroid hormones level in the rats' blood have been observed and reached their values in intact animals

  12. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  13. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  14. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy. Causes Using alcohol during pregnancy can cause the same risks as using alcohol in general. But it poses extra risks to the unborn baby. When a pregnant woman drinks ... use during pregnancy. Larger amounts of alcohol appear to increase the ...

  15. Turning to alcohol?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiboro, S.K.

    1998-01-01

    Brazil is examining whether turning to alcohol could solve its problems. The fuel alcohol producers are lobbying hard for the government to increase the use of alcohol to fuel the country's cars. Not only does using alcohol reduce CO 2 , runs the argument, but the Kyoto agreement might just attract international financing for the project. (author)

  16. Clearinghouse: alcohol and poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Ten articles from magazines and journals are referenced on the subjects of alcohol and poppers. Topics include alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related risky sexual behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and self-esteem, gender, and alcohol use. Contact information is provided.

  17. Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krois, Deborah Helen

    Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…

  18. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) » Alcohol-Related Birth ... either prenatally, after birth, or both Partial FAS (pFAS) Partial FAS (pFAS) involves prenatal alcohol exposure, and ...

  19. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  20. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C; Tanski, Susanne E; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D

    2016-02-01

    Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  1. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  2. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum. Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraaije, M W; Veeger, C; van Berkel, W J

    1995-11-15

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(methoxymethyl)phenols. During the conversion of vanillylamine to vanillin, a transient intermediate, most probably vanillylimine, is observed. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase weakly interacts with 4-hydroxyphenylglycols and a series of catecholamines. These compounds are converted to the corresponding ketones. Both enantiomers of (nor)epinephrine are substrates for vanillyl-alcohol oxidase, but the R isomer is preferred. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase is most active with chavicol and eugenol. These 4-allylphenols are converted to coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol, respectively. Isotopic labeling experiments show that the oxygen atom inserted at the C gamma atom of the side chain is derived from water. The 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol products and the substrate analog isoeugenol are competitive inhibitors of vanillyl alcohol oxidation. The binding of isoeugenol to the oxidized enzyme perturbs the optical spectrum of protein-bound FAD. pH-dependent binding studies suggest that vanillyl-alcohol oxidase preferentially binds the phenolate form of isoeugenol (pKa < 6, 25 degrees C). From this and the high pH optimum for turnover, a hydride transfer mechanism involving a p-quinone methide intermediate is proposed for the vanillyl-alcohol-oxidase-catalyzed conversion of 4-allylphenols.

  3. Alcohol and Breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haastrup, Maija Bruun; Pottegård, Anton; Damkier, Per

    2014-01-01

    While the harmful effects of alcohol during pregnancy are well-established, the consequences of alcohol intake during lactation have been far less examined. We reviewed available data on the prevalence of alcohol intake during lactation, the influence of alcohol on breastfeeding......, the pharmacokinetics of alcohol in lactating women and nursing infants and the effects of alcohol intake on nursing infants. A systematic search was performed in PubMed from origin to May 2013, and 41 publications were included in the review. Approximately half of all lactating women in Western countries consume...... alcohol while breastfeeding. Alcohol intake inhibits the milk ejection reflex, causing a temporary decrease in milk yield. The alcohol concentrations in breast milk closely resemble those in maternal blood. The amount of alcohol presented to nursing infants through breast milk is approximately 5...

  4. Biological conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.D.

    A system for bioconversion of organic material comprises a primary bioreactor column wherein a biological active agent (zymomonas mobilis) converts the organic material (sugar) to a product (alcohol), a rejuvenator column wherein the biological activity of said biological active agent is enhanced, and means for circulating said biological active agent between said primary bioreactor column and said rejuvenator column.

  5. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  6. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  7. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  8. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  9. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  10. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  11. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  12. Dose conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    The following is discussed in this report: concepts and quantities used in calculating radiation dose from internal and external exposure. Tabulations of dose conversion factor for internal and external exposure to radionuclides. Dose conversion factors give dose per unit intake (internal) or dose per unit concentration in environment (external). Intakes of radionuclides for internal exposure and concentrations of radionuclides in environment for external exposure are assumed to be known. Intakes and concentrations are obtained, e.g., from analyses of environmental transport and exposure pathways. differences between dosimetry methods for radionuclides and hazardous chemicals are highlighted

  13. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  14. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this book is to present a review of the basic principles and practical aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. The author has tried to give qualitative semiphysical arguments where possible for the benefit of the reader who is unfamiliar with plasma physics. The aim of MHD energy conversion is to apply to a specific practical goal a part of what has become a vast area of science called plasma physics. The author has attempted to note in the text where a broader view might be fruitful and to give appropriate references

  15. Global alcohol policy and the alcohol industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-05-01

    The WHO is preparing its global strategy on alcohol, and, in so doing, has been asked to consult with the alcohol industry on ways it could contribute in reducing the harm done by alcohol. This review asks which is more effective in reducing harm: the regulatory approaches that the industry does not favour; or the educational approaches that it does favour. The current literature overwhelmingly finds that regulatory approaches (including those that manage the price, availability, and marketing of alcohol) reduce the risk of and the experience of alcohol-related harm, whereas educational approaches (including school-based education and public education campaigns) do not, with industry-funded education actually increasing the risk of harm. The alcohol industry should not be involved in making alcohol policy. Its involvement in implementing policy should be restricted to its role as a producer, distributor, and marketer of alcohol. In particular, the alcohol industry should not be involved in educational programmes, as such involvement could actually lead to an increase in harm.

  16. Evaluation of cerebral perfusion imaging with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the cases of antiphospholipid syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toru; Nanbu, Ichiro; Tohyama, Junko; Ohba, Satoru

    1995-01-01

    Five cases of antiphospholipid syndrome with mild headache, but without any neurological deficits and abnormal findings by CT and MRI, were examined by cerebral blood perfusion SPECT using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine (IMP). Although three cases were performed quantification of cerebral blood flow with a microsphere method simultaneously, their values were within normal limits. Two of them showed focal low perfusion areas. One case had relatively low perfusion areas in the bilateral occipital lobes and the right temporal lobe, which improved after treatment. One of two had low perfusion in the bilateral occipital lobes. Other three cases only showed ununiformity of radioisotope uptake on the cerebral blood perfusion SPECT. Low perfusion areas in antiphospholipid syndrome might be caused by microarterial thrombosis, microvenous thrombosis or spasms, although they could be reversible. As early irreversible progress of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood flow SPECT should be performed in cases of antiphospholipid syndrome with neurological complainments. (author)

  17. Analysis and assessment for the intrapulmonary kinetics of N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in diffuse respiratory diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Seitaro

    1992-01-01

    We investigated intrapulmonary kinetics of N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in patients with diffuse respiratory diseases. Subjects studied were 4 healthy nonsmoking controls (age≥40), 3 young healthy nonsmokers (age 1 ) was smaller than that to the slow compartment (A 2 ). There was no difference in the A 1 to A 2 ratio among the groups. We then analyzed the slopes of the fast and slow compartments (k 1 , k 2 ). There was no difference in k 1 among the groups. On the other hand, k 2 was larger in young healthy nonsmokers and smaller in healthy smokers, the patients with IPF, sarcoidosis and CPE than k 2 in nonsmoking controls. Furthermore, k 2 decreased in inverse proportion to age. We concluded that k 2 could be a valuable index to detect changes of IMP, a lipophilic amine, metabolism in the lungs. (author)

  18. Estructura cristalina del N-isopropil-2-ciano-3(5'-nitrofurilacrilamida Crystal structure of N-isopropyl-2-cyano-3(5'-nitrofurylacrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Pomés Hernandéz

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available C11H11N3O4 , Mr = 249.23, triclinic, , a = 5.453(1, b = 22.873(5, c = 4.893(1 Å, a = 94.47(3, b = 96.36(3, g = 86.27(3º, V = 603.7(8ų,Z = 2, Dx = 1.371 Mg/m-3,l(Cu Ka1 = 1.54178Å, m = 0.86mm-1, room temperature. The crystal structure of N-isopropyl-2-cyano-3(5'-nitrofuryl - acrylamide has been determined by Direct Methods and refined to R = 0.086 for 797 observed reflections. The molecules in the crystal are packed at normal van der Waals forces and by an hydrogen bond between N1-H1...02i (N1...02i: 2.910(1Å, with i=x,y,z+1.

  19. N-isopropyl-[123I]p-iodoamphetamine: single-pass brain uptake and washout; binding to brain synaptosomes; and localization in dog and monkey brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchell, H.S.; Horst, W.D.; Braun, L.; Oldendorf, W.H.; Hattner, R.; Parker, H.

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine in rat brains were determined by serial measurements of brain uptake index (BUI) after intracarotid injection; also studied were its effects on amine uptake and release in rat's brain cortical synaptosomes; and its in vivo distribution in the dog and monkey. No specific localization in brain nuclei of the dog was seen, but there was progressive accumulation in the eyes. Rapid initial brain uptake in the ketamine-sedated monkey was noted, and further slow brain uptake occurred during the next 20 min but without retinal localization. High levels of brain activity were maintained for several hours. The quantitative initial single-pass clearance of the agent in the brain suggests its use in evaluation of regional brain perfusion. Its interaction with brain amine-binding sites suggests its possible application in studies of cerebral amine metabolism

  20. Evaluation of cerebral perfusion imaging with N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) in the cases of antiphospholipid syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Toru; Nanbu, Ichiro; Tohyama, Junko; Ohba, Satoru [Nagoya City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-01-01

    Five cases of antiphospholipid syndrome with mild headache, but without any neurological deficits and abnormal findings by CT and MRI, were examined by cerebral blood perfusion SPECT using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I] iodoamphetamine (IMP). Although three cases were performed quantification of cerebral blood flow with a microsphere method simultaneously, their values were within normal limits. Two of them showed focal low perfusion areas. One case had relatively low perfusion areas in the bilateral occipital lobes and the right temporal lobe, which improved after treatment. One of two had low perfusion in the bilateral occipital lobes. Other three cases only showed ununiformity of radioisotope uptake on the cerebral blood perfusion SPECT. Low perfusion areas in antiphospholipid syndrome might be caused by microarterial thrombosis, microvenous thrombosis or spasms, although they could be reversible. As early irreversible progress of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood flow SPECT should be performed in cases of antiphospholipid syndrome with neurological complainments. (author).

  1. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) in schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Hidemichi; Hayashi, Takuji; Mitsugi, Ohara

    1994-01-01

    As a basis for possible classification of schinzophrenic psychoses into schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, we studied the brain functional differences among 16 schizophrenic patients, 16 atypical psychosis patients and 16 healthy volunteers by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine. As a result, schizophrenics showed hypofrontality. On the other hand, atypical psychotics had no such hypofrontality but showed a reduced uptake rate in the right thalamic region. No influence of sex, duration of illness and medication was confirmed by the findings. The results suggest that schizophrenics might have some lesions in the frontal regions, whereas atypical psychotics might have no such lesions, but dysfunction in the right thalamic region. Consequently, the SPECT findings as least indicate possibly different etiologies for schizophrenia and atypical psychosis. (author)

  2. Role of morphine administration with 99m-technetium-labelled di-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louridas, G.; Botha, J.R.; Esser, J.D.; Savitch, I.; Vas, M.; Levin, J.; Myburgh, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    Patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis suggestive of acute cholecystitis had a 99m-technetium-labelled di-isopropyl iminodiacetic acid (DISIDA) scan. Two groups of patients were investigated. In group 1, 66 patients underwent cholescintigraphy and after 60 minutes morphine was given to all patients whose gallbladders had not filled. The accuracy rate of this procedure was 91%, sensitivity 83%, specificity 97%, positive predictive value 96,2% and negative predictive value 87,5%. In group 2, 97 patients had cholescintigraphy with morphine being administered at the beginning of the procedure. The accuracy rate of this investigation was 97,9%, sensitivity 100%, specificity 96,6%, positive predictive value 95% and negative predictive value 100%. We recommend the early use of morphine in all patients undergoing a DISIDA scan for acute cholecystitis

  3. Evaluation of surgical treatment using N-isopropyl p[123I]iodoamphetamine and ringed gamma camera single photon computed tomography in patients with cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshibuchi, Masao; Sato, Mitsutaka; Muramoto, Masato; Kim, I.; Ohtake, Hisashi.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of surgical treatment via N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine( 123 I-IMP) and a ringtyped SPECT instrument on 25 patients undergoing operation for the treatment of cerebrovascular disease was analyzed using 50 test results obtained by means of 123 IMP SPECT. The difference between a ratio of count on the healthy side to that on the diseased side measured before operation and that measured after operation was found to be over 3.8 % in patients showing the improvement of clinical symptoms and below 1.6 % in patients showing no improvement. Among patients undergoing to removal of hematoma, the difference was calculated to be over 10 % when clinical symptoms were improved, and to be minus figures when no improvement was attained. The method employed in this study was confirmed to be useful because it is easy to perform in a non-invasive way, and numerically expresses the state of patients before and after operation. (author)

  4. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) in schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Hidemichi; Hayashi, Takuji; Mitsugi, Ohara [Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    As a basis for possible classification of schinzophrenic psychoses into schizophrenia and atypical psychosis, we studied the brain functional differences among 16 schizophrenic patients, 16 atypical psychosis patients and 16 healthy volunteers by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I] iodoamphetamine. As a result, schizophrenics showed hypofrontality. On the other hand, atypical psychotics had no such hypofrontality but showed a reduced uptake rate in the right thalamic region. No influence of sex, duration of illness and medication was confirmed by the findings. The results suggest that schizophrenics might have some lesions in the frontal regions, whereas atypical psychotics might have no such lesions, but dysfunction in the right thalamic region. Consequently, the SPECT findings as least indicate possibly different etiologies for schizophrenia and atypical psychosis. (author).

  5. Consumo de alcohol alcoholismo

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Páez, Pablo E.; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1999-01-01

    ¿Qué es el alcohol?/¿Cómo actual el alcohol en el organismo?/¿Qué efectos causa?/Efectos por el consumo crónico/¿El consumo de alcohol durante el embarazo afecta el embrión?/¿Qué otras consecuencias tiene el consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se considera que una persona tiene problemas con su consumo de alcohol?/¿Cuándo se debe sospechar que alguien tiene problemas con el consumo de alcohol?/Características del saber beber adecuadamente?/¿Cuales son las alternativas de tratamiento para este problem...

