seyed abolfazl zakerian; Roya Azizi; Mehdi Rahgozar
The term usability refers to a special index for success of an operating system. This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Software Usability Measurements Inventory (SUMI) questionnaire as one of the valid and common questionnaires about usability evaluation. The back translation method was used to translate the questionnaire from English to Persian back to English. Moreover, repeatability or test-retest reliability was practically used to determine the reliability of ...
Boudreaux, Edwin D; Fischer, Andrew Christopher; Haskins, Brianna Lyn; Saeed Zafar, Zubair; Chen, Guanling; Chinai, Sneha A
The administration of health screeners in a hospital setting has traditionally required (1) clinicians to ask questions and log answers, which can be time consuming and susceptible to error, or (2) patients to complete paper-and-pencil surveys, which require third-party entry of information into the electronic health record and can be vulnerable to error and misinterpretation. A highly promising method that avoids these limitations and bypasses third-party interpretation is direct entry via a computerized inventory. To (1) computerize medical and behavioral health screening for use in general medical settings, (2) optimize patient acceptability and feasibility through iterative usability testing and modification cycles, and (3) examine how age relates to usability. A computerized version of 15 screeners, including behavioral health screeners recommended by a National Institutes of Health Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research collaborative workgroup, was subjected to systematic usability testing and iterative modification. Consecutive adult, English-speaking patients seeking treatment in an urban emergency department were enrolled. Acceptability was defined as (1) the percentage of eligible patients who agreed to take the assessment (initiation rate) and (2) average satisfaction with the assessment (satisfaction rate). Feasibility was defined as the percentage of the screening items completed by those who initiated the assessment (completion rate). Chi-square tests, analyses of variance, and Pearson correlations were used to detect whether improvements in initiation, satisfaction, and completion rates were seen over time and to examine the relation between age and outcomes. Of 2157 eligible patients approached, 1280 agreed to complete the screening (initiation rate=59.34%). Statistically significant increases were observed over time in satisfaction (F3,1061=3.35, P=.019) and completion rates (F3,1276=25.44, PUsability testing revealed several critical
Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren
Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected...... use of constructs traditionally associated with usability (e.g., easy-to-use, intuitive, and liked). Further analysis of the data is ongoing...
Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because increased oxygen production is not ...
The concept of usability has become an increasingly important consideration in the design of all kinds of technology. As more products are aimed at global markets and developed through internationally distributed teams, usability design needs to be addressed in global terms. Interest in usability as a design issue and specialist area of research and education has developed steadily in North America and Europe since the 1980's. However, it is only over the last ten years that it has emerged as a global concern. Global Usability provides an introduction to the important issues in globalizing des
Culture has already played an important role in the global market. It not only affects products, but also impacts on usability evaluation methods. This project aims to examine in the established thinking aloud usability evaluation method (TA UEM), how does the evaluator build a supportive...
Nørgaard, Mie; Høegh, Rune T.
Usability evaluation is widely accepted as a valuable activity in software development. However, how results effectively are fed back to developers is still a relatively unexplored area. We argue that usability feedback can be understood as an argument for a series of usability problems......, and that basic concepts from argumentation theory can help us understand how to create persuasive feedback. We revisit two field studies on usability feedback to study if concepts from Toulmin's model for argumentation and Aristotle's modes of persuasion can explain why some feedback formats outperform others....... We recommend that evaluators specifically back up the warrants behind their usability claims, that their arguments use several modes of persuasion, and that they present feedback in browsable amounts not to overwhelm developers with information. For complex and controversial problems, we advise...
Aryana, Bijan; Clemmensen, Torkil
In this article, a country specific comparative mobile usability study is presented, using Iran and Turkey as the two chosen emerging/emergent nation exemplars of smartphone usage and adoption. In a focus group study, three mobile applications were selected by first-time users of smartphones...... personal contacts. The results and analysis establish the existence of country specific issues and concerns, as well as reveal generic usability issues. The article concludes that the source of these issues is most likely due to a combination of certain contextual features endemic to both Iran and Turkey...
unless confronted with alternative images. This study delineates six images of usability: universal usability, situational usability, perceived usability, hedonic usability, organizational usability, and cultural usability. The different foci of the images provide opportunities for becoming sensitized...... assume different images of usability and a need for supplementary methods addressing the collaborative and long-term aspects of usability. Moreover, the images call for extending the scope of practical usability work to include the effects achieved by users during their use of systems for real work....
Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil
distinguishing it from user experience. On the basis of repertory-grid interviews with 24 Chinese, Danish, and Indian usability professionals we find that they make use of more utilitarian than experiential, i.e. user-experience related, constructs. This indicates that goal-related performance is central......’ constructs, particularly their experiential constructs, go considerably beyond ISO 9241 usability, indicating a discrepancy between this definition of usability and the thinking of the professionals concerned with delivering usability. Finally, usability is construed rather similarly across the three...
Usability studies are important for developing usable, enjoyable products, identifying design flaws (usability problems) likely to compromise the user experience. Usability testing is recommended for improving interactive design, but discovery of usability problems depends on the number of users
Morgan, Eric Lease
Suggests that one of the best ways to get word-of-mouth marketing of library technology is to provide "usable" products and services. Provides an international standards definition on usability and notes that understanding usability combines an understanding of user needs/wants with an understanding of goals, functions, and limitations…
Usability testing seems complicated and time-consuming. Is it though? In fact, it is the best way to understand how real users experience your product. In this interactive session, we will do a live usability test and you will get advice on how to conduct your own usability tests.
Industrial usability work often fails to produce the expected impact on software products even though significant resources have been used on uncovering problems and suggesting improvements. So, it seems that feedback from industrial usability work lacks persuasiveness, i.e. it fails to convince...... the key stakeholders that actions need to be taken. This study reports from interviews with 26 stakeholders in software development projects. Our data suggests that the interviewees address usability using different perspectives and based on our observations we describe five such perspectives. Further, we...... discuss how applying different usability perspectives might inform the persuasiveness of usability work....
Snider, Jean; Martin, Florence
Web usability focuses on design elements and processes that make web pages easy to use. A website for college students was evaluated for underutilization. One-on-one testing, focus groups, web analytics, peer university review and marketing focus group and demographic data were utilized to conduct usability evaluation. The results indicated that…
Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper
Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development...
Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam
In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...
Meinald T. Thielsch
Full Text Available Usability is a core construct of website evaluation and inherently defined as interactive. Yet, when analysing first impressions of websites, expected usability, i.e., before use, is of interest. Here we investigate to what extend ratings of expected usability are related to (a experienced usability, i.e., ratings after use, and (b objective usability measures, i.e., task performance. Furthermore, we try to elucidate how ratings of expected usability are correlated to aesthetic judgments. In an experiment, 57 participants submitted expected usability ratings after the presentation of website screenshots in three viewing-time conditions (50, 500, and 10,000 ms and after an interactive task (experienced usability. Additionally, objective usability measures (task completion and duration and subjective aesthetics evaluations were recorded for each website. The results at both the group and individual level show that expected usability ratings are not significantly related either to experienced usability or objective usability measures. Instead, they are highly correlated with aesthetics ratings. Taken together, our results highlight the need for interaction in empirical website usability testing, even when exploring very early usability impressions. In our study, user ratings of expected usability were no valid proxy neither for objective usability nor for experienced website usability.
Følstad, Asbjørn; Lai-Chong Law, Effie; Hornbæk, Kasper
While the planning and implementation of usability evaluations are well described in the literature, the analysis of the evaluation data is not. We present interviews with 11 usability professionals on how they conduct analysis, describing the resources, collaboration, creation of recommendations......, and prioritization involved. The interviews indicate a lack of structure in the analysis process and suggest activities, such as generating recommendations, that are unsupported by existing methods. We discuss how to better support analysis, and propose four themes for future research on analysis in usability...
Full Text Available Usability, most often defined as the ease of use and acceptability of a system, affects the users' performance and their job satisfaction when working with a machine. Therefore, usability is a very important aspect which must be considered in the process of a system development. The paper presents several numerical data related to the history of the scientific research of the usability of information systems, as it is viewed in the information provided by three important scientific databases, Science Direct, ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore Digital Library, at different queries related to this field.
