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Sample records for isoprene emissions increase

  1. Modeling the response of forest isoprene emissions to future increases in atmospheric CO2 concentration and changes in climate (Invited)

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    Monson, R. K.; Heald, C. L.; Guenther, A. B.; Wilkinson, M.

    2009-12-01

    Isoprene emissions from plants to the atmosphere are sensitive to changes in temperature, light and atmospheric CO2 concentration in both the short- (seconds-to-minutes) and long-term (hours-to-months). We now understand that the different time constants for these responses are due to controls by different sets of biochemical and physiological processes n leaves. Progress has been made in the past few years toward converting this process-level understanding into quantitative models. In this talk, we consider this progress with special emphasis on the short- and long-term responses to atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. A new biochemically-based model is presented for describing the CO2 responses, and the model is deployed in a global context to predict interactions between the influences of temperature and CO2 on the global isoprene emission rate. The model is based on the theory of enzyme-substrate kinetics, particularly with regard to those reactions that produce puruvate or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, the two chloroplastic substrates for isoprene biosynthesis. In the global model, when we accounted for CO2 inhibition of isoprene emission in the long-term response, we observed little impact on present-day global isoprene emission (increase from 508 to 523 Tg C yr-1). However, the large increases in future isoprene emissions predicted from past models which are due to a projected warmer climate, were entirely offset by including the CO2 effects. The isoprene emission response to CO2 was dominated by the long-term growth environment effect, with modulations of 10% or less from the short-term effect. We use this analysis as a framework for grounding future global models of isoprene emission in biochemical and physiological observations.

  2. Isoprene emission from Indian trees

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    Varshney, C. K.; Singh, Abhai Pratap

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene is the most dominant non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emitted by plants. NMVOCs play an important role in regulating the composition of atmospheric trace gases including global concentration of tropospheric ozone. Our present knowledge about NMVOCs emission is mainly from studies on temperate tree species. So far information on biogenic NMVOCs emission from tropical tree species is limited. In this study, isoprene emission rates from 40 tropical Indian tree species belonging to 33 genera and 17 families were measured for the first time using a dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. The isoprene emission rate from plants (30°C and PAR 1000 μmolm-2s-1) ranged from undetectable to 81.5 μg g-1 h-1 and values were found to be comparable with other studies on tropical tree species. Tree species screened for isoprene emission in the present study may be grouped into the four categories, proposed by [2001], namely, 18 species were negligible or BDL isoprene emitting (Morus alba Linn., which were earlier reported as BDL or non isoprene emitters in US [, 1998; , 2001] were found to be appreciably high isoprene emitters (0.61-21.60 μg g-1 h-1) in the present study.

  3. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

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    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  4. Isoprene emissions from a tundra ecosystem

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    M. J. Potosnak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Whole-system fluxes of isoprene from a moist acidic tundra ecosystem and leaf-level emission rates of isoprene from a common species (Salix pulchra in that same ecosystem were measured during three separate field campaigns. The field campaigns were conducted during the summers of 2005, 2010 and 2011 and took place at the Toolik Field Station (68.6° N, 149.6° W on the north slope of the Brooks Range in Alaska, USA. The maximum rate of whole-system isoprene flux measured was over 1.2 mg C m−2 h−1 with an air temperature of 22 °C and a PAR level over 1500 μmol m−2 s−1. Leaf-level isoprene emission rates for S. pulchra averaged 12.4 nmol m−2 s−1 (27.4 μg C gdw−1 h−1 extrapolated to standard conditions (PAR = 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 and leaf temperature = 30 °C. Leaf-level isoprene emission rates were well characterized by the Guenther algorithm for temperature with published coefficients, but less so for light. Chamber measurements from a nearby moist acidic tundra ecosystem with little S. pulchra emitted significant amounts of isoprene, but at lower rates (0.45 mg C m−2 h−1 suggesting other significant isoprene emitters. Comparison of our results to predictions from a global model found broad agreement, but a detailed analysis revealed some significant discrepancies. An atmospheric chemistry box model predicts that the observed isoprene emissions have a significant impact on Arctic atmospheric chemistry, including a reduction of hydroxyl radical (OH concentrations. Our results support the prediction that isoprene emissions from Arctic ecosystems will increase with global climate change.

  5. Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration leads to increased whole-plant isoprene emission in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides).

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    Sun, Zhihong; Niinemets, Ülo; Hüve, Katja; Rasulov, Bahtijor; Noe, Steffen M

    2013-05-01

    Effects of elevated atmospheric [CO2] on plant isoprene emissions are controversial. Relying on leaf-scale measurements, most models simulating isoprene emissions in future higher [CO2] atmospheres suggest reduced emission fluxes. However, combined effects of elevated [CO2] on leaf area growth, net assimilation and isoprene emission rates have rarely been studied on the canopy scale, but stimulation of leaf area growth may largely compensate for possible [CO2] inhibition reported at the leaf scale. This study tests the hypothesis that stimulated leaf area growth leads to increased canopy isoprene emission rates. We studied the dynamics of canopy growth, and net assimilation and isoprene emission rates in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) grown under 380 and 780 μmol mol(-1) [CO2]. A theoretical framework based on the Chapman-Richards function to model canopy growth and numerically compare the growth dynamics among ambient and elevated atmospheric [CO2]-grown plants was developed. Plants grown under elevated [CO2] had higher C : N ratio, and greater total leaf area, and canopy net assimilation and isoprene emission rates. During ontogeny, these key canopy characteristics developed faster and stabilized earlier under elevated [CO2]. However, on a leaf area basis, foliage physiological traits remained in a transient state over the whole experiment. These results demonstrate that canopy-scale dynamics importantly complements the leaf-scale processes, and that isoprene emissions may actually increase under higher [CO2] as a result of enhanced leaf area production. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Isoprene emission from wetland sedges

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    A. Ekberg

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available High latitude wetlands play an important role for the surface-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4, but fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC in these ecosystems have to date not been extensively studied. This is despite BVOC representing a measurable proportion of the total gaseous C fluxes at northern locations and in the face of the high temperature sensitivity of these systems that requires a much improved process understanding to interpret and project possible changes in response to climate warming. We measured emission of isoprene and photosynthetic gas exchange over two growing seasons (2005–2006 in a subarctic wetland in northern Sweden with the objective to identify the physiological and environmental controls of these fluxes on the leaf scale. The sedge species Eriophorum angustifolium and Carex rostrata were both emitters of isoprene. Springtime emissions were first detected after an accumulated diurnal mean temperature above 0°C of about 100 degree days. Maximum measured growing season standardized (basal emission rates (20°C, 1000 μmol m−2 s−1 were 1075 (2005 and 1118 (2006 μg C m−2 (leaf area h−1 in E. angustifolium, and 489 (2005 and 396 (2006 μg C m−2 h−1 in C. rostrata. Over the growing season, basal isoprene emission varied in response to the temperature history of the last 48 h. Seasonal basal isoprene emission rates decreased with leaf nitrogen (N, which may be explained by the typical growth and resource allocation pattern of clonal sedges as the leaves age. The observations were used to model emissions over the growing season, accounting for effects of temperature history, links to leaf assimilation rate and the light and temperature dependencies of the cold-adapted sedges.

  7. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, P.K.; Varshney, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2±6.8 μg g -1 leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2±4.9 μg g -1 leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 μg g -1 leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. - Isoprene flux (diurnal and seasonal) from some tropical tree species was estimated and a regional comparison was made

  8. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhy, P.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)]. E-mail: padhypk2003@yahoo.com; Varshney, C.K. [School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2005-05-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2{+-}6.8 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2{+-}4.9 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 {mu}g g{sup -1} leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world. - Isoprene flux (diurnal and seasonal) from some tropical tree species was estimated and a regional comparison was made.

  9. Diurnal Variation in the Basal Emission Rate of Isoprene

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    Jennifer Funk; Clive G. Jones; Christine J. Baker; Heather M. Fuller; Christian P. Giardina; Manuel T. Lerdua

    2003-01-01

    Isoprene is emitted from numerous plant species and profoundly influences tropospheric chemistry. Due to the short lifetime of isoprene in the atmosphere, developing an understanding of emission patterns at small time scales is essential for modeling regional atmospheric chemistry processes. Previous studies suggest that diurnal fluctuations in isoprene emission may be...

  10. Effect of temperature on postillumination isoprene emission in oak and poplar.

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    Li, Ziru; Ratliff, Ellen A; Sharkey, Thomas D

    2011-02-01

    Isoprene emission from broadleaf trees is highly temperature dependent, accounts for much of the hydrocarbon emission from plants, and has a profound effect on atmospheric chemistry. We studied the temperature response of postillumination isoprene emission in oak (Quercus robur) and poplar (Populus deltoides) leaves in order to understand the regulation of isoprene emission. Upon darkening a leaf, isoprene emission fell nearly to zero but then increased for several minutes before falling back to nearly zero. Time of appearance of this burst of isoprene was highly temperature dependent, occurring sooner at higher temperatures. We hypothesize that this burst represents an intermediate pool of metabolites, probably early metabolites in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway, accumulated upstream of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP). The amount of this early metabolite(s) averaged 2.9 times the amount of plastidic DMADP. DMADP increased with temperature up to 35°C before starting to decrease; in contrast, the isoprene synthase rate constant increased up to 40°C, the highest temperature at which it could be assessed. During a rapid temperature switch from 30°C to 40°C, isoprene emission increased transiently. It was found that an increase in isoprene synthase activity is primarily responsible for this transient increase in emission levels, while DMADP level stayed constant during the switch. One hour after switching to 40°C, the amount of DMADP fell but the rate constant for isoprene synthase remained constant, indicating that the high temperature falloff in isoprene emission results from a reduction in the supply of DMADP rather than from changes in isoprene synthase activity.

  11. Modeling Global Biogenic Emission of Isoprene: Exploration of Model Drivers

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    Alexander, Susan E.; Potter, Christopher S.; Coughlan, Joseph C.; Klooster, Steven A.; Lerdau, Manuel T.; Chatfield, Robert B.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Vegetation provides the major source of isoprene emission to the atmosphere. We present a modeling approach to estimate global biogenic isoprene emission. The isoprene flux model is linked to a process-based computer simulation model of biogenic trace-gas fluxes that operates on scales that link regional and global data sets and ecosystem nutrient transformations Isoprene emission estimates are determined from estimates of ecosystem specific biomass, emission factors, and algorithms based on light and temperature. Our approach differs from an existing modeling framework by including the process-based global model for terrestrial ecosystem production, satellite derived ecosystem classification, and isoprene emission measurements from a tropical deciduous forest. We explore the sensitivity of model estimates to input parameters. The resulting emission products from the global 1 degree x 1 degree coverage provided by the satellite datasets and the process model allow flux estimations across large spatial scales and enable direct linkage to atmospheric models of trace-gas transport and transformation.

  12. Isoprene emission and photosynthesis during heatwaves and drought in black locust

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    Bamberger, Ines; Ruehr, Nadine K.; Schmitt, Michael; Gast, Andreas; Wohlfahrt, Georg; Arneth, Almut

    2017-08-01

    Extreme weather conditions like heatwaves and drought can substantially affect tree physiology and the emissions of isoprene. To date, however, there is only limited understanding of isoprene emission patterns during prolonged heat stress and next to no data on emission patterns during coupled heat-drought stress or during post-stress recovery. We studied gas exchange and isoprene emissions of black locust trees under episodic heat stress and in combination with drought. Heatwaves were simulated in a controlled greenhouse facility by exposing trees to outside temperatures +10 °C, and trees in the heat-drought treatment were supplied with half of the irrigation water given to heat and control trees. Leaf gas exchange of isoprene, CO2 and H2O was quantified using self-constructed, automatically operating chambers, which were permanently installed on leaves (n = 3 per treatment). Heat and combined heat-drought stress resulted in a sharp decline of net photosynthesis (Anet) and stomatal conductance. Simultaneously, isoprene emissions increased 6- to 8-fold in the heat and heat-drought treatment, which resulted in a carbon loss that was equivalent to 12 and 20 % of assimilated carbon at the time of measurement. Once temperature stress was released at the end of two 15-day-long heatwaves, stomatal conductance remained reduced, while isoprene emissions and Anet recovered quickly to values of the control trees. Further, we found that isoprene emissions covaried with Anet during nonstress conditions, while during the heatwaves, isoprene emissions were not related to Anet but to light and temperature. Under standard air temperature and light conditions (here 30 °C and photosynthetically active radiation of 500 µmol m-2 s-1), isoprene emissions of the heat trees were by 45 % and the heat-drought trees were by 27 % lower than in control trees. Moreover, temperature response curves showed that not only the isoprene emission factor changed during both heat and heat

  13. Isoprene emission and photosynthesis during heatwaves and drought in black locust

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    I. Bamberger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Extreme weather conditions like heatwaves and drought can substantially affect tree physiology and the emissions of isoprene. To date, however, there is only limited understanding of isoprene emission patterns during prolonged heat stress and next to no data on emission patterns during coupled heat–drought stress or during post-stress recovery. We studied gas exchange and isoprene emissions of black locust trees under episodic heat stress and in combination with drought. Heatwaves were simulated in a controlled greenhouse facility by exposing trees to outside temperatures +10 °C, and trees in the heat–drought treatment were supplied with half of the irrigation water given to heat and control trees. Leaf gas exchange of isoprene, CO2 and H2O was quantified using self-constructed, automatically operating chambers, which were permanently installed on leaves (n = 3 per treatment. Heat and combined heat–drought stress resulted in a sharp decline of net photosynthesis (Anet and stomatal conductance. Simultaneously, isoprene emissions increased 6- to 8-fold in the heat and heat–drought treatment, which resulted in a carbon loss that was equivalent to 12 and 20 % of assimilated carbon at the time of measurement. Once temperature stress was released at the end of two 15-day-long heatwaves, stomatal conductance remained reduced, while isoprene emissions and Anet recovered quickly to values of the control trees. Further, we found that isoprene emissions covaried with Anet during nonstress conditions, while during the heatwaves, isoprene emissions were not related to Anet but to light and temperature. Under standard air temperature and light conditions (here 30 °C and photosynthetically active radiation of 500 µmol m−2 s−1, isoprene emissions of the heat trees were by 45 % and the heat–drought trees were by 27 % lower than in control trees. Moreover, temperature response curves showed that not only the isoprene emission

  14. Effects of Drought Stress and Ozone Exposure on Isoprene Emissions from Oak Seedlings in Texas

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    Madronich, M. B.; Harte, A.; Schade, G. W.

    2014-12-01

    Isoprene is the dominant hydrocarbon emitted by plants to the atmosphere with an approximate global emission of 550 Tg C yr-1. Isoprene emission studies have elucidated plants' isoprene production capacity, and the controlling factors of instantaneous emissions. However, it is not yet well understood how long-term climatic factors such as drought and increasing ozone concentrations affect isoprene emission rates. Drought reduces photosynthetic activity and is thus expected to reduce isoprene emission rate, since isoprene production relies on photosynthates. On the other hand, ozone is also known to negatively affect photosynthesis rates, but can instead increase isoprene emissions. These apparent inconsistencies and a lack of experimental data make it difficult to accurately parameterize isoprene emission responses to changing environmental conditions. The objective of this work is to reduce some of these uncertainties, using oak seedlings as a study system. Our project focuses on isoprene emission responses of oak trees to typical summer drought and high ozone conditions in Texas. We report on experiments conducted using a laboratory whole-plant chamber and leaf-level data obtained from greenhouse-grown seedlings. The chamber experiment studied the effects of ozone and drought on isoprene emissions from >3 year old oak seedlings under controlled conditions of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature, soil-moisture and the chamber's air composition. Stress in plants was induced by manipulating potted soil-moisture and ozone concentration in the chamber. The greenhouse study focused on understanding the effects of drought under Texas climatic conditions. For this study we used two year old seedlings of water oak (Quercus nigra) and post oak (Quercus stellata). Temperature, humidity and light in the greenhouse followed local conditions. Leaf-level conductance, photosynthesis measurements and isoprene sampling were carried out under controlled leaf

  15. Challenges in modelling isoprene and monoterpene emission dynamics of Arctic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Jing; Schurgers, Guy; Valolahti, Hanna Maritta

    2016-01-01

    test. The model showed reasonable agreement to the observed vegetation CO2 fluxes in the main growing season as well as day-to-day variability of isoprene and monoterpene emissions. The observed relatively high WRs were better captured by the adjusted T response curve than by the common one. During...... 1999-2012, the modelled annual mean isoprene and monoterpene emissions were 20 and 8 mg C mg-2 yrg-1, with an increase by 55 and 57 % for 2 °C summertime warming, respectively. Warming by 4 and 8 °C for the same period further elevated isoprene emission for all years, but the impacts on monoterpene...

  16. Circadian control of isoprene emissions from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

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    Wilkinson, Michael J; Owen, Susan M; Possell, Malcolm; Hartwell, James; Gould, Peter; Hall, Anthony; Vickers, Claudia; Nicholas Hewitt, C

    2006-09-01

    The emission of isoprene from the biosphere to the atmosphere has a profound effect on the Earth's atmospheric system. Until now, it has been assumed that the primary short-term controls on isoprene emission are photosynthetically active radiation and temperature. Here we show that isoprene emissions from a tropical tree (oil palm, Elaeis guineensis) are under strong circadian control, and that the circadian clock is potentially able to gate light-induced isoprene emissions. These rhythms are robustly temperature compensated with isoprene emissions still under circadian control at 38 degrees C. This is well beyond the acknowledged temperature range of all previously described circadian phenomena in plants. Furthermore, rhythmic expression of LHY/CCA1, a genetic component of the central clock in Arabidopsis thaliana, is still maintained at these elevated temperatures in oil palm. Maintenance of the CCA1/LHY-TOC1 molecular oscillator at these temperatures in oil palm allows for the possibility that this system is involved in the control of isoprene emission rhythms. This study contradicts the accepted theory that isoprene emissions are primarily light-induced.

  17. Reconciling functions and evolution of isoprene emission in higher plants.

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    Loreto, Francesco; Fineschi, Silvia

    2015-04-01

    Compilation and analysis of existing inventories reveal that isoprene is emitted by c. 20% of the perennial vegetation of tropical and temperate regions of the world. Isoprene emitters are found across different plant families without any clear phylogenetic thread. However, by critically appraising information in inventories, several ecological patterns of isoprene emission can be highlighted, including absence of emission from C4 and annual plants, and widespread emission from perennial and deciduous plants of temperate environments. Based on this analysis, and on available information on biochemistry, ecology and functional roles of isoprene, it is suggested that isoprene may not have evolved to help plants face heavy or prolonged stresses, but rather assists C3 plants to run efficient photosynthesis and to overcome transient and mild stresses, especially during periods of active plant growth in warm seasons. When the stress status persists, or when evergreen leaves cope with multiple and repeated stresses, isoprene biosynthesis is replaced by the synthesis of less volatile secondary compounds, in part produced by the same biochemical pathway, thus indicating causal determinism in the evolution of isoprene-emitting plants in response to the environment. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  18. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia.

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    Han, K M; Park, R S; Kim, H K; Woo, J H; Kim, J; Song, C H

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (ΩHCHO) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω(CMAQ, MEGAN) and Ω(CMAQ, MOHYCAN)), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω(SCIA)). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO2) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO(y) species. For example, the HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO2/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO(x) radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO(y) chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Photosynthesis-dependent Isoprene Emission from Leaf to Planet in a Global Carbon-chemistry-climate Model

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    Unger, N.; Harper, K.; Zeng, Y.; Kiang, N. Y.; Alienov, I.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Amelynck, C.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a biochemical model of isoprene emission that depends on the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis into the FarquharBallBerry leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance that is embedded within a global chemistry-climate simulation framework. The isoprene production is calculated as a function of electron transport-limited photosynthesis, intercellular and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and canopy temperature. The vegetation biophysics module computes the photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide coupled with the transpiration of water vapor and the isoprene emission rate at the 30 min physical integration time step of the global chemistry-climate model. In the model, the rate of carbon assimilation provides the dominant control on isoprene emission variability over canopy temperature. A control simulation representative of the present-day climatic state that uses 8 plant functional types (PFTs), prescribed phenology and generic PFT-specific isoprene emission potentials (fraction of electrons available for isoprene synthesis) reproduces 50 of the variability across different ecosystems and seasons in a global database of 28 measured campaign-average fluxes. Compared to time-varying isoprene flux measurements at 9 select sites, the model authentically captures the observed variability in the 30 min average diurnal cycle (R2 6496) and simulates the flux magnitude to within a factor of 2. The control run yields a global isoprene source strength of 451 TgC yr1 that increases by 30 in the artificial absence of plant water stress and by 55 for potential natural vegetation.

  20. Effects of climate-induced changes in isoprene emissions after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo

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    P. J. Telford

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s the rates of increase of greenhouse gas concentrations, most notably of methane, were observed to change, for reasons that have yet to be fully determined. This period included the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and an El Niño warm event, both of which affect biogeochemical processes, by changes in temperature, precipitation and radiation. We examine the impact of these changes in climate on global isoprene emissions and the effect these climate dependent emissions have on the hydroxy radical, OH, the dominant sink for methane. We model a reduction of isoprene emissions in the early 1990s, with a maximum decrease of 40 Tg(C/yr in late 1992 and early 1993, a change of 9%. This reduction is caused by the cooler, drier conditions following the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. Isoprene emissions are reduced both directly, by changes in temperature and a soil moisture dependent suppression factor, and indirectly, through reductions in the total biomass. The reduction in isoprene emissions causes increases of tropospheric OH which lead to an increased sink for methane of up to 5 Tg(CH4/year, comparable to estimated source changes over the time period studied. There remain many uncertainties in the emission and oxidation of isoprene which may affect the exact size of this effect, but its magnitude is large enough that it should remain important.

  1. Can the capacity for isoprene emission acclimate to environmental modifications during autumn senescence in temperate deciduous tree species Populus tremula?

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    Sun, Zhihong; Copolovici, Lucian; Niinemets, Ülo

    2012-03-01

    Changes in isoprene emission (Φ(isoprene)), and foliage photosynthetic (A) rates, isoprene precursor dimethylallyldiphosphate (DMADP), and nitrogen and carbon contents were studied from late summer to intensive leaf fall in Populus tremula to gain insight into the emission controls by temperature and endogenous, senescence-induced, modifications. Methanol emissions, characterizing degradation of cell wall pectins, were also measured. A rapid reduction in Φ(isoprene) and A of 60-70% of the initial value was observed in response to a rapid reduction of ambient temperature by ca. 15°C (cold stress). Later phases of senescence were associated with further reductions in Φ(isoprene) and A, with simultaneous major decrease in nitrogen content. However, during episodes of temperature increase, A and in particular, Φ(isoprene) partly recovered. Variation in Φ(isoprene) during senescence was correlated with average temperature of preceding days, with the highest degree of explained variance observed with average temperature of 6 days. Throughout the study, methanol emissions were small, but a large burst of methanol emission was associated with leaf yellowing and abscission. Overall, these data demonstrate that the capacity for isoprene emission can adjust to environmental conditions in senescing leaves as well, but the responsiveness is low compared with mid-season and is also affected by stress.

  2. Global terrestrial isoprene emission models: sensitivity to variability in climate and vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to its effects on the atmospheric lifetime of methane, the burdens of tropospheric ozone and growth of secondary organic aerosol, isoprene is central among the biogenic compounds that need to be taken into account for assessment of anthropogenic air pollution-climate change interactions. Lack of process-understanding regarding leaf isoprene production as well as of suitable observations to constrain and evaluate regional or global simulation results add large uncertainties to past, present and future emissions estimates. Focusing on contemporary climate conditions, we compare three global isoprene models that differ in their representation of vegetation and isoprene emission algorithm. We specifically aim to investigate the between- and within model variation that is introduced by varying some of the models' main features, and to determine which spatial and/or temporal features are robust between models and different experimental set-ups. In their individual standard configurations, the models broadly agree with respect to the chief isoprene sources and emission seasonality, with maximum monthly emission rates around 20–25 Tg C, when averaged by 30-degree latitudinal bands. They also indicate relatively small (approximately 5 to 10 % around the mean interannual variability of total global emissions. The models are sensitive to changes in one or more of their main model components and drivers (e.g., underlying vegetation fields, climate input which can yield increases or decreases in total annual emissions of cumulatively by more than 30 %. Varying drivers also strongly alters the seasonal emission pattern. The variable response needs to be interpreted in view of the vegetation emission capacities, as well as diverging absolute and regional distribution of light, radiation and temperature, but the direction of the simulated emission changes was not as uniform as anticipated. Our results highlight the need for modellers to evaluate their

  3. Modulation of Protein S-Nitrosylation by Isoprene Emission in Poplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Elisa; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Velikova, Violeta; Ghirardo, Andrea; Lindermayr, Christian; Hauck, Stefanie M; Bernhardt, Jörg; Riedel, Katharina; Durner, Jörg; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2016-04-01

    Researchers have been examining the biological function(s) of isoprene in isoprene-emitting (IE) species for two decades. There is overwhelming evidence that leaf-internal isoprene increases the thermotolerance of plants and protects them against oxidative stress, thus mitigating a wide range of abiotic stresses. However, the mechanisms of abiotic stress mitigation by isoprene are still under debate. Here, we assessed the impact of isoprene on the emission of nitric oxide (NO) and the S-nitroso-proteome of IE and non-isoprene-emitting (NE) gray poplar (Populus × canescens) after acute ozone fumigation. The short-term oxidative stress induced a rapid and strong emission of NO in NE compared with IE genotypes. Whereas IE and NE plants exhibited under nonstressful conditions only slight differences in their S-nitrosylation pattern, the in vivo S-nitroso-proteome of the NE genotype was more susceptible to ozone-induced changes compared with the IE plants. The results suggest that the nitrosative pressure (NO burst) is higher in NE plants, underlining the proposed molecular dialogue between isoprene and the free radical NO Proteins belonging to the photosynthetic light and dark reactions, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, protein metabolism, and redox regulation exhibited increased S-nitrosylation in NE samples compared with IE plants upon oxidative stress. Because the posttranslational modification of proteins via S-nitrosylation often impacts enzymatic activities, our data suggest that isoprene indirectly regulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the control of the S-nitrosylation level of ROS-metabolizing enzymes, thus modulating the extent and velocity at which the ROS and NO signaling molecules are generated within a plant cell. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Modulation of Protein S-Nitrosylation by Isoprene Emission in Poplar1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Elisa; Velikova, Violeta; Ghirardo, Andrea; Lindermayr, Christian; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Riedel, Katharina; Durner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have been examining the biological function(s) of isoprene in isoprene-emitting (IE) species for two decades. There is overwhelming evidence that leaf-internal isoprene increases the thermotolerance of plants and protects them against oxidative stress, thus mitigating a wide range of abiotic stresses. However, the mechanisms of abiotic stress mitigation by isoprene are still under debate. Here, we assessed the impact of isoprene on the emission of nitric oxide (NO) and the S-nitroso-proteome of IE and non-isoprene-emitting (NE) gray poplar (Populus × canescens) after acute ozone fumigation. The short-term oxidative stress induced a rapid and strong emission of NO in NE compared with IE genotypes. Whereas IE and NE plants exhibited under nonstressful conditions only slight differences in their S-nitrosylation pattern, the in vivo S-nitroso-proteome of the NE genotype was more susceptible to ozone-induced changes compared with the IE plants. The results suggest that the nitrosative pressure (NO burst) is higher in NE plants, underlining the proposed molecular dialogue between isoprene and the free radical NO. Proteins belonging to the photosynthetic light and dark reactions, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, protein metabolism, and redox regulation exhibited increased S-nitrosylation in NE samples compared with IE plants upon oxidative stress. Because the posttranslational modification of proteins via S-nitrosylation often impacts enzymatic activities, our data suggest that isoprene indirectly regulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the control of the S-nitrosylation level of ROS-metabolizing enzymes, thus modulating the extent and velocity at which the ROS and NO signaling molecules are generated within a plant cell. PMID:26850277

  5. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, K.M.; Park, R.S. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.K.; Woo, J.H. [Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, 1 Hwayang dong, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul, 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, 134 Sinchon-dong, Seodaemoon-gu, Seoul, 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Song, C.H., E-mail: chsong@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Advanced Environmental Monitoring Research Center (ADEMRC), Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (Ω{sub HCHO}) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω{sub CMAQ,} {sub MEGAN} and Ω{sub CMAQ,} {sub MOHYCAN}), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω{sub SCIA}). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO{sub 2}) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO{sub y} species. For example, the HO{sub 2}/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO{sub 2}/OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO{sub x} radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO{sub y} chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. - Highlights: • GEIA isoprene emissions were possibly overestimated over East Asia.

  6. Uncertainty in biogenic isoprene emissions and its impacts on tropospheric chemistry in East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.M.; Park, R.S.; Kim, H.K.; Woo, J.H.; Kim, J.; Song, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the accuracy of biogenic isoprene emission fluxes over East Asia during two summer months (July and August) was examined by comparing two tropospheric HCHO columns (Ω HCHO ) obtained from the SCIAMACHY sensor and the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ v4.7.1) model simulations, using three available biogenic isoprene emission inventories over East Asia: i) GEIA, ii) MEGAN and iii) MOHYCAN. From this comparative analysis, the tropospheric HCHO columns from the CMAQ model simulations, using the MEGAN and MOHYCAN emission inventories (Ω CMAQ, MEGAN and Ω CMAQ, MOHYCAN ), were found to agree well with the tropospheric HCHO columns from the SCIAMACHY observations (Ω SCIA ). Secondly, the propagation of such uncertainties in the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes to the levels of atmospheric oxidants (e.g., OH and HO 2 ) and other atmospheric gaseous/particulate species over East Asia during the two summer months was also investigated. As the biogenic isoprene emission fluxes decreased from the GEIA to the MEGAN emission inventories, the levels of OH radicals increased by factors of 1.39 and 1.75 over Central East China (CEC) and South China, respectively. Such increases in the OH radical mixing ratios subsequently influence the partitioning of HO y species. For example, the HO 2 /OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with GEIA isoprene emissions were 2.7 times larger than those from the CMAQ model simulations based on MEGAN isoprene emissions. The large HO 2 /OH ratios from the CMAQ model simulations with the GEIA biogenic emission were possibly due to the overestimation of GEIA biogenic isoprene emissions over East Asia. It was also shown that such large changes in HO x radicals created large differences on other tropospheric compounds (e.g., NO y chemistry) over East Asia during the summer months. - Highlights: • GEIA isoprene emissions were possibly overestimated over East Asia. • Using MEGAN or MOHYCAN emissions in CMAQ well captured

  7. Isoprene emissions at the canopy scale: measurements in the Escompte program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serça, D.; Fotiadi, A.; Bouchou, P.; Cortinovis, J.

    2003-04-01

    Concentrations of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) play a crucial role in the atmospheric chemistry through their role in the production-destruction cycle of tropospheric O3. Half of these BVOCs would be made of isoprene (C5H8), a compound predominantly emitted by ligneous species. Measurements presented here were collected during the ESCOMPTE campaign carried out in the Marseille region, South-West of France. Meteorological parameters, microclimate and fluxes were measured at the canopy scale of a Quercus pubescens forest. Latent and sensible heat, CO2 and isoprene fluxes were calculated using the eddy covariance method. Isoprene fluxes followed the expected diurnal evolution, with maximum emissions at noon reaching about 5 to 10 mgC m-2 h-1. Significant regression coefficient (r2 between 0.61 and 0.76) were found between isoprene emission and PAR, isoprene concentrations and energy fluxes (latent and sensible). The strongest correlation (r2 = 0.8) was found between mean emission and temperature averaged each day between 6 am and 6pm. A cumulative effect of temperature was observed with a constant flux increase (max from 5 to 15 mgCm-2h-1) along a one week period corresponding to an increase in maximum temperature from 24°C to 30°C. The calculated mean emission factor (37.2 µg g-1dw h-1) is in the order of values found in the literature for oak Mediterranean forests.

  8. Elevated [CO2] magnifies isoprene emissions under heat and improves thermal resistance in hybrid aspen

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Zhihong; H?ve, Katja; Vislap, Vivian; Niinemets, ?lo

    2013-01-01

    Isoprene emissions importantly protect plants from heat stress, but the emissions become inhibited by instantaneous increase of [CO2], and it is currently unclear how isoprene-emitting plants cope with future more frequent and severe heat episodes under high [CO2]. Hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides) saplings grown under ambient [CO2] of 380 ?mol mol?1 and elevated [CO2] of 780 ?mol mol?1 were used to test the hypothesis that acclimation to elevated [CO2] reduces the inhibito...

  9. Isoprene emission inventory for the BOREAS southern study area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westberg, H.; Lamb, B.; Kempf, K.; Allwine, G.

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) was designed to measure trace gas fluxes, nutrient cycling, hydrologic budgets and other ecosystem features in order to establish relationships between ecosystem processes and various global climate change scenarios. During the 1994 BOREAS field study isoprene and terpene emissions have been measured at several sites in the Southern Study Area (SSA). Ambient measurements were also made to help establish the chemical importance of these biogenic species in boreal atmosphere. The data was used to test and improve algorithms for predicting emission rates as a function of species, environmental conditions and biomass dynamics and to provide an expanded database describing the relationship of volatile organic compounds emissions to ecosystem dynamics. The study also sought to provide the foundation for improved understanding of physical exchange processes, and define hydrocarbon reactivity in the boundary layer at high latitudes. Details of the biogenic emission rate measurements made in the SSA are also discussed, including the creation of an isoprene emission inventory for the area. The study has been helpful in eliminating major sources of uncertainty associated with estimates of carbon loss due to isoprene emission on the BOREAS SSA. 28 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  10. Isoprene in poplar emissions: effects on new particle formation and OH concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Andres, S.; Bachner, M.; Behnke, K.; Broch, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Rubach, F.; Springer, M.; Steitz, B.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Schnitzler, J.-P.; Wildt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Stress-induced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from transgenic Grey poplar modified in isoprene emission potential were used for the investigation of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In poplar, acute ozone stress induces the emission of a wide array of VOCs dominated by sesquiterpenes and aromatic VOCs. Constitutive light-dependent emission of isoprene ranged between 66 nmol m-2 s-1 in non-transgenic controls (wild type WT) and nearly zero (plants (line RA22), respectively. Nucleation rates of up to 3600 cm-3 s-1 were observed in our experiments. In the presence of isoprene new particle formation was suppressed compared to non-isoprene containing VOC mixtures. Compared to isoprene/monoterpene systems emitted from other plants the suppression of nucleation by isoprene was less effective for the VOC mixture emitted from stressed poplar. This is explained by the observed high efficiency of new particle formation for emissions from stressed poplar. Direct measurements of OH in the reaction chamber revealed that the steady state concentration of OH is lower in the presence of isoprene than in the absence of isoprene, supporting the hypothesis that isoprenes' suppressing effect on nucleation is related to radical chemistry. In order to test whether isoprene contributes to SOA mass formation, fully deuterated isoprene (C5D8) was added to the stress-induced emission profile of an isoprene free poplar mutant. Mass spectral analysis showed that, despite the isoprene-induced suppression of particle formation, fractions of deuterated isoprene were incorporated into the SOA. A fractional mass yield of 2.3% of isoprene was observed. Future emission changes due to land use and climate change may therefore affect both gas phase oxidation capacity and new particle number formation.

  11. Photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Unger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the implementation of a biochemical model of isoprene emission that depends on the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis into the Farquhar–Ball–Berry leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance that is embedded within a global chemistry-climate simulation framework. The isoprene production is calculated as a function of electron transport-limited photosynthesis, intercellular and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and canopy temperature. The vegetation biophysics module computes the photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide coupled with the transpiration of water vapor and the isoprene emission rate at the 30 min physical integration time step of the global chemistry-climate model. In the model, the rate of carbon assimilation provides the dominant control on isoprene emission variability over canopy temperature. A control simulation representative of the present-day climatic state that uses 8 plant functional types (PFTs, prescribed phenology and generic PFT-specific isoprene emission potentials (fraction of electrons available for isoprene synthesis reproduces 50% of the variability across different ecosystems and seasons in a global database of 28 measured campaign-average fluxes. Compared to time-varying isoprene flux measurements at 9 select sites, the model authentically captures the observed variability in the 30 min average diurnal cycle (R2 = 64–96% and simulates the flux magnitude to within a factor of 2. The control run yields a global isoprene source strength of 451 TgC yr−1 that increases by 30% in the artificial absence of plant water stress and by 55% for potential natural vegetation.

  12. Photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, N.; Harper, K.; Zheng, Y.; Kiang, N. Y.; Aleinov, I.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Amelynck, C.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A.; Heinesch, B.; Hewitt, C. N.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Langford, B.; McKinney, K. A.; Misztal, P.; Potosnak, M.; Rinne, J.; Pressley, S.; Schoon, N.; Serça, D.

    2013-10-01

    We describe the implementation of a biochemical model of isoprene emission that depends on the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis into the Farquhar-Ball-Berry leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance that is embedded within a global chemistry-climate simulation framework. The isoprene production is calculated as a function of electron transport-limited photosynthesis, intercellular and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and canopy temperature. The vegetation biophysics module computes the photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide coupled with the transpiration of water vapor and the isoprene emission rate at the 30 min physical integration time step of the global chemistry-climate model. In the model, the rate of carbon assimilation provides the dominant control on isoprene emission variability over canopy temperature. A control simulation representative of the present-day climatic state that uses 8 plant functional types (PFTs), prescribed phenology and generic PFT-specific isoprene emission potentials (fraction of electrons available for isoprene synthesis) reproduces 50% of the variability across different ecosystems and seasons in a global database of 28 measured campaign-average fluxes. Compared to time-varying isoprene flux measurements at 9 select sites, the model authentically captures the observed variability in the 30 min average diurnal cycle (R2 = 64-96%) and simulates the flux magnitude to within a factor of 2. The control run yields a global isoprene source strength of 451 TgC yr-1 that increases by 30% in the artificial absence of plant water stress and by 55% for potential natural vegetation.

  13. Photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unger, N.; Harper, K.; Zheng, Y.; Kiang, N. Y.; Aleinov, I.; Arneth, Almut; Schurgers, G.; Amelynck, C.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Heinesch, B.; Hewitt, C. N.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Langford, B.; McKinney, Karena A.; Misztal, P.; Potosnak, M.; Rinne, J.; Pressley, S.; Schoon, N.; Serca, D.

    2013-10-22

    We describe the implementation of a biochemical model of isoprene emission that depends on the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis into the Farquhar/Ball- Berry leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance that is embedded within a global chemistry-climate simulation framework. The isoprene production is calculated as a function of electron transport-limited photosynthesis, intercellular carbon dioxide concentration, and canopy temperature. The vegetation biophysics module computes the photosynthetic uptake of carbon dioxide coupled with the transpiration of water vapor and the isoprene emission rate at the 30 min physical integration time step of the global chemistry-climate model. In the model, the rate of carbon assimilation provides the dominant control on isoprene emission variability over canopy temperature. A control simulation representative of the present day climatic state that uses plant functional types (PFTs), prescribed phenology and generic PFT-specific isoprene emission potentials (fraction of electrons available for isoprene synthesis) reproduces 50% of the variability across different ecosystems and seasons in a global database of measured campaign-average fluxes. Compared to time-varying isoprene flux measurements at select sites, the model authentically captures the observed variability in the 30 min average diurnal cycle (R2 = 64-96 %) and simulates the flux magnitude to within a factor of 2. The control run yields a global isoprene source strength of 451 TgC yr-1 that increases by 30% in the artificial absence of plant water stress and by 55% for potential natural vegetation.

  14. Contribution of vegetation and water table on isoprene emission from boreal peatland microcosms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiiva, Päivi; Faubert, Patrick; Räty, Sanna

    2009-01-01

    emission in these naturally wet ecosystems, although water table is predicted to decline due to climate warming. We studied the relative contribution of mosses vs. vascular plants to isoprene emission in boreal peatland microcosms in growth chambers by removing either vascular vegetation or both vascular...... hollows with intact vegetation, 45 ± 6 µg m-2 h-1, was decreased by 25% under water table drawdown. However, water table drawdown reduced net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange more dramatically than isoprene emission. Isoprene emission strongly correlated with both CO2 exchange and methane emission......Boreal peatlands are substantial sources of isoprene, a reactive hydrocarbon. However, it is not known how much mosses, vascular plants and peat each contribute to isoprene emission from peatlands. Furthermore, there is no information on the effects of declining water table depth on isoprene...

  15. SCIAMACHY formaldehyde observations: constraint for isoprene emission estimates over Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dufour

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde (HCHO is an important intermediate compound in the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the troposphere. Sources of HCHO are largely dominated by its secondary production from VOC oxidation, methane and isoprene being the main precursors in unpolluted areas. As a result of the moderate lifetime of HCHO, its spatial distribution is determined by reactive hydrocarbon emissions. We focus here on Europe and investigate the influence of the different emissions on HCHO tropospheric columns with the CHIMERE chemical transport model in order to interpret the comparisons between SCIAMACHY and simulated HCHO columns. Europe was never specifically studied before for these purposes using satellite observations. The bias between measurements and model is less than 20% on average. The differences are discussed according to the errors on the model and the observations and remaining discrepancies are attributed to a misrepresentation of biogenic emissions. This study requires the characterisation of: (1 the model errors and performances concerning formaldehyde. The errors on the HCHO columns, mainly related to chemistry and mixed emission types, are evaluated to 2×1015 molecule/cm2 and the model performances evaluated using surface measurements are satisfactory (~13%; (2 the observation errors that define the needs in spatial and temporal averaging for meaningful comparisons. Using SCIAMACHY observations as constraint for biogenic isoprene emissions in an inverse modelling scheme reduces their uncertainties by about a factor of two in region of intense emissions. The retrieved correction factors for the isoprene emissions range from a factor of 0.15 (North Africa to a factor of 2 (Poland, the United Kingdom depending on the regions.

  16. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Marais

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA, but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for isoprene SOA formation coupled to a detailed gas-phase isoprene oxidation scheme. The mechanism is based on aerosol reactive uptake coefficients (γ for water-soluble isoprene oxidation products, including sensitivity to aerosol acidity and nucleophile concentrations. We apply this mechanism to simulation of aircraft (SEAC4RS and ground-based (SOAS observations over the southeast US in summer 2013 using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx  ≡  NO + NO2 over the southeast US are such that the peroxy radicals produced from isoprene oxidation (ISOPO2 react significantly with both NO (high-NOx pathway and HO2 (low-NOx pathway, leading to different suites of isoprene SOA precursors. We find a mean SOA mass yield of 3.3 % from isoprene oxidation, consistent with the observed relationship of total fine organic aerosol (OA and formaldehyde (a product of isoprene oxidation. Isoprene SOA production is mainly contributed by two immediate gas-phase precursors, isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX, 58 % of isoprene SOA from the low-NOx pathway and glyoxal (28 % from both low- and high-NOx pathways. This speciation is consistent with observations of IEPOX SOA from SOAS and SEAC4RS. Observations show a strong relationship between IEPOX SOA and sulfate aerosol that we explain as due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume. Isoprene SOA concentrations increase as NOx emissions decrease (favoring the low-NOx pathway for isoprene oxidation, but decrease more strongly as SO2 emissions decrease (due to the effect of sulfate on aerosol acidity and volume. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA projects 2013–2025 decreases in

  17. Methanol and isoprene emissions from the fast growing tropical pioneer species Vismia guianensis (Aubl. Pers. (Hypericaceae in the central Amazon forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Jardine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene (Is emissions by plants represent a loss of carbon and energy resources leading to the initial hypothesis that fast growing pioneer species in secondary tropical forests allocate carbon primarily to growth at the expense of isoprenoid defenses. In this study, we quantified leaf isoprene and methanol emissions from the abundant pantropical pioneer tree species Vismia guianensis and ambient isoprene concentrations above a diverse secondary forest in the central Amazon. As photosynthetically active radiation (PAR was varied (0 to 3000 µmol m−2 s−1 under standard leaf temperature (30 °C, isoprene emissions from V. guianensis increased without saturation up to 80 nmol m−2 s−1. A nonlinear increase in isoprene emissions with respect to net photosynthesis (Pn resulted in the fraction of Pn dedicated to isoprene emissions increasing with light intensity (up to 2 % of Pn. Emission responses to temperature under standard light conditions (PAR of 1000 µmol m−2 s−1 resulted in the classic uncoupling of isoprene emissions (Topt, iso > 40 °C from net photosynthesis (Topt, Pn = 30.0–32.5 °C with up to 7 % of Pn emitted as isoprene at 40 °C. Under standard environmental conditions of PAR and leaf temperature, young V. guianensis leaves showed high methanol emissions, low Pn, and low isoprene emissions. In contrast, mature leaves showed high Pn, high isoprene emissions, and low methanol emissions, highlighting the differential control of leaf phenology over methanol and isoprene emissions. High daytime ambient isoprene concentrations (11 ppbv were observed above a secondary Amazon rainforest, suggesting that isoprene emissions are common among neotropical pioneer species. The results are not consistent with the initial hypothesis and support a functional role of methanol during leaf expansion and the establishment of photosynthetic machinery and a protective role of isoprene for

  18. Top-down Estimates of Isoprene Emissions in Australia Inferred from OMI Satellite Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, J.; Fisher, J. A.; Surl, L.; Palmer, P. I.

    2017-12-01

    Australia is a global hotspot for biogenic isoprene emission factors predicted by process-based models such as the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). It is also prone to increasingly frequent temperature extremes that can drive episodically high emissions. Estimates of biogenic isoprene emissions from Australia are poorly constrained, with the frequently used MEGAN model overestimating emissions by a factor of 4-6 in some areas. Evaluating MEGAN and other models in Australia is difficult due to sparse measurements of emissions and their ensuing chemical products. In this talk, we will describe efforts to better quantify Australian isoprene emissions using top-down estimates based on formaldehyde (HCHO) observations from the OMI satellite instrument, combined with modelled isoprene to HCHO yields obtained from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. The OMI-based estimates are evaluated using in situ observations from field campaigns conducted in southeast Australia. We also investigate the impact on the inferred emission of horizontal resolution used for the yield calculations, particularly in regions on the boundary between low- and high-NOx chemistry. The prevalence of fire smoke plumes roughly halves the available satellite dataset over Australia for much of the year; however, seasonal averages remain robust. Preliminary results show that the top-down isoprene emissions are lower than MEGAN estimates by up to 90% in summer. The overestimates are greatest along the eastern coast, including areas surrounding Australia's major population centres in Sydney, Melbourne, and Brisbane. The coarse horizontal resolution of the model significantly affects the emissions estimates, as many biogenic emitting regions lie along narrow coastal stretches. Our results confirm previous findings that the MEGAN biogenic emission model is poorly calibrated for the Australian environment and suggests that chemical transport models driven by MEGAN are likely

  19. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-02-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol(-1) or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol(-1). The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  20. Isoprene in poplar emissions: effects on new particle formation and OH concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kiendler-Scharr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced volatile organic compound (VOC emissions from transgenic Grey poplar modified in isoprene emission potential were used for the investigation of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. In poplar, acute ozone stress induces the emission of a wide array of VOCs dominated by sesquiterpenes and aromatic VOCs. Constitutive light-dependent emission of isoprene ranged between 66 nmol m−2 s−1 in non-transgenic controls (wild type WT and nearly zero (<0.5 nmol m−2 s−1 in isoprene emission-repressed plants (line RA22, respectively. Nucleation rates of up to 3600 cm−3 s−1 were observed in our experiments. In the presence of isoprene new particle formation was suppressed compared to non-isoprene containing VOC mixtures. Compared to isoprene/monoterpene systems emitted from other plants the suppression of nucleation by isoprene was less effective for the VOC mixture emitted from stressed poplar. This is explained by the observed high efficiency of new particle formation for emissions from stressed poplar. Direct measurements of OH in the reaction chamber revealed that the steady state concentration of OH is lower in the presence of isoprene than in the absence of isoprene, supporting the hypothesis that isoprenes' suppressing effect on nucleation is related to radical chemistry. In order to test whether isoprene contributes to SOA mass formation, fully deuterated isoprene (C5D8 was added to the stress-induced emission profile of an isoprene free poplar mutant. Mass spectral analysis showed that, despite the isoprene-induced suppression of particle formation, fractions of deuterated isoprene were incorporated into the SOA. A fractional mass yield of 2.3% of isoprene was observed. Future emission changes due to land use and climate change may therefore affect both gas phase oxidation capacity and new particle number formation.

  1. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strada, Susanna; Unger, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP) and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (anthropogenic, biomass burning, and non-biomass burning) are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. The model framework includes all known light and meteorological responses of photosynthesis, but uses fixed canopy structures and phenology. On a global scale, our results show that global land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission) are not sensitive to pollution aerosols, even under a global decline in surface solar radiation (direct + diffuse) by ˜ 9 %. At a regional scale, GPP and isoprene emission show a robust but opposite sensitivity to pollution aerosols in regions where forested canopies dominate. In eastern North America and Eurasia, anthropogenic pollution aerosols (mainly from non-biomass burning sources) enhance GPP by +5-8 % on an annual average. In the northwestern Amazon Basin and central Africa, biomass burning aerosols increase GPP by +2-5 % on an annual average, with a peak in the northwestern Amazon Basin during the dry-fire season (+5-8 %). The prevailing mechanism varies across regions: light scattering dominates in eastern North America, while a reduction in direct radiation dominates in Europe and China. Aerosol-induced GPP productivity increases in the Amazon and central Africa include an additional positive feedback from reduced canopy temperatures in response to increases in canopy conductance. In Eurasia and northeastern China, anthropogenic pollution aerosols drive a decrease in isoprene emission of -2 to -12 % on an annual average. Future research needs to incorporate the indirect effects of aerosols and possible feedbacks from dynamic carbon allocation and phenology.

  2. Potential sensitivity of photosynthesis and isoprene emission to direct radiative effects of atmospheric aerosol pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Strada

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A global Earth system model is applied to quantify the impacts of direct anthropogenic aerosol effective radiative forcing on gross primary productivity (GPP and isoprene emission. The impacts of different pollution aerosol sources (anthropogenic, biomass burning, and non-biomass burning are investigated by performing sensitivity experiments. The model framework includes all known light and meteorological responses of photosynthesis, but uses fixed canopy structures and phenology. On a global scale, our results show that global land carbon fluxes (GPP and isoprene emission are not sensitive to pollution aerosols, even under a global decline in surface solar radiation (direct + diffuse by  ∼ 9 %. At a regional scale, GPP and isoprene emission show a robust but opposite sensitivity to pollution aerosols in regions where forested canopies dominate. In eastern North America and Eurasia, anthropogenic pollution aerosols (mainly from non-biomass burning sources enhance GPP by +5–8 % on an annual average. In the northwestern Amazon Basin and central Africa, biomass burning aerosols increase GPP by +2–5 % on an annual average, with a peak in the northwestern Amazon Basin during the dry-fire season (+5–8 %. The prevailing mechanism varies across regions: light scattering dominates in eastern North America, while a reduction in direct radiation dominates in Europe and China. Aerosol-induced GPP productivity increases in the Amazon and central Africa include an additional positive feedback from reduced canopy temperatures in response to increases in canopy conductance. In Eurasia and northeastern China, anthropogenic pollution aerosols drive a decrease in isoprene emission of −2 to −12 % on an annual average. Future research needs to incorporate the indirect effects of aerosols and possible feedbacks from dynamic carbon allocation and phenology.

  3. Isoprene emissions over Asia 1979-2012: impact of climate and land-use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Guenther, A.; Wild, M.; Xia, X.

    2014-05-01

    positive flux trends of 0.2% and 0.52% throughout the entire period are found in Asia and China, respectively, related to a positive trend in temperature and solar radiation. The impact of oil palm expansion in Indonesia and Malaysia is to enhance the trends over that region, e.g., from 1.17% to 1.5% in 1979-2005 in Malaysia. A negative emission trend is derived in India (-0.4%), owing to the negative trend in solar radiation data associated with the strong dimming effect likely due to increasing aerosol loadings. The bottom-up emissions are compared to field campaign measurements in Borneo and South China and further evaluated against top-down isoprene emission estimates constrained by GOME-2/MetOp-A formaldehyde columns through 2007-2012. The satellite-based estimates appear to support our assumptions, and confirm the lower emission rate in tropical forests of Indonesia and Malaysia. Additional flux measurements are clearly needed to characterize the spatial variability of emission factors better. Finally, a decreasing trend in the inferred top-down Chinese emissions since 2007 is in line with recorded cooling in China after that year, thus suggesting that the satellite HCHO columns are able to capture climate-induced changes in emissions.

  4. Isoprene emissions over Asia 1979–2012: impact of climate and land-use changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J. -F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Guenther, A.; Wild, M.; Xia, X.

    2014-01-01

    , annual positive flux trends of 0.2% and 0.52% throughout the entire period are found in Asia and China, respectively, related to a positive trend in temperature and solar radiation. The impact of oil palm expansion in Indonesia and Malaysia is to enhance the trends over that region, e.g., from 1.17% to 1.5% in 1979–2005 in Malaysia. A negative emission trend is derived in India (-0.4%), owing to the negative trend in solar radiation data associated with the strong dimming effect likely due to increasing aerosol loadings. The bottom-up emissions are compared to field campaign measurements in Borneo and South China and further evaluated against top-down isoprene emission estimates constrained by GOME-2/MetOp-A formaldehyde columns through 2007–2012. The satellite-based estimates appear to support our assumptions, and confirm the lower emission rate in tropical forests of Indonesia and Malaysia. Additional flux measurements are clearly needed to characterize the spatial variability of emission factors better. To conclude, a decreasing trend in the inferred top-down Chinese emissions since 2007 is in line with recorded cooling in China after that year, thus suggesting that the satellite HCHO columns are able to capture climate-induced changes in emissions.

  5. Future changes in biogenic isoprene emissions: how might they affect regional and global atmospheric chemistry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Wiedinmyer; Xuexi Tie; Alex Guenther; Ron Neilson; Claire. Granier

    2006-01-01

    Isoprene is emitted from vegetation to the atmosphere in significant quantities, and it plays an important role in the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations. As future climatic and land-cover changes occur, the spatial and temporal variations, as well as the magnitude of these biogenic isoprene emissions, are expected to change. This paper presents...

  6. Airborne measurements of isoprene and monoterpene emissions from southeastern U.S. forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haofei; Guenther, Alex; Gu, Dasa; Warneke, Carsten; Geron, Chris; Goldstein, Allen; Graus, Martin; Karl, Thomas; Kaser, Lisa; Misztal, Pawel; Yuan, Bin

    2017-10-01

    Isoprene and monoterpene emission rates are essential inputs for atmospheric chemistry models that simulate atmospheric oxidant and particle distributions. Process studies of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms controlling these emissions are advancing our understanding and the accuracy of model predictions but efforts to quantify regional emissions have been limited by a lack of constraints on regional distributions of ecosystem emission capacities. We used an airborne wavelet-based eddy covariance measurement technique to characterize isoprene and monoterpene fluxes with high spatial resolution during the 2013 SAS (Southeast Atmosphere Study) in the southeastern United States. The fluxes measured by direct eddy covariance were comparable to emissions independently estimated using an indirect inverse modeling approach. Isoprene emission factors based on the aircraft wavelet flux estimates for high isoprene chemotypes (e.g., oaks) were similar to the MEGAN2.1 biogenic emission model estimates for landscapes dominated by oaks. Aircraft flux measurement estimates for landscapes with fewer isoprene emitting trees (e.g., pine plantations), were about a factor of two lower than MEGAN2.1 model estimates. The tendency for high isoprene emitters in these landscapes to occur in the shaded understory, where light dependent isoprene emissions are diminished, may explain the lower than expected emissions. This result demonstrates the importance of accurately representing the vertical profile of isoprene emitting biomass in biogenic emission models. Airborne measurement-based emission factors for high monoterpene chemotypes agreed with MEGAN2.1 in landscapes dominated by pine (high monoterpene chemotype) trees but were more than a factor of three higher than model estimates for landscapes dominated by oak (relatively low monoterpene emitting) trees. This results suggests that unaccounted processes, such as floral emissions or light dependent monoterpene emissions, or

  7. Airborne measurements of isoprene and monoterpene emissions from southeastern U.S. forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haofei; Guenther, Alex; Gu, Dasa; Warneke, Carsten; Geron, Chris; Goldstein, Allen; Graus, Martin; Karl, Thomas; Kaser, Lisa; Misztal, Pawel; Yuan, Bin

    2017-10-01

    Isoprene and monoterpene emission rates are essential inputs for atmospheric chemistry models that simulate atmospheric oxidant and particle distributions. Process studies of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms controlling these emissions are advancing our understanding and the accuracy of model predictions but efforts to quantify regional emissions have been limited by a lack of constraints on regional distributions of ecosystem emission capacities. We used an airborne wavelet-based eddy covariance measurement technique to characterize isoprene and monoterpene fluxes with high spatial resolution during the 2013 SAS (Southeast Atmosphere Study) in the southeastern United States. The fluxes measured by direct eddy covariance were comparable to emissions independently estimated using an indirect inverse modeling approach. Isoprene emission factors based on the aircraft wavelet flux estimates for high isoprene chemotypes (e.g., oaks) were similar to the MEGAN2.1 biogenic emission model estimates for landscapes dominated by oaks. Aircraft flux measurement estimates for landscapes with fewer isoprene emitting trees (e.g., pine plantations), were about a factor of two lower than MEGAN2.1 model estimates. The tendency for high isoprene emitters in these landscapes to occur in the shaded understory, where light dependent isoprene emissions are diminished, may explain the lower than expected emissions. This result demonstrates the importance of accurately representing the vertical profile of isoprene emitting biomass in biogenic emission models. Airborne measurement-based emission factors for high monoterpene chemotypes agreed with MEGAN2.1 in landscapes dominated by pine (high monoterpene chemotype) trees but were more than a factor of three higher than model estimates for landscapes dominated by oak (relatively low monoterpene emitting) trees. This results suggests that unaccounted processes, such as floral emissions or light dependent monoterpene emissions, or

  8. Isoprene emissions over Asia 1979-2012: impact of climate and land use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.; Bauwens, M.; De Smedt, I.; Van Roozendael, M.; Guenther, A.; Wild, M.; Xia, X.

    2013-11-01

    Due to the scarcity of observational constraints and the rapidly changing environment in East and Southeast Asia, isoprene emissions predicted by models are expected to bear substantial uncertainties. The aim of this study is to improve upon the existing bottom-up estimates, and investigate the temporal evolution of the fluxes in Asia over 1979-2012. To this purpose, we calculate the hourly emissions at 0.5° × 0.5° resolution using the MEGAN-MOHYCAN model driven by ECMWF ERA-Interim climatology. This study incorporates (i) changes in land use, including the rapid expansion of oil palms, (ii) meteorological variability according to ERA-Interim, (iii) long-term changes in solar radiation (dimming/brightening) constrained by surface network radiation measurements, and (iv) recent experimental evidence that South Asian tropical forests are much weaker isoprene emitters than previously assumed, and on the other hand, that oil palms hold a strong isoprene emission capacity. These effects lead to a significant lowering (factor of two) in the total isoprene fluxes over the studied domain, and to emission reductions reaching a~factor of 3.5 in Southeast Asia. The bottom-up annual isoprene emissions for 2005 are estimated at 7.0, 4.8, 8.3, 2.9 Tg in China, India, Indonesia and Malaysia, respectively. Changes in temperature and solar radiation are the major drivers of the interannual variability and trend in the emissions. An annual positive flux trend of 0.2% and 0.52% is found in Asia and China, respectively, through the entire period, related to positive trend in temperature and solar radiation. The impact of oil palm expansion in Indonesia and Malaysia is to enhance the trends over that region, e.g. from 1.17% to 1.5% in 1979-2005 in Malaysia. A negative emission trend is derived in India (-0.4%), owing to the negative trend in solar radiation data associated to the strong dimming effect likely due to increasing aerosol loadings. The bottom-up emissions are evaluated

  9. A new physically-based quantification of marine isoprene and primary organic aerosol emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The global marine sources of organic carbon (OC are estimated here using a physically-based parameterization for the emission of marine isoprene and primary organic matter. The marine isoprene emission model incorporates new physical parameters such as light sensitivity of phytoplankton isoprene production and dynamic euphotic depth to simulate hourly marine isoprene emissions totaling 0.92 Tg C yr−1. Sensitivity studies using different schemes for the euphotic zone depth and ocean phytoplankton speciation produce the upper and the lower range of marine-isoprene emissions of 0.31 to 1.09 Tg C yr−1, respectively. Established relationships between sea spray fractionation of water-insoluble organic carbon (WIOC and chlorophyll-a concentration are used to estimate the total primary sources of marine sub- and super-micron OC of 2.9 and 19.4 Tg C yr−1, respectively. The consistent spatial and temporal resolution of the two emission types allow us, for the first time, to explore the relative contributions of sub- and super-micron organic matter and marine isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol (SOA to the total OC fraction of marine aerosol. Using a fixed 3% mass yield for the conversion of isoprene to SOA, our emission simulations show minor (<0.2% contribution of marine isoprene to the total marine source of OC on a global scale. However, our model calculations also indicate that over the tropical oceanic regions (30° S to 30° N, marine isoprene SOA may contribute over 30% of the total monthly-averaged sub-micron OC fraction of marine aerosol. The estimated contribution of marine isoprene SOA to hourly-averaged sub-micron marine OC emission is even higher, approaching 50% over the vast regions of the oceans during the midday hours when isoprene emissions are highest. As it is widely believed that sub-micron OC has the potential to influence the cloud droplet activation of marine aerosols, our

  10. Effect of isoprene emissions from major forests on ozone formation in the city of Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Geng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambient surface level concentrations of isoprene (C5H8 were measured in the major forest regions located south of Shanghai, China. Because there is a large coverage of broad-leaved trees in this region, high concentrations of isoprene were measured, ranging from 1 to 6 ppbv. A regional dynamical/chemical model (WRF-Chem is applied for studying the effect of such high concentrations of isoprene on the ozone production in the city of Shanghai. The evaluation of the model shows that the calculated isoprene concentrations agree with the measured concentrations when the measured isoprene concentrations are lower than 3 ppb, but underestimate the measurements when the measured values are higher than 3 ppb. Isoprene was underestimated only at sampling sites near large bamboo plantations, a high isoprene source, indicating the need to include geospatially resolved bamboo distributions in the biogenic emission model. The assessment of the impact of isoprene on ozone formation suggests that the concentrations of peroxy radicals (RO2 are significantly enhanced due to the oxidation of isoprene, with a maximum of 30 ppt. However, the enhancement of RO2 is confined to the forested regions. Because the concentrations of NOx were low in the forest regions, the ozone production due to the oxidation of isoprene (C5H8 + OH → → RO2 + NO → → O3 is low (less than 2–3 ppb h−1. The calculation further suggests that the oxidation of isoprene leads to the enhancement of carbonyls (such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in the regions downwind of the forests, due to continuous oxidation of isoprene in the forest air. As a result, the concentrations of HO2 radical are enhanced, resulting from the photo-disassociation of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Because the enhancement of HO2 radical occurs in regions downwind of the forests

  11. Global isoprene and monoterpene emissions under changing climate, vegetation, CO2 and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hantson, Stijn; Knorr, Wolfgang; Schurgers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    Plants emit large quantities of isoprene and monoterpenes, the main components of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions. BVOCs have an important impact on the atmospheric composition of methane, and of short-lived radiative forcing agents (e.g. ozone, aerosols etc.). It is th......Plants emit large quantities of isoprene and monoterpenes, the main components of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions. BVOCs have an important impact on the atmospheric composition of methane, and of short-lived radiative forcing agents (e.g. ozone, aerosols etc.......). It is therefore necessary to know how isoprene and monoterpene emissions have changed over the past and how future changes in climate, land-use and other factors will impact them. Here we present emission estimates of isoprene and monoterpenes over the period 1901–2 100 based on the dynamic global vegetation...... model LPJ-GUESS, including the effects of all known important drivers. We find that both isoprene and monoterpene emissions at the beginning of the 20th century were higher than at present. While anthropogenic land-use change largely drives the global decreasing trend for isoprene over the 20th century...