  6. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (thesis provides novel warranted epidemiological information about AH that shows increasing incidence and mortality rates. Consequently, it reiterates the fact that AH is a life-threatening disease and suggests that AH is an

  7. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    This thesis describes the catalytic conversion of bioethanol into higher value chemicals. The motivation has been the unavoidable coming depletion of the fossil resources. The thesis is focused on two ways of utilising ethanol; the steam reforming of ethanol to form hydrogen and the partial oxida...

  8. Electrochemical solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of solar energy conversion in photoelectrochemical cells are briefly reviewed. Cells for the generation of electric power and for energy storage in form of electrochemical energy are described. These systems are compared with solid state photovoltaic devices, and the inherent difficulties for the operation of the electrochemical systems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs, 10 figs

  9. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...

  10. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  11. Conversation and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Veermans, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Gordon Pask’s conversation theory was created in the 1970s. The theory encompasses a high-level framework for studying interactions between actors in artificial situations where people co-operate, have conflicts, follow rules, negotiate outcomes, invent new rules together, etc. Sadly, the theory is

  12. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  13. The Nanticoke conversion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the conversion of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant to cleaner burning natural gas combined-cycle gas turbines. The Nanticoke Generating Station on Lake Erie is responsible for more than 50 per cent of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) coal-fired electricity production. The OPG is proposing to work towards compliance with the newly signed Ozone Annex to the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement which will require fossil-fueled power plants in southern Ontario to reduce their smog-causing nitrogen oxides emissions by about 50 per cent by 2007. This study assessed the emission reduction benefits and financial costs of conversion compared to continuing to operate Nanticoke as a coal-fired plant. The analysis includes a base case set of data on fuel prices, retrofit costs, fuel efficiencies, annual capacity factors and other parameters. It was determined that conversion would cost the average household less than $3 per month on their electricity bill. Conversion would also reduce emissions nitrogen oxide, a major smog pollutant, by 83 per cent and the particulates that form the most health-threatening portion of smog would be reduced by 100 per cent. 15 tabs., 1 fig.

  14. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  15. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  16. Conversion tables. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerrell, H.

    1975-01-01

    Tables are presented for the conversion of standard (5568 year half-life) C-14 dates to calendar years. The major part of the data converts C-14 dates to tree-ring years: additional data are given, based on the Egyptian historical curve. (U.K.)

  17. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  18. Our Digital Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes their digital conversion initiative at Mooresville Graded School District. The project has placed a MacBook Air laptop in the hands of every 3rd through 12th grader and their teachers in the district over the past four years, with over 5,000 computers distributed. But they believe their academic successes have…

  19. Biodiesel production from triolein and short chain alcohols through biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salis, Andrea; Pinna, Marcella; Monduzzi, Maura; Solinas, Vincenzo

    2005-09-29

    Oleic acid alkyl esters (biodiesel) were synthesised by biocatalysis in solvent-free conditions. Different commercial immobilised lipases, namely Candida antarctica B, Rizhomucor miehei, and Pseudomonas cepacia, were tested towards the reaction between triolein and butanol to produce butyl oleate. Pseudomonas cepacia lipase resulted to be the most active enzyme reaching 100% of conversion after 6h. Different operative conditions such as reaction temperature, water activity, and reagent stoichiometric ratio were investigated and optimised. These conditions were then used to investigate the effect of linear and branched short chain alcohols. Methanol and 2-butanol were the worst alcohols: the former, probably, due to its low miscibility with the oil and the latter because secondary alcohols usually are less reactive than primary alcohols. Conversely, linear and branched primary alcohols with short alkyl chains (C(2)--C(4)) showed high reaction rate and conversion. A mixture of linear and branched short chain alcohols that mimics the residual of ethanol distillation (fusel oil) was successfully used for oleic acid ester synthesis. These compounds are important in biodiesel mixtures since they improve low temperature properties.

  20. The Effect of Alcohol on Bead Performance of Encapsulated Iron Using Deacetylated Glucomannan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardhani Dyah H.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of encapsulation to protect iron from inhibitor degradation or oxidation depends on many factors including the excipient characteritics. Glucomannan, a neutral heterosaccharide, has a potential for the excipient. To improve the excipient performances, glucomannan is deacetylated to remove the acetyl groups by reacted with Na2CO3. This deacylated glucomannan is subject to bead formation after iron loading. The alcohol solution is commonly used in bead forming as dehydration medium during the encapsulation process. The objective of this work was to study the effect of alcohol on the bead performance of encapsulated iron using deacetylated glucomannan. The bead forming was conducted by dropping the excipient into ethanol and isopropyl alcohol (IPA solution at various concentrations (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% and two condition temperatures (27-30° and 7-10°C. The encapsulation samples were subject to yield (YE and efficiency of encapsulation (EE. The concentration of alcohol showed a positive impact on the yield and efficiency of encapsulation. Ethanol has a better performance compared with that of IPA regarding yield and efficiency of encapsulation. The optimum of yield bead formation (69.67% and highest EE (66.80% were obtained at 90% ethanol. Temperature of dehydration did not affect the YE and EE significantly.

  1. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  2. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  3. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more than 14 drinks per week for men. What is the evidence that alcohol drinking is a cause of cancer? Based on extensive reviews of research studies , there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking ...

  4. Genetics of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ena C; Soundy, Timothy J; Hu, Yueshan

    2017-05-01

    Consuming excessive amounts of alcohol has the potential to modify an individual's brain and lead to alcohol dependence. Alcohol use leads to 88,000 deaths every year in the U.S. alone and can lead to other health issues including cancers, such as colorectal cancer, and mental health problems. While drinking behavior varies due to environmental factors, genetic factors also contribute to the risk of alcoholism. Certain genes affecting alcohol metabolism and neurotransmitters have been found to contribute to or inhibit the risk. Geneenvironment interactions may also play a role in the susceptibility of alcoholism. With a better understanding of the different components that can contribute to alcoholism, more personalized treatment could cater to the individual. This review discusses the major genetic factors and some small variants in other genes that contribute to alcoholism, as well as considers the gene-environmental interactions. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  5. Children of alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oravecz

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The author briefly interprets the research – results, referring to the phenomenon of children of alcoholics, especially the psychological and psychopathological characteristics of children of alcoholics in adolescence and young adulthood. The author presents a screening study of adolescents. The sample contains 200 high school students at age 18. The aim of the survey was to discover the relationship between alcohol consumption of parents, PTSD - related psychopathological symptoms and reported life quality of their children. The study confirmed the hypothesis about a substantial correlation between high alcohol consumption of parents, higher psychopathological symptom - expression and lower reported life quality score of their children. Higher PTSD-related symptomatology in children of alcoholics is probably resulted by home violence, which is very often present in family of alcoholics. The article also evaluated the results regarding suicide ideation of children of alcoholics, which is definitely more frequent and more intense than in their peers living in non alcohol – dependent families.

  6. an Unrecorded Alcohol Beverage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Chemical analysis of volatile compounds fromkhadi, an unrecorded alcoholic beverage from Botswana, was ... quality, some of them may be contaminated and toxic, thereby ... home-brewed alcoholic beverages exist in Botswana and are.

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol can harm your baby at any stage during a pregnancy. That includes the earliest stages, before ... can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Children who are born with ...

  8. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...

  9. What We Fund - Alcohol

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Analysis of the regulatory environment (national ... Predicting and evaluating policy impact. PA. N ... constrain the use of a holistic approach engaging ... alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries, ... Alcohol and Other Drugs, 2003.

  10. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1238–1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...

  11. Alcohol use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have problems with alcohol if you: Are a young adult under peer pressure Have depression, bipolar disorder , anxiety disorders , or schizophrenia Can easily obtain alcohol Have low self-esteem Have problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle ...

  12. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  13. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines

  14. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  15. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  16. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  17. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC and A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC and A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC and A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC and A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC and A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A

  18. Genetics and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.

  19. On molybdenum (6) alcoholates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turova, N.Ya.; Kessler, V.G.

    1990-01-01

    Synthesis techniques for molybdenum (6) alcoholates of MoO(OR) 4 (1) and MoO 2 (OR) 2 (2) series by means of exchange interaction of corresponding oxychloride with MOR (M=Li, Na) are obtained. These techniques have allowed to prepare 1(R=Me, Et, i-Pr) and 2(R=Me, Et) with 70-98 % yield. Methylates are also prepared at ether interchange of ethylates by methyl alcohol. Metal anode oxidation in corresponding alcohol may be used for 1 synthesis. Physicochemical properties of both series alcoholates, solubility in alcohols in particular, depend on their formation conditions coordination polymerism. Alcoholates of 1 are rather unstable and tend to decomposition up to 2 and ether. It is suggested to introduce NaOR microquantities to stabilize those alcoholates

  20. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, Janne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Light to moderate alcohol intake is known to have cardioprotective properties; however, the magnitude of protection depends on other factors and may be confined to some subsets of the population. This review focuses on factors that modify the relationship between alcohol and coronary heart disease...... (CHD). The cardioprotective effect of alcohol seems to be larger among middle-aged and elderly adults than among young adults, who do not have a net beneficial effect of a light to moderate alcohol intake in terms of reduced all-cause mortality. The levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD is lowest...... and the levels of alcohol at which the risk of CHD exceeds the risk among abstainers are lower for women than for men. The pattern of drinking seems important for the apparent cardioprotective effect of alcohol, and the risk of CHD is generally lower for steady versus binge drinking. Finally, there is some...

  1. Nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Chapovsky, Pavel L.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical model of the nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde (H2CO) has been developed. The conversion is governed by the intramolecular spin-rotation mixing of molecular ortho and para states. The rate of conversion has been found equal 1.4*10^{-4}~1/s*Torr. Temperature dependence of the spin conversion has been predicted to be weak in the wide temperature range T=200-900 K.

  2. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  3. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  4. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  5. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patients to better address how stress affects their motivation to drink. Early screening also is vital. For ... C.; Hong, K.A.; et al Enhanced negative emotion and alcohol craving, and altered physiological responses following ...

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF Strong Family Relationships Can Prevent Alcohol and Drug Use Among Teens - دری (Dari) MP3 Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota What Is Addiction? - English PDF What Is Addiction? - دری (Dari) PDF ...

  7. The FLIC conversion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, J.C.

    1965-05-01

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  8. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  9. The FLIC conversion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, J C [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-05-15

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  10. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  11. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  12. Screening of allyl alcohol resistant mutant of Rhizopus oryzae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol is a main by-product in the fermentation broth of Rhizopus oryzae during the production of high-optical purity L-lactic acid. By screening the lower activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) mutant, thus decreasing the flux of pyruvic acid to ethanol may be a virtual method for increasing the conversion rate of glucose ...

  13. Selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with tert-butylhydroperoxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the solvent and in this case, acetonitrile gives the best conversion results. The kinetic of ... Experimental. 2.1 Materials ... Subsequently, the products were filtered, washed thoroughly ..... mesh; benzyl alcohol 30 mmol; TBHP 30 mmol; 15 ml ace- tonitrile ... vent was changed for each run while the other condi- tions, (0.2 g of ...

  14. Poly(furfuryl alcohol) nanospheres: a facile synthesis approach ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) nanospheres with an average diameter of 350 nm in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrroli- done) (PVP) ... with metal cations and subsequent conversion to metal oxide ... 2.2 Preparation of α-Fe2O3 hollow nanospheres.

  15. Alcohol Advertising and Alcohol Consumption by Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Henry Saffer; Dhaval Dave

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically estimate the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of brand capital is used to explain the effects of advertising on consumption. The industry response function and the evidence from prior studies indicate that the empirical strategy should maximize the variance in the advertising data. The approach in this paper to maximizing the variance in advertising data is to employ cross sectional data. The Monitoring th...

  16. Brain reactivity to alcohol and cannabis marketing during sobriety and intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Fernandes Perna, Elizabeth B; Theunissen, Eef L; Kuypers, Kim P C; Evers, Elisabeth A; Stiers, Peter; Toennes, Stefan W; Witteman, Jurriaan; van Dalen, Wim; Ramaekers, Johannes G

    2017-05-01

    Drugs of abuse stimulate striatal dopamine release and activate reward pathways. This study examined the impact of alcohol and cannabis marketing on the reward circuit in alcohol and cannabis users while sober and intoxicated. It was predicted that alcohol and cannabis marketing would increase striatal activation when sober and that reward sensitivity would be less during alcohol and cannabis intoxication. Heavy alcohol (n = 20) and regular cannabis users (n = 21) participated in a mixed factorial study involving administration of alcohol and placebo in the alcohol group and cannabis and placebo in the cannabis group. Non-drug users (n = 20) served as between group reference. Brain activation after exposure to alcohol and cannabis marketing movies was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared between groups while sober and compared with placebo while intoxicated. Implicit alcohol and cannabis cognitions were assessed by means of a single-category implicit association test. Alcohol and cannabis marketing significantly increased striatal BOLD activation across all groups while sober. Striatal activation however decreased during intoxication with alcohol and cannabis. Implicit associations with cannabis marketing cues were significantly more positive in alcohol and cannabis users as compared with non-drug using controls. Public advertising of alcohol or cannabis use elicits striatal activation in the brain's reward circuit. Reduction of marketing would reduce brain exposure to reward cues that motivate substance use. Conversely, elevated dopamine levels protect against the reinforcing potential of marketing. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Paoletti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol exerts teratogenic effects in all the gestation times, with peculiar features in relationship to the trimester of pregnancy in which alcohol is assumed. Alcohol itself and its metabolites modify DNA synthesis, cellular division, cellular migration and the fetal development. The characteristic facies of feto-alcoholic syndrome (FAS-affected baby depends on the alcohol impact on skull facial development during the first trimester of pregnancy. In association there are cerebral damages with a strong defect of brain development up to the life incompatibility. Serious consequences on fetal health also depends on dangerous effects of alcohol exposure in the organogenesis of the heart, the bone, the kidney, sensorial organs, et al. It has been demonstrated that maternal binge drinking is a high factor risk of mental retardation and of delinquent behaviour. Unfortunately, a lower alcohol intake also exerts deleterious effects on fetal health. In several countries of the world there is a high alcohol use, and this habit is increased in the women. Therefore, correct information has to be given to avoid alcohol use by women in the preconceptional time and during the pregnancy. Preliminary results of a study performed by the authors show that over 80% of pregnant and puerperal women are not unaware that more than 2 glasses of alcohol/week ingested during pregnancy can create neurological abnormalities in the fetus. However, after the information provided on alcoholic fetopathy, all women are conscious of the damage caused by the use of alcohol to the fetus during pregnancy. This study confirms the need to provide detailed information on the negative effects of alcohol on fetal health. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 23rd-26th, 2013 · Learned lessons, changing practice and cutting-edge research

  18. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  19. Microbial conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Bioconversion and Sustainable Development

    2006-07-01

    Microbes are a biomass and an valuable resource. This presentation discussed microbial conversion technologies along with background information on microbial cells, their characteristics and microbial diversity. Untapped opportunities for microbial conversion were identified. Metagenomic and genome mining approaches were also discussed, as they can provide access to uncultivated or unculturable microorganisms in communal populations and are an unlimited resource for biocatalysts, novel genes and metabolites. Genome mining was seen as an economical approach. The presentation also emphasized that the development of microbial biorefineries would require significant insights into the relevant microorganisms and that biocatalysts were the ultimate in sustainability. In addition, the presentation discussed the natural fibres initiative for biochemicals and biomaterials. Anticipated outputs were identified and work in progress of a new enzyme-retting cocktail to provide diversity and/or consistency in fibre characteristics for various applications were also presented. It was concluded that it is necessary to leverage understanding of biological processes to produce bioproducts in a clean and sustainable manner. tabs., figs.