Christensen, Lars; Frøkjær, Erik
We present DUE (Distributed Usability Evaluation), a technique for collecting and evaluating usability data. The DUE infrastructure involves a client-server network. A client-based tool resides on the workstation of each user, providing a screen video recording, microphone input of voice commentary......, and a window for a severity rating. The idea is for the user to work naturalistically, clicking a button when a usability problem or point of uncertainty is encountered, to describe it verbally along with illustrating it on screen, and to rate its severity. These incidents are accumulated on a server......, providing access to an evaluator (usability expert) and to product developers or managers who want to review the incidents and analyse them. DUE supports evaluation in the development stages from running prototypes and onwards. A case study of the use of DUE in a corporate environment is presented...
Nørgaard, Mie; Hornbæk, Kasper
In theory, usability work is an important and well-integrated activity in developing software. In practice, collaboration on improving usability is ridden with challenges relating to conflicting professional goals, tight project schedules, and unclear usability findings. The authors study those...... challenges through 16 interviews with software developers, usability experts, and project managers. Four themes that are key challenges to successful interaction between stakeholders are identified: poor timing when delivering usability results, results lacking relevance, little respect for other disciplines...
Fisher, J; Van-Dongen, M; Sutherland, R
Research considering combined vibration and strength training is extensive yet results are equivocal. However, to date there appears no research which has considered the combination of both direct vibration and whole-body vibration when used in an isometric deadlift position. The aim of this study was to compare groups performing isometric training with and without direct and whole-body vibration. Twenty four participants (19-24 years) were randomly divided into: isometric training with vibration (ST+VT: N.=8), isometric training without vibration (ST: N.=8), and control (CON: N.=8). Within the training groups participants trained twice per week, for 6 weeks, performing 6-sets of maximal isometric deadlift contractions, increasing in duration from 30 seconds to 40 seconds (weeks 1-6). Hip and knee angle was maintained at 60° and 110°, respectively for both testing and training. Training sessions for ST+VT were identical to ST with the addition of a direct vibratory stimulus through hand-held straps and whole-body vibration via standing on vibration a platform. The amplitude remained constant (2 mm) throughout the intervention whilst the frequency increased from 35Hz to 50Hz. Pre- and post-test isometric strength was measured using an isometric deadlift dynamometer. Results revealed significant increases in isometric strength for both ST+VT (Pstrength training.
Full Text Available Business Intelligence (BI applications provide business information to drive decision support. Usability is one of the factors determining the optimal use and eventual benefit derived from BI applications. The documented need for more BI usability research together with the practical necessity for BI evaluation guidelines in the mining industry provides the rationale for this study. The purpose of the study was to investigate the usability evaluation of BI applications in the context of a coal mining organization. The research is guided by the question: How can existing usability criteria be customized to evaluate the usability of BI applications. The research design included user observation, heuristic evaluation and a survey. Based on observations made during user support on a BI application used at a coal mining organization a log of usability issues was compiled. The usability issues extracted from this log was compared and contrasted with general usability criteria from literature to synthesize an initial set of BI usability evaluation criteria. These criteria were used as the basis for a heuristic evaluation of the BI application used at the coal mining organization. The same BI application was also evaluated using the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI standardized questionnaire. The results from the two evaluations were triangulated and then compared with the BI user issues again to contextualize the findings and synthesize a validated and refined set of criteria. The main contribution of the study is the usability evaluation criteria for BI applications presented as guidelines. These guidelines deviate from existing evaluation guidelines in the emphasis on information architecture, learnability and operability.
Juan G Bonitch-Góngora
Full Text Available The grip is an important technical and tactical aspect through which the judokas dominate the adversary, hindering the application of appropriate techniques and favoring their own attack. The judokas must have high levels of isometric force and endurance to this type of force on the gripping muscles of the forearms, as one of the key aspects for success. This article reviews the grip muscular strength and endurance profiles of judokas of different groups (gender, age and competitive level. In general, the peak isometric strength of elite judokas has not changed in the last 40 years and is similar to that reached by non-elite judokas or even registered in large populations. This indicate that the evaluation of the isometric hand grip endurance may be a more relevant parameter than the peak isometric force in judokas, as during the bouts the grip must be maintained for relatively long periods of time and the maximum force cannot be maintained for long. However there are few studies on the ability to resist successive isometric handgrip stress in judokas.
This PhD thesis is a contribution to an ongoing debate in Denmark about improving the building design processes of complex buildings, especially in relation to the current hospital developments. It provides knowledge about capturing user needs and defines the process model for usability briefing...... and evaluations, can be fed into briefing and design processes. This PhD thesis proposes methods for usability briefing.Usability is a concept similar to functionality, but usability depends on: subjective view of users, context, culture, situation and experience. Understanding usability is achieved by involving...... users. This PhD thesis extends the research in usability of buildings to include all building design phases, therefore not only proposes usability evaluations, but also defines usability briefing. Briefing, also called architectural programming, is usually understood as one of the first phases...