  12. Isoprene Emission Factors for Subtropical Street Trees for Regional Air Quality Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn-Johnston, Kristina A; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Hirabayashi, Satoshi; Plant, Lyndal; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schmidt, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the environmental benefits and consequences of urban trees supports their sustainable management in cities. Models such as i-Tree Eco enable decision-making by quantifying effects associated with particular tree species. Of specific concern are emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, particularly isoprene, that contribute to the formation of photochemical smog and ground level ozone. Few studies have quantified these potential disservices of urban trees, and current models predominantly use emissions data from trees that differ from those in our target region of subtropical Australia. The present study aimed (i) to quantify isoprene emission rates of three tree species that together represent 16% of the inventoried street trees in the target region; (ii) to evaluate outputs of the i-Tree Eco model using species-specific versus currently used, generic isoprene emission rates; and (iii) to evaluate the findings in the context of regional air quality. Isoprene emission rates of (Myrtaceae) and (Proteaceae) were 2.61 and 2.06 µg g dry leaf weight h, respectively, whereas (Sapindaceae) was a nonisoprene emitter. We substituted the generic isoprene emission rates with these three empirical values in i-Tree Eco, resulting in a 182 kg yr (97%) reduction in isoprene emissions, totaling 6284 kg yr when extrapolated to the target region. From these results we conclude that care has to be taken when using generic isoprene emission factors for urban tree models. We recommend that emissions be quantified for commonly planted trees, allowing decision-makers to select tree species with the greatest overall benefit for the urban environment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Drought impact on Quercus pubescens Willd. isoprene emissions over the Mediterranean area: what future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrielle Genard-Zielinski, Anne; Boissard, Christophe; Ormeño, Elena; Lathière, Juliette; Guenet, Bertrand; Gauquelin, Thierry; Fernandez, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) released by plants mostly originate from their secondary metabolism. Their emissions are modulated, in terms of intensity and molecule diversity, by environmental conditions. Among BVOCs, isoprene has been especially studied due to its high emission fluxes and its contribution to tropospheric photochemistry, both in the gaseous and particulate phases. However, the way isoprene emissions are impacted by some abiotic factors, especially water stress, is still under debate. In a world facing climatic changes, global climate models expect air temperature and drought intensity to strengthen in the Mediterranean area by 2100. Our work focuses on the impact of water stress on isoprene emissions (ERiso) from Quercus pubescens Willd. This species covers large areas of the Mediterranean area where it appears to be the main isoprene emitter. An in situ experimentation was performed at the O3HP (Oak Observatory at OHP, southern France) in a pubescent oak forest with trees adapted to long lasting stress periods. We investigated during a whole seasonal cycle (from June 2012 to June 2013) the course of ERiso under both natural water stress (control treatment: C) and intensified water stress (stress treatment: S) by artificially reducing rain by 30% using a specific rain exclusion device. Restricted rain did not modify either the net CO2 assimilation or ERiso during the whole season. However, isoprene emission factors (Is) for trees under S were significantly higher (a factor of ˜ 2) than for trees growing under C in August (137.8 compared to 75.3 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively) and September (75.3 compared to 40.2 μgC.gDM-1.h-1 respectively). Based on our experimental emission database, an appropriate isoprene emission algorithm (GZ2014) was developed using a statistic approach (an artificial neural network). Using ambient and edaphic environmental parameters integrated over up to 3 weeks, GZ2014 was found to represent more than 80% of

  14. Isoprene emission potentials from European oak forests derived from canopy flux measurements: an assessment of uncertainties and inter-algorithm variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Langford

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic emission algorithms predict that oak forests account for ∼ 70 % of the total European isoprene budget. Yet the isoprene emission potentials (IEPs that underpin these model estimates are calculated from a very limited number of leaf-level observations and hence are highly uncertain. Increasingly, micrometeorological techniques such as eddy covariance are used to measure whole-canopy fluxes directly, from which isoprene emission potentials can be calculated. Here, we review five observational datasets of isoprene fluxes from a range of oak forests in the UK, Italy and France. We outline procedures to correct the measured net fluxes for losses from deposition and chemical flux divergence, which were found to be on the order of 5–8 and 4–5 %, respectively. The corrected observational data were used to derive isoprene emission potentials at each site in a two-step process. Firstly, six commonly used emission algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an average isoprene emission potential was calculated for each site with an associated uncertainty. We used these data to assess how the derived emission potentials change depending upon the specific emission algorithm used and, importantly, on the particular approach adopted to derive an average site-specific emission potential. Our results show that isoprene emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of 4 depending on the specific algorithm used and whether or not it is used in a big-leaf or canopy environment (CE model format. When using the same algorithm, the calculated average isoprene emission potential was found to vary by as much as 34 % depending on how the average was derived. Using a consistent approach with version 2.1 of the Model for Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN, we derive new ecosystem-scale isoprene emission potentials for the five measurement sites: Alice Holt, UK (10 500 ± 2500

  15. Isoprene emission potentials from European oak forests derived from canopy flux measurements: an assessment of uncertainties and inter-algorithm variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Ben; Cash, James; Acton, W. Joe F.; Valach, Amy C.; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Fares, Silvano; Goded, Ignacio; Gruening, Carsten; House, Emily; Kalogridis, Athina-Cerise; Gros, Valérie; Schafers, Richard; Thomas, Rick; Broadmeadow, Mark; Nemitz, Eiko

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic emission algorithms predict that oak forests account for ˜ 70 % of the total European isoprene budget. Yet the isoprene emission potentials (IEPs) that underpin these model estimates are calculated from a very limited number of leaf-level observations and hence are highly uncertain. Increasingly, micrometeorological techniques such as eddy covariance are used to measure whole-canopy fluxes directly, from which isoprene emission potentials can be calculated. Here, we review five observational datasets of isoprene fluxes from a range of oak forests in the UK, Italy and France. We outline procedures to correct the measured net fluxes for losses from deposition and chemical flux divergence, which were found to be on the order of 5-8 and 4-5 %, respectively. The corrected observational data were used to derive isoprene emission potentials at each site in a two-step process. Firstly, six commonly used emission algorithms were inverted to back out time series of isoprene emission potential, and then an average isoprene emission potential was calculated for each site with an associated uncertainty. We used these data to assess how the derived emission potentials change depending upon the specific emission algorithm used and, importantly, on the particular approach adopted to derive an average site-specific emission potential. Our results show that isoprene emission potentials can vary by up to a factor of 4 depending on the specific algorithm used and whether or not it is used in a big-leaf or canopy environment (CE) model format. When using the same algorithm, the calculated average isoprene emission potential was found to vary by as much as 34 % depending on how the average was derived. Using a consistent approach with version 2.1 of the Model for Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), we derive new ecosystem-scale isoprene emission potentials for the five measurement sites: Alice Holt, UK (10 500 ± 2500 µg m-2 h-1); Bosco Fontana, Italy (1610

  16. Isoprene emission response to drought and the impact on global atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Guenther, Alex; Potosnak, Mark; Geron, Chris; Seco, Roger; Karl, Thomas; Kim, Saewung; Gu, Lianhong; Pallardy, Stephen

    2018-06-01

    Biogenic isoprene emissions play a very important role in atmospheric chemistry. These emissions are strongly dependent on various environmental conditions, such as temperature, solar radiation, plant water stress, ambient ozone and CO2 concentrations, and soil moisture. Current biogenic emission models (i.e., Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature, MEGAN) can simulate emission responses to some of the major driving variables, such as short-term variations in temperature and solar radiation, but the other factors are either missing or poorly represented. In this paper, we propose a new modelling approach that considers the physiological effects of drought stress on plant photosynthesis and isoprene emissions for use in the MEGAN3 biogenic emission model. We test the MEGAN3 approach by integrating the algorithm into the existing MEGAN2.1 biogenic emission model framework embedded into the global Community Land Model of the Community Earth System Model (CLM4.5/CESM1.2). Single-point simulations are compared against available field measurements at the Missouri Ozarks AmeriFlux (MOFLUX) field site. The modelling results show that the MEGAN3 approach of using of a photosynthesis parameter (Vcmax) and soil wetness factor (βt) to determine the drought activity factor leads to better simulated isoprene emissions in non-drought and drought periods. The global simulation with the MEGAN3 approach predicts a 17% reduction in global annual isoprene emissions, in comparison to the value predicted using the default CLM4.5/MEGAN2.1 without any drought effect. This reduction leads to changes in surface ozone and oxidants in the areas where the reduction of isoprene emissions is observed. Based on the results presented in this study, we conclude that it is important to simulate the drought-induced response of biogenic isoprene emission accurately in the coupled Earth System model.

  17. Isoprene emissions over Asia 1979-2012 : impact of climate and land use changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Müller, Jean-Francois; Bauwens, Maite; Guenther, Alex; De Smedt, Isabelle; Van Roozendael, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Due to the scarcity of observational contraints and the rapidly changing environment in East and Southeast Asia, isoprene emissions predicted by models are expected to bear substantial uncertainties. This study aims at improving upon current bottom-up estimates, and investigate the temporal evolution of isoprene fluxes in Asia over 1979-2012. For that, we use the MEGAN model and incorporate (i) changes in land use, including the rapid expansion of oil palms, (ii) meteorological variability, (iii) long-term changes in solar radiation constrained by surface network measurements, and (iv) recent experimental evidence that South Asian forests are much weaker isoprene emitters than previously assumed. These effects lead to a significant reduction of the total isoprene fluxes over the studied domain compared to the standard simulation. The bottom-up emissions are evaluated using satellite-based emission estimates derived from inverse modelling constrained by GOME-2/MetOp-A formaldehyde columns through 2007-2012. The top-down estimates support our assumptions and confirm the lower isoprene emission rate in tropical forests of Indonesia and Malaysia.

  18. Sensitivity of isoprene emissions estimated using MEGAN to the time resolution of input climate data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ashworth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the effect of varying the temporal resolution of the input climate data on isoprene emission estimates generated by the community emissions model MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature. The estimated total global annual emissions of isoprene is reduced from 766 Tg y−1 when using hourly input data to 746 Tg y−1 (a reduction of 3% for daily average input data and 711 Tg y−1 (down 7% for monthly average input data. The impact on a local scale can be more significant with reductions of up to 55% at some locations when using monthly average data compared with using hourly data. If the daily and monthly average temperature data are used without the imposition of a diurnal cycle the global emissions estimates fall by 27–32%, and local annual emissions by up to 77%. A similar pattern emerges if hourly isoprene fluxes are considered. In order to better simulate and predict isoprene emission rates using MEGAN, we show it is necessary to use temperature and radiation data resolved to one hour. Given the importance of land-atmosphere interactions in the Earth system and the low computational cost of the MEGAN algorithms, we recommend that chemistry-climate models and the new generation of Earth system models input biogenic emissions at the highest temporal resolution possible.

  19. High-resolution inversion of OMI formaldehyde columns over the Southeast US to infer isoprene emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, J.; Zhu, L.; Travis, K.; Jacob, D.

    2017-12-01

    In the South East United States, biogenic isoprene fuels tropospheric ozone formation, and its oxidation products contribute significantly to organic aerosol. Bottom-up emission inventories rely on very limited isoprene emission and land-cover data, yielding uncertainties of a factor of 2 or more. Here, we use formaldehyde columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument in a high-resolution (0.25 x 0.325o) adjoint-based inversion to constrain isoprene emissions over the SE US during Aug-Sept of 2013. We find that the MEGANv2.1 inventory is biased high over most of the SE US. Our derived scaling factors show significant spatial variability, with the largest corrections applied to Louisiana and the Edwards Plateau in Texas. We test our inversion results against a comprehensive set of isoprene oxidation product observations from the NASA SEAC4RS flight campaign. The SEAC4RS data provides new confidence in the satellite retrievals and in mechanism linking isoprene oxidation to formaldehyde production. Finally, we relate the posterior scaling factors to the underlying land-type, and examine potential sources of observed biases.

  20. Assessment of high to low frequency variations of isoprene emission rates using a neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissard, C.; Chervier, F.; Dutot, A. L.

    2007-08-01

    Using a statistical approach based on artificial neural networks, an emission algorithm (ISO_LF) accounting for high (instantaneous) to low (seasonal) frequency variations was developed for isoprene. ISO_LF was optimised using an isoprene emission data base (ISO-DB) specifically designed for this work. ISO-DB consists of 1321 emission rates collected in the literature, together with 34 environmental variables, measured or assessed using NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) or NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Predictions) meteorological databases. ISO-DB covers a large variety of emitters (25 species) and environmental conditions (10° S to 60° N). When only instantaneous environmental regressors (air temperature and photosynthetic active radiation, PAR) were used, a maximum of 60% of the overall isoprene variability was assessed and the highest emissions were underestimated. Considering a total of 9 high (instantaneous) to low (up to 3 weeks) frequency regressors, ISO_LF accounts for up to 91% of the isoprene emission variability, whatever the emission range, species or climate. Diurnal and seasonal variations are correctly reproduced for textit{Ulex europaeus} with a maximum factor of discrepancy of 4. ISO-LF was found to be mainly sensitive to air temperature cumulated over 3 weeks T21 and to instantaneous light L0 and air temperature T0 variations. T21, T0 and L0 only accounts for 76% of the overall variability. The use of ISO-LF for non stored monoterpene emissions was shown to give poor results.

  1. Photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emission from leaf to planet in a global carbon-chemistry-climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Unger, N.; Harper, K.; Zheng, Y.; Kiang, N. Y.; Aleinov, I.; Arneth, A.; Schurgers, G.; Amelynyck, C.; Goldstein, A.; Guenther, A.; Heinesch, B.; Hewitt, C. N.; Karl, T.; Laffineur, Q.; Langford, B.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the implementation of a biochemical model of isoprene emission that depends on the electron requirement for isoprene synthesis into the Farquhar–Ball–Berry leaf model of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance that is embedded within a global chemistry-climate simulation framework. The isoprene production is calculated as a function of electron transport-limited photosynthesis, intercellular and atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, and canopy temperature. Th...

  2. Above Canopy Emissions of Isoprene and Monoterpenes from a Southeast Asian Tropical Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.; Johnson, C.; Cai, Z.; Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Bai, J.; Li, Q.

    2003-12-01

    Fluxes of isoprene were measured using the eddy covariance technique and an ozone chemiluminescence isoprene sensor above a secondary tropical forest/rubber tree plantation located in the Xishuangbanna region of southern China during the wet and dry seasons. Fluxes of monoterpenes were inferred from ambient boundary layer concentrations (wet season) and from relaxed eddy accumulation measurements (dry season). Isoprene emissions were comparable to what has been observed from other tropical forests in Africa and South America. In this forest, monoterpene emissions were much higher during the wet season due to the senescence of the rubber trees during the dry season. These flux measurements represent the first ecosystem level flux measurements reported from Southeast Asian tropical forests.

  3. Remote sensing estimation of isoprene and monoterpene emissions generated by natural vegetation in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, Sandra L; Mejía-Velázquez, G M; Lozano-García, D Fabián

    2016-06-01

    In addition to oxygen, hydrocarbons are the most reactive chemical compounds produced by plants into the atmosphere. These compounds are part of the family of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and are discharged in a great variety of forms. Among the VOCs produced by natural sources such as vegetation, the most studied until today are the isoprene and monoterpene. These substances can play an important role in the chemical balance of the atmosphere of a region. In this project, we develop a methodology to estimate the natural (vegetation) emission of isoprene and monoterpenes and applied it to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico and its surrounding areas. Landsat-TM data was used to identify the dominant vegetation communities and field work to determine the foliage biomass density of key species. The studied communities were submontane scrub, oak, and pine forests and a combination of both. We carried out the estimation of emissions for isoprene and monoterpenes compounds in the different plant communities, with two different criteria: (1) taking into account the average foliage biomass density obtained from the various sample point in each vegetation community, and (2) using the foliage biomass density obtained for each transect, associated to an individual spectral class within a particular vegetation type. With this information, we obtained emission maps for each case. The results show that the main producers of isoprene are the communities that include species of the genus Quercus, located mainly on the Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra de Picachos, with average isoprene emissions of 314.6 ton/day and 207.3 ton/day for the two methods utilized. The higher estimates of monoterpenes were found in the submontane scrub areas distributed along the valley of the metropolitan zone, with an estimated average emissions of 47.1 ton/day and 181.4 tons for the two methods respectively.

  4. Isoprene emissions modelling for West Africa: MEGAN model evaluation and sensitivity analysis

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    J. Ferreira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene emissions are the largest source of reactive carbon to the atmosphere, with the tropics being a major source region. These natural emissions are expected to change with changing climate and human impact on land use. As part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA project the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN has been used to estimate the spatial and temporal distribution of isoprene emissions over the West African region. During the AMMA field campaign, carried out in July and August 2006, isoprene mixing ratios were measured on board the FAAM BAe-146 aircraft. These data have been used to make a qualitative evaluation of the model performance.

    MEGAN was firstly applied to a large area covering much of West Africa from the Gulf of Guinea in the south to the desert in the north and was able to capture the large scale spatial distribution of isoprene emissions as inferred from the observed isoprene mixing ratios. In particular the model captures the transition from the forested area in the south to the bare soils in the north, but some discrepancies have been identified over the bare soil, mainly due to the emission factors used. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the model response to changes in driving parameters, namely Leaf Area Index (LAI, Emission Factors (EF, temperature and solar radiation.

    A high resolution simulation was made of a limited area south of Niamey, Niger, where the higher concentrations of isoprene were observed. This is used to evaluate the model's ability to simulate smaller scale spatial features and to examine the influence of the driving parameters on an hourly basis through a case study of a flight on 17 August 2006.

    This study highlights the complex interactions between land surface processes and the meteorological dynamics and chemical composition of the PBL. This has implications for quantifying the impact of biogenic emissions

  5. Challenges in modelling isoprene and monoterpene emission dynamics of Arctic plants: a case study from a subarctic tundra heath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Schurgers, Guy; Valolahti, Hanna; Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic is warming at twice the global average speed, and the warming-induced increases in biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions from Arctic plants are expected to be drastic. The current global models' estimations of minimal BVOC emissions from the Arctic are based on very few observations and have been challenged increasingly by field data. This study applied a dynamic ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, as a platform to investigate short-term and long-term BVOC emission responses to Arctic climate warming. Field observations in a subarctic tundra heath with long-term (13-year) warming treatments were extensively used for parameterizing and evaluating BVOC-related processes (photosynthesis, emission responses to temperature and vegetation composition). We propose an adjusted temperature (T) response curve for Arctic plants with much stronger T sensitivity than the commonly used algorithms for large-scale modelling. The simulated emission responses to 2 °C warming between the adjusted and original T response curves were evaluated against the observed warming responses (WRs) at short-term scales. Moreover, the model responses to warming by 4 and 8 °C were also investigated as a sensitivity test. The model showed reasonable agreement to the observed vegetation CO2 fluxes in the main growing season as well as day-to-day variability of isoprene and monoterpene emissions. The observed relatively high WRs were better captured by the adjusted T response curve than by the common one. During 1999-2012, the modelled annual mean isoprene and monoterpene emissions were 20 and 8 mg C m-2 yr-1, with an increase by 55 and 57 % for 2 °C summertime warming, respectively. Warming by 4 and 8 °C for the same period further elevated isoprene emission for all years, but the impacts on monoterpene emissions levelled off during the last few years. At hour-day scale, the WRs seem to be strongly impacted by canopy air T, while at the day-year scale, the WRs are a combined

  6. Observations of biogenic isoprene emissions and atmospheric chemistry components at the Savé super site in Benin, West Africa, during the DACCIWA field campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambert, Corinne; Pacifico, Federica; Delon, Claire; Lohou, Fabienne; Reinares Martinez, Irene; Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Derrien, Solene; Dione, Cheikh; Brosse, Fabien; Gabella, Omar; Pedruzzo Bagazgoitia, Xavier; Durand, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Tropospheric oxidation of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), including isoprene, in the presence of NOx and sunlight leads to the formation of O3 and Secondary Organic Aerosols (SOA). Changes in NO or VOCs sources will consequently modify their atmospheric concentrations and thus, the rate of O3 production and SOA formation. NOx have also an impact on the abundance of the hydroxyl radical (OH) which determines the lifetime of some pollutants and greenhouse gases. Anthropogenic emissions of pollutants from mega cities located on the Guinean coast in South West Africa are likely to increase in the next decades due to a strong anthropogenic pressure and to land use changes at the regional or continental scale. The consequences on regional air quality and on pollutant deposition onto surfaces may have some harmful effects on human and ecosystem health. Furthermore, the regional climate and water cycle are affected by changes in atmospheric chemistry. When transported northward on the African continent, polluted air masses meet biogenic emissions from rural areas which contributes to increase ozone and SOA production, in high temperature and solar radiation conditions, highly favourable to enhanced photochemistry. During the Dynamics-aerosol-chemistry-cloud interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) field campaign, we measured the atmospheric chemical composition and the exchanges of trace components in a hinterland area of Benin, at the Savé super-site (8°02'03" N, 2°29'11″ E). The observations, monitored in June and July 2016, in a rural mixed agricultural area, include near surface concentrations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and isoprene, isoprene fluxes and meteorological parameters. We observed hourly average concentrations of O3 up to 50 ppb, low NOx concentrations (ca. 1 ppb and CO concentrations between 75 and 300 ppb. An 8 m tower was equipped with a Fast Isoprene Sensor and sonic anemometer to measure isoprene concentrations and

  7. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions from a ponderosa pine forest measured by relaxed eddy accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Robert C.; Deventer, Malte Julian; Turnipseed, Andrew A.; Warneke, Carsten; Ortega, John; Shen, Steve; Martinez, Luis; Koss, Abigail; Lerner, Brian M.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Smith, James N.; Guenther, Alex B.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2017-11-01

    Alkenes are reactive hydrocarbons that influence local and regional atmospheric chemistry by playing important roles in the photochemical production of tropospheric ozone and in the formation of secondary organic aerosols. The simplest alkene, ethene (ethylene), is a major plant hormone and ripening agent for agricultural commodities. The group of light alkenes (C2-C4) originates from both biogenic and anthropogenic sources, but their biogenic sources are poorly characterized, with limited field-based flux observations. Here we report net ecosystem fluxes of light alkenes and isoprene from a semiarid ponderosa pine forest in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, USA using the relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) technique during the summer of 2014. Ethene, propene, butene and isoprene emissions have strong diurnal cycles, with median daytime fluxes of 123, 95, 39 and 17 µg m-2 h-1, respectively. The fluxes were correlated with each other, followed general ecosystem trends of CO2 and water vapor, and showed similar sunlight and temperature response curves as other biogenic VOCs. The May through October flux, based on measurements and modeling, averaged 62, 52, 24 and 18 µg m-2 h-1 for ethene, propene, butene and isoprene, respectively. The light alkenes contribute significantly to the overall biogenic source of reactive hydrocarbons: roughly 18 % of the dominant biogenic VOC, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. The measured ecosystem scale fluxes are 40-80 % larger than estimates used for global emissions models for this type of ecosystem.

  8. Why are estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions so similar (and why is this not so for monoterpenes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC are a chief uncertainty in calculating the burdens of important atmospheric compounds like tropospheric ozone or secondary organic aerosol, reflecting either imperfect chemical oxidation mechanisms or unreliable emission estimates, or both. To provide a starting point for a more systematic discussion we review here global isoprene and monoterpene emission estimates to-date. We note a surprisingly small variation in the predictions of global isoprene emission rate that is in stark contrast with our lack of process understanding and the small number of observations for model parameterisation and evaluation. Most of the models are based on similar emission algorithms, using fixed values for the emission capacity of various plant functional types. In some cases, these values are very similar but differ substantially in other models. The similarities with regard to the global isoprene emission rate would suggest that the dominant parameters driving the ultimate global estimate, and thus the dominant determinant of model sensitivity, are the specific emission algorithm and isoprene emission capacity. But the models also differ broadly with regard to their representation of net primary productivity, method of biome coverage determination and climate data. Contrary to isoprene, monoterpene estimates show significantly larger model-to-model variation although variation in terms of leaf algorithm, emission capacities, the way of model upscaling, vegetation cover or climatology used in terpene models are comparable to those used for isoprene. From our summary of published studies there appears to be no evidence that the terrestrial modelling community has been any more successful in "resolving unknowns" in the mechanisms that control global isoprene emissions, compared to global monoterpene emissions. Rather, the proliferation of common parameterization schemes within a large variety of model platforms

  9. A simple modeling approach to study the regional impact of a Mediterranean forest isoprene emission on anthropogenic plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cortinovis

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Research during the past decades has outlined the importance of biogenic isoprene emission in tropospheric chemistry and regional ozone photo-oxidant pollution. The first part of this article focuses on the development and validation of a simple biogenic emission scheme designed for regional studies. Experimental data sets relative to Boreal, Tropical, Temperate and Mediterranean ecosystems are used to estimate the robustness of the scheme at the canopy scale, and over contrasted climatic and ecological conditions. A good agreement is generally found when comparing field measurements and simulated emission fluxes, encouraging us to consider the model suitable for regional application. Limitations of the scheme are nevertheless outlined as well as further on-going improvements. In the second part of the article, the emission scheme is used on line in the broader context of a meso-scale atmospheric chemistry model. Dynamically idealized simulations are carried out to study the chemical interactions of pollutant plumes with realistic isoprene emissions coming from a Mediterranean oak forest. Two types of anthropogenic sources, respectively representative of the Marseille (urban and Martigues (industrial French Mediterranean sites, and both characterized by different VOC/NOx are considered. For the Marseille scenario, the impact of biogenic emission on ozone production is larger when the forest is situated in a sub-urban configuration (i.e. downwind distance TOWN-FOREST -1. In this case the enhancement of ozone production due to isoprene can reach +37% in term of maximum surface concentrations and +11% in term of total ozone production. The impact of biogenic emission decreases quite rapidly when the TOWN-FOREST distance increases. For the Martigues scenario, the biogenic impact on the plume is significant up to TOWN-FOREST distance of 90km where the ozone maximum surface concentration enhancement can still reach +30%. For both cases, the

  10. Surface ozone seasonality under global change: Influence from dry deposition and isoprene emissions at northern mid-latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, O.; Paulot, F.; Fiore, A. M.; Horowitz, L. W.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Correa, G. J. P.; Lin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the contributions of nonlinear chemistry and transport to observed surface ozone seasonal cycles over land using global models relies on an accurate representation of ozone uptake by vegetation (dry deposition). It is well established that in the absence of ozone precursor emission changes, a warming climate will increase surface ozone in polluted regions, and that a rise in temperature-dependent isoprene emissions would exacerbate this "climate penalty". However, the influence of changes in ozone dry deposition, expected to evolve with climate and land use, is often overlooked in air quality projections. With a new scheme that represents dry deposition within the NOAA GFDL dynamic vegetation land model (LM3) coupled to the NOAA GFDL atmospheric chemistry-climate model (AM3), we simulate the impact of 21st century climate and land use on ozone dry deposition and isoprene emissions. This dry deposition parameterization is a version of the Wesely scheme, but uses parameters explicitly calculated by LM3 that respond to climate and land use (e.g., stomatal conductance, canopy interception of water, leaf area index). The parameterization includes a nonstomatal deposition dependence on humidity. We evaluate climatological present-day seasonal cycles of ozone deposition velocities and abundances with those observed at northern mid-latitude sites. With a set of 2010s and 2090s decadal simulations under a high climate warming scenario (RCP8.5) and a sensitivity simulation with well-mixed greenhouse gases following RCP8.5 but air pollutants held at 2010 levels (RCP8.5_WMGG), we examine changes in surface ozone seasonal cycles. We build on our previous findings, which indicate that strong reductions in anthropogenic NOx emissions under RCP8.5 cause the surface ozone seasonal cycle over the NE USA to reverse, shifting from a summer peak at present to a winter peak by 2100. Under RCP8.5_WMGG, we parse the separate effects of climate and land use on ozone dry

  11. Probabilistic estimation of future emissions of isoprene and surface oxidant chemistry associated with land-use change in response to growing food needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Hardacre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the impact of land-use change, determined by our growing demand for food and biofuel production, on isoprene emissions and subsequent atmospheric oxidant chemistry in 2015 and 2030, relative to 1990, ignoring compound climate change effects over that period. We estimate isoprene emissions from an ensemble (n = 1000 of land-use change realizations from 1990–2050, broadly guided by the IPCC AR4/SRES scenarios A1 and B1. We also superimpose land-use change required to address projected biofuel usage using two scenarios: (1 assuming that world governments make no changes to biofuel policy after 2009, and (2 assuming that world governments develop biofuel policy with the aim of keeping equivalent atmospheric CO2 at 450 ppm. We present the median and interquartile range (IQR statistics of the ensemble and show that land-use change between −1.50 × 1012 m2 to +6.06 × 1012 m2 was found to drive changes in the global isoprene burden of −3.5 to +2.8 Tg yr−1 in 2015 and −7.7 to +6.4 Tg yr−1 in 2030. We use land-use change realizations corresponding to the median and IQR of these emission estimates to drive the GEOS-Chem global 3-D chemistry transport model to investigate the perturbation to global and regional surface concentrations of isoprene, nitrogen oxides (NO+NO2, and the atmospheric concentration and deposition of ozone (O3. We show that across subcontinental regions the monthly surface O3 increases by 0.1–0.8 ppb, relative to a zero land-use change calculation, driven by increases (decreases in surface isoprene in high (low NOx environments. At the local scale (4° × 5° we find that surface O3 increases by 5–12 ppb over temperate North America, China and boreal Eurasia, driven by large increases in isoprene emissions from short-rotation coppice crop cultivation for biofuel production.

  12. Isoprene emission by poplar is not important for the feeding behaviour of poplar leaf beetles

    OpenAIRE

    M?ller, Anna; Kaling, Moritz; Faubert, Patrick; Gort, Gerrit; Smid, Hans M; Van Loon, Joop JA; Dicke, Marcel; Kanawati, Basem; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Polle, Andrea; Schnitzler, J?rg-Peter; Rosenkranz, Maaria

    2015-01-01

    Background Chrysomela populi (poplar leaf beetle) is a common herbivore in poplar plantations whose infestation causes major economic losses. Because plant volatiles act as infochemicals, we tested whether isoprene, the main volatile organic compound (VOC) produced by poplars (Populus x canescens), affects the performance of C. populi employing isoprene emitting (IE) and transgenic isoprene non-emitting (NE) plants. Our hypothesis was that isoprene is sensed and affects beetle orientation or ...

  13. High-resolution inversion of OMI formaldehyde columns to quantify isoprene emission on ecosystem-relevant scales: application to the southeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jennifer; Jacob, Daniel J.; Zhu, Lei; Travis, Katherine R.; Fisher, Jenny A.; González Abad, Gonzalo; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Xuesong; Fried, Alan; Crounse, John D.; St. Clair, Jason M.; Wisthaler, Armin

    2018-04-01

    Isoprene emissions from vegetation have a large effect on atmospheric chemistry and air quality. Bottom-up isoprene emission inventories used in atmospheric models are based on limited vegetation information and uncertain land cover data, leading to potentially large errors. Satellite observations of atmospheric formaldehyde (HCHO), a high-yield isoprene oxidation product, provide top-down information to evaluate isoprene emission inventories through inverse analyses. Past inverse analyses have however been hampered by uncertainty in the HCHO satellite data, uncertainty in the time- and NOx-dependent yield of HCHO from isoprene oxidation, and coarse resolution of the atmospheric models used for the inversion. Here we demonstrate the ability to use HCHO satellite data from OMI in a high-resolution inversion to constrain isoprene emissions on ecosystem-relevant scales. The inversion uses the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at 0.25° × 0.3125° horizontal resolution to interpret observations over the southeast US in August-September 2013. It takes advantage of concurrent NASA SEAC4RS aircraft observations of isoprene and its oxidation products including HCHO to validate the OMI HCHO data over the region, test the GEOS-Chem isoprene oxidation mechanism and NOx environment, and independently evaluate the inversion. This evaluation shows in particular that local model errors in NOx concentrations propagate to biases in inferring isoprene emissions from HCHO data. It is thus essential to correct model NOx biases, which was done here using SEAC4RS observations but can be done more generally using satellite NO2 data concurrently with HCHO. We find in our inversion that isoprene emissions from the widely used MEGAN v2.1 inventory are biased high over the southeast US by 40 % on average, although the broad-scale distributions are correct including maximum emissions in Arkansas/Louisiana and high base emission factors in the oak-covered Ozarks of southeast

  14. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation 2004 are used to evaluate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry and provide constraints on isoprene nitrate yields, isoprene nitrate lifetimes, and NOx recycling rates. We incorporate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry into the SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism within the US EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency CMAQ model. The results show improved model performance for a range of species compared against aircraft observations from the INTEX-NA/ICARTT 2004 field campaign. We further investigate the key processes in isoprene nitrate chemistry and evaluate the impact of uncertainties in the isoprene nitrate yield, NOx (NOx = NO + NO2 recycling efficiency, dry deposition velocity, and RO2 + HO2 reaction rates. We focus our examination on the southeastern United States, which is impacted by both abundant isoprene emissions and high levels of anthropogenic pollutants. We find that NOx concentrations increase by 4–9% as a result of reduced removal by isoprene nitrate chemistry. O3 increases by 2 ppbv as a result of changes in NOx. OH concentrations increase by 30%, which can be primarily attributed to greater HOx production. We find that the model can capture observed total alkyl and multifunctional nitrates (∑ANs and their relationship with O3 by assuming either an isoprene nitrate yield of 6% and daytime lifetime of 6 hours or a yield of 12% and lifetime of 4 h. Uncertainties in the isoprene nitrates can impact ozone production by 10% and OH concentrations by 6%. The uncertainties in NOx recycling efficiency appear to have larger effects than uncertainties in isoprene nitrate yield and dry deposition velocity. Further progress depends on improved understanding of

  15. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions in south-east Australia: comparison of a multi-layer canopy model with MEGAN and with atmospheric observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Emmerson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the key challenges in atmospheric chemistry is to reduce the uncertainty of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emission estimates from vegetation to the atmosphere. In Australia, eucalypt trees are a primary source of biogenic emissions, but their contribution to Australian air sheds is poorly quantified. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN has performed poorly against Australian isoprene and monoterpene observations. Finding reasons for the MEGAN discrepancies and strengthening our understanding of biogenic emissions in this region is our focus. We compare MEGAN to the locally produced Australian Biogenic Canopy and Grass Emissions Model (ABCGEM, to identify the uncertainties associated with the emission estimates and the data requirements necessary to improve isoprene and monoterpene emissions estimates for the application of MEGAN in Australia. Previously unpublished, ABCGEM is applied as an online biogenic emissions inventory to model BVOCs in the air shed overlaying Sydney, Australia. The two models use the same meteorological inputs and chemical mechanism, but independent inputs of leaf area index (LAI, plant functional type (PFT and emission factors. We find that LAI, a proxy for leaf biomass, has a small role in spatial, temporal and inter-model biogenic emission variability, particularly in urban areas for ABCGEM. After removing LAI as the source of the differences, we found large differences in the emission activity function for monoterpenes. In MEGAN monoterpenes are partially light dependent, reducing their dependence on temperature. In ABCGEM monoterpenes are not light dependent, meaning they continue to be emitted at high rates during hot summer days, and at night. When the light dependence of monoterpenes is switched off in MEGAN, night-time emissions increase by 90–100 % improving the comparison with observations, suggesting the possibility that monoterpenes emitted from Australian

  16. Sensitivities in global scale modeling of isoprene

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    R. von Kuhlmann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensitivity study of the treatment of isoprene and related parameters in 3D atmospheric models was conducted using the global model of tropospheric chemistry MATCH-MPIC. A total of twelve sensitivity scenarios which can be grouped into four thematic categories were performed. These four categories consist of simulations with different chemical mechanisms, different assumptions concerning the deposition characteristics of intermediate products, assumptions concerning the nitrates from the oxidation of isoprene and variations of the source strengths. The largest differences in ozone compared to the reference simulation occured when a different isoprene oxidation scheme was used (up to 30-60% or about 10 nmol/mol. The largest differences in the abundance of peroxyacetylnitrate (PAN were found when the isoprene emission strength was reduced by 50% and in tests with increased or decreased efficiency of the deposition of intermediates. The deposition assumptions were also found to have a significant effect on the upper tropospheric HOx production. Different implicit assumptions about the loss of intermediate products were identified as a major reason for the deviations among the tested isoprene oxidation schemes. The total tropospheric burden of O3 calculated in the sensitivity runs is increased compared to the background methane chemistry by 26±9  Tg( O3 from 273 to an average from the sensitivity runs of 299 Tg(O3. % revised Thus, there is a spread of ± 35% of the overall effect of isoprene in the model among the tested scenarios. This range of uncertainty and the much larger local deviations found in the test runs suggest that the treatment of isoprene in global models can only be seen as a first order estimate at present, and points towards specific processes in need of focused future work.

  17. North American isoprene influence on intercontinental ozone pollution

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    A. M. Fiore

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Changing land-use and climate may alter emissions of biogenic isoprene, a key ozone (O3 precursor. Isoprene is also a precursor to peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN and thus affects partitioning among oxidized nitrogen (NOy species, shifting the balance towards PAN, which more efficiently contributes to long-range transport relative to nitric acid (HNO3 which rapidly deposits. With a suite of sensitivity simulations in the MOZART-2 global tropospheric chemistry model, we gauge the relative importance of the intercontinental influence of a 20% increase in North American (NA isoprene and a 20% decrease in NA anthropogenic emissions (nitrogen oxides (NOx, non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC and NOx + NMVOC + carbon monoxide + aerosols. The surface O3 response to NA isoprene emissions (ΔO3_ISOP in surface air over NA is about one third of the response to all NA anthropogenic emissions (ΔO3_ANTH; although with different signs. Over intercontinental distances, ΔO3_ISOP is relatively larger; in summer and fall, ΔO3_ISOP in surface air over Europe and North Africa (EU region is more than half of ΔO3_ANTH. Future increases in NA isoprene emissions could thus offset decreases in EU surface O3 resulting from controls on NA anthropogenic emissions. Over the EU region, ΔPAN_ISOP at 700 hPa is roughly the same magnitude as ΔPAN_ANTH (oppositely signed. Outside of the continental source region, the percentage changes in PAN are at least twice as large as for surface O3, implying that long-term PAN measurements at high altitude sites may help to detect O3 precursor emission changes. We find that neither the baseline level of isoprene emissions nor the fate of isoprene nitrates contributes to the large diversity in model estimates of the anthropogenic emission influence on intercontinental surface O

  18. Isoprene emission rates and fluxes measured above a Mediterranean oak ( Quercus pubescens) forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, V.; Dumergues, L.; Bouchou, P.; Torres, L.; Lopez, A.

    2005-03-01

    The present work, carried out as part of the European fiEld experimentS to COnstrain Models of atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions project (ESCOMPTE), brings a new contribution to the inventory of the main natural hydrocarbons sources that are liable to participate in the production of ozone. The measurement campaign was conducted in Montmeyan, a site close to Marseilles (France), with the aim of quantifying the terpenic emission pattern and the behaviour of Quercus pubescens, an important Mediterranean tree species. Biogenic emissions by Q. pubescens were determined by the enclosure of an intact branch of this tree in a Teflon cuvette. The total monoterpenic emission rates thus recorded were found to reach maximum values ranged between 40 and 350 μg g Dry Weight-1 h -1. Emissions were correlated strongly with leaf temperature and Photosynthetic Active Radiation (PAR). The fluxes were also determined by extrapolating the results of the enclosure method and by using aerodynamic gradient method. They reach around 73 mg m -2 h -1 with the first method and 55 mg m -2 h -1 with the second one. The obtained values fit with a maximal ratio of 2.

  19. Formation of secondary organic aerosol from isoprene oxidation over Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karl

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of isoprene as a precursor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA over Europe is studied with the two-way nested global chemistry transport model TM5. The inclusion of the formation of SOA from isoprene oxidation in our model almost doubles the atmospheric burden of SOA over Europe compared to SOA formation from terpenes and aromatics. The reference simulation, which considers SOA formation from isoprene, terpenes and aromatics, predicts a yearly European production rate of 1.0 Tg SOA yr−1 and an annual averaged atmospheric burden of about 50 Gg SOA over Europe. A fraction of 35% of the SOA produced in the boundary layer over Europe is transported to higher altitudes or to other world regions. Summertime measurements of organic matter (OM during the extensive EMEP OC/EC campaign 2002/2003 are better reproduced when SOA formation from isoprene is taken into account, reflecting also the strong seasonality of isoprene and other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC emissions from vegetation. However, during winter, our model strongly underestimates OM, likely caused by missing wood burning in the emission inventories. Uncertainties in the parameterisation of isoprene SOA formation have been investigated. Maximum SOA production is found for irreversible sticking (non-equilibrium partitioning of condensable vapours on particles, with tropospheric SOA production over Europe increased by a factor of 4 in summer compared to the reference case. Completely neglecting SOA formation from isoprene results in the lowest estimate (0.51 Tg SOA yr−1. The amount and the nature of the absorbing matter are shown to be another key uncertainty when predicting SOA levels. Consequently, smog chamber experiments on SOA formation should be performed with different types of seed aerosols and without seed aerosols in order to derive an improved treatment of the absorption of SOA in the models. Consideration of a number of recent insights

  20. VIIRS Marine Isoprene Product and Initial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, D.; Wang, M.; Wang, B.; Pan, L.; Lee, P.; Goldberg, M.

    2017-12-01

    Isoprene is a reactive biogenic hydrocarbon that affects atmospheric chemistry, aerosol loading, and cloud formation. We have developed a marine isoprene emission algorithm based on ocean color data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP). and global meteorology simulated by NOAA Global Forecasting System (GFS). This algorithm is implemented to generate a multi-year data record (2012-2015) of marine isoprene. The product was validated using historic ocean observations of marine isoprene, as well as in-situ data collected during two recent cruises (SPACES/OASIS in 2014 and ASTRA-OMZ in 2015). Result shows that the VIIRS product has captured the seasonal and spatial variability of global oceanic isoprene emission, which is controlled by a myriad of biological and environmental variables including chlorophyll-a concentration, phytoplankton functional types, seawater light attenuation rate, wind speed, and sea surface temperature. The VIIRS isoprene emission displays considerable seasonal and spatial variations, with peaks in spring over seawater abundant with nutrient inputs. Year to year variations are small, with the annual global emissions ranging from 0.20 to 0.25 Tg C/yr. This new dataset provides the first multi-year observations of global isoprene emissions that can be used to study a variety of environmental issues such as coastal air quality, global aerosol, and cloud formation. Some "early-adopter" applications of this product are briefly discussed.

  1. Parameterized isoprene and monoterpene emissions from the boreal forest floor: Implementation into a 1D chemistry-transport model and investigation of the influence on atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Ditte; Aaltonen, Hermanni; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Gierens, Rosa; Smolander, Sampo; Kulmala, Markku; Boy, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted from the biosphere and can work as precursor gases for aerosol particles that can affect the climate (e.g. Makkonen et al., ACP, 2012). VOC emissions from needles and leaves have gained the most attention, however other parts of the ecosystem also have the ability to emit a vast amount of VOCs. This, often neglected, source can be important e.g. at periods where leaves are absent. Both sources and drivers related to forest floor emission of VOCs are currently limited. It is thought that the sources are mainly due to degradation of organic matter (Isidorov and Jdanova, Chemosphere, 2002), living roots (Asensio et al., Soil Biol. Biochem., 2008) and ground vegetation. The drivers are biotic (e.g. microbes) and abiotic (e.g. temperature and moisture). However, the relative importance of the sources and the drivers individually are currently poorly understood. Further, the relative importance of these factors is highly dependent on the tree species occupying the area of interest. The emission of isoprene and monoterpenes where measured from the boreal forest floor at the SMEAR II station in Southern Finland (Hari and Kulmala, Boreal Env. Res., 2005) during the snow-free period in 2010-2012. We used a dynamic method with 3 automated chambers analyzed by Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometer (Aaltonen et al., Plant Soil, 2013). Using this data, we have developed empirical parameterizations for the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes from the forest floor. These parameterizations depends on abiotic factors, however, since the parameterizations are based on field measurements, biotic features are captured. Further, we have used the 1D chemistry-transport model SOSAA (Boy et al., ACP, 2011) to test the seasonal relative importance of inclusion of these parameterizations of the forest floor compared to the canopy crown emissions, on the atmospheric reactivity throughout the canopy.

  2. Contribution of various carbon sources toward isoprene biosynthesis in poplar leaves mediated by altered atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M Trowbridge

    Full Text Available Biogenically released isoprene plays important roles in both tropospheric photochemistry and plant metabolism. We performed a (13CO(2-labeling study using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS to examine the kinetics of recently assimilated photosynthate into isoprene emitted from poplar (Populus × canescens trees grown and measured at different atmospheric CO(2 concentrations. This is the first study to explicitly consider the effects of altered atmospheric CO(2 concentration on carbon partitioning to isoprene biosynthesis. We studied changes in the proportion of labeled carbon as a function of time in two mass fragments, M41(+, which represents, in part, substrate derived from pyruvate, and M69(+, which represents the whole unlabeled isoprene molecule. We observed a trend of slower (13C incorporation into isoprene carbon derived from pyruvate, consistent with the previously hypothesized origin of chloroplastic pyruvate from cytosolic phosphenolpyruvate (PEP. Trees grown under sub-ambient CO(2 (190 ppmv had rates of isoprene emission and rates of labeling of M41(+ and M69(+ that were nearly twice those observed in trees grown under elevated CO(2 (590 ppmv. However, they also demonstrated the lowest proportion of completely labeled isoprene molecules. These results suggest that under reduced atmospheric CO(2 availability, more carbon from stored/older carbon sources is involved in isoprene biosynthesis, and this carbon most likely enters the isoprene biosynthesis pathway through the pyruvate substrate. We offer direct evidence that extra-chloroplastic rather than chloroplastic carbon sources are mobilized to increase the availability of pyruvate required to up-regulate the isoprene biosynthesis pathway when trees are grown under sub-ambient CO(2.

  3. Formaldehyde production from isoprene oxidation across NOx regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Wolfe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical link between isoprene and formaldehyde (HCHO is a strong, nonlinear function of NOx (i.e., NO + NO2. This relationship is a linchpin for top-down isoprene emission inventory verification from orbital HCHO column observations. It is also a benchmark for overall photochemical mechanism performance with regard to VOC oxidation. Using a comprehensive suite of airborne in situ observations over the southeast US, we quantify HCHO production across the urban–rural spectrum. Analysis of isoprene and its major first-generation oxidation products allows us to define both a "prompt" yield of HCHO (molecules of HCHO produced per molecule of freshly emitted isoprene and the background HCHO mixing ratio (from oxidation of longer-lived hydrocarbons. Over the range of observed NOx values (roughly 0.1–2 ppbv, the prompt yield increases by a factor of 3 (from 0.3 to 0.9 ppbv ppbv−1, while background HCHO increases by a factor of 2 (from 1.6 to 3.3 ppbv. We apply the same method to evaluate the performance of both a global chemical transport model (AM3 and a measurement-constrained 0-D steady-state box model. Both models reproduce the NOx dependence of the prompt HCHO yield, illustrating that models with updated isoprene oxidation mechanisms can adequately capture the link between HCHO and recent isoprene emissions. On the other hand, both models underestimate background HCHO mixing ratios, suggesting missing HCHO precursors, inadequate representation of later-generation isoprene degradation and/or underestimated hydroxyl radical concentrations. Detailed process rates from the box model simulation demonstrate a 3-fold increase in HCHO production across the range of observed NOx values, driven by a 100 % increase in OH and a 40 % increase in branching of organic peroxy radical reactions to produce HCHO.

  4. Aqueous-phase mechanism for secondary organic aerosol formation from isoprene: application to the southeast United States and co-benefit of SO2 emission controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoprene emitted by vegetation is an important precursor of secondary organic aerosol (SOA), but the mechanism and yields are uncertain. Aerosol is prevailingly aqueous under the humid conditions typical of isoprene-emitting regions. Here we develop an aqueous-phase mechanism for...

  5. Overview of the Ozark Isoprene Experiment (OZIE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, T.; Koerber, M,; Guenther, A.; King, S.; Lingerich, S.; Turner, J.

    1999-07-01

    Ozone modeling studies, such as those performed for the Ozone Transport Advisory Group (OTAG), have raised concerns about extremely high isoprene concentrations ({gt} 50 ppbv) that have been predicted over the Ozark Plateau in southern Missouri. In response to these concerns, a collaborative study was undertaken involving participants from AMEREN, US Department of Army at Fort Leonard Wood, Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Purdue University, US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington State University, Washington University (St. Louis), and the states of Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri. The Ozark Isoprene Experiment (OZIE) took place during July 1998 and included measurements of isoprene from the surface and aloft at several locations stretching from northeastern Oklahoma to southern Indiana. Measurements were made along a balloon tethered to nearly 1,000 m, surface footprint sites at five locations upwind of the balloon, surface sites in Illinois and Indiana, and from an aircraft flying at heights ranging from 300 to 1,000 m over southern Illinois, southern Indiana, and southern Missouri. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates that daytime surface isoprene concentrations ranged from 1 to 36 ppbv, and isoprene concentrations measured at 600 m ranged from 0.4 to 6 ppbv. Conditions were favorable for the emission of isoprene, with daytime maximum temperatures exceeding 32 C on at least four days during the two-week study period. This paper provides an overview of the study design and describes measurements taken during the experiment.

  6. Discrepancies between modeled and observed nocturnal isoprene in an urban environment and the possible causes: A case study in Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Lijun; Choi, Yunsoo; Czader, Beata; Li, Xiangshang; Pan, Shuai; Roy, Anirban; Souri, Amir Hossein; Estes, Mark; Jeon, Wonbae

    2016-11-01

    Air quality simulations were conducted using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model for nocturnal isoprene in September 2013 using the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Emissions Inventory of 2011 (NEI, 2011). The results were evaluated against measurements collected at eight Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Automated Gas Chromatographs (AutoGCs) monitoring stations. The comparisons demonstrated two distinctive behaviors: overestimation before midnight (20:00-23:00 p.m. local time) versus underestimation after midnight (00:00-06:00 a.m.). Analyses identify the uncertainties in nitrate radical (NO3) concentration and vertical mixing as the possible minor factors contributing to the underestimation, and the underestimated wind speed as the major factor contributing to the overestimation. Further analysis links isoprene underestimation to the uncertainties in the nocturnal isoprene anthropogenic emissions in the NEI (2011) over industrial areas in Houston. This can be substantiated by the fact that the observed nighttime isoprene concentrations increased when the wind direction veered back from southeast to northeast, placing the stations downwind of industrial facilities. A sensitivity run with adjusted anthropogenic isoprene emissions in the later part of the night (i.e., the emissions were multiplied by the hourly underestimation factors ranging from 3.81 to 14.82) yielded closer isoprene predictions after midnight with slightly improved model mean (0.15 to 0.20 ppb), mean error (- 0.10 to - 0.04 ppb), mean absolute error (0.18 to 0.15 ppb), root mean squared error (RMSE, 0.27 to 0.25 ppb), and index of agreement (IOA, 0.66 to 0.68). The insignificant improvement was likely due to the uncertainties in the location of the high-peaked anthropogenic emissions. The impacts of the nighttime-adjusted isoprene emissions on the isoprene oxidation products, organic nitrate and ozone, were found to be minimal. This

  7. The effects of isoprene and NOx on secondary organic aerosols formed through reversible and irreversible uptake to aerosol water

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Marwa M. H.; Ortiz-Montalvo, Diana L.; Hennigan, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    Isoprene oxidation produces water-soluble organic gases capable of partitioning to aerosol liquid water. The formation of secondary organic aerosols through such aqueous pathways (aqSOA) can take place either reversibly or irreversibly; however, the split between these fractions in the atmosphere is highly uncertain. The aim of this study was to characterize the reversibility of aqSOA formed from isoprene at a location in the eastern United States under substantial influence from both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. The reversible and irreversible uptake of water-soluble organic gases to aerosol water was characterized in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, using measurements of particulate water-soluble organic carbon (WSOCp) in alternating dry and ambient configurations. WSOCp evaporation with drying was observed systematically throughout the late spring and summer, indicating reversible aqSOA formation during these times. We show through time lag analyses that WSOCp concentrations, including the WSOCp that evaporates with drying, peak 6 to 11 h after isoprene concentrations, with maxima at a time lag of 9 h. The absolute reversible aqSOA concentrations, as well as the relative amount of reversible aqSOA, increased with decreasing NOx / isoprene ratios, suggesting that isoprene epoxydiol (IEPOX) or other low-NOx oxidation products may be responsible for these effects. The observed relationships with NOx and isoprene suggest that this process occurs widely in the atmosphere, and is likely more important in other locations characterized by higher isoprene and/or lower NOx levels. This work underscores the importance of accounting for both reversible and irreversible uptake of isoprene oxidation products to aqueous particles.

  8. Biogenic isoprene emissions driven by regional weather predictions using different initialization methods: case studies during the SEAC4RS and DISCOVER-AQ airborne campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Crawford, James H.; Wisthaler, Armin; Zhan, Xiwu; Hain, Christopher R.; Lee, Pius; Guenther, Alex B.

    2017-08-01

    Land and atmospheric initial conditions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are often interpolated from a different model output. We perform case studies during NASA's SEAC4RS and DISCOVER-AQ Houston airborne campaigns, demonstrating that using land initial conditions directly downscaled from a coarser resolution dataset led to significant positive biases in the coupled NASA-Unified WRF (NUWRF, version 7) surface and near-surface air temperature and planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) around the Missouri Ozarks and Houston, Texas, as well as poorly partitioned latent and sensible heat fluxes. Replacing land initial conditions with the output from a long-term offline Land Information System (LIS) simulation can effectively reduce the positive biases in NUWRF surface air temperature by ˜ 2 °C. We also show that the LIS land initialization can modify surface air temperature errors almost 10 times as effectively as applying a different atmospheric initialization method. The LIS-NUWRF-based isoprene emission calculations by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN, version 2.1) are at least 20 % lower than those computed using the coarser resolution data-initialized NUWRF run, and are closer to aircraft-observation-derived emissions. Higher resolution MEGAN calculations are prone to amplified discrepancies with aircraft-observation-derived emissions on small scales. This is possibly a result of some limitations of MEGAN's parameterization and uncertainty in its inputs on small scales, as well as the representation error and the neglect of horizontal transport in deriving emissions from aircraft data. This study emphasizes the importance of proper land initialization to the coupled atmospheric weather modeling and the follow-on emission modeling. We anticipate it to also be critical to accurately representing other processes included in air quality modeling and chemical data assimilation. Having more confidence in the weather

  9. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Sinha, Vinayak; Kumar, Vinod; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Panday, Arnico; Mahata, Khadak S.; Rupakheti, Dipesh; Kathayat, Bhogendra; Lawrence, Mark G.

    2016-03-01

    The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley-Atmospheric Brown Clouds) field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012-2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterise the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs, by deploying a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) - the first such deployment in South Asia. In the study, 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2σ detection limit) were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m / Δm > 4200) and temporal resolution (1 min) of the PTR-TOF-MS. The concentration ranking in the average VOC mixing ratios during our wintertime deployment was acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb) > methanol (7.4 ppb) > acetone + propanal (4.2 ppb) > benzene (2.7 ppb) > toluene (1.5 ppb) > isoprene (1.1 ppb) > acetonitrile (1.1 ppb) > C8-aromatics ( ˜ 1 ppb) > furan ( ˜ 0.5 ppb) > C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb). Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m / z = 69.070) and furan (m / z = 69.033). Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde ( ˜ 9 ppb), acetonitrile ( ˜ 1 ppb) and isoprene ( ˜ 1 ppb) to be among the highest reported to date. Two "new" ambient compounds, namely formamide (m / z = 46.029) and acetamide (m / z

  10. Seasonal cycles of isoprene concentrations in the Amazonian rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostdorf, C. R.; Gatti, L. V.; Yamazaki, A.; Potosnak, M. J.; Guenther, A.; Martins, W. C.; Munger, J. W.

    2004-03-01

    Tropical forests are an important global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other atmospheric trace gases. The high biodiversity in tropical rainforests complicates the extrapolation of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from leaf-level measurements to landscape and regional or global scales. In Amazónia, a significant fraction of the carbon emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere is emitted in the form of BVOCs, and the knowledge of these emissions is important to our understanding of tropical and global atmospheric chemistry and carbon cycling. As part of the Large scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazónia (LBA). VOC concentrations were measured at two sites near Santarém, Para State, Brazil. The two sites are located in the National Forest of Tapajós, the first corresponding to primary forest and the second to a forest, that was selectively logged. The samples were collected simultaneously at heights of 65 and 55 m (20 and 10 m above forest canopy, respectively). The average isoprene mixing ratio was 2.2-2.5 ppb at the two sites and the standard deviations within a site ranged from 1 to 1.2 ppb. A strong seasonality of isoprene mixing ratio was observed and associated with the wet and dry seasons. The lowest mixing ratios were found during the transition between the wet to dry season, while at the start of the biomass burning season the mixing ratios increase. A qualitative analysis of a one dimensional model demonstrates that the seasonal cycle in concentrations reflects changes in isoprene production by the ecosystem, not changes in boundary layer dynamics or chemistry. The magnitude of the cycle indicates that the physiological capacity of the ecosystem to emit isoprene may depend on water availability although phenological changes could also contribute to the observed variations. A simple 1-D model that assumes mean daytime isoprene fluxes of 1.5 mg m-2h-1 and 0.9 mg m-2h-1 scaled by an algorithm depending on

  11. Isoprene biosynthesis in hybrid poplar impacts ozone tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, K.; Kleist, E.; Uerlings, R.; Wildt, J.; Rennenberg, H.; Schnitzler, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    Isoprene is the most abundant volatile compound emitted by vegetation. It influences air chemistry and is thought to take part in plant defense reactions against abiotic stress such as high temperature or ozone. However, whether or not isoprene emission interacts with ozone tolerance of plants is still in discussion. We exploited transgenic non-isoprene emitting Grey poplar (Populus x canescens) in a biochemical and physiological model study to investigate the effect of acute ozone stress on the elicitation of defense-related emissions of plant volatiles, photosynthesis and the antioxidative system. We recorded that non-isoprene emitting poplars are more resistant to ozone as indicated by less damaged leaf area and higher assimilation rates compared to ozone-exposed wild type plants. The integral of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions was different between the two poplar phenotypes and a reliable early marker for subsequent leaf damage. For other stress-induced volatiles like mono-, homo-, and sesquiterpenes, and methyl salicylate similar time profiles, pattern and emission intensities were observed in both transgenic and wild type plants. However, un-stressed non-isoprene emitting poplars are characterized by elevated levels of ascorbate and α-tocopherol as well as a more effective de-epoxidation ratio of xanthophylls than in wild type plants. Since ozone quenching properties of ascorbate are much higher than those of isoprene and furthermore α-tocopherol also is an essential antioxidant, non-isoprene emitting poplars might benefit from changes within the antioxidative system by providing them with enhanced ozone tolerance.