  20. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  1. Investigation of regional cerebral blood flow in alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome with 123I-IMP SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Makoto; Nomura, Soichiro; Kato, Motoichiro; Nakazawa, Tsuneyuki.

    1995-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) in 6 patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (A group). The findings were compared with concurrently available findings from 6 alcoholic patients with no evidence of cerebral disordres such as Korsakoff's syndrome and dementia (B group) and 4 healthy persons (C group). In both A and B groups, diffuse decrease in blood flow was significantly observed in the entire brain, as compared with the C group; no significant difference in the decreased blood flow existed between the A and B groups. According to the WAIS results, the patients in the A group were classified as 'typical Korsakoff's syndrome' (full IQ of 90 or more) and as 'serious Korsakoff's syndrome' (full IQ of 89 or less). rCBF in the thalamus was significantly lower in the A group of patients with typical Korsakoff's syndrome than the B group. These findings may reflect the variety of alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome. This may also have an implication for the possible classification of several types in this syndrome. (N.K.)

  2. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Foppa

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Observational studies have attributed a protective effect to alcohol consumption on the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Alcohol intake in the amount of one to two drinks per day results in an estimated 20-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. An additional protective effect, according to major cohort studies, has been attributed to wine, probably due to antioxidant effects and platelet antiaggregation agents. On the other hand, the influence of different patterns of alcohol consumption and environmental factors may explain a great part of the additional effect of wine. Protection may be mediated by modulation of other risk factors, because alcohol increases HDL-C, produces a biphasic response on blood pressure, and modulates the endothelial function, while it neither increases body weight nor impairs glucose-insulin homeostasis. Alcohol may also have a direct effect on atherogenesis. Despite these favorable effects, the current evidence is not enough to justify prescribing alcohol to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  3. Alcohol, aggression, and violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Škrila

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between alcohol and aggression has long been recognized, but the systematic research to understand the causal basis for this relationship and the processes that underlie it has only been undertaken in the past 25 years. In the article the most important mechanisms, by which alcohol affects behavior, are explained. Aggression in persons with alcohol dependence and the connection between antisocial (dissocial personality disorder, alcohol and aggression are described. In addition different forms of aggression or violence, that have been committed under the influence of alcohol, such as inter-partner violence, sexual assault, child abuse, crime and traffic accidents are described.Conclusions: The research findings can be used in the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related aggression.

  4. Alcohol in moderation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Lockshin, Larry; Louviere, Jordan J.

    2011-01-01

    products identified, which are jointly purchased with low alcohol wines. The effect of a tax increase on substitution patterns between alcoholic beverages is examined. Methodology: In a discrete choice experiment, based on their last purchase, consumers select one or several different alcoholic beverages......Purpose: The study examines the market potential for low and very low alcohol wine products under two different tax regimes. The penetration and market share of low alcohol wine are estimated under both tax conditions. Consumers’ alcoholic beverage purchase portfolios are analysed and those...... into a purchase basket. An experimental design controlled the beverages’ price variation. Applying an intra-individual research design, respondents’ purchases were simulated under current and increased taxes. Findings: A market potential for low and very low wine products of up to ten percent of the wine market...

  5. Synthesis of carbon-14 labelled cis-malonato [(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1,3-dioxolane] platinum(II) (SKI 2053R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Kee; Kim, Youngseok; Rim, Jonggill; Kim, Ganghyeok; Gam, Jongsik; Song, Sungkun; Yoo, Kwanghee; Kim, Key H.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis of 14 C-labelled cis-malonato[(4R,5R)-4,5-bis(aminomethyl)-2-isopropyl-1,3-dioxolan e]platinum(II) from [1,4- 14 C] D-tartaric acid is described. The overall radiochemical yield of the product in a eight-step sequence was 23.8% and radiochemical purity was 98.5%. (author)

  6. Alcohol Consumption in Students

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behaviour among university students is a serious public health concern. Reasons for drinking are complex and many factors contribute to this behaviour. Previous research has established links between personality factors and alcohol consumption and also between metacognitions and alcohol consumption. Few studies have looked into how personality traits and metacognitions interact. This study investigated the relationships between personality, metacognitions and alcohol consumption in a...

  7. Alcohol-Induced Blackout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Jin Kim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, alcohol was thought to exert a general depressant effect on the central nervous system (CNS. However, currently the consensus is that specific regions of the brain are selectively vulnerable to the acute effects of alcohol. An alcohol-induced blackout is the classic example; the subject is temporarily unable to form new long-term memories while relatively maintaining other skills such as talking or even driving. A recent study showed that alcohol can cause retrograde memory impairment, that is, blackouts due to retrieval impairments as well as those due to deficits in encoding. Alcoholic blackouts may be complete (en bloc or partial (fragmentary depending on severity of memory impairment. In fragmentary blackouts, cueing often aids recall. Memory impairment during acute intoxication involves dysfunction of episodic memory, a type of memory encoded with spatial and social context. Recent studies have shown that there are multiple memory systems supported by discrete brain regions, and the acute effects of alcohol on learning and memory may result from alteration of the hippocampus and related structures on a cellular level. A rapid increase in blood alcohol concentration (BAC is most consistently associated with the likelihood of a blackout. However, not all subjects experience blackouts, implying that genetic factors play a role in determining CNS vulnerability to the effects of alcohol. This factor may predispose an individual to alcoholism, as altered memory function during intoxication may affect an individual‟s alcohol expectancy; one may perceive positive aspects of intoxication while unintentionally ignoring the negative aspects. Extensive research on memory and learning as well as findings related to the acute effects of alcohol on the brain may elucidate the mechanisms and impact associated with the alcohol- induced blackout.

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  9. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    We constructed an enzymatic network composed of three different enzymes for the synthesis of valuable ether amines. The enzymatic reactions are interconnected to catalyze the oxidation and subsequent transamination of the substrate and to provide cofactor recycling. This allows production...... of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed...... for reactions containing 10mM alcohol and up to 280mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up....

  10. Demonstration and quantitation of pharmacological inhibition of pulmonary uptake of N-isopropyl- sup 123 I-p-Iodoamphetamine by propanolol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akber, S.F. (California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Nuclear Medicine Div.)

    1989-06-01

    The first-pass pulmonary extraction values of N-Isopropyl-{sup 123}I-p-Iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) in pretreated dogs decreases from 90 to 62% as the amount of propranolol increases from 0 to 20 mg. The first-pass pulmonary extraction values of {sup 123}I-IMP in dogs with a simultaneous bolus injection of propranolol decreases from 90 to 62% as the amount of propranolol increases from 0 to 10 mg. The pulmonary extraction of {sup 123}I-IMP with a simultaneous bolus injection of ketamine and {sup 123}I-IMP decreases from 90 to 64% as the ketamine dose increases from 0 to 100 mg. These results suggest that the pulmonary uptake of {sup 123}I-IMP may be at least partially mediated by receptors. They also indicate that endothelial metabolic cell function may be a useful index of early lung pathology. Furthermore, studies of the degree of lung uptake may be a sensitive index of pathologic states in which alterations of amine binding sites have occurred. (orig.).

  11. Quantification of brain perfusion SPECT with N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine using noninvasive microsphere method. Estimation of arterial input by dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonekura, Yoshiharu; Sugihara, Hideki; Taniguchi, Yoshimitsu; Aoki, Etsuo; Furuichi, Kenji; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a noninvasive method to quantify brain perfusion SPECT with 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) using serial dynamic planar imaging of the initial transit phase. The method is based on the microsphere model, but does not require arterial sampling. Serial dynamic planar imaging was performed for 6 min after the bolus injection of IMP (167 MBq in 1.5 ml), followed by additional planar imaging at 20 min and SPECT scan thereafter. The total arterial input to the brain during the initial 5 min after injection was estimated by the injected dose, with the correction of the lung retention, divided by cardiac output (CO). CO was estimated from the initial transit of IMP in the right heart. Cardiac output index (COI), obtained from the integral of the first transit of IMP in the right heart divided by the injected dose, was calibrated by CO measured by Doppler ultrasonography. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) obtained by this method in normal subjects was acceptable. However, the results may be influenced by the injection technique, and careful attention should be considered for clinical application of this method. (author)

  12. The effects of mixtures of potassium amyl xanthate (PAX and isopropyl ethyl thionocarbamate (IPETC collectors on grade and recovery in the froth flotation of a nickel sulfide ore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westhein Maree

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Potassium amyl xanthate (PAX and sodium isobutyl xanthate (SIBX are commonly used collectors in both the bulk and selective froth flotation of sulfide ores. These thiol xanthate collectors are conventionally mixed together as well as with more selective thiol collectors such as dithiophosphates (DTP and dithiocarbamates (DTC, in order to improve selectivity. With deteriorating nickel sulfide ores, more selective collectors and collector mixtures are desired for the efficient extraction of nickel. Thionocarbamates (TC are another group of thiol collectors used for selective froth flotation of sulfide minerals. Thionocarbamates are especially used in the selective froth flotation of chalcopyrite over pyrite and galena, but little is known about its selectivity with regards to nickel. Thionocarbamates are also more stable over larger pH ranges in comparison to xanthates and they possess beneficial frothing properties. This study compared the effects of using potassium amyl xanthate (PAX, isopropyl ethyl thionocarbamate (IPETC, sodium isobutyl xanthate (SIBX and their mixtures in the froth flotation of a pentlandite ore. In the mixtures of PAX or SIBX with IPETC, the xanthate accounted for 95.5 mol% and for the PAX and SIBX mixture a 50:50 mixture was used. This study showed that the highest cumulative nickel grades were obtained with PAX, SIBX and there mixture. The highest cumulative nickel recoveries were obtained with IPETC and its mixtures with PAX and SIBX (50–62%. Keywords: Nickel sulfide, Xanthate, Thionocarbamate, Grade, Recovery

  13. 2,2′-Bis{8-[(benzylaminomethylidene]-1,6-dihydroxy-5-isopropyl-3-methylnaphthalen-7(8H-one}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukhrat M. Hakberdiev

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C44H44N2O6, contains two independent molecules with similar conformations. The dihydronaphthalene ring systems are approximately planar [maximum deviations = 0.036 (2, 0.128 (2, 0.0.24 (2 and 0.075 (2 Å]. The dihedral angle between two dihydronaphthalene ring systems is 83.37 (4° in one molecule and 88.99 (4° in the other. The carbonyl O atom is linked with the adjacent hydroxy and imino groups via intramolecular O—H...O and N—H...O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, molecules are linked through O—H...O hydrogen bonds into layers parallel to (001, and adjacent layers are further stacked by π–π interactions between dihydronaphthalene and phenyl rings into a three-dimensional supramolecular architecture. In the crystal, one of the isopropyl groups is disordered over two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.684 (8:0.316 (8.

  14. A new graphic method for evaluation of distribution volume on N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Ohtaki, Hiroh; Noguchi, Eikichi; Hatano, Masayoshi; Yamasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Mamiko (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Ohkubo, Masaki; Yokoi, Takashi

    1993-10-01

    We developed a new graphic method using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and SPECT of the brain, the graph on which all three parameters, cerebral blood flow, distribution volume (V[sub d]) and delayed count to early count ratio (Delayed/Early ratio), were able to be evaluated simultaneously. The kinetics of [sup 123]I-IMP in the brain was analyzed by a 2-compartment model, and a standard input function was prepared by averaging the time activity curves of [sup 123]I-IMP in arterial blood on 6 patients with small cerebral infarction etc. including 2 normal controls. Being applied this method to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, we were able to differentiate both with a glance, because the distribution volume of the frontal lobe significantly decreased in Parkinson's disease (Mean[+-]SD; 26[+-]6 ml/g). This method was clinically useful. We think that the distribution volume of [sup 123]I-IMP may reflect its retention mechanism in the brain, and the values are related to amine, especially to dopamine receptors and its metabolism. (author).

  15. New design of N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) lung imaging in the patient with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Eiko; Mishima, Michiaki; Kawakami, Kenzo; Sakai, Naoki; Sugiura, Naoharu; Ohi, Motoharu; Kuno, Kenshi; Taniguchi, Takashi; Itoh, Harumi.

    1995-01-01

    N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) was injected intravenously into primary non small cell lung carcinoma patients (n=17). The average pixel count ratios of the cancerous area to the whole lung was measured in the initial and delayed images. In the initial image, this ratio was less than 1.0 for the entire group of patients, and was thought to reflect decreased blood flow in the cancerous tissues. The rate of counts within a ROI in the delayed image to counts in the same ROI in the initial image was also calculated and called the remain rate. The remain rate (delayed count/initial count) was significantly higher in the cancerous area than in the whole lung (0.65±0.30, median 0.62, 0.38±0.05, median 0.38, p<0.01). This observation was thought to be due to a relative decrease in the blood flow and the accumulation of IMP, which forms pools within the alveolar spaces of the cancerous areas. The image prepared with the remain rate revealed a hot image in the cancerous regions, even when this was not apparent in the delayed image. The remain rate image may therefore be useful in the identification of cancerous areas in lung tissue if it is used in comparison with the initial image. (author)

  16. Theoretical and experimental assessment of the kinetic properties of N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine in the human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kentaro; Nakajima, Keiji; Maeda, Minoru [Juntendo Univ., Shizuoka (Japan). Izunagaoka Hospital

    1993-12-01

    The effect of the loss of radioactivity from the human brain on the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) was evaluated by measuring rCBF in 10 normal male volunteers from 0.5 to 30 minutes after intravenous administration. rCBF was calculated by the operational equation, which assumes no product loss. Brain tissue and arterial blood concentration data were plotted according to a multiple-time/graphic evaluation technique. Data were fitted to the kinetic three-compartment model to estimate four kinetic rate constants to evaluate activity loss from the brain. These studies showed that loss of activity from the brain is negligible during the first 5 minutes, but after 7.5 minutes the loss becomes significantly higher with time. The present study corroborates the necessity for using single photon emission computed tomographic images measured within 5 minutes of IMP injection to quantify rCBF. (author).