The derivation of applicable Limits of Error for Inventory Differences (LEIDs) has been a long-term challenge for some material storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. Several investigations have been unsuccessful in producing usable estimates of the LEIDs. An investigation conducted in November of 1991 revealed some significant inventory characteristics. The corrective action involved the implementation of a multi-case LEID based on historical information and a correction in the use of the tank calibration charts for two storage tanks
Storm, Jeroen; Kostons, Danny
Storm, J., & Kostons, D. (2009). Usability at the CELSTEC MediaLab. Presentation about the usability testing, usability research and User Centered Design conducted at the CELSTEC MediaLab. July, 7, 2009, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.
One of the qualities that has received increased attention in recent decades is usability. A software product with poor usability is likely to fail in a highly competitive market; therefore software developing organizations are paying more and more attention to ensuring the usability of their
Bundschuh Bettina B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to the increasing functionality of medical information systems, it is hard to imagine day to day work in hospitals without IT support. Therefore, the design of dialogues between humans and information systems is one of the most important issues to be addressed in health care. This survey presents an analysis of the current quality level of human-computer interaction of healthcare-IT in German hospitals, focused on the users' point of view. Methods To evaluate the usability of clinical-IT according to the design principles of EN ISO 9241-10 the IsoMetrics Inventory, an assessment tool, was used. The focus of this paper has been put on suitability for task, training effort and conformity with user expectations, differentiated by information systems. Effectiveness has been evaluated with the focus on interoperability and functionality of different IT systems. Results 4521 persons from 371 hospitals visited the start page of the study, while 1003 persons from 158 hospitals completed the questionnaire. The results show relevant variations between different information systems. Conclusions Specialised information systems with defined functionality received better assessments than clinical information systems in general. This could be attributed to the improved customisation of these specialised systems for specific working environments. The results can be used as reference data for evaluation and benchmarking of human computer engineering in clinical health IT context for future studies.
Bulens, J.D.; Vullings, L.A.E.; Houtkamp, J.M.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.
As INSPIRE progresses to be implemented in the EU, many new discovery portals are built to facilitate finding spatial data. Currently the structure of the discovery portals is determined by the way spatial data experts like to work. However, we argue that the main target group for discovery portals are not spatial data experts but professionals with limited spatial knowledge, and a focus outside the spatial domain. An exploratory usability experiment was carried out in which three discovery p...
Full Text Available We consider the usual wave equation utt(x,t=c2uxx(x,t on the real line with some typical initial and boundary conditions. In each case, we establish a natural isometrical identity and inverse formula between the sourse function and the response function.
Denegar, Craig R.; Buckley, William E.; Newell, Karl M.
Objective: To determine the changes in sensation of pressure, 2-point discrimination, and submaximal isometric-force production variability due to cryotherapy. Design and Setting: Sensation was assessed using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures factorial design, with treatment (ice immersion or control), limb (right or left), digit (finger or thumb), and sensation test time (baseline, posttreatment, or postisometric-force trials) as independent variables. Dependent variables were changes in sensation of pressure and 2-point discrimination. Isometric-force variability was tested with a 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures factorial design. Treatment condition (ice immersion or control), limb (right or left), and percentage (10, 25, or 40) of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) were the independent variables. The dependent variables were the precision or variability (the standard deviation of mean isometric force) and the accuracy or targeting error (the root mean square error) of the isometric force for each percentage of MVIC. Subjects: Fifteen volunteer college students (8 men, 7 women; age = 22 ± 3 years; mass = 72 ± 21.9 kg; height = 183.4 ± 11.6 cm). Measurements: We measured sensation in the distal palmar aspect of the index finger and thumb. Sensation of pressure and 2-point discrimination were measured before treatment (baseline), after treatment (15 minutes of ice immersion or control), and at the completion of isometric testing (final). Variability (standard deviation of mean isometric force) of the submaximal isometric finger forces was measured by having the subjects exert a pinching force with the thumb and index finger for 30 seconds. Subjects performed the pinching task at the 3 submaximal levels of MVIC (10%, 25%, and 40%), with the order of trials assigned randomly. The subjects were given a target representing the submaximal percentage of MVIC and visual feedback of the force produced as they pinched the testing device. The force exerted
Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Oliveira, Thiago Pires; Assumpção, Claudio de Oliveira; Greco, Camila Coelho; Cardozo, Adalgiso Croscato; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio
Postactivation potentiation (PAP) is known to enhance force production. Maximal isometric strength assessment protocols usually consist of two or more maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs). The objective of this study was to determine if PAP would influence isometric strength assessment. Healthy male volunteers (n = 23) performed two five-second MVCs separated by a 180-seconds interval. Changes in isometric peak torque (IPT), time to achieve it (tPTI), contractile impulse (CI), root mean square of the electromyographic signal during PTI (RMS), and rate of torque development (RTD), in different intervals, were measured. Significant increases in IPT (240.6 ± 55.7 N·m versus 248.9 ± 55.1 N·m), RTD (746 ± 152 N·m·s(-1) versus 727 ± 158 N·m·s(-1)), and RMS (59.1 ± 12.2% RMSMAX versus 54.8 ± 9.4% RMSMAX) were found on the second MVC. tPTI decreased significantly on the second MVC (2373 ± 1200 ms versus 2784 ± 1226 ms). We conclude that a first MVC leads to PAP that elicits significant enhancements in strength-related variables of a second MVC performed 180 seconds later. If disconsidered, this phenomenon might bias maximal isometric strength assessment, overestimating some of these variables.
Eden, Bradford Lee
Each summer, circulation staff in my library inventories a section of the stacks andbrings collection issues to the attention of appropriate bibliographers. Since I amresponsible for the economics collection, I see an array of government documents thathave managed to elude the cataloging process. Many of these titles are decades old,having squatted in the library undisturbed and uncirculated since our online catalogwas implemented in 1990.
Klein Teeselink, G.; Siepe, A.H.M.; Pijper, de J.R.
The aim of this study is to gain insight in the usefulness of log file analysis as a method to evaluate the usability of individual interface components and their influence on the usability of the overall user interface. We selected a music player as application, with four different interfaces and
Folmer, E; van Gurp, J; Bosch, J; Bastide, R; Palanque, P; Roth, J
Studies of software engineering projects show that a large number of usability related change requests are made after its deployment. Fixing usability problems during the later stages of development often proves to be costly, since many of the necessary changes require changes to the system that
Cheng, Yiwei; Richardson, Sally
As part of the Stage Analysis Branch, human factors engineering plays an important role in relating humans to the systems of hardware and structure designs of the new launch vehicle. While many branches are involved in the technical aspects of creating a launch vehicle, human factors connects humans to the scientific systems with the goal of improving operational performance and safety while reducing operational error and damage to the hardware. Human factors engineers use physical and computerized models to visualize possible areas for improvements to ensure human accessibility to components requiring maintenance and that the necessary maintenance activities can be accomplished with minimal risks to human and hardware. Many methods of testing are used to fulfill this goal, such as physical mockups, computerized visualization, and usability testing. In this analysis, a usability test is conducted to test how usable a website is to users who are and are not familiar with it. The testing is performed using participants and Morae software to record and analyze the results. This analysis will be a preliminary test of the usability lab in preparation for use in new spacecraft programs, NASA Enterprise, or other NASA websites. The usability lab project is divided into two parts: integration of the usability lab and a preliminary test of the usability lab.
Full Text Available A known characterization of Hilbert spaces via isometric reflection vectors is based on the following implication: if the set of isometric reflection vectors in the unit sphere SX of a Banach space X has nonempty interior in SX, then X is a Hilbert space. Applying a recent result based on well-known theorem of Kronecker from number theory, we improve this by substantial reduction of the set of isometric reflection vectors needed in the hypothesis.