  12. Overview of VOC emissions and chemistry from PTR-TOF-MS measurements during the SusKat-ABC campaign: high acetaldehyde, isoprene and isocyanic acid in wintertime air of the Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sarkar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kathmandu Valley in Nepal suffers from severe wintertime air pollution. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are key constituents of air pollution, though their specific role in the valley is poorly understood due to insufficient data. During the SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley–Atmospheric Brown Clouds field campaign conducted in Nepal in the winter of 2012–2013, a comprehensive study was carried out to characterise the chemical composition of ambient Kathmandu air, including the determination of speciated VOCs, by deploying a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS – the first such deployment in South Asia. In the study, 71 ion peaks (for which measured ambient concentrations exceeded the 2σ detection limit were detected in the PTR-TOF-MS mass scan data, highlighting the chemical complexity of ambient air in the valley. Of the 71 species, 37 were found to have campaign average concentrations greater than 200 ppt and were identified based on their spectral characteristics, ambient diel profiles and correlation with specific emission tracers as a result of the high mass resolution (m ∕ Δm  >  4200 and temporal resolution (1 min of the PTR-TOF-MS. The concentration ranking in the average VOC mixing ratios during our wintertime deployment was acetaldehyde (8.8 ppb  >  methanol (7.4 ppb  >  acetone + propanal (4.2 ppb  >  benzene (2.7 ppb  >  toluene (1.5 ppb  >  isoprene (1.1 ppb  >  acetonitrile (1.1 ppb  >  C8-aromatics ( ∼ 1 ppb  >  furan ( ∼ 0.5 ppb  >  C9-aromatics (0.4 ppb. Distinct diel profiles were observed for the nominal isobaric compounds isoprene (m ∕ z  =  69.070 and furan (m ∕ z  =  69.033. Comparison with wintertime measurements from several locations elsewhere in the world showed mixing ratios of acetaldehyde ( ∼  9 ppb, acetonitrile ( ∼  1 ppb and isoprene

  13. Biogenic and anthropogenic isoprene in the near-surface urban atmosphere--a case study in Essen, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Patrick; Kuttler, Wilhelm

    2014-03-15

    Isoprene is emitted in large quantities by vegetation, exhaled by human beings and released in small quantities by road traffic. As a result of its high reactivity, isoprene is an important ozone precursor in the troposphere and can play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. Measurements of isoprene in urban areas in Central Europe are scarce. Thus, in Essen, Germany, the isoprene concentration was measured at various sites during different seasons using two compact online GC-PID systems. Isoprene concentrations were compared with those of benzene and toluene, which represent typical anthropogenic VOCs. In the summer, the diurnal variation in isoprene concentration was dependent on the biogenic emissions in the city. It was found that its maximum concentration occurred during the day, in contrast to the benzene and toluene concentrations. During the measurement period in the summer of 2012, the average hourly isoprene concentrations reached 0.13 to 0.17 ppb between 10 and 20 LST. At high air temperatures, the isoprene concentration exceeded the benzene and toluene concentrations at many of the sites. Isoprene became more important than toluene with regard to ozone formation in the city area during the afternoon hours of summer days with high air temperatures. This finding was demonstrated by the contributions to OH reactivity and ozone-forming potential. It contradicts the results of other studies, which were based on daily or seasonal average values. With an isoprene/benzene ratio of 0.02, the contribution of anthropogenic isoprene decreased substantially to a very low level during the last 20 years in Central Europe due to a strong reduction in road traffic emissions. In the vicinity of many people, isoprene concentrations of up to 0.54 ppb and isoprene/benzene ratios of up to 1.34 were found in the atmosphere due to isoprene exhaled by humans. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Evidence for a significant proportion of Secondary Organic Aerosol from isoprene above a maritime tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Robinson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC, but the processes governing secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from isoprene oxidation are only beginning to become understood and selective quantification of the atmospheric particulate burden remains difficult. Organic aerosol above a tropical rainforest located in Danum Valley, Borneo, Malaysia, a high isoprene emission region, was studied during Summer 2008 using Aerosol Mass Spectrometry and offline detailed characterisation using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography. Observations indicate that a substantial fraction (up to 15% by mass of atmospheric sub-micron organic aerosol was observed as methylfuran (MF after thermal desorption. This observation was associated with the simultaneous measurements of established gas-phase isoprene oxidation products methylvinylketone (MVK and methacrolein (MACR. Observations of MF were also made during experimental chamber oxidation of isoprene. Positive matrix factorisation of the AMS organic mass spectral time series produced a robust factor which accounts for an average of 23% (0.18 μg m−3, reaching as much as 53% (0.50 μg m−3 of the total oraganic loading, identified by (and highly correlated with a strong MF signal. Assuming that this factor is generally representative of isoprene SOA, isoprene derived aerosol plays a significant role in the region. Comparisons with measurements from other studies suggest this type of isoprene SOA plays a role in other isoprene dominated environments, albeit with varying significance.

  15. Impact of elevated CO2 and O3 concentrations on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from Ginkgo biloba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dewen; Chen, Ying; Shi, Yi; He, Xingyuan; Chen, Xin

    2009-04-01

    In natural environment with ambient air, ginkgo trees emitted volatile organic compounds 0.18 microg g(-1) h(-1) in July, and 0.92 microg g(-1) h(-1) in September. Isoprene and limonene were the most abundant detected compounds. In September, alpha-pinene accounted for 22.5% of the total. Elevated CO(2) concentration in OTCs increased isoprene emission significantly in July (pemission was enhanced in July and decreased in September by elevated CO(2). Exposed to elevated O(3) increased the isoprene and monoterpenes emissions in July and September, and the total volatile organic compounds emission rates were 0.48 microg g(-1) h(-1) (in July) and 2.24 microg g(-1) h(-1) (in September), respectively. The combination of elevated CO(2) and O(3) did not have any effect on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions, except increases of isoprene and Delta3-carene in September.

  16. Measurements of atmospheric hydrocarbons and biogenic emission fluxes in the Amazon boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, P. R.; Greenberg, J. P.; Westberg, C. E.

    1988-01-01

    Tropospheric mixing ratios of methane, C2-C10 hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide were measured over the Amazon tropical forest near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil, in July and August 1985. The measurements, consisting mostly of altitude profiles of these gases, were all made within the atmospheric boundary layer up to an altitude of 1000 m above ground level. Data characterize the diurnal hydrocarbon composition of the boundary layer. Biogenic emissions of isoprene control hydroxyl radical concentrations over the forest. Biogenic emission fluxes of isoprene and terpenes are estimated to be 25,000 micrograms/sq m per day and 5600 micrograms/sq m per day, respectively. This isoprene emission is equivalent to 2 percent of the net primary productivity of the tropical forest. Atmospheric oxidation of biogenic isoprene and terpenes emissions from the Amazon forest may account for daily increases of 8-13 ppb for carbon monoxide in the planetary boundary layer.

  17. Variability of BVOC emissions from a Mediterranean mixed forest in southern France with a focus on Quercus pubescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genard-Zielinski, A.-C.; Boissard, C.; Fernandez, C.; Kalogridis, C.; Lathière, J.; Gros, V.; Bonnaire, N.; Ormeño, E.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed at quantifying biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions in June from three Mediterranean species located at the O3HP site (southern France): Quercus pubescens, Acer monspessulanum and C. coggygria (for isoprene only). As Q. pubescens was shown to be the main BVOC emitter with isoprene representing ≈ 99% of the carbon emitted as BVOC, we mainly focused on this species. C. coggygria was found to be a non-isoprene emitter (no other BVOCs were investigated). To fully understand both the canopy effect on Q. pubescens isoprene emissions and the inter-individual variability (tree to tree and within canopy), diurnal variations of isoprene were investigated from nine branches (seven branches located to the top of canopy at ≈ 4 m above ground level (a.g.l.), and two inside the canopy at ≈ 2 m a.g.l.). The Q. pubescens daily mean isoprene emission rate (ERd) fluctuated between 23 and 98 μgC gDM-1 h-1. Q. pubescens daily mean net assimilation (Pn) ranged between 5.4 and 13.8, and 2.8 and 6.4 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 for sunlit and shaded branches respectively. Both ERd and isoprene emission factors (Is), assessed according to Guenther et al. (1993) algorithm, varied by a factor of 4.3 among the sunlit branches. While sunlit branches ERd was clearly higher than for shaded branches, there was a non-significant variability of Is (59 to 77 μgC gDM-1 h-1). Diurnal variations of isoprene emission rates (ERs) for sunlit branches were also investigated. ERs were detected at dawn 2 h after Pn became positive and were mostly exponentially dependent on Pn. Diurnal variations of ERs were not equally well described throughout the day by temperature (CT) and light (CL) parameters according to G93 algorithm. Temperature had more impact than photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on the morning emissions increase, and ER was no longer correlated to CL × CT between solar noon (maximum ER) and mid-afternoon, possibly due to thermal stress of the plant. A comparison

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

  19. Secondary organic aerosols over oceans via oxidation of isoprene and monoterpenes from Arctic to Antarctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qi-Hou; Xie, Zhou-Qing; Wang, Xin-Ming; Kang, Hui; He, Quan-Fu; Zhang, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Isoprene and monoterpenes are important precursors of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in continents. However, their contributions to aerosols over oceans are still inconclusive. Here we analyzed SOA tracers from isoprene and monoterpenes in aerosol samples collected over oceans during the Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Research Expeditions. Combined with literature reports elsewhere, we found that the dominant tracers are the oxidation products of isoprene. The concentrations of tracers varied considerably. The mean average values were approximately one order of magnitude higher in the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. High values were generally observed in coastal regions. This phenomenon was ascribed to the outflow influence from continental sources. High levels of isoprene could emit from oceans and consequently have a significant impact on marine SOA as inferred from isoprene SOA during phytoplankton blooms, which may abruptly increase up to 95 ng/m³ in the boundary layer over remote oceans.

  20. Interaction between isoprene and ozone fluxes at ecosystem level in a poplar plantation and its impact at European level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, T.; Hendriks, C.; Brilli, F.; Gioli, B.; Portillo Estrada, M.; Schaap, M.; Ceulemans, R.

    2015-12-01

    The emissions of Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation, mainly in form of isoprenoids, play an important role in the tropospheric ozone (O3) formation. The potential large expansion of isoprene emitter species (e.g. poplar) as biofuels feedstock might impact the ground level O3 formation. Here we report the simultaneous observations, using the eddy covariance (EC) technique, of isoprene, O3 and CO2 fluxes in a short rotation coppice (SRC) of poplar. The impact of current poplar plantations and associated isoprene emissions on ground level ozone concentrations for Europe was evaluated using a chemistry transport model (CTM) LOTOS-EUROS. The isoprene fluxes showed a well-defined seasonal and daily cycle that mirrored with the stomata O3 uptake. The isoprene emission and the stomata O3 uptake showed significant statistical relationship especially at elevated temperature. Isoprene was characterized by a remarkable peak of emissions (e.g. 38 nmol m-2s-1) occurring for few days as a consequence of the rapid variation of the air and surface temperature. During these days the photosynthetic apparatus (i.e. the CO2 fluxes) and transpiration rates did not show significant variation while we did observe a variation of the energy exchange and a reduction of the bowen ratio. The response of isoprene emissions to ambient O3 concentration follows the common form of the hormetic dose-response curve with a considerable reduction of the isoprene emissions at [O3] > 80 ppbv indicating a potential damping effect of the O3 levels on isoprene. Under the current condition the impact of SRC plantations on ozone concentrations / formation is very limited in Europe. Our findings indicate that, even with future scenarios with more SRC, or conventional poplar plantations, the impact on Ozone formation is negligible.

  1. Two-year concurrent observation of isoprene at 20 sites over China: comparison with MEGAN-REAM model simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, W.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, Z.; Lyu, S.; Yu, J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, G.; Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Isoprene, the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted from plants, directly and indirectly affects atmospheric photochemistry and radiative forcing, yet narrowing its emission uncertainties is a continuous challenge. Comparison of observed and modelled isoprene on large spatiotemporal scales would help recognize factors that control isoprene variability, systematic field observation data are however quite lacking. Here we collected ambient air samples with 1 L silonite-treated stainless steel canisters simultaneously at 20 sites over China on every Wednesday at approximately 14:00 pm Beijing time from 2012 to 2014, and analyzed isoprene mixing ratios by preconcentrator-GC-MSD/FID. Observed isoprene mixing ratios were also compared with that simulated by coupling MEGAN 2.0 (Guenther et al., 2006) with a 3-D Regional chEmical trAnsport Model (REAM) (Zhang et al., 2017). Similar seasonal variations between observation and model simulation were obtained for most of sampling sites, but overall the average isoprene mixing ratios during growing months (May to October) was 0.37 ± 0.08 ppbv from model simulation, about 32% lower than that of 0.54 ± 0.20 ppbv based on ground-based observation, and this discrepancy was particularly significant in north China during wintertime. Further investigation demonstrated that emission of biogenic isoprene in northwest China might be underestimated and non-biogenic emission, such burning biomass/biofuel, might contribute to the elevated levels of isoprene during winter time. The observation-based empirical formulas for changing isoprene emission with solar radiation and temperature were also derived for different regions of China.

  2. Isoprene Production on Enzymatic Hydrolysate of Peanut Hull Using Different Pretreatment Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is about the use of peanut hull for isoprene production. In this study, two pretreatment methods, hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid (HPAC and popping, were employed prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, which could destroy the lignocellulosic structure and accordingly improve the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. It is proven that the isoprene production on enzymatic hydrolysate with HPAC pretreatment is about 1.9-fold higher than that of popping pretreatment. Moreover, through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analysis, the amount and category of inhibitors such as formic acid, acetic acid, and HMF were assayed and were varied in different enzymatic hydrolysates, which may be the reason leading to a decrease in isoprene production during fermentation. To further increase the isoprene yield, the enzymatic hydrolysate of HPAC was detoxified by activated carbon. As a result, using the detoxified enzymatic hydrolysate as the carbon source, the engineered strain YJM21 could accumulate 297.5 mg/L isoprene, which accounted for about 90% of isoprene production by YJM21 fermented on pure glucose (338.6 mg/L. This work is thought to be the first attempt on isoprene production by E. coli using peanut hull as the feedstock. More importantly, it also shows the prospect of peanut hull to be considered as an alternative feedstock for bio-based chemicals or biofuels production due to its easy access and high polysaccharide content.

  3. Coregulation of terpenoid pathway genes and prediction of isoprene production in Bacillus subtilis using transcriptomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Becky M.; Xue, Junfeng; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Wiley, H. S.; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Linggi, Bryan E.

    2013-06-19

    The isoprenoid pathway converts pyruvate to isoprene and related isoprenoid compounds in plants and some bacteria. Currently, this pathway is of great interest because of the critical role that isoprenoids play in basic cellular processes as well as the industrial value of metabolites such as isoprene. Although the regulation of several pathway genes has been described, there is a paucity of information regarding the system level regulation and control of the pathway. To address this limitation, we examined Bacillus subtilis grown under multiple conditions and then determined the relationship between altered isoprene production and the pattern of gene expression. We found that terpenoid genes appeared to fall into two distinct subsets with opposing correlations with respect to the amount of isoprene produced. The group whose expression levels positively correlated with isoprene production included dxs, the gene responsible for the commitment step in the pathway, as well as ispD, and two genes that participate in the mevalonate pathway, yhfS and pksG. The subset of terpenoid genes that inversely correlated with isoprene production included ispH, ispF, hepS, uppS, ispE, and dxr. A genome wide partial least squares regression model was created to identify other genes or pathways that contribute to isoprene production. This analysis showed that a subset of 213 regulated genes was sufficient to create a predictive model of isoprene production under different conditions and showed correlations at the transcriptional level. We conclude that gene expression levels alone are sufficiently informative about the metabolic state of a cell that produces increased isoprene and can be used to build a model which accurately predicts production of this secondary metabolite across many simulated environmental conditions.

  4. Climate/chemistry feedbacks and biogenic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, John A; Warwick, Nicola; Yang, Xin; Young, Paul J; Zeng, Guang

    2007-07-15

    The oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere is affected by anthropogenic emissions and is projected to change in the future. Model calculations indicate that the change in surface ozone at some locations could be large and have significant implications for human health. The calculations depend on the precise scenarios used for the anthropogenic emissions and on the details of the feedback processes included in the model. One important factor is how natural biogenic emissions will change in the future. We carry out a sensitivity calculation to address the possible increase in isoprene emissions consequent on increased surface temperature in a future climate. The changes in ozone are significant but depend crucially on the background chemical regime. In these calculations, we find that increased isoprene will increase ozone in the Northern Hemisphere but decrease ozone in the tropics. We also consider the role of bromine compounds in tropospheric chemistry and consider cases where, in a future climate, the impact of bromine could change.

  5. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  6. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, F.R.; Golombek, R.; Kittelsen, S.A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  7. Concentrations and fluxes of isoprene and oxygenated VOCs at a French Mediterranean oak forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogridis, C.; Gros, V.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Bonsang, B.; Bonnaire, N.; Boissard, C.; Baisnee, D.; Lathiere, J.

    2014-01-01

    The CANOPEE project aims to better understand the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in the case of Mediterranean ecosystems and the impact of in-canopy processes on the atmospheric chemical composition above the canopy. Based on an intensive field campaign, the objective of our work was to determine the chemical composition of the air inside a canopy as well as the net fluxes of reactive species between the canopy and the boundary layer. Measurements were carried out during spring 2012 at the field site of the Oak Observatory of the Observatoire de Haute Provence (O3HP) located in the southeast of France. The site is a forest ecosystem dominated by downy oak, Quercus pubescens Willd., a typical Mediterranean species which features large isoprene emission rates. Mixing ratios of isoprene, its degradation products methylvinylketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) and several other oxygenated VOC (OxVOC) were measured above the canopy using an online proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), and fluxes were calculated by the disjunct eddy covariance approach. The O3HP site was found to be a very significant source of isoprene emissions, with daily maximum ambient concentrations ranging between 2-16 ppbv inside and 2-5 ppbv just above the top of the forest canopy. Significant isoprene fluxes were observed only during daytime, following diurnal cycles with midday net emission fluxes from the canopy ranging between 2.0 and 9.7 mgm -2 h -1 . Net isoprene normalized flux (at 30 C, 1000 μmol quantam -2 s -1 ) was estimated at 7.4 mgm -2 h -1 . Evidence of direct emission of methanol was also found exhibiting maximum daytime fluxes ranging between 0.2 and 0.6 mgm -2 h -1 , whereas flux values for monoterpenes and others OxVOC such as acetone and acetaldehyde were below the detection limit. The MVK+MACR-to-isoprene ratio provided useful information on the oxidation of isoprene, and is in agreement with recent findings

  8. Analysis of the isoprene chemistry observed during the New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) 2002 intensive experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James M.; Marchewka, Mathew; Bertman, Steven B.; Goldan, Paul; Kuster, William; de Gouw, Joost; Warneke, Carsten; Williams, Eric; Lerner, Brian; Murphy, Paul; Apel, Eric; Fehsenfeld, Fred C.

    2006-12-01

    Isoprene and its first and second generation photochemical products, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK), methacrolein (MACR), and peroxymethacrylic nitric anhydride (MPAN), were measured off the coast of New England during the 2002 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS) on board the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. The results of these measurements were analyzed using a simple sequential reaction model that has been used previously to examine regional oxidant chemistry. The highest isoprene impact was observed in air masses that had passed over an area of high isoprene emission WSW of Boston. The relative concentrations of isoprene and its first generation products show that the photochemistry is consistently "older" than the isoprene photochemistry observed at continental sites. The sequential reaction model was also applied to the aldehyde-PANs (Peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydride) system, and the resulting PPN (peroxypropionic nitric anhydride)/propanal and PAN (peroxyacetic nitric anhydride)/acetaldehyde relationships were consistent with additional sources of PAN in this environment, e.g., isoprene photochemistry. This isoprene source was estimated to result in approximately 1.6 to 4 times more PAN in this environment relative to that produced from anthropogenic VOCs (volatile organic compounds) alone.

  9. The influence of small-scale variations in isoprene concentrations on atmospheric chemistry over a tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. M. Pugh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs such as isoprene constitute a large proportion of the global atmospheric oxidant sink. Their reactions in the atmosphere contribute to processes such as ozone production and secondary organic aerosol formation. However, over the tropical rainforest, where 50 % of the global emissions of BVOCs are believed to occur, atmospheric chemistry models have been unable to simulate concurrently the measured daytime concentration of isoprene and that of its principal oxidant, hydroxyl (OH. One reason for this model-measurement discrepancy may be incomplete mixing of isoprene within the convective boundary layer, leading to patchiness or segregation in isoprene and OH mixing ratios and average concentrations that appear to be incompatible with each other. One way of capturing this effect in models of atmospheric chemistry is to use a reduced effective rate constant for their reaction. Recent studies comparing atmospheric chemistry global/box models with field measurements have suggested that this effective rate reduction may be as large as 50 %; which is at the upper limit of that calculated using large eddy simulation models. To date there has only been one field campaign worldwide that has reported co-located measurements of isoprene and OH at the necessary temporal resolution to calculate the segregation of these compounds. However many campaigns have recorded sufficiently high resolution isoprene measurements to capture the small-scale fluctuations in its concentration. Assuming uniform distributions of other OH production and loss processes, we use a box model of atmospheric chemistry, constrained by the spectrum of isoprene concentrations measured, as a virtual instrument, to estimate the variability in OH at a point and hence, to estimate the segregation intensity of isoprene and OH from high-frequency isoprene time series. The method successfully reproduces the only directly observed segregation, using

  10. Cost of lower NO x emissions: Increased CO 2 emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Mohan; Carder, Daniel K.; Thompson, Gregory; Gautam, Mridul

    This paper highlights the effect of emissions regulations on in-use emissions from heavy-duty vehicles powered by different model year engines. More importantly, fuel economy data for pre- and post-consent decree engines are compared. The objective of this study was to determine the changes in brake-specific emissions of NO x as a result of emission regulations, and to highlight the effect these have had on brake-specific CO 2 emission; hence, fuel consumption. For this study, in-use, on-road emission measurements were collected. Test vehicles were instrumented with a portable on-board tailpipe emissions measurement system, WVU's Mobile Emissions Measurement System, and were tested on specific routes, which included a mix of highway and city driving patterns, in order to collect engine operating conditions, vehicle speed, and in-use emission rates of CO 2 and NO x. Comparison of on-road in-use emissions data suggests NO x reductions as high as 80% and 45% compared to the US Federal Test Procedure and Not-to-Exceed standards for model year 1995-2002. However, the results indicate that the fuel consumption; hence, CO 2 emissions increased by approximately 10% over the same period, when the engines were operating in the Not-to-Exceed region.

  11. Engineering isoprene synthesis in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Julie E; Melis, Anastasios

    2018-04-24

    The renewable production of isoprene (Isp) hydrocarbons, to serve as fuel and synthetic chemistry feedstock, has attracted interest in the field recently. Isp (C 5 H 8 ) is naturally produced from sunlight, CO 2 and H 2 O photosynthetically in terrestrial plant chloroplasts via the terpenoid biosynthetic pathway and emitted in the atmosphere as a response to heat stress. Efforts to institute a high capacity continuous and renewable process have included heterologous expression of the Isp synthesis pathway in photosynthetic microorganisms. This review examines the premise and promise emanating from this relatively new research effort. Also examined are the metabolic engineering approaches applied in the quest of renewable Isp hydrocarbons production, the progress achieved so far, and barriers encountered along the way. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  12. System-wide emissions implications of increased wind power penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentino, Lauren; Valenzuela, Viviana; Botterud, Audun; Zhou, Zhi; Conzelmann, Guenter

    2012-04-03

    This paper discusses the environmental effects of incorporating wind energy into the electric power system. We present a detailed emissions analysis based on comprehensive modeling of power system operations with unit commitment and economic dispatch for different wind penetration levels. First, by minimizing cost, the unit commitment model decides which thermal power plants will be utilized based on a wind power forecast, and then, the economic dispatch model dictates the level of production for each unit as a function of the realized wind power generation. Finally, knowing the power production from each power plant, the emissions are calculated. The emissions model incorporates the effects of both cycling and start-ups of thermal power plants in analyzing emissions from an electric power system with increasing levels of wind power. Our results for the power system in the state of Illinois show significant emissions effects from increased cycling and particularly start-ups of thermal power plants. However, we conclude that as the wind power penetration increases, pollutant emissions decrease overall due to the replacement of fossil fuels.

  13. Understanding isoprene photooxidation using observations and modeling over a subtropical forest in the southeastern US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Su

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The emission, dispersion, and photochemistry of isoprene (C5H8 and related chemical species in the convective boundary layer (CBL during sunlit daytime were studied over a mixed forest in the southeastern United States by combining ground-based and aircraft observations. Fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes were quantified at the top of the forest canopy using a high-resolution proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS. Snapshot (∼  2 min sampling duration vertical profiles of isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK + methacrolein (MACR, and monoterpenes were collected from aircraft every hour in the CBL (100–1000 m. Both ground-based and airborne collected volatile organic compound (VOC data are used to constrain the initial conditions of a mixed-layer chemistry model (MXLCH, which is applied to examine the chemical evolution of the O3–NOx–HOx–VOC system and how it is affected by boundary layer dynamics in the CBL. The chemical loss rate of isoprene (∼  1 h is similar to the turbulent mixing timescale (0.1–0.5 h, which indicates that isoprene concentrations are equally dependent on both photooxidation and boundary layer dynamics. Analysis of a model-derived concentration budget suggests that diurnal evolution of isoprene inside the CBL is mainly controlled by surface emissions and chemical loss; the diurnal evolution of O3 is dominated by entrainment. The NO to HO2 ratio (NO : HO2 is used as an indicator of anthropogenic impact on the CBL chemical composition and spans a wide range (1–163. The fate of hydroxyl-substituted isoprene peroxyl radical (HOC5H8OO·; ISOPOO is strongly affected by NO : HO2, shifting from NO-dominant to NO–HO2-balanced conditions from early morning to noontime. This chemical regime change is reflected in the diurnal evolution of isoprene hydroxynitrates (ISOPN and isoprene hydroxy hydroperoxides (ISOPOOH.

  14. Sensitivity to grid resolution in the ability of a chemical transport model to simulate observed oxidant chemistry under high-isoprene conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Formation of ozone and organic aerosol in continental atmospheres depends on whether isoprene emitted by vegetation is oxidized by the high-NOx pathway (where peroxy radicals react with NO or by low-NOx pathways (where peroxy radicals react by alternate channels, mostly with HO2. We used mixed layer observations from the SEAC4RS aircraft campaign over the Southeast US to test the ability of the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model at different grid resolutions (0.25°  ×  0.3125°, 2°  ×  2.5°, 4°  ×  5° to simulate this chemistry under high-isoprene, variable-NOx conditions. Observations of isoprene and NOx over the Southeast US show a negative correlation, reflecting the spatial segregation of emissions; this negative correlation is captured in the model at 0.25°  ×  0.3125° resolution but not at coarser resolutions. As a result, less isoprene oxidation takes place by the high-NOx pathway in the model at 0.25°  ×  0.3125° resolution (54 % than at coarser resolution (59 %. The cumulative probability distribution functions (CDFs of NOx, isoprene, and ozone concentrations show little difference across model resolutions and good agreement with observations, while formaldehyde is overestimated at coarse resolution because excessive isoprene oxidation takes place by the high-NOx pathway with high formaldehyde yield. The good agreement of simulated and observed concentration variances implies that smaller-scale non-linearities (urban and power plant plumes are not important on the regional scale. Correlations of simulated vs. observed concentrations do not improve with grid resolution because finer modes of variability are intrinsically more difficult to capture. Higher model resolution leads to decreased conversion of NOx to organic nitrates and increased conversion to nitric acid, with total reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy changing little across model resolutions. Model concentrations in the

  15. Characteristics of Biogenic VOCs Emission and its High-Resolution Emission Inventory in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Li, Y.; Xie, S.

    2017-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), with high emission and reactivity, can have substantial impacts on the haze and photochemical pollution. It is essential to establish an accurate high-resolution BVOC emission inventory in China for air quality simulation and decision making. Firstly, a semi-static enclosure technique is developed for the field measurements of BVOC emission rates from 50 plant species in China. Using the GC-MS/FID system, 103 VOC species for each plant species are measured. Based on the field measurements in our study and the reported emission rates at home and abroad, a methodology for determining the emission categories of BVOCs is developed using statistical analysis. The isoprene and monoterpene emission rates of 192 plant species/genera in China are determined based on the above emission categories. Secondly, a new vegetation classification with 82 plant functional types (PFTs) is developed based on the most detailed and latest vegetation investigations, China's official statistical data and Vegetation Atlas of China (1:1,000,000). The leaf biomass is estimated based on provincial vegetation volume and production with biomass-apportion models. The WRF model is used to determine meteorological variables at a high spatio-temporal resolution. Using MEAGNv2.1 and the determined emission rates in our study, the high-resolution emission inventories of isoprene, 37 monoterpene species, 32 sesquiterpene species, and other VOCs (OVOCs) from 82 PFTs in China for 1981-2013 are established. The total annual BVOC emissions in 2013 are 55.88 Tg, including 33.87 Tg isoprene, 6.36 Tg monoterpene, 1.29 Tg sesquiterpene, and 14.37 Tg OVOCs. The distribution of isoprene emission fluxes is consistent with the distribution of broadleaf trees, especially tree species with high or higher emission potential. During 1981-2013, China's BVOC emissions have increased by 47.48% at an average rate of 1.80% yr-1. Emissions of isoprene have the largest enhancement

  16. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon

  17. Semiconductor technology for reducing emissions and increasing efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, B.; Frank, R. [Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector, Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cooperation and support of all industries are required to significantly impact a worldwide reduction in gaseous emissions that may contribute to climate change. Each industry also is striving to more efficiently utilize the resources that it consumes since this is both conservation for good citizenship and an intelligent approach to business. The semiconductor industry is also extremely concerned with these issues. However, semiconductor manufacturer`s products provide solutions for reduced emissions and increased efficiency in their industry, other industries and areas that can realize significant improvements through control technology. This paper will focus on semiconductor technologies of digital control, power switching and sensing to improve efficiency and reduce emissions in automotive, industrial, and office/home applications. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Seasonal and interannual variations in whole-ecosystem BVOC emissions from a subtropical plantation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianhui; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Duhl, Tiffany; Greenberg, James

    2017-07-01

    Measurements of BVOC emissions, ozone concentration and environmental parameters were carried out from May 2013 to January 2016 in a subtropical Pinus plantation in China. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions were measured using a relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system and a gradient technique on an above-canopy tower. In 2013, isoprene comprised 21.2% of total terpenoid emissions, while α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene and limonene constituting 51.5%, 2.4%, 9.1%, and 13.0% of total emissions, respectively. Monoterpenes together were the dominant VOCs measured contributing 71.6%. α-pinene, camphene, β-pinene and limonene constituted 67.7%, 3.2%, 11.9%, 17.2% of total monoterpene emissions. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions displayed strong diurnal variations, with lower emissions in the morning and late evening, and the highest emissions around noon. BVOC peak emissions typically occurred a few hours after the noon PAR peak. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions varied with season and were the highest in summer, contributing more than half of the total annual emission, and the lowest emissions were in winter. Evident interannual variations of isoprene, monoterpenes and total BVOCs were observed. Compared to 2013, annual BVOC emissions decreased in 2015, associated with decreases of PAR, Temperature, water vapor, and an increase of all substances in gas, liquid and solid phases in the atmospheric column (e.g., S/Q, the ratio of solar scattered radiation to global radiation). Ozone concentration showed clear diurnal variation with PAR, higher around noon and lower in the early morning and late evening. Generally, there were no evident correlations between ozone concentrations and BVOC emissions, or the vertical gradients of ozone concentrations and BVOC concentrations. Under all sky conditions (including cloudy skies), no strong correlations at a high confidence level or very similar variation patterns were observed between any two following parameters, BVOC emissions

  19. Different roles of water in secondary organic aerosol formation from toluene and isoprene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Long; Xu, YongFu

    2018-06-01

    Roles of water in the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the irradiations of toluene-NO2 and isoprene-NO2 were investigated in a smog chamber. Experimental results show that the yield of SOA from toluene almost doubled as relative humidity increased from 5 to 85 %, whereas the yield of SOA from isoprene under humid conditions decreased by 2.6 times as compared to that under dry conditions. The distinct difference of RH effects on SOA formation from toluene and isoprene is well explained with our experiments and model simulations. The increased SOA from humid toluene-NO2 irradiations is mainly contributed by O-H-containing products such as polyalcohols formed from aqueous reactions. The major chemical components of SOA in isoprene-NO2 irradiations are oligomers formed from the gas phase. SOA formation from isoprene-NO2 irradiations is controlled by stable Criegee intermediates (SCIs) that are greatly influenced by water. As a result, high RH can obstruct the oligomerization reaction of SCIs to form SOA.

  20. Permafrost Thaw increases Emissions of Nitrous Oxide from Subarctic Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, C.; Marushchak, M. E.; Lamprecht, R. E.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, M.; Lindgren, A.; Mastepanov, M.; Christensen, T. R.; Granlund, L.; Tahvanainen, T.; Martikainen, P. J.; Biasi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Permafrost soils in the Arctic are thawing, exposing not only carbon but also large nitrogen stocks. The decomposition of this vast pool of long-term immobile C and N stocks results in the release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Among these, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being studied extensively, and gaseous C release from thawing permafrost is known to be substantial. Most recent studies, however, show that Arctic soils may further be a relevant source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). As N2O is almost 300 times more powerful in warming the climate than CO2 based on a 100-yr time horizon, the release of N2O from thawing permafrost could create a significant non-carbon permafrost-climate feedback. To study the effect of permafrost thaw on N2O fluxes, we collected peat mesocosms from a Subarctic permafrost peatland, and subjected these intact soil-plant systems to sequential thawing from the top of the active layer down to the upper permafrost layer. Measurements of N2O fluxes were coupled with detailed soil analyses and process studies. Since N2O fluxes are highly dependent on moisture conditions and vegetation cover, we applied two distinct moisture treatments (dry vs. wet) and simulated permafrost thaw in vegetated as well as in naturally bare mesocosms. Under dry conditions, permafrost thaw clearly increased N2O emissions. We observed the largest post-thaw emissions from bare peat surfaces, a typical landform in subarctic peatlands previously identified as hot spots for Arctic N2O emissions. There, permafrost thaw caused a five-fold increase in emissions (0.56 vs. 2.81 mg N2O m-2 d-1). While water-logged conditions suppressed N2O emissions, the presence of vegetation lowered, but did not prevent post-thaw N2O release. Based on these findings, we show that one fourth of the Arctic land area could be vulnerable for N2O emissions when permafrost thaws. Our results demonstrate that Arctic N2O emissions may be larger than

  1. Applying photosynthesis research to increase crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton C. Black; Shi-Jean S. Sung; Kristina Toderich; Pavel Yu Voronin

    2010-01-01

    This account is dedicated to Dr. Guivi Sanadze for his career long devotion to science and in recognition of his discovery of isoprene emission by trees during photosynthesis. Investigations on the emission of isoprene and other monoterpenes now have been extended globally to encompass other terrestrial vegetation, algae, waters, and marine life in the world's...

  2. Carbon emissions from Southeast Asian peatlands will increase despite emission-reduction schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijedasa, Lahiru S; Sloan, Sean; Page, Susan E; Clements, Gopalasamy R; Lupascu, Massimo; Evans, Theodore A

    2018-06-01

    Carbon emissions from drained peatlands converted to agriculture in Southeast Asia (i.e. Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo) are globally significant and increasing. Here, we map the growth of Southeast Asian peatland agriculture and estimate CO 2 emissions due to peat drainage in relation to official land-use plans with a focus on the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+) related Indonesian moratorium on granting new concession licenses for industrial agriculture and logging. We find that, prior to 2010, 35% of Southeast Asian peatlands had been converted to agriculture, principally by smallholder farmers (15% of original peat extent) and industrial oil palm plantations (14%). These conversions resulted in 1.46-6.43 GtCO 2 of emissions between 1990 and 2010. This legacy of historical clearances on deep peat areas will contribute 51% (4.43-11.45 GtCO 2 ) of projected peatland CO 2 emissions over the period 2010-2130. In Indonesia, which hosts most of the region's peatland and where concession maps are publicly available, 70% of peatland conversion to agriculture occurred outside of known concessions for industrial plantation development, with smallholders accounting for 60% and industrial oil palm accounting for 34%. Of the remaining Indonesian peatswamp forest (PSF), 45% is not protected, and its conversion would amount to CO 2 emissions equivalent to 0.7-2.3% (5.14-14.93 Gt) of global fossil fuel and cement emissions released between 1990-2010. Of the peatland extent included in the moratorium, 48% was no longer forested, and of the PSF included 40-48% is likely to be affected by drainage impacts from agricultural areas and will emit CO 2 over time. We suggest that recent legislation and policy in Indonesia could provide a means of meaningful emission reductions if focused on revised land-use planning, PSF conservation both inside and outside agricultural concessions, and the development of agricultural practices based on

  3. Influence of isoprene chemical mechanism on modelled changes in tropospheric ozone due to climate and land use over the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, O. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Griffiths, P. T.; Jenkin, M. E.; Smith, D.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    Isoprene is a~precursor to tropospheric ozone, a key pollutant and greenhouse gas. Anthropogenic activity over the coming century is likely to cause large changes in atmospheric CO2 levels, climate and land use, all of which will alter the global vegetation distribution leading to changes in isoprene emissions. Previous studies have used global chemistry-climate models to assess how possible changes in climate and land use could affect isoprene emissions and hence tropospheric ozone. The chemistry of isoprene oxidation, which can alter the concentration of ozone, is highly complex, therefore it must be parameterised in these models. In this work, we compare the effect of four different reduced isoprene chemical mechanisms, all currently used in Earth system models, on tropospheric ozone. Using a box model we compare ozone in these reduced schemes to that in a more explicit scheme (the Master Chemical Mechanism) over a range of NOx and isoprene emissions, through the use of O3 isopleths. We find that there is some variability, especially at high isoprene emissions, caused by differences in isoprene-derived NOx reservoir species. A global model is then used to examine how the different reduced schemes respond to potential future changes in climate, isoprene emissions, anthropogenic emissions and land use change. We find that, particularly in isoprene-rich regions, the response of the schemes varies considerably. The wide-ranging response is due to differences in the model descriptions of the peroxy radical chemistry, particularly their relative rates of reaction towards NO, leading to ozone formation, or HO2, leading to termination. Also important is the yield of isoprene nitrates and peroxyacyl nitrate precursors from isoprene oxidation. Those schemes that produce less of these NOx reservoir species, tend to produce more ozone locally and less away from the source region. We also note changes in other key oxidants such as NO3 and OH (due to the inclusion of

  4. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R.; Rivera-Rios, Jean C.; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H.; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Springston, Stephen R.; Watson, Thomas B.; McKinney, Karena A.

    2016-01-01

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4–0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (<60 ppt). This abrupt shift in isoprene photooxidation, sparked by human activities, speaks to ongoing and possible future changes in the photochemistry active over the Amazon rainforest. PMID:27185928

  5. Isoprene photochemistry over the Amazon rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingjun; Brito, Joel; Dorris, Matthew R; Rivera-Rios, Jean C; Seco, Roger; Bates, Kelvin H; Artaxo, Paulo; Duvoisin, Sergio; Keutsch, Frank N; Kim, Saewung; Goldstein, Allen H; Guenther, Alex B; Manzi, Antonio O; Souza, Rodrigo A F; Springston, Stephen R; Watson, Thomas B; McKinney, Karena A; Martin, Scot T

    2016-05-31

    Isoprene photooxidation is a major driver of atmospheric chemistry over forested regions. Isoprene reacts with hydroxyl radicals (OH) and molecular oxygen to produce isoprene peroxy radicals (ISOPOO). These radicals can react with hydroperoxyl radicals (HO2) to dominantly produce hydroxyhydroperoxides (ISOPOOH). They can also react with nitric oxide (NO) to largely produce methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR). Unimolecular isomerization and bimolecular reactions with organic peroxy radicals are also possible. There is uncertainty about the relative importance of each of these pathways in the atmosphere and possible changes because of anthropogenic pollution. Herein, measurements of ISOPOOH and MVK + MACR concentrations are reported over the central region of the Amazon basin during the wet season. The research site, downwind of an urban region, intercepted both background and polluted air masses during the GoAmazon2014/5 Experiment. Under background conditions, the confidence interval for the ratio of the ISOPOOH concentration to that of MVK + MACR spanned 0.4-0.6. This result implies a ratio of the reaction rate of ISOPOO with HO2 to that with NO of approximately unity. A value of unity is significantly smaller than simulated at present by global chemical transport models for this important, nominally low-NO, forested region of Earth. Under polluted conditions, when the concentrations of reactive nitrogen compounds were high (>1 ppb), ISOPOOH concentrations dropped below the instrumental detection limit (Amazon rainforest.

  6. Measurement of endogenous acetone and isoprene in exhaled breath during sleep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Julian; Kupferthaler, Alexander; Unterkofler, Karl; Amann, Anton; Frauscher, Birgit; Hackner, Heinz; Högl, Birgit; Teschl, Gerald; Hinterhuber, Hartmann

    2012-01-01

    This explorative study aims at characterizing the breath behavior of two prototypic volatile organic compounds, acetone and isoprene, during normal human sleep and to possibly relate changes in the respective concentration time courses to the underlying sleep architecture. For this purpose, six normal healthy volunteers (two females, four males, age 20–29 years) were monitored over two consecutive nights (the first one being an adaption night) by combining real-time proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry measurements from end-tidal exhalation segments with laboratory-based polysomnographic data. Breath acetone concentrations increased overnight in all measurements, with an average relative change by a factor of up to 4 (median 2.5). Nighttime concentration maxima were usually recorded 2–3 h before lights on. For breath isoprene, a nocturnal increase in baseline concentrations of about 74% was observed, with individual changes ranging from 36–110%. Isoprene profiles exhibited pronounced concentration peaks, which were highly specific for leg movements as scored by tibial electromyography. Furthermore, relative to a linear trend, baseline isoprene concentrations decreased during the transition from the NREM to the REM phase of a complete sleep cycle. (paper)

  7. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  8. Impacts of Interannual Variability in Biogenic VOC Emissions near Transitional Ozone Production Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, J.

    2017-12-01

    Due to successful NOx emission controls, summertime ozone production chemistry in urban areas across North America is transitioning from VOC-limited to increasingly NOx-limited. In some regions where ozone production sensitivity is in transition, interannual variability in surrounding biogenic VOC emissions could drive fluctuations in the prevailing chemical regime and modify the impact of anthropogenic emission changes. I use satellite observations of HCHO and NO2 column density, along with a long-term simulation of atmospheric chemistry, to investigate the impact of interannual variability in biogenic isoprene sources near large metro areas. Peak emissions of isoprene in the model can vary by up to 20-60% in any given year compared to the long term mean, and this variability drives the majority of the variability in simulated local HCHO:NO2 ratios (a common proxy for ozone production sensitivity). The satellite observations confirm increasingly NOx-limited chemical regimes with large interannual variability. In several instances, the model and satellite observations suggest that variability in biogenic isoprene emissions could shift summertime ozone production from generally VOC- to generally NOx- sensitive (or vice versa). This would have implications for predicting the air quality impacts of anthropogenic emission changes in any given year, and suggests that drivers of biogenic emissions need to be well understood.

  9. Influence of urban pollution on the production of organic particulate matter from isoprene epoxydiols in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Sá

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The atmospheric chemistry of isoprene contributes to the production of a substantial mass fraction of the particulate matter (PM over tropical forests. Isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX produced in the gas phase by the oxidation of isoprene under HO2-dominant conditions are subsequently taken up by particles, thereby leading to production of secondary organic PM. The present study investigates possible perturbations to this pathway by urban pollution. The measurement site in central Amazonia was located 4 to 6 h downwind of Manaus, Brazil. Measurements took place from February through March 2014 of the wet season, as part of the GoAmazon2014/5 experiment. Mass spectra of organic PM collected with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer were analyzed by positive-matrix factorization. One resolved statistical factor (IEPOX-SOA factor was associated with PM production by the IEPOX pathway. The IEPOX-SOA factor loadings correlated with independently measured mass concentrations of tracers of IEPOX-derived PM, namely C5-alkene triols and 2-methyltetrols (R = 0. 96 and 0.78, respectively. The factor loading, as well as the ratio f of the loading to organic PM mass concentration, decreased under polluted compared to background conditions. For an increase in NOy concentration from 0.5 to 2 ppb, the factor loading and f decreased by two to three fold. Overall, sulfate concentration explained 37 % of the variability in the factor loading. After segregation of factor loading into subsets based on NOy concentration, the sulfate concentration explained up to 75 % of the variability. Considering both factors, the data sets show that the suppressing effects of increased NO concentrations dominated over the enhancing effects of higher sulfate concentrations. The pollution from Manaus elevated NOy concentrations more significantly than sulfate concentrations relative to background conditions. In this light, increased emissions of nitrogen oxides, as

  10. Changes in photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance to CO2, and isoprenoid emissions in Populus nigra plants exposed to excess nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikova, Violeta; Tsonev, Tsonko; Loreto, Francesco; Centritto, Mauro

    2011-01-01

    Poplar (Populus nigra) plants were grown hydroponically with 30 and 200 μM Ni (Ni 30 and Ni 200 ). Photosynthesis limitations and isoprenoid emissions were investigated in two leaf types (mature and developing). Ni stress significantly decreased photosynthesis, and this effect depended on the leaf Ni content, which was lower in mature than in developing leaves. The main limitations to photosynthesis were attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. In Ni-stressed developing leaves, isoprene emission was significantly stimulated. We attribute such stimulation to the lower chloroplastic [CO 2 ] than in control leaves. However chloroplastic [CO 2 ] did not control isoprene emission in mature leaves. Ni stress induced the emission of cis-β-ocimene in mature leaves, and of linalool in both leaf types. Induced biosynthesis and emission of isoprenoids reveal the onset of antioxidant processes that may also contribute to reduce Ni stress, especially in mature poplar leaves. - Graphical abstract: Visible damage caused by Ni treatment. 1 - Ni 0 (control plants); 2 - Ni 200 ; M = mature and D = developing Populus nigra leaves. Display Omitted Highlights: → We study the effect of Ni pollution on photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions. → Ni stress significantly decreases photosynthesis. The main limitations are attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. → Constitutive isoprene emission was significantly stimulated in Ni-stressed leaves. Exposure to enhanced Ni concentration induces cis-beta-ocimene and linalool emissions. - The study reveals consequences of Ni stress on plant physiology, namely increasing diffusional limitation to photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions.

  11. Ground-based intercomparison of two isoprene measurement techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Leibrock

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available An informal intercomparison of two isoprene (C5H8 measurement techniques was carried out during Fall of 1998 at a field site located approximately 3 km west of Boulder, Colorado, USA. A new chemical ionization mass spectrometric technique (CIMS was compared to a well-established gas chromatographic technique (GC. The CIMS technique utilized benzene cation chemistry to ionize isoprene. The isoprene levels measured by the CIMS were often larger than those obtained with the GC. The results indicate that the CIMS technique suffered from an anthropogenic interference associated with air masses from the Denver, CO metropolitan area as well as an additional interference occurring in clean conditions. However, the CIMS technique is also demonstrated to be sensitive and fast. Especially after introduction of a tandem mass spectrometric technique, it is therefore a candidate for isoprene measurements in remote environments near isoprene sources.

  12. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yaping; Chen, Guangcheng; Ye, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO 2 -equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO 2 m −2 h −1 , which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH 4 and N 2 O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m −2 h −1 , respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the same time increase soil carbon accumulation

  13. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yaping [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China); Chen, Guangcheng [Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen 361005, Fujian (China); Ye, Yong, E-mail: yeyong.xmu@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102, Fujian (China)

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil–atmosphere fluxes of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil–atmosphere CO{sub 2}-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO{sub 2} m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil–atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the

  14. Particle growth in an isoprene-rich forest: Influences of urban, wildfire, and biogenic air masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsch, Matthew J.; Schmidt, Stephanie A.; Gardner, Daniel J.; Bondy, Amy L.; May, Nathaniel W.; Bertman, Steven B.; Pratt, Kerri A.; Ault, Andrew P.

    2018-04-01

    Growth of freshly nucleated particles is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and has been studied within a variety of environments around the world. However, there remains uncertainty regarding the sources of the precursor gases leading to particle growth, particularly in isoprene-rich forests. In this study, particle growth events were observed from the 14 total events (31% of days) during summer measurements (June 24 - August 2, 2014) at the Program for Research on Oxidants PHotochemistry, Emissions, and Transport (PROPHET) tower within the forested University of Michigan Biological Station located in northern Michigan. Growth events were observed within long-range transported air masses from urban areas, air masses impacted by wildfires, as well as stagnant, forested/regional air masses. Growth events observed during urban-influenced air masses were prevalent, with presumably high oxidant levels, and began midday during periods of high solar radiation. This suggests that increased oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) likely contributed to the highest observed particle growth in this study (8 ± 2 nm h-1). Growth events during wildfire-influenced air masses were observed primarily at night and had slower growth rates (3 ± 1 nm h-1). These events were likely influenced by increased SO2, O3, and NO2 transported within the smoke plumes, suggesting a role of NO3 oxidation in the production of semi-volatile compounds. Forested/regional air mass growth events likely occurred due to the oxidation of regionally emitted BVOCs, including isoprene, monoterpenes, and sesquiterpenes, which facilitated multiday growth events also with slower rates (3 ± 2 nm h-1). Intense sulfur, carbon, and oxygen signals in individual particles down to 20 nm, analyzed by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX), suggest that H2SO4 and secondary organic aerosol contributed to particle growth. Overall, aerosol

  15. Estimate of biogenic VOC emissions in Japan and their effects on photochemical formation of ambient ozone and secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatani, Satoru; Matsunaga, Sou N.; Nakatsuka, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    A new gridded database has been developed to estimate the amount of isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene emitted from all the broadleaf and coniferous trees in Japan with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN). This database reflects the vegetation specific to Japan more accurately than existing ones. It estimates much lower isoprene emitted from other vegetation than trees, and higher sesquiterpene emissions mainly emitted from Cryptomeria japonica, which is the most abundant plant type in Japan. Changes in biogenic emissions result in the decrease in ambient ozone and increase in organic aerosol simulated by the air quality simulation over the Tokyo Metropolitan Area in Japan. Although newly estimated biogenic emissions contribute to a better model performance on overestimated ozone and underestimated organic aerosol, they are not a single solution to solve problems associated with the air quality simulation.

  16. Biogenic emissions of isoprenoids and NO in China and comparison to anthropogenic emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie Xuexi; Li Guohui; Ying, Zhuming; Guenther, Alex; Madronich, Sasha

    2006-01-01

    northeastern and southern China, there are relatively large biogenic emissions of isoprenoids, leading to an important impact on the ozone production in these regions. Furthermore, the emissions of isoprenoids are highest during summer and noontime, which correlates to the peak of ozone production period. For example, the ratio between summer and winter for the emissions of isoprenoids is about 15 in China. As a result, the biogenic emissions of isoprenoids are significantly larger than the anthropogenic emissions of VOCs in China during daytime in summer. Biogenic NO emissions are mostly produced by agricultural soils which co-exist with large populations and human activity. As a result, the biogenic emissions of NO are mostly overlapped with the anthropogenic emissions of NO, leading to the enhancement in NO concentrations in the high anthropogenic NO emission regions. Finally, the future emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes over China are estimated. The results show that the future biogenic emissions may increase significantly due to land cover changes in central eastern China, which could have a very important impact on ozone formation in this region. However, these estimates are highly uncertain and are presented as a potential scenario to show the importance of possible changes of biogenic emissions in China

  17. Biogenic emissions of isoprenoids and NO in China and comparison to anthropogenic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Li, Guohui; Ying, Zhuming; Guenther, Alex; Madronich, Sasha

    2006-12-01

    northeastern and southern China, there are relatively large biogenic emissions of isoprenoids, leading to an important impact on the ozone production in these regions. Furthermore, the emissions of isoprenoids are highest during summer and noontime, which correlates to the peak of ozone production period. For example, the ratio between summer and winter for the emissions of isoprenoids is about 15 in China. As a result, the biogenic emissions of isoprenoids are significantly larger than the anthropogenic emissions of VOCs in China during daytime in summer. Biogenic NO emissions are mostly produced by agricultural soils which co-exist with large populations and human activity. As a result, the biogenic emissions of NO are mostly overlapped with the anthropogenic emissions of NO, leading to the enhancement in NO concentrations in the high anthropogenic NO emission regions. Finally, the future emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes over China are estimated. The results show that the future biogenic emissions may increase significantly due to land cover changes in central eastern China, which could have a very important impact on ozone formation in this region. However, these estimates are highly uncertain and are presented as a potential scenario to show the importance of possible changes of biogenic emissions in China.

  18. Earthworms can increase nitrous oxide emissions from managed grassland: a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; López González, E.; Hummelink, E.W.J.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are important in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils. In laboratory studies they have been shown to increase emissions of the potent GHG nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we test whether these earthworm-induced N2O emissions also occur in the field. We quantified N2O emissions

  19. Impact of isoprene and nitrogen oxides on O3 chemistry at the local and the regional scale : the ESCOMPTE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinovis, J.; Solmon, F.; Personne, E.; Serça, D.; Rosset, R.

    2003-04-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO+NO2) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play a crucial role in the atmospheric chemistry through the production-destruction of tropospheric O3. In rural areas, NOx concentrations are much lower than in urban areas, whereas VOCs emissions can be relatively high. This is due to a relative longer residence time of VOCs, and to the substantial contribution of Biogenic VOCs (BVOCs) representing more than 85% of all the VOCs emitted at the Earth surface (half of it being isoprene). For these reasons, O3 production in rural areas is most of the time NOx-limited. Taking into account biogenic emissions of isoprene in global scale atmospheric chemistry modeling adds from 10 to 40% to the ozone produced when compared to the same simulation without isoprene. This suggests that BVOCs and NOx emissions must be accounted for in models of atmospheric pollution forecasting at local and regional scales. In this study, we present a sensitivity analysis on the impact of the isoprene and nitrogen oxides emissions at the local and the regional scale. This study is done from data collected during the ESCOMPTE campaign which took place in June and July 2001 in the Marseille region (Southwest France) characterized by both strong natural and anthropogenic sources of trace gases. Isoprene emission experimental data from a Quercus Pubescens Mediterranean forest are used to constrain the 1Dz Soil-Vegetation-Atmospheric-Transfer ISBA model. This SVAT is used in the 3D MESO-NH-Chemistry model to simulate scenarios of pollution at the regional scale including the measured biogenic source for isoprene, and GENEMIS anthropogenic sources for other trace gases. To focus on the chemistry aspect of these simulations, the atmospheric dynamics are set to an "ideal" configuration. We have investigated the impact of the relative position and distance between the biogenic and anthropogenic sources on the O3 budget. According to this, and to the intensity of the

  20. Observation of increases in emission from modern vehicles over time in Hong Kong using remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Jason; Hung, W.T.; Cheung, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study on-road gaseous emissions of vehicles are investigated using remote sensing measurements collected over three different periods. The results show that a high percentage of gaseous pollutants were emitted from a small percentage of vehicles. Liquified Petroleum Gas (LPG) vehicles generally have higher gaseous emissions compared to other vehicles, particularly among higher-emitting vehicles. Vehicles with high vehicle specific power (VSP) tend to have lower CO and HC emissions while petrol and LPG vehicles tend to have higher NO emissions when engine load is high. It can be observed that gaseous emission factors of petrol and LPG vehicles increase greatly within 2 years of being introduced to the vehicle fleet, suggesting that engine and catalyst performance deteriorate rapidly. It can be observed that LPG vehicles have higher levels of gaseous emissions than petrol vehicles, suggesting that proper maintenance of LPG vehicles is essential in reducing gaseous emissions from vehicles. - Highlights: ► Emissions collected in 3 different periods to examine changes in emission over time. ► LPG vehicles generally emit more gaseous pollutants compared to other vehicles. ► Large increase in emissions from modern petrol/LPG vehicles after 2 years' operation. ► CO and NO emissions of modern diesel vehicles are similar to those of older vehicles. - Remote sensing measurements show large increases in gaseous emissions from vehicles in Hong Kong after 2 years of operation, indicating that engine and catalyst performance deteriorate rapidly.

  1. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  2. Estimated HCFC-22 emissions for 1990-2050 in China and the increasing contribution to global emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; Bie, Pengju; Wang, Ziyuan; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Jiang, Hanyu; Xu, Weiguang; Zhang, Jianbo; Hu, Jianxin

    2016-05-01

    Chlorodifluoromethane (CHClF2, HCFC-22) is a widely used refrigerant and foaming agent that is not only an ozone-depleting substance (ozone depletion potential (ODP), 0.04) but also a greenhouse gas (global warming potential (GWP), 1780). A comprehensive historical emission inventory for 1990-2014 was produced using a bottom-up method, and a projection through to 2050 was made for China. The results demonstrated that historical emissions increased sharply from 0.2 Gg/yr in 1990 to 127.2 Gg/yr in 2014. Room air-conditioners (RACs), industrial and commercial refrigeration (ICR), and extruded polystyrene (XPS) were three primary emission sources, and accounted for an average of 95.4% of the total emissions over the period studied. The percentage of global HCFC-22 emissions originating from China significantly increased from 0.1% in 1990 to 31.6% in 2012, with an average growth rate of 1.4% per year. Under the Montreal Protocol phasing-out (MPPO) scenario, future emissions were expected to reach a peak of 133.5 Gg/yr in 2016 and then continuously decline to 10.2 Gg/yr in 2050. The accumulative reduction for 2015-2050 would be 5533.8 Gg (equivalent to 221.4 CFC-11-eq Gg and 9850.1 CO2-eq Tg), which is approximately equivalent to the total CO2 emission for China in 2012 (9900 Tg) (Olivier et al., 2013), compared with the no Montreal Protocol scenario (NMP). Under the MPPO scenario, two cases were analyzed to explore the future emission ranges in China. A comparison between the two cases implied that the choice of emission reduction policy will have a considerable impact on HCFC-22 emissions.

  3. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Guenther, Alex B; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael; Sipilä, Mikko

    2015-06-09

    Oxidation products of monoterpenes and isoprene have a major influence on the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) burden and the production of atmospheric nanoparticles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Here, we investigate the formation of extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) from O3 and OH radical oxidation of several monoterpenes and isoprene in a series of laboratory experiments. We show that ELVOC from all precursors are formed within the first minute after the initial attack of an oxidant. We demonstrate that under atmospherically relevant concentrations, species with an endocyclic double bond efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis, whereas the yields from OH radical-initiated reactions are smaller. If the double bond is exocyclic or the compound itself is acyclic, ozonolysis produces less ELVOC and the role of the OH radical-initiated ELVOC formation is increased. Isoprene oxidation produces marginal quantities of ELVOC regardless of the oxidant. Implementing our laboratory findings into a global modeling framework shows that biogenic SOA formation in general, and ELVOC in particular, play crucial roles in atmospheric CCN production. Monoterpene oxidation products enhance atmospheric new particle formation and growth in most continental regions, thereby increasing CCN concentrations, especially at high values of cloud supersaturation. Isoprene-derived SOA tends to suppress atmospheric new particle formation, yet it assists the growth of sub-CCN-size primary particles to CCN. Taking into account compound specific monoterpene emissions has a moderate effect on the modeled global CCN budget.

  4. Synergy between methylerythritol phosphate pathway and mevalonate pathway for isoprene production in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chen; Gao, Xiang; Jiang, Yu; Sun, Bingbing; Gao, Fang; Yang, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Isoprene, a key building block of synthetic rubber, is currently produced entirely from petrochemical sources. In this work, we engineered both the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and the mevalonate (MVA) pathway for isoprene production in E. coli. The synergy between the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway was demonstrated by the production experiment, in which overexpression of both pathways improved the isoprene yield about 20-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to overexpression of the MEP pathway or the MVA pathway alone. The (13)C metabolic flux analysis revealed that simultaneous utilization of the two pathways resulted in a 4.8-fold increase in the MEP pathway flux and a 1.5-fold increase in the MVA pathway flux. The synergy of the dual pathway was further verified by quantifying intracellular flux responses of the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway to fosmidomycin treatment and mevalonate supplementation. Our results strongly suggest that coupling of the complementary reducing equivalent demand and ATP requirement plays an important role in the synergy of the dual pathway. Fed-batch cultivation of the engineered strain overexpressing the dual pathway resulted in production of 24.0g/L isoprene with a yield of 0.267g/g of glucose. The synergy of the MEP pathway and the MVA pathway also successfully increased the lycopene productivity in E. coli, which demonstrates that it can be used to improve the production of a broad range of terpenoids in microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Chamber simulation of photooxidation of dimethyl sulfide and isoprene in the presence of NOx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the model prediction for the formation of H2SO4 and methanesulfonic acid (MSA, aerosol-phase reactions of gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS oxidation products [e.g., dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO] in aerosol have been included in the DMS kinetic model with the recently reported gas-phase reactions and their rate constants. To determine the rate constants of aerosol-phase reactions of both DMSO and its major gaseous products [e.g., dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2 and methanesulfinic acid (MSIA], DMSO was photooxidized in the presence of NOx using a 2 m3 Teflon film chamber. The rate constants tested in the DMSO kinetic mechanisms were then incorporated into the DMS photooxidation mechanism. The model simulation using the newly constructed DMS oxidation mechanims was compared to chamber data obtained from the phototoxiation of DMS in the presence of NOx. Within 120-min simulation, the predicted concentrations of MSA increase by 200–400% and those of H2SO4, by 50–200% due to aerosol-phase chemistry. This was well substantiated with experimental data. To study the effect of coexisting volatile organic compounds, the photooxidation of DMS in the presence of isoprene and NOx has been simulated using the newly constructed DMS kinetic model integrated with the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM for isoprene oxidation, and compared to chamber data. With the high concentrations of DMS (250 ppb and isoprene (560–2248 ppb, both the model simulation and experimental data showed an increase in the yields of MSA and H2SO4 as the isoprene concentration increased.