  17. A new graphic method for evaluation of distribution volume on N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Ohtaki, Hiroh; Noguchi, Eikichi; Hatano, Masayoshi; Yamasaki, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Mamiko [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohkubo, Masaki; Yokoi, Takashi

    1993-10-01

    We developed a new graphic method using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and SPECT of the brain, the graph on which all three parameters, cerebral blood flow, distribution volume (V[sub d]) and delayed count to early count ratio (Delayed/Early ratio), were able to be evaluated simultaneously. The kinetics of [sup 123]I-IMP in the brain was analyzed by a 2-compartment model, and a standard input function was prepared by averaging the time activity curves of [sup 123]I-IMP in arterial blood on 6 patients with small cerebral infarction etc. including 2 normal controls. Being applied this method to the differential diagnosis between Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy, we were able to differentiate both with a glance, because the distribution volume of the frontal lobe significantly decreased in Parkinson's disease (Mean[+-]SD; 26[+-]6 ml/g). This method was clinically useful. We think that the distribution volume of [sup 123]I-IMP may reflect its retention mechanism in the brain, and the values are related to amine, especially to dopamine receptors and its metabolism. (author).

  18. Polyurethane Membranes Modified with Isopropyl Myristate as a Potential Candidate for Encapsulating Electronic Implants: A Study of Biocompatibility and Water Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepen Paul

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical polyurethanes have shown good bio-stability and mechanical properties and have been used as coating for implantable medical devices. However, despite their excellent properties, they are relatively permeable to liquid water and water vapour which is a drawback for electronic implant encapsulation. In this study polyether polyurethanes with different soft segment molecular weights were modified by incorporating isopropyl myristate (IPM, as a hydrophobic modifying agent, and the effect of IPM on water resistant and biocompatibility of membranes were investigated. IPM changed the surface properties of the polyurethane film and reduced its surface energy. Polyurethane films were found to be stable with IPM concentrations of 1–5 wt% based upon their chemistry; however it leached out in BSA at higher concentrations. Though, low concentrations of IPM reduced both liquid water and water vapour permeability; at higher IPM content liquid permeability did not improved significantly. In general, the polyurethane materials showed much lower water permeability compared with currently used silicone packaging material for electronic implants. In addition, cytotoxicity assessment of IPM containing polyurethanes showed no evidence of cytotoxcity up to 5 wt% IPM.

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow measured with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine single-photon emission tomography in patients with Joseph disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoya; Odano, Ikuo; Nishihara, Mamiko; Yuasa, Tatsuhiko; Sakai, Kunio

    1994-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured in five Japanese patients who were clinically diagnosed as having Joseph disease, also called Machado-Joseph disease or Azorean disease, using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and single-photon emission tomography (SPET). Cerebellar atrophy was evaluated by a five-step rating scale as defined on X-ray computed tomography (X-CT). Compared with ten age-matched normal controls (mean cerebellar CBF ± SD: 66.9 ± 6.6 ml/100 g/min), rCBF in patients with Joseph disease was significantly decreased in the cerebellum (mean ± SD: 50.2 ± 7.3 ml/100 g/min). No significant relationship, however, was found between the decrease in rCBF in the cerebellum and the degree of cerebellar atrophy on X-CT. rCBF in the cerebellum was minimally decreased in one patient who had severe cerebellar atrophy and in two patients with moderate atrophy. These data may support the findings that Purkinje cells in the cerebellum are almost normal in Joseph disease, and that the granular and molecular layers remain intact in spite of cortical atrophy of the cerebellum. It is concluded that [ 123 I]-IMP SPET is able to identify pathological and metabolic changes in the cerebellum that do not appear on X-CT or magnetic resonance imaging, and thus is useful for the diagnosis of Joseph disease. (orig.)

  20. Assessment of the Thermodynamic Properties of DL-p-Mentha-1,8-diene, 4-Isopropyl-1-Methylcyclohexene (DL-limonene) by Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Negin; Abbasian, Ali; Larijani, Kambiz

    2018-05-10

    Limonene is a colorless liquid hydrocarbon and had been investigated as a plasticizer for many plastics. Prediction of solubility between different materials is an advantage in many ways, one of the most convenient ways to know the compatibility of materials is to determine the degree of solubility of them in each other. The concept of "solubility parameter" can help practitioners in this way.In this study, inverse gas chromatography (IGC) method at infinite dilution was used for determination of the thermodynamic properties of DL-p-mentha-1,8-diene, 4-Isopropyl-1-methylcyclohexene (DL-limonene). The interaction between DL-limonene and 13 solvents were examined in the temperature range of 63-123°C through the assessment of the thermodynamic sorption parameters, the parameters of mixing at infinite dilution, the weight fraction activity coefficient and the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. Additionally, the solubility parameter for DL-limonene and the temperature dependence of these parameters was investigated as well.Results show that there is a temperature dependence in solubility parameter, which increases by decreasing temperature. However, there were no specific dependence between interaction parameters and temperature, but chemical structure appeared to have a significant effect on them as well as on the type and strength of intermolecular interactions between DL-limonene and investigated solvents. The solubility parameter δ2 of DL-limonene determined to be 19.20 (J/cm3)0.5 at 25°C.

  1. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) in schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Hidemichi

    1993-01-01

    Sixteen schizophrenic patients, 16 atypical psychosis patients, and 16 healthy volunteers were subjected to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP). The basal ganglia region was in particular examined not only in transverse sections, but in coronal sections. Schizophrenics showed significantly decreased uptake rates in the bilateral frontal regions and increased uptakes in the bilateral basal ganglia. On the other hand, atypical psychotics had a reduced uptake rate only in the right thalamic region, compared to the controls. The increased uptake rates in the basal ganglia were associated with auditory hallucination, but gender difference, duration of illness and dose of neuroleptics had no influence on these SPECT findings. The results suggest that schizophrenics might have some lesions in the frontal area of the brain, whereas atypical psychotics might have no lesion in the frontal region but dysfunction in the right thalamic region. Subsequently, using only SPECT findings, all the cases were divided by cluster analysis into 4 groups and a residue group. Schizophrenics distributed mainly in the 2 groups that have lesion in the frontal regions. Atypical psychotics distributed principally in the other 2 groups that have alterations in the bilateral thalamic region. The present study suggests that schizophrenia and atypical psychosis might have different etiologies. (author)

  2. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) findings using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP) in schizophrenia and atypical psychosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suga, Hidemichi (Aichi Medical Univ., Nagakute (Japan))

    1993-05-01

    Sixteen schizophrenic patients, 16 atypical psychosis patients, and 16 healthy volunteers were subjected to single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of the brain using N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine ([sup 123]I-IMP). The basal ganglia region was in particular examined not only in transverse sections, but in coronal sections. Schizophrenics showed significantly decreased uptake rates in the bilateral frontal regions and increased uptakes in the bilateral basal ganglia. On the other hand, atypical psychotics had a reduced uptake rate only in the right thalamic region, compared to the controls. The increased uptake rates in the basal ganglia were associated with auditory hallucination, but gender difference, duration of illness and dose of neuroleptics had no influence on these SPECT findings. The results suggest that schizophrenics might have some lesions in the frontal area of the brain, whereas atypical psychotics might have no lesion in the frontal region but dysfunction in the right thalamic region. Subsequently, using only SPECT findings, all the cases were divided by cluster analysis into 4 groups and a residue group. Schizophrenics distributed mainly in the 2 groups that have lesion in the frontal regions. Atypical psychotics distributed principally in the other 2 groups that have alterations in the bilateral thalamic region. The present study suggests that schizophrenia and atypical psychosis might have different etiologies. (author).

  3. Conversation with Meir Sternberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pianzola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Below are the videos of the interview recorded the 21st May 2011 in Fribourg (CH, in occasion of the first RRN conference. Conversation with Meir Sternberg. Part 1 of 8 - Narratology: classical and postclassical studies. Part 2 of 8 - The development of an original theoretical framework. Part 3 of 8 - Sternberg and Genette: different ways for the same problems. Part 4 of 8 - «There are no forms except in terms of functions». Part 5 of 8 - A life writing articles: so many papers and just four books. Part 6 of 8 - Two arguments against mimetical approaches to narrative. Part 7 of 8 - «Narrative is not given, it is a construct». Part 8 of 8 - The proteus principle. the many-to-many correspondence between forms and functions.

  4. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  5. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Huntingford, S.; Halberg, N.

    1993-03-01

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  6. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  7. Alcohol-related interpretation bias in alcohol-dependent patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Pawelczack, S.; Rinck, M.; Lindenmeyer, J.; Souren, P.M.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Becker, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Models of addictive behaviors postulate that implicit alcohol-related memory associations and biased interpretation processes contribute to the development and maintenance of alcohol misuse and abuse. The present study examined whether alcohol-dependent patients (AP) show an

  8. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word ''policy'' connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification

  9. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Henry

    2002-03-01

    The question addressed in this review is whether aggregate alcohol advertising increases alcohol consumption among college students. Both the level of alcohol-related problems on college campuses and the level of alcohol advertising are high. Some researchers have concluded that the cultural myths and symbols used in alcohol advertisements have powerful meanings for college students and affect intentions to drink. There is, however, very little empirical evidence that alcohol advertising has any effect on actual alcohol consumption. The methods used in this review include a theoretical framework for evaluating the effects of advertising. This theory suggests that the marginal effect of advertising diminishes at high levels of advertising. Many prior empirical studies measured the effect of advertising at high levels of advertising and found no effect. Those studies that measure advertising at lower, more disaggregated levels have found an effect on consumption. The results of this review suggest that advertising does increase consumption. However, advertising cannot be reduced with limited bans, which are likely to result in substitution to other available media. Comprehensive bans on all forms of advertising and promotion can eliminate options for substitution and be potentially more effective in reducing consumption. In addition, there is an increasing body of literature that suggests that alcohol counteradvertising is effective in reducing the alcohol consumption of teenagers and young adults. These findings indicate that increased counteradvertising, rather than new advertising bans, appears to be the better choice for public policy. It is doubtful that the comprehensive advertising bans required to reduce advertising would ever receive much public support. New limited bans on alcohol advertising might also result in less alcohol counteradvertising. An important topic for future research is to identify the counteradvertising themes that are most effective with

  10. Contribution of liver alcohol dehydrogenase to metabolism of alcohols in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plapp, Bryce V; Leidal, Kevin G; Murch, Bruce P; Green, David W

    2015-06-05

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5-20 mmol/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmol/kgh. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5-10 mmol/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmol/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6±1 mmol/kg h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD(+) for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD(+) for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  12. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a single occasion or ... your health. Here’s how alcohol can affect your body: Brain: Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, ...

  13. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    1998-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  14. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  15. Alcohol Use and Hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Marion G.; Terrault, Norah A.

    2002-01-01

    Excess alcohol consumption can worsen the course and outcome of chronic hepatitis C. It is important to distinguish between alcohol abuse, which must be treated on its own merits, and the effect of alcohol use on progression, severity, and treatment of hepatitis C. Most studies on the effects of alcohol on hepatitis C have focused on patients, with high levels of daily alcohol intake. Indeed, the adverse effects of light and moderate amounts of alcohol intake on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infect...

  16. Drugs and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Victor F.

    1978-01-01

    Millions of people in this country take medications, and millions drink alcohol. Both are drugs and have effects on the organs and systems with which they or their metabolites come in contact. This short article discusses some of the combined effects of prescribed drugs and alcohol on some systems, with special emphasis on the liver. PMID:712865

  17. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  19. Alcoholism and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Jeong Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic use of alcohol is considered to be a potential risk factor for the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, which causes insulin resistance and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction that is a prerequisite for the development of diabetes. However, alcohol consumption in diabetes has been controversial and more detailed information on the diabetogenic impact of alcohol seems warranted. Diabetes, especially T2DM, causes dysregulation of various metabolic processes, which includes a defect in the insulin-mediated glucose function of adipocytes, and an impaired insulin action in the liver. In addition, neurobiological profiles of alcoholism are linked to the effects of a disruption of glucose homeostasis and of insulin resistance, which are affected by altered appetite that regulates the peptides and neurotrophic factors. Since conditions, which precede the onset of diabetes that are associated with alcoholism is one of the crucial public problems, researches in efforts to prevent and treat diabetes with alcohol dependence, receives special clinical interest. Therefore, the purpose of this mini-review is to provide the recent progress and current theories in the interplay between alcoholism and diabetes. Further, the purpose of this study also includes summarizing the pathophysiological mechanisms in the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  20. Alcohol and Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from…

  1. Alcohol and atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DA LUZ PROTASIO L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is manifested as coronary artery disease (CAD, ischemic stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with reduction of CAD complications. Apparently, red wine offers more benefits than any other kind of drinks, probably due to flavonoids. Alcohol alters lipoproteins and the coagulation system. The flavonoids induce vascular relaxation by mechanisms that are both dependent and independent of nitric oxide, inhibits many of the cellular reactions associated with atherosclerosis and inflammation, such as endothelial expression of vascular adhesion molecules and release of cytokines from polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Hypertension is also influenced by the alcohol intake. Thus, heavy alcohol intake is almost always associated with systemic hypertension, and hence shall be avoided. In individuals that ingest excess alcohol, there is higher risk of coronary occlusion, arrhythmias, hepatic cirrhosis, upper gastrointestinal cancers, fetal alcohol syndrome, murders, sex crimes, traffic and industrial accidents, robberies, and psychosis. Alcohol is no treatment for atherosclerosis; but it doesn't need to be prohibited for everyone. Thus moderate amounts of alcohol (1-2 drinks/day, especially red wine, may be allowed for those at risk for atherosclerosis complications.

  2. Neurological complications of alcoholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Nikiforov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nervous system lesions associated with chronic alcohol intoxication are common in clinical practice. They lead to aggravated alcoholic disease, its more frequent recurrences, and intensified pathological craving for alcohol. Neurological pathology in turn occurs with frequent exacerbations. The interaction of diseases, age, and medical  pathomorphism modifies the clinical presentation and course of the  major pathology, as well as comorbidity, the nature and severity of  complications, worsens quality of life in a patient, and makes the  diagnostic and treatment process difficult. The paper discusses the  classification, clinical variants, biochemical and molecular biological  aspects of various complications of alcoholic disease. It considers its  most common form, in particular alcoholic polyneuropathy, as well as its rarer variants, such as hemorrhagic encephalopathy with a subacute course (Gayet–Wernicke encephalopathy.

  3. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (DSM-V includes alcoholic hallucinosis in the Substance-Induced Psychotic Disorder (alcohol, beginning during abstinence; however, the document is not yet very well accepted among the medical community. The difficulty of the team to confirm the diagnosis of alcoholic hallucinosis lies in the differential diagnosis, as Delirium tremens and severe withdrawal syndrome with psychotic symptoms. Thus, psychopathological differentiation is important, as well as continuity of research and collaboration of other clinical teams in the evaluation.

  4. Pentoxifylline for alcoholic hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Kate; Rambaldi, Andrea; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcoholic hepatitis is a life-threatening disease, with an average mortality of approximately 40%. There is no widely accepted, effective treatment for alcoholic hepatitis. Pentoxifylline is used to treat alcoholic hepatitis, but there has been no systematic review to assess its effects....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of pentoxifylline in alcoholic hepatitis. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, LILACS......, clinicaltrials.gov, and full text searches were conducted until August 2009. Manufacturers and authors were contacted. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised clinical trials of pentoxifylline in participants with alcoholic hepatitis compared to control were selected for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two...

  5. Maternal alcohol consumption producing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): quantity, frequency, and timing of drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-01

    Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nanomaterials for photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.; Boiteux, G.; Bouazizi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A promising route for photovoltaic conversion has emerged from the combination of electroactive nanomaterials and small bandgap polymers. The formation of bulk heterojunctions resulting from the extended interfaces leads to efficient dissociation of the charge pairs generated under sunlight shown by the rapid extinction of the polymer photoluminescence for increasing contents of fullerenes or TiO 2 nanoparticles in MEH-PPV or PVK. Unconventional elaboration routes of the blends have been developed to increase the nanofiller dispersion and inhibit phase separation at high concentration. The size reduction of the acceptor domains led to a complete quenching of the radiative recombinations, obtained by specific solvent processing of MEH-PPV / C 60 nanocomposites or sol gel elaboration of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a PVK film. A simultaneous increase of the photocurrents could be achieved by the dispersion and size optimisation of the nanofillers. In situ generation of silver particles in MEH-PPV provides an example of enhanced charge separation induced by the plasmon resonance at the metal/polymer interface. The strong influence of the molecular morphology on the nanocomposite properties emphasizes the large improvements which can still be gained on the performances of organic solar cells

  7. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  8. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  9. Alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol stimuli: automated processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormark, K M; Laberg, J C; Nordby, H; Hugdahl, K

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated alcoholics' selective attention to alcohol words in a version of the Stroop color-naming task. Alcoholic subjects (n = 23) and nonalcoholic control subjects (n = 23) identified the color of Stroop versions of alcohol, emotional, neutral and color words. Manual reaction times (RTs), skin conductance responses (SCRs) and heart rate (HR) were recorded. Alcoholics showed overall longer RTs than controls while both groups were slower in responding to the incongruent color words than to the other words. Alcoholics showed longer RTs to both alcohol (1522.7 milliseconds [ms]) and emotional words (1523.7 ms) than to neutral words (1450.8 ms) which suggests that the content of these words interfered with the ability to attend to the color of the words. There was also a negative correlation (r = -.41) between RT and response accuracy to alcohol words for the alcoholics, reflecting that the longer time the alcoholics used to respond to the color of the alcohol words, the more incorrect their responses were. The alcoholics also showed significantly greater SCRs to alcohol words (0.16 microSiemens) than to any of the other words (ranging from 0.04-0.08 microSiemens), probably reflecting the emotional significance of the alcohol words. Finally, the alcoholics evidenced smaller HR acceleration to alcohol (1.9 delta bpm) compared to neutral (2.8 delta bpm), which could be related to difficulties alcoholics experience in terminating their attention to the alcohol words. These findings indicate that it is difficult for alcoholics to regulate their attention to alcohol stimuli, suggesting that alcoholics' processing of alcohol information is automated.

  10. Alcohol and CV Health: Jekyll and Hyde J-Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Evan L; DiNicolantonio, James J; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J

    2018-02-16

    A routine of light or moderate alcohol consumption (≤1 drink/day for women and 1 to 2 drinks/day for men) is associated with a lower risk for all-cause mortality, coronary artery disease (CAD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), heart failure (HF), and stroke. Conversely, heavy drinking, (>4 drinks/day) is associated with an increased risk for death and cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD). Excessive alcohol intake trails behind only smoking and obesity among the 3 leading causes of premature deaths in the United States (US). Heavy alcohol use is a common cause of reversible hypertension (HTN), nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation (AF), and stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic). Among males aged 15 to 59 years, alcohol abuse is perhaps the leading cause of premature death. As such, the risk-to-benefit ratio of drinking is less favorable in younger individuals. A daily habit of light to moderate drinking is ideal for those who choose to consume alcohol regularly. Red wine in particular before or during the evening meal is linked with the best long-term CV outcomes. Most of the studies on alcohol and health are observational, and correlation does not prove causation. Health care professionals should not advise nondrinkers to begin drinking because of the paucity of randomized outcome data coupled with the potential for alcohol abuse even among seemingly low risk individuals. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  12. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  13. Career conversations in vocational schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittendorff, K.M.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career conversations between teachers and students in competence-based vocational education in the Netherlands. A total of 32 career conversations were observed and analysed with respect to four elements: content, teacher activities, student activities and

  14. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  15. Promotion or suppression of glucose isomerization in subcritical aqueous straight- and branched-chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Da-Ming; Kobayashi, Takashi; Adachi, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The influence of water-miscible alcohols (methanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and t-butyl alcohol) on the isomerization of glucose to fructose and mannose was investigated under subcritical aqueous conditions (180-200 °C). Primary and secondary alcohols promoted the conversion and isomerization of glucose to afford fructose and mannose with high and low selectivity, respectively. On the other hand, the decomposition (side-reaction) of glucose was suppressed in the presence of the primary and secondary alcohols compared with that in subcritical water. The yield of fructose increased with increasing concentration of the primary and secondary alcohols, and the species of the primary and secondary alcohols tested had little effect on the isomerization behavior of glucose. In contrast, the isomerization of glucose was suppressed in subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol. Both the conversion of glucose and the yield of fructose decreased with increasing concentration of t-butyl alcohol. In addition, mannose was not detected in reactions using subcritical aqueous t-butyl alcohol.

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol Poisoning Deaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... million people, while Alabama has the least. Alcohol dependence (alcoholism) was identified as a factor in 30% ... alcohol content or mixing alcohol with energy drinks. Caffeine can mask alcohol's effects and cause people to ...

  17. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Takeo, E-mail: titoh@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Shiraishi, Hiroaki [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Maeno, Yoshitaka [Department of Forensic Medical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Makita, Ryosuke [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Health Sciences, Hiroshima Cosmopolitan University, Hiroshima (Japan); Yoshizumi, Masao [Department of Cardiovascular Physiology and Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Nagao, Masataka [Department of Forensic Medicine, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2013-10-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response.

  18. Using positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and H/D exchange study phosphoryl group transfer reactions involved in amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Mei-Juan; Zhang, He; Liao, Chao; Qiu, Ying-Kun; Fang, Hua; Zheng, Zhen-Yu; Gao, Xiang; Zhao, Yu-Fen; Wu, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESI-MS n , HRMS and H/D exchange were used. • The fragmentation pathways of NPAAE-BFA in ESI-MS n were described. • Fragment ions involved in phosphorus group’s rearrangement reactions were observed. • Two rearrangement mechanisms about phosphorylation–dephosphorylation were proposed. - Abstract: As mini-chemical models, amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A (compounds 2a–2d) were synthesized and investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in combination with H/D exchange. To further confirm the fragments’s structures, off-line Fourier transform resonance tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS/MS) was also performed. The fragmentation rules of compounds 2a–2d have been summarized and the plausible schemes for the fragmentation pathways were proposed. In this study, one dephosphorylated ion and two phosphorylated ions were observed in ESI-MS 2 spectra of [M + Na] + ions for compounds 2a–2d. The possible mechanisms about phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were proposed and confirmed by H/D exchange. For the “dephosphorylation” rearrangement, a nitrogen atom was migrated from the phosphoryl group to the carbon atom of Brefeldin A’s backbone with losing a molecule of C 3 H 7 PO 3 (122 Da). For the “phosphorylation” rearrangement, an oxygen atom of one phosphoryl group attacked the sideward phosphorus atom to form a nine-member ring intermediate, then two steps of C-H covalent bond cleavage with consecutive migration of hydrogen atom to lose a molecule of C 16 H 20 O 2 (244 Da). The two proposed rearrangement mechanisms about phosphoryl group transfer might be valuable for the structure analysis of other analogs and provide insights into elucidating the dynamic process of the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation of proteins

  19. Using positive-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and H/D exchange study phosphoryl group transfer reactions involved in amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Mei-Juan; Zhang, He; Liao, Chao; Qiu, Ying-Kun [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); Fang, Hua [The Third Institute of Oceanography of the State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zheng, Zhen-Yu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Gao, Xiang [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); Zhao, Yu-Fen [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wu, Zhen, E-mail: wuzhen@xmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiang-An South Road, Xiamen 361102 (China)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ESI-MS{sup n}, HRMS and H/D exchange were used. • The fragmentation pathways of NPAAE-BFA in ESI-MS{sup n} were described. • Fragment ions involved in phosphorus group’s rearrangement reactions were observed. • Two rearrangement mechanisms about phosphorylation–dephosphorylation were proposed. - Abstract: As mini-chemical models, amino acid ester isopropyl phosphoramidates of Brefeldin A (compounds 2a–2d) were synthesized and investigated by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry in combination with H/D exchange. To further confirm the fragments’s structures, off-line Fourier transform resonance tandem mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS/MS) was also performed. The fragmentation rules of compounds 2a–2d have been summarized and the plausible schemes for the fragmentation pathways were proposed. In this study, one dephosphorylated ion and two phosphorylated ions were observed in ESI-MS{sup 2} spectra of [M + Na]{sup +} ions for compounds 2a–2d. The possible mechanisms about phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were proposed and confirmed by H/D exchange. For the “dephosphorylation” rearrangement, a nitrogen atom was migrated from the phosphoryl group to the carbon atom of Brefeldin A’s backbone with losing a molecule of C{sub 3}H{sub 7}PO{sub 3} (122 Da). For the “phosphorylation” rearrangement, an oxygen atom of one phosphoryl group attacked the sideward phosphorus atom to form a nine-member ring intermediate, then two steps of C-H covalent bond cleavage with consecutive migration of hydrogen atom to lose a molecule of C{sub 16}H{sub 20}O{sub 2} (244 Da). The two proposed rearrangement mechanisms about phosphoryl group transfer might be valuable for the structure analysis of other analogs and provide insights into elucidating the dynamic process of the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation of proteins.

  20. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-( sup 123 I)iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanaya, Toshinori (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) were measured in patients with schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-({sup 123}I)iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 20 patients with shizophrenia, 32 patients with endogenous depression and 20 normal controls. The patients with depression were divided into 3 groups; unmedicated, medicated patients in depressive state, and medicated patients in remited state. The rCBF were calculated by the corticocerebellar ratio (CCR), which was expressed as a ratio of activity per pixel in cortical regions of interest to the activity per pixel in the cerebellum. The results were as follows. In patients with schizophrenia the marked decrease in rCBF in bilateral frontal regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed. There was no significant correlation between the mean rCBF and BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) in patients with shizophrenia. In patients with depression the decrease in rCBF in overall cerebral regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed in both groups in depressive state. These changes were normalized in remited state, though there was no significant difference in rCBF between on medication and off medication. There was significantly negative correlation between the mean rCBF and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with depression. These results support the previously reported 'hypofrontality' and the left hemispheric dysfunction in shizophrenia. In depressive patients the overall cerebral dysfunction was revealed more remarkablly in the left than in the right hemisphere, which was normalized following the improvement of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it was suggested that the applications of IMP-SPECT could be useful for the diagnosis and research for the cerebral function in mental illness. (author) 59 refs.

  1. Regional cerebral blood flow measurement using N-isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) iodoamphetamine and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Seki, Hiroyasu; Ishida, Hiroko (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-one regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements were performed on 26 patients with cerebrovascular accidents using N-Isopropyl-p-(/sup 123/I) Iodoamphetamine (/sup 123/I-IMP) and rotating gamma camera emission computed tomography (ECT). The equation for determining rCBF is as follows: F=100.R.Cb/(N.A), where F is rCBF in ml/100 g/min., R is the constant withdrawal rate of arterial blood in ml/min., Cb is the brain activity concentration in ..mu..Ci/g, A is the total activity (5 min.) in the withdrawal arterial whole blood in ..mu..Ci and N is the fraction of A that is true tracer activity (0.75). In determining Cb at 5 min. after injection, reconstructed counts from 35 min. to 59 min. were corrected to represent those from 4 min. to 5 min. with the use of time activity curve for the entire brain immediately after injection to 30 min. Reconstructed counts of central region in tomographic image were corrected 118% of the obtained values from the result of the counting rate ratio between peripheral and central regions of interest obtained from phantom study. Brain mean blood flow values were distributed from 11 to 39 ml/100 g/min. In 119 cortical regions obtained from 11 measurements in 9 patients, there was a significant correlation (r=0.41, p < 0.001) between rCBF values obtained from /sup 123/I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT and those from /sup 133/Xe inhalation method. rCBF measurement using /sup 123/I-IMP and rotating gamma camera ECT is not only relatively noninvasive measurement for the entire brain but also three-dimensional evaluation. Besides, it is superior in spatial resolution and accuracy to conventional /sup 133/Xe clearance method.