  6. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photo-oxidation under a range of controlled conditions (relative humidity or RH ~65-89%, volatile organic compound-to-NOx or VOC / NOx ~3-9 and NOx ~2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measurable amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e. in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photo-oxidation products of the minor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally isoprene-emitting landscapes in Southeast

  7. Isoprenoids emission in Stipa tenacissima L.: Photosynthetic control and the effect of UV light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Rey, Ana; Medori, Mauro; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Fluxes of CO_2 and isoprenoids were measured for the first time in Stipa tenacissima L (alfa grass), a perennial tussock grass dominant in the driest areas of Europe. In addition, we studied how those fluxes were influenced by environmental conditions, leaf ontogeny and UV radiation and compared emission rates in two contrasting seasons: summer when plants are mostly inactive and autumn, the growing season in this region. Leaf ontogeny significantly affected both photosynthesis and isoprenoids emission. Isoprene emission was positively correlated with photosynthesis, although a low isoprene emission was detected in brown leaves with a net carbon loss. Moreover, leaves with a significant lower photosynthesis emitted only monoterpenes, while at higher photosynthetic rates also isoprene was produced. Ambient UV radiation uncoupled photosynthesis and isoprene emission. It is speculated that alfa grass represent an exception from the general rules governing plant isoprenoid emitters. - Highlights: • Stipa tenacissima L. is a grass emitting either monoterpenes and isoprene. • The emission has reasonable rates even in senescent leaves. • Isoprene emission is positively correlated with CO_2 assimilation. • Ambient UV radiation uncouples photosynthesis and isoprene emission. • Leaves with lower photosynthetic rates emit only monoterpenes. - We proved for the first time that alfa grass emit both isoprene and monoterpene, and we provide some innovative aspects about the UV effect and the behavior of Stipa tenacissima.

  8. Aqueous-Phase Reactions of Isoprene with Sulfoxy Radical Anions as a way of Wet Aerosol Formation in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznietsova, I.; Rudzinski, K. J.; Szmigielski, R.; Laboratory of the Environmental Chemistry

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols exhibit an important role in the environment. They have implications on human health and life, and - in the larger scale - on climate, the Earth's radiative balance and the cloud's formation. Organic matter makes up a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosols (~35% to ~90%) and may originate from direct emissions (primary organic aerosol, POA) or result from complex physico-chemical processes of volatile organic compounds (secondary organic aerosol, SOA). Isoprene (2-methyl-buta-1,3-diene) is one of the relevant volatile precursor of ambient SOA in the atmosphere. It is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted to the atmosphere as a result of living vegetation. According to the recent data, the isoprene emission rate is estimated to be at the level of 500 TgC per year. While heterogeneous transformations of isoprene have been well documented, aqueous-phase reactions of this hydrocarbon with radical species that lead to the production of new class of wet SOA components such as polyols and their sulfate esters (organosulfates), are still poorly recognized. The chain reactions of isoprene with sulfoxy radical-anions (SRA) are one of the recently researched route leading to the formation of organosulfates in the aqueous phase. The letter radical species originate from the auto-oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the aqueous phase and are behind the phenomenon of atmospheric acid rain formation. This is a complicated chain reaction that is catalyzed by transition metal ions, such as manganese(II), iron(III) and propagated by sulfoxy radical anions . The presented work addresses the chemical interaction of isoprene with sulfoxy radical-anions in the water solution in the presence of nitrite ions and nitrous acid, which are important trace components of the atmosphere. We showed that nitrite ions and nitrous acid significantly altered the kinetics of the auto-oxidation of SO2 in the presence of isoprene at different solution acidity from 2 to 8

  9. Increased field-emission site density from regrown carbon nanotube films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.Y.; Gupta, S.; Liang, M.; Nemanich, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Electron field-emission properties of as-grown, etched, and regrown carbon nanotube thin films were investigated. The aligned carbon nanotube films were deposited by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition technique. The surface of the as-grown film contained a carbon nanotube mat of amorphous carbon and entangled nanotubes with some tubes protruding from the surface. Hydrogen plasma etching resulted in the removal of the surface layer, and regrowth on the etched surface displayed the formation of a new carbon nanotube mat. The emission site density and the current-voltage dependence of the field emission from all of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that the as-grown sample had a few strong emission spots and a relatively high emission current density (∼20 μA/cm 2 at 1 V/μm), while the regrown sample exhibited a significantly increased emission site density

  10. Nine years of global hydrocarbon emissions based on source inversion of OMI formaldehyde observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bauwens

    2016-08-01

    generally increased fluxes are suggested in Indochina and during the 2007 fires in southern Europe. Moreover, changes in fire seasonal patterns are suggested; e.g., the seasonal amplitude is reduced over southeast Asia. In Africa, the inversion indicates increased fluxes due to agricultural fires and decreased maxima when natural fires are dominant. The top–down fire emissions are much better correlated with MODIS fire counts than the a priori inventory in regions with small and agricultural fires, indicating that the OMI-based inversion is well-suited to assess the associated emissions. Regarding biogenic sources, significant reductions in isoprene fluxes are inferred in tropical ecosystems (30–40 %, suggesting overestimated basal emission rates in those areas in the bottom–up inventory, whereas strongly positive isoprene emission updates are derived over semiarid and desert areas, especially in southern Africa and Australia. This finding suggests that the parameterization of the soil moisture stress used in MEGAN greatly exaggerates the flux reduction due to drought in those regions. The isoprene emission trends over 2005–2013 are often enhanced after optimization, with positive top–down trends in Siberia (4.2 % year−1 and eastern Europe (3.9 % year−1, likely reflecting forest expansion and warming temperatures, and negative trends in Amazonia (−2.1 % year−1, south China (−1 % year−1, the United States (−3.7 % year−1, and western Europe (−3.3 % year−1, which are generally corroborated by independent studies, yet their interpretation warrants further investigation.

  11. Progress Report: DE-FG03-97ER20274, ''Microbial Production of Isoprene''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray Fall

    2002-01-01

    We have discovered that microorganisms produce and emit the hydrocarbon isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), and have suggested that if isoprene-producing enzymes and their genes can be harnessed, useful hydrocarbon-producing systems might be constructed. The main goal of the proposed work is to establish the biochemical mechanism and regulation of isoprene formation in the bacterial system, Bacillus subtilis. Specific objectives of the proposed work are the following: (A) to characterize the physiological regulation of isoprene formation in B. subtilis; (B) to characterize mutations in B. subtilis 168 that suppress isoprene formation, clone these genes, and determine how isoprene and isoprenoid carbon flow are regulated; and (C) to test ''overflow'' and ''signaling'' models for Bacillus isoprene formation. We are also pursuing the isolation and cloning of B. subtilis isoprene synthase, which we believe may be a regulatory enzyme

  12. Increasing beef production could lower greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil if decoupled from deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Silva, R.; Barioni, L. G.; Hall, J. A. J.; Folegatti Matsuura, M.; Zanett Albertini, T.; Fernandes, F. A.; Moran, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent debate about agricultural greenhouse gas emissions mitigation highlights trade-offs inherent in the way we produce and consume food, with increasing scrutiny on emissions-intensive livestock products. Although most research has focused on mitigation through improved productivity, systemic interactions resulting from reduced beef production at the regional level are still unexplored. A detailed optimization model of beef production encompassing pasture degradation and recovery processes, animal and deforestation emissions, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and upstream life-cycle inventory was developed and parameterized for the Brazilian Cerrado. Economic return was maximized considering two alternative scenarios: decoupled livestock-deforestation (DLD), assuming baseline deforestation rates controlled by effective policy; and coupled livestock-deforestation (CLD), where shifting beef demand alters deforestation rates. In DLD, reduced consumption actually leads to less productive beef systems, associated with higher emissions intensities and total emissions, whereas increased production leads to more efficient systems with boosted SOC stocks, reducing both per kilogram and total emissions. Under CLD, increased production leads to 60% higher emissions than in DLD. The results indicate the extent to which deforestation control contributes to sustainable intensification in Cerrado beef systems, and how alternative life-cycle analytical approaches result in significantly different emission estimates.

  13. Potential controls of isoprene in the surface ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, S. C.; Andrews, S. J.; Airs, R.; Arnold, S. R.; Bouman, H. A.; Brewin, R. J. W.; Chance, R. J.; Cummings, D.; Dall'Olmo, G.; Lewis, A. C.; Minaeian, J. K.; Reifel, K. M.; Small, A.; Tarran, G. A.; Tilstone, G. H.; Carpenter, L. J.

    2017-04-01

    Isoprene surface ocean concentrations and vertical distribution, atmospheric mixing ratios, and calculated sea-to-air fluxes spanning approximately 125° of latitude (80°N-45°S) over the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans are reported. Oceanic isoprene concentrations were associated with a number of concurrently monitored biological variables including chlorophyll a (Chl a), photoprotective pigments, integrated primary production (intPP), and cyanobacterial cell counts, with higher isoprene concentrations relative to all respective variables found at sea surface temperatures greater than 20°C. The correlation between isoprene and the sum of photoprotective carotenoids, which is reported here for the first time, was the most consistent across all cruises. Parameterizations based on linear regression analyses of these relationships perform well for Arctic and Atlantic data, producing a better fit to observations than an existing Chl a-based parameterization. Global extrapolation of isoprene surface water concentrations using satellite-derived Chl a and intPP reproduced general trends in the in situ data and absolute values within a factor of 2 between 60% and 85%, depending on the data set and algorithm used.

  14. Smog chamber study on aging of combustion soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system: Changes of mass, size, effective density, morphology and mixing state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangwei; Chen, Linghong; Han, Ke; Lv, Biao; Bao, Kaiji; Wu, Xuecheng; Gao, Xiang; Cen, Kefa

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric soot aging process is always accompanied by secondary particle formation, which is a comprehensive environmental issue that deserves great attention. On one hand, aging of primary soot could change its own physicochemical properties; on the other hand, complex air pollution caused by pollutant emission from various sources (e.g., vehicle exhausts, coal-fired flue gases and biogenic VOCs emission) may contribute to secondary particle formation onto primary particle surface. In this study, aging of combustion soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions in several smog chamber experiments. During the evolution of soot, several physical properties such as mass, size, effective density, morphology and mixing state were determined simultaneously by an integrated aerosol analytical system of Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), Differential Mobility Analyzer-Aerosol Particle Mass Analyzer-Condensation Particle Counter (DMA-APM-CPC) and Transmission Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy-dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (TEM/EDX) techniques. Here, based on the experimental results of soot aging under different gas-phase composition and relative humidity (RH), we firstly proposed possible aging pathways of soot in isoprene/SO2/NOx system. A synergetic effect was speculated to exist between SO2 and isoprene on soot aging process, which led to more secondary particle formation. At the same time, TEM/EDX analysis showed that a competitive mechanism between H2SO4(g) and isoprene oxidation vapor may exist: H2SO4(g) firstly condensed onto fresh soot, then an acceleration of isoprene oxidation products formed onto H2SO4 pre-coated soot. In isoprene/SO2/NOx system, high RH conditions could contribute to soot aging and new particle formation. The changes of effective density and dynamic shape factor of soot also indicated that high RH conditions could accelerate soot aging process, and led chain-like soot into more spherical

  15. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Y; Paulot, F; Carter, WPL; Nolte, CG; Luecken, DJ; Hutzell, WT; Wennberg, PO; Cohen, RC; Pinder, RW

    2013-01-01

    The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) 2004 are used to evaluate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry and provide constraints on isoprene nitrate yields, isoprene nitrate lifetimes, and NOx recycling rates. We incorporate recent advances in isoprene oxidation ch...

  16. Understanding the impact of recent advances in isoprene photooxidation on simulations of regional air quality

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Y.; Carter, W. P. L.; Nolte, C. G.; Luecken, D. J.; Hutzell, W. T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Pinder, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    The CMAQ (Community Multiscale Air Quality) us model in combination with observations for INTEX-NA/ICARTT (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment–North America/International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation) 2004 are used to evaluate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry and provide constraints on isoprene nitrate yields, isoprene nitrate lifetimes, and NO_x recycling rates. We incorporate recent advances in isoprene oxidation chemistry int...

  17. Impact of increasing ship emissions on air quality and deposition over Europe by 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Bill; Sanderson, Michael G.; Johnson, Colin E. [Met Office Hadley Centre for Climate Change, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    A global chemistry-transport model has been used to study the effect of shipping emissions on air quality and ecosystems over Europe, through changes in surface ozone and surface sulphate aerosols, and changes in the deposition of sulphur and oxidised nitrogen. Scenarios are chosen to determine the impact of current (2000) shipping emissions, and the combined impact of changes in land-based and shipping emissions by 2030. The effects of shipping on ozone are small, compared to land-based emissions changes, and can be both positive and negative. Due to the non-linear nature of ozone chemistry, the effects of shipping depend on the magnitude of the emission change, and on the choice of scenario for the land-based emissions. The effects on sulphate aerosol levels and deposition fluxes of sulphate aerosols and oxidised nitrogen species are larger, and are comparable to expected changes in land-based emissions. This is particularly true for SO{sub 2} emissions from shipping. SO{sub 2} has a sufficiently short lifetime that most of the impacts are felt within the European region, although much of that is over the sea. The increase in sulphate aerosols and sulphur deposition due to the SO{sub 2} from shipping will offset 75 % of the benefits in air quality that would be expect from land-based emission controls under the SRES A2 scenario. (orig.)

  18. Increased energy efficiency and the rebound effect: Effects on consumption and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennlund, Runar; Ghalwash, Tarek; Nordstroem, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to examine how exogenous technological progress, in terms of an increase in energy efficiency, affects consumption choice by Swedish households and thereby emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO x ). The aim of the paper is closely related to the discussion of what is termed the 'rebound effect'. To neutralise the rebound effect, we estimate the necessary change in CO 2 tax, i.e. the CO 2 tax that keeps CO 2 emissions at their initial level. In addition, we estimate how this will affect emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicate that an increase in energy efficiency of 20% will increase emissions of CO 2 by approximately 5%. To reduce the CO 2 emissions to their initial level, the CO 2 tax must be raised by 130%. This tax increase will reduce the emissions of sulphur dioxide to below their initial level, but will leave the emissions of nitrogen oxides at a higher level than initially. Thus, if marginal damages from sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are non-constant, additional policy instruments are needed

  19. Stomatal uptake and stomatal deposition of ozone in isoprene and monoterpene emitting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, S; Loreto, F; Kleist, E; Wildt, J

    2008-01-01

    Volatile isoprenoids were reported to protect plants against ozone. To understand whether this could be the result of a direct scavenging of ozone by these molecules, the stomatal and non-stomatal uptake of ozone was estimated in plants emitting isoprene or monoterpenes. Ozone uptake by holm oak (Quercus ilex, a monoterpene emitter) and black poplar (Populus nigra, an isoprene emitter) was studied in whole plant enclosures (continuously stirred tank reactors, CSTR). The ozone uptake by plants was estimated measuring ozone concentration at the inlet and outlet of the reactors, after correcting for the uptake of the enclosure materials. Destruction of ozone at the cuticle or at the plant stems was found to be negligible compared to the ozone uptake through the stomata. For both plant species, a relationship between stomatal conductance and ozone uptake was found. For the poplar, the measured ozone losses were explained by the uptake of ozone through the stomata only, and ozone destruction by gas phase reactions with isoprene was negligible. For the oak, gas phase reactions of ozone with the monoterpenes emitted by the plants contributed significantly to ozone destruction. This was confirmed by two different experiments showing a) that in cases of high stomatal conductance but under low CO(2) concentration, a reduction of monoterpene emission was still associated with reduced O(3) uptake; and b) that ozone losses due to the gas phase reactions only can be measured when using the exhaust from a plant chamber to determine the gas phase reactivity in an empty reaction chamber. Monoterpenes can therefore relevantly scavenge ozone at leaf level contributing to protection against ozone.

  20. Photochemistry of biogenic emissions over the Amazon forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    1988-01-01

    The boundary layer chemistry over the Amazon forest during the dry season is simulated with a photochemical model. Results are in good agreement with measurements of isoprene, NO, ozone, and organic acids. Photochemical reactions of biogenic isoprene and NOx can supply most of the ozone observed in the boundary layer. Production of ozone is very sensitive to the availability of NOx, but is insensitive to the isoprene source strength. High concentrations of total odd nitrogen (NOy) are predicted for the planetary boundary layer, about 1 ppb in the mixed layer and 0.75 ppb in the convective cloud layer. Most of the odd nitrogen is present as PAN-type species, which are removed by dry deposition to the forest. The observed daytime variations of isoprene are explained by a strong dependence of the isoprene emission flux on sun angle. Nighttime losses of isoprene exceed rates of reaction with NO3 and O3 and appear to reflect dry-deposition processes. The 24-hour averaged isoprene emission flux is calculated to be 38 mg/sq m per day. Photooxidation of isoprene could account for a large fraction of the CO enrichment observed in the boundary layer under unpolluted conditions and could constitute an important atmospheric source of formic acid, methacrylic acid, and pyruvic acid.

  1. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  2. Transient increases in methylbutenol emission following partial defoliation of Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Dennis W.

    Methybutenol (MBO or 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol) is a five-carbon alcohol produced and emitted in large amounts by many species of pine native to Western North America. Upon entering the atmosphere, MBO may engage in a series of chemical reactions which may ultimately lead to the production of tropospheric ozone which is a damaging pollutant. While the physical factors controlling MBO emission are well understood, the ecological factors controlling MBO emission have yet to be addressed. This study examines the response of MBO emission from Pinus ponderosa to herbivory simulated by needle clipping. Following defoliation early in the season, MBO emission from some plants tripled but similar increase did not occur later in the season. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the variable response of MBO emission to defoliation may have been due to the action of insect herbivores early in the season, or may have been due to phenological changes in the plants over the course of the season.

  3. Norwegian environmental policy: From continued increase of the emission of greenhouse gases to decrease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    According to Norway's Minister of the Environment, Norway will be one of the first among the industrialized countries to ratify the Kyoto Protocol on the emission of greenhouse gases. The tax on carbon dioxide will be continued and from 2005 there will be a national quota system for emission from sources not previously included. Several other measures have also been proposed. The current regulations admit 16 percent increase in the emissions up to 2008, while the measures proposed by the government and listed in this article may give a reduction of 12 percent

  4. Net change in carbon emissions with increased wood energy use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Nepal; David N. Wear; Kenneth E. Skog

    2014-01-01

    Use of wood biomass for energy results in carbon (C) emissions at the time of burning and alters C stocks on the land because of harvest, regrowth, and changes in land use or management. This study evaluates the potential effects of expanded woody biomass energy use (for heat and power) on net C emissions over time. A scenario with increased wood energy use is compared...

  5. Effects of Isoprene- and Toluene-Generated Smog on Allergic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactions of organic compounds with nitric oxide (NO) and sunlight produce complex mixtures of pollutants including secondary organic aerosol (SOA), ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and reactive aldehydes. The health effects of these photochemical smog mixtures in susceptible populations including asthmatics are unclear. We assessed effects of smog generated from mixtures of NO with isoprene (IS) or toluene (TL) on allergic inflammatory responses in Balb/cJ mice. House dust mite (HDM)-sensitized or control mice were all challenged with HDM intranasally 1 d prior to whole-body inhalation exposure to IS (chamber average 509 ppb NO2, 246 ppb O3, and 160 g/m3 SOA), TL (217 ppb NO2, 129 ppb O3, and 376 g/m3 SOA), or HEPA-filtered air (4 h/d for 2 days). Mice were necropsied within 3 h after the second exposure (2 d post-HDM challenge). Assessment of breathing parameters during exposure with double-chamber plethysmography showed a trend for increased specific airway resistance and decreased minute volume during the second day of TL exposure in both non-allergic and HDM-allergic mice. HDM-allergic air-exposed mice had significant increases in numbers of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) alveolar macrophages (AM) and eosinophils (EO), and trends for increases in BAL indices of lung injury in comparison with non-allergic air-exposed mice. Exposure to either IS or TL attenuated the increases in AM, EO, and lung injury markers in HDM-allergic mice. The results of this

  6. Selective measurements of isoprene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol based on NO+ ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic VOC emissions are often dominated by 2-methyl-1,3-butadiene (isoprene and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (232 MBO. Here we explore the possibility to selectively distinguish these species using NO+ as a primary ion in a conventional PTR-MS equipped with an SRI unit. High purity of NO+ (>90% as a primary ion was utilized in laboratory and field experiments using a conventional PTR-TOF-MS. Isoprene is ionized via charge transfer leading to the major product ion C5H8+ (>99% (e.g. Spanel and Smith, 1998. 232 MBO undergoes a hydroxide ion transfer reaction resulting in the major product ion channel C5H9+ (>95% (e.g. Amelynck et al., 2005. We show that both compounds are ionized with little fragmentation (>5% under standard operating conditions. Typical sensitivities of 11.1 ± 0.1 (isoprene and 12.9 ± 0.1 (232 MBO ncps ppbv−1 were achieved, which correspond to limit of detections of 18 and 15 pptv respectively for a 10 s integration time. Sensitivities decreased at higher collisional energies. Calibration experiments showed little humidity dependence. We tested the setup at a field site in Colorado dominated by ponderosa pine, a 232 MBO emitting plant species. Our measurements confirm 232 MBO as the dominant biogenic VOC at this site, exhibiting typical average daytime concentrations between 0.2–1.4 ppbv. The method is able to detect the presence of trace levels of isoprene at this field site (90–250 ppt without any interference from 232 MBO, which would not be feasible using H3O+ ionization chemistry, and which currently also remains a challenge for other analytical techniques (e.g. gas chromatographic methods.

  7. The Increase of Energy Consumption and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emission in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasana, Hadi; Putri, Annisa Eka

    2018-02-01

    In the last decade, the increase of energy consumption that has multiplied carbondioxide emissions becomes world problems, especially in the developing countries undergoing industrialization to be developed ones like Indonesia. This aim of this study was to analyze the effect of fossil energy consumption, population growth, and consumption of renewable energy on carbon dioxide emission. The method used was multiple linear regression analysis with Ordinary Least Square approach using time series in the period of 1990 - 2014. The result showed that fossil energy consumption and population growth have a positive influence on carbon dioxide emission in Indonesia. Meanwhile, the consumption variable of renewable energy has a negative effect on the level of carbon dioxide emissions produced.

  8. Estimating the Biogenic Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Emissions over Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermioni Dimitropoulou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic emissions affect the urban air quality as they are ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA precursors and should be taken into account when applying photochemical pollution models. The present study presents an estimation of the magnitude of non-methane volatile organic compounds (BNMVOCs emitted by vegetation over Greece. The methodology is based on computation developed with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS and theoretical equations in order to produce an emission inventory on a 6 × 6 km2 spatial resolution, in a temporal resolution of 1 h covering one year (2016. For this purpose, a variety of input data was used: updated satellite land-use data, land-use specific emission potentials, foliar biomass densities, temperature, and solar radiation data. Hourly, daily, and annual isoprene, monoterpenes, and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs were estimated. In the area under study, the annual biogenic emissions were estimated up to 472 kt, consisting of 46.6% isoprene, 28% monoterpenes, and 25.4% OVOCs. Results delineate an annual cycle with increasing values from March to April, while maximum emissions were observed from May to September, followed by a decrease from October to January.

  9. Fire increases the risk of higher soil N2O emissions from Mediterranean Macchia ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karhu, Kristiina; Dannenmann, M.; Kitzler, B.

    2015-01-01

    on climate change. However, the potential importance of indirect GHG emissions due to changes in soil biological and chemical properties after fire is less well known. Increased soil mineral nitrogen (N) concentrations after fire pose a risk for increased emissions of gaseous N, but studies on the post......-fire N2O production and soil N turnover rates (mineralization, nitrification, microbial immobilization, denitrification) are still rare. We determined N2O production, rates of N turnover and pathways for N2O production from the soil of burned and unburned plots of a Macchia shrubland in central Spain...... using a 15N labelling approach. Measurements were initiated before the controlled burning and continued for up to half a year after fire. Fire markedly increased the risk of N2O emissions from soil through denitrification (N2O production rate was 3 to ≈30 times higher in burned soils compared to control...

  10. Mathematical modeling of blood-gas kinetics for the volatile organic compounds isoprene and acetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.

    2010-01-01

    Breath gas analysis is based on the compelling concept that the exhaled breath levels of endogenously produced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide a direct, non-invasive window to the blood and hence, by inference, to the body. In this sense, breath VOCs are regarded as a comprehensive repository of valuable physiological and clinical information, that might be exploited in such diverse areas as diagnostics, therapeutic monitoring or general dynamic assessments of metabolic function, pharmacodynamics (e.g., in drug testing) and environmental exposure (e.g., in occupational health). Despite this enormous potential, the lack of standardized breath sampling regimes as well as the poor mechanistic understanding of VOC exhalation kinetics could cast a cloud over the widespread use of breath gas analysis in the biomedical sciences. In this context, a primary goal of the present thesis is to provide a better quantitative insight into the breath behavior of two prototypic VOCs, isoprene and acetone. A compartmental modeling framework is developed and validated by virtue of real-time breath measurements of these trace gases during distinct physiological states. In particular, the influence of various hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters on VOC concentrations in exhaled breath is investigated. This approach also complements previous steady state investigations in toxicology. From a phenomenological point of view, both acetone and isoprene concentrations in end-tidal breath are demonstrated to exhibit a reproducible non-steady state behavior during moderate workload challenges on a stationary bicycle. However, these dynamics depart drastically from what is expected on the basis of classical pulmonary inert gas elimination theory. More specifically, the start of exercise is accompanied by an abrupt increase in breath isoprene levels, usually by a factor of 3 to 4 compared with the steady state value during rest. This phase is followed by a gradual decline and the

  11. Historical Responsibility for Climate Change - from countries emissions to contribution to temperature increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, Mario; Gütschow, Johannes; Rocha, Marcia; Schaeffer, Michiel

    2016-04-01

    The notion of historical responsibility is central to the equity debate and the measure of responsibility as a countries' share of historical global emissions remains one of the essential parameters in so-called equity proposals, which attempt to distribute effort among countries in an equitable manner. The focus of this contribution is on the historical contribution of countries, but it takes it one step further: its general objective lies on estimating countries' contribution directly to the change in climate. The historical responsibility is not based on cumulative emissions but instead measured in terms of the countries' estimated contribution to the increase in global-mean surface-air temperature. This is achieved by (1) compiling a historical emissions dataset for the period from 1850 until 2012 for each individual Kyoto-greenhouse gas and each UNFCCC Party using a consistent methodology and (2) applying those historical emissions to a revised version of the so-called Policy-maker Model put forward by the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Federative Republic of Brazil, which is a simple, yet powerful tool that allows historical GHG emissions of individual countries to be directly related to their effect on global temperature changes. We estimate that the cumulative GHG emissions until 2012 from the USA, the European Union and China contribute to a total temperature increase of about 0.50°C in 2100, which is equivalent to about 50% of the temperature increase from total global GHG emissions by that year (of about 1.0°C). Respectively, the USA, the European Union, and China are responsible for 20.2%, 17.3%, and 12.1% of global temperature increase in 2100. Russian historical emissions are responsible for 0.06°C temperature increase by 2100, ranking as the fourth largest contributor to temperature increase with 6.2% of the total contribution. India ranks fifth: Indian emissions to date would contribute to roughly 0.05°C of global mean temperature

  12. Ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule in the VUV energy range (12 to 310 eV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernini, R.B., E-mail: rafael.bernini@ifrj.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Ciência e Tecnologia do Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ), 25050-100 Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Coutinho, L.H. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio De Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nunez, C.V. [Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biotecnologia, Coordenação de Tecnologia e Inovação, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), 69060-001 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Castilho, R.B. de [Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), 69077-000 Manaus, AM (Brazil); Souza, G.G.B. de [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21949-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Ionic fragmentation of isoprene following valence-shell and C 1s excitation. • Experimental observation of single and double ionization processes. • Large increase in fragmentation following core excitation. • Similar dissociation pattern bellow (270 eV) and above (310 eV) core edge. • Stable molecular ion observed at all photon energies. - Abstract: Isoprene, C{sub 5}H{sub 8}, is a biogenic volatile compound emitted from plants and animals, playing an important role in atmospheric chemistry. In this work, we have studied the ionic fragmentation of the isoprene molecule induced by high energy photons (synchrotron radiation), both at the valence (12.0, 14.0, 16.0, 18.0, and 21.0 eV) and carbon 1s edge (270 and 310 eV, respectively, below and above edge) energies. The ionic fragments were mass-analyzed using a Wiley–McLaren time-of-flight spectrometer (TOF) and single (PEPICO) and double ionization coincidence (PEPIPICO) spectra were obtained. As expected, the fragmentation degree increases with increasing energy. Below and above the carbon 1s edge, the fragmentation patterns are quite similar, and basically the same fragments are observed as compared to the spectra following valence-shell ionization. Stable doubly-charged ions were not observed. A PEPIPICO spectrum has shown that the main dissociation route for doubly-ionized species corresponds to the [CH{sub 3}]{sup +}/[C{sub 4}H{sub 2–5}]{sup +} ion pair. Intense fragmentation of the isoprene molecule has been observed following valence shell and core electron ionization. The observance of basically the same fragments when moving from valence to inner-shell suggests that basically the same fragmentation routes are present in both cases. All doubly (or multiply)-charged cations are unstable, at least on a microsecond scale.

  13. Solid-immersion fluorescence microscopy with increased emission and super resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liau, Z. L.; Porter, J. M. [Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Lexington, Massachusetts 02420 (United States); Liau, A. A.; Chen, J. J. [Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Salmon, W. C. [Whitehead Institute, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Sheu, S. S. [Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States)

    2015-01-07

    We investigate solid-immersion fluorescence microscopy suitable for super-resolution nanotechnology and biological imaging, and have observed limit of resolution as small as 15 nm with microspheres, mitochondria, and chromatin fibers. We have further observed that fluorescence efficiency increases with excitation power density, implicating appreciable stimulated emission and increased resolution. We discuss potential advantages of the solid-immersion microscopy, including combined use with previously established super-resolution techniques for reaching deeper beyond the conventional diffraction limit.

  14. Is an increased elderly population related to decreased CO2 emissions from road transportation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the potential effects of an increase in the share of aged population on the environmental impacts of road transportation. In order to fill this gap in the literature, this paper empirically analyzes whether there is a relationship between the share of aged population and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions from road transportation by applying a quadratic function. Using international panel data, it also addresses the level of the turning point in the relationships between the share of aged population and CO 2 emissions. The analysis in this paper uses a first-order differential equation to estimate an inverted U-shaped relationship between them in order to alleviate the unit roots issue. The results from 25 OECD countries, consisting mainly of European countries and Japan, indicate that there is a quadratic relationship between CO 2 emissions per capita and the share of aged population, and that the turning point is around 16 percent. The results also imply that a relative increase in the number of elderly people is associated with a decrease in CO 2 emissions per capita from the road sector when the share of aged population reaches more than 16 percent. - Highlights: ► I estimate the relationship between a country's share of elderly population and CO 2 emissions from road transport. ► In order to alleviate the unit roots issue, the analysis uses a first-order differential equation to estimate models. ► There is a quadratic relationship between CO 2 emissions per capita and the share of elderly. ► The level of the turning point in terms of the share of elderly in OECD European countries and Japan is around 16 percent.

  15. Assessing the impact of anthropogenic pollution on isoprene-derived secondary organic aerosol formation in PM2.5 collected from the Birmingham, Alabama, ground site during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Rattanavaraha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the southeastern US, substantial emissions of isoprene from deciduous trees undergo atmospheric oxidation to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA that contributes to fine particulate matter (PM2.5. Laboratory studies have revealed that anthropogenic pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2, oxides of nitrogen (NOx, and aerosol acidity, can enhance SOA formation from the hydroxyl radical (OH-initiated oxidation of isoprene; however, the mechanisms by which specific pollutants enhance isoprene SOA in ambient PM2.5 remain unclear. As one aspect of an investigation to examine how anthropogenic pollutants influence isoprene-derived SOA formation, high-volume PM2.5 filter samples were collected at the Birmingham, Alabama (BHM, ground site during the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS. Sample extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography–electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS with prior trimethylsilylation and ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-QTOFMS to identify known isoprene SOA tracers. Tracers quantified using both surrogate and authentic standards were compared with collocated gas- and particle-phase data as well as meteorological data provided by the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH network to assess the impact of anthropogenic pollution on isoprene-derived SOA formation. Results of this study reveal that isoprene-derived SOA tracers contribute a substantial mass fraction of organic matter (OM ( ∼  7 to  ∼  20 %. Isoprene-derived SOA tracers correlated with sulfate (SO42− (r2 = 0.34, n = 117 but not with NOx. Moderate correlations between methacrylic acid epoxide and hydroxymethyl-methyl-α-lactone (together abbreviated MAE/HMML-derived SOA tracers with nitrate radical production (P[NO3] (r2 = 0.57, n = 40 were observed during nighttime, suggesting a

  16. Surgical Space Suits Increase Particle and Microbiological Emission Rates in a Simulated Surgical Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijaysegaran, Praveen; Knibbs, Luke D; Morawska, Lidia; Crawford, Ross W

    2018-05-01

    The role of space suits in the prevention of orthopedic prosthetic joint infection remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that space suits may in fact contribute to increased infection rates, with bioaerosol emissions from space suits identified as a potential cause. This study aimed to compare the particle and microbiological emission rates (PER and MER) of space suits and standard surgical clothing. A comparison of emission rates between space suits and standard surgical clothing was performed in a simulated surgical environment during 5 separate experiments. Particle counts were analyzed with 2 separate particle counters capable of detecting particles between 0.1 and 20 μm. An Andersen impactor was used to sample bacteria, with culture counts performed at 24 and 48 hours. Four experiments consistently showed statistically significant increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. One experiment showed inconsistent results, with a trend toward increases in both PER and MER when space suits are used compared with standard surgical clothing. Space suits cause increased PER and MER compared with standard surgical clothing. This finding provides mechanistic evidence to support the increased prosthetic joint infection rates observed in clinical studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in exhaled human breath. Acetonitrile as biomarker for passive smoking. Model for isoprene in human breath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prazeller, P.

    2000-03-01

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath under various circumstances. The composition of exhaled breath reflects metabolic processes in the human body. Breath analysis is a non invasive technique which makes it most interesting especially for medical or toxicological applications. Measurements were done with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS). This technique combines the advantage of small fragmentation of chemical ionization with highly time resolved mass spectrometry. A big part of this work is about investigations of exposition due to tobacco smoke. After smoking cigarettes the initial increase and time dependence of some compounds in the human breath are monitored . The calculated decrease resulting only from breathing out the compounds is presented and compared to the measured decline in the breath. This allows the distinction whether breathing is the dominant loss of a compound or a different metabolic process remover it more efficiently. Acetonitrile measured in human breath is presented as a biomarker for exposition to tobacco smoke. Especially its use for quantification of passive smoking, the exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is shown. The reached accuracy and the fast way of measuring of acetonitrile in human breath using PTR-MS offer a good alternative to common used biomarkers. Numerous publications have described measurements of breath isoprene in humans, and there has been a hope that breath isoprene analyses could be a non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess serum cholesterol levels or cholesterol synthesis rate. However, significant analytical problems in breath isoprene analysis and variability in isoprene levels with age, exercise, diet, etc. have limited the usefulness of these measurements. Here, we have applied proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to this problem, allowing on-line detection of breath isoprene. We show that breath isoprene

  18. Microbial cycling of isoprene, the most abundantly produced biological volatile organic compound on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGenity, Terry J; Crombie, Andrew T; Murrell, J Colin

    2018-04-01

    Isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), the most abundantly produced biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) on Earth, is highly reactive and can have diverse and often detrimental atmospheric effects, which impact on climate and health. Most isoprene is produced by terrestrial plants, but (micro)algal production is important in aquatic environments, and the relative bacterial contribution remains unknown. Soils are a sink for isoprene, and bacteria that can use isoprene as a carbon and energy source have been cultivated and also identified using cultivation-independent methods from soils, leaves and coastal/marine environments. Bacteria belonging to the Actinobacteria are most frequently isolated and identified, and Proteobacteria have also been shown to degrade isoprene. In the freshwater-sediment isolate, Rhodococcus strain AD45, initial oxidation of isoprene to 1,2-epoxy-isoprene is catalyzed by a multicomponent isoprene monooxygenase encoded by the genes isoABCDEF. The resultant epoxide is converted to a glutathione conjugate by a glutathione S-transferase encoded by isoI, and further degraded by enzymes encoded by isoGHJ. Genome sequence analysis of actinobacterial isolates belonging to the genera Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium and Gordonia has revealed that isoABCDEF and isoGHIJ are linked in an operon, either on a plasmid or the chromosome. In Rhodococcus strain AD45 both isoprene and epoxy-isoprene induce a high level of transcription of 22 contiguous genes, including isoABCDEF and isoGHIJ. Sequence analysis of the isoA gene, encoding the large subunit of the oxygenase component of isoprene monooxygenase, from isolates has facilitated the development of PCR primers that are proving valuable in investigating the ecology of uncultivated isoprene-degrading bacteria.

  19. Changes in photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance to CO{sub 2}, and isoprenoid emissions in Populus nigra plants exposed to excess nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikova, Violeta, E-mail: violet@obzor.bio21.bas.bg [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. M. Popov Institute of Plant Physiology, Acad. G. Bonchev, Bl. 21, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Tsonev, Tsonko [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. M. Popov Institute of Plant Physiology, Acad. G. Bonchev, Bl. 21, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Loreto, Francesco [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per la Protezione delle Piante, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Centritto, Mauro [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Biologia Agroambientale e Forestale, 00015 Monterotondo Scalo (RM) (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    Poplar (Populus nigra) plants were grown hydroponically with 30 and 200 {mu}M Ni (Ni{sub 30} and Ni{sub 200}). Photosynthesis limitations and isoprenoid emissions were investigated in two leaf types (mature and developing). Ni stress significantly decreased photosynthesis, and this effect depended on the leaf Ni content, which was lower in mature than in developing leaves. The main limitations to photosynthesis were attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. In Ni-stressed developing leaves, isoprene emission was significantly stimulated. We attribute such stimulation to the lower chloroplastic [CO{sub 2}] than in control leaves. However chloroplastic [CO{sub 2}] did not control isoprene emission in mature leaves. Ni stress induced the emission of cis-{beta}-ocimene in mature leaves, and of linalool in both leaf types. Induced biosynthesis and emission of isoprenoids reveal the onset of antioxidant processes that may also contribute to reduce Ni stress, especially in mature poplar leaves. - Graphical abstract: Visible damage caused by Ni treatment. 1 - Ni{sub 0} (control plants); 2 - Ni{sub 200}; M = mature and D = developing Populus nigra leaves. Display Omitted Highlights: > We study the effect of Ni pollution on photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions. > Ni stress significantly decreases photosynthesis. The main limitations are attributed to mesophyll conductance and metabolism impairment. > Constitutive isoprene emission was significantly stimulated in Ni-stressed leaves. Exposure to enhanced Ni concentration induces cis-beta-ocimene and linalool emissions. - The study reveals consequences of Ni stress on plant physiology, namely increasing diffusional limitation to photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions.

  20. C2-C10 hydrocarbon emissions from a boreal wetland and forest floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hellén

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of various C2-C10 hydrocarbons (VOCs and halogenated hydrocarbons (VHOCs from a boreal wetland and a Scots pine forest floor in south-western Finland were measured by the static chamber technique. Isoprene was the main non-methane hydrocarbon emitted by the wetland, but small emissions of ethene, propane, propene, 1-butene, 2-methylpropene, butane, pentane and hexane were also detected. The isoprene emission from the wetland was observed to follow the commonly-used isoprene emission algorithm. The mean emission potential of isoprene was 224 µg m-2 h-1 for the whole season. This is lower than the emission potentials published earlier; that is probably at least partly due to the cold and cloudy weather during the measurements. No emissions were detected of monoterpenes or halogenated hydrocarbons from the wetland. The highest hydrocarbon emissions from the Scots pine forest floor were measured in spring and autumn. However, only a few measurements were conducted during summer. The main compounds emitted were monoterpenes. Isoprene emissions were negligible. The total monoterpene emission rates varied from zero to 373 µg m-2 h-1. The results indicated that decaying plant litter may be the source for these emissions. Small emissions of chloroform (100-800 ng m-2 h-1, ethene, propane, propene, 2-methylpropene, cis-2-butene, pentane, hexane and heptane were detected. Comparison with Scots pine emissions showed that the forest floor may be an important monoterpene source, especially in spring.

  1. Large Drought-induced Variations in Oak Leaf Volatile Organic Compound Emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Leaf level oak isoprene emissions and co2/H2O exchange in the Ozarks, USA BAGeron.csv is the speciated biomass displayed in Figure 1. Biomass Dry Weights.xlsx is...

  2. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindfors, V.; Laurila, T.

    2000-01-01

    We present model estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the forests in Finland. The emissions were calculated for the years 1995-1997 using the measured isoprene and monoterpene emission factors of boreal tree species together with detailed satellite land cover information and meteorological data. The three-year average emission is 319 kilotonnes per annum, which is significantly higher than the estimated annual anthropogenic VOC emissions of 193 kilotonnes. The biogenic emissions of the Finnish forests are dominated by monoterpenes, which contribute approximately 45% of the annual total. The main isoprene emitter is the Norway spruce (Picea abies) due to its high foliar biomass density. Compared to the monoterpenes, however, the total isoprene emissions are very low, contributing only about 7% of the annual forest VOC emissions. The isoprene emissions are more sensitive to the meteorological conditions than the monoterpene emissions, but the progress of the thermal growing season is clearly reflected in all biogenic emission fluxes. The biogenic emission densities in northern Finland are approximately half of the emissions in the southern parts of the country. (orig.)

  3. Kudzu (Pueraria montana) invasion doubles emissions of nitric oxide and increases ozone pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Jonathan E; Wu, Shiliang; Mickley, Loretta J; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2010-06-01

    The nitrogen-fixing legume kudzu (Pueraria montana) is a widespread invasive plant in the southeastern United States with physiological traits that may lead to important impacts on ecosystems and the atmosphere. Its spread has the potential to raise ozone levels in the region by increasing nitric oxide (NO) emissions from soils as a consequence of increasing nitrogen (N) inputs and cycling in soils. We studied the effects of kudzu invasions on soils and trace N gas emissions at three sites in Madison County, Georgia in 2007 and used the results to model the effects of kudzu invasion on regional air quality. We found that rates of net N mineralization increased by up to 1,000%, and net nitrification increased by up to 500% in invaded soils in Georgia. Nitric oxide emissions from invaded soils were more than 100% higher (2.81 vs. 1.24 ng NO-N cm(-2) h(-1)). We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to evaluate the potential impact of kudzu invasion on regional atmospheric chemistry and air quality. In an extreme scenario, extensive kudzu invasion leads directly to an increase in the number of high ozone events (above 70 ppb) of up to 7 days each summer in some areas, up from 10 to 20 days in a control scenario with no kudzu invasion. These results establish a quantitative link between a biological invasion and ozone formation and suggest that in this extreme scenario, kudzu invasion can overcome some of the air quality benefits of legislative control.

  4. Progress Report: DE-FG03-97ER20274, ''Microbial Production of Isoprene''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray Fall

    2002-03-13

    We have discovered that microorganisms produce and emit the hydrocarbon isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene), and have suggested that if isoprene-producing enzymes and their genes can be harnessed, useful hydrocarbon-producing systems might be constructed. The main goal of the proposed work is to establish the biochemical mechanism and regulation of isoprene formation in the bacterial system, Bacillus subtilis. Specific objectives of the proposed work are the following: (A) to characterize the physiological regulation of isoprene formation in B. subtilis; (B) to characterize mutations in B. subtilis 168 that suppress isoprene formation, clone these genes, and determine how isoprene and isoprenoid carbon flow are regulated; and (C) to test ''overflow'' and ''signaling'' models for Bacillus isoprene formation. We are also pursuing the isolation and cloning of B. subtilis isoprene synthase, which we believe may be a regulatory enzyme.

  5. Climate change-induced vegetation change as a driver of increased subarctic biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valolahti, Hanna Maritta; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Faubert, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    -trometry. Plant species coverage in the plots was analyzed by the point intercept method. Warming by 2 °C caused a2-fold increase in monoterpene and 5-fold increase in sesquiterpene emissions, averaged over all measurements.When the momentary effect of temperature was diminished by standardization of emissions...

  6. Investigation of OH Radical Regeneration from Isoprene Oxidation Across Different NOx Regimes in the Atmosphere Simulation Chamber SAPHIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, A.; Bohn, B.; Dorn, H. P.; Häseler, R.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Kaminski, M.; Yu, Z.; Li, X.; Tillmann, R.; Wegener, R.; Fuchs, H.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wahner, A.

    2017-12-01

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is the dominant daytime oxidant in the troposphere. It starts the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOC) originating from both anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Hence, it is a crucial trace species in model simulations as it has a large impact on many reactive trace gases. Many field campaigns performed in isoprene dominated environment in low NOx conditions have shown large discrepancies between the measured and the modelled OH radical concentrations. These results have contributed to the discovery of new regeneration paths for OH radicals from isoprene-OH second generation products with maximum efficiency at low NO. The current chemical models (e.g. MCM 3.3.1) include this novel chemistry allowing for an investigation of the validity of the OH regeneration at different chemical conditions. Over 11 experiments focusing on the OH oxidation of isoprene were performed at the SAPHIR chamber in the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Measurements of VOCs, NOx, O3, HONO were performed together with the measurement of OH radicals (by both LIF-FAGE and DOAS) and OH reactivity. Within the simulation chamber, the NO mixing ratio was varied between 0.05 to 2 ppbv allowing the investigation of both the "new" regeneration path for OH radicals and the well-known NO+HO2 mechanism. A comparison with the MCM 3.3.1 that includes the upgraded LIM1 mechanism showed very good agreement (within 10%) for the OH data at all concentrations of NOx investigated. Comparison with different models, without LIM1 and with updated rates for the OH regeneration, will be presented together with a detailed analysis of the impact of this study on results from previous field campaigns.

  7. Quantification of volatile organic compounds in exhaled human breath. Acetonitrile as biomarker for passive smoking. Model for isoprene in human breath; Quantifizierung organischer Spurenkomponenten in der menschlichen Atemluft. Acetonitril als Biomarker fuer Passivrauchen. Modell fuer Isopren im Atem, Zusammenhang Isoprenkonzentration, Cholesterinsynthese, lebensmittelchemische Untersuchungen an Knoblauch und Zwiebel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prazeller, P

    2000-03-01

    The topic of this thesis is the quantification of volatile organic compounds in human breath under various circumstances. The composition of exhaled breath reflects metabolic processes in the human body. Breath analysis is a non invasive technique which makes it most interesting especially for medical or toxicological applications. Measurements were done with Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS). This technique combines the advantage of small fragmentation of chemical ionization with highly time resolved mass spectrometry. A big part of this work is about investigations of exposition due to tobacco smoke. After smoking cigarettes the initial increase and time dependence of some compounds in the human breath are monitored . The calculated decrease resulting only from breathing out the compounds is presented and compared to the measured decline in the breath. This allows the distinction whether breathing is the dominant loss of a compound or a different metabolic process remover it more efficiently. Acetonitrile measured in human breath is presented as a biomarker for exposition to tobacco smoke. Especially its use for quantification of passive smoking, the exposition to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is shown. The reached accuracy and the fast way of measuring of acetonitrile in human breath using PTR-MS offer a good alternative to common used biomarkers. Numerous publications have described measurements of breath isoprene in humans, and there has been a hope that breath isoprene analyses could be a non-invasive diagnostic tool to assess serum cholesterol levels or cholesterol synthesis rate. However, significant analytical problems in breath isoprene analysis and variability in isoprene levels with age, exercise, diet, etc. have limited the usefulness of these measurements. Here, we have applied proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) to this problem, allowing on-line detection of breath isoprene. We show that breath isoprene

  8. Incorporating GOES Satellite Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) Retrievals to Improve Biogenic Emission Estimates in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; White, Andrew T.; Pour Biazar, Arastoo; McNider, Richard T.; Cohan, Daniel S.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the influence of insolation and cloud retrieval products from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) system on biogenic emission estimates and ozone simulations in Texas. Compared to surface pyranometer observations, satellite-retrieved insolation and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) values tend to systematically correct the overestimation of downwelling shortwave radiation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The correlation coefficient increases from 0.93 to 0.97, and the normalized mean error decreases from 36% to 21%. The isoprene and monoterpene emissions estimated by the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature are on average 20% and 5% less, respectively, when PAR from the direct satellite retrieval is used rather than the control WRF run. The reduction in biogenic emission rates using satellite PAR reduced the predicted maximum daily 8 h ozone concentration by up to 5.3 ppbV over the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) region on some days. However, episode average ozone response is less sensitive, with a 0.6 ppbV decrease near DFW and 0.3 ppbV increase over East Texas. The systematic overestimation of isoprene concentrations in a WRF control case is partially corrected by using satellite PAR, which observes more clouds than are simulated by WRF. Further, assimilation of GOES-derived cloud fields in WRF improved CAMx model performance for ground-level ozone over Texas. Additionally, it was found that using satellite PAR improved the model's ability to replicate the spatial pattern of satellite-derived formaldehyde columns and aircraft-observed vertical profiles of isoprene.

  9. Geographical spread of global emissions: Within-country inequalities are large and increasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauter, Caspar; Grether, Jean-Marie; Mathys, Nicole A.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the extensive literature on greenhouse gas emission inequalities at the world-wide level, most of the evidence so far has been based on country-level data. However, the within-country dimension matters for both the implementation and the policy formation of climate policies. As a preliminary step towards a better understanding of within-country inequalities, this paper measures their extent for the two major greenhouse gases, CO_2 and CH_4, over the 1970–2008 period. Using Theil-index decompositions, we show that within-country inequalities account for the bulk of global inequality, and tend to increase over the sample period, in contrast with diminishing between-country inequalities. Including differences across sectors reveals that between-sector inequalities matter more than between-country inequalities, and between-sector inequalities become the dominant source of global inequality at the end of the sample period in the CO_2 case. Finally, estimated social tensions arising from the disconnection between emissions and future damages turn out to be increasing as soon as within-country disparities are taken into account. These orders of magnitude should be kept in mind while discussing the efficiency and fairness of alternative paths in combating global warming. - Highlights: • We estimate global spatial CO_2 and CH_4 inequality using grid data for 1970–2008. • Overall spatial emission inequality is constant for CO_2 and increasing for CH_4. • Within-country inequality is rising and constitutes the main bulk of overall inequality. • An important part of within country inequality is due to differences among sectors. • The gap between emitters and victims is rising within countries.

  10. California: the shutting down of San Onofre results in an increase of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avrin, Anne-Perrine; Zweibaum, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    As the Californian San Onofre nuclear power station has been announced to be definitively shut down (after having being stopped since January 2012), due to corrosion and wear problems on steam generators, California will loose one of its two nuclear plants. The authors indicate the three different strategies proposed by the NRC to dismantle this plant: decontamination, safe storage, entombment. The operator has chosen the safe storage strategy for San Onofre. Funding issues are evoked. The authors finally comment the consequences of this shutting down: increase of greenhouse gas emissions and of electricity bill

  11. Isomerization of Second-Generation Isoprene Peroxy Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ambro, Emma L.; Møller, Kristian Holten; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.

    2017-01-01

    kinetics box model, we find that to explain the behavior of low-volatility products and SOA mass yields relative to input H2O2 concentrations, the second-generation dihydroxy hydroperoxy peroxy radical (C5H11O6·) must undergo an intramolecular H-shift with a net forward rate constant of order 0.1 s-1...... products under atmospheric conditions and, thus, on the importance of nonreactive gas-particle partitioning of isoprene oxidation products as an SOA source....

  12. Climate change-induced vegetation change as a driver of increased subarctic biogenic volatile organic compound emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valolahti, Hanna; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-09-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been earlier shown to be highly temperature sensitive in subarctic ecosystems. As these ecosystems experience rapidly advancing pronounced climate warming, we aimed to investigate how warming affects the BVOC emissions in the long term (up to 13 treatment years). We also aimed to assess whether the increased litterfall resulting from the vegetation changes in the warming subarctic would affect the emissions. The study was conducted in a field experiment with factorial open-top chamber warming and annual litter addition treatments on subarctic heath in Abisko, northern Sweden. After 11 and 13 treatment years, BVOCs were sampled from plant communities in the experimental plots using a push-pull enclosure technique and collection into adsorbent cartridges during the growing season and analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species coverage in the plots was analyzed by the point intercept method. Warming by 2 °C caused a 2-fold increase in monoterpene and 5-fold increase in sesquiterpene emissions, averaged over all measurements. When the momentary effect of temperature was diminished by standardization of emissions to a fixed temperature, warming still had a significant effect suggesting that emissions were also indirectly increased. This indirect increase appeared to result from increased plant coverage and changes in vegetation composition. The litter addition treatment also caused significant increases in the emission rates of some BVOC groups, especially when combined with warming. The combined treatment had both the largest vegetation changes and the highest BVOC emissions. The increased emissions under litter addition were probably a result of a changed vegetation composition due to alleviated nutrient limitation and stimulated microbial production of BVOCs. We suggest that the changes in the subarctic vegetation composition induced by climate warming will be the major factor

  13. What is a fair CO2 tax increase? On fair emission reductions in the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammar, Henrik; Jagers, Sverker C.

    2007-01-01

    We examine how individual preferences for fair reductions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions affect the support for increases in the CO 2 tax on gasoline and diesel. We assume that people not only care about their own material welfare, but also have preferences for fairness in policy design, and we explore the implications using original data from a mail questionnaire sent to a representative sample of the Swedish population. The main result is that fairness in policy design does matter. Those respondents who adhere to a fairness principle tend to be relatively more positive to increases in the CO 2 tax. One possible explanation for this result is that there is a relatively high degree of reciprocity regarding the origin of emissions and the fairness regarding who should bear the burden of CO 2 reductions. Via a split sample analysis, we also find that the relative importance of fairness principles is dependent upon whether one uses a car often or not. This sheds light on the potential goal conflict between the importance of fairness principles and self-interest in the form of a need for private car transportation. (author)

  14. Climatic changes: what if the global increase of CO2 emissions cannot be kept under control?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barreto de Castro

    Full Text Available Climatic changes threaten the planet. Most articles related to the subject present estimates of the disasters expected to occur, but few have proposed ways to deal with the impending menaces. One such threat is the global warming caused by the continuous increase in CO2 emissions leading to rising ocean levels due to the increasing temperatures of the polar regions. This threat is assumed to eventually cause the death of hundreds of millions of people. We propose to desalinize ocean water as a means to reduce the rise of ocean levels and to use this water for populations that need good quality potable water, precisely in the poorest regions of the planet. Technology is available in many countries to provide desalinated water at a justifiable cost considering the lives threatened both in coastal and desertified areas.

  15. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. van Meeningen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur, European beech (Fagus sylvatica and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m−2 s−1, whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the

  16. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m-2 s-1), whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or

  17. A missing link? The case of Norway and Sweden: Does increased renewable energy production impact domestic greenhouse gas emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blindheim, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the EU's RES directive will impact domestic greenhouse gas emissions in Norway and Sweden by 2020. The directive aims for a higher RES share in the energy consumption mix, and Norway and Sweden have established a common electricity certificate scheme to help achieve these RES goals. In terms of how these two national RES plans will impact domestic emissions by 2020, factors such as nuclear power, consumption changes and the energy balance must be considered. The most practical approach to evaluate the plans’ impact on emissions is to focus on changes in carbon-based consumption within the three directive sectors. The Norwegian RES action plan will not affect domestic emissions unless the electricity surplus generated by the certificate market is used to phase out fossil fuels in domestic sectors beyond the scope of the RES directive. The use of electricity to phase out fossil fuel consumption in the offshore sector would substantially reduce Norwegian emissions figures. The Swedish plan would positively impact Swedish greenhouse gas emissions; however, this impact is limited, primarily because a substantial increase in energy consumption is expected. - Highlights: • Implementation of the EU directive on use of energy from renewable sources (RES). • A comparison between Norway and Sweden. • The common green certificate market. • Does increased share of renewable energy impact on greenhouse gas emissions. • Calculations indicate that increased RES share has limited impact on emissions

  18. A comprehensive emission inventory of biogenic volatile organic compounds in Europe: improved seasonality and land-cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Oderbolz

    2013-02-01

    minimal and increased up to +71% with maximal factors, while in January 2006, the changes in monthly BVOC emissions were −54 and +56% with minimal and maximal factors, respectively. The new seasonality approach leads to a reduction in the annual emissions compared with non-adjusted data. The strongest reduction occurs in OVOC (up to −32%, the weakest in isoprene (as little as −19%. If also enzyme seasonality is taken into account, however, isoprene reacts with the steepest decrease of annual emissions, which are reduced by −44% to −49%, annual emissions of monoterpenes reduce between −30 and −35%. The sensitivity of the model to changes in temperature depends on the climatic zone but not on the vegetation inventory. The sensitivity is higher for temperature increases of 3 K (+31% to +64% than decreases by the same amount (−20 to −35%. The climatic zones "Cold except summer" and "arid" are most sensitive to temperature changes in January for isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively, while in June, "polar" is most sensitive to temperature for both isoprene and monoterpenes. Our model predicts the oxygenated volatile organic compounds to be the most abundant fraction of the annual European emissions (3571–5328 Gg yr−1, followed by monoterpenes (2964–4124 Gg yr−1, isoprene (1450–2650 Gg yr−1 and sesquiterpenes (150–257 Gg yr−1. We find regions with high isoprene emissions (most notably the Iberian Peninsula, but overall, oxygenated VOC dominate with 43–45% (depending on the vegetation inventory contribution to the total annual BVOC emissions in Europe. Isoprene contributes between 18–21%, monoterpenes 33–36% and sesquiterpenes contribute 1–2%. We compare the concentrations of biogenic species simulated by an air quality model with measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes in Hohenpeissenberg (Germany for both summer and winter. The agreement between observed and modelled concentrations is

  19. VOC emission rates over London and South East England obtained by airborne eddy covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo; Davison, Brian; Karl, Thomas G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2017-08-24

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originate from a variety of sources, and play an intrinsic role in influencing air quality. Some VOCs, including benzene, are carcinogens and so directly affect human health, while others, such as isoprene, are very reactive in the atmosphere and play an important role in the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Here we report spatially-resolved measurements of the surface-to-atmosphere fluxes of VOCs across London and SE England made in 2013 and 2014. High-frequency 3-D wind velocities and VOC volume mixing ratios (made by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry) were obtained from a low-flying aircraft and used to calculate fluxes using the technique of eddy covariance. A footprint model was then used to quantify the flux contribution from the ground surface at spatial resolution of 100 m, averaged to 1 km. Measured fluxes of benzene over Greater London showed positive agreement with the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, with the highest fluxes originating from central London. Comparison of MTBE and toluene fluxes suggest that petroleum evaporation is an important emission source of toluene in central London. Outside London, increased isoprene emissions were observed over wooded areas, at rates greater than those predicted by a UK regional application of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme model (EMEP4UK). This work demonstrates the applicability of the airborne eddy covariance method to the determination of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC fluxes and the possibility of validating emission inventories through measurements.

  20. A Review of Electric Vehicle Lifecycle Emissions and Policy Recommendations to Increase EV Penetration in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Vidhi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles reduce pollution only if a high percentage of the electricity mix comes from renewable sources and if the battery manufacturing takes place at a site far from the vehicle use region. Industries developed due to increased electric vehicle adoption may also cause additional air pollution. The Indian government has committed to solving New Delhi’s air pollution issues through an ambitious policy of switching 100% of the light duty consumer vehicles to electric vehicles by 2030. This policy is based on vehicle grid interaction and relies on shared mobility through the electric vehicle fleet. There are several human behavioral changes necessary to achieve 100% adoption of electric vehicles. This paper reviews different steps in the lifecycle of an electric vehicle (EV, their impact on environmental emissions, and recommends policies suitable for different socio-economic group that are relevant to the Indian market. To reduce air pollution through adoption of electric vehicles, the Indian government needs to adopt policies that increase sale of electric vehicles, increase percentage of renewable energy in the electricity mix, and prevent air pollution caused from battery manufacturing. The recommended policies can be customized for any market globally for reducing air pollution through increased adoption of electric vehicles.

  1. Isoprene oxidation by nitrate radical: alkyl nitrate and secondary organic aerosol yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Rollins

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkyl nitrates and secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced during the oxidation of isoprene by nitrate radicals has been observed in the SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction Chamber chamber. A 16 h dark experiment was conducted with temperatures at 289–301 K, and maximum concentrations of 11 ppb isoprene, 62.4 ppb O3 and 31.1 ppb NOx. We find the yield of nitrates is 70±8% from the isoprene + NO3 reaction, and the yield for secondary dinitrates produced in the reaction of primary isoprene nitrates with NO3 is 40±20%. We find an effective rate constant for reaction of NO3 with the group of first generation oxidation products to be 7×10−14 molecule−1 cm3 s−1. At the low total organic aerosol concentration in the chamber (max=0.52 μg m−3 we observed a mass yield (ΔSOA mass/Δisoprene mass of 2% for the entire 16 h experiment. However a comparison of the timing of the observed SOA production to a box model simulation of first and second generation oxidation products shows that the yield from the first generation products was <0.7% while the further oxidation of the initial products leads to a yield of 14% (defined as ΔSOA/Δisoprene2x where Δisoprene2x is the mass of isoprene which reacted twice with NO3. The SOA yield of 14% is consistent with equilibrium partitioning of highly functionalized C5 products of isoprene oxidation.

  2. Effect of humidity on the composition of isoprene photooxidation secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. B. Nguyen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity (RH on the composition and concentrations of gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA generated from the photooxidation of isoprene under high-NOx conditions was investigated. Experiments were performed with hydrogen peroxide as the OH precursor and in the absence of seed aerosol. The relative yields of most gas-phase products were the same regardless of initial water vapor concentration with exception of hydroxyacetone and glycolaldehyde, which were considerably affected by RH. A significant change was observed in the SOA composition, with many unique condensed-phase products formed under humid (90 % RH vs. dry (<2 % RH conditions, without any detectable effect on the rate and extent of the SOA mass growth. There is a 40 % reduction in the number and relative abundance of distinct particle-phase nitrogen-containing organic compounds (NOC detected by high resolution mass spectrometry. The suppression of condensation reactions, which produce water as a product, is the most important chemical effect of the increased RH. For example, the total signal from oligomeric esters of 2-methylglyceric acid was reduced by about 60 % under humid conditions and the maximum oligomer chain lengths were reduced by 7–11 carbons. Oligomers formed by addition mechanisms, without direct involvement of water, also decreased at elevated RH but to a much smaller extent. The observed reduction in the extent of condensation-type oligomerization at high RH may have substantial impact on the phase characteristics and hygroscopicity of the isoprene aerosol. The reduction in the amount of organic nitrates in the particle phase has implications for understanding the budget of NOC compounds.