  2. Quantifying regional cerebral blood flow with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine and SPECT by one-point sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odano, Ikuo; Takahashi, Naoya; Noguchi, Eikichi; Ohtaki, Hiro; Hatano, Masayoshi; Yamazaki, Yoshihiro; Higuchi, Takeshi; Ohkubo, Masaki.

    1994-01-01

    We developed a new non-invasive technique; one-point sampling method, for quantitative measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine and SPECT. Although the continuous withdrawal of arterial blood and octanol treatment of the blood are required in the conventional microsphere method, the new technique dose not require these two procedures. The total activity of 123 I-IMP obtained by the continuous withdrawal of arterial blood is inferred by the activity of 133 I-IMP obtained by the one point arterial sample using a regression line. To determine when one point sampling time was optimum for inferring integral input function of the continuous withdrawal and whether the treatment of sampled blood for octanol fraction was required, we examined a correlation between the total activity of arterial blood withdrawn from 0 to 5 min after the injection and the activity of one point sample obtained at time t, and calculated a regression line. As a result, the minimum % error for the inference using the regression line was obtained at 6 min after the 123 I-IMP injection, moreover, the octanol treatment was not required. Then examining an effect on the values of rCBF when the sampling time was deviated from 6 min, we could correct the values in approximately 3% error when the sample was obtained at 6±1 min after the injection. The one-point sampling method provides accurate and relatively non-invasive measurement of rCBF without octanol extraction of arterial blood. (author)

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow changes in schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaya, Toshinori

    1989-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flows (rCBF) were measured in patients with schizophrenia and endogenous depression by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine (IMP). The subjects were 20 patients with shizophrenia, 32 patients with endogenous depression and 20 normal controls. The patients with depression were divided into 3 groups; unmedicated, medicated patients in depressive state, and medicated patients in remited state. The rCBF were calculated by the corticocerebellar ratio (CCR), which was expressed as a ratio of activity per pixel in cortical regions of interest to the activity per pixel in the cerebellum. The results were as follows. In patients with schizophrenia the marked decrease in rCBF in bilateral frontal regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed. There was no significant correlation between the mean rCBF and BPRS (Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale) in patients with shizophrenia. In patients with depression the decrease in rCBF in overall cerebral regions and the lower rCBF in the left than in the right hemisphere were observed in both groups in depressive state. These changes were normalized in remited state, though there was no significant difference in rCBF between on medication and off medication. There was significantly negative correlation between the mean rCBF and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in patients with depression. These results support the previously reported 'hypofrontality' and the left hemispheric dysfunction in shizophrenia. In depressive patients the overall cerebral dysfunction was revealed more remarkablly in the left than in the right hemisphere, which was normalized following the improvement of depressive symptoms. Furthermore, it was suggested that the applications of IMP-SPECT could be useful for the diagnosis and research for the cerebral function in mental illness. (author) 59 refs

  4. Analysis and assessment for the intrapulmonary kinetics of N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in diffuse respiratory diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujishima, Seitaro (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-01-01

    We investigated intrapulmonary kinetics of N-isopropyl-I-123-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in patients with diffuse respiratory diseases. Subjects studied were 4 healthy nonsmoking controls (age{>=}40), 3 young healthy nonsmokers (age<40), 4 healthy smokers, 8 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 2 with sarcoidosis, and 4 with chronic pulmonary emphysema (CPE). All studies were performed after obtaining informed consent. Ages were matched among the groups except the group of young healthy nonsmokers. We calculated the lung initial extraction fraction (E value) of IMP using Tc-99m human serum albumin as an intravascular reference tracer with deconvolution method. We also analyzed the lung IMP washout curve by a two-compartmental model. The mean E value for the nonsmoking controls was 0.977, indicating almost all IMP injected was taken up by the lungs at the initial passage. There was no difference in the E value among the groups. With regard to the lung IMP washout analysis, the distribution to the fast compartment (A{sub 1}) was smaller than that to the slow compartment (A{sub 2}). There was no difference in the A{sub 1} to A{sub 2} ratio among the groups. We then analyzed the slopes of the fast and slow compartments (k{sub 1}, k{sub 2}). There was no difference in k{sub 1} among the groups. On the other hand, k{sub 2} was larger in young healthy nonsmokers and smaller in healthy smokers, the patients with IPF, sarcoidosis and CPE than k{sub 2} in nonsmoking controls. Furthermore, k{sub 2} decreased in inverse proportion to age. We concluded that k{sub 2} could be a valuable index to detect changes of IMP, a lipophilic amine, metabolism in the lungs. (author).

  5. Acute effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate, on cardiovascular parameters in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Itoh, Takeo; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Maeno, Yoshitaka; Arima, Yosuke; Torikoshi, Aiko; Namera, Akira; Makita, Ryosuke; Yoshizumi, Masao; Nagao, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    The organophosphorus compound sarin irreversibly inhibits acetylcholinesterase. We examined the acute cardiovascular effects of a sarin-like organophosphorus agent, bis(isopropyl methyl)phosphonate (BIMP), in anaesthetized, artificially ventilated rats. Intravenous administration of BIMP (0.8 mg/kg; the LD50 value) induced a long-lasting increase in blood pressure and tended to increase heart rate. In rats pretreated with the non-selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist atropine, BIMP significantly increased both heart rate and blood pressure. In atropine-treated rats, hexamethonium (antagonist of ganglionic nicotinic receptors) greatly attenuated the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure without changing the BIMP-induced increase in heart rate. In rats treated with atropine plus hexamethonium, intravenous phentolamine (non-selective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist) plus propranolol (non-selective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) completely blocked the BIMP-induced increases in blood pressure and heart rate. In atropine-treated rats, the reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (1 mg/kg) induced a transient increase in blood pressure, but had no effect on heart rate. These results suggest that in anaesthetized rats, BIMP induces powerful stimulation of sympathetic as well as parasympathetic nerves and thereby modulates heart rate and blood pressure. They may also indicate that an action independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition contributes to the acute cardiovascular responses induced by BIMP. - Highlights: • A sarin-like agent BIMP markedly increased blood pressure in anaesthetized rats. • Muscarinic receptor blockade enhanced the BIMP-induced increase in blood pressure. • Ganglionic nicotinic receptor blockade attenuated the BIMP-induced response. • Blockade of α- as well as β-receptors attenuated the BIMP-induced response

  6. Family Based Prevention of Alcohol and Risky Sex for Older Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-08

    Alcohol Drinking; Alcohol Intoxication; Alcohol Poison; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Alcohol Impairment; Alcohol Withdrawal; Alcohol Abstinence; Alcohol; Harmful Use; Sex Behavior; Sexual Aggression; Sexual Harassment; Relation, Interpersonal

  7. Base-free Pd/TOMPP-Catalyzed Telomerization of 1,3-Butadiene with Carbohydrates and sugar alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hausoul, P.J.C.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2009-01-01

    Sugar and alcohol - a superior combo: The telomerization activity of the Pd/TOMPP catalyst is screened using thirteen different biomass-derived carbohydrates and sugar alcohols. High substrate conversions are achieved by using low Pd loading and without the use of an added base. In terms of

  8. KINETIC RESOLUTION OF ALCOHOLS IN AN ASYMMETRIC MITSUNOBU REACTION USING CHIRAL NONRACEMIC 1,3,2-DIOXAPHOSPHEPANES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, Ron; Basten, Arjan van; Fitzpatrick, Kevin; Kellogg, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Non-racemic chiral trivalent phosphorus derivatives 1 and 2 when employed under Mitsunobu reaction conditions, induce esterification between racemic alcohols and acids with moderate enantiospecificity (up to 39%). At the expense of high conversion, the alcohols can be obtained in high ee (> 99%).

  9. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  10. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future

  11. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol degrad...

  12. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  13. Experimental study on evaluation and optimization of conversion of waste chicken fat into biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, J.E.; Sebastian, P.J.; Perez, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This study was initiated to evaluate and optimize the conversion of waste chicken fat (WCF) into ethyl and methyl ester called biodiesel. The physical and chemical characteristics of these esters were much closer to those of Diesel fuel than those of fresh vegetable oil or fat, which makes them a good substitute for Diesel fuel. Experiments have been performed to determine the optimum conditions for this conversion process using a three factor factorial design for producing biodiesel. The major variables in the transesterification process are determined from the pre experiments as: reaction temperature, molar ratio of alcohol/oil, alcohol type utilized and catalyst type. Absolute ethanol was found better than absolute methanol, since ethanol gives higher conversion and less viscosity at all levels, mainly at 100% excess concentration. Temperature had no detectable effect on the ultimate conversion ratio and viscosity for both ester products. However, higher temperatures decreases the time required to reach maximum conversion, which will be at the expense of the cost of energy. An interaction between time and temperature was found for all conversions. Therefore, 60 C was found to be the optimum temperature, and one hour is the optimum time for the conversion of WAFs into biodiesel. The obtained product with 97.02% of biodiesel was analyzed and characterized by gas chromatography. (author)

  14. Relationship between alcohol-attributable disease and socioeconomic status, and the role of alcohol consumption in this relationship: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa; Bates, Geoff; McCoy, Ellie; Bellis, Mark A

    2015-04-18

    Studies show that alcohol consumption appears to have a disproportionate impact on people of low socioeconomic status. Further exploration of the relationship between alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status and the development of chronic alcohol-attributable diseases is therefore important to inform the development of effective public health programmes. We used systematic review methodology to identify published studies of the association between socioeconomic factors and mortality and morbidity for alcohol-attributable conditions. To attempt to quantify differences in the impact of alcohol consumption for each condition, stratified by SES, we (i) investigated the relationship between SES and risk of mortality or morbidity for each alcohol-attributable condition, and (ii) where, feasible explored alcohol consumption as a mediating or interacting variable in this relationship. We identified differing relationships between a range of alcohol-attributable conditions and socioeconomic indicators. Pooled analyses showed that low, relative to high socioeconomic status, was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer and stroke, and in individual studies, with hypertension and liver disease. Conversely, risk of female breast cancer tended to be associated with higher socioeconomic status. These findings were attenuated but held when adjusted for a number of known risk factors and other potential confounding factors. A key finding was the lack of studies that have explored the interaction between alcohol-attributable disease, socioeconomic status and alcohol use. Despite some limitations to our review, we have described relationships between socioeconomic status and a range of alcohol-attributable conditions, and explored the mediating and interacting effects of alcohol consumption where feasible. However, further research is needed to better characterise the relationship between socioeconomic status alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable disease risk

  15. Prior alcohol use enhances vulnerability to compulsive cocaine self-administration by promoting degradation of HDAC4 and HDAC5

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Edmund A.; Melas, Philippe A.; Zhou, Royce; Li, Yang; Mercado, Peter; Kempadoo, Kimberly A.; Stephenson, Stacy; Colnaghi, Luca; Taylor, Kathleen; Hu, Mei-Chen; Kandel, Eric R.; Kandel, Denise B.

    2017-01-01

    Addiction to cocaine is commonly preceded by experiences with legal or decriminalized drugs, such as alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana. The biological mechanisms by which these gateway drugs contribute to cocaine addiction are only beginning to be understood. We report that in the rat, prior alcohol consumption results in enhanced addiction-like behavior to cocaine, including continued cocaine use despite aversive consequences. Conversely, prior cocaine use has no effect on alcohol preference....

  16. [Genetic variations in alcohol dehydrogenase, drinking habits and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J.S.; Rasmussen, S.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. By genotyping 9,080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow versus fast alcohol...... degradation drank approximately 30% more alcohol per week and had a higher risk of everyday and heavy drinking, and of alcoholism. Individuals with ADH1C slow versus fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy drinking Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/25...

  17. Alcohol from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    A process for ethanol production from whey is described. The lactose is fermented into alcohol via glucose and galactose of yeast. The whey must be pasteurized before fermentation in order to reduce the concentration of microorganisms in the protein fraction. The protein is separated by ultrafiltration. The whey, which is now rather free of bacteria, is introduced into the fermentation unit where yeast cultures are added to it. After fermentation, the yeast slurry is separated and processed into feeding yeast while the mash is passed on to the distillation unit. The alcohol thus produced is of very high quality and may be added to alcoholic beverages.

  18. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kedir, Abdu; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n=5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  19. Is proximity to alcohol outlets associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seid, Abdu K.; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Stock, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study examined the associations between distance from residence to the nearest alcohol outlet with alcohol consumption as well as with alcohol-related harm. Methods: Data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and sociodemographics were obtained from the 2011 Danish Drug...... and Alcohol Survey (n = 5133) with respondents aged 15–79 years. The information on distances from residence to the nearest alcohol outlets was obtained from Statistics Denmark. Multiple logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the association between distances to outlets and alcohol consumption...... whereas alcohol-related harm was analysed using negative binomial regression. Results: Among women it was found that those living closer to alcohol outlets were more likely to report alcohol-related harm (p

  20. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  1. Determination of expected alcohol yield from molasses by laboratory fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medintseva, L L

    1960-01-01

    Molasses (750 g, 18 to 19% dry weight) in 31 media, supplemented with nutrients was fermented with the industrial yeast strain. The expected alcohol yield was calculated for 1 kg conventional starch as B = V/P..pi.. 0.95, where V is the amount of alcohol distilled from the fermented medium in ml, P is the weight of molasses in g, is the fermentable sugar content of the molasses in percent, and 0.95 is the conversion factor from sucrose to starch.

  2. Defining Alcohol-Specific Rules Among Parents of Older Adolescents: Moving Beyond No Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdeau, Beth; Miller, Brenda; Vanya, Magdalena; Duke, Michael; Ames, Genevieve

    2012-01-01

    Parental beliefs and rules regarding their teen's use of alcohol influence teen decisions regarding alcohol use. However, measurement of parental rules regarding adolescent alcohol use has not been thoroughly studied. This study used qualitative interviews with 174 parents of older teens from 100 families. From open-ended questions, themes emerged that describe explicit rules tied to circumscribed use, no tolerance, and "call me." There was some inconsistency in explicit rules with and between parents. Responses also generated themes relating to implicit rules such as expectations and preferences. Parents described their methods of communicating their position via conversational methods, role modeling their own behavior, teaching socially appropriate use of alcohol by offering their teen alcohol, and monitoring their teens' social activities. Findings indicate that alcohol rules are not adequately captured by current assessment measures.

  3. ALCOHOL AND HEART RHYTHM DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Yusupova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse and particularly extension of alcohol consumption in alcohol diseas increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmias development and aggravates existing arrhythmias. Patients do not always receive the necessary specific treatment due to lack of detection of the ethanol genesis of these arrhythmias. Management of patients with alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence, including its cardiac complications among other cardiac arrhythmias should use both antiarrhythmic and anti-alcohol drugs and antidepressants. Such issues as diagnosis and management of patients with alcohol-induced cardiac arrhythmias are presented.

  4. Alcohol advertising and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W

    2002-06-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders (FASDs) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence Last Updated: November 21, 2017 This article was ... about pre-pregnancy planning, including tips on nutrition, exercise and healthy habits. About Support Us Copyright & Permissions ...

  6. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMSHA) Last reviewed: April, 2016 Pregnancy Is it safe? Other Pregnancy topics ') document.write(' ...

  7. Alcohol and radionuclide metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlum, D.D.; Hess, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of ethanol administration on the deposition and retention of polymeric 239 Pu and 241 Am citrate was studied in the rat. Only in the case of polymeric Pu was there an effect of alcohol administration

  8. Breath alcohol test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a glass tube. The tube is filled with bands of yellow crystals. The bands in the tube change colors (from yellow to ... Results Mean With the balloon method: 1 green band means that the blood-alcohol level is 0. ...

  9. When alcohol acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob

    2009-01-01

      Sociological studies into alcohol use seem to find it difficult to deal with the substance itself. Alcohol tends to be reduced to a symbol of a social process and in this way the sociological research loses sight of effects beyond the social. This paper suggests a new theoretical approach...... to the study of alcohol and teenagers' (romantic) relationships, inspired by actor-network theory (ANT). The central feature of ANT is to search for relationships, or rather networks, between all things relevant to the phenomenon. All material and semantic structures, things, persons, discourses, etc....... that influence a given situation are described as actants and are entered into the analysis. The aim of this paper is to propose a way of including materiality in sociological analyses of alcohol and to explore ways of using focus group interview material in ANT-inspired analysis. By analyzing a girl...

  10. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be more vulnerable to brain damage than teen boys who drink. Women also may be more susceptible than men to alcohol-related blackouts, defined as periods of memory loss of events during intoxication without loss of consciousness. ...

  11. Alcohol and Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... heavy drinking, most heavy drinkers have developed cirrhosis. Hepatitis C and cirrhosis In general, someone with hepatitis ...

  12. Weight loss and alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Maclean JC. Alcohol consumption and body weight. Health Econ . 2010;19(7):814-832. PMID: 19548203 www. ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  13. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol and Cirrhosis Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  14. Alcohol and masculinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemle, R; Mishkind, M E

    1989-01-01

    Alcohol use--and abuse--has always been more prevalent among males than among females. The sex role prescription for men to affirm their masculinity by drinking is a major determinant of this sex difference. This paper reviews the intricate interrelationship between masculinity and both social and alcoholic drinking. A large body of evidence indicates that social drinking is a primary cultural symbol of manliness; portrayals in the media strengthen this association. Less evidence exists to connect masculinity issues with alcoholic dependence, but there has been much speculation: Three psychodynamic theories of alcoholism--the repressed homosexuality, dependency, and power theories--hypothesized that men who drink addictively have the most fragile masculine identities. The 1980s have witnessed a widespread recognition of the dangers of equating drinking and manliness, and societal changes suggest that drinking may be gradually losing its masculine aura.

  15. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:59-60. Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 86. Haines EJ, Oyama LC. ...

  16. Older Adults and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS Older Adults A national 2008 survey found that about 40 ... of adults ages 65 and older drink alcohol. Older adults can experience a variety of problems from drinking ...

  17. Non alcoholic steatohepatitis - Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter L. M.

    2004-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an underdiagnosed liver disease characterized by steatosis, necroinflammation and fibrosis. This disease may eventually develop into cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NASH is highly prevalent among obese individuals and among patients with diabetes

  18. Alcohol production from whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reesen, L

    1978-01-01

    The continuous production of ethanol from whey permeate, by fermentation of its lactose with Kluyveromyces fragilis, is described. From whey containing 4.4% lactose, production costs were very competitive with those for alcohol from molasses.

  19. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Oß wald, Patrick; Hansen, Nils; Kohse-Hö inghaus, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    . While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides

  20. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D- 3 He reaction and the p- 11 B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger βB 2 0 to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high β values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D- 3 He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D 3 He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D 3 He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion or liquid metal MHD conversion (LMMHD). For a D

  1. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  2. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  3. Alcoholic hallucinosis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara Werner Griciunas; Norton Yoshiaki Kitanishi; Patricia Motta Carvalho; Daniel Azevedo Cavalcante; Leonardo Mattiolli Marini

    2017-01-01

    Case report of patient who has been an alcoholic for 40 years and, after reducing alcohol intake, developed auditory and visual hallucinations, which caused behavior change. Neurological issues, electrolyte disturbances and other organ dysfunctions were excluded as cause of said change. After intake of haloperidol and risperidone, the patient had regression of symptoms and denied having presented hallucinatory symptoms. The Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais – 5ª edição (...

  4. [Alcohol and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seror, E; Chapelon, E; Bué, M; Garnier-Lengliné, H; Lebeaux-Legras, C; Loudenot, A; Lejeune, C

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major cause of mental retardation in Western countries. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is mainly characterized by pre- and postnatal stunted growth, neurocognitive disorders, and facial dysmorphism. It compromises the intellectual and behavioral prognosis of the child. Prevention tools exist, through better information of health professionals, for optimal care of high-risk women before, during, and after pregnancy, which would decrease the incidence of SAF in the future.

  5. 5 CFR 317.302 - Conversion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion. (2) Pay. Upon conversion to the Senior Executive Service, an employee's SES rate will be... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion procedures. 317.302 Section... IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.302 Conversion...

  6. Crystallinity and properties of C60 nanotubes improved by annealing and alcohol-soaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, K.; Matsuishi, K.

    2009-04-01

    Well-uniformed C60 nanotubes were grown at -20 °C with irradiation of red light using C60-saturated pyridine solution and isopropyl alcohol by a liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method without ultrasonic pulverization. We attempted to improve their crystallinity by two post-treatments; thermal annealing and alcohol-soaking. The crystallinity of as-grown and dried C60 nanotubes, which was poor due to the evaporation of solvent molecules from crystals in the drying process, was improved by annealing around 220 °C for 5 hours in vacuum. Dramatic improvement of crystallinity of as-grown samples was achieved by soaking into methanol and then drying in air. Raman, infrared and X-ray diffraction results suggest that the methanol-soaked samples exhibit a solvated tetragonal structure. The crystallinity improved by methanol-soaking did not degrade after removal of methanol molecules from samples by thermal annealing. Photo-polymerization of the structurally-improved C60 nanotubes was examined to investigate an effect of crystallinity on the polymerization kinetics.

  7. Efficacy and dermal tolerance of a novel alcohol-based skin antiseptic in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannahill, Victoria J; Cogan, Tristan; Allen, Kate; Acutt, Elizabeth; Busschers, Evita

    2018-04-14

    To determine the efficacy and dermal tolerance of a novel alcohol-based skin antiseptic (ABSA) in horses. Experimental study. Systemically healthy horses (n = 25) with no history or clinical signs of skin disease. Four clipped sites on the abdomen were randomly assigned to a skin preparation protocol: saline (negative control; NC), chlorhexidine gluconate followed by isopropyl alcohol (positive control; PC), saline followed by the ABSA (ABSA A), or a commercially available horse shampoo followed by the ABSA (ABSA B). Microbiological swabs were obtained from each site and cultured on MacConkey and mannitol salt agar plates. Colony-forming units were counted 18-24 hours later. All sites were scored for signs of skin reaction before, immediately after, 1 hour after, and 24 hours after skin preparation. The PC, ABSA A, and ABSA B methods reduced skin microbial burden compared with the NC method (P horses required veterinary treatment. The ABSA preparations tested in this study were as effective and well tolerated as a chlorhexidine gluconate-based method, but required less time in healthy horses. The ABSA tested here provides an efficacious, fast-acting, and well-tolerated alternative to achieve skin antisepsis in healthy horses. These results justify further investigation in clinical cases. © 2018 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Crystallinity and properties of C60 nanotubes improved by annealing and alcohol-soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, K; Matsuishi, K

    2009-01-01

    Well-uniformed C 60 nanotubes were grown at -20 deg. C with irradiation of red light using C 60 -saturated pyridine solution and isopropyl alcohol by a liquid-liquid interfacial precipitation method without ultrasonic pulverization. We attempted to improve their crystallinity by two post-treatments; thermal annealing and alcohol-soaking. The crystallinity of as-grown and dried C 60 nanotubes, which was poor due to the evaporation of solvent molecules from crystals in the drying process, was improved by annealing around 220 deg. C for 5 hours in vacuum. Dramatic improvement of crystallinity of as-grown samples was achieved by soaking into methanol and then drying in air. Raman, infrared and X-ray diffraction results suggest that the methanol-soaked samples exhibit a solvated tetragonal structure. The crystallinity improved by methanol-soaking did not degrade after removal of methanol molecules from samples by thermal annealing. Photo-polymerization of the structurally-improved C 60 nanotubes was examined to investigate an effect of crystallinity on the polymerization kinetics.

  9. Conversational evidence in therapeutic dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom; Busch, Robbie; Couture, Shari

    2008-07-01

    Family therapists' participation in therapeutic dialogue with clients is typically informed by evidence of how such dialogue is developing. In this article, we propose that conversational evidence, the kind that can be empirically analyzed using discourse analyses, be considered a contribution to widening psychotherapy's evidence base. After some preliminaries about what we mean by conversational evidence, we provide a genealogy of evaluative practice in psychotherapy, and examine qualitative evaluation methods for their theoretical compatibilities with social constructionist approaches to family therapy. We then move on to examine the notion of accomplishment in therapeutic dialogue given how such accomplishments can be evaluated using conversation analysis. We conclude by considering a number of research and pedagogical implications we associate with conversational evidence.

  10. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems utilize the kinetic energy of flowing water bodies with little or no head to generate ... generator. ... Its principle of operation is analogous to that of wind ..... Crisis-solar and wind power systems, 2009,.

  11. Conversion electrons in the SDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicklund, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    We summarize a preliminary analysis of the rates for conversion electrons in the SDC detector, relative to other interesting sources of prompt electrons. We have used Papageno V3.30, and other available NLO calculations to estimate inclusive rates in the central region (η less than 2.0), and we have cross checked these using CDF data at 1.8 TeV. We have considered three sources of ''isolated'' electrons, namely inclusive W/Z production; top quark (Mt=140); and QCD prompt photon production, followed by conversion in 10% XO. This value approximates the inner silicon detector at SDC. Additional conversions will occur in the outer tracking chamber, but the trigger and track reconstruction efficiency will be lower. We have also considered ''nonisolated'' leptons coming from inclusive bottom production, photon conversions resulting from π 0 ,η production in jets, and high pt hadrons faking electrons

  12. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  13. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    -depth analysis of application and achievements of OTEC, tidal energy, impact of astronomical forces on tide, prospects of tidal power plants, wave energy conversion and its mathematical approach for both linear and non-linear waves, economic viability, problems...

  14. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  15. Hydrogen photoproduction by photoelectrochemical conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The water-splitting reaction by photoelectrochemical processes has gained much more attention than any of many reactions proposed for solar generation of energy-rich molecules (fuels). The conversion efficiency of the photosystem is the key factor. The higher the efficiency, the more economically feasible will be the conversion scheme. The conversion efficiency is a function of the semiconductor properties, light intensity, spectral quality, properties of the electrolyte, counterelectrode, cell configuration, etc. The semiconductor parameters include band gap, absorption coefficient and diffusion length. The area and material used for a counterelectrode are important when considering polarization losses in a two-electrode system. Besides, the stability problem is also a very important one to meet the requirement for practical applications. This paper reviews some important issues on photoelectrochemical generation of hydrogen by water splitting. It includes energy conversion efficiency, market assessment and cost goal, state of the technology, and future directions for research

  16. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  17. Electron spectrometers with internal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, J.C.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The efforts that the Department of Physics (DEFI) of Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) are being made aiming at adjusting the electron spectrometers with internal conversion to its necessity, are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  18. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  19. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. METHODS: We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993......-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. RESULTS......: We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50...

  20. Alcohol-attributable and alcohol-preventable mortality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Becker, Ulrik; Grønbæk, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify alcohol-attributable and -preventable mortality, totally and stratified on alcohol consumption in Denmark 2010, and to estimate alcohol-related mortality assuming different scenarios of changes in alcohol distribution in the population. We estimated alcohol......-attributable and -preventable fractions based on relative risks of conditions causally associated with alcohol from meta-analyses and information on alcohol consumption in Denmark obtained from 14,458 participants in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 and corrected for adult per capita consumption. Cause-specific mortality...... data were obtained from the Danish Register of Causes of Death. In total, 1,373 deaths among women (5.0 % of all deaths) and 2,522 deaths among men (9.5 % of all deaths) were attributable to alcohol, while an estimated number of 765 (2.8 %) and 583 (2.2 %) deaths were prevented by alcohol...

  1. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing Alcohol Marketing and Alcohol Warning Message Policies Across Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, Ashley; Cukier, Samantha N; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2017-08-24

    In order to reduce harms from alcohol, evidence-based policies are to be introduced and sustained. To facilitate the dissemination of policies that reduce alcohol-related harms by documenting, comparing, and sharing information on effective alcohol polices related to restrictions on alcohol marketing and alcohol warning messaging in 10 Canadian provinces. Team members developed measurable indicators to assess policies on (a) restrictions on alcohol marketing, and (b) alcohol warning messaging. Indicators were peer-reviewed by three alcohol policy experts, refined, and data were collected, submitted for validation by provincial experts, and scored independently by two team members. The national average score was 52% for restrictions on marketing policies and 18% for alcohol warning message policies. Most provinces had marketing regulations that went beyond the federal guidelines with penalties for violating marketing regulations. The provincial liquor boards' web pages focused on product promotion, and there were few restrictions on sponsorship activities. No province has implemented alcohol warning labels, and Ontario was the sole province to have legislated warning signs at all points-of-sale. Most provinces provided a variety of warning signs to be displayed voluntarily at points-of-sale; however, the quality of messages varied. Conclusions/Importance: There is extensive alcohol marketing with comparatively few messages focused on the potential harms associated with alcohol. It is recommended that governments collaborate with multiple stakeholders to maximize the preventive impact of restrictions on alcohol marketing and advertising, and a broader implementation of alcohol warning messages.