  3. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Thomas W; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C

    2014-09-23

    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing.

  4. Global market integration increases likelihood that a future African Green Revolution could increase crop land use and CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Thomas W.; Ramankutty, Navin; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in the impacts of agricultural productivity on land use and the environment. At the center of this debate is the assertion that agricultural innovation is land sparing. However, numerous case studies and global empirical studies have found little evidence of higher yields being accompanied by reduced area. We find that these studies overlook two crucial factors: estimation of a true counterfactual scenario and a tendency to adopt a regional, rather than a global, perspective. This paper introduces a general framework for analyzing the impacts of regional and global innovation on long run crop output, prices, land rents, land use, and associated CO2 emissions. In so doing, it facilitates a reconciliation of the apparently conflicting views of the impacts of agricultural productivity growth on global land use and environmental quality. Our historical analysis demonstrates that the Green Revolution in Asia, Latin America, and the Middle East was unambiguously land and emissions sparing, compared with a counterfactual world without these innovations. In contrast, we find that the environmental impacts of a prospective African Green Revolution are potentially ambiguous. We trace these divergent outcomes to relative differences between the innovating region and the rest of the world in yields, emissions efficiencies, cropland supply response, and intensification potential. Globalization of agriculture raises the potential for adverse environmental consequences. However, if sustained for several decades, an African Green Revolution will eventually become land sparing. PMID:25201962

  5. Long-term measurements of biogenic VOCs in an Austrian valley - discussion of seasonal fluctuations of isoprene and monoterpene concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkl, J.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Beauchamp, J.; Wisthaler, A; Hansel, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was set up at a monitoring station in the river Inn valley (Vomp, Tirol, Austria) for a year-long measurement (February 2004-May 2005) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the local valley air. Measurements of PM 10 , NO x and CO, and certain meteorological parameters were additionally made. Together, these data-sets enabled relationships between VOC abundances, meteorological conditions and anthropogenic emissions (primarily from automobile emissions) to be examined. The work presented here focuses on the biogenic VOCs measured under these real-world outdoor conditions. Initially, data needed to be separated between VOCs of anthropogenic and of biogenic origin. This was achieved by generating a model for the PTR-MS VOC data-set. A clear correlation between benzene and CO concentrations - indicating benzene's predominance from anthropogenic sources - allowed benzene to be used as a tracer for anthropogenic compounds. The model thus allowed a regression to be made whereby the maximum anthropogenic contributions of almost all VOCs could be established relative to benzene. The maximum contribution from biogenic emissions to each VOC could thus be determined as the difference between the total individual VOC signal and the corresponding maximum anthropogenic share. The two biogenic VOCs of principle interest here were isoprene and the monoterpenes (detected by PTR-MS at masses 69 amu and 137 amu, respectively). As expected, abundances of isoprene and the monoterpenes displayed a late-summer maximum (despite good vertical valley air dilution that acts to reduce VOC levels) when temperatures were high and sunlight hours long. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Mu-opiate receptors measured by positron emission tomography are increased in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, J J; Mayberg, H S; Fisher, R S; Douglass, K H; Dannals, R F; Links, J M; Wilson, A A; Ravert, H T; Rosenbaum, A E; Snyder, S H

    1988-03-01

    Neurochemical studies in animal models of epilepsy have demonstrated the importance of multiple neurotransmitters and their receptors in mediating seizures. The role of opiate receptors and endogenous opioid peptides in seizure mechanisms is well developed and is the basis for measuring opiate receptors in patients with epilepsy. Patients with complex partial seizures due to unilateral temporal seizure foci were studied by positron emission tomography using 11C-carfentanil to measure mu-opiate receptors and 18F-fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose to measure glucose utilization. Opiate receptor binding is greater in the temporal neocortex on the side of the electrical focus than on the opposite side. Modeling studies indicate that the increase in binding is due to an increase in affinity or the number of unoccupied receptors. No significant asymmetry of 11C-carfentanil binding was detected in the amygdala or hippocampus. Glucose utilization correlated inversely with 11C-carfentanil binding in the temporal neocortex. Increased opiate receptors in the temporal neocortex may represent a tonic anticonvulsant system that limits the spread of electrical activity from other temporal lobe structures.

  7. Global Emissions of Terpenoid VOCs from Terrestrial Vegetation in the Last Millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, Alex B.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I.

    2014-06-16

    We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8 GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have signicant short term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr-1 (13% and 19% less than during during 1750-1850 and 1000- 15 1200, respectively) and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr-1 (15% and 20% less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr-1 (10% and 6% higher than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr-1 (2% higher and 5% 19 20 less than during 1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr-1 (10% and 4% higher than during1750-1850 and 1000-1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar We investigated the millennial variability of global BVOC emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene and Lund-Potsdam-Jena General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ8GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends ofglobal isoprene emissions to be mostly a*ected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid

  8. Atmospheric fates of Criegee intermediates in the ozonolysis of isoprene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tran B; Tyndall, Geoffrey S; Crounse, John D; Teng, Alexander P; Bates, Kelvin H; Schwantes, Rebecca H; Coggon, Matthew M; Zhang, Li; Feiner, Philip; Milller, David O; Skog, Kate M; Rivera-Rios, Jean C; Dorris, Matthew; Olson, Kevin F; Koss, Abigail; Wild, Robert J; Brown, Steven S; Goldstein, Allen H; de Gouw, Joost A; Brune, William H; Keutsch, Frank N; Seinfeld, John H; Wennberg, Paul O

    2016-04-21

    We use a large laboratory, modeling, and field dataset to investigate the isoprene + O3 reaction, with the goal of better understanding the fates of the C1 and C4 Criegee intermediates in the atmosphere. Although ozonolysis can produce several distinct Criegee intermediates, the C1 stabilized Criegee (CH2OO, 61 ± 9%) is the only one observed to react bimolecularly. We suggest that the C4 Criegees have a low stabilization fraction and propose pathways for their decomposition. Both prompt and non-prompt reactions are important in the production of OH (28% ± 5%) and formaldehyde (81% ± 16%). The yields of unimolecular products (OH, formaldehyde, methacrolein (42 ± 6%) and methyl vinyl ketone (18 ± 6%)) are fairly insensitive to water, i.e., changes in yields in response to water vapor (≤4% absolute) are within the error of the analysis. We propose a comprehensive reaction mechanism that can be incorporated into atmospheric models, which reproduces laboratory data over a wide range of relative humidities. The mechanism proposes that CH2OO + H2O (k(H2O)∼ 1 × 10(-15) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1)) yields 73% hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP), 6% formaldehyde + H2O2, and 21% formic acid + H2O; and CH2OO + (H2O)2 (k(H2O)2∼ 1 × 10(-12) cm(3) molec(-1) s(-1)) yields 40% HMHP, 6% formaldehyde + H2O2, and 54% formic acid + H2O. Competitive rate determinations (kSO2/k(H2O)n=1,2∼ 2.2 (±0.3) × 10(4)) and field observations suggest that water vapor is a sink for greater than 98% of CH2OO in a Southeastern US forest, even during pollution episodes ([SO2] ∼ 10 ppb). The importance of the CH2OO + (H2O)n reaction is demonstrated by high HMHP mixing ratios observed over the forest canopy. We find that CH2OO does not substantially affect the lifetime of SO2 or HCOOH in the Southeast US, e.g., CH2OO + SO2 reaction is a minor contribution (production by stabilized Criegees is likely unimportant in regions dominated by the reactivity of ozone with isoprene. In contrast

  9. The positive net radiative greenhouse gas forcing of increasing methane emissions from a thawing boreal forest-wetland landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Manuel; Chasmer, Laura E; Kljun, NatasCha; Quinton, William L; Treat, Claire C; Sonnentag, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    At the southern margin of permafrost in North America, climate change causes widespread permafrost thaw. In boreal lowlands, thawing forested permafrost peat plateaus ('forest') lead to expansion of permafrost-free wetlands ('wetland'). Expanding wetland area with saturated and warmer organic soils is expected to increase landscape methane (CH 4 ) emissions. Here, we quantify the thaw-induced increase in CH 4 emissions for a boreal forest-wetland landscape in the southern Taiga Plains, Canada, and evaluate its impact on net radiative forcing relative to potential long-term net carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchange. Using nested wetland and landscape eddy covariance net CH 4 flux measurements in combination with flux footprint modeling, we find that landscape CH 4 emissions increase with increasing wetland-to-forest ratio. Landscape CH 4 emissions are most sensitive to this ratio during peak emission periods, when wetland soils are up to 10 °C warmer than forest soils. The cumulative growing season (May-October) wetland CH 4 emission of ~13 g CH 4  m -2 is the dominating contribution to the landscape CH 4 emission of ~7 g CH 4  m -2 . In contrast, forest contributions to landscape CH 4 emissions appear to be negligible. The rapid wetland expansion of 0.26 ± 0.05% yr -1 in this region causes an estimated growing season increase of 0.034 ± 0.007 g CH 4  m -2  yr -1 in landscape CH 4 emissions. A long-term net CO 2 uptake of >200 g CO 2  m -2  yr -1 is required to offset the positive radiative forcing of increasing CH 4 emissions until the end of the 21st century as indicated by an atmospheric CH 4 and CO 2 concentration model. However, long-term apparent carbon accumulation rates in similar boreal forest-wetland landscapes and eddy covariance landscape net CO 2 flux measurements suggest a long-term net CO 2 uptake between 49 and 157 g CO 2  m -2  yr -1 . Thus, thaw-induced CH 4 emission increases likely exert a positive net radiative greenhouse gas

  10. Global emissions of terpenoid VOCs from terrestrial vegetation in the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Navarro, J C; Smolander, S; Struthers, H; Zorita, E; Ekman, A M L; Kaplan, J O; Guenther, A; Arneth, A; Riipinen, I

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the millennial variability (1000 A.D.–2000 A.D.) of global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions by using two independent numerical models: The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN), for isoprene, monoterpene, and sesquiterpene, and Lund-Potsdam-Jena-General Ecosystem Simulator (LPJ-GUESS), for isoprene and monoterpenes. We found the millennial trends of global isoprene emissions to be mostly affected by land cover and atmospheric carbon dioxide changes, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission trends were dominated by temperature change. Isoprene emissions declined substantially in regions with large and rapid land cover change. In addition, isoprene emission sensitivity to drought proved to have significant short-term global effects. By the end of the past millennium MEGAN isoprene emissions were 634 TgC yr−1 (13% and 19% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively), and LPJ-GUESS emissions were 323 TgC yr−1(15% and 20% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively). Monoterpene emissions were 89 TgC yr−1(10% and 6% higher than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively) in MEGAN, and 24 TgC yr−1 (2% higher and 5% less than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively) in LPJ-GUESS. MEGAN sesquiterpene emissions were 36 TgC yr−1(10% and 4% higher than during 1750–1850 and 1000–1200, respectively). Although both models capture similar emission trends, the magnitude of the emissions are different. This highlights the importance of building better constraints on VOC emissions from terrestrial vegetation. PMID:25866703

  11. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  12. Decoupling China's carbon emissions increase from economic growth : An economic analysis and policy implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, ZX

    As the world's second largest carbon emitter, China has long been criticized as a "free-rider" benefiting from other countries' efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but not taking responsibility for its own emissions. China has been singled out as one of the major targets at the subsequent

  13. Volatile organic compound emission profiles of four common arctic plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Petersen, Ida; Schollert, Michelle; Nymand, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    emitted the least BVOCs, dominated by sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and non-isoprenoid BVOCs. The Salix spp. emitted the most, dominated by isoprene. The emissions of B. nana were composed of about two-thirds non-isoprenoid BVOCs, with moderate amounts of monoterpenes (MTs) and SQTs. The total B. nana emissions...

  14. Increase in dimethylsulfide (DMS emissions due to eutrophication of coastal waters offsets their reduction due to ocean acidification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie eGypens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Available information from manipulative experiments suggested that the emission of dimethylsulfide (DMS would decrease in response to the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in the ocean (ocean acidification. However, in coastal environments, the carbonate chemistry of surface waters was also strongly modified by eutrophication and related changes in biological activity (increased primary production and change in phytoplankton dominance during the last 50 years. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DMS emissions in marine coastal environments also strongly responded to eutrophication in addition to ocean acidification at decadal timescales. We used the R-MIRO-BIOGAS model in the eutrophied Southern Bight of the North Sea characterized by intense blooms of Phaeocystis that are high producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP, the precursor of DMS. We showed that, for the period from 1951 to 2007, eutrophication actually led to an increase of DMS emissions much stronger than the response of DMS emissions to ocean acidification.

  15. Distinguishing the drivers of trends in land carbon fluxes and plant volatile emissions over the past three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Unger, N.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The terrestrial biosphere has experienced dramatic changes in recent decades. Estimates of historical trends in land carbon fluxes remain uncertain because long-term observations are limited on the global scale. Here, we use the Yale Interactive terrestrial Biosphere (YIBs) model to estimate decadal trends in land carbon fluxes and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and to identify the key drivers for these changes during 1982-2011. Driven with hourly meteorology from WFDEI (WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data), the model simulates an increasing trend of 297 Tg C a-2 in gross primary productivity (GPP) and 185 Tg C a-2 in the net primary productivity (NPP). CO2 fertilization is the main driver for the flux changes in forest ecosystems, while meteorology dominates the changes in grasslands and shrublands. Warming boosts summer GPP and NPP at high latitudes, while drought dampens carbon uptake in tropical regions. North of 30° N, increasing temperatures induce a substantial extension of 0.22 day a-1 for the growing season; however, this phenological change alone does not promote regional carbon uptake and BVOC emissions. Nevertheless, increases of LAI at peak season accounts for ~ 25 % of the trends in GPP and isoprene emissions at the northern lands. The net land sink shows statistically insignificant increases of only 3 Tg C a-2 globally because of simultaneous increases in soil respiration. In contrast, driven with alternative meteorology from MERRA (Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis), the model predicts significant increases of 59 Tg C a-2 in the land sink due to strengthened uptake in the Amazon. Global BVOC emissions are calculated using two schemes. With the photosynthesis-dependent scheme, the model predicts increases of 0.4 Tg C a-2 in isoprene emissions, which are mainly attributed to warming trends because CO2 fertilization and inhibition effects offset each other. Using the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases

  16. Variations of electric resistance and H2 and Rn emissions of concrete blocks under increasing uniaxial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C.-Y.; Luo, G.

    1990-01-01

    Electric resistance and emissions of hydrogen and radon isotopes of concrete (which is somewhat similar to fault-zone materials) under increasing uniaxial compression were continuously monitored to check whether they show any pre- and post-failure changes that may correspond to similar changes reported for earthquakes. The results show that all these parameters generally begin to increase when the applied stresses reach 20% to 90% of the corresponding failure stresses, probably due to the occurrence and growth of dilatant microcracks in the specimens. The prefailure changes have different patterns for different specimens, probably because of differences in spatial and temporal distributions of the microcracks. The resistance shows large co-failure increases, and the gas emissions show large post-failure increases. The post-failure increase of radon persists longer and stays at a higher level than that of hydrogen, suggesting a difference in the emission mechanisms for these two kinds of gases. The H2 increase may be mainly due to chemical reaction at the crack surfaces while they are fresh, whereas the Rn increases may be mainly the result of the increased emanation area of such surfaces. The results suggest that monitoring of resistivity and gas emissions may be useful for predicting earthquakes and failures of concrete structures. ?? 1990 Birkha??user Verlag.

  17. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  18. The increase in the perception of the climatic change and the energy systems without emissions of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulas, P.

    2009-01-01

    In the last 20 years, the phenomenon of the climatic change due to the gases emission of greenhouse effect has become from a topic of scientific study to discussion problem in the political spheres of most high level to world scale. In summary, at the present time it has a generalized public perception that the gas emissions of greenhouse effect generated by anthropogenic activities, they have been increased to such size that they are causing a greenhouse effect in the terrestrial atmosphere with their consequent impact of global heating. In this work a description of the science behind the phenomenon is presented, of the evidences that the believers show, the arguments that present the sceptic persons and the actions to reduce those emissions that have proposed the pragmatic people. A brief summary of the main technologies considered for the energy sector of X XI century so that they reduce those emissions is also presented. (Author)

  19. Distinguishing the drivers of trends in land carbon fluxes and plant volatile emissions over the past 3 decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, X.; Unger, N.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The terrestrial biosphere has experienced dramatic changes in recent decades. Estimates of historical trends in land carbon fluxes remain uncertain because long-term observations are limited on the global scale. Here, we use the Yale Interactive terrestrial Biosphere (YIBs) model to estimate decadal trends in land carbon fluxes and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and to identify the key drivers for these changes during 1982-2011. Driven by hourly meteorology from WFDEI (WATCH forcing data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data), the model simulates an increasing trend of 297 Tg C a-2 in gross primary productivity (GPP) and 185 Tg C a-2 in the net primary productivity (NPP). CO2 fertilization is the main driver for the flux changes in forest ecosystems, while meteorology dominates the changes in grasslands and shrublands. Warming boosts summer GPP and NPP at high latitudes, while drought dampens carbon uptake in tropical regions. North of 30° N, increasing temperatures induce a substantial extension of 0.22 day a-1 for the growing season; however, this phenological change alone does not promote regional carbon uptake and BVOC emissions. Nevertheless, increases of leaf area index at peak season accounts for ~ 25 % of the trends in GPP and isoprene emissions at the northern lands. The net land sink shows statistically insignificant increases of only 3 Tg C a-2 globally because of simultaneous increases in soil respiration. Global BVOC emissions are calculated using two schemes. With the photosynthesis-dependent scheme, the model predicts increases of 0.4 Tg C a-2 in isoprene emissions, which are mainly attributed to warming trends because CO2 fertilization and inhibition effects offset each other. Using the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) scheme, the YIBs model simulates global reductions of 1.1 Tg C a-2 in isoprene and 0.04 Tg C a-2 in monoterpene emissions in response to the CO2 inhibition effects. Land use

  20. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions along a high arctic soil moisture gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Sarah Hagel; Lindwall, Frida; Michelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    emissions of BVOCs were found from vegetation communities dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, which had emission profiles dominated by isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively. These results show that emissions of BVOCs are highly dependent on the plant cover supported by the varying soil...

  1. Variable composition hydrogen/natural gas mixtures for increased engine efficiency and decreased emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierens, R.; Rosseel, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is well known that adding hydrogen to natural gas extends the lean limit of combustion and that in this way extremely low emission levels can be obtained: even the equivalent zero emission vehicle (EZEV) requirements can be reached. The emissions reduction is especially important at light engine loads. In this paper results are presented for a GM V8 engine. Natural gas, pure hydrogen and different blends of these two fuels have been tested. The fuel supply system used provides natural gas/hydrogen mixtures in variable proportion, regulated independently of the engine operating condition. The influence of the fuel composition on the engine operating characteristics and exhaust emissions has been examined, mainly but not exclusively for 10 and 20% hydrogen addition. At least 10% hydrogen addition is necessary for a significant improvement in efficiency. Due to the conflicting requirements for low hydrocarbons and low NO{sub x} determining the optimum hythane composition is not straight-forward. For hythane mixtures with a high hydrogen fraction, it is found that a hydrogen content of 80% or less guarantees safe engine operation (no backfire nor knock), whatever the air excess factor. It is shown that to obtain maximum engine efficiency for the whole load range while taking low exhaust emissions into account, the mixture composition should be varied with respect to engine load.

  2. Impact of drought and increasing temperatures on soil CO2 emissions in a Mediterranean shrubland (gariga)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Dato, Giovanbattista Domenico; De Angelis, Paolo; Sirca, Costantino

    2010-01-01

    the soil and air night-time temperatures and to reduce water input from precipitation. The objective was to analyze the extent to which higher temperatures and a drier climate influence soil CO2 emissions in the short term and on an annual basis. The microclimate was manipulated in field plots (about 25 m2...... temperature probe. The seasonal pattern of soil CO2 efflux was characterized by higher rates during the wet vegetative season and lower rates during the dry non-vegetative season (summer). The Warming treatment did not change SR fluxes at any sampling date. The Drought treatment decreased soil CO2 emissions...... on only three of 10 occasions during 2004. The variation of soil respiration with temperature and soil water content did not differ significantly among the treatments, but was affected by the season. The annual CO2 emissions were not significantly affected by the treatments. In the semi-arid Mediterranean...

  3. Herbivory by an Outbreaking Moth Increases Emissions of Biogenic Volatiles and Leads to Enhanced Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Copolovici, Lucian; Kännaste, Astrid; Noe, Steffen; Blande, James D; Mikkonen, Santtu; Klemola, Tero; Pulkkinen, Juha; Virtanen, Annele; Laaksonen, Ari; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Niinemets, Ülo; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-11-01

    In addition to climate warming, greater herbivore pressure is anticipated to enhance the emissions of climate-relevant biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from boreal and subarctic forests and promote the formation of secondary aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. We evaluated the effects of Epirrita autumnata, an outbreaking geometrid moth, feeding and larval density on herbivore-induced VOC emissions from mountain birch in laboratory experiments and assessed the impact of these emissions on SOA formation via ozonolysis in chamber experiments. The results show that herbivore-induced VOC emissions were strongly dependent on larval density. Compared to controls without larval feeding, clear new particle formation by nucleation in the reaction chamber was observed, and the SOA mass loadings in the insect-infested samples were significantly higher (up to 150-fold). To our knowledge, this study provides the first controlled documentation of SOA formation from direct VOC emission of deciduous trees damaged by known defoliating herbivores and suggests that chewing damage on mountain birch foliage could significantly increase reactive VOC emissions that can importantly contribute to SOA formation in subarctic forests. Additional feeding experiments on related silver birch confirmed the SOA results. Thus, herbivory-driven volatiles are likely to play a major role in future biosphere-vegetation feedbacks such as sun-screening under daily 24 h sunshine in the subarctic.

  4. Carbon Sequestration in Arable Soils is Likely to Increase Nitrous Oxide Emissions, Offsetting Reductions in Climate Radiative Forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Changsheng Li; Frolking, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for mitigating the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere include sequestering carbon (C) in soils and vegetation of terrestrial ecosystems. Carbon and nitrogen (N) move through terrestrial ecosystems in coupled biogeochemical cycles, and increasing C stocks in soils and vegetation will have an impact on the N cycle. We conducted simulations with a biogeochemical model to evaluate the impact of different cropland management strategies on the coupled cycles of C and N, with special emphasis on C-sequestration and emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Reduced tillage, enhanced crop residue incorporation, and farmyard manure application each increased soil C-sequestration, increased N2O emissions, and had little effect on CH4 uptake. Over 20 years, increases in N2O emissions, which were converted into CO2-equivalent emissions with 100-year global warming potential multipliers, offset 75-310% of the carbon sequestered, depending on the scenario. Quantification of these types of biogeochemical interactions must be incorporated into assessment frameworks and trading mechanisms to accurately evaluate the value of agricultural systems in strategies for climate protection

  5. Estimating PM2.5-associated mortality increase in California due to the Volkswagen emission control defeat device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyang; Jerrett, Michael; Sinsheimer, Peter; Zhu, Yifang

    2016-11-01

    The Volkswagen Group of America (VW) was found by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to have installed "defeat devices" and emit more oxides of nitrogen (NOx) than permitted under current EPA standards. In this paper, we quantify the hidden NOx emissions from this so-called VW scandal and the resulting public health impacts in California. The NOx emissions are calculated based on VW road test data and the CARB Emission Factors (EMFAC) model. Cumulative hidden NOx emissions from 2009 to 2015 were estimated to be over 3500 tons. Adult mortality changes were estimated based on ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) change due to secondary nitrate formation and the related concentration-response functions. We estimated that hidden NOx emissions from 2009 to 2015 have resulted in a total of 12 PM2.5-associated adult mortality increases in California. Most of the mortality increase happened in metropolitan areas, due to their high population and vehicle density.

  6. 40 CFR 86.1810-01 - General standards; increase in emissions; unsafe conditions; waivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 2 vehicles, this section also applies to hybrid electric vehicles and zero emission vehicles. Unless... element of design installed on or incorporated in a new motor vehicle to enable such vehicle to conform to... adjustable range of each adjustable parameter on a new motor vehicle, the manufacturer shall ensure that...

  7. Elevated dust emissions on the Colorado Plateau: Role of grazing vehicle disturbance, and increasing aridity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust from drylands are of major concern to human society. Dust deposition onto snowpacks can hasten melt rates, resulting in lowered inputs into major rivers. Blowing dust can result in traffic accidents, respiratory disease, and high economic costs. To abate dust emissions, it is necessary to exami...

  8. Earthworm-induced N mineralization in fertilized grassland increases both N2O emission and crop-N uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Brussaard, L.; Otten, W.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms can increase plant nitrogen (N) availability by stimulating mineralization of organic matter. However, recent studies show that they can also cause elevated emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). It is unclear to what extent these two effects occur in fertilized grasslands,

  9. How to ensure greenhouse gas emission reductions by increasing the use of biofuels? - Suitability of the European Union sustainability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soimakallio, Sampo; Koponen, Kati

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels are promoted in many parts of the world. However, concern of environmental and social problems have grown due to increased production of biofuels. Therefore, many initiatives for sustainability criteria have been announced. As a part of the European Union (EU) renewable energy promotion directive (RED), the EU has introduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emission-saving requirements for biofuels along with the first-ever mandate methodology to calculate the GHG emission reduction. As explored in this paper, the RED methodology, based on life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach, excludes many critical issues. These include indirect impacts due to competition for land, biomass and other auxiliary inputs. Also, timing issues, allocation problems, and uncertainty of individual parameters are not yet considered adequately. Moreover, the default values provided in the RED for the GHG balances of biofuels may significantly underestimate their actual impacts. We conclude that the RED methodology cannot ensure the intended GHG emission reductions of biofuels. Instead, a more comprehensive approach is required along with additional data and indicators. Even if it may be very difficult to verify the GHG emission reductions of biofuels in practice, it is necessary to consider the uncertainties more closely, in order to mitigate climate change effectively. -- Highlights: → The EU introduced mandatory criteria for greenhouse gas emissions of biofuels. → The aim of the criteria is to ensure reduction in GHG emissions. → We analysed and discussed the suitability of the criteria. → The criteria may significantly underestimate the actual GHG emissions. → A more comprehensive approach is required along with additional data and indicators.

  10. Increasing sensitivity of methane emission measurements in rice through deployment of ‘closed chambers’ at nighttime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Reiner; Alberto, Ma. Carmelita; Tirol-Padre, Agnes; Hoang, Nghia Trong; Romasanta, Ryan; Centeno, Caesar Arloo; Sander, Bjoern Ole

    2018-01-01

    This study comprises field experiments on methane emissions from rice fields conducted with an Eddy-Covariance (EC) system as well as test runs for a modified closed chamber approach based on measurements at nighttime. The EC data set covers 4 cropping seasons with highly resolved emission rates (raw data in 10 Hz frequency have been aggregated to 30-min records). The diel patterns were very pronounced in the two dry seasons with peak emissions at early afternoon and low emissions at nighttime. These diel patterns were observed at all growing stages of the dry seasons. In the two wet seasons, the diel patterns were only visible during the vegetative stages while emission rates during reproductive and ripening stages remained within a fairly steady range and did not show any diel patterns. In totality, however, the data set revealed a very strong linear relationship between nocturnal emissions (12-h periods) and the full 24-h periods resulting in an R2-value of 0.8419 for all data points. In the second experiment, we conducted test runs for chamber measurements at nighttime with much longer deployment times (6 h) as compared to measurements at daylight (typically for 30 min). Conducting chamber measurements at nighttime excluded drastic changes of temperatures and CO2 concentrations. The data also shows that increases in CH4 concentrations remained on linear trajectory over a 6h period at night. While end CH4 concentrations were consistently >3.5 ppm, this long-term enclosure represents a very robust approach to quantify emissions as compared to assessing short-term concentration increases over time near the analytical detection limit. Finally, we have discussed the potential applications of this new approach that would allow emission measurements even when conventional (daytime) measurements will not be suitable. Nighttime chamber measurements offer an alternative to conventional (daytime) measurements if either (i) baseline emissions are at a very low level, (ii

  11. Airborne observations of total RONO2: new constraints on the yield and lifetime of isoprene nitrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Brune

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Formation of isoprene nitrates (INs is an important free radical chain termination step ending production of ozone and possibly affecting formation of secondary organic aerosol. Isoprene nitrates also represent a potentially large, unmeasured contribution to OH reactivity and are a major pathway for the removal of nitrogen oxides from the atmosphere. Current assessments indicate that formation rates of isoprene nitrates are uncertain to a factor of 2–3 and the subsequent fate of isoprene nitrates remains largely unconstrained by laboratory, field or modeling studies. Measurements of total alkyl and multifunctional nitrates (ΣANs, NO2, total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs, HNO3, CH2O, isoprene and other VOC were obtained from the NASA DC-8 aircraft during summer 2004 over the continental US during the INTEX-NA campaign. These observations represent the first characterization of ΣANs over a wide range of land surface types and in the lower free troposphere. ΣANs were a significant, 12–20%, fraction of NOy throughout the experimental domain and ΣANs were more abundant when isoprene was high. We use the observed hydrocarbon species to calculate the relative contributions of ΣAN precursors to their production. These calculations indicate that isoprene represents at least three quarters of the ΣAN source in the summertime continental boundary layer of the US. An observed correlation between ΣANs and CH2O is used to place constraints on nitrate yields from isoprene oxidation, atmospheric lifetimes of the resulting nitrates and recycling efficiencies of nitrates during subsequent oxidation. We find reasonable fits to the data using sets of production rates, lifetimes and recycling efficiencies of INs as follows (4.4%, 16 h, 97%, (8%, 2.5 h, 79% and (12%, 95 min, 67%. The analysis indicates that the lifetime of ΣANs as a pool of compounds is considerably longer than the lifetime of the individual isoprene nitrates to reaction with OH, implying that

  12. Multilayer Graphene/Carbon Black/Chlorine Isobutyl Isoprene Rubber Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Frasca

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High loadings of carbon black (CB are usually used to achieve the properties demanded of rubber compounds. In recent years, distinct nanoparticles have been investigated to replace CB in whole or in part, in order to reduce the necessary filler content or to improve performance. Multilayer graphene (MLG is a nanoparticle made of just 10 graphene sheets and has recently become commercially available for mass-product nanocomposites. Three phr (part for hundred rubbers of MLG are added to chlorine isobutyl isoprene rubber (CIIR/CB composites in order to replace part of the CB. The incorporation of just 3 phr MLG triples the Young’s modulus of CIIR; the same effect is obtained with 20 phr CB. The simultaneous presence of three MLG and CB also delivers remarkable properties, e.g. adding three MLG and 20 phr CB increased the hardness as much as adding 40 phr CB. A comprehensive study is presented, showing the influence on a variety of mechanical properties. The potential of the MLG/CB combination is illustrated to reduce the filler content or to boost performance, respectively. Apart from the remarkable mechanical properties, the CIIR/CB/MLG nanocomposites showed an increase in weathering resistance.

  13. Consequences of increased NOx emission to air during the treatment of gas from Kvitebjoern and the Haltenbanken Soer at Kaarstoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, Cristina

    1998-11-01

    This report discusses the consequences of increasing the emission to air of nitrogen oxides if landing facilities for North-Sea gas is developed at Kaarstoe, Norway. Three alternatives are considered. The pollution from such a facility comes in addition to the existing plant at Kaarstoe, the Aasgard terminal and the planned gas power station. The report considers concentrations in air, deposition to ground, impact on acidification of surface water and the impact of the natural environment. Concentrations in air have been calculated. The assessment of the deposition of nitrogen oxides to ground, the assessment of acidification of surface water and the assessment of the impact on flora and fauna are based on a consequence analysis for a gas power station at Kaarstoe. The influence of the development of the Kaarstoe plant on the local environment is largely determined by the amount of emissions and the tallness of the chimney. The regional impact is not very dependent on the emission conditions and the global impact is independent of the emission conditions and, to some extent, of the emission site

  14. Spatiotemporal variability of biogenic terpenoid emissions in Pearl River Delta, China, with high-resolution land-cover and meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuemei; Situ, Shuping; Guenther, Alex; Chen, Fei; Wu, Zhiyong; Xia, Beicheng; Wang, Tijian

    2011-04-01

    This study intended to provide 4-km gridded, hourly, year-long, regional estimates of terpenoid emissions in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), China. It combined Thematic Mapper images and local-survey data to characterize plant functional types, and used observed emission potential of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from local plant species and high-resolution meteorological outputs from the MM5 model to constrain the MEGAN BVOC-emission model. The estimated annual emissions for isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene are 95.55 × 106 kg C, 117.35 × 106 kg C and 9.77 × 106 kg C, respectively. The results show strong variabilities of terpenoid emissions spanning diurnal and seasonal time scales, which are mainly distributed in the remote areas (with more vegetation and less economic development) in PRD. Using MODIS PFTs data reduced terpenoid emissions by 27% in remote areas. Using MEGAN-model default emission factors led to a 24% increase in BVOC emission. The model errors of temperature and radiation in MM5 output were used to assess impacts of uncertainties in meteorological forcing on emissions: increasing (decreasing) temperature and downward shortwave radiation produces more (less) terpenoid emissions for July and January. Strong temporal variability of terpenoid emissions leads to enhanced ozone formation during midday in rural areas where the anthropogenic VOC emissions are limited.

  15. Non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from boreal peatland microcosms under warming and water table drawdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faubert, P; Tiiva, P; Nakam, TA

    2011-01-01

    assessed the combined effect of warming and water table drawdown on the BVOC emissions from boreal peatland microcosms. We also assessed the treatment effects on the BVOC emissions from the peat soil after the 7-week long experiment. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, other reactive VOCs...

  16. Increase in winter haze over eastern China in recent decades: Roles of variations in meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions: INCREASE IN WINTER HAZE IN EASTERN CHINA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yang [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Liao, Hong [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Joint International Research Laboratory of Climate and Environment Change, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing China; Lou, Sijia [Atmospheric Science and Global Change Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-11-05

    The increase in winter haze over eastern China in recent decades due to variations in meteorological parameters and anthropogenic emissions was quantified using observed atmospheric visibility from the National Climatic Data Center Global Summary of Day database for 1980–2014 and simulated PM2.5 concentrations for 1985–2005 from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Observed winter haze days averaged over eastern China (105–122.5°E, 20–45°N) increased from 21 d in 1980 to 42 d in 2014, and from 22 to 30 d between 1985 and 2005. The GEOS-Chem model captured the increasing trend of winter PM2.5 concentrations for 1985–2005, with concentrations averaged over eastern China increasing from 16.1 μg m-3 in 1985 to 38.4 μg m-3 in 2005. Considering variations in both anthropogenic emissions and meteorological parameters, the model simulated an increase in winter surface-layer PM2.5 concentrations of 10.5 (±6.2) μg m-3 decade-1 over eastern China. The increasing trend was only 1.8 (±1.5) μg m-3 decade-1 when variations in meteorological parameters alone were considered. Among the meteorological parameters, the weakening of winds by -0.09 m s-1 decade-1 over 1985–2005 was found to be the dominant factor leading to the decadal increase in winter aerosol concentrations and haze days over eastern China during recent decades.

  17. An Investigation of Chemical Landscapes in Aqueous Electrosprays by Tracking Oligomerization of Isoprene

    KAUST Repository

    Junior, Adair Gallo

    2017-12-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) is widely used to characterize neutral and ionic species in solvents. Typically, electrical, thermal, and pneumatic potentials are applied to create electrosprays from which charged ionic species are ejected for downstream analysis by mass spectrometry. Most recently, ESIMS has been exploited to investigate ambient proton transfer reactions at air-water interfaces in real time. We assessed the validity of these experiments via complementary laboratory experiments. Specifically, we characterized the products of two reaction scenarios via ESIMS and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR): (i) emulsions of pH-adjusted water and isoprene (C5H8) that were mechanically agitated, and (ii) electrosprays of pH-adjusted water that were collided with gas-phase isoprene. Our experiments unambiguously demonstrate that, while isoprene does not oligomerize in emulsions, it does undergo protonation and oligomerization in electrosprays, both with and without pH-adjusted water, confirming that C-C bonds form along myriad high-energy pathways during electrospray ionization. We also compared our experimental results with some quantum mechanics simulations of isoprene molecules interacting with hydronium at different hydration levels (gas versus liquid phase). In agreement with our experiments, the kinetic barriers to protonation and oligomerization of isoprene were inaccessible under ambient conditions. Rather, the gas-phase chemistries during electrospray ionization drove the oligomerization of isoprene. Therefore, we consider that ESIMS could induce artifacts in interfacial reactions. These findings warrant a reassessment of previous reports on tracking chemistries under ambient conditions at liquid-vapor interfaces via ESIMS. Further, we took some high-speed images of electrosprays where it was possible to observe the main characteristics of the phenomena, i.e. Taylor cone, charge separation, and Coulomb fission. Finally, we took

  18. Flooding-related increases in CO2 and N2O emissions from a temperate coastal grassland ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremichael, Amanuel W.; Osborne, Bruce; Orr, Patrick

    2017-05-01

    Given their increasing trend in Europe, an understanding of the role that flooding events play in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be important for improved assessments of local and regional GHG budgets. This study presents the results of an analysis of the CO2 and N2O fluxes from a coastal grassland ecosystem affected by episodic flooding that was of either a relatively short (SFS) or long (LFS) duration. Compared to the SFS, the annual CO2 and N2O emissions were 1.4 and 1.3 times higher at the LFS, respectively. Mean CO2 emissions during the period of standing water were 144 ± 18.18 and 111 ± 9.51 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1, respectively, for the LFS and SFS sites. During the growing season, when there was no standing water, the CO2 emissions were significantly larger from the LFS (244 ± 24.88 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1) than the SFS (183 ± 14.90 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1). Fluxes of N2O ranged from -0.37 to 0.65 mg N2O-N m-2 h-1 at the LFS and from -0.50 to 0.55 mg N2O-N m-2 h-1 at the SFS, with the larger emissions associated with the presence of standing water at the LFS but during the growing season at the SFS. Overall, soil temperature and moisture were identified as the main drivers of the seasonal changes in CO2 fluxes, but neither adequately explained the variations in N2O fluxes. Analysis of total C, N, microbial biomass and Q10 values indicated that the higher CO2 emissions from the LFS were linked to the flooding-associated influx of nutrients and alterations in soil microbial populations. These results demonstrate that annual CO2 and N2O emissions can be higher in longer-term flooded sites that receive significant amounts of nutrients, although this may depend on the restriction of diffusional limitations due to the presence of standing water to periods of the year when the potential for gaseous emissions are low.

  19. Grazing exclusion increases soil CO2 emission during the growing season in alpine meadows on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Na; Wang, Aidong; Allan Degen, A.; Deng, Bin; Shang, Zhanhuan; Ding, Luming; Long, Ruijun

    2018-02-01

    Soil CO2 emission is a key part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Grazing exclusion by fencing is often considered a beneficial grassland management option to restore degraded grassland, but its effect on soil CO2 emission on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau is equivocal and is the subject of this study. Using a closed static chamber, we measured diurnal soil CO2 flux weekly from July, 2008, to April, 2009, in response to grazing and grazing exclusion in the alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow. Concomitantly, soil temperature was measured at depths of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm with digital temperature sensors. It emerged that: 1) non-grazed grasslands emitted more soil CO2 than grazed grasslands over the growing season; 2) the alpine shrub meadow emitted more soil CO2 than the alpine meadow; the annual cumulative soil CO2 emissions of alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow were 241.5-326.5 g C/m2 and 429.0-512.5 g C/m2, respectively; 3) seasonal patterns were evident with more soil CO2 flux in the growing than in the non-growing season; and 4) the diurnal soil CO2 flux exhibited a single peak across all sampling sites. In addition, soil CO2 flux was correlated positively with soil temperature at 5 cm, but not at the other depths. We concluded that grazing exclusion enhanced soil CO2 emission over the growing season, and decreased carbon sequestration of alpine meadow and alpine shrub meadow on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau. Since an increase in soil temperature increased soil CO2 flux, global warming could have an effect on soil CO2 emission in the future.

  20. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning An

    Full Text Available Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices-BMPs helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield. Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double

  1. Emissions of Water and Carbon Dioxide from Fossil-Fuel Combustion Contribute Directly to Ocean Mass and Volume Increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, A. G.

    2014-12-01

    The direct, non-climate, contribution of carbon dioxide and water emissions from fossil-fuel (FF) combustion to the volume and mass of the oceans has been omitted from estimates of sea-level rise (SLR) in IPCC reports. Following the method of Gornitz et al. (1997), H2O emissions are estimated using carbon emissions from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, along with typical carbon and hydrogen contents of FF. Historic H2O emissions from 1750 to 2010 amount to 430 ±50 PgH2O, equivalent to 1.2 ±0.2 mmSLR. Sometime in this decade the volume of H2O from historic FF combustion will exceed the volume of Lake Erie (480 km3). CO2 dissolved in the ocean increases the seawater volume by 31-33 mL mol-1 CO2. From 1750 to 2010, 370 ±70 PgCO2 from FF combustion has dissolved in the oceans, causing 0.7 ±0.2 mmSLR. Combined H2O+CO2emissions from FF have therefore added 1.9 ±0.4 mm to sea levels in the Industrial Era. Combustion of FF in 2010 resulted in emissions of 32 PgCO2 and 12 ±1 PgH2O. SLR contributions for that year from FF emissions were 0.033 ±0.005 mm from H2O and 0.011±0.003 mm from dissolved CO2, a total rate of 0.044 ±0.008 mm yr-1. Emissions incorporated in socio-economic models underlying the RCP 8.5 and 2.6 scenarios are used along with concentration-driven CMIP5 Earth System Models results to estimate future sea-level rise from FF combustion. From 2010 to 2100, RCP8.5 and 2.6 models respectively produce 9 ±2 mmSLR and 5 ±1 mmSLR from FF H2O+CO2. For perspective, these amounts are larger than the modelled contributions from loss of glaciers in the Andes. The direct contribution of FF emissions to SLR is small (1-2%) relative to current rates and projected estimates under RCP scenarios up to 2100. The magnitude is similar to SLR estimates from other minor sources such as the melting of floating ice, land-use emissions and produced water from oil operations, none of which are currently included in SLR assessments. As uncertainties in

  2. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions along a high arctic soil moisture gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Sarah Hagel; Lindwall, Frida; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2016-12-15

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from terrestrial ecosystems are important for the atmospheric chemistry and the formation of secondary organic aerosols, and may therefore influence the climate. Global warming is predicted to change patterns in precipitation and plant species compositions, especially in arctic regions where the temperature increase will be most pronounced. These changes are potentially highly important for the BVOC emissions but studies investigating the effects are lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the quality and quantity of BVOC emissions from a high arctic soil moisture gradient extending from dry tundra to a wet fen. Ecosystem BVOC emissions were sampled five times in the July-August period using a push-pull enclosure technique, and BVOCs trapped in absorbent cartridges were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plant species compositions were estimated using the point intercept method. In order to take into account important underlying ecosystem processes, gross ecosystem production, ecosystem respiration and net ecosystem production were measured in connection with chamber-based BVOC measurements. Highest emissions of BVOCs were found from vegetation communities dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, which had emission profiles dominated by isoprene and monoterpenes, respectively. These results show that emissions of BVOCs are highly dependent on the plant cover supported by the varying soil moisture, suggesting that high arctic BVOC emissions may affect the climate differently if soil water content and plant cover change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution and sea-to-air flux of isoprene in the East China Sea and the South Yellow Sea during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Long; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Yang, Gui-Peng

    2017-07-01

    Spatial distribution and sea-to-air flux of isoprene in the East China Sea and the South Yellow Sea in July 2013 were investigated. This study is the first to report the concentrations of isoprene in the China marginal seas. Isoprene concentrations in the surface seawater during summer ranged from 32.46 to 173.5 pM, with an average of 83.62 ± 29.22 pM. Distribution of isoprene in the study area was influenced by the diluted water from the Yangtze River, which stimulated higher in-situ phytoplankton production of isoprene rather than direct freshwater input. Variations in isoprene concentrations were found to be diurnal, with high values observed during daytime. A significant correlation was observed between isoprene and chlorophyll a in the study area. Relatively higher isoprene concentrations were recorded at stations where the phytoplankton biomass was dominated by Chaetoceros, Skeletonema, Pennate-nitzschia, and Thalassiosira. Positive correlation was observed between isoprene and methyl iodide. In addition, sea-to-air fluxes of isoprene approximately ranged from 22.17 nmol m -2  d -1 -537.2 nmol m -2  d -1 , with an average of 161.5 ± 133.3 nmol m -2  d -1 . These results indicate that the coastal and shelf areas may be important sources of atmospheric isoprene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Marine isoprene production and consumption in the mixed layer of the surface ocean - a field study over two oceanic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booge, Dennis; Schlundt, Cathleen; Bracher, Astrid; Endres, Sonja; Zäncker, Birthe; Marandino, Christa A.

    2018-02-01

    Parameterizations of surface ocean isoprene concentrations are numerous, despite the lack of source/sink process understanding. Here we present isoprene and related field measurements in the mixed layer from the Indian Ocean and the eastern Pacific Ocean to investigate the production and consumption rates in two contrasting regions, namely oligotrophic open ocean and the coastal upwelling region. Our data show that the ability of different phytoplankton functional types (PFTs) to produce isoprene seems to be mainly influenced by light, ocean temperature, and salinity. Our field measurements also demonstrate that nutrient availability seems to have a direct influence on the isoprene production. With the help of pigment data, we calculate in-field isoprene production rates for different PFTs under varying biogeochemical and physical conditions. Using these new calculated production rates, we demonstrate that an additional significant and variable loss, besides a known chemical loss and a loss due to air-sea gas exchange, is needed to explain the measured isoprene concentration. We hypothesize that this loss, with a lifetime for isoprene between 10 and 100 days depending on the ocean region, is potentially due to degradation or consumption by bacteria.

  5. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maja, Mengistu M., E-mail: mengistu.maja@uef.fi [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Biology, P.O. Box 111, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental Science, P.O.Box 1627, 70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  6. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maja, Mengistu M.; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2016-01-01

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient + 2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A + T and UV-B + T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B × temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone

  7. Differential cardiac effects in rats exposed to atmospheric smog generated from isoprene versus toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of this study demonstrate that atmospheric smog generated from both isoprene and toluene cause cardiac effects in rats. In addition, it appears that smog from toluene is more toxic in terms of cardiac arrhythmogenicity. Smog, which is a comple...

  8. Analysis of trends in isoprene and monoterpenes in a remote forest and an anthropogenic influenced forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, S.; Sheesley, R. J.; Winfield, Z.; Yoon, S.; Erickson, M.; Flynn, J. H., III; Alvarez, S. L.; Wallace, H. W., IV; Griffin, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The University of Houston Mobile Air Quality Laboratory (MAQL) was deployed to the University of Michigan Biological Station (UMBS) in July 2016 as part of the PROPHET-AMOS study and then was deployed to Jones Forest located north of Houston, TX from August 12 through September 23, 2016. Both sites are heavily forested, but UMBS is remote with no anthropogenic influence while Jones Forest sees frequent pollution transport from Houston. UMBS experienced periods of high isoprene:monoterpenes and periods of equivalent isoprene:monoterpenes, while Jones Forest had a consistently high isoprene:monoterpenes. This provided for a test bed to look at the interactions within two forested environments as well as the influence of anthropogenic sources. The MAQL was outfitted to measure O3 (2B Technology), NOy and SO2 (Thermo Scientific), NO/NOx (Air Quality Design), CO (Los Gatos), and select biogenic volatile organic carbon (BVOC) with their oxidation products (Ionicon PTR-MS). The instruments sampled from MAQL's 6 m tower at both sites. The UMBS site was below canopy and the Jones Forest site was in an open field surrounded by forest. The trends in isoprene and monoterpenes were explored in relation to time-of-day, temperature, and precipitation for both locations. In addition, the production of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein under these different conditions of meteorology, trace gas composition and BVOC composition was explored.

  9. Direct Observations of Isoprene Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation in Ambient Cloud Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Bell, D.; Thornton, J. A.; Fast, J. D.; Shrivastava, M. B.; Berg, L. K.; Imre, D. G.; Mei, F.; Shilling, J.; Suski, K. J.; Liu, J.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Wang, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multiphase chemistry of isoprene photooxidation products has been shown to be one of the major sources of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere. A number of recent studies indicate that aqueous aerosol phase provides a medium for reactive uptake of isoprene photooxidation products, and in particular, isomeric isoprene epoxydiols (IEPOX), with reaction rates and yields being dependent on aerosol acidity, water content, sulfate concentration, and organic coatings. However, very few studies focused on chemistry occurring within actual cloud droplets. We will present data acquired during recent Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Campaign, which provide direct evidence for IEPOX-SOA formation in cloud droplets. Single particle mass spectrometer, miniSPLAT, and a high-resolution, time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer were used to characterize the composition of aerosol particles and cloud droplet residuals, while a high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) was used to characterize gas-phase compounds. We find that the composition of cloud droplet residuals was markedly different than that of aerosol particles sampled outside the cloud. Cloud droplet residuals were comprised of individual particles with high relative fractions of sulfate and nitrate and significant fraction of particles with mass spectra that are nearly identical to those of laboratory-generated IEPOX-SOA particles. The observed cloud-induced formation of IEPOX-SOA was accompanied by simultaneous decrease in measured concentrations of IEPOX and other gas-phase isoprene photooxidation products. Ultimately, the combined cloud, aerosol, and gas-phase measurements conducted during HI-SCALE will be used to develop and evaluate model treatments of aqueous-phase isoprene SOA formation.

  10. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism and increased brain capillary permeability following high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy: a positron emission tomographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, P.C.; Dhawan, V.; Strother, S.C.; Sidtis, J.J.; Evans, A.C.; Allen, J.C.; Rottenberg, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Regional glucose metabolic rate constants and blood-to-brain transport of rubidium were estimated using positron emission tomography in an adolescent patient with a brain tumor, before and after chemotherapy with intravenous high-dose methotrexate. Widespread depression of cerebral glucose metabolism was apparent 24 hours after drug administration, which may reflect reduced glucose phosphorylation, and the influx rate constant for 82 Rb was increased, indicating a drug-induced alteration in blood-brain barrier function. Associated changes in neuropsychological performance, electroencephalogram, and plasma amino acid concentration were identified in the absence of evidence of systemic methotrexate toxicity, suggesting primary methotrexate neurotoxicity

  11. A Review of Electric Vehicle Lifecycle Emissions and Policy Recommendations to Increase EV Penetration in India

    OpenAIRE

    Rachana Vidhi; Prasanna Shrivastava

    2018-01-01

    Electric vehicles reduce pollution only if a high percentage of the electricity mix comes from renewable sources and if the battery manufacturing takes place at a site far from the vehicle use region. Industries developed due to increased electric vehicle adoption may also cause additional air pollution. The Indian government has committed to solving New Delhi’s air pollution issues through an ambitious policy of switching 100% of the light duty consumer vehicles to electric vehicles by 2030....

  12. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  13. Influence of precipitations, buildings and over increase of radioactive emission in the population dose calculation under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, M.C.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of precipitations is analyzed, as well as of buildings and emission over increase on the dosis produced on the population as a consequence of some postulated accidents in Atucha II nuclear power plant. The following conclusions were achieved: the calculations performed without considering the above mentioned effects are conservative, excluding the case in which the precipitation is very close to the emission source. In this case, the maximal difference observed was 20% for class C and 5% for class D, at 1 km from source, with a decreasing difference according to the distance. The doses calculated without building effect were approximately 25% greater than those calculated considering this effect for class E and 40% for class F, at 1 km from the source. The difference decreases with distance and increases with the stability of atmospheric conditions. This behaviour is also observed with the over increase effect. In this case, the maximal observed differences were of one order of magnitude for class E and three orders for class F, at 1 km from the source. (Author)

  14. Cloud Processing of Secondary Organic Aerosol from Isoprene and Methacrolein Photooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorio, Chiara; Monod, Anne; Brégonzio-Rozier, Lola; DeWitt, Helen Langley; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Gratien, Aline; Michoud, Vincent; Pangui, Edouard; Ravier, Sylvain; Zielinski, Arthur T; Tapparo, Andrea; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Claeys, Magda; Voisin, Didier; Kalberer, Markus; Doussin, Jean-François

    2017-10-12

    Aerosol-cloud interaction contributes to the largest uncertainties in the estimation and interpretation of the Earth's changing energy budget. The present study explores experimentally the impacts of water condensation-evaporation events, mimicking processes occurring in atmospheric clouds, on the molecular composition of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the photooxidation of methacrolein. A range of on- and off-line mass spectrometry techniques were used to obtain a detailed chemical characterization of SOA formed in control experiments in dry conditions, in triphasic experiments simulating gas-particle-cloud droplet interactions (starting from dry conditions and from 60% relative humidity (RH)), and in bulk aqueous-phase experiments. We observed that cloud events trigger fast SOA formation accompanied by evaporative losses. These evaporative losses decreased SOA concentration in the simulation chamber by 25-32% upon RH increase, while aqueous SOA was found to be metastable and slowly evaporated after cloud dissipation. In the simulation chamber, SOA composition measured with a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, did not change during cloud events compared with high RH conditions (RH > 80%). In all experiments, off-line mass spectrometry techniques emphasize the critical role of 2-methylglyceric acid as a major product of isoprene chemistry, as an important contributor to the total SOA mass (15-20%) and as a key building block of oligomers found in the particulate phase. Interestingly, the comparison between the series of oligomers obtained from experiments performed under different conditions show a markedly different reactivity. In particular, long reaction times at high RH seem to create the conditions for aqueous-phase processing to occur in a more efficient manner than during two relatively short cloud events.

  15. Small global effect on terrestrial net primary production due to increased fossil fuel aerosol emissions from East Asia during the last decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Michael; Rap, Alex; Reddington, Carly; Spracklen, Dominick; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    The global terrestrial carbon sink has increased since the start of this century at a time of rapidly growing carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel burning. Here we test the hypothesis that increases in atmospheric aerosols from fossil fuel burning have increased the diffuse fraction of incoming solar radiation and the efficiency of photosynthesis leading to increased plant carbon uptake. Using a combination of atmospheric and biospheric models, we find that changes in diffuse light associated with fossil fuel aerosol emission accounts for only 2.8% of the increase in global net primary production (1.221 PgC/yr) over the study period 1998 to 2007. This relatively small global signal is however a result of large regional compensations. Over East Asia, the strong increase in fossil fuel emissions contributed nearly 70% of the increased plant carbon uptake (21 TgC/yr), whereas the declining fossil fuel aerosol emissions in Europe and North America contributed negatively (-16% and -54%, respectively) to increased plant carbon uptake. At global scale, we also find the CO2 fertilization effect on photosynthesis to be the dominant driver of increased plant carbon uptake, in line with previous studies. These results suggest that further research into alternative mechanisms by which fossil fuel emissions could increase carbon uptake, such as nitrogen deposition and carbon-nitrogen interactions, is required to better understand a potential link between the recent changes in fossil fuel emissions and terrestrial carbon uptake.

  16. Determination of breath isoprene and acetone concentration with a needle-type extraction device in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Ikuo; Mizuguchi, Ayako; Okamoto, Mitsuyoshi; Sakamaki, Hiroyuki; Hosoe, Masahiko; Ishiguro, Motoyuki; Saito, Yoshihiro

    2014-03-20

    Isoprene in human breath is said to be related to cholesterol metabolism, and the possibility of the correlations with some clinical parameters has been studied. However, at this stage, no clear benefit of breath isoprene has been reported for clinical diagnosis. In this work, isoprene and acetone concentrations were measured in the breath of healthy and obese subjects using a needle-type extraction device for subsequent analysis in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to investigate the possibility of these compounds as an indicator of possible diseases. After measuring intraday and interday variations of isoprene and acetone concentrations in breath samples of healthy subjects, their concentrations were also determined in 80 healthy and 17 obese subjects. In addition, correlation between these breath concentrations and the blood tests result was studied for these healthy and obese subjects. The results indicated successful determination of breath isoprene and acetone in this work, however, no clear correlation was observed between these measured values and the blood test results. Breath isoprene concentration may not be a useful indicator for obesity or hypercholesterolemia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. US surface ozone trends and extremes from 1980 to 2014: quantifying the roles of rising Asian emissions, domestic controls, wildfires, and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meiyun; Horowitz, Larry W.; Payton, Richard; Fiore, Arlene M.; Tonnesen, Gail

    2017-03-01

    and 2012 relative to earlier heat waves (e.g., 1988, 1999). The O3 decreases driven by NOx controls were more pronounced in the southeastern US, where the seasonal onset of biogenic isoprene emissions and NOx-sensitive O3 production occurs earlier than in the northeast. Without emission controls, the 95th percentile summertime O3 in the EUS would have increased by 0.2-0.4 ppb yr-1 over 1988-2014 due to more frequent hot extremes and rising biogenic isoprene emissions.

  18. Responses of non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to climate change in boreal and subarctic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faubert, P.

    2010-07-01

    Non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (BVOCs) have important roles in the global atmospheric chemistry but their feedbacks to climate change are still unknown. This thesis reports one of the first estimates of BVOC emissions from boreal and subarctic ecosystems. Most importantly, this thesis assesses the BVOC emission responses to four effects of climate change in these ecosystems: (1) the direct effect of warming, and its indirect effects via (2) water table drawdown, (3) change in the vegetation composition, and (4) enhanced UV-B radiation. BVOC emissions were measured using a conventional chamber method in which the compounds were collected on adsorbent and later analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On a subarctic heath, warming by only 1.9-2.5 degC doubled the monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions. Such a high increase of BVOC emissions under a conservative warming cannot be predicted by the current models, which underlines the importance of a focus on BVOC emissions from the Subarctic under climate change. On a subarctic peatland, enhanced UV-B did not affect the BVOC emissions but the water table level exerted the major effect. The water table drawdown experimentally applied on boreal peatland microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes and other VOCs (BVOCs with a lifetime>1 d) for the hollows (wet microsites) and that of all BVOC groups for the lawns (moderately wet microsites). The warming treatment applied on the lawn microcosms decreased the isoprene emission. The removal of vascular plants in the hummock (dry microsites) microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes while the emissions between the microcosms covered with Sphagnum moss and bare peat were not different. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis indicate that climate change has complex effects on the BVOC emissions. These results make a significant contribution to improving the modeling of BVOC emissions for a better understanding of

  19. Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds from gorse (Ulex europaeus): Diurnal emission fluxes at Kelling Heath, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X.-L.; Boissard, C.; Juan, A. J.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

    1997-08-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission fluxes from Gorse (Ulex europaeus) were measured during May 30-31, 1995 at Kelling Heath in eastern England by using bag enclosure and gradient methods simultaneously. The enclosure measurements were made from branches at different stages of physiological development (flowering, after flowering, and mixed). Isoprene was found to represent 90% of the total VOC emissions, and its emission rates fluctuated from 6 ng (g dwt)-1 h-1 in the early morning to about 9700 ng(g dwt)-1 h-1 at midday. Averaged emission rates standardized to 20°C were 1625, 2120, and 3700 ng (g dwt)-1 h-1 for the new grown, "mixed," and flowering branch, respectively. Trans-ocimene and α-pinene were the main monoterpenes emitted and represented, on average, 47.6% and 36.9% of the total monoterpenes. Other monoterpenes, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene and γ-terpinene, were positively identified but together represented less than 1.5% of the total VOC emissions from gorse. Maximum isoprene concentrations in air at the site were measured around midday at 2 m (174 parts per trillion by volume, or pptv) and 6 m (149 pptv), and minimum concentrations were measured during the night (8 pptv at both heights). Mean daytime α-pinene air concentrations of 141 and 60 pptv at 2 and 6 m height were determined, but trans-ocimene concentrations were less than the analytical detection limit (4 pptv), suggesting rapid chemical removal of this compound from air. The isoprene fluxes calculated by the micrometeorological gradient method showed a pattern similar to that of those calculated by the enclosure method, with isoprene emission rates maximum at midday (100 μg m-2 h-1) and not detectable during the nighttime. Assessment of the fraction of the site covered by gorse plants enabled an extrapolation of emission fluxes from the enclosure measurements. When averaged over the 2 day experiment, isoprene fluxes of 29.8 and 27.8 μg m-2 h-1 were obtained from

  20. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Efficient syntheses of climate relevant isoprene nitrates and (1R,5S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bew, Sean P; Hiatt-Gipson, Glyn D; Mills, Graham P; Reeves, Claire E

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the chemoselective synthesis of several important, climate relevant isoprene nitrates using silver nitrate to mediate a 'halide for nitrate' substitution. Employing readily available starting materials, reagents and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons chemistry the synthesis of easily separable, synthetically versatile 'key building blocks' (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-chlorobut-2-en-1-ol as well as (E)- and (Z)-1-((2-methyl-4-bromobut-2-enyloxy)methyl)-4-methoxybenzene has been achieved using cheap, 'off the shelf' materials. Exploiting their reactivity we have studied their ability to undergo an 'allylic halide for allylic nitrate' substitution reaction which we demonstrate generates (E)- and (Z)-3-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrate, and (E)- and (Z)-2-methyl-4-hydroxybut-2-enyl nitrates ('isoprene nitrates') in 66-80% overall yields. Using NOESY experiments the elucidation of the carbon-carbon double bond configuration within the purified isoprene nitrates has been established. Further exemplifying our 'halide for nitrate' substitution chemistry we outline the straightforward transformation of (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol bromide into the previously unknown monoterpene nitrate (1R,2S)-(-)-myrtenol nitrate.