  3. Computer code conversion using HISTORIAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kumakura, Toshimasa.

    1990-09-01

    When a computer program written for a computer A is converted for a computer B, in general, the A version source program is rewritten for B version. However, in this way of program conversion, the following inconvenient problems arise. 1) The original statements to be rewritten for B version are lost. 2) If the original statements of the A version rewritten for B version would remain as comment lines, the B version source program becomes quite large. 3) When update directives of the program are mailed from the organization which developed the program or when some modifications are needed for the program, it is difficult to point out the part to be updated or modified in the B version source program. To solve these problems, the conversion method using the general-purpose software management aid system, HISTORIAN, has been introduced. This conversion method makes a large computer code a easy-to-use program for use to update, modify or improve after the conversion. This report describes the planning and procedures of the conversion method and the MELPROG-PWR/MOD1 code conversion from the CRAY version to the JAERI FACOM version as an example. This report would provide useful information for those who develop or introduce large programs. (author)

  4. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  5. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  6. Investigation of regional cerebral blood flow in alcoholic Korsakoff`s syndrome with {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Makoto; Nomura, Soichiro [Tachikawa Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kato, Motoichiro; Nakazawa, Tsuneyuki

    1995-05-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was determined quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) using N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) in 6 patients with alcoholic Korsakoff`s syndrome (A group). The findings were compared with concurrently available findings from 6 alcoholic patients with no evidence of cerebral disordres such as Korsakoff`s syndrome and dementia (B group) and 4 healthy persons (C group). In both A and B groups, diffuse decrease in blood flow was significantly observed in the entire brain, as compared with the C group; no significant difference in the decreased blood flow existed between the A and B groups. According to the WAIS results, the patients in the A group were classified as `typical Korsakoff`s syndrome` (full IQ of 90 or more) and as `serious Korsakoff`s syndrome` (full IQ of 89 or less). rCBF in the thalamus was significantly lower in the A group of patients with typical Korsakoff`s syndrome than the B group. These findings may reflect the variety of alcoholic Korsakoff`s syndrome. This may also have an implication for the possible classification of several types in this syndrome. (N.K.).

  7. A comparison of the effect of mobile phone use and alcohol consumption on driving simulation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sumie; Croft, Rodney J; Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; McKenzie, Raymond J

    2012-01-01

    The present study compared the effects of a variety of mobile phone usage conditions to different levels of alcohol intoxication on simulated driving performance and psychomotor vigilance. Twelve healthy volunteers participated in a crossover design in which each participant completed a simulated driving task on 2 days, separated by a 1-week washout period. On the mobile phone day, participants performed the simulated driving task under each of 4 conditions: no phone usage, a hands-free naturalistic conversation, a hands-free cognitively demanding conversation, and texting. On the alcohol day, participants performed the simulated driving task at four different blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels: 0.00, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.10. Driving performance was assessed by variables including time within target speed range, time spent speeding, braking reaction time, speed deviation, and lateral lane position deviation. In the BAC 0.07 and 0.10 alcohol conditions, participants spent less time in the target speed range and more time speeding and took longer to brake in the BAC 0.04, 0.07, and 0.10 than in the BAC 0.00 condition. In the mobile phone condition, participants took longer to brake in the natural hands-free conversation, cognitively demanding hands-free conversation and texting conditions and spent less time in the target speed range and more time speeding in the cognitively demanding, hands-free conversation, and texting conditions. When comparing the 2 conditions, the naturalistic conversation was comparable to the legally permissible BAC level (0.04), and the cognitively demanding and texting conversations were similar to the BAC 0.07 to 0.10 results. The findings of the current laboratory study suggest that very simple conversations on a mobile phone may not represent a significant driving risk (compared to legally permissible BAC levels), whereas cognitively demanding, hands-free conversation, and particularly texting represent significant risks to driving.

  8. [Motivational interviewing with alcohol-dependent patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Michael; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Motivational interviewing with alcohol-dependent patients Alcohol-dependent patients do not need to be motivated from the outside. They are mostly ambivalent, and the inner voice, which already speaks for change (change talk), is heard through motivational interviewing, carefully strengthened and developed together with the patient. The practitioner has to deal with the human spirit of motivational interviewing and should be able to communicate with empathy, respect, congruence, and openness. The patient's autonomy should always be maintained. Advice is only given upon request. The conversation style is directive-guiding instead of authoritariansteering. OARS and the EPE principle are the motivational interviewing basics, which are consistently applied over 4 processes of motivational interviewing: engaging, focusing, evocing, and planning. The likelihood of change talk increases as soon as discrepancies between life goals and alcohol consumption emerge. An increased rate of change talk makes a change in behavior more likely. If a patient argues against change (sustain talk), one should not confront, but should consistently work with reflections, reframing, and an emphasis on autonomy. Motivational interviewing can be applied in different settings and populations, should be learned by the entire team (best professional guidance) in teamwork, and be subjected to a critical and constant evaluation. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Serum protein binding displacement: theoretical analysis using a hypothetical radiopharmaceutical and experimental analysis with 123I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Keiichi; Nishii, Ryuichi; Shikano, Naoto; Makino, Nobuo; Kuga, Noriyuki; Yoshimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Tamura, Shozo; Takamura, Norito

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The binding of radiopharmaceutical to serum proteins is thought to be an important factor that restricts its excretion and accumulation in tissue. We calculated the effect of inhibitors of serum protein binding using a hypothetical radiopharmaceutical. In vitro experiments and protein binding inhibitor-loaded monkey scintigraphy were then conducted using 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP) as the radiopharmaceutical. Methods: Free fraction ratios of radiopharmaceutical were calculated with one radiopharmaceutical, two serum proteins and two specific inhibitors in the steady state at various serum protein concentrations. In vitro protein binding inhibition studies using human, rat and monkey sera were performed with site-selective displacers of specific binding sites: 400 μM 6-methoxy-2-naphthylacetic acid (6MNA; a major nabumeton metabolite) as a serum albumin Site II inhibitor and 400 μM erythromycin (ETC) as an α 1 -acid glycoprotein (AGP) site inhibitor. Scintigraphy with or without 6MNA loading of monkeys was performed. Results: The theoretical findings roughly corresponded to the experimental results. Approximately 75% of IMP bound to serum albumin Site II and AGP in the species examined. The free fraction of IMP (25.0±0.6% for human, 22.8±0.4% for monkey, 23.7±0.3% for rat) increased with loading of specific protein binding inhibitors (6MNA: 28.0±0.3% for human, 24.5±0.7% for monkey, 24.3±0.2% for rat; ETC: 26.3±0.4% for human, 29.5±1.1% for monkey, 26.0±0.7% for rat) and was serum protein concentration dependant based on the results of calculations. Simultaneous administration of 6MNA and ETC produced a higher free fraction ratio of IMP (31.9±1.0% for human, 34.6±0.4% for monkey, 27.0±0.3% for rat) than summation of the single administrations of 6MNA and ETC (domino effect) in human, rat and monkey sera. Rapid cerebral accumulation was observed with 6MNA loading in monkey scintigraphy. Conclusions: 6MNA appears to change

  10. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  11. Alcohol and the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, S; Montalvo, R

    1998-01-01

    Alcoholic pancreatitis may be one of the most serious adverse consequences of alcohol abuse. Its diagnosis, as it has for many years, depends primarily on clinical acumen in interpreting properly the symptoms and signs of abdominal distress, buttressed by elevated pancreatic enzymes (amylase and lipase). More recently, the use of computerized tomography (CT) in selected situations has been both of confirmatory and prognostic value. Severity of abnormality by CT correlates reasonably well with a variety of clinical-laboratory clusters (APACHE system, Ranson's criteria, etc.) and aids in therapy. The pathogenesis of alcoholic pancreatitis is not fully defined. The ultimate picture is one of tissue autolysis by activated proteolytic enzymes. The triggers for such activation, however, are still not known. They are represented by three main theories: (1) large duct obstruction and/or increased permeability relative to pancreatic secretion, (2) small duct obstruction due to proteinaceous precipitates, and (3) a direct toxic-metabolic effect of ethanol on pancreatic acinar cells. While not mutually exclusive, we favor the last hypothesis as being most consistent with the effects of ethanol on other organ systems. The direct effects of ethanol and/or its metabolites may be mediated, at least in part, via oxidative stress or the generation of fatty acid ethyl esters. Autolysis (regardless of proximate mechanism(s)) leads to inflammation likely mediated via release of various cytokines. It also should be appreciated that "acute" pancreatitis (the topic of this chapter) likely represents an acute process within a chronic pancreatic exposure and injury from alcoholic abuse. The key question of why pancreatitis develops in only a small number of alcohol abusers is not resolved. Therapy depends on the severity of alcoholic pancreatitis, which is defined by clinical-laboratory and often CT criteria. Mild pancreatitis usually resolves acutely with alcohol abstention and supportive

  12. ABA-alcohol is an intermediate in abscisic acid biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1990-01-01

    It has been established that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to ABA. The ABA-deficient flacca and sitiens mutants of tomato are blocked in the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA, and accumulate trans-ABA-alcohol. 18 O-Labeling studies of ABA in flacca and sitiens show that these mutants synthesize a large percentage of [ 18 O]ABA which contains two 18 O atoms in the carboxyl group. Furthermore, the mutants synthesize much greater amounts of trans-ABA-glucose ester (t-ABA-GE) compared with the wild type, and this [ 18 O]t-ABA-GE is also double labeled in the carboxyl group. Our interpretation of these data is that the 18 O in ABA-aldehyde is trapped in the side chain by reduction to [ 18 O]ABA-alcohol, followed by isomerization to [ 18 O]t-ABA-alcohol and oxidation with 18 O 2 to [ 18 O]t-ABA. The [ 18 O]t-ABA is then rapidly converted to [ 18 O]t-ABA-GE. Because [ 18 O]ABA doubly labeled in the carboxyl group has been observed in small amounts in labeling experiments with several species, and various species have been shown to convert ABA-aldehyde to ABA-alcohol and t-ABA-alcohol, we propose that ABA-alcohol is an ABA intermediate in a shunt pathway

  13. Information for Consumers about Alternative Fuel Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here are some factors to be aware of if you are considering fuel conversion, including background information on fuel conversion, instructions for demonstrating compliance, and other related information.

  14. Exposure to alcohol advertisements and teenage alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenard, Jerry L; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

    2013-02-01

    This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents' jobs, and parents' education. Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence.

  15. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  16. Anticonvulsants for alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Silvia; Amato, Laura; Vecchi, Simona; Davoli, Marina

    2010-03-17

    Alcohol abuse and dependence represents a most serious health problem worldwide with major social, interpersonal and legal interpolations. Besides benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants are often used for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms. Anticonvulsants drugs are indicated for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome, alone or in combination with benzodiazepine treatments. In spite of the wide use, the exact role of the anticonvulsants for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal has not yet bee adequately assessed. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (December 2009), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (1966 to December 2009), EconLIT (1969 to December 2009). Parallel searches on web sites of health technology assessment and related agencies, and their databases. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effectiveness, safety and overall risk-benefit of anticonvulsants in comparison with a placebo or other pharmacological treatment. All patients were included regardless of age, gender, nationality, and outpatient or inpatient therapy. Two authors independently screened and extracted data from studies. Fifty-six studies, with a total of 4076 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Comparing anticonvulsants with placebo, no statistically significant differences for the six outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsant versus other drug, 19 outcomes considered, results favour anticonvulsants only in the comparison carbamazepine versus benzodiazepine (oxazepam and lorazepam) for alcohol withdrawal symptoms (CIWA-Ar score): 3 studies, 262 participants, MD -1.04 (-1.89 to -0.20), none of the other comparisons reached statistical significance.Comparing different anticonvulsants no statistically significant differences in the two outcomes considered.Comparing anticonvulsants plus other drugs versus other drugs (3 outcomes considered), results

  17. Alcohol combustion chemistry

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2014-10-01

    Alternative transportation fuels, preferably from renewable sources, include alcohols with up to five or even more carbon atoms. They are considered promising because they can be derived from biological matter via established and new processes. In addition, many of their physical-chemical properties are compatible with the requirements of modern engines, which make them attractive either as replacements for fossil fuels or as fuel additives. Indeed, alcohol fuels have been used since the early years of automobile production, particularly in Brazil, where ethanol has a long history of use as an automobile fuel. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to the use of non-petroleum-based fuels made from biological sources, including alcohols (predominantly ethanol), as important liquid biofuels. Today, the ethanol fuel that is offered in the market is mainly made from sugar cane or corn. Its production as a first-generation biofuel, especially in North America, has been associated with publicly discussed drawbacks, such as reduction in the food supply, need for fertilization, extensive water usage, and other ecological concerns. More environmentally friendly processes are being considered to produce alcohols from inedible plants or plant parts on wasteland. While biofuel production and its use (especially ethanol and biodiesel) in internal combustion engines have been the focus of several recent reviews, a dedicated overview and summary of research on alcohol combustion chemistry is still lacking. Besides ethanol, many linear and branched members of the alcohol family, from methanol to hexanols, have been studied, with a particular emphasis on butanols. These fuels and their combustion properties, including their ignition, flame propagation, and extinction characteristics, their pyrolysis and oxidation reactions, and their potential to produce pollutant emissions have been intensively investigated in dedicated experiments on the laboratory and the engine scale

  18. Catalytic synthesis of alcoholic fuels for transportation from syngas

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Jensen, Anker Degn; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Temel, Burcin; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    2013-01-01

    This work has investigated the catalytic conversion of syngas into methanol and higher alcohols. Based on input from computational catalyst screening, an experimental investigation of promising catalyst candidates for methanol synthesis from syngas has been carried out. Cu-Ni alloys of different composition have been identified as potential candidates for methanol synthesis. These Cu-Ni alloy catalysts have been synthesized and tested in a fixed-bed continuous-flow reactor for CO hydrogenatio...

  19. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursol, N.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Yakushev, E.A.; Briancon, C.; Vylov, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations

  20. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Hastings

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (conversion, the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.