  2. A New "online" Method to Measure Increased Exhaled Isoprene in end-stage Renal Failure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davies, S.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2001), s. 836-839 ISSN 0931-0509 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/97/P130 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : biocompatibility * haemodialysis * SIFT-MS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.432, year: 2001

  3. Combining Urease and Nitrification Inhibitors with Incorporation Reduces Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide Emissions and Increases Corn Yields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Craig F; Yang, Xueming; Reynolds, W Dan; Calder, Wayne; Oloya, Tom O; Woodley, Alex L

    2017-09-01

    Less than 50% of applied nitrogen (N) fertilizer is typically recovered by corn ( L.) due to climatic constraints, soil degradation, overapplication, and losses to air and water. Two application methods, two N sources, and two inhibitors were evaluated to reduce N losses and enhance crop uptake. The treatments included broadcast urea (BrUrea), BrUrea with a urease inhibitor (BrUrea+UI), BrUrea with a urease and a nitrification inhibitor (BrUrea+UI+NI), injection of urea ammonium nitrate (InjUAN), and injected with one or both inhibitors (InjUAN+UI, InjUAN+UI+NI), and a control. The BrUrea treatment lost 50% (64.4 kg N ha) of the applied N due to ammonia volatilization, but losses were reduced by 64% with BrUrea+UI+NI (23.0 kg N ha) and by 60% with InjUAN (26.1 kg N ha). Ammonia losses were lower and crop yields were greater in 2014 than 2013 as a result of the more favorable weather when N was applied in 2014. When ammonia volatilization was reduced by adding a urease inhibitor, NO emissions were increased by 30 to 31% with BrUrea+UI and InjUAN+UI compared with BrUrea and InjUAN, respectively. Pollution swapping was avoided when both inhibitors were used (BrUrea+UI+NI, InjUAN+UI+NI) as both ammonia volatilization and NO emissions were reduced, and corn grain yields increased by 5% with BrUrea+UI+NI and by 7% with InjUAN+UI+NI compared with BrUrea and InjUAN, respectively. The combination of two N management strategies (InjUAN+UI+NI) increased yields by 19% (12.9 t ha) compared with BrUrea (10.8 t ha). Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from a lowland tropical wet forest in Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geron, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.; Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Loescher, H.W. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). School of Forest Resources and Conservation; Clark, D. [University of Missouri-St. Louis, MS (United States). Dept. of Biology; Baker, B. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States)

    2002-08-01

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total basal area of old-growth forest on the major edaphic site types, indicating that a high proportion of the canopy leaf area is a source of isoprene. A limited number of canopy-level BVOC flux measurements were also collected by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA). These measurements verify that the forest canopy in this region is indeed a significant source of isoprene. In addition, REA fluxes of methanol and especially acetone were also significant, exceeding model estimates and warranting future investigation at this site. Leaf monoterpene emissions were non-detectable or very low from the species surveyed, and ambient concentrations and REA fluxes likewise were very low. Although the isoprene emission rates reported here are largely consistent with phylogenetic relations found in other studies (at the family, genus, and species levels), two species in the family Mimosaceae, a group previously found to consist largely of non-isoprene emitters, emitted significant quantities of isoprene. One of these, Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd.) Kuntze, is by far the most abundant canopy tree species in the forests of this area, composing 30-40% of the total basal area. The other, Zygia longifolia (Humb. and Bonpl.) Britton and Rose is a common riparian species. Our results suggest that the source strength of BVOCs is important not only to tropical atmospheric chemistry, but also may be important in determining net ecosystem carbon exchange.(author)

  5. Estimating the biogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from the North Western Mediterranean vegetation of Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, R.; Gasso, S.; Baldasano, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An estimation of the magnitude of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted by vegetation in Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula, Spain), in addition to their superficial and temporal distribution, is presented for policy and scientific (photochemical modelling) purposes. It was developed for the year 2000, for different time resolutions (hourly, daily, monthly and annual) and using a high-resolution land-use map (1-km 2 squared cells). Several meteorological surface stations provided air temperature and solar radiation data. An adjusted mathematical emission model taking account of Catalonia's conditions was built into a geographic information system (GIS) software. This estimation uses the latest information, mainly relating to: (1) emission factors; (2) better knowledge of the composition of Catalonia's forest cover; and (3) better knowledge of the particular emission behaviour of some Mediterranean vegetal species. Results depict an annual cycle with increasing values in the March-April period with the highest emissions in July-August, followed by a decrease in October-November. Annual biogenic NMVOCs emissions reach 46.9 kt, with monoterpenes the most abundant species (24.7 kt), followed by other biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g. alcohols, aldehydes and acetone) (16.3 kt), and isoprene (5.9 kt). These compounds signify 52%, 35% and 13%, respectively, of total emission estimates. Peak hourly total emission for a winter day could be less than 10% of the corresponding value for a summer day

  6. Effect of increased fuel temperature on emissions of oxides of nitrogen from a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM jet-A fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionna, N. R.

    1974-01-01

    An annular gas turbine combustor was tested with heated ASTM Jet-A fuel to determine the effect of increased fuel temperature on the formation of oxides of nitrogen. Fuel temperature ranged from ambient to 700 K. The NOx emission index increased at a rate of 6 percent per 100 K increase in fuel temperature.

  7. Increased Ratio of Electron Transport to Net Assimilation Rate Supports Elevated Isoprenoid Emission Rate in Eucalypts under Drought1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Kaidala Ganesha Srikanta; Jamie, Ian McLeod; Prentice, Iain Colin; Atwell, Brian James

    2014-01-01

    Plants undergoing heat and low-CO2 stresses emit large amounts of volatile isoprenoids compared with those in stress-free conditions. One hypothesis posits that the balance between reducing power availability and its use in carbon assimilation determines constitutive isoprenoid emission rates in plants and potentially even their maximum emission capacity under brief periods of stress. To test this, we used abiotic stresses to manipulate the availability of reducing power. Specifically, we examined the effects of mild to severe drought on photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR) and net carbon assimilation rate (NAR) and the relationship between estimated energy pools and constitutive volatile isoprenoid emission rates in two species of eucalypts: Eucalyptus occidentalis (drought tolerant) and Eucalyptus camaldulensis (drought sensitive). Isoprenoid emission rates were insensitive to mild drought, and the rates increased when the decline in NAR reached a certain species-specific threshold. ETR was sustained under drought and the ETR-NAR ratio increased, driving constitutive isoprenoid emission until severe drought caused carbon limitation of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway. The estimated residual reducing power unused for carbon assimilation, based on the energetic status model, significantly correlated with constitutive isoprenoid emission rates across gradients of drought (r2 > 0.8) and photorespiratory stress (r2 > 0.9). Carbon availability could critically limit emission rates under severe drought and photorespiratory stresses. Under most instances of moderate abiotic stress levels, increased isoprenoid emission rates compete with photorespiration for the residual reducing power not invested in carbon assimilation. A similar mechanism also explains the individual positive effects of low-CO2, heat, and drought stresses on isoprenoid emission. PMID:25139160

  8. Long-term cigarette smoking is associated with increased myocardial perfusion heterogeneity assessed by positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeder, J.G.; Blanksma, P.K.; Wall, E.E. van der; Anthonio, R.L.; Willemsen, A.T.M.; Pruim, J.; Vaalburg, W.; Lie, K.I.

    1996-01-01

    The pathophysiology of smoking-related coronary events in patients with normal coronary arteries is incompletely understood. This study was conducted to explore, in subjects without symptoms of cardiovascular disease, the long-term effects of smoking on regional coronary artery vasoactivity, especially during sympathetic stimulation. In ten smoking and ten non-smoking sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers, segmental myocardial perfusion was studied using dynamic parametric nitrogen-13 ammonia positron emission tomography at rest and during sympathetic stimulation evoked by the cold pressor stimulation. Smokers demonstrated a higher myocardial perfusion at rest (116±17 ml/min/100 g vs 96±20 ml/min/100 g, P <0.01) and an impaired myocardial perfusion increase during cold pressor stimulation (1.02±0.15 vs 1.18±0.17, P <0.05). The heterogeneity of perfusion, expressed as coefficient of variation, was significantly different between the smoking and the non-smoking group. The coefficient of variation of segmental myocardial perfusion was higher in smokers at rest (17.5%±4.2% vs 13.5%±1.9%, P <0.05) and during cold pressor stimulation (17.0%±3.2% vs 13.9%±1.8%, P <0.05). We conclude that the long-term effects of smoking in healthy volunteers are associated with (1) increased myocardial perfusion at rest, (2) impaired myocardial perfusion response to cold pressor stimulation, and (3) increased myocardial perfusion heterogeneity both at rest and during cold pressor stimulation. These results may suggest that in healthy subjects the long-term effect of smoking is related to abnormal coronary artery vasoactivity, presumably induced by an interplay of regional endothelial dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Warming of subarctic tundra increases emissions of all three important greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Carolina; Lamprecht, Richard E; Marushchak, Maija E; Lind, Saara E; Novakovskiy, Alexander; Aurela, Mika; Martikainen, Pertti J; Biasi, Christina

    2017-08-01

    Rapidly rising temperatures in the Arctic might cause a greater release of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere. To study the effect of warming on GHG dynamics, we deployed open-top chambers in a subarctic tundra site in Northeast European Russia. We determined carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) fluxes as well as the concentration of those gases, inorganic nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) along the soil profile. Studied tundra surfaces ranged from mineral to organic soils and from vegetated to unvegetated areas. As a result of air warming, the seasonal GHG budget of the vegetated tundra surfaces shifted from a GHG sink of -300 to -198 g CO 2 -eq m -2 to a source of 105 to 144 g CO 2 -eq m -2 . At bare peat surfaces, we observed increased release of all three GHGs. While the positive warming response was dominated by CO 2 , we provide here the first in situ evidence of increasing N 2 O emissions from tundra soils with warming. Warming promoted N 2 O release not only from bare peat, previously identified as a strong N 2 O source, but also from the abundant, vegetated peat surfaces that do not emit N 2 O under present climate. At these surfaces, elevated temperatures had an adverse effect on plant growth, resulting in lower plant N uptake and, consequently, better N availability for soil microbes. Although the warming was limited to the soil surface and did not alter thaw depth, it increased concentrations of DOC, CO 2, and CH 4 in the soil down to the permafrost table. This can be attributed to downward DOC leaching, fueling microbial activity at depth. Taken together, our results emphasize the tight linkages between plant and soil processes, and different soil layers, which need to be taken into account when predicting the climate change feedback of the Arctic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Long-term cigarette smoking is associated with increased myocardial perfusion heterogeneity assessed by positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeder, J.G. [Department of Cardiology and National Research PET Center, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Blanksma, P.K. [Department of Cardiology and National Research PET Center, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Wall, E.E. van der [Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands); Anthonio, R.L. [Department of Cardiology and National Research PET Center, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Willemsen, A.T.M. [Department of Cardiology and National Research PET Center, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Pruim, J. [Department of Cardiology and National Research PET Center, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Vaalburg, W. [Department of Cardiology and National Research PET Center, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands); Lie, K.I. [Department of Cardiology and National Research PET Center, University Hospital, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1996-11-01

    The pathophysiology of smoking-related coronary events in patients with normal coronary arteries is incompletely understood. This study was conducted to explore, in subjects without symptoms of cardiovascular disease, the long-term effects of smoking on regional coronary artery vasoactivity, especially during sympathetic stimulation. In ten smoking and ten non-smoking sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers, segmental myocardial perfusion was studied using dynamic parametric nitrogen-13 ammonia positron emission tomography at rest and during sympathetic stimulation evoked by the cold pressor stimulation. Smokers demonstrated a higher myocardial perfusion at rest (116{+-}17 ml/min/100 g vs 96{+-}20 ml/min/100 g, P <0.01) and an impaired myocardial perfusion increase during cold pressor stimulation (1.02{+-}0.15 vs 1.18{+-}0.17, P <0.05). The heterogeneity of perfusion, expressed as coefficient of variation, was significantly different between the smoking and the non-smoking group. The coefficient of variation of segmental myocardial perfusion was higher in smokers at rest (17.5%{+-}4.2% vs 13.5%{+-}1.9%, P <0.05) and during cold pressor stimulation (17.0%{+-}3.2% vs 13.9%{+-}1.8%, P <0.05). We conclude that the long-term effects of smoking in healthy volunteers are associated with (1) increased myocardial perfusion at rest, (2) impaired myocardial perfusion response to cold pressor stimulation, and (3) increased myocardial perfusion heterogeneity both at rest and during cold pressor stimulation. These results may suggest that in healthy subjects the long-term effect of smoking is related to abnormal coronary artery vasoactivity, presumably induced by an interplay of regional endothelial dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Organic Nitrate Chemistry and Its Implications for Nitrogen Budgets in an Isoprene- and Monoterpene-Rich Atmosphere: Constraints From Aircraft (SEAC4RS) and Ground-Based (SOAS) Observations in the Southeast US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jenny; Jacob, D. J.; Travis, K. R.; Kim, P. S.; Marais, E. A.; Miller, C. Chan; Yu, K.; Zhu, L.; Yantosca, R. M.; Sulprizio, M. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Formation of organic nitrates (RONO2) during oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs: isoprene, monoterpenes) is a significant loss pathway for atmospheric nitrogen oxide radicals (NOx), but the chemistry of RONO2 formation and degradation remains uncertain. Here we implement a new BVOC oxidation mechanism (including updated isoprene chemistry, new monoterpene chemistry, and particle uptake of RONO2) in the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model with approximately 25 times 25 km(exp 2) resolution over North America. We evaluate the model using aircraft (SEAC4RS) and ground-based (SOAS) observations of NOx, BVOCs, and RONO2 from the Southeast US in summer 2013. The updated simulation successfully reproduces the concentrations of individual gas- and particle-phase RONO2 species measured during the campaigns. Gas-phase isoprene nitrates account for 2550 of observed RONO2 in surface air, and we find that another 10 is contributed by gas-phase monoterpene nitrates. Observations in the free troposphere show an important contribution from long-lived nitrates derived from anthropogenic VOCs. During both campaigns, at least 10 of observed boundary layer RONO2 were in the particle phase. We find that aerosol uptake followed by hydrolysis to HNO3 accounts for 60 of simulated gas-phase RONO2 loss in the boundary layer. Other losses are 20 by photolysis to recycle NOx and 15 by dry deposition. RONO2 production accounts for 20 of the net regional NOx sink in the Southeast US in summer, limited by the spatial segregation between BVOC and NOx emissions. This segregation implies that RONO2 production will remain a minor sink for NOx in the Southeast US in the future even as NOx emissions continue to decline. XXXX We have used airborne and ground-based observations from two summer 2013 campaigns in the Southeast US (SEAC4RS, SOAS) to better understand the chemistry and impacts of alkyl and multi-functional organic nitrates (RONO2). We used the observations, along

  12. EVIDENCE FOR NON-STELLAR REST-FRAME NEAR-IR EMISSION ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED STAR FORMATION IN GALAXIES AT z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Johannes U.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.; Nelson, Erica J.; Leja, Joel; Brammer, Gabriel; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Franx, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    We explore the presence of non-stellar rest-frame near-IR (2–5 μm) emission in galaxies at z ∼ 1. Previous studies identified this excess in relatively small samples and suggested that such non-stellar emission, which could be linked to the 3.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons feature or hot dust emission, is associated with an increased star formation rate (SFR). In this Letter, we confirm and quantify the presence of an IR excess in a significant fraction of galaxies in the 3D-HST GOODS catalogs. By constructing a matched sample of galaxies with and without strong non-stellar near-IR emission, we find that galaxies with such emission are predominantly star-forming galaxies. Moreover, star-forming galaxies with an excess show increased mid- and far-IR and Hα emission compared to other star-forming galaxies without. While galaxies with a near-IR excess show a larger fraction of individually detected X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs), an X-ray stacking analysis, together with the IR-colors and Hα profiles, shows that AGNs are unlikely to be the dominant source of excess in the majority of galaxies. Our results suggest that non-stellar near-IR emission is linked to increased SFRs and is ubiquitous among star-forming galaxies. As such, the near-IR emission might be a powerful tool to measure SFRs in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope

  13. Response of gaseous carbon emissions to low-level salinity increase in tidal marsh ecosystem of the Min River estuary, southeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Minjie; Ren, Hongchang; Ren, Peng; Li, Jiabing; Wilson, Benjamin J; Tong, Chuan

    2017-02-01

    Although estuarine tidal marshes are important contributors to the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, the relationship between carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ) emission, and environmental factors, with respect to estuarine marshes, has not been clarified thoroughly. This study investigated the crucial factors controlling the emission of CO 2 and CH 4 from a freshwater marsh and a brackish marsh located in a subtropical estuary in southeastern China, as well as their magnitude. The duration of the study period was November 2013 to October 2014. Relevant to both the field and incubation experiments, the CO 2 and CH 4 emissions from the two marshes showed pronounced seasonal variations. The CO 2 and CH 4 emissions from both marshes demonstrated significant positive correlations with the air/soil temperature (pemissions between the freshwater and brackish marshes in the subtropical estuary, whereas there was a difference in the CH 4 emissions between the two sites (pemissions from the estuarine freshwater marshes, these factors had little effect on the CO 2 emissions with respect to an increase in salinity of less than 5‰. The findings of this study could have important implications for estimating the global warming contributions of estuarine marshes along differing salinity gradients. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Seasonal variations in VOC emission rates from gorse (Ulex europaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissard, C.; Cao, X.-L.; Juan, C.-Y.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

    Seasonal variations of biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rates and standardised emission factors from gorse (Ulex europaeus) have been measured at two sites in the United Kingdom, from October 1994 to September 1995, within temperature and PAR conditions ranging from 3 to 34°C and 10-1300 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a relative composition fluctuating from 7% of the total VOC (winter) to 97% (late summer). The monoterpenes α-pinene, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene, trans-ocimene and γ-terpinene were also emitted, with α-pinene being the dominant monoterpene during most the year. Trans-ocimene represented 33-66% of the total monoterpene during the hottest months from June to September. VOC emissions were found to be accurately predicted using existing algorithms. Standard (normalised) emission factors of VOCs from gorse were calculated using experimental parameters measured during the experiment and found to fluctuate with season, from 13.3±2.1 to 0.1±0.1 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in August 1995 and January 1995, respectively, for isoprene, and from 2.5±0.2 to 0.4±0.2 μg C (g dwt)-1 h-1 in July and November 1995, respectively, for total monoterpenes. No simple clear relation was found to allow prediction of these seasonal variations with respect to temperature and light intensity. The effects of using inappropriate algorithms to derive VOC fluxes from gorse were assessed for isoprene and monoterpenes. Although on an annual basis the discrepancies are not significant, monthly estimation of isoprene were found to be overestimated by more than a factor of 50 during wintertime when the seasonality of emission factors is not considered.

  15. Recent increases in the atmospheric growth rate and emissions of HFC-23 (CHF3 and the link to HCFC-22 (CHClF2 production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Simmonds

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High frequency measurements of trifluoromethane (HFC-23, CHF3, a potent hydrofluorocarbon greenhouse gas, largely emitted to the atmosphere as a by-product of the production of the hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC-22 (CHClF2, at five core stations of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE network, combined with measurements on firn air, old Northern Hemisphere air samples and Cape Grim Air Archive (CGAA air samples, are used to explore the current and historic changes in the atmospheric abundance of HFC-23. These measurements are used in combination with the AGAGE 2-D atmospheric 12-box model and a Bayesian inversion methodology to determine model atmospheric mole fractions and the history of global HFC-23 emissions. The global modelled annual mole fraction of HFC-23 in the background atmosphere was 28.9 ± 0.6 pmol mol−1 at the end of 2016, representing a 28 % increase from 22.6 ± 0.4 pmol mol−1 in 2009. Over the same time frame, the modelled mole fraction of HCFC-22 increased by 19 % from 199 ± 2 to 237 ± 2 pmol mol−1. However, unlike HFC-23, the annual average HCFC-22 growth rate slowed from 2009 to 2016 at an annual average rate of −0.5 pmol mol−1 yr−2. This slowing atmospheric growth is consistent with HCFC-22 moving from dispersive (high fractional emissions to feedstock (low fractional emissions uses, with HFC-23 emissions remaining as a consequence of incomplete mitigation from all HCFC-22 production.Our results demonstrate that, following a minimum in HFC-23 global emissions in 2009 of 9.6 ± 0.6, emissions increased to a maximum in 2014 of 14.5 ± 0.6 Gg yr−1 and then declined to 12.7 ± 0.6 Gg yr−1 (157 Mt CO2 eq. yr−1 in 2016. The 2009 emissions minimum is consistent with estimates based on national reports and is likely a response to the implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM to mitigate HFC-23 emissions by

  16. Recent increases in the atmospheric growth rate and emissions of HFC-23 (CHF3) and the link to HCFC-22 (CHClF2) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Peter G.; Rigby, Matthew; McCulloch, Archie; Vollmer, Martin K.; Henne, Stephan; Mühle, Jens; O'Doherty, Simon; Manning, Alistair J.; Krummel, Paul B.; Fraser, Paul J.; Young, Dickon; Weiss, Ray F.; Salameh, Peter K.; Harth, Christina M.; Reimann, Stefan; Trudinger, Cathy M.; Steele, L. Paul; Wang, Ray H. J.; Ivy, Diane J.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Mitrevski, Blagoj; Etheridge, David M.

    2018-03-01

    High frequency measurements of trifluoromethane (HFC-23, CHF3), a potent hydrofluorocarbon greenhouse gas, largely emitted to the atmosphere as a by-product of the production of the hydrochlorofluorocarbon HCFC-22 (CHClF2), at five core stations of the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE) network, combined with measurements on firn air, old Northern Hemisphere air samples and Cape Grim Air Archive (CGAA) air samples, are used to explore the current and historic changes in the atmospheric abundance of HFC-23. These measurements are used in combination with the AGAGE 2-D atmospheric 12-box model and a Bayesian inversion methodology to determine model atmospheric mole fractions and the history of global HFC-23 emissions. The global modelled annual mole fraction of HFC-23 in the background atmosphere was 28.9 ± 0.6 pmol mol-1 at the end of 2016, representing a 28 % increase from 22.6 ± 0.4 pmol mol-1 in 2009. Over the same time frame, the modelled mole fraction of HCFC-22 increased by 19 % from 199 ± 2 to 237 ± 2 pmol mol-1. However, unlike HFC-23, the annual average HCFC-22 growth rate slowed from 2009 to 2016 at an annual average rate of -0.5 pmol mol-1 yr-2. This slowing atmospheric growth is consistent with HCFC-22 moving from dispersive (high fractional emissions) to feedstock (low fractional emissions) uses, with HFC-23 emissions remaining as a consequence of incomplete mitigation from all HCFC-22 production.Our results demonstrate that, following a minimum in HFC-23 global emissions in 2009 of 9.6 ± 0.6, emissions increased to a maximum in 2014 of 14.5 ± 0.6 Gg yr-1 and then declined to 12.7 ± 0.6 Gg yr-1 (157 Mt CO2 eq. yr-1) in 2016. The 2009 emissions minimum is consistent with estimates based on national reports and is likely a response to the implementation of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) to mitigate HFC-23 emissions by incineration in developing (non-Annex 1) countries under the Kyoto Protocol. Our derived cumulative

  17. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions from Abies alba in a French forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukhtar, S; Couret, C; Rouil, L; Simon, V

    2006-02-01

    Air quality studies need to be based on accurate and reliable data, particularly in the field of the emissions. Biogenic emissions from forests, crops, and grasslands are now considered as major compounds in photochemical processes. Unfortunately, depending on the type of vegetation, these emissions are not so often reliably defined. As an example, although the silver fir (Abies alba) is a very widespread conifer tree in the French and European areas, its standard emission rate is not available in the literature. This study investigates the isoprene and monoterpenes emission from A. alba in France measured during the fieldwork organised in the Fossé Rhénan, from May to June 2003. A dynamic cuvette method was used. Limonene was the predominant monoterpene emitted, followed by camphene, alpha-pinene and eucalyptol. No isoprene emission was detected. The four monoterpenes measured showed different behaviours according to micrometeorological conditions. In fact, emissions of limonene, alpha-pinene and camphene were temperature-dependant while eucalyptol emissions were temperature and light dependant. Biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions were modeled using information gathered during the field study. Emissions of the three monoterpenes previously quoted were achieved using the monoterpenes algorithm developed by Tingey et al. (1980) [Tingey D, Manning M, Grothaus L, Burns W. Influence of light and temperature on monoterpene emission rates from slash pine. Plant Physiol 1980;65: 797-801.] and the isoprene algorithm [Guenther, A., Monson, R., Fall, R., 1991. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: observations with eucalyptus and emission rate algorithm development. J Geophys Res 26A: 10799-10808.]; [Guenther, A., Zimmerman, P., Harley, P., Monson, R., Fall, R., 1993. Isoprene and monoterpene emission rate variability: model evaluation and sensitivity analysis. J Geophys Res 98D: 12609-12617.]) was used for the eucalyptol emission. With these

  18. Emissions of biogenic VOC from forest ecosystems in central Europe: Estimation and comparison with anthropogenic emission inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemankova, Katerina; Brechler, Josef

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1 x 1 km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a heavily cultivated, central European country) are compared with anthropogenic emissions, both for the entire country and for individual administrative regions. In some regions, BVOC emissions are as high as anthropogenic emissions; however, in most regions the BVOC emissions are approximately 50% of the anthropogenic emissions. The yearly course of BVOC emissions (represented by monoterpenes and isoprene) is presented, along with the spatial distribution of annual mean values. Differences in emission distributions during winter (January) and summer (June) are also considered. - The amount of the biogenic VOCs emitted over the central Europe is comparable with the anthropogenic VOC emissions from this region.

  19. Ozone Monitoring Instrument Observations of Interannual Increases in SO2 Emissions from Indian Coal-fired Power Plants During 2005-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David D.; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71 percent during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year-1 produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R equals 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by greater than 60 percent during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  20. The influence of auxins on the biosynthesis of isoprene derivatives in callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Piotr; Luczkiewicz, Maria; Cisowski, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Callus cultures of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop were optimized for their isoprene derivatives production by supplementing Schenk-Hildebrandt (SH) medium with constant concentration of kinetin (2.32 microM) and two different amounts of selected auxins. Every auxin, except for IBA, used in 10-time higher concentration (2,4D, NAA, IAA, NOA) stimulated biosynthesis of beta-sitosterol and inhibited triterpene synthesis. Quantitative analysis of isoprene derivatives in callus biomass collected on the 25th day of the experiment proved that the analyzed callus of Vaccinium corymbosum var. bluecrop synthesized the highest amount of isoprene derivatives after subculturing on SH medium modified with 22.6 microM of 2,4D and 2.32 microM of kinetin.

  1. Estimating Biogenic Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Emissions for the Wasatch Front Through a High-Resolution. Gridded, Biogenic Vola Tile Organic Compound Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    1-hour and proposed 8-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Reactive biogenic (natural) volatile organic compounds emitted from plants have...uncertainty in predicting plant species composition and frequency. Isoprene emissions computed for the study area from the project’s high-resolution...Landcover Database (BELD 2), while monoterpene and other reactive volatile organic compound emission rates were almost 26% and 28% lower, respectively

  2. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: Determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Yaman, Baris; Koca, Husnu; Dasdemir, Okan; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Odabasi, Mustafa; Elbir, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO 2 ) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m 2 s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/g h was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/g h. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and

  3. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: Determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Yaman, Baris; Koca, Husnu; Dasdemir, Okan; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Tolunay, Doganay [Department of Soil Science and Ecology, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, Bahcekoy, Istanbul (Turkey); Odabasi, Mustafa [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Elbir, Tolga, E-mail: tolga.elbir@deu.edu.tr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-08-15

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO{sub 2}) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m{sup 2} s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/g h was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/g h. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta

  4. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts: linking N2O and CH4 emissions from agriculture to population growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, Christy L. van; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.; Schils, Rene L.M.; Verhagen, Jan; Kuikman, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present. These are mainly developing countries and countries in transition, the so-called non-Annex I countries of the UNFCCC. However, intensification of agricultural production systems is currently closely linked to high emissions of greenhouse gases notably nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ). In this paper the relations between population growth, agricultural development and emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 were assessed for 10 non-Annex I countries, viz. China, India, Vietnam, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Mongolia, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa. We combined FAO data on agricultural production levels, CENSUS data on population statistics and EDGAR data on N 2 O and CH 4 emissions. The projected trends in agricultural production indicate that emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 are expected to increase rapidly in the coming years and will level off from 2040 onwards. The results confirm the positive relation between population increase and increased emissions from agricultural activities for most countries. However, for some countries (South Africa, China and Mexico) this relation was weak or absent. Although numerous factors (e.g. changes in international trade) may have scattered the relation and we were unable to explain this decoupling, it suggests that population growth can be possible without additional emissions. The variation between the different countries and farming systems is however large and mitigation measures at farm-level should be tailored to the wide diversity in environmental conditions, regional customs and farming systems.

  5. Biochemical, physiological and climatic influence on the emission of isoprenoides from Grey Poplar (Populus x canescens (Aiton) Sm.) and Holm Oak (Quercus ilex L.); Biochemische, physiologische und klimatische Einfluesse auf die Isoprenoidemission der Graupappel (Populus x canescens (Aiton) Sm.) und der Steineiche (Quercus ilex L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrhofer, S.

    2007-05-15

    Because of their important role for the atmospheric chemistry, global daily and seasonal emission rates of isoprene and monoterpenes have to be estimated with accuracy. Therefore, detailed knowledge of biochemical and physiological processes within the plant metabolism has to be gathered. Afterwards the gained cognitions are used as information for process-based model calculations. The major scope of the work was therefore to enlarge basic knowledge of the regulation of isoprenoid emission, which is known to be dependent on several environmental factors, especially light and temperature. Measurements of diurnal isoprene emission have been performed in parallel on physiological, translational and transcriptional level on leaves of Grey Poplar (Populus x canescens), a strong isoprene emitting species. Additionally, examinations of diurnal monoterpene emission in connection to physiologic and enzymatic processes was conducted in leaves of Holm Oak (Quercus ilex), which emits a large spectrum of monoterpenes. Furthermore a hypothesis was tested, whether isoprene emission may serve the plant as antioxidative protection mechanism in order to overcome oxidative stress. In main parts, the following results have been reached: 1. In the first part of this work, isolation of PcDXR (DXR of Grey Poplar) from a cDNA-Genbank and heterologous expression of the isolated gene was accomplished. 2. Daytime variation of physiological and biochemical parameters of the isoprene emission of Grey Poplar was measured twice on 2 following days in 2 years. All together, measurements have been performed on 8 representative plants. 3. Quantitative RT-PCR elucidated the gene expression pattern of PcDXR and PcISPS in parallel to diurnal gas exchange measurements. Gene expression of PcISPS showed distinct diurnal courses with maximum values on the late morning, whereas PcDXR transcript levels stayed consistent over the day. No short-term influence of PPFD and leaf temperature has been observed on

  6. Emissions of biogenic VOC from forest ecosystems in central Europe: estimation and comparison with anthropogenic emission inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemankova, Katerina; Brechler, Josef

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by Guenther et al. (1995) and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1x1km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a heavily cultivated, central European country) are compared with anthropogenic emissions, both for the entire country and for individual administrative regions. In some regions, BVOC emissions are as high as anthropogenic emissions; however, in most regions the BVOC emissions are approximately 50% of the anthropogenic emissions. The yearly course of BVOC emissions (represented by monoterpenes and isoprene) is presented, along with the spatial distribution of annual mean values. Differences in emission distributions during winter (January) and summer (June) are also considered. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Emission of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol by pines: A potentially large natural source of reactive carbon to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Peter; Fridd-Stroud, Verity; Greenberg, James; Guenther, Alex; Vasconcellos, PéRola

    1998-10-01

    High rates of emission of 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) were measured from needles of several pine species. Emissions of MBO in the light were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than emissions of monoterpenes and, in contrast to monoterpene emissions from pines, were absent in the dark. MBO emissions were strongly dependent on incident light, behaving similarly to net photosynthesis. Emission rates of MBO increased exponentially with temperature up to approximately 35°C. Above approximately 42°C, emission rates declined rapidly. Emissions could be modeled using existing algorithms for isoprene emission. We propose that emissions of MBO from lodgepole and ponderosa pine are the primary source of high concentrations of this compound, averaging 1-3 ppbv, found in ambient air samples collected in Colorado at an isolated mountain site approximately 3050 m above sea level. Subsequent field studies in a ponderosa pine plantation in California confirmed high MBO emissions, which averaged 25 μg C g-1 h-1 for 1-year-old needles, corrected to 30°C and photon flux of 1000 μmol m-2 s-1. A total of 34 pine species growing at Eddy Arboretum in Placerville, California, were investigated, of which 11 exhibited high emissions of MBO (>5 μg C g-1 h-1), and 6 emitted small but detectable amounts. All the emitting species are of North American origin, and most are restricted to western North America. These results indicate that MBO emissions from pines may constitute a significant source of reactive carbon and a significant source of acetone, to the atmosphere, particularly in the western United States.

  8. Nanostructuration of self-assembled poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) block copolymer thin films in a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalakain, Inaki; Ramos, Jose Angel; Fernandez, Raquel; Etxeberria, Haritz; Mondragon, Inaki, E-mail: inaki.mondragon@ehu.e

    2011-01-03

    Highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) is a useful substrate to visualize epitaxial formation due to its crystallographic structure. The morphology of a poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) block copolymer thin film on a HOPG substrate was investigated by atomic force microscopy. Block copolymer domains generated a morphology with triangular regularity. This arrangement was induced by the HOPG substrate structure due to van der Waals attraction between the HOPG {pi}-conjugated system and aromatic ring of polystyrene domains. However, increasing the film thickness, the substrate effect on the surface morphology decreased. As a consequence, film surfaces showed the coexistence of different structures such as highly aligned cylinders and perforated lamellae. When film thickness exceeded a threshold value, the substrate did not have effect in the surface arrangements and the surface showed a similar morphology to that existing in bulk.

  9. Simulated changes in biogenic VOC emissions and ozone formation from habitat expansion of Acer Rubrum (red maple)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewniak, Beth A; Snyder, Peter K; Twine, Tracy E; Steiner, Allison L; Wuebbles, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    A new vegetation trend is emerging in northeastern forests of the United States, characterized by an expansion of red maple at the expense of oak. This has changed emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), primarily isoprene and monoterpenes. Oaks strongly emit isoprene while red maple emits a negligible amount. This species shift may impact nearby urban centers because the interaction of isoprene with anthropogenic nitrogen oxides can lead to tropospheric ozone formation and monoterpenes can lead to the formation of particulate matter. In this study the Global Biosphere Emissions and Interactions System was used to estimate the spatial changes in BVOC emission fluxes resulting from a shift in forest composition between oak and maple. A 70% reduction in isoprene emissions occurred when oak was replaced with maple. Ozone simulations with a chemical box model at two rural and two urban sites showed modest reductions in ozone concentrations of up to 5–6 ppb resulting from a transition from oak to red maple, thus suggesting that the observed change in forest composition may benefit urban air quality. This study illustrates the importance of monitoring and representing changes in forest composition and the impacts to human health indirectly through changes in BVOCs. (paper)

  10. Thermal Effect on the phosphoric Acid Impregnated Activated Carbon Fiber and Adsorption Properties Toward Isoprene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Taek Sung; Lee, Jin Hyok; Kang, Kyung suk [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Kim, Kwang Young [Ace Lab. Co. Ltd. Taejon (Korea); Rhee, Moon Soo [Korea Ginseng and Tobacoo Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2001-05-01

    To introduce chemisorption property and improve adsorption capacities for isoprene, ACF (Activated Carbon Fiber) was impregnated by phosphoric acid. As the impregnated ACF was dried by programmed temperature from 300 degree C to 500 degree C, degree of impregnation, surface area, thermal stability and adsorption properties for isoprene were observed. The degree of impregnation of the ACF, dried at the 400 degree C, was 12.7 w/w% and surface area was 1148 m{sup 2}/g. Over the temperature range of 450 degree C to 700 degree C, there was one-step thermal degradation by the thermal decomposition of phosphonyl group. The adsorption rate of phosphoric acid on the impregnated ACF, which was dried at 400 degree C, was the fastest. The breakthrough time of ACF that was dried at 400 degree C was 18 min., and its adsorption capacity improved roughly 7.2 times in comparison to the pure ACF. In addition, it was observed the adsorption properties persisted even after the regeneration. The adsorption efficiency of regenerated ACF was 66 percent compared to the unused impregnated ACF. 21 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Selective Production of Toluene from Biomass-Derived Isoprene and Acrolein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tao; Li, Changzhi; Zhang, Bo; Guo, Haiwei; Pan, Xiaoli; Li, Lin; Wang, Aiqin; Zhang, Tao

    2016-12-20

    Toluene is a basic chemical that is currently produced from petroleum resources. In this paper, we report a new route for the effective synthesis of toluene from isoprene and acrolein, two reactants readily available from biomass, through a simple two-step reaction. The process includes Diels-Alder cycloaddition of isoprene and acrolein in a Zn-containing ionic liquid at room temperature to produce methylcyclohex-3-enecarbaldehydes (MCHCAs) as intermediates, followed by M (M=Pt, Pd, Rh)/Al 2 O 3 -catalyzed consecutive dehydrogenation-decarbonylation of the MCHCAs at 573 K to generate toluene with an overall yield up to 90.7 %. Model reactions indicated that a synergistic inductive effect of the C=C double bond and the aldehyde group in MCHCA plays a key role in initiating the consecutive dehydrogenation-decarbonylation, and that methyl benzaldehydes are the key intermediates in the gas-phase transformation of MCHCAs. Microcalorimetric adsorption of CO on different catalysts showed that decarbonylation of the substrate occurs more likely on the strong adsorption sites. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report of Pt/Al 2 O 3 -catalyzed consecutive dehydrogenation-decarbonylation of a given compound in one reactor. This work provides a highly efficient and environmental friendly route to toluene by utilizing two compounds that can be prepared from biomass. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation conditions on the radiation-induced degradation of isobutylene-isoprene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, M. E-mail: msen@hacettepe.edu.tr; Uzun, C.; Kantoglu, Oe.; Erdogan, S.M.; Deniz, V.; Gueven, O

    2003-08-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation conditions on the radiation-induced degradation of uncrosslinked, commercial isobutylene-isoprene rubbers has been investigated in this study. Influence of dose rate and irradiation atmosphere on the degradation of butyl rubber has been followed by viscosimetric and chromatographic analyses. Limiting viscosity number of all butyl rubbers decreased sharply up to 100 kGy and leveled off at around the same molecular weight, independent of dose rate. Slightly higher decrease in viscosity was observed for samples irradiated in air than in nitrogen especially at low dose rate irradiation. Cross-linking G(X), and chain scission G(S) yields of butyl rubbers were calculated by using weight- and number-average molecular weights of irradiated rubber determined by Size Exclusion Chromatography analyses. G-value results showed that chain scission reactions in isobutylene-isoprene rubber in air atmosphere are more favorable than in nitrogen atmosphere, and that lower dose rate enhances chain scission over cross-linking.

  13. Secondary aerosol formation from stress-induced biogenic emissions and possible climate feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Th. F. Mentel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols impact climate by scattering and absorbing solar radiation and by acting as ice and cloud condensation nuclei. Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOAs comprise an important component of atmospheric aerosols. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted by vegetation are the source of BSOAs. Pathogens and insect attacks, heat waves and droughts can induce stress to plants that may impact their BVOC emissions, and hence the yield and type of formed BSOAs, and possibly their climatic effects. This raises questions of whether stress-induced changes in BSOA formation may attenuate or amplify effects of climate change. In this study we assess the potential impact of stress-induced BVOC emissions on BSOA formation for tree species typical for mixed deciduous and Boreal Eurasian forests. We studied the photochemical BSOA formation for plants infested by aphids in a laboratory setup under well-controlled conditions and applied in addition heat and drought stress. The results indicate that stress conditions substantially modify BSOA formation and yield. Stress-induced emissions of sesquiterpenes, methyl salicylate, and C17-BVOCs increase BSOA yields. Mixtures including these compounds exhibit BSOA yields between 17 and 33%, significantly higher than mixtures containing mainly monoterpenes (4–6% yield. Green leaf volatiles suppress SOA formation, presumably by scavenging OH, similar to isoprene. By classifying emission types, stressors and BSOA formation potential, we discuss possible climatic feedbacks regarding aerosol effects. We conclude that stress situations for plants due to climate change should be considered in climate–vegetation feedback mechanisms.

  14. Long-term no-tillage application increases soil organic carbon, nitrous oxide emissions and faba bean (Vicia faba L.) yields under rain-fed Mediterranean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badagliacca, Giuseppe; Benítez, Emilio; Amato, Gaetano; Badalucco, Luigi; Giambalvo, Dario; Laudicina, Vito Armando; Ruisi, Paolo

    2018-05-20

    The introduction of legumes into crop sequences and the reduction of tillage intensity are both proposed as agronomic practices to mitigate the soil degradation and negative impact of agriculture on the environment. However, the joint effects of these practices on nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions from soil remain unclear, particularly concerning semiarid Mediterranean areas. In the frame of a long-term field experiment (23 years), a 2-year study was performed on the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) to evaluate the effects of the long-term use of no tillage (NT) compared to conventional tillage (CT) on yield and N 2 O and NH 3 emissions from a Vertisol in a semiarid Mediterranean environment. Changes induced by the tillage system in soil bulk density, water filled pore space (WFPS), organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN), denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), and bacterial gene (16S, amoA, and nosZ) abundance were measured as parameters potentially affecting N gas emissions. No tillage, compared with CT, significantly increased the faba bean grain yield by 23%. The tillage system had no significant effect on soil NH 3 emissions. Total N 2 O emissions, averaged over two cropping seasons, were higher in NT than those in CT plots (2.58 vs 1.71 kg N 2 O-N ha -1 , respectively; P emissions in NT plots were ascribed to the increase of soil bulk density and WFPS, bacteria (16S abundance was 96% higher in NT than that in CT) and N cycle genes (amoA and nosZ abundances were respectively 154% and 84% higher in NT than that in CT). The total N 2 O emissions in faba bean were similar to those measured in other N-fertilized crops. In conclusion, a full evaluation of NT technique, besides the benefits on soil characteristics (e.g. TOC increase) and crop yield, must take into account some criticisms related to the increase of N 2 O emissions compared to CT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biogenic VOC Emissions from Tropical Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, A.; Greenberg, J.; Harley, P.; Otter, L.; Vanni Gatti, L.; Baker, B.

    2003-04-01

    Biogenic VOC have an important role in determining the chemical composition of atmosphere. As a result, these compounds are important for visibility, biogeochemical cycling, climate and radiative forcing, and the health of the biosphere. Tropical landscapes are estimated to release about 80% of total global biogenic VOC emissions but have been investigated to lesser extent than temperate regions. Tropical VOC emissions are particularly important due to the strong vertical transport and the rapid landuse change that is occurring there. This presentation will provide an overview of field measurements of biogenic VOC emissions from tropical landscapes in Amazonia (Large-scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazonia, LBA) Central (EXPRESSO) and Southern (SAFARI 2000) Africa, Asia and Central America. Flux measurement methods include leaf-scale (enclosure measurements), canopy-scale (above canopy tower measurements), landscape-scale (tethered balloon), and regional-scale (aircraft measurements) observations. Typical midday isoprene emission rates for different landscapes vary by more than a factor of 20 with the lowest emissions observed from degraded forests. Emissions of alpha-pinene vary by a similar amount with the highest emissions associated with landscapes dominated by light dependent monoterpene emitting plants. Isoprene emissions tend to be higher for neotropical forests (Amazon and Costa Rica) in comparison to Africa and Asian tropical forests but considerable differences are observed within regions. Strong seasonal variations were observed in both the Congo and the Amazon rainforests with peak emissions during the dry seasons. Substantial emissions of light dependent monoterpenes, methanol and acetone are characteristic of at least some tropical landscapes.

  16. Sacrococcygeal chordoma: increased 99mTc methylene diphosphonate uptake on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppuswamy; Bhattacharya, Anish; Harisankar, Chidambaram Natarajan Balasubramaniam; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai; Goni, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Chordoma is a malignant tumor arising from the remnants of the notochord, and is the most frequent primitive tumor of the sacrum. While most sacral tumors show increased concentration of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, chordomas usually exhibit decreased uptake. The authors present an image of a sacrococcygeal chordoma with osteolysis and increased uptake of 99m Tc methylene diphosphonate on planar and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography bone scintigraphy. (author)

  17. Concentration- and time-dependent genotoxicity profiles of isoprene monoepoxides and diepoxide, and the cross-linking potential of isoprene diepoxide in cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene, a possible carcinogen, is a petrochemical and a natural product being primarily produced by plants. It is biotransformed to 2-ethenyl-2-methyloxirane (IP-1,2-O and 2-(1-methylethenyloxirane (IP-3,4-O, both of which can be further metabolized to 2-methyl-2,2′-bioxirane (MBO. MBO is mutagenic, but IP-1,2-O and IP-3,4-O are not. While IP-1,2-O has been reported being genotoxic, the genotoxicity of IP-3,4-O and MBO, and the cross-linking potential of MBO have not been examined. In the present study, we used the comet assay to investigate the concentration- and time-dependent genotoxicity profiles of the three metabolites and the cross-linking potential of MBO in human hepatocyte L02 cells. For the incubation time of 1 h, all metabolites showed positive concentration-dependent profiles with a potency rank order of IP-3,4-O > MBO > IP-1,2-O. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 and human leukemia (HL60 cells, IP-3,4-O was still more potent in inducing DNA breaks than MBO at high concentrations (>200 μM, although at low concentrations (≤200 μM IP-3,4-O exhibited slightly lower or similar potency to MBO. Interestingly, their time-dependent genotoxicity profiles (0.5–4 h in L02 cells were different from each other: IP-1,2-O and MBO (200 μM exhibited negative and positive profiles, respectively, with IP-3,4-O lying in between, namely, IP-3,4-O-caused DNA breaks did not change over the exposure time. Further experiments demonstrated that hydrolysis of IP-1,2-O contributed to the negative profile and MBO induced cross-links at high concentrations and long incubation times. Collectively, the results suggested that IP-3,4-O might play a significant role in the toxicity of isoprene.

  18. Barrierless Reactions with Loose Transition States Govern the Yields and Lifetimes of Organic Nitrates Derived from Isoprene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical reaction mechanism of NO addition to two β and δ isoprene hydroxy–peroxy radical isomers is examined in detail using density functional theory, coupled cluster methods, and the energy resolved master equation formalism to provide estimates of rate co...

  19. Bis(phenolate)amine-supported lanthanide borohydride complexes for styrene and trans-1,4-isoprene (co-)polymerisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnet, Fanny; Dyer, Hellen E.; El Kinani, Yassine; Dietz, Carin; Roussel, Pascal; Bria, Marc; Visseaux, Marc; Zinck, Philippe; Mountford, Philip

    2015-01-01

    New bis(phenolate)amine-supported neodymium borohydride complexes and their previously reported samarium analogues were tested as catalysts for the polymerisation of styrene and isoprene. Reaction of Na2O2NL (L = py, OMe, NMe2) with Nd(BH4)3(THF)3 afforded the borohydride complexes

  20. Continued increase of CFC-113a (CCl3CF3) mixing ratios in the global atmosphere: emissions, occurrence and potential sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adcock, Karina E.; Reeves, Claire E.; Gooch, Lauren J.; Leedham Elvidge, Emma C.; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Chou, Charles; Fraser, Paul J.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Hanif, Norfazrin Mohd; O'Doherty, Simon; Oram, David E.; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Moi Phang, Siew; Abu Samah, Azizan; Röckmann, Thomas; Sturges, William T.; Laube, Johannes C.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric measurements of the ozone-depleting substance CFC-113a (CCl3CF3) are reported from ground-based stations in Australia, Taiwan, Malaysia and the United Kingdom, together with aircraft-based data for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Building on previous work, we find that, since the gas first appeared in the atmosphere in the 1960s, global CFC-113a mixing ratios have been increasing monotonically to the present day. Mixing ratios of CFC-113a have increased by 40 % from 0.50 to 0.70 ppt in the Southern Hemisphere between the end of the previously published record in December 2012 and February 2017. We derive updated global emissions of 1.7 Gg yr-1 on average between 2012 and 2016 using a two-dimensional model. We compare the long-term trends and emissions of CFC-113a to those of its structural isomer, CFC-113 (CClF2CCl2F), which still has much higher mixing ratios than CFC-113a, despite its mixing ratios and emissions decreasing since the 1990s. The continued presence of northern hemispheric emissions of CFC-113a is confirmed by our measurements of a persistent interhemispheric gradient in its mixing ratios, with higher mixing ratios in the Northern Hemisphere. The sources of CFC-113a are still unclear, but we present evidence that indicates large emissions in East Asia, most likely due to its use as a chemical involved in the production of hydrofluorocarbons. Our aircraft data confirm the interhemispheric gradient as well as showing mixing ratios consistent with ground-based observations and the relatively long atmospheric lifetime of CFC-113a. CFC-113a is the only known CFC for which abundances are still increasing substantially in the atmosphere.

  1. Tendances Carbone no. 70 'The EU ETS and the economic downturn: falling emissions and increasing use of credits'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, Nicolas; Stephan, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. This issue addresses the following points: The publication of the 2011 compliance data confirms that the EU ETS carbon price will remain at a low level in the short and medium term. These data indicate a drop in CO 2 emissions by 2.1% and the return of 254.7 million Kyoto credits up 86% compared to 2010. In the context of a growing surplus of allowances since 2008, these two trends further weaken the demand for allowances

  2. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair"), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst"), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet"). These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.2 μgC g-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μgC g-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same

  3. Development of biogenic VOC emission inventories for the boreal forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, V.

    2008-07-01

    The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by vegetation, especially forests, can affect local and regional atmospheric photochemistry through their reactions with atmospheric oxidants. Their reaction products may also participate in the formation and growth of new particles which affect the radiation balance of the atmosphere, and thus climate, by scattering and absorbing shortwave and longwave radiation and by modifying the radiative properties, amount and lifetime of clouds. Globally, anthropogenic VOC emissions are far surpassed by the biogenic ones, making biogenic emission inventories an integral element in the development of efficient air quality and climate strategies. The inventories are typically constructed based on landcover information, measured emissions of different plants or vegetation types, and empirical dependencies of the emissions on environmental variables such as temperature and light. This thesis is focused on the VOC emissions from the boreal forest, the largest terrestrial biome with characteristic vegetation patterns and strong seasonality. The isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of the most prevalent boreal tree species in Finland, Scots pine, have been measured and their seasonal variation and dependence on temperature and light have been studied. The measured emission data and other available observations of the emissions of the principal boreal trees have been used in a biogenic emission model developed for the boreal forests in Finland. The model utilizes satellite landcover information, Finnish forest classification and hourly meteorological data to calculate isoprene, monoterpene, sesquiterpene and other VOC emissions over the growing season. The principal compounds emitted by Scots pine are DELTA3-carene and alpha-pinene in the south boreal zone and alpha- and beta-pinene in the north boreal zone. The monoterpene emissions are dependent on temperature and have a clear seasonal cycle with high emissions in spring

  4. Biogenic nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions estimated from tethered balloon observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. J.; Lenschow, D. H.; Zimmerman, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for estimating surface fluxes of trace gases, the mixed-layer gradient technique, is used to calculate isoprene and terpene emissions from forests. The technique is applied to tethered balloon measurements made over the Amazon forest and a pine-oak forest in Alabama at altitudes up to 300 m. The observations were made during the dry season Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE 2A) and the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment 1990 experiment (ROSE I). Results from large eddy simulations of scalar transport in the clear convective boundary layer are used to infer fluxes from the balloon profiles. Profiles from the Amazon give a mean daytime emission of 3630 +/- 1400 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, where the uncertainty represents the standard deviation of the mean of eight flux estimates. Twenty profiles from Alabama give emissions of 4470 +/- 3300 micrograms isoprene sq m/h, 1740 +/- 1060 micrograms alpha-pinene sq m/h, and 790 +/- 560 micrograms beta-pinene sq m/h, respectively. These results are in agreement with emissions derived from chemical budgets. The emissions may be overestimated because of uncertainty about how to incorporate the effects of the canopy on the mixed-layer gradients. The large variability in these emission estimates is probably due to the relatively short sampling times of the balloon profiles, though spatially heterogeneous emissions may also play a role. Fluxes derived using this technique are representative of an upwind footprint of several kilometers and are independent of hydrocarbon oxidation rate and mean advection.

  5. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial H2O2 emission increases with immobilization and decreases after aerobic training in young and older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Martin; Vigelsø, Andreas; Yokota, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    ZnSOD), catalase and gluthathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) were measured by Western Blotting. Immobilization decreased ATP generating respiration using PM and increased H2O2 emission using both PM and SR similarly in young and older men. Both were restored to baseline after the training period. Furthermore, Mn......SOD and catalase content increased with endurance training. The young men had a higher leak respiration at inclusion using PM and a higher membrane potential in state 3 using both substrate combinations. Collectively, this study supports the notion that increased mitochondrial ROS mediates the detrimental effects...

  6. Increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake on positron emission tomography-computed tomography postbronchoalveolar lavage: a potential cause of radiologic misinterpretation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leong, Sum

    2011-08-01

    Cytologic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is used for lung cancer diagnosis. We describe a patient with a history of rectal carcinoma who presented with a new lung mass. BAL was performed, with positron emission tomography-computed tomography the following day. There was mildly increased fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake in areas of the lung parenchyma with new ground-glass opacification. This created ambiguity in staging, clarified 2 weeks later by a computed tomography showing complete resolution of the ground-glass opacity. Clinicians should be aware that BAL may cause increased pulmonary fluoro-deoxy-D-glucose uptake, making accurate radiologic interpretation problematic. We suggest that to optimize positron emission tomography-computed tomography, studies should not be performed within 24 hours of BAL.

  7. Increases to Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosols from SO2 and NOx in the Southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, L. M.; Liu, J.; Ruggeri, G.; Takahama, S.; Claflin, M. S.; Ziemann, P. J.; Lee, A.; Murphy, B.; Pye, H. O. T.; Ng, N. L.; McKinney, K. A.; Surratt, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    During the 2013 Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements of submicron mass were collected at Look Rock, Tennessee, and Centreville, Alabama. The low NOx, low wind, little rain, and increased daytime isoprene emissions led to multi-day stagnation events at Look Rock that provided clear evidence of particle-phase sulfate enhancing biogenic secondary organic aerosol (bSOA) by selective uptake. Organic mass (OM) sources were apportioned as 42% "vehicle-related" and 54% bSOA, with the latter including "sulfate-related bSOA" that correlated to sulfate (r=0.72) and "nitrate-related bSOA" that correlated to nitrate (r=0.65). Single-particle mass spectra showed three composition types that corresponded to the mass-based factors with spectra cosine similarity of 0.93 and time series correlations of r>0.4. The vehicle-related OM with m/z 44 was correlated to black carbon, "sulfate-related bSOA" was on particles with high sulfate, and "nitrate-related bSOA" was on all particles. The similarity of the m/z spectra (cosine similarity=0.97) and the time series correlation (r=0.80) of the "sulfate-related bSOA" to the sulfate-containing single-particle type provide evidence for particle composition contributing to selective uptake of isoprene oxidation products onto particles that contain sulfate from power plants. Since Look Rock had much less NOx than Centreville, comparing the bSOA at the two sites provides an evaluation of the role of NOx for bSOA. CO and submicron sulfate and OM concentrations were 15-60 % higher at Centreville than at Look Rock but their time series had moderate correlations of r= 0.51, 0.54, and 0.47, respectively. However, NOx had no correlation (r=0.08) between the two sites. OM correlated with the higher NOx levels at Centreville but with O3 at Look Rock. OM sources identified by Positive Matrix Factorization had three very similar factors at both sites from FTIR

  8. Effect of vegetation removal and water table drawdown on the non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in boreal peatland microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Åsmund; Räty, Sanna; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Holopainen, Toini; Rinnan, Riikka

    2010-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are important in the global atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks to global warming are uncertain. Global warming is expected to trigger vegetation changes and water table drawdown in boreal peatlands, such changes have only been investigated on isoprene emission but never on other BVOCs. We aimed at distinguishing the BVOCs released from vascular plants, mosses and peat in hummocks (dry microsites) and hollows (wet microsites) of boreal peatland microcosms maintained in growth chambers. We also assessed the effect of water table drawdown (-20 cm) on the BVOC emissions in hollow microcosms. BVOC emissions were measured from peat samples underneath the moss surface after the 7-week-long experiment to investigate whether the potential effects of vegetation and water table drawdown were shown. BVOCs were sampled using a conventional chamber method, collected on adsorbent and analyzed with GC-MS. In hummock microcosms, vascular plants increased the monoterpene emissions compared with the treatment where all above-ground vegetation was removed while no effect was detected on the sesquiterpenes, other reactive VOCs (ORVOCs) and other VOCs. Peat layer from underneath the surface with intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. In hollow microcosms, intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. Water table drawdown decreased monoterpene and other VOC emissions. Specific compounds could be closely associated to the natural/lowered water tables. Peat layer from underneath the surface of hollows with intact vegetation had the highest emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and ORVOCs whereas water table drawdown decreased those emissions. The results suggest that global warming would change the BVOC emission mixtures from boreal peatlands following changes in vegetation composition and water table drawdown.

  9. Increased sensitivity in thick-target particle induced X-ray emission analyses using dry ashing for preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lill, J.-O.; Harju, L.; Saarela, K.-E.; Lindroos, A.; Heselius, S.-J.

    1999-01-01

    The sensitivity in thick-target particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analyses of biological materials can be enhanced by dry ashing. The gain depends mainly on the mass reduction factor and the composition of the residual ash. The enhancement factor was 7 for the certified reference material Pine Needles and the limits of detection (LODs) were below 0.2 μg/g for Zn, Cu, Rb and Sr. When ashing biological materials with low ash contents such as wood of pine or spruce (0.3% of dry weight) and honey (0.1% of wet weight) the gain was far greater. The LODs for these materials were 30 ng/g for wood and below 10 ng/g for honey. In addition, the ashed samples were more homogenous and more resistant to changes during the irradiation than the original biological samples. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  10. Radiation-induced deterioration of natural rubber and isoprene rubber vulcanizates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohjiya, Shinzo; Matsumura, Yasushige; Yamashita, Shinzo; Matsuyama, Tomochika; Yamaoka, Hitoshi.

    1984-01-01

    Natural rubber (NR) and isoprene rubber (IR) were cured by sulfur and accelerator to give rubber vulcanizates. Both vulcanizates were subject to solvent extraction to purify them, followed by the γ-ray irradiation in air at room temperature. The deterioration by γ-ray (0-20 Mrad) was investigated by the changes of tensile properties, hardness, swelling, and ATR-IR spectra. The tensile strength decreased much by a few Mrad irradiation, which is elucidated due to the difficulty of stretch-induced crystallization of polyisoprene after the irradiation. Modulus at 50 % elongation, network-chain density, and hardness did not show significant variation with the γ-ray dose. These irradiation results suggest both degradation and crosslinking occur comparably in the rubber vulcanizates and the regularity of polyisoprene chains may be somewhat randomized to prevent them from crystallizing on stretching. (author)

  11. Biosynthetic origin of the isoprene units in chromenes of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Ana C.; Lopes, Adriana A.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Furlan, Maysa [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: maysaf@iq.unesp.br; Kato, Massuo J. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2007-07-01

    Metabolic studies involving the incorporation of [1-{sup 13}C]-D-glucose into intact leaves of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) have indicated that both the mevalonate (MVA) and the pyruvate-triose (MEP) non-mevalonate pathways are implicated in the biosynthesis of isoprene moieties present in methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (1) and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl- 2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (2). The pattern of incorporation of label from [1- {sup 13}C]-D-glucose into these chromenes was determined by quantitative {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. The results confirmed that biosynthetic compartment of 1 and 2 could either be the plastid and/ or the cytosol or, possibly, an additional compartment such as the plastid inter-membrane space. (author)

  12. Biosynthetic origin of the isoprene units in chromenes of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Ana C.; Lopes, Adriana A.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Furlan, Maysa; Kato, Massuo J.

    2007-01-01

    Metabolic studies involving the incorporation of [1- 13 C]-D-glucose into intact leaves of Piper aduncum (Piperaceae) have indicated that both the mevalonate (MVA) and the pyruvate-triose (MEP) non-mevalonate pathways are implicated in the biosynthesis of isoprene moieties present in methyl 2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (1) and methyl 2,2-dimethyl-8-(3'-methyl- 2'-butenyl)-2H-1-chromene-6-carboxylate (2). The pattern of incorporation of label from [1- 13 C]-D-glucose into these chromenes was determined by quantitative 13 C NMR spectroscopy. The results confirmed that biosynthetic compartment of 1 and 2 could either be the plastid and/ or the cytosol or, possibly, an additional compartment such as the plastid inter-membrane space. (author)

  13. Luminescent Lanthanide Metal Organic Frameworks for cis-Selective Isoprene Polymerization Catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Russell

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we are combining two areas of chemistry; solid-state coordination polymers (or Metal-Organic Framework—MOF and polymerization catalysis. MOF compounds combining two sets of different lanthanide elements (Nd3+, Eu3+/Tb3+ were used for that purpose: the use of neodymium was required due to its well-known catalytic properties in dienes polymerization. A second lanthanide, europium or terbium, was included in the MOF structure with the aim to provide luminescent properties. Several lanthanides-based MOF meeting these criteria were prepared according to different approaches, and they were further used as catalysts for the polymerization of isoprene. Stereoregular cis-polyisoprene was received, which in some cases exhibited luminescent properties in the UV-visible range.

  14. Synthesis of styrene/isoprene/butadiene integrated rubber with wide glass transition temperature by reactive extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianhua; Zheng, Anna; Zhan, Pengfei; Shi, Han; Li, Xiang; Guan, Yong; Wei, Dafu

    2018-05-01

    In this work, styrene/isoprene/butadiene integrated rubber (SIBR) was synthesized with n-butyllithium as the initiator and tetrahydrofuran as structure modifier in a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder. The content of diene in these terpolymers reached a surprising 70 wt% by feeding the monomers in two different sites of the twin-screw extruder. 1H-NMR, GPC and TEM results showed that the molecular structures of terpolymers changed with the variation of feeding site. Dynamic mechanical analysis of the vulcanized SIBR showed that the terpolymer had a wide glass transition region, which assured an excellent combination of high antiskid properties and low rolling resistance. Different from traditional solution polymerization, the present work provides a green approach to prepare the SIBR via bulk polymerization without solvent.

  15. On rates and mechanisms of OH and O3 reactions with isoprene-derived hydroxy nitrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lance; Teng, Alex P; Wennberg, Paul O; Crounse, John D; Cohen, Ronald C

    2014-03-06

    Eight distinct hydroxy nitrates are stable products of the first step in the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene by OH. The subsequent chemical fate of these molecules affects global and regional production of ozone and aerosol as well as the location of nitrogen deposition. We synthesized and purified 3 of the 8 isoprene hydroxy nitrate isomers: (E/Z)-2-methyl-4-nitrooxybut-2-ene-1-ol and 3-methyl-2-nitrooxybut-3-ene-1-ol. Oxidation of these molecules by OH and ozone was studied using both chemical ionization mass spectrometry and thermo-dissociation laser induced fluorescence. The OH reaction rate constants at 300 K measured relative to propene at 745 Torr are (1.1 ± 0.2) × 10(-10) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for both the E and Z isomers and (4.2 ± 0.7) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the third isomer. The ozone reaction rate constants for (E/Z)-2-methyl-4-nitrooxybut-2-ene-1-ol are (2.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-17) and (2.9 ± 0.5) × 10(-17) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), respectively. 3-Methyl-2-nitrooxybut-3-ene-1-ol reacts with ozone very slowly, within the range of (2.5-5) × 10(-19) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). Reaction pathways, product yields, and implications for atmospheric chemistry are discussed. A condensed mechanism suitable for use in atmospheric chemistry models is presented.

  16. In situ emulsion cationic polymerization of isoprene onto the surface of graphite oxide sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazat, Alice [Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères, IMP, CNRS UMR 5223, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and INSA de Lyon, 15 boulevard Latarjet, 69122 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Laboratoire de Recherches et de Contrôle du Caoutchouc et des Plastiques, LRCCP, 60 rue Auber, 94408 Vitry-sur-Seine cedex (France); Beyou, Emmanuel, E-mail: beyou@univ-lyon1.fr [Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères, IMP, CNRS UMR 5223, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and INSA de Lyon, 15 boulevard Latarjet, 69122 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Barrès, Claire [Ingénierie des Matériaux Polymères, IMP, CNRS UMR 5223, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 and INSA de Lyon, 15 boulevard Latarjet, 69122 Villeurbanne cedex (France); Bruno, Florence; Janin, Claude [Laboratoire de Recherches et de Contrôle du Caoutchouc et des Plastiques, LRCCP, 60 rue Auber, 94408 Vitry-sur-Seine cedex (France)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Graphite oxide sheets were functionalized by polyisoprene in a two steps procedure. • The polyisoprene chains were grafted onto functionalized GO sheets by the grafting through technique. • A polyisoprene weight content of 50% was calculated from TGA measurements. • A decrease of the air permeability coefficient of 27% for the vulcanized PI composites has been reached. - Abstract: Grafting of polymers onto graphite oxide sheets (GO) has been widely studied in recent years due to the numerous applications of GO-based composites. Herein, polyisoprene (PI) chains were anchored on the surface of GO by in situ cationic polymerization using a “grafting through” approach with allyltrimethoxysilane-modified GO (GO-ATMS). First, the functionalization of GO sheets through the hydrolysis-condensation of allyltrimethoxysilane (ATMS) molecules was qualitatively evidenced by infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and a weight content of 4% grafted ATMS was calculated from thermogravimetric analysis. Then, isoprene was in situ polymerized through a one-pot cationic mechanism by using a highly water-dispersible Lewis acid surfactant combined catalyst. For comparison, it was shown that the cationic polymerization of isoprene in presence of un-functionalized GO sheets led to a polyisoprene weight content on the solid filler divided by 3 compared to GO-ATMS. Finally, the compounding of the modified GO/PI composites was performed at a processing temperature of 80 °C with 2 phr and 15 phr loadings and it was shown a decrease of the air permeability coefficient of 27% for the vulcanizates with 15 phr loading.

  17. In situ emulsion cationic polymerization of isoprene onto the surface of graphite oxide sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazat, Alice; Beyou, Emmanuel; Barrès, Claire; Bruno, Florence; Janin, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphite oxide sheets were functionalized by polyisoprene in a two steps procedure. • The polyisoprene chains were grafted onto functionalized GO sheets by the grafting through technique. • A polyisoprene weight content of 50% was calculated from TGA measurements. • A decrease of the air permeability coefficient of 27% for the vulcanized PI composites has been reached. - Abstract: Grafting of polymers onto graphite oxide sheets (GO) has been widely studied in recent years due to the numerous applications of GO-based composites. Herein, polyisoprene (PI) chains were anchored on the surface of GO by in situ cationic polymerization using a “grafting through” approach with allyltrimethoxysilane-modified GO (GO-ATMS). First, the functionalization of GO sheets through the hydrolysis-condensation of allyltrimethoxysilane (ATMS) molecules was qualitatively evidenced by infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry and a weight content of 4% grafted ATMS was calculated from thermogravimetric analysis. Then, isoprene was in situ polymerized through a one-pot cationic mechanism by using a highly water-dispersible Lewis acid surfactant combined catalyst. For comparison, it was shown that the cationic polymerization of isoprene in presence of un-functionalized GO sheets led to a polyisoprene weight content on the solid filler divided by 3 compared to GO-ATMS. Finally, the compounding of the modified GO/PI composites was performed at a processing temperature of 80 °C with 2 phr and 15 phr loadings and it was shown a decrease of the air permeability coefficient of 27% for the vulcanizates with 15 phr loading.

  18. Growth regulating properties of isoprene and isoprenoid-based essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew Maxwell P; Shukla, Mukund R; Sherif, Sherif M; Brown, Paula B; Saxena, Praveen K

    2016-01-01

    Essential oils have growth regulating properties comparable to the well-documented methyl jasmonate and may be involved in localized and/or airborne plant communication. Aromatic plants employ large amounts of resources to produce essential oils. Some essential oils are known to contain compounds with plant growth regulating activities. However, the potential capacity of essential oils as airborne molecules able to modulate plant growth/development has remained uninvestigated. Here, we demonstrate that essential oils from eight taxonomically diverse plants applied in their airborne state inhibited auxin-induced elongation of Pisum sativum hypocotyls and Avena sativa coleoptiles. This response was also observed using five monoterpenes commonly found in essential oils as well as isoprene, the basic building block of terpenes. Upon transfer to ambient conditions, A. sativa coleoptiles resumed elongation, demonstrating an antagonistic relationship rather than toxicity. Inclusion of essential oils, monoterpenes, or isoprene into the headspace of culture vessels induced abnormal cellular growth along hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana. These responses were also elicited by methyl jasmonate (MeJA); however, where methyl jasmonate inhibited root growth essential oils did not. Gene expression studies in A. thaliana also demonstrated differences between the MeJA and isoprenoid responses. This series of experiments clearly demonstrate that essential oils and their isoprenoid components interact with endogenous plant growth regulators when applied directly or as volatile components in the headspace. The similarities between isoprenoid and MeJA responses suggest that they may act in plant defence signalling. While further studies are needed to determine the ecological and evolutionary significance, the results of this study and the specialized anatomy associated with aromatic plants suggest that essential oils may act as airborne signalling molecules.

  19. Volatile organic compound emissions from Larrea tridentata (creosotebush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guenther

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results from the CREosote ATmosphere Interactions through Volatile Emissions (CREATIVE 2009 field study in southern Arizona aimed at quantifying emission rates of VOCs from creosotebush (Larrea tridentata during the summer 2009 monsoon season. This species was chosen because of its vast distribution in North and South American deserts and because its resins have been reported to contain a rich set of volatile organic compounds (VOC. While a variety of ecosystems have been investigated for VOC emissions, deserts remain essentially unstudied, partially because of their low biomass densities and water limitations. However, during the North American monsoon, a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (80 mm occurs over large areas of the Sonoran desert in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. We observed a strong diurnal pattern of branch emissions and ambient concentrations of an extensive suite of VOCs with maxima in early afternoon. These include VOCs typically observed in forest sites (oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids as well as a large number of other compounds, some of which have not been previously described from any plant including 1-chloro-2-methoxy-benzene and isobutyronitrile. Although generally considered to be derived from anthropogenic sources, we observed emissions of aromatic compounds including benzene, and a broad range of phenolics. Dimethyl sulfide emissions from creosotebush were higher than reported from any previously studied plant suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems should be reconsidered as an important source of this climatically important gas. We also present direct, primary emission measurements of isoprene and its apparent oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and 3-methyl furan (the later three compounds are typically assumed to form from secondary reactions within the atmosphere, as well as a group of compounds considered to be fatty acid

  20. Living catalyzed-chain-growth polymerization and block copolymerization of isoprene by rare-earth metal allyl precursors bearing a constrained-geometry-conformation ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Zhongbao; Cui, Dongmei; Hou, Zhaomin; Li, Xiaofang

    2010-05-07

    Aminophenyl functionalized cyclopentadienyl ligated rare-earth metal allyl mediated cationic systems display high cis-1,4 selectivity for the polymerization of isoprene, and living reversible and rapid chain transfer to aluminium additives.

  1. Increased N2O emission by inhibited plant growth in the CO2 leaked soil environment: Simulation of CO2 leakage from carbon capture and storage (CCS) site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, You Jin; He, Wenmei; Ko, Daegeun; Chung, Haegeun; Yoo, Gayoung

    2017-12-31

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations is continuing to increase due to anthropogenic activity, and geological CO 2 storage via carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology can be an effective way to mitigate global warming due to CO 2 emission. However, the possibility of CO 2 leakage from reservoirs and pipelines exists, and such leakage could negatively affect organisms in the soil environment. Therefore, to determine the impacts of geological CO 2 leakage on plant and soil processes, we conducted a greenhouse study in which plants and soils were exposed to high levels of soil CO 2 . Cabbage, which has been reported to be vulnerable to high soil CO 2 , was grown under BI (no injection), NI (99.99% N 2 injection), and CI (99.99% CO 2 injection). Mean soil CO 2 concentration for CI was 66.8-76.9% and the mean O 2 concentrations in NI and CI were 6.6-12.7%, which could be observed in the CO 2 leaked soil from the pipelines connected to the CCS sites. The soil N 2 O emission was increased by 286% in the CI, where NO 3 - -N concentration was 160% higher compared to that in the control. This indicates that higher N 2 O emission from CO 2 leakage could be due to enhanced nitrification process. Higher NO 3 - -N content in soil was related to inhibited plant metabolism. In the CI treatment, chlorophyll content decreased and chlorosis appeared after 8th day of injection. Due to the inhibited root growth, leaf water and nitrogen contents were consistently lowered by 15% under CI treatment. Our results imply that N 2 O emission could be increased by the secondary effects of CO 2 leakage on plant metabolism. Hence, monitoring the environmental changes in rhizosphere would be very useful for impact assessment of CCS technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring urinary N-acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine (IPMA3) as a potential biomarker of isoprene exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwis, K Udeni; Bailey, T Liz; Patel, Dhrusti; Wang, Liqun; Blount, Benjamin C

    2016-10-19

    Isoprene, the 2-methyl analog of 1,3-butadiene, is identified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Isoprene is ubiquitous in the environment with numerous natural and anthropogenic sources. Tobacco smoke is the main exogenous source of isoprene exposure in indoor environments. Among smoke constituents, isoprene is thought to contribute significantly to cancer risk; however, no selective urinary biomarkers of isoprene exposure have been identified for humans. In this manuscript, we measured the minor isoprene metabolite IPMA1 (mixture of N-acetyl-S-(1-[hydroxymethyl]-2-methyl-2-propen-1-yl)-L-cysteine and N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy-3-methyl-3-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine), and we identified IPMA3 (N-acetyl-S-(4-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-L-cysteine) as a major isoprene metabolite and novel isoprene exposure biomarker for humans. Urinary isoprene metabolites were measured using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quad tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MSMS). The detection rates of IPMA1 and IPMA3 are <20% and 82%, respectively. The selectivity and abundance of IPMA3 make it a useful urinary biomarker of isoprene exposure. The limit of detection of IPMA3 in urine was 0.5 ng mL -1 . IPMA3 was stable under different storage temperatures and following ten freeze-thaw cycles. The average recovery of urine spiked with IPMA3 at three different levels was 99%. IPMA3 was measured in urine samples received from 75 anonymous subjects; the median (25th percentile, 75th percentile) IPMA3 level in smokers was 36.2 (18.2, 56.8) ng mL -1 and non-smokers 2.31 (2.31, 4.38) ng mL -1 . Application of this method to large population studies will help to characterize isoprene exposure and assess potential health impact. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions from Quercus coccifera exhibit interacting responses to light and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Staudt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Light and temperature are known to be the most important environmental factors controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions from plants, but little is known about their interdependencies especially for BVOCs other than isoprene. We studied light responses at different temperatures and temperature responses at different light levels of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence on Quercus coccifera, an evergreen oak widespread in Mediterranean shrublands. More than 50 BVOCs were detected in the emissions from Q. coccifera leaves most of them being isoprenoids plus a few green leaf volatiles (GLVs. Under standard conditions non-oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-hc accounted for about 90% of the total BVOC release (mean ± SD: 738 ± 378 ng m−2 projected leaf area s−1 or 13.1 ± 6.9 μg g−1 leaf dry weight h−1 and oxygenated monoterpenes (MT-ox and sesquiterpenes (SQTs accounted for the rest in about equal proportions. Except GLVs, emissions of all BVOCs responded positively to light and temperature. The light responses of MT and SQT emissions resembled that of CO2-assimilation and were little influenced by the assay temperature: at high assay temperature, MT-hc emissions saturated at lower light levels than at standard assay temperature and tended even to decrease in the highest light range. The emission responses to temperature showed mostly Arrhenius-type response curves, whose shapes in the high temperature range were clearly affected by the assay light level and were markedly different between isoprenoid classes: at non-saturating light, all isoprenoids showed a similar temperature optimum (~43 °C, but, at higher temperatures, MT-hc emissions decreased faster than MT-ox and SQT emissions. At saturating light, MT-hc emissions peaked around 37 °C and rapidly dropped at higher temperatures, whereas MT-ox and SQT emissions strongly increased between 40 and 50 °C accompanied by a burst of GLVs. In all

  4. Reduced prefrontal and increased subcortical brain functioning assessed using positron emission tomography in predatory and affective murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Meloy, J R; Bihrle, S; Stoddard, J; LaCasse, L; Buchsbaum, M S

    1998-01-01

    There appear to be no brain imaging studies investigating which brain mechanisms subserve affective, impulsive violence versus planned, predatory violence. It was hypothesized that affectively violent offenders would have lower prefrontal activity, higher subcortical activity, and reduced prefrontal/subcortical ratios relative to controls, while predatory violent offenders would show relatively normal brain functioning. Glucose metabolism was assessed using positron emission tomography in 41 comparisons, 15 predatory murderers, and nine affective murderers in left and right hemisphere prefrontal (medial and lateral) and subcortical (amygdala, midbrain, hippocampus, and thalamus) regions. Affective murderers relative to comparisons had lower left and right prefrontal functioning, higher right hemisphere subcortical functioning, and lower right hemisphere prefrontal/subcortical ratios. In contrast, predatory murderers had prefrontal functioning that was more equivalent to comparisons, while also having excessively high right subcortical activity. Results support the hypothesis that emotional, unplanned impulsive murderers are less able to regulate and control aggressive impulses generated from subcortical structures due to deficient prefrontal regulation. It is hypothesized that excessive subcortical activity predisposes to aggressive behaviour, but that while predatory murderers have sufficiently good prefrontal functioning to regulate these aggressive impulses, the affective murderers lack such prefrontal control over emotion regulation.

  5. Long-term manure application increased greenhouse gas emissions but had no effect on ammonia volatilization in a Northern China upland field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Hongbin; Luo, Jiafa; Wang, Hongyuan; Zhai, Limei; Geng, Yucong; Zhang, Yitao; Li, Jungai; Lei, Qiuliang; Bashir, Muhammad Amjad; Wu, Shuxia; Lindsey, Stuart

    2018-08-15

    The impacts of manure application on soil ammonia (NH 3 ) volatilization and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are of interest for both agronomic and environmental reasons. However, how the swine manure addition affects greenhouse gas and N emissions in North China Plain wheat fields is still unknown. A long-term fertilization experiment was carried out on a maize-wheat rotation system in Northern China (Zea mays L-Triticum aestivum L.) from 1990 to 2017. The experiment included four treatments: (1) No fertilizer (CK), (2) single application of chemical fertilizers (NPK), (3) NPK plus 22.5t/ha swine manure (NPKM), (4) NPK plus 33.7t/ha swine manure (NPKM+). A short-term fertilization experiment was conducted from 2016 to 2017 using the same treatments in a field that had been abandoned for decades. The emissions of NH 3 and GHGs were measured during the wheat season from 2016 to 2017. Results showed that after long-term fertilization the wheat yields for NPKM treatment were 7105kg/ha, which were higher than NPK (3880kg/ha) and NPKM+ treatments (5518kg/ha). The wheat yields were similar after short-term fertilization (6098-6887kg/ha). The NH 3 -N emission factors (EF amm ) for NPKM and NPKM+ treatments (1.1 and 1.1-1.4%, respectively) were lower than NPK treatment (2.2%) in both the long and short-term fertilization treatments. In the long- and short-term experiments the nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EF nit ) for NPKM+ treatment were 4.2% and 3.7%, respectively, which were higher than for the NPK treatment (3.5% and 2.5%, respectively) and the NPKM treatment (3.6% and 2.2%, respectively). In addition, under long and short-term fertilization, the greenhouse gas intensities for the NPKM+ treatment were 33.7 and 27.0kg CO 2 -eq/kg yield, respectively, which were higher than for the NPKM treatment (22.8 and 21.1kg CO 2 -eq/kg yield, respectively). These results imply that excessive swine manure application does not increase yield but increases GHG emissions

  6. Measurements of the Weak UV Absorptions of Isoprene and Acetone at 261–275 nm Using Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Evaluation of a Potential Portable Ringdown Breath Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan T.; Wang, Chuji

    2013-01-01

    The weak absorption spectra of isoprene and acetone have been measured in the wavelength range of 261–275 nm using cavity ringdown spectroscopy. The measured absorption cross-sections of isoprene in the wavelength region of 261–266 nm range from 3.65 × 10−21 cm2·molecule−1 at 261 nm to 1.42 × 10−21 cm2·molecule−1 at 266 nm; these numbers are in good agreement with the values reported in the literature. In the longer wavelength range of 270–275 nm, however, where attractive applications using a single wavelength compact diode laser operating at 274 nm is located, isoprene has been reported in the literature to have no absorption (too weak to be detected). Small absorption cross-sections of isoprene in this longer wavelength region are measured using cavity ringdown spectroscopy for the first time in this work, i.e., 6.20 × 10−23 cm2·molecule−1 at 275 nm. With the same experimental system, wavelength-dependent absorption cross-sections of acetone have also been measured. Theoretical detection limits of isoprene and comparisons of absorbance of isoprene, acetone, and healthy breath gas in this wavelength region are also discussed. PMID:23803787

  7. The effects of greenhouse gas emissions through increased use biofuels - A literature review; Virkningene paa klimagassutslipp ved oekt bruk av biodrivstoff - en litteraturgjennomgang

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtsmark, Bjart

    2010-10-15

    Production of biofuels is significantly more energy intensive than production of fossil fuels as petrol and diesel (see for example Field et al. 2007). Moreover, during the production process considerable amounts of fossil energy are used as input (Hille et al. 2006). Replacing fossil fuels with biofuels will therefore not lead to emission reductions as significant as one earlier thought, when the fossil fuel input in relation to production of biofuels was ignored. Moreover, during recent years there has been increased attention towards CO{sub 2}- emissions that will occur as farmers worldwide convert grassland and forests to cropland in order to produce biofuels (Fargione et al. 2008). Such emissions are especially significant when tropical rainforests and peatlands are converted to cropland. As the areas are converted to cropland microbial decomposition of organic carbon stored in the soil are released as CO{sub 2}. In some cases such emissions are high and cause a carbon debt that will require many decades or even centuries to be repaid, as biofuels replace fossil fuels. In the meantime the production and use of biofuels have exaggerated climate change. However, there are more promising cases. For example, converting savannas in Brazil for sugarcane production will cause a carbon debt that will be repaid after approximately 17 years (Fargione et al 2008). The seminal article by Timothy D. Searchinger et al. in Science in February 2008 generated additional uncertainty with regard to the emission reducing effects of biofuels. These authors' main argument was that increased use of existing croplands for biofuels reduces food supply and, therefore, causes higher food prices. This increases the pressure towards further deforestation. However, there are considerable areas of abandoned land that was previously used for forestry or agriculture, and has a low content of carbon stored in the soil. A number of studies underline that producing crops for biofuels on

  8. Diel Variation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions- A field Study in the Sub, Low and High Arctic on the Effect of Temperature and Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Frida; Faubert, Patrick; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Many hours of sunlight in the midnight sun period suggest that significant amounts of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may be released from arctic ecosystems during night-time. However, the emissions from these ecosystems are rarely studied and limited to point measurements during daytime. We measured BVOC emissions during 24-hour periods in the field using a push-pull chamber technique and collection of volatiles in adsorbent cartridges followed by analysis with gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. Five different arctic vegetation communities were examined: high arctic heaths dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, low arctic heaths dominated by Salix glauca and Betula nana and a subarctic peatland dominated by the moss Warnstorfia exannulata and the sedge Eriophorum russeolum. We also addressed how climate warming affects the 24-hour emission and how the daytime emissions respond to sudden darkness. The emissions from the high arctic sites were lowest and had a strong diel variation with almost no emissions during night-time. The low arctic sites as well as the subarctic site had a more stable release of BVOCs during the 24-hour period with night-time emissions in the same range as those during the day. These results warn against overlooking the night period when considering arctic emissions. During the day, the quantity of BVOCs and the number of different compounds emitted was higher under ambient light than in darkness. The monoterpenes α-fenchene, α -phellandrene, 3-carene and α-terpinene as well as isoprene were absent in dark measurements during the day. Warming by open top chambers increased the emission rates both in the high and low arctic sites, forewarning higher emissions in a future warmer climate in the Arctic. PMID:25897519

  9. Diel Variation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions--A field Study in the Sub, Low and High Arctic on the Effect of Temperature and Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindwall, Frida; Faubert, Patrick; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Many hours of sunlight in the midnight sun period suggest that significant amounts of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) may be released from arctic ecosystems during night-time. However, the emissions from these ecosystems are rarely studied and limited to point measurements during daytime. We measured BVOC emissions during 24-hour periods in the field using a push-pull chamber technique and collection of volatiles in adsorbent cartridges followed by analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Five different arctic vegetation communities were examined: high arctic heaths dominated by Salix arctica and Cassiope tetragona, low arctic heaths dominated by Salix glauca and Betula nana and a subarctic peatland dominated by the moss Warnstorfia exannulata and the sedge Eriophorum russeolum. We also addressed how climate warming affects the 24-hour emission and how the daytime emissions respond to sudden darkness. The emissions from the high arctic sites were lowest and had a strong diel variation with almost no emissions during night-time. The low arctic sites as well as the subarctic site had a more stable release of BVOCs during the 24-hour period with night-time emissions in the same range as those during the day. These results warn against overlooking the night period when considering arctic emissions. During the day, the quantity of BVOCs and the number of different compounds emitted was higher under ambient light than in darkness. The monoterpenes α-fenchene, α-phellandrene, 3-carene and α-terpinene as well as isoprene were absent in dark measurements during the day. Warming by open top chambers increased the emission rates both in the high and low arctic sites, forewarning higher emissions in a future warmer climate in the Arctic.

  10. Effect of climate-driven changes in species composition on regional emission capacities of biogenic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurgers, G.; Arneth, A.; Hickler, T.

    2011-11-01

    Regional or global modeling studies of dynamic vegetation often represent vegetation by large functional units (plant functional types (PFTs)). For simulation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) in these models, emission capacities, which give the emission under standardized conditions, are provided as an average value for a PFT. These emission capacities thus hide the known heterogeneity in emission characteristics that are not straightforwardly related to functional characteristics of plants. Here we study the effects of the aggregation of species-level information on emission characteristics at PFT level. The roles of temporal and spatial variability are assessed for Europe by comparing simulations that represent vegetation by dominant tree species on the one hand and by plant functional types on the other. We compare a number of time slices between the Last Glacial Maximum (21,000 years ago) and the present day to quantify the effects of dynamically changing vegetation on BVOC emissions. Spatial heterogeneity of emission factors is studied with present-day simulations. We show that isoprene and monoterpene emissions are of similar magnitude in Europe when the simulation represents dominant European tree species, which indicates that simulations applying typical global-scale emission capacities for PFTs tend to overestimate isoprene and underestimate monoterpene emissions. Moreover, both spatial and temporal variability affect emission capacities considerably, and by aggregating these to PFT level averages, one loses the information on local heterogeneity. Given the reactive nature of these compounds, accounting for spatial and temporal heterogeneity can be important for studies of their fate in the atmosphere.

  11. Comments on the Brazilian Proposal and contributions to global temperature increase with different climate responses - CO2 emissions due to fossil fuels, CO2 emissions due to land use change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Ribeiro, S.K.; Muylaert, M.S.; Campos, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to take into account the anthropogenic contribution to the increase of global temperature, instead of being restricted to the carbon emissions adopted in the Kyoto Protocol on responsibility sharing. It is shown the sensibility of the results to the variation of the parameters from different authors used for simulating the climate response based in the so-called Brazilian Proposal (BP). It is also discussed the methodological and scientific aspects of the BP being discussed by an expert group coordinated by SBSTA/UNFCCC and results of energy sector and land use change contributions by groups of countries. (author)

  12. Comments on the Brazilian Proposal and contributions to global temperature increase with different climate responses--CO2 emissions due to fossil fuels, CO2 emissions due to land use change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Ribeiro, S.K.; Muylaert, M.S.; Pires de Campos, Christiano

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to take into account the anthropogenic contribution to the increase of global temperature, instead of being restricted to the Carbon emissions adopted in the Kyoto Protocol on responsibility sharing. It is shown the sensibility of the results to the variation of the parameters from different authors used for simulating the climate response based in the so-called Brazilian Proposal (BP). It is also discussed the methodological and scientific aspects of the BP being discussed by an expert group coordinated by SBSTA/UNFCCC and results of energy sector and land use change contributions by groups of countries

  13. Isomerization of Second-Generation Isoprene Peroxy Radicals: Epoxide Formation and Implications for Secondary Organic Aerosol Yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Ambro, Emma L.; Møller, Kristian H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Liu, Jiumeng; Shilling, John E.; Lee, Ben Hwan; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2017-04-11

    We report chamber measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene photochemical oxidation, where radical concentrations were systematically varied and the molecular composition of semi to low volatility gases and SOA were measured online. Using a detailed chemical mechanism, we find that to explain the behavior of low volatility products and SOA mass yields relative to input H2O2 concentrations, the second generation dihydroxy hydroperoxy peroxy radical (C5H11O6•) must undergo an intra-molecular H-shift with a net forward rate constant of order 0.1 s-1 or higher, consistent with quantum chemical calculations which suggest a net forward rate constant of 0.3-0.9 s-1. Furthermore, these calculations suggest the dominant product of this isomerization is a dihydroxy hydroperoxy epoxide (C5H10O5) which is expected to have a saturation vapor pressure ~2 orders of magnitude higher than the dihydroxy dihydroperoxide, ISOP(OOH)2 (C5H12O6), a major product of the peroxy radical reacting with HO2. These results provide strong constraints on the likely volatility distribution of isoprene oxidation products under atmospheric conditions and thus on the importance of non-reactive gas-particle partitioning of isoprene oxidation products as an SOA source.

  14. A highly spatially resolved GIS-based model to assess the isoprenoid emissions from key Italian ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Claudia Kemper; Fares, Silvano; Ciccioli, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    The amount of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) emitted from terrestrial vegetation is of great importance in atmospheric reactivity, particularly for ozone-forming reactions and as condensation nuclei in aerosol formation and growth. This work presents a detailed inventory of isoprenoid emissions from vegetation in Italy using an original approach which combines state of the art models to estimate the species-specific isoprenoid emissions and a Geographic Information System (GIS) where emissions are spatially represented. Isoprenoid species and basal emission factors were obtained by combining results from laboratory experiments with those published in literature. For the first time, our investigation was not only restricted to isoprene and total monoterpenes, but our goal was to provide maps of isoprene and individual monoterpenes at a high-spatial (∼1 km2) and temporal resolution (daily runs, monthly trends in emissions are discussed in the text). Another novelty in our research was the inclusion of the effects of phenology on plant emissions. Our results show that: a) isoprene, a-pinene, sabinene and b-pinene are the most important compounds emitted from vegetation in Italy; b) annual biogenic isoprene and monoterpene fluxes for the year 2006 were ∼31.30 Gg and ∼37.70 Gg, respectively; and c) Quercus pubescens + Quercus petrea + Quercus robur, Quercus ilex, Quercus suber and Fagus sylvatica are the principal isoprenoid emitting species in the country. The high spatial and temporal resolution, combined with the species-specific emission output, makes the model particularly suitable for assessing local budgets, and for modeling photochemical pollution in Italy.

  15. Effect of VOC Emissions from Vegetation on Air Quality in Berlin during a Heatwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, Galina; Kuik, Friderike; Bonn, Boris; Lauer, Axel; Grote, Rüdiger; Tomiak, Karolina; Butler, Tim M

    2017-06-06

    The potential of emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone and particulate matter has long been recognized. This potential increases with rising temperatures and may lead to severe problems with air quality in densely populated areas during heat waves. Here, we investigate how heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds from urban/suburban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone and particulate matter. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with atmospheric chemistry (WRF-Chem) with emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation simulated with MEGAN to quantify some of these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany, during the heat wave in 2006. The highest ozone concentration observed during that period was ∼200 μg/m 3 (∼101 ppb V ). The model simulations indicate that the contribution of biogenic VOC emissions to ozone formation is lower in June (9-11%) and August (6-9%) than in July (17-20%). On particular days within the analyzed heat wave period, this contribution increases up to 60%. The actual contribution is expected to be even higher as the model underestimates isoprene concentrations over urban forests and parks by 0.6-1.4 ppb v . Our study demonstrates that biogenic VOCs can considerably enhance air pollution during heat waves. We emphasize the dual role of vegetation for air quality and human health in cities during warm seasons, which is removal and lessening versus enhancement of air pollution. The results of our study suggest that reduction of anthropogenic sources of NOx, VOCs, and PM, for example, reduction of the motorized vehicle fleet, would have to accompany urban tree planting campaigns to make them really beneficial for urban dwellers.

  16. The use of isoprene as a novel dopant in negative ion atmospheric pressure photoionization mass spectrometry coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousty, Faezeh; O'Brien, Rob

    2015-06-15

    As in the case with positive ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (PI-APPI), the addition of dopants significantly improves the sensitivity of negative ion APPI (NI-APPI). However, the research on dopant-assisted-NI-APPI has been quite limited compared to the studies on dopant-assisted PI-APPI. This work presents the potential of isoprene as a novel dopant for NI-APPI. Thirteen compounds, possessing suitable gas-phase ion energetic properties in order to make stable negative ions, were selected. Dopants were continuously introduced into a tee junction prior to the ion source through a fused-silica capillary, while analytes were directly injected into the same tee. Then both were mixed with the continuous solvent from high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nebulized, and entered the source. The nebulized stream was analyzed by APPI tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. The results obtained using isoprene were compared with those obtained by using toluene as a dopant and dopant-free NI-APPI. Isoprene enhanced the ionization intensities of the studied compounds, which were found to be comparable and, in some cases, more effective than toluene. The mechanisms leading to the observed set of negative analyte ions were also discussed. Because in NI-APPI, thermal electrons, which are produced during the photoionization of a dopant, are considered the main reagent ions, both isoprene and toluene promoted the ionization of analytes through the same mechanisms, as expected. Isoprene was shown to perform well as a novel dopant for NI-APPI. Isoprene has a high photoabsorption cross section in the VUV region; therefore, its photoionization leads to a highly effective production of thermal electrons, which further promotes the ionization of analytes. In addition, isoprene is environmentally benign and less toxic compared to currently used dopants. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. F. Acton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS. Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m−2 h−1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m−2 h−1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006. A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC–MS to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  18. Canopy-scale flux measurements and bottom-up emission estimates of volatile organic compounds from a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, W. Joe F.; Schallhart, Simon; Langford, Ben; Valach, Amy; Rantala, Pekka; Fares, Silvano; Carriero, Giulia; Tillmann, Ralf; Tomlinson, Sam J.; Dragosits, Ulrike; Gianelle, Damiano; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Nemitz, Eiko

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports the fluxes and mixing ratios of biogenically emitted volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) 4 m above a mixed oak and hornbeam forest in northern Italy. Fluxes of methanol, acetaldehyde, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein, methyl ethyl ketone and monoterpenes were obtained using both a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) together with the methods of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (using PTR-MS) and eddy covariance (using PTR-ToF-MS). Isoprene was the dominant emitted compound with a mean daytime flux of 1.9 mg m-2 h-1. Mixing ratios, recorded 4 m above the canopy, were dominated by methanol with a mean value of 6.2 ppbv over the 28-day measurement period. Comparison of isoprene fluxes calculated using the PTR-MS and PTR-ToF-MS showed very good agreement while comparison of the monoterpene fluxes suggested a slight over estimation of the flux by the PTR-MS. A basal isoprene emission rate for the forest of 1.7 mg m-2 h-1 was calculated using the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) isoprene emission algorithms (Guenther et al., 2006). A detailed tree-species distribution map for the site enabled the leaf-level emission of isoprene and monoterpenes recorded using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to be scaled up to produce a bottom-up canopy-scale flux. This was compared with the top-down canopy-scale flux obtained by measurements. For monoterpenes, the two estimates were closely correlated and this correlation improved when the plant-species composition in the individual flux footprint was taken into account. However, the bottom-up approach significantly underestimated the isoprene flux, compared with the top-down measurements, suggesting that the leaf-level measurements were not representative of actual emission rates.

  19. The biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory in France: application to plant ecosystems in the Berre-Marseilles area (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valérie; Dumergues, Laurent; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Torres, Liberto

    2006-12-15

    An inventory describing the fluxes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), isoprene and monoterpenes, and other VOCs (OVOCs) from the biosphere to the atmosphere, has been constructed within the framework of the ESCOMPTE project (fiEld experimentS to COnstrain Models of atmospheric Pollution and Transport of Emissions). The area concerned, located around Berre-Marseilles, is a Mediterranean region frequently subject to high ozone concentrations. The inventory has been developed using a fine scale land use database for the year 1999, forest composition statistics, emission potentials from individual plant species, biomass distribution, temperature and light intensity. The seasonal variations in emission potentials and biomass were also taken into account. Hourly meteorological data for 1999 were calculated from ALADIN data and these were used to predict the hourly isoprene, monoterpene and OVOC fluxes for the area on a 1 kmx1 km spatial grid. Estimates of annual biogenic isoprene, monoterpene and OVOC fluxes for the reference year 1999 were 20.6, 38.9 and 13.3 kt, respectively, Quercus pubescens, Quercus ilex, Pinus halepensis and garrigue vegetation are the dominant emitting species of the area. VOC emissions from vegetation in this region contribute approximately 94% to the NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compounds) of natural origin and are of the same order of magnitude as NMVOC emissions from anthropogenic sources. These results complete the global ESCOMPTE database needed to make an efficient strategy for tropospheric ozone reduction policy.

  20. Comparison of regional and global land cover products and the implications for biogenic emission modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ling; McDonald-Buller, Elena; McGaughey, Gary; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David T

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimates of biogenic emissions are required for air quality models that support the development of air quality management plans and attainment demonstrations. Land cover characterization is an essential driving input for most biogenic emissions models. This work contrasted the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover product against a regional land cover product developed for the Texas Commissions on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) over four climate regions in eastern Texas, where biogenic emissions comprise a large fraction of the total inventory of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and land cover is highly diverse. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) was utilized to investigate the influences of land cover characterization on modeled isoprene and monoterpene emissions through changes in the standard emission potential and emission activity factor, both separately and simultaneously. In Central Texas, forest coverage was significantly lower in the MODIS land cover product relative to the TCEQ data, which resulted in substantially lower estimates of isoprene and monoterpene emissions by as much as 90%. Differences in predicted isoprene and monoterpene emissions associated with variability in land cover characterization were primarily caused by differences in the standard emission potential, which is dependent on plant functional type. Photochemical modeling was conducted to investigate the effects of differences in estimated biogenic emissions associated with land cover characterization on predicted ozone concentrations using the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx). Mean differences in maximum daily average 8-hour (MDA8) ozone concentrations were 2 to 6 ppb with maximum differences exceeding 20 ppb. Continued focus should be on reducing uncertainties in the representation of land cover through field validation. Uncertainties in the estimation of biogenic emissions associated with

  1. Reduction of magnetic emission by increasing secondary side capacitor for ferrite geometry based series-series topology for wireless power transfer to vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik; Ahn, Seungyoung

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer to vehicles can potentially affect living organisms. As a result, minimizing the magnetic emissions without compromising with the power transferred is one of the most significant challenges in the success of this technology. Active and passive...... and secondary currents from the standard design. Therefore, a part of the secondary magnetic flux comes in phase opposition with the primary flux and the resultant field is reduced. Operation point is shifted with the new design from the maximum power transfer resonance point and hence the reflected resistance...... is reduced. In order to maintain the same power level, the primary current and voltage have to increased and decreased in the same proportion. Also, the primary capacitor needs to be increased for maintaining unity input power factor in the system. The above statements are provided first with help...

  2. Volatility and lifetime against OH heterogeneous reaction of ambient isoprene-epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Weiwei; Palm, Brett B.; Day, Douglas A.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Krechmer, Jordan E.; Peng, Zhe; de Sá, Suzane S.; Martin, Scot T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth; Baumann, Karsten; Hacker, Lina; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Koss, Abigail R.; de Gouw, Joost A.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Seco, Roger; Sjostedt, Steven J.; Park, Jeong-Hoo; Guenther, Alex B.; Kim, Saewung; Canonaco, Francesco; Prévôt, André S. H.; Brune, William H.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-01-01

    Isoprene-epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA) can contribute substantially to organic aerosol (OA) concentrations in forested areas under low NO conditions, hence significantly influencing the regional and global OA budgets, accounting, for example, for 16–36 % of the submicron OA in the southeastern United States (SE US) summer. Particle evaporation measurements from a thermodenuder show that the volatility of ambient IEPOX-SOA is lower than that of bulk OA and also much lower than that of known monomer IEPOX-SOA tracer species, indicating that IEPOX-SOA likely exists mostly as oligomers in the aerosol phase. The OH aging process of ambient IEPOX-SOA was investigated with an oxidation flow reactor (OFR). New IEPOX-SOA formation in the reactor was negligible, as the OFR does not accelerate processes such as aerosol uptake and reactions that do not scale with OH. Simulation results indicate that adding ~100 µg m-3 of pure H2SO4 to the ambient air allows IEPOX-SOA to be efficiently formed in the reactor. The heterogeneous reaction rate coefficient of ambient IEPOX-SOA with OH radical (kOH) was estimated as 4.0 ± 2.0 ×10-13 cm3 molec-1 s-1, which is equivalent to more than a 2-week lifetime. A similar kOH was found for measurements of OH oxidation of ambient Amazon forest air in an OFR. At higher OH exposures in the reactor (> 1 × 1012 molec cm-3 s), the mass loss of IEPOX-SOA due to heterogeneous reaction was mainly due to revolatilization of fragmented reaction products. We report, for the first time, OH reactive uptake coefficients (γOH = 0.59±0.33 in SE US and γOH = 0.68±0.38 in Amazon) for SOA under ambient conditions. A relative humidity dependence of kOH and γOH was observed, consistent with surface-area-limited OH uptake

  3. Volatility and lifetime against OH heterogeneous reaction of ambient isoprene-epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene-epoxydiols-derived secondary organic aerosol (IEPOX-SOA can contribute substantially to organic aerosol (OA concentrations in forested areas under low NO conditions, hence significantly influencing the regional and global OA budgets, accounting, for example, for 16–36 % of the submicron OA in the southeastern United States (SE US summer. Particle evaporation measurements from a thermodenuder show that the volatility of ambient IEPOX-SOA is lower than that of bulk OA and also much lower than that of known monomer IEPOX-SOA tracer species, indicating that IEPOX-SOA likely exists mostly as oligomers in the aerosol phase. The OH aging process of ambient IEPOX-SOA was investigated with an oxidation flow reactor (OFR. New IEPOX-SOA formation in the reactor was negligible, as the OFR does not accelerate processes such as aerosol uptake and reactions that do not scale with OH. Simulation results indicate that adding  ∼  100 µg m−3 of pure H2SO4 to the ambient air allows IEPOX-SOA to be efficiently formed in the reactor. The heterogeneous reaction rate coefficient of ambient IEPOX-SOA with OH radical (kOH was estimated as 4.0 ± 2.0  ×  10−13 cm3 molec−1 s−1, which is equivalent to more than a 2-week lifetime. A similar kOH was found for measurements of OH oxidation of ambient Amazon forest air in an OFR. At higher OH exposures in the reactor (>  1  ×  1012 molec cm−3 s, the mass loss of IEPOX-SOA due to heterogeneous reaction was mainly due to revolatilization of fragmented reaction products. We report, for the first time, OH reactive uptake coefficients (γOH =  0.59 ± 0.33 in SE US and γOH =  0.68 ± 0.38 in Amazon for SOA under ambient conditions. A relative humidity dependence of kOH and γOH was observed, consistent with surface-area-limited OH uptake. No decrease of kOH was observed as OH concentrations increased. These observations of physicochemical

  4. Real-Time Analysis of Isoprene in Breath by Using Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopy with a Hollow Optical Fiber Gas Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takuro; Katagiri, Takashi; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-12-05

    A breath analysis system based on ultraviolet-absorption spectroscopy was developed by using a hollow optical fiber as a gas cell for real-time monitoring of isoprene in breath. The hollow optical fiber functions as an ultra-small-volume gas cell with a long path. The measurement sensitivity of the system was evaluated by using nitric-oxide gas as a gas sample. The evaluation result showed that the developed system, using a laser-driven, high-intensity light source and a 3-m-long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber, could successfully measure nitric-oxide gas with a 50 ppb concentration. An absorption spectrum of a breath sample in the wavelength region of around 200-300 nm was measured, and the measured spectrum revealed the main absorbing components in breath as water vapor, isoprene, and ozone converted from oxygen by radiation of ultraviolet light. The concentration of isoprene in breath was estimated by multiple linear regression. The regression analysis results showed that the proposed analysis system enables real-time monitoring of isoprene during the exhaling of breath. Accordingly, it is suitable for measuring the circadian variation of isoprene.

  5. Real-Time Analysis of Isoprene in Breath by Using Ultraviolet-Absorption Spectroscopy with a Hollow Optical Fiber Gas Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuro Iwata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A breath analysis system based on ultraviolet-absorption spectroscopy was developed by using a hollow optical fiber as a gas cell for real-time monitoring of isoprene in breath. The hollow optical fiber functions as an ultra-small-volume gas cell with a long path. The measurement sensitivity of the system was evaluated by using nitric-oxide gas as a gas sample. The evaluation result showed that the developed system, using a laser-driven, high-intensity light source and a 3-m-long, aluminum-coated hollow optical fiber, could successfully measure nitric-oxide gas with a 50 ppb concentration. An absorption spectrum of a breath sample in the wavelength region of around 200–300 nm was measured, and the measured spectrum revealed the main absorbing components in breath as water vapor, isoprene, and ozone converted from oxygen by radiation of ultraviolet light. The concentration of isoprene in breath was estimated by multiple linear regression. The regression analysis results showed that the proposed analysis system enables real-time monitoring of isoprene during the exhaling of breath. Accordingly, it is suitable for measuring the circadian variation of isoprene.

  6. The other GHG : steps taken to reduce CO2 emissions may contribute to increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collison, M.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the Canadian oil and gas industry and government are now in the midst of a massive overhaul of hydrocarbon energy use and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) management. However, human-enhanced water evaporation (HEWE) may also be a significant contributor to global climate warming. Human-caused distortions of the hydrological cycle can cause multiple localized weather disturbances. There is currently a thousand times more water vapor being emitted than CO 2 , and this is contributing to increased rainfall levels around the world. Expansion of the agriculture and growth of industry has caused significant diversions and redistributions of water. Most of the water used is evaporated in the northern hemisphere. Climate modellers are needed to analyze the impacts of human-enhanced water evaporation local climates and weather. The main sources of water emissions are government-controlled energy projects and subsidized irrigation projects. Current levels of water vapour emissions are between 10 and 100 times the value of warming per tonne as CO 2 . Details of various research projects to use salt water as a fuel for vehicles was provided, as well as methods of improving the water-gas shift reaction method of hydrogen production. 2 figs

  7. Doping porous silicon with erbium: pores filling as a method to limit the Er-clustering effects and increasing its light emission

    KAUST Repository

    Mula, Guido; Printemps, Tony; Licitra, Christophe; Sogne, Elisa; D’ Acapito, Francesco; Gambacorti, Narciso; Sestu, Nicola; Saba, Michele; Pinna, Elisa; Chiriu, Daniele; Ricci, Pier Carlo; Casu, Alberto; Quochi, Francesco; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni; Falqui, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Er clustering plays a major role in hindering sufficient optical gain in Er-doped Si materials. For porous Si, the long-standing failure to govern the clustering has been attributed to insufficient knowledge of the several, concomitant and complex processes occurring during the electrochemical Er-doping. We propose here an alternative road to solve the issue: instead of looking for an equilibrium between Er content and light emission using 1-2% Er, we propose to significantly increase the electrochemical doping level to reach the filling the porous silicon pores with luminescent Er-rich material. To better understand the intricate and superposing phenomena of this process, we exploit an original approach based on needle electron tomography, EXAFS and photoluminescence. Needle electron tomography surprisingly shows a heterogeneous distribution of Er content in the silicon thin pores that until now couldn't be revealed by the sole use of scanning electron microscopy compositional mapping. Besides, while showing that pore filling leads to enhanced photoluminescence emission, we demonstrate that the latter is originated from both erbium oxide and silicate. These results give a much deeper understanding of the photoluminescence origin down to nanoscale and could lead to novel approaches focused on noteworthy enhancement of Er-related photoluminescence in porous silicon.

  8. Doping porous silicon with erbium: pores filling as a method to limit the Er-clustering effects and increasing its light emission

    KAUST Repository

    Mula, Guido

    2017-07-14

    Er clustering plays a major role in hindering sufficient optical gain in Er-doped Si materials. For porous Si, the long-standing failure to govern the clustering has been attributed to insufficient knowledge of the several, concomitant and complex processes occurring during the electrochemical Er-doping. We propose here an alternative road to solve the issue: instead of looking for an equilibrium between Er content and light emission using 1-2% Er, we propose to significantly increase the electrochemical doping level to reach the filling the porous silicon pores with luminescent Er-rich material. To better understand the intricate and superposing phenomena of this process, we exploit an original approach based on needle electron tomography, EXAFS and photoluminescence. Needle electron tomography surprisingly shows a heterogeneous distribution of Er content in the silicon thin pores that until now couldn\\'t be revealed by the sole use of scanning electron microscopy compositional mapping. Besides, while showing that pore filling leads to enhanced photoluminescence emission, we demonstrate that the latter is originated from both erbium oxide and silicate. These results give a much deeper understanding of the photoluminescence origin down to nanoscale and could lead to novel approaches focused on noteworthy enhancement of Er-related photoluminescence in porous silicon.

  9. PC-BEIS: a personal computer version of the biogenic emissions inventory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, T.E.; Waldruff, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS) has been adapted for use on IBM-compatible personal computers (PCs). PC-BEIS estimates hourly emissions of isoprene, α-pinene, other monoterpenes, and unidentified hydrocarbons for any county in the contiguous United States. To run the program, users must provide hourly data on ambient temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, and a code that identifies the particular county. This paper provides an overview of the method used to calculate biogenic emissions, shows an example application, and gives information on how to obtain a copy of the program

  10. China’s High-yield Pulp Sector and Its Carbon Dioxide Emission: Considering the Saved Standing Wood as an Increase of Carbon Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Gao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of high-yield pulp in China has increased significantly in recent years. The well-known advantages of this type of pulp include low production cost, high opacity, and good paper formation. In the context of state-of-the-art technologies, China’s high-yield pulping, which is dominated by the PRC-APMP (preconditioning refiner chemical treatment-alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping process, has a much higher energy input but a significantly lower wood consumption in comparison with the kraft pulping process. If the saved wood in the forest or plantation is considered as an increment of carbon storage, then the carbon dioxide emission from the production of high-yield pulp can be regarded as much lower than that of kraft pulp.

  11. Asymmetrically increased rib cage uptake on bone scintigraphy: Incidental detection of pleural mesothelioma on single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhull, Varun Singh; Sharma, Punit; Durgapal, Prashant; Karunanithi, Sellam; Tripathi, Madhavi; Kumar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Follow-up bone scintigraphy (BS) in a patient of carcinoma left breast, who was treated with surgery followed by radiotherapy 12 years back, revealed asymmetrically increased radiotracer uptake in left-sided ribs. Since, this pattern was atypical for metastatic rib involvement, single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) of thorax was done in the same setting which revealed circumferential nodular left-sided pleural thickening. Biopsy confirmed it to be pleural mesothelioma. Left-sided ribs showed no abnormality on CT, thus suggesting the rib uptake as reactive in nature. This pattern of asymmetric rib uptake on BS should be kept in mind and warrants further investigation for determining underlying pathology

  12. Considering the future of anthropogenic gas-phase organic compound emissions and the increasing influence of non-combustion sources on urban air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Peeyush; Gentner, Drew R.

    2018-04-01

    Decades of policy in developed regions has successfully reduced total anthropogenic emissions of gas-phase organic compounds, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs), with an intentional, sustained focus on motor vehicles and other combustion-related sources. We examine potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and ozone formation in our case study megacity (Los Angeles) and demonstrate that non-combustion-related sources now contribute a major fraction of SOA and ozone precursors. Thus, they warrant greater attention beyond indoor environments to resolve large uncertainties in their emissions, oxidation chemistry, and outdoor air quality impacts in cities worldwide. We constrain the magnitude and chemical composition of emissions via several bottom-up approaches using chemical analyses of products, emissions inventory assessments, theoretical calculations of emission timescales, and a survey of consumer product material safety datasheets. We demonstrate that the chemical composition of emissions from consumer products as well as commercial and industrial products, processes, and materials is diverse across and within source subcategories. This leads to wide ranges of SOA and ozone formation potentials that rival other prominent sources, such as motor vehicles. With emission timescales from minutes to years, emission rates and source profiles need to be included, updated, and/or validated in emissions inventories with expected regional and national variability. In particular, intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (IVOCs and SVOCs) are key precursors to SOA, but are excluded or poorly represented in emissions inventories and exempt from emissions targets. We present an expanded framework for classifying VOC, IVOC, and SVOC emissions from this diverse array of sources that emphasizes a life cycle approach over longer timescales and three emission pathways that extend beyond the short-term evaporation of VOCs: (1) solvent evaporation, (2

  13. Air pollution and associated human mortality: The role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases during the industrial period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Mauzerall, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Increases in surface ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5μm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5) are associated with excess premature human mortalities. Here we estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 since preindustrial (1860) times and the global present-day (2000) premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We go beyond previous work to analyze and differentiate the contribution of three factors: changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4) concentrations, to air pollution levels and the associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-hour daily maximum O3 in a year) have increased by 8±0.16 μg/m3 and 30±0.16 ppbv, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS), climate (CLIM) and CH4 concentrations (TCH4). EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global average PM2.5 (O3) to change by +7.5±0.19 μg/m3 (+25±0.30 ppbv), +0.4±0.17 μg/m3 (+0.5±0.28 ppbv), and -0.02±0.01 μg/m3 (+4.3±0.33 ppbv), respectively. Total changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.0-2.5) million all-cause mortalities annually and in O3 are associated with 375 (95% CI, 129-592) thousand respiratory mortalities annually. Most air pollution mortality is driven by changes in emissions of short-lived air pollutants and their precursors (95% and 85% of mortalities from PM2.5 and O3 respectively). However, changing climate and increasing CH4 concentrations also increased premature mortality associated with air

  14. Gas/particle partitioning of carbonyls in the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Healy

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A new denuder-filter sampling technique has been used to investigate the gas/particle partitioning behaviour of the carbonyl products from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene. A series of experiments was performed in two atmospheric simulation chambers at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature in the presence of NOx and at a relative humidity of approximately 50%. The denuder and filter were both coated with the derivatizing agent O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl-hydroxylamine (PFBHA to enable the efficient collection of gas- and particle-phase carbonyls respectively. The tubes and filters were extracted and carbonyls identified as their oxime derivatives by GC-MS. The carbonyl products identified in the experiments accounted for around 5% and 10% of the mass of secondary organic aerosol formed from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene respectively.

    Experimental gas/particle partitioning coefficients were determined for a wide range of carbonyl products formed from the photooxidation of isoprene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and compared with the theoretical values based on standard absorptive partitioning theory. Photooxidation products with a single carbonyl moiety were not observed in the particle phase, but dicarbonyls, and in particular, glyoxal and methylglyoxal, exhibited gas/particle partitioning coefficients several orders of magnitude higher than expected theoretically. These findings support the importance of heterogeneous and particle-phase chemical reactions for SOA formation and growth during the atmospheric degradation of anthropogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons.

  15. Enhanced Oxidation of Isoprene and Monoterpenes in High and Low NOx Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarek, T. W.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Taha, Y. M.; Osthoff, H. D.; Warneke, C.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    In the troposphere, the photochemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is primarily initiated by their reactions with the hydroxyl radical (OH) which yields peroxy radicals (HO2 and RO2). Concentrations of OH and the rates of VOC oxidation depend on the efficiency of peroxy radical recycling to OH. Radical recycling mainly occurs through reaction of HO2 with NO to produce NO2 and, ultimately, ozone (O3). Hence, the rate of VOC oxidation is dependent on NOx (=NO+NO2) concentration. The Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) campaign was conducted from March 17 to April 29, 2015 with the main goal of identifying and quantifying industrial sources of pollutants throughout the United States, in particular those associated with the production of oil and natural gas. In this work, a case study of biogenic VOC oxidation within and outside a power plant plume in the Haynesville basin near the border of Texas and Louisiana is presented. Isoprene, monoterpenes and their oxides were measured by H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometry (H3O+ CIMS) in high time resolution (1 s). Further, an improved Whole Air Sampler (iWAS) was used to collect samples for post-flight analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometric detection (GC-MS) and yielded speciated quantification of biogenic VOCs. The monoterpene oxide to monoterpene ratio follows the spatial extent of the plume as judged by another tracer (NOx), tracking the enhancement of oxidation rates by NOx. The observations are rationalized with the aid of box modeling using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM).

  16. Protein farnesyltransferase isoprenoid substrate discrimination is dependent on isoprene double bonds and branched methyl groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, E; Chehade, K A; Isaacs, R J; Andres, D A; Spielmann, H P

    2001-10-16

    Farnesylation is a posttranslational lipid modification in which a 15-carbon farnesyl isoprenoid is linked via a thioether bond to specific cysteine residues of proteins in a reaction catalyzed by protein farnesyltransferase (FTase). We synthesized the benzyloxyisoprenyl pyrophosphate (BnPP) series of transferable farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) analogues (1a-e) to test the length dependence of the isoprenoid substrate on the FTase-catalyzed transfer of lipid to protein substrate. Kinetic analyses show that pyrophosphates 1a-e and geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) transfer with a lower efficiency than FPP whereas geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) does not transfer at all. While a correlation was found between K(m) and analogue hydrophobicity and length, there was no correlation between k(cat) and these properties. Potential binding geometries of FPP, GPP, GGPP, and analogues 1a-e were examined by modeling the molecules into the active site of the FTase crystal structure. We found that analogue 1d displaces approximately the same volume of the active site as does FPP, whereas GPP and analogues 1a-c occupy lesser volumes and 1e occupies a slightly larger volume. Modeling also indicated that GGPP adopts a different conformation than the farnesyl chain of FPP, partially occluding the space occupied by the Ca(1)a(2)X peptide in the ternary X-ray crystal structure. Within the confines of the FTase pocket, the double bonds and branched methyl groups of the geranylgeranyl chain significantly restrict the number of possible conformations relative to the more flexible lipid chain of analogues 1a-e. The modeling results also provide a molecular explanation for the observation that an aromatic ring is a good isostere for the terminal isoprene of FPP.

  17. Pd(OAc)2/Ph3P-catalyzed dimerization of isoprene and synthesis of monoterpenic heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Dominik; Weger, Maximilian; Gini, Andrea; Mancheño, Olga García

    2017-01-01

    The palladium-catalyzed dimerization of isoprene is a practical approach of synthesizing monoterpenes. Though several highly selective methods have been reported, most of them still required pressure or costly ligands for attaining the active system and desired selectivity. Herein, we present a simple and economical procedure towards the tail-to-tail dimer using readily available Pd(OAc) 2 and inexpensive triphenylphosphine as ligand. Furthermore, simple screw cap vials are employed, allowing carrying out the reaction at low pressure. In addition, the potential of the dimer as a chemical platform for the preparation of heterocyclic terpenes by subsequent (hetero)-Diels-Alder or [4 + 1]-cycloadditions with nitrenes is also depicted.

  18. Small-angle neutron scattering investigation of the chain conformation of lamellar polystyrene/isoprene phase in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering has been used in the study of chain conformation of lamellar styrene/isoprene block copolymers oriented in large single crystals. The radius of gyration of deuterated polystyrene chains around the normal to the interface has been measured. By comparing this direct evolution of the lateral dimension of the chains with the average chain separation given by the molecular area (the surface available at the interface for each covalent bond linking the blocks together) we characterized the transverse interpenetration degree of the chains. The polystyrene chains are displayed in simple strata own micro-domains, without an important interpenetration. (Author) 9 Figs., 2 Tabs., 25 Refs

  19. Air pollution and associated human mortality: the role of air pollutant emissions, climate change and methane concentration increases from the preindustrial period to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Fang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Increases in surface ozone (O3 and fine particulate matter (≤2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter, PM2.5 are associated with excess premature human mortalities. We estimate changes in surface O3 and PM2.5 from pre-industrial (1860 to present (2000 and the global present-day (2000 premature human mortalities associated with these changes. We extend previous work to differentiate the contribution of changes in three factors: emissions of short-lived air pollutants, climate change, and increased methane (CH4 concentrations, to air pollution levels and associated premature mortalities. We use a coupled chemistry-climate model in conjunction with global population distributions in 2000 to estimate exposure attributable to concentration changes since 1860 from each factor. Attributable mortalities are estimated using health impact functions of long-term relative risk estimates for O3 and PM2.5 from the epidemiology literature. We find global mean surface PM2.5 and health-relevant O3 (defined as the maximum 6-month mean of 1-h daily maximum O3 in a year have increased by 8 ± 0.16 μg m−3 and 30 ± 0.16 ppbv (results reported as annual average ±standard deviation of 10-yr model simulations, respectively, over this industrial period as a result of combined changes in emissions of air pollutants (EMIS, climate (CLIM and CH4 concentrations (TCH4. EMIS, CLIM and TCH4 cause global population-weighted average PM2.5 (O3 to change by +7.5 ± 0.19 μg m−3 (+25 ± 0.30 ppbv, +0.4 ± 0.17 μg m−3 (+0.5 ± 0.28 ppbv, and 0.04 ± 0.24 μg m−3 (+4.3 ± 0.33 ppbv, respectively. Total global changes in PM2.5 are associated with 1.5 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.2–1.8 million cardiopulmonary mortalities and 95 (95% CI, 44–144 thousand lung cancer

  20. Characterization of VOCs Across Pennsylvania: Assessing Emissions from Rural, Forested, Agricultural and Natural Gas Drilling-Impacted Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannas, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Ramos-Garcés, F.; Wang, D. K.; Martins, D. K.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of both biogenic and anthropogenic origin are important to troposphere chemistry, particularly the formation of photochemical smog and secondary organic aerosol. There is concern that increased natural gas exploration may lead to increased emissions of certain VOCs during well development and due to fugitive emissions from operational well sites and pipelines. For a six-day period in June 2012, a variety of VOCs were measured using canister sampling from a mobile measurement platform. Transects from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania were studied, with samples obtained in rural, forested, urban, farm-impacted and gas well-impacted sites. As expected, biogenic VOCs and isoprene oxidation products were enhanced in forested regions, while anthropogenic non-methane hydrocarbons were enhanced in urban areas. BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) was enhanced in urban areas, but the concentrations of BTEX measured near developing and existing natural gas sites were similar to rural and forested sites. Halogenated hydrocarbons and Freon compounds were consistent at all site locations. We will discuss the specific concentrations and signatures of these compounds and assess the potential impact of agricultural activities and gas well development on the observed VOC concentrations and variability.

  1. Simulation with models of increasing complexity of CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation, after soil application of labelled pig slurry and maize stalks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Luca; Marino Gallina, Pietro; Geromel, Gabriele; Corti, Martina; Cavalli, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    High amounts of nitrogen are available per unit area in regions with intensive livestock operations. In swine farms, pig slurries are frequently incorporated in the soil together with maize stalks. Simulation models may help to understand nitrogen dynamics associated with animal manure and crop residue decomposition in the soil, and to support the definition of best management practices. The objective of this work was to test the ability of different models to simulate CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation during a laboratory incubation (under optimal soil water content and constant temperature) of maize stalks (ST) and pig slurry (PS). A loam soil was amended with labelled (15N) or unlabelled maize stalks and pig slurries, in the presence of ammonium sulphate (AS). These treatments were established: unfertilised soil; ST15 + AS + PS; ST + AS15 + PS; and ST + AS + PS15. During 180 days, we measured CO2 emissions; microbial biomass C, N, and 15N; and soil mineral N (SMN and SM-15N). Three models of increasing complexity were calibrated using measured data. The models were two modifications of ICBM 2B/N (Kätterer and Andrén, 2001) and CN-SIM (Petersen et al., 2005). The three models simulated rather accurately the emissions of CO2 throughout the incubation period (Relative Root Mean Squared Error, RRMSE = 8-25). The simplest model (with one pool for ST and one for PS) strongly overestimated SMN immobilisation from day 3 to day 21, both in the treatments with AS15 and PS15 (RRMSE = 27-30%). The other two models represented rather well the dynamics of SMN in the soil (RRMSE = 21-25%), simulating a fast increase of nitrate concentration in the first days, and slower rates of nitrification thereafter. Worse performances were obtained with all models for the simulation of SM-15N in the treatment with ST15 (RRMSE = 64-104%): experimental data showed positive mineralization of stalk-derived N from the beginning of the incubation, while models strongly underestimated

  2. Capsinoids activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) with increased energy expenditure associated with subthreshold 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in BAT-positive humans confirmed by positron emission tomography scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lijuan; Camps, Stefan G; Goh, Hui Jen; Govindharajulu, Priya; Schaefferkoetter, Joshua D; Townsend, David W; Verma, Sanjay K; Velan, S Sendhil; Sun, Lei; Sze, Siu Kwan; Lim, Su Chi; Boehm, Bernhard Otto; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing

    2018-01-01

    Capsinoids are reported to increase energy expenditure (EE) via brown adipose tissue (BAT) stimulation. However, imaging of BAT activation by capsinoids remains limited. Because BAT activation is a potential therapeutic strategy for obesity and related metabolic disorders, we sought to prove that capsinoid-induced BAT activation can be visualized by 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). We compared capsinoids and cold exposure on BAT activation and whole-body EE. Twenty healthy participants (8 men, 12 women) with a mean age of 26 y (range: 21-35 y) and a body mass index (kg/m2) of 21.7 (range: 18.5-26.0) underwent 18F-FDG PET and whole-body calorimetry after ingestion of 12 mg capsinoids or ≤2 h of cold exposure (∼14.5°C) in a crossover design. Mean standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the region of interest and BAT volumes were calculated. Blood metabolites were measured before and 2 h after each treatment. All of the participants showed negligible 18F-FDG uptake post-capsinoid ingestion. Upon cold exposure, 12 participants showed avid 18F-FDG uptake into supraclavicular and lateral neck adipose tissues (BAT-positive group), whereas the remaining 8 participants (BAT-negative group) showed undetectable uptake. Capsinoids and cold exposure increased EE, although cold induced a 2-fold increase in whole-body EE and higher fat oxidation, insulin sensitivity, and HDL cholesterol compared with capsinoids. Capsinoids only increased EE in BAT-positive participants, which suggests that BAT mediates EE evoked by capsinoids. This implies that capsinoids stimulate BAT to a lesser degree than cold exposure as evidenced by 18F-FDG uptake below the presently accepted SUV thresholds defining BAT activation. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02964442. © 2018 American Society for Nutrition. All rights reserved.

  3. Emission of the main biogenic volatile organic compounds in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, L.; Simon, V.; Torres, L.

    2000-01-01

    An estimation of biogenic emissions of the main non-methanic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) due to the forest cover in France has been realized. 32 species representing 98% of French forest have been considered for the estimation. The latter dealt on a net made of 93 irregular spatial grids (Departments) with an average size of 75 km x 75 km. We assigned emission rates and foliar biomass densities specific to each of the 32 species. The environmental variables (temperature, light intensity) have been collected for the whole of French Departments. A special effort was extended so as to use ''Guenther's'' calculation algorithms, and specific emitting factors to species growing in France or in bordering countries. Along the way of the five years (1994-1998) of the study we have calculated the yearly mean of isoprene, mono-terpenes and Other Volatile Organic Compounds (OVOCs) emissions on the scale of the French Departments. At the national level isoprene emission is reckoned at 457 kt yr -1 and represents nearly 49% of the total emission, whereas mono-terpenes with 350 kt yr -1 and OVOCs with 129 kt yr -1 represent respectively 37% and 14% of the total. The yearly biogenic emission of VOCs in France represents virtually half the anthropic source. However in some regions (Mediterranean area) natural emissions can widely exceed anthropic emissions during certain periods. Let's note the whole of our results remains tinged with a great uncertainty because the estimations carried out are presented with correction factors that can reach values comprised between 4 and 7. (author)

  4. Evidence of Increased Anthropogenic Emissions of Platinum in Coastal Systems from Time-Series Analysis of Mussels Samples (1991-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Neira Del Río

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Platinum Group Elements (PGEs, which include platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd, iridium (Ir, rhodium (Rh, osmium (Os and ruthenium (Ru, are amongst the rarest trace elements in the Earth’s crust. They have similar physical and chemical properties, and tend to occur together in the same mineral deposits. Their properties are resistance to chemical corrosion over a wide temperature range, high melting point, high mechanical strength and good ductility, as well as outstanding catalytic properties, being therefore critical in many emerging technologies. Although natural environmental concentrations of PGEs are extremely low – generally at or below the ng/g –, levels of Pt, Pd and Rh are increasing, mainly because of their use in catalytic converters of motor vehicles (Zereini et al., 2007. The automobile catalysts converters use noble metals as active components, and were developed with the aim of reducing emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides (Sures et al., 2005. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the PGEs represent a relatively new category of trace metals in the environment, especially in relation to automobile traffic (Haus et al., 2007. The PGEs of automobile catalytic converters are eroded from the surface of the catalyst and subsequently emitted in metallic form or as oxides (Turner and Price, 2008. The PGEs are subject to various physical and chemical transformations after deposition, and can potentially result in migration into environmental compartments (Moldovan et al., 2001; Vaughan and Florence, 1992. The concentration of PGEs has much increased in traffic exposed environmental samples (Lesniewska et al., 2004; Ely et al., 2001; Zereini et al., 2001; Schäfer et al., 1999; Fritsche and Meisel, 2004. However, what constituted a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions has resulted in increased levels of PGEs in the environment as shown in some studies in the dust of the road, roadsides, river sediments, sewage

  5. Analysis of Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid/Poly(Isoprene Polymeric Blend for application as biomaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ramos Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of renewable raw materials encourages research in the biopolymers area. The Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid/Poly(Isoprene (PLGA/IR blend combines biocompatibility for application in the health field with excellent mechanical properties. The blend was obtained by solubilization of polymers in organic solvents. To investigate the polymer thermochemical properties, FTIR and DSC were applied. To investigate the composition's influence over polymer mechanical properties, tensile and hardness test were applied. To analyze the blends response in the cell environment, a stent was produced by injection molding process, and Cell Viability Test and Previous Implantability were used. The Infrared spectra show that chemical composition is related only with polymers proportion in the blend. The calorimetry shows a partial miscibility in the blend. The tensile test shows that adding Poly(Isoprene to Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid induced a relevant reduction in the Young modulus, tensile stress and tenacity of the material, which was altered from the fragile raw PLGA to a ductile material. The composition did not affect the blend hardness. The cell viability test shows that the blend has potential application as biomaterial, while the first results of implantability indicate that the polymeric stent kept its original position and caused low fibrosis.

  6. Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from forested areas in Turkey: determination of specific emission rates for thirty-one tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Yagmur Meltem; Yaman, Baris; Koca, Husnu; Dasdemir, Okan; Kara, Melik; Altiok, Hasan; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Bayram, Abdurrahman; Tolunay, Doganay; Odabasi, Mustafa; Elbir, Tolga

    2014-08-15

    Normalized biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission rates for thirty one tree species that cover the 98% of national forested areas in Turkey were determined. Field samplings were performed at fourteen different forested areas in Turkey using a specific dynamic enclosure system. The selected branches of tree species were enclosed in a chamber consisted of a transparent Nalofan bag. The air-flows were sampled from both inlet and outlet of the chamber by Tenax-filled sorbent tubes during photosynthesis of trees under the presence of sunlight. Several environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, photosynthetically active radiation-PAR, and CO2) were continuously monitored inside and outside the enclosure chamber during the samplings. Collected samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system equipped with a thermal desorber (TD). Sixty five BVOCs classified in five major groups (isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and other oxygenated compounds) were analyzed. Emission rates were determined by normalization to standard conditions (1000 μmol/m(2)s PAR and 30 °C temperature for isoprene and 30 °C temperature for the remaining compounds). In agreement with the literature, isoprene was mostly emitted by broad-leaved trees while coniferous species mainly emitted monoterpenes. Several tree species such as Sweet Chestnut, Silver Lime, and European Alder had higher monoterpene emissions although they are broad-leaved species. High isoprene emissions were also observed for a few coniferous species such as Nordmann Fir and Oriental Spruce. The highest normalized total BVOC emission rate of 27.1 μg/gh was observed for Oriental Plane while South European Flowering Ash was the weakest BVOC emitter with a total normalized emission rate of 0.031 μg/gh. Monoterpene emissions of broad-leaved species mainly consisted of sabinene, limonene and trans-beta-ocimene, while alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and beta

  7. Isoprene levels in the exhaled breath of 200 healthy pupils within the age range 7-18 years studied using SIFT-MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik; Enderby, B.; Lenney, W.; Turner, C.; Davies, S. J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2010), 017101 ISSN 1752-7155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : SIFT-MS * mass spectroscopy * isoprene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.828, year: 2010

  8. WET AND DRY SEASON ECOSYSTEM LEVEL FLUXES OF ISOPRENE AND MONOTERPENES FROM A SOUTHEAST ASIAN SECONDARY FOREST AND RUBBER TREE PLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canopy scale fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes were investigated in both wet and dry seasons above a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)/secondary tropical forest in the Yunnan province of southwestern China. Drought conditions were unusually high during the dry season experiment....

  9. The increase in the perception of the climatic change and the energy systems without emissions of coal; El aumento en la percepcion del cambio climatico y los sistemas energeticos sin emisiones de carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulas, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Av. Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, 62490 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In the last 20 years, the phenomenon of the climatic change due to the gases emission of greenhouse effect has become from a topic of scientific study to discussion problem in the political spheres of most high level to world scale. In summary, at the present time it has a generalized public perception that the gas emissions of greenhouse effect generated by anthropogenic activities, they have been increased to such size that they are causing a greenhouse effect in the terrestrial atmosphere with their consequent impact of global heating. In this work a description of the science behind the phenomenon is presented, of the evidences that the believers show, the arguments that present the sceptic persons and the actions to reduce those emissions that have proposed the pragmatic people. A brief summary of the main technologies considered for the energy sector of X XI century so that they reduce those emissions is also presented. (Author)

  10. Terpenoid emissions from fully grown east Siberian Larix cajanderi trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Kajos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available While emissions of many biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs, such as terpenoids, have been studied quite intensively in North American and Scandinavian boreal forests, the vast Siberian boreal forests have remained largely unexplored by experimental emission studies. In this study the shoot-scale terpenoid emission rates from two mature Larix cajanderi trees growing in their natural habitat in eastern Siberia were measured at the Spasskaya Pad flux measurement site (62°15´18.4" N, 129°37´07.9" E located on the western bank of the Lena river. The measurements were conducted during three campaigns: 3–24 June, 8–26 July, and 14–30 August, in the summer of 2009. A dynamic flow-through enclosure technique was applied for adsorbent sampling, and the samples were analysed offline with a gas chromatograph. Between 29 and 45 samples were taken from each shoot during all three campaigns. Seven different monoterpenes, six different sesquiterpenes, linalool isoprene, and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO were identified. The monthly median value of the total terpenoid emissions varied between 0.006 and 10.6 μg gdw−1 h−1. The emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, which constituted between 61 and 92% of the total emissions. About half of the monoterpene emissions were comprised of Δ 3-carene; α- and β-pinene had significant emissions as well. Linalool emissions were also substantial, comprising 3–37% of the total emissions, especially in June. Sesquiterpenes accounted for less than 3% and isoprene less than 1% of the total emissions. Based on the measured emission rates, the relative atmospheric concentration of each compound was estimated. Monoterpenes were the species with the highest relative concentration, while linalool and sesquiterpenes had a notably smaller contribution to the estimated atmospheric concentration than to the emission rates. A temperature-dependent pool algorithm with a constant β (0.09 °C−1 for monoterpenes

  11. Pd(OAc2/Ph3P-catalyzed dimerization of isoprene and synthesis of monoterpenic heterocycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Kellner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The palladium-catalyzed dimerization of isoprene is a practical approach of synthesizing monoterpenes. Though several highly selective methods have been reported, most of them still required pressure or costly ligands for attaining the active system and desired selectivity. Herein, we present a simple and economical procedure towards the tail-to-tail dimer using readily available Pd(OAc2 and inexpensive triphenylphosphine as ligand. Furthermore, simple screw cap vials are employed, allowing carrying out the reaction at low pressure. In addition, the potential of the dimer as a chemical platform for the preparation of heterocyclic terpenes by subsequent (hetero-Diels–Alder or [4 + 1]-cycloadditions with nitrenes is also depicted.

  12. Atmospheric emissions in metropolitan France: compounds related to the increase of the greenhouse effect; Substances relatives a l'accroissement de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report presents and comments statistical data and indicators on emissions of compounds involved in the greenhouse effect: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), hydro-fluorocarbon compounds (HFCs), per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFCs), sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). For these compounds, the report indicates and comments world and French emission data, their evolution, and the shares of different sectors and their evolutions. It also comments the evolution of the global warming potential (GWP)

  13. Boundary layer concentrations and landscape scale emissions of volatile organic compounds in early spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haapanala

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Boundary layer concentrations of several volatile organic compounds (VOC were measured during two campaigns in springs of 2003 and 2006. The measurements were conducted over boreal landscapes near SMEAR II measurement station in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. In 2003 the measuremens were performed using a light aircraft and in 2006 using a hot air balloon. Isoprene concentrations were low, usually below detection limit. This can be explained by low biogenic production due to cold weather, phenological stage of the isoprene emitting plants, and snow cover. Monoterpenes were observed frequently. The average total monoterpene concentration in the boundary layer was 33 pptv. Many anthropogenic compounds such as benzene, xylene and toluene, were observed in high amounts. Ecosystem scale surface emissions were estimated using a simple mixed box budget methodology. Total monoterpene emissions varied up to 80 μg m−2 h−1, α-pinene contributing typically more than two thirds of that. These emissions were somewhat higher that those calculated using emission algorithm. The highest emissions of anthropogenic compounds were those of p/m xylene.

  14. Boundary layer concentrations and landscape scale emissions of volatile organic compounds in early spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haapanala, S.; Rinne, J.; Hakola, H.; Hellén, H.; Laakso, L.; Lihavainen, H.; Janson, R.; O'Dowd, C.; Kulmala, M.

    2007-04-01

    Boundary layer concentrations of several volatile organic compounds (VOC) were measured during two campaigns in springs of 2003 and 2006. The measurements were conducted over boreal landscapes near SMEAR II measurement station in Hyytiälä, Southern Finland. In 2003 the measuremens were performed using a light aircraft and in 2006 using a hot air balloon. Isoprene concentrations were low, usually below detection limit. This can be explained by low biogenic production due to cold weather, phenological stage of the isoprene emitting plants, and snow cover. Monoterpenes were observed frequently. The average total monoterpene concentration in the boundary layer was 33 pptv. Many anthropogenic compounds such as benzene, xylene and toluene, were observed in high amounts. Ecosystem scale surface emissions were estimated using a simple mixed box budget methodology. Total monoterpene emissions varied up to 80 μg m-2 h-1, α-pinene contributing typically more than two thirds of that. These emissions were somewhat higher that those calculated using emission algorithm. The highest emissions of anthropogenic compounds were those of p/m xylene.

  15. Laboratory and field studies of biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong.) in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Rachel A.; Duckham, S. Craig; Hewitt, C. Nicholas

    1996-10-01

    Isoprene and monoterpene emission rates were measured from Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis Bong.) with a dynamic flow-through branch enclosure, both in the laboratory and in the field in the United Kingdom. In the laboratory, emission rates of isoprene comprised over 94% of the identified VOC species, and were exponentially related to temperature over a period of 1 day. This exponential relationship broke down at ˜33°C. Field measurements were taken on five sampling days in 1992 and 1993, in Grizedale Forest, Cumbria. Total emission rates were in the range 36-3771 ng g-1 h-1. Relative emissions were more variable than suggested by laboratory measurements, with monoterpenes contributing at least 64% to the total emissions in most cases. There was a significant variation in the basal emission rate both across the growing season and between different ages of vegetation, the causes of which are as yet unknown. Total emission rates, in July 1993, were estimated to be between 0.01 and 0.27% of assimilated carbon.

  16. Biogenic emissions of CO2 and N2O at multiple depths increase exponentially during a simulated soil thaw for a northern prairie Mollisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil respiration occurs at depths below the surface, but belowground data are lacking to support multilayer models of soil CO2 and N2O emissions. In particular, Q10s for CO2 and N2O within soil profiles are needed to determine if temperature sensitivities calculated at the surface are similar to th...

  17. Influence of Incomplete Mixing on the OH-Isoprene Reaction in the Lower Troposphere - Measurements Above the Amazon Rain Forest and General Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörgel, M.; Dlugi, R. J. W.; Berger, M.; Mallik, C.; Tsokankunku, A.; Zelger, M.; Acevedo, O. C.; Dias, N. L.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Kesselmeier, J.; Kramm, G.; Marno, D. R.; Martinez, M.; Nölscher, A.; H G, O.; Pfannerstill, E.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Rohrer, F.; Tauer, S.; Williams, J.; Yanez Serrano, A. M.; Andreae, M. O.; Harder, H.

    2017-12-01

    Incomplete mixing of reactants in the atmosphere (segregation) causes reduced reaction rates compared to laboratory values derived for well mixed conditions. To adequately determine the actual reaction rates in a variety of natural environments where the distribution of sources and sinks leads to inhomogeneous distribution of reactants, the intensity of segregation (IS) has to be taken into account. Although, there has been considerable progress in modeling IS in the boundary layer within the last 30 years, calculations from direct observations are still sparse as high time resolution and time synchronization are required. OH-radicals are the most important oxidizing agent in the atmosphere, and are therefore regarded as the detergent of the atmosphere, reacting with the majority of atmospheric pollutants and therefore accelerating their removal from the atmosphere. Hence, to understand atmospheric self-cleansing, we need to quantify and understand the budgets (sources and sinks) of OH. As it is a fast reacting compound, for some of its reactants mixing will limit the reaction rate. The reaction of isoprene and OH radicals has gained considerable interest in recent years since large discrepancies between modeled and measured OH have been found mainly in high isoprene environments. This motivated not only laboratory studies on unknown recycling mechanisms for OH in this reaction, but also modeling work and field studies on the effect of segregation on this reaction. We measured OH radicals, isoprene and other species that are either precursors of OH or promote OH recycling (e.g. O3, NOx, HO2, H2O) with high time resolution (1-10 Hz) closely above a rain forest canopy (at 41 m above ground level) at the ATTO (Amazon Tall Tower Observatory) site (02°08'38.8''S, 58°59'59.5''W). The site is characterized by high isoprene (up to 20 ppb) and low NO (50 -500 ppt). Simultaneous measurements of OH and isoprene with high time resolution so far have been sparse. To our

  18. The Uncertain Role of Biogenic VOC for Boundary-Layer Ozone Concentration: Example Investigation of Emissions from Two Forest Types with a Box Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Bonn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available High levels of air pollution including ground level ozone significantly reduce humans’ life expectancy and cause forest damage and decreased tree growth. The French Vosges and the German Black Forest are regions well-known for having the highest tropospheric ozone concentrations at remote forested sites in Central Europe. This box model study investigates the sensitivity of atmospheric chemistry calculations of derived ozone on differently resolved forest tree composition and volatile organic compound emissions. Representative conditions were chosen for the Upper Rhine area including the Alsatian Vosges/France and the Black Forest/Germany during summer. This study aims to answer the following question: What level of input detail for Alsace and Black Forest tree mixtures is required to accurately simulate ozone formation? While the French forest in Alsace—e.g., in the Vosges—emits isoprene to a substantially higher extent than the forest at the German site, total monoterpene emissions at the two sites are rather similar. However, the individual monoterpene structures, and therefore their reactivity, differs. This causes a higher ozone production rate for Vosges forest mixture conditions than for Black Forest tree mixtures at identical NOx levels, with the difference increasing with temperature. The difference in ozone formation is analyzed in detail and the short-comings of reduced descriptions are discussed. The outcome serves as a to-do-list to allow accurate future ozone predictions influenced by the climate adaptation of forests and the change in forest species composition.

  19. Simulation of the interannual variations of biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds in China: Impacts on tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y.; Liao, H.

    2012-12-01

    We use the MEGAN (Model of emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) module embedded within the global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to simulate the interannual variations in biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions and concentrations of ozone and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in China over years 2001-2006. To have better representation of biogenic emissions, we have updated in the model the land cover and leaf area index in China using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite measurements, and we have developed a new classification of vegetation with 21 plant functional types. Estimated annual BVOC emission in China averaged over 2001-2006 is 18.85 Tg C yr-1, in which emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, and other reactive volatile organic compounds account for 50.9%, 15.0%, and 34.1%, respectively. The simulated BVOC emissions in China have large interannual variations. The values of regionally averaged absolute percent departure from the mean (APDM) of isoprene emissions are in the range of 21-42% in January and 15-28% in July. The APDM values of monoterpene emissions are 14-32% in January and 10-21% in July, which are generally smaller than those of isoprene emissions. Model results indicate that the interannual variations in isoprene emissions are more dependent on variations in meteorological fields, whereas the interannual variations in monoterpene emissions are more sensitive to changes in vegetation parameters. With fixed anthropogenic emissions, as a result of the variations in both meteorological parameters and vegetation, simulated O3 concentrations show interannual variations of 0.8-5 ppbv (or largest APDM values of 4-15%), and simulated SOA shows APDM values of 5-15% in southwestern China in January as well as 10-25% in southeastern and 20-35% in northeastern China in July. On a regional mean basis, the interannual variations in BVOCs alone can lead to 2

  20. Consequences of increased NOx emission to air during the treatment of gas from Kvitebjoern and the Haltenbanken Soer at Kaarstoe; Konsekvenser av oekte NOx utslipp til luft ved behandling av gass fra Kvitebjoern og Haltenbanken Soer paa Kollsnes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Cristina

    1998-11-01

    This report discusses the consequences of increasing the emission to air of nitrogen oxides if landing facilities for North-Sea gas is developed at Kaarstoe, Norway. Three alternatives are considered. The pollution from such a facility comes in addition to the existing plant at Kaarstoe, the Aasgard terminal and the planned gas power station. The report considers concentrations in air, deposition to ground, impact on acidification of surface water and the impact of the natural environment. Concentrations in air have been calculated. The assessment of the deposition of nitrogen oxides to ground, the assessment of acidification of surface water and the assessment of the impact on flora and fauna are based on a consequence analysis for a gas power station at Kaarstoe. The influence of the development of the Kaarstoe plant on the local environment is largely determined by the amount of emissions and the tallness of the chimney. The regional impact is not very dependent on the emission conditions and the global impact is independent of the emission conditions and, to some extent, of the emission site.

  1. Air emission in France. Metropolitan area substances implied in the increasing greenhouse effect; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole substances impliquees dans le phenomene d'accroissement de l'effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Substances and index currently in survey are: Greenhouse effect: CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, HFCs (total and speciation for 8 compounds), PFCs (total and speciation for 5 compounds), SF{sub 6}, global warming potential index based on one hundred years time (GWP). Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Emissions are presented by the mean of charts for each substance and the main source categories with a five years step until 1990 then yearly beyond. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. Results are provisional for 2001. (author)

  2. Using graphene/styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer composite thin film as a flexible microstrip antenna for the detection of heptane vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Robert; Matyas, Jiri; Slobodian, Petr; Riha, Pavel

    2018-03-01

    Most portable devices, such as mobile phones or tablets, use antennas made of copper. This paper demonstrates the possible use of antenna constructed from electrically conductive polymer composite materials for use in those applications. The method of preparation and the properties of the graphene/styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer as flexible microstrip antenna are described in this contribution. Graphene/styrene-isoprene-styrene copolymer toluene solution was prepared by means of ultrasound and the PET substrate was dip coated to reach a fine thin film. The main advantages of using PET as a substrate are low weight and flexibility. The final size of the flexible microstrip antenna was 10 × 25 mm with thickness of 0.48 mm (PET substrate 0.25 mm) with a weight of 0.110 g. The resulting antenna operates at a frequency of 1.8 GHz and gain ‑40.02 dB.

  3. Impact of biogenic emissions on feedbacks in the climate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Olaf

    2017-04-01

    Impact of biogenic emissions on feedbacks in the climate system Bio-geophysical feedback between marine or continental ecosystems and the atmosphere potentially can alter climate change. A prominent feedback loop which is under discussion since 1983 bases on the emission of biologically produced gases - molecular oxygen, sulphur containing compounds and possibly isoprene, supersaturated in oceanic waters - into the marine troposphere. These by-products of phytoplankton metabolism lead to aerosol production and procure sustained influence on climate via modulation of cloud optical properties. In this contribution some findings related to the above mentioned climate processes are presented with special emphasis on marine ecosystems. A comparison of marine and continental ecosystems is made and different processes with major impact on feedbacks in the climate system are discussed.

  4. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Costa, O.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs

  6. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  7. Dynamic relationship between the VOC emissions from a Scots pine stem and the tree water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhatalo, Anni; Chan, Tommy; Aalto, Juho; Kolari, Pasi; Rissanen, Kaisa; Hakola, Hannele; Hölttä, Teemu; Bäck, Jaana

    2013-04-01

    The stems of coniferous trees contain huge storages of oleoresin. The composition of oleoresin depends on e.g. tree species, age, provenance, health status, and environmental conditions. Oleoresin is under pressure in the extensive network of resin ducts in wood and needles. It flows out from a mechanically damaged site to protect the tree by sealing the wounded site. Once in contact with air, volatile parts of oleoresin evaporate, and the residual compounds harden to make a solid protective seal over damaged tissues. The hardening time of the resin depends on evaporation rate of the volatiles which in turn depends on temperature. The storage is also toxic to herbivores and attracts predators that restrict the herbivore damage. Despite abundant knowledge on emissions of volatile isoprenoids from foliage, very little is known about their emissions from woody plant parts. We set up an experiment to measure emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes as well as two oxygenated VOCs, methanol and acetone, from a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) stem and branches. The measurements were started in early April and continued until mid-June, 2012. Simultaneously, we measured the dynamics of whole stem and xylem diameter changes, stem sap flow rate and foliage transpiration rate. These measurements were used to estimate A) pressure changes inside the living stem tissue and the water conducting xylem, B) the refilling of stem water stores after winter dehydration (the ratio of sap flow at the stem base to water loss by foliage), and C) the increase in tree water transport capacity (the ratio of maximum daily sap flow rate to the diurnal variation in xylem pressure) during spring due to winter embolism refilling and/or the temperature dependent root water uptake capacity. The results show that already very early in spring, significant VOC emissions from pine stem can be detected, and that they exhibit a diurnal cycle similar to that of ambient temperature. During the highest emission

  8. BVOC emissions from 2 Asian Eucalyptus species,E.camadulensis and E.robusta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Chan, C. K.; Lau, A. P.

    2009-12-01

    Eucalyptus species dominate native forests in Australia and are planted over vast regions in Asia and other continents for afforestation and for pulp due to their fast growth rates. However, they have also been identified as high emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). BVOCs, when emitted to the atmosphere, react to form air pollutants such as ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosols (SOA). The large areas of Eucalyptus forests in Australia and Asia, and high BVOC emission rates of Eucalyptus species, imply a potential significant effect of BVOC emissions from Eucalyptus on the air quality of these regions. A better understanding of BVOC emissions from this genus is thus needed. Here we present data of BVOC measurements from E.camadulensis and E.robusta. BVOC emissions of the 2 Eucalyptus species were measured by a branch enclosure approach in an environmental chamber, in which light and temperature were carefully controlled to mimic their changes throughout the day under natural conditions. E. camadulensis was found to emit isoprene, α-pinene, camphene and limonene, while E. robusta was found to emit isoprene, α-pinene, β-pinene, α-phellandrene, 3-carene and ocimene. Diurnal variations in BVOC emissions from the 2 species were observed. The 2 Eucalyptus species were also treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a plant hormone which has found to induce elevated BVOC emissions similar to response to insect attacks in other plant species. The emission profiles of the 2 species before and after MeJA treatment were contrasted to examine the effects of the MeJA on their BVOC emissions. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the General Research Fund of the Research Grants Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China (Project No. 610909).

  9. Evaluation of Isoprene Chain Extension from PEO Macromolecular Chain Transfer Agents for the Preparation of Dual, Invertible Block Copolymer Nanoassemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Jeremy W; Cauët, Solène I; Billings, Peter L; Lin, Lily Yun; Zhu, Jiahua; Fidge, Christopher; Pochan, Darrin J; Wooley, Karen L

    2010-09-14

    Two RAFT-capable PEO macro-CTAs, 2 and 5 kDa, were prepared and used for the polymerization of isoprene which yielded well-defined block copolymers of varied lengths and compositions. GPC analysis of the PEO macro-CTAs and block copolymers showed remaining unreacted PEO macro-CTA. Mathematical deconvolution of the GPC chromatograms allowed for the estimation of the blocking efficiency, about 50% for the 5 kDa PEO macro-CTA and 64% for the 2 kDa CTA. Self assembly of the block copolymers in both water and decane was investigated and the resulting regular and inverse assemblies, respectively, were analyzed with DLS, AFM, and TEM to ascertain their dimensions and properties. Assembly of PEO-b-PIp block copolymers in aqueous solution resulted in well-defined micelles of varying sizes while the assembly in hydrophobic, organic solvent resulted in the formation of different morphologies including large aggregates and well-defined cylindrical and spherical structures.

  10. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Alves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rainforests are an important source of isoprenoid and other volatile organic compound (VOC emissions to the atmosphere. The seasonal variation of these compounds is however still poorly understood. In this study, vertical profiles of mixing ratios of isoprene, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes, were measured within and above the canopy, in a primary rainforest in central Amazonia, using a proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer (PTR-MS. Fluxes of these compounds from the canopy into the atmosphere were estimated from PTR-MS measurements by using an inverse Lagrangian transport model. Measurements were carried out continuously from September 2010 to January 2011, encompassing the dry and wet seasons. Mixing ratios were higher during the dry (isoprene – 2.68 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes – 0.67 ± 0.3 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes – 0.09 ± 0.07 ppbv than the wet season (isoprene – 1.66 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes – 0.47 ± 0.2 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes – 0.03 ± 0.02 ppbv for all compounds. Ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR behaved similarly. Daytime isoprene and total monoterpene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy, rather than near the ground or above the canopy. By comparison, daytime total sesquiterpene mixing ratios were highest near the ground. Daytime fluxes varied significantly between seasons for all compounds. The maximums for isoprene (2.53 ± 0.5 µmol m−2 h−1 and total monoterpenes (1.77 ± 0.05 µmol m−2 h−1 were observed in the late dry season, whereas the maximum for total sesquiterpenes was found during the dry-to-wet transition season (0.77 ± 0.1 µmol m−2 h−1. These flux estimates suggest that the canopy is the main source of isoprenoids emitted into the atmosphere for all seasons. However, uncertainties in turbulence parameterization near the ground could affect estimates of fluxes that come from the ground. Leaf

  11. Seasonality of isoprenoid emissions from a primary rainforest in central Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Eliane G.; Jardine, Kolby; Tota, Julio; Jardine, Angela; Yãnez-Serrano, Ana Maria; Karl, Thomas; Tavares, Julia; Nelson, Bruce; Gu, Dasa; Stavrakou, Trissevgeni; Martin, Scot; Artaxo, Paulo; Manzi, Antonio; Guenther, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Tropical rainforests are an important source of isoprenoid and other volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions to the atmosphere. The seasonal variation of these compounds is however still poorly understood. In this study, vertical profiles of mixing ratios of isoprene, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes, were measured within and above the canopy, in a primary rainforest in central Amazonia, using a proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Fluxes of these compounds from the canopy into the atmosphere were estimated from PTR-MS measurements by using an inverse Lagrangian transport model. Measurements were carried out continuously from September 2010 to January 2011, encompassing the dry and wet seasons. Mixing ratios were higher during the dry (isoprene - 2.68 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes - 0.67 ± 0.3 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes - 0.09 ± 0.07 ppbv) than the wet season (isoprene - 1.66 ± 0.9 ppbv, total monoterpenes - 0.47 ± 0.2 ppbv; total sesquiterpenes - 0.03 ± 0.02 ppbv) for all compounds. Ambient air temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) behaved similarly. Daytime isoprene and total monoterpene mixing ratios were highest within the canopy, rather than near the ground or above the canopy. By comparison, daytime total sesquiterpene mixing ratios were highest near the ground. Daytime fluxes varied significantly between seasons for all compounds. The maximums for isoprene (2.53 ± 0.5 µmol m-2 h-1) and total monoterpenes (1.77 ± 0.05 µmol m-2 h-1) were observed in the late dry season, whereas the maximum for total sesquiterpenes was found during the dry-to-wet transition season (0.77 ± 0.1 µmol m-2 h-1). These flux estimates suggest that the canopy is the main source of isoprenoids emitted into the atmosphere for all seasons. However, uncertainties in turbulence parameterization near the ground could affect estimates of fluxes that come from the ground. Leaf phenology seemed to be an important driver of seasonal

  12. Estimation of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in subtropical island--Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ken-Hui; Chen, Tu-Fu; Huang, Ho-Chun

    2005-06-15

    Elevated tropospheric ozone is harmful to human health and plants. It is formed through the photochemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)). The elevated ozone episodes occur mainly in summer months in the United States, while the high-ozone episodes frequently occur during the fall in Taiwan. The unique landscape of Taiwan produces tremendous amounts of biogenic VOCs in the mountain regions that are adjacent to concentrated urban areas. The urban areas, in turn, generate prodigious amounts of anthropogenic emissions. Biogenic VOC emissions have direct influence on tropospheric ozone formation. To explore the air quality problems in Taiwan, this study attempts to develop a biogenic VOC emission model suitable for air quality applications in Taiwan. The emission model is based on the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System Version 2 and coupled with a detailed Taiwan land use database. The 1999 total Taiwan biogenic VOC emissions were estimated at 214,000 metric tons. The emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, and other VOCs were about 37.2%, 30.4%, and 32.4% of total biogenic VOC emissions, respectively. The annual total biogenic VOC emission per unit area was more than two times the value of that in any European country, implying that detailed emissions estimates in any size of region will benefit the global biogenic emission inventories.

  13. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts; decoupling agriculture' s N2O and CH4 emissions from population growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.L.; Meerburg, B.G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Verhagen, J.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present.

  14. Evaluation of Global Photosynthesis and BVOC Emission Covariance with Climate in NASA ModelE2-Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, N.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP), a measure of the total amount of CO2 removed from the atmosphere every year to fuel photosynthesis, is the largest global carbon flux. GPP is vital for human welfare as the basis for food and fiber, and provides the crucial ecosystem service of reducing the accumulation of fossil fuel CO2 in the atmosphere. Land plants emit a significant fraction of the assimilated carbon back to the atmosphere in the form of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Isoprene is the dominant BVOC emission with an estimated global source of 200-660 TgC/yr. Global monoterpene emission estimates range from 30-130 TgC/yr. BVOC photochemical oxidation exerts a profound impact on the distribution and variability of the short-lived climate forcers: ozone, biogenic secondary organic aerosol and methane. Here, we apply multiple observational datasets from a suite of platforms to evaluate an updated global chemistry-climate model that is coupled to a new vegetation biophysics scheme incorporating photosynthesis-dependent BVOC emissions (NASA ModelE2-Y). A fixed vegetation structure dataset based on 8 plant functional types and prescribed phenology including crop planting and harvesting gives GPP of 128 PgC/yr and a global isoprene source of 200TgC/yr. The model GPP captures 85% of the annual average zonal mean variability in a FLUXNET-derived global dataset that was generated by data orientated diagnostic upscaling. We assess model BVOC emission climatology against a comprehensive database of campaign-average above canopy flux measurements and surface concentrations of isoprene and monoterpene collected between 1995-2010 across a wide range of ecosystem types, regions and seasons (> 25 flux estimates; > 22 surface concentration values). We evaluate the diurnal, seasonal and interannual integrity of the model BVOC variability against 9 sites for isoprene and 4 sites for monoterpene. The model captures ~60% of the variability in the time

  15. The carbon fertilization effect over a century of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: higher intracellular CO2 and more drought resistance among invasive and native grass species contrasts with increased water use efficiency for woody plants in the US Southwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Brandon L; Hanson, David T; Lowrey, Timothy K; Sharp, Zachary D

    2017-02-01

    From 1890 to 2015, anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions have increased atmospheric CO 2 concentrations from 270 to 400 mol mol -1 . The effect of increased carbon emissions on plant growth and reproduction has been the subject of study of free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) experiments. These experiments have found (i) an increase in internal CO 2 partial pressure (c i ) alongside acclimation of photosynthetic capacity, (ii) variable decreases in stomatal conductance, and (iii) that increases in yield do not increase commensurate with CO 2 concentrations. Our data set, which includes a 115-year-long selection of grasses collected in New Mexico since 1892, is consistent with an increased c i as a response to historical CO 2 increase in the atmosphere, with invasive species showing the largest increase. Comparison with Palmer Drought Sensitivity Index (PDSI) for New Mexico indicates a moderate correlation with Δ 13 C (r 2  = 0.32, P < 0.01) before 1950, with no correlation (r 2  = 0.00, P = 0.91) after 1950. These results indicate that increased c i may have conferred some drought resistance to these grasses through increased availability of CO 2 in the event of reduced stomatal conductance in response to short-term water shortage. Comparison with C 3 trees from arid environments (Pinus longaeva and Pinus edulis in the US Southwest) as well as from wetter environments (Bromus and Poa grasses in New Mexico) suggests differing responses based on environment; arid environments in New Mexico see increased intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE) in response to historic elevated CO 2 while wetter environments see increased c i . This study suggests that (i) the observed increases in c i in FACE experiments are consistent with historical CO 2 increases and (ii) the CO 2 increase influences plant sensitivity to water shortage, through either increased WUE or c i in arid and wet environments, respectively. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. In Situ Dark Adaptation Enhances the Efficiency of DNA Extraction from Mature Pin Oak (Quercus palustris Leaves, Facilitating the Identification of Partial Sequences of the 18S rRNA and Isoprene Synthase (IspS Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csengele E. Barta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mature oak (Quercus spp. leaves, although abundantly available during the plants’ developmental cycle, are rarely exploited as viable sources of genomic DNA. These leaves are rich in metabolites difficult to remove during standard DNA purification, interfering with downstream molecular genetics applications. The current work assessed whether in situ dark adaptation, to deplete sugar reserves and inhibit secondary metabolite synthesis could compensate for the difficulties encountered when isolating DNA from mature leaves rich in secondary metabolites. We optimized a rapid, commercial kit based method to extract genomic DNA from dark- and light-adapted leaves. We demonstrated that in situ dark adaptation increases the yield and quality of genomic DNA obtained from mature oak leaves, yielding templates of sufficiently high quality for direct downstream applications, such as PCR amplification and gene identification. The quality of templates isolated from dark-adapted pin oak leaves particularly improved the amplification of larger fragments in our experiments. From DNA extracts prepared with our optimized method, we identified for the first time partial segments of the genes encoding 18S rRNA and isoprene synthase (IspS from pin oak (Quercus palustris, whose full genome has not yet been sequenced.

  17. The linkages of anthropogenic emissions and meteorology in the rapid increase of particulate matter at a foothill city in the Arawali range of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravi; Beig, G.; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.

    2014-03-01

    The city of Udaipur (24.58°N, 73.68°E) in the province of Rajasthan in the Western part of India has a special significance as it is surrounded by the Arawali mountain ranges on one side and desert on the other side. It is located around the foothills of the rocky Arawali range. It is on the world map due to its tourist attraction. The changing pattern in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) during the past three years indicates an alarming increasing trend, posing a threat to its environment & tourism sector which regulates its economy to a period during the monsoon and distribution of particulate matter is found to be governed by the meteorology and changes the trend. The level of PM10, which was already above the threshold level in 2010, further increased in 2012. The trend is found to be rapid during the months of October & November where an increase by 37% is observed in 3 years. The level of PM2.5, which is the most hazardous for respiratory system diseases, has now started to cross the ambient air quality standards set by the World Health Organization. The impact is significant during winter when the inversion layer is down due to colder temperature and foreign tourists are a peak giving rise an increased morbidity rate. The linkages of local weather with an anthropogenically induced trend and long range transport of pollutants have been outlined.

  18. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light......, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances...... be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or temperature dependencies for individual compounds across species. Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic...

  19. Thin-film photovoltaic power generation offers decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing environmental co-benefits in the long term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergesen, Joseph D; Heath, Garvin A; Gibon, Thomas; Suh, Sangwon

    2014-08-19

    Thin-film photovoltaic (PV) technologies have improved significantly recently, and similar improvements are projected into the future, warranting reevaluation of the environmental implications of PV to update and inform policy decisions. By conducting a hybrid life cycle assessment using the most recent manufacturing data and technology roadmaps, we compare present and projected environmental, human health, and natural resource implications of electricity generated from two common thin-film PV technologies-copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) and cadmium telluride (CdTe)-in the United States (U.S.) to those of the current U.S. electricity mix. We evaluate how the impacts of thin films can be reduced by likely cost-reducing technological changes: (1) module efficiency increases, (2) module dematerialization, (3) changes in upstream energy and materials production, and (4) end-of-life recycling of balance of system (BOS). Results show comparable environmental and resource impacts for CdTe and CIGS. Compared to the U.S. electricity mix in 2010, both perform at least 90% better in 7 of 12 and at least 50% better in 3 of 12 impact categories, with comparable land use, and increased metal depletion unless BOS recycling is ensured. Technological changes, particularly efficiency increases, contribute to 35-80% reductions in all impacts by 2030.

  20. Biomass Burning and Natural Emissions in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest: Chemical Composition and Impact on the Oxidative Capacity of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, F. C.; Longo, K.; Guenther, A. B.; Gu, D.; Kim, S.; Freitas, S.; Moreira, D. S.; Flávio, L.; Braz, R.; Brito, J.; Oram, D.; Foster, G.; Lee, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Emitted by vegetation, isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene) is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbons, with an annual global emission calculated ranging from 440 to 660Tg carbon, depending on the driving variables like temperature, solar radiation, LAI and PFT. The natural compounds like isoprene and terpenes present in the troposphere are about 90% and 50%, respectively, removed from the atmosphere by oxidation performed by hydroxyl radical (OH). Considering the importance of these emissions and the hydroxyl radical reaction in the atmosphere, the SAMBBA (South American Biomass Burning Analysis) experiment, which occurred during the dry season (September 2012) in the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest, provided information about the chemical composition of the atmosphere through airborne observations. Although primarily focused on biomass burning flights, the SAMBBA project carried out flights in pristine environment. In this study, we determine the ambient distribution of CO, NOx and O3, and evaluate the oxidative capacity of the Amazon rainforest in different chemical regimes, using the ratio [MVK + MACR]/[Isoprene]. Beyond that, we proposed an improvement on the formulation of indirect OH density calculation, using the photochemical aging [O3]/[CO] as a parameter. Balancing numerical modeling and direct observations, the numerical model BRAMS was coupled to MEGAN emission model to get a better result for isoprene and OH in the atmosphere, representing the observations during SAMBBA field campaign. In relation to OH estimation, we observed an improvement in the concentration values using the modified sequential reaction model, for both biomass burning regimes and background environment. We also detected a long-range transport events of O3, considering the high levels of O3 in aged plumes at high altitudes (5,500 - 6,500 m), and the detection of an O3 inflow in the Amazon basin from Africa. These findings support the importance of long-range transport events as a

  1. Increased brain amyloid deposition in patients with a lifetime history of major depression: evidenced on 18F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kuan-Yi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Yih; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Wai, Yau-Yau; Chang, Chee-Jen; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Yen, Tzue-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The literature suggests that a history of depression is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to examine brain amyloid accumulation in patients with lifetime major depression using 18 F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET imaging in comparison with that in nondepressed subjects. The study groups comprised 25 depressed patients and 11 comparison subjects who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Vascular risk factors, homocysteine and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype were also examined. The standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) of each volume of interest was analysed using whole the cerebellum as the reference region. Patients with a lifetime history of major depression had higher 18 F-florbetapir SUVRs in the precuneus (1.06 ± 0.08 vs. 1.00 ± 0.06, p = 0.045) and parietal region (1.05 ± 0.08 vs. 0.98 ± 0.07, p = 0.038) than the comparison subjects. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a significantly increased SUVR in depressed patients in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital areas (p 18 F-florbetapir SUVRs and prior depression episodes, age at onset of depression, or time since onset of first depression. Increased 18 F-florbetapir binding values were found in patients with late-life major depression relative to comparison subjects in specific brain regions, despite no differences in age, sex, education, Mini Mental Status Examination score, vascular risk factor score, homocysteine and ApoE ε4 genotype between the two groups. A longitudinal follow-up study with a large sample size would be worthwhile. (orig.)

  2. Increased brain amyloid deposition in patients with a lifetime history of major depression: evidenced on {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kuan-Yi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang; Liu, Chia-Yih [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University, Department of Psychiatry, Tao-Yuan (China); Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Hsieh, Chia-Ju [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Tao-Yuan (China); Chen, Cheng-Sheng [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung (China); Wai, Yau-Yau [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang, Chee-Jen [Chang Gung University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung University, Clinical Informatics and Medical Statistics Research Center, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Tao-Yuan (China); Tseng, Hsiao-Jung [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Biostatistical Center for Clinical Research, Tao-Yuan (China); Yen, Tzue-Chen; Lin, Kun-Ju [Chang Gung University, Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences and Healthy Aging Research Center, Tao-Yuan (China); Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging Center, Tao-Yuan (China)

    2014-04-15

    The literature suggests that a history of depression is associated with an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to examine brain amyloid accumulation in patients with lifetime major depression using {sup 18}F-florbetapir (AV-45/Amyvid) PET imaging in comparison with that in nondepressed subjects. The study groups comprised 25 depressed patients and 11 comparison subjects who did not meet the diagnostic criteria for AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Vascular risk factors, homocysteine and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype were also examined. The standard uptake value ratio (SUVR) of each volume of interest was analysed using whole the cerebellum as the reference region. Patients with a lifetime history of major depression had higher {sup 18}F-florbetapir SUVRs in the precuneus (1.06 ± 0.08 vs. 1.00 ± 0.06, p = 0.045) and parietal region (1.05 ± 0.08 vs. 0.98 ± 0.07, p = 0.038) than the comparison subjects. Voxel-wise analysis revealed a significantly increased SUVR in depressed patients in the frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital areas (p < 0.01). There were no significant associations between global {sup 18}F-florbetapir SUVRs and prior depression episodes, age at onset of depression, or time since onset of first depression. Increased {sup 18}F-florbetapir binding values were found in patients with late-life major depression relative to comparison subjects in specific brain regions, despite no differences in age, sex, education, Mini Mental Status Examination score, vascular risk factor score, homocysteine and ApoE ε4 genotype between the two groups. A longitudinal follow-up study with a large sample size would be worthwhile. (orig.)

  3. An Estimate of Biogenic Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds during Summertime in China (7 pp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Almut

    2007-01-01

    and Aim. An accurate estimation of biogenic emissions of VOC (volatile organic compounds) is necessary for better understanding a series of current environmental problems such as summertime smog and global climate change. However, very limited studies have been reported on such emissions in China. The aim of this paper is to present an estimate of biogenic VOC emissions during summertime in China, and discuss its uncertainties and potential areas for further investigations. This study was mainly based on field data and related research available so far in China and abroad, including distributions of land use and vegetations, biomass densities and emission potentials. VOC were grouped into isoprene, monoterpenes and other VOC (OVOC). Emission potentials of forests were determined for 22 genera or species, and then assigned to 33 forest ecosystems. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis database was used as standard environmental conditions. A typical summertime of July 1999 was chosen for detailed calculations. The biogenic VOC emissions in China in July were estimated to be 2.3×1012gC, with 42% as isoprene, 19% as monoterpenes and 39% as OVOC. About 77.3% of the emissions are generated from forests and woodlands. The averaged emission intensity was 4.11 mgC m-2 hr-1 for forests and 1.12 mgC m-2 hr-1 for all types of vegetations in China during the summertime. The uncertainty in the results arose from both the data and the assumptions used in the extrapolations. Generally, uncertainty in the field measurements is relatively small. A large part of the uncertainty mainly comes from the taxonomic method to assign emission potentials to unmeasured species, while the ARGR method serves to estimate leaf biomass and the emission algorithms to describe light and temperature dependence. This study describes a picture of the biogenic VOC emissions during summertime in China. Due to the uneven spatial and temporal distributions, biogenic VOC emissions may play an important role in the

  4. Decreasing methane yield with increasing food intake keeps daily methane emissions constant in two foregut fermenting marsupials, the western grey kangaroo and red kangaroo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendl, Catharina; Clauss, Marcus; Stewart, Mathew; Leggett, Keith; Hummel, Jürgen; Kreuzer, Michael; Munn, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental differences in methane (CH4) production between macropods (kangaroos) and ruminants have been suggested and linked to differences in the composition of the forestomach microbiome. Using six western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus) and four red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), we measured daily absolute CH4 production in vivo as well as CH4 yield (CH4 per unit of intake of dry matter, gross energy or digestible fibre) by open-circuit respirometry. Two food intake levels were tested using a chopped lucerne hay (alfalfa) diet. Body mass-specific absolute CH4 production resembled values previously reported in wallabies and non-ruminant herbivores such as horses, and did not differ with food intake level, although there was no concomitant proportionate decrease in fibre digestibility with higher food intake. In contrast, CH4 yield decreased with increasing intake, and was intermediate between values reported for ruminants and non-ruminant herbivores. These results correspond to those in ruminants and other non-ruminant species where increased intake (and hence a shorter digesta retention in the gut) leads to a lower CH4 yield. We hypothesize that rather than harbouring a fundamentally different microbiome in their foregut, the microbiome of macropods is in a particular metabolic state more tuned towards growth (i.e. biomass production) rather than CH4 production. This is due to the short digesta retention time in macropods and the known distinct 'digesta washing' in the gut of macropods, where fluids move faster than particles and hence most likely wash out microbes from the forestomach. Although our data suggest that kangaroos only produce about 27% of the body mass-specific volume of CH4 of ruminants, it remains to be modelled with species-specific growth rates and production conditions whether or not significantly lower CH4 amounts are emitted per kg of meat in kangaroo than in beef or mutton production. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Estimation of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from the terrestrial ecosystem in China using real-time remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Huang, X.; Li, J.; Song, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Because of the high emission intensity and reactivity, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) play a significant role in the terrestrial ecosystems, human health, secondary pollution, global climate change and the global carbon cycle. Past estimations of BVOC emissions in China were based on outdated algorithms and limited meteorological data, and there have been significant inconsistences between the land surface parameters of dynamic models and those of BVOC estimation models, leading to large inaccuracies in the estimated results. To refine BVOC emission estimations for China and to further explore the role of BVOCs in atmospheric chemical processes, we used the latest algorithms of MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) with MM5 (the Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model) providing highly resolved meteorological data, to estimate the biogenic emissions of isoprene (C5H8) and seven monoterpene species (C10H16) in 2006. Real-time MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data were introduced to update the land surface parameters and improve the simulation performance of MM5, and to modify the influence of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf age deviation from standard conditions. In this study, the annual BVOC emissions for the whole country totaled 12.97 Tg C, a relevant value much lower than that given in global estimations but higher than the past estimations in China. Therein, the most important individual contributor was isoprene (9.36 Tg C), followed by α-pinene (1.24 Tg C yr-1) and β-pinene (0.84 Tg C yr-1). Due to the considerable regional disparity in plant distributions and meteorological conditions across China, BVOC emissions presented significant spatial-temporal variations. Spatially, isoprene emission was concentrated in South China, which is covered by large areas of broadleaf forests and shrubs. On the other hand, Southeast China was the top-ranking contributor of monoterpenes, in which the dominant vegetation

  6. Spatio-temporal variation of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L Y; Chen, Y; Xie, S D

    2013-11-01

    Aiming to reduce the large uncertainties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions estimation, the emission inventory of BVOCs in China at a high spatial and temporal resolution of 36 km × 36 km and 1 h was established using MEGANv2.1 with MM5 providing high-resolution meteorological data, based on the most detailed and latest vegetation investigations. BVOC emissions from 82 plant functional types in China were computed firstly. More local species-specific emission rates were developed combining statistical analysis and category classification, and the leaf biomass was estimated based on vegetation volume and production with biomass-apportion models. The total annual BVOC emissions in 2003 were 42.5 Tg, including isoprene 23.4 Tg, monoterpene 5.6 Tg, sesquiterpene 1.0 Tg, and other VOCs (OVOCs) 12.5 Tg. Subtropical and tropical evergreen and deciduous broadleaf shrubs, Quercus, and bamboo contributed more than 45% to the total BVOC emissions. The highest biogenic emissions were found over northeastern, southeastern, and southwestern China. Strong seasonal pattern was observed with the highest BVOC emissions in July and the lowest in January and December, with daily emission peaked at approximately 13:00 or 14:00 local time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Global CO{sub 2} emissions 2017. Still no breakthrough can be seen, but the signs of a trend reversal are increasing; Weltweite CO{sub 2}-Emissionen 2017. Noch kein Durchbruch erkennbar, doch mehren sich die Zeichen einer Trendumkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziesing, Hans-Joachim

    2017-09-15

    In 2016 global CO{sub 2} emissions according to provisional calculations rose only slightly compared to 2015 with 0.4%. As a result, the average long-term growth of 1.7% (from 1990 to 2015) was once again clearly slowed down as in the previous year. As a result, CO{sub 2} emissions in 2016 reached a new peak of 33.3 billion tonnes. Although this still does not signal a trend reversal, but CO{sub 2} emissions have declined in many countries, particularly in some industrialized countries. For example. CO{sub 2} emissions in the Annex I countries were reduced by a total of 0.7% or around 94 million tonnes. This is mainly attributed to developments in the USA (-1.7% or 90.0 million tonnes), Russia (-2.0% or 32.6 million tonnes), Great Britain (-5.5% or 23.0 million tonnes) and Japan (-1.5% or 18.0 million tonnes). Encouraging is also the fact that CO{sub 2} emissions in China, the country with by far the highest emissions, have declined in 2016 as in the previous year - albeit with 0.2% quite weakly. It is less positive that CO{sub 2} emissions in the EU-28 have increased again, with the exception of Great Britain, Portugal, Spain and Bulgaria, contrary to EU-wide targets. [German] Im Jahr 2016 sind die weltweiten CO{sub 2}-Emissionen nach vorlaeufigen Berechnungen gegenueber 2015 mit 0,4 % nur schwach gestiegen. Damit wurde der langfristige Zuwachs von jahresdurchschnittlich 1,7 % (von 1990 bis 2015) wie schon im Vorjahr erneut deutlich gebremst. Im Ergebnis erreichten die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen 2016 mit reichlich 33,3 Mrd. t einen neuen Spitzenwert. Das signalisiert zwar noch keine Trendwende, doch sind die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in zahlreichen Laendern, insbesondere in etlichen Industrielaendern, gesunken. Bspw. wurden die CO{sub 2}-Emissionen in den Annex-I-Laendern gesamthaft um 0,7 % oder rund 94 Mio. t reduziert. Dies ist vor allem auf die Entwicklung in den USA (-1,7 % oder 90,0 Mio. t), Russland (-2,0 % oder 32,6 Mio. t), Grossbritannien (-5,5 % oder 23,0 Mio. t

  8. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Styrene-Isoprene-Styrene Copolymer Doped with Expanded Graphite Nanoplatelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenko Špitalský

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The molecular dynamics of a triblock copolymer and of expanded graphite nanoplatelets were investigated. Composites were prepared using the solution technique. The effects of filler addition and of filler-matrix interactions were investigated using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. Only one relaxation was observed by DRS, which was associated with the relaxation of the main polymer chain. Both DRS and DMA demonstrated that the addition of the filler does not cause a significant change in either the temperature of the relaxation or its activation energy, which suggests the presence of weak interactions between the filler and matrix. The storage modulus of the composites increased with increasing filler content. The composite containing 8% filler exhibited a storage modulus increase of approximately 394% in the rubber area. Using the DC electrical conductivity measurements, the electrical percolation threshold was determined to be approximately 5%. The dielectric permittivity and conductivity in the microwave region were determined, confirming that percolating behavior and the critical threshold concentration.

  9. The influence of biogenic emissions from Africa on tropical tropospheric ozone during 2006: a global modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Williams

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed simulations using a 3-D global chemistry-transport model to investigate the influence that biogenic emissions from the African continent exert on the composition of the troposphere in the tropical region. For this purpose we have applied two recently developed biogenic emission inventories provided for use in large-scale global models (Granier et al., 2005; Lathière et al., 2006 whose seasonality and temporal distribution for biogenic emissions of isoprene, other volatile organic compounds and NO is markedly different. The use of the 12 year average values for biogenic emissions provided by Lathière et al. (2006 results in an increase in the amount of nitrogen sequestrated into longer lived reservoir compounds which contributes to the reduction in the tropospheric ozone burden in the tropics. The associated re-partitioning of nitrogen between PAN, HNO3 and organic nitrates also results in a ~5% increase in the loss of nitrogen by wet deposition. At a global scale there is a reduction in the oxidizing capacity of the model atmosphere which increases the atmospheric lifetimes of CH4 and CO by ~1.5% and ~4%, respectively. Comparisons against a range of different measurements indicate that applying the 12 year average of Lathière et al. (2006 improves the performance of TM4_AMMA for 2006 in the tropics. By the use of sensitivity studies we show that the release of NO from soils in Africa accounts for between ~2–45% of tropospheric ozone in the African troposphere, ~10% in the upper troposphere and between ~5–20% of the tropical tropospheric ozone column over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The subsequent reduction in OH over the source regions allows enhanced transport of CO out of the region. For biogenic volatile organic C1 to C3 species released from Africa, the effects on tropical tropospheric ozone are rather limited, although this source contributes to the global burden of VOC by between ~2–4% and

  10. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  11. Measurements of emission rates of hydrocarbons from sunflower as a function of temperature, light intensity and stress (ozone levels); Bestimmung von Emissionsraten pflanzlicher Kohlenwasserstoffe bei Sonnenblumen in Abhaengigkeit von Temperatur, Lichtintensitaet und Stress, insbesondere von der Belastung mit Ozon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuh, G.; Wildt, J.; Kley, D.

    1996-08-01

    The emission rates of isoprene, mono- and sesquiterpenes from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. giganteus) were determined in an environmental chamber, a continuously stirred tank reactor. {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-caryophyllene and two oxygenated compounds were emitted. The emission rates of all terpenes increased exponentially with temperature. Substance specific differences of the rate of increase of the emission rates were observed. For all substances the dependence of their emission rates on temperature increased with increasing light intensity. Increasing lightflux resulted in an increase of the emission rates for all substances. The raise of emission rates with lightflux was dependent on temperature and increased with increasing temperature. During periods without plant stress the emission rates exhibited a good correlation with the rate of transpiration as well as with the rate of net photosynthesis. Sunflowers emitted higher amounts of terpenes when they were stressed by mechanical, wounding and ozone treatment as well as nutrient- or water deficiency. The emission rates increased by a factor of 5-300. Exposure with ozone had an effect on hydrocarbon emission rates with a delay-time. 3-4 h after exposure with 25-120 ppb ozone the emission rates increased by factor of 5-100. This increase was only observed on the first day of exposure. Nutrient deficiency resulted in an increase of emission rates by a factor of 10-300. In situations of mechanical, wounding and ozone stress, substance specific changes in the emission spectrum were observed. A model was developed to explain the observed phenomena. The main pathway of ozone loss in the chamber is caused by the uptake through the stomata of the plants. However, up to 50% of the ozone loss must be explained by other processes indirectly caused by the plants. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] In Laborversuchen wurden Emissionsraten biogener Kohlenwasserstoffe von Sonnenblumen gemessen. Die groessten Emissionsraten wiesen die

  12. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Seco

    2011-12-01

    polluted air masses receive additional biogenic VOCs emitted in the local valley by the vegetation, thus enhancing O3 formation in this forested site. The only VOC species that showed a somewhat different daily pattern were monoterpenes because of their local biogenic emission. Isoprene also followed in part the daily pattern of monoterpenes, but only in summer when its biotic sources were stronger. The increase by one order of magnitude in the concentrations of these volatile isoprenoids highlights the importance of local biogenic summer emissions in these Mediterranean forested areas which also receive polluted air masses from nearby or distant anthropic sources.

  13. Contrasting winter and summer VOC mixing ratios at a forest site in the Western Mediterranean Basin: the effect of local biogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seco, R.; Peñuelas, J.; Filella, I.; Llusià, J.; Molowny-Horas, R.; Schallhart, S.; Metzger, A.; Müller, M.; Hansel, A.

    2011-12-01

    VOCs emitted in the local valley by the vegetation, thus enhancing O3 formation in this forested site. The only VOC species that showed a somewhat different daily pattern were monoterpenes because of their local biogenic emission. Isoprene also followed in part the daily pattern of monoterpenes, but only in summer when its biotic sources were stronger. The increase</