Hanson, P; Nagle, F
Isometric exercise produces a characteristic pressor increase in blood pressure which may be important in maintaining perfusion of muscle during sustained contraction. This response is mediated by combined central and peripheral afferent input to medullary cardiovascular centers. In normal individuals the increase in blood pressure is mediated by a rise in cardiac output with little or no change in systemic vascular resistance. However, the pressor response is also maintained during pharmacologic blockade or surgical denervation by increasing systemic vascular resistance. Left ventricular function is normally maintained or improves in normal subjects and cardiac patients with mild impairment of left ventricular contractility. Patients with poor left ventricular function may show deterioration during isometric exercise, although this pattern of response is difficult to predict from resting studies. Recent studies have shown that patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction can perform submaximum isometric exercise such as carrying weights in the range of 30 to 50 lb without difficulty or adverse responses. In addition, many patients who show ischemic ST depression or angina during dynamic exercise may have a reduced ischemic response during isometric or combined isometric and dynamic exercise. Isometric exercises are frequently encountered in activities of daily living and many occupational tasks. Cardiac patients should be gradually exposed to submaximum isometric training in supervised cardiac rehabilitation programs. Specific job tasks that require isometric or combined isometric and dynamic activities may be evaluated by work simulation studies. This approach to cardiac rehabilitation may facilitate patients who wish to return to a job requiring frequent isometric muscle contraction. Finally, there is a need for additional research on the long-term effects of isometric exercise training on left ventricular hypertrophy and performance. The vigorous training
We explored the retraction or contraction of platelet-fibrin clots under isometric conditions. In the presence of micromolar calcium clots of normal platelet-rich plasma developed tension at an initial rate of 0.1 to 0.2 g/min per cm2 (initial cross-sectional area). Electron microscopy of clots fixed after attaining a force of 1.6 g/cm2 revealed platelets with elongated bodies and pseudopods in close apposition to fibrin strands which were oriented in cablelike fashion in the direction of ten...
Longitudinal studies of the usability of a computer based system for process control has been performed. The whole life-cycle of one system has been of interest, as the problems are varying over time. Repeated measurements of the operators' experiences of this system have been made during 15 years. Of main interest have been the advantages/ disadvantages of computer based system for process control compared with conventional instrumentation. The results showed among other things that (1) computer based systems made it easier to control the process and increased security (2) age differences could be explained by other factors (3 ) expectations before the installation may influence the attitudes and use of equipment for quite some time In some questions the attitudes changed over time while in others they were quite stable, for example, in questions concerning preference for type of equipment. What do operators appreciate in a computer based system for process control? About 300 operators were asked about that. The main factor seems to include a reliable system with valid information that functions during disturbances. Hopefully new systems are designed with that in mind. (author)
Webster, S.A.; Tomasi, L.T.; Bernier, R.A.
After 2 yr of preparation, 1988 finally saw the nuclear industry writing operator-oriented technical specifications. This effort is a continuation of previous efforts to develop improved and usable standard technical specifications (STSs), and is being conducted by the four nuclear steam supply system vendor owners' groups under the auspices of the Nuclear Management Resources Council. Each participant is currently preparing a set of improved STSs based on a writer's guide that was developed through a combined industry effort. In May of 1987, a Human Factors Improvements to Technical Specifications (HFITS) task group was formed to prepare a writer's guide for improved, industrywide STSs. This task group was composed of two representatives from each owners' group, one with a human factors background and one with some operations background. Two documents were prepared in 6 months, a human factors report laying the groundwork for the considerations to go into technical specifications and a writer's guide for their preparation. This paper reports on the application of this writer's guide to the writing of improved STS
Do you want to improve the usability of your library website, but feel that it is too difficult, time-consuming, or expensive? Usability Testing: A Practical Guide for Librarians will teach you how to make the case for usability testing, define your audience and their goals, select a usability testing method appropriate for your particular context, plan for an in-house usability test, conduct an effective in-house usability test, analyze usability test results, and create and implement a plan for ongoing, systematic usability testing. Step-by-step instructions, along with a myriad of examples,
Sand, D P; Girgenrath, M; Bock, O; Pongratz, H
The operation of high-performance aircraft requires pilots to apply finely graded forces on controls. Since they are often exposed to high levels of acceleration in flight, we investigated to what extent this ability is degraded in such an environment. Twelve healthy non-pilot volunteers were seated in the gondola of a centrifuge and their performance was tested at normal gravity (1 G) and while exposed to sustained forces of 1.5 G and 3 G oriented from head to foot (+Gz). Using an isometric joystick, they attempted to produce force vectors with specific lengths and directions commanded in random order by a visual display. Acceleration had substantial effects on the magnitude of produced force. Compared with 1 G, maximum produced force was about 2 N higher at 1.5 G and about 10 N higher at 3 G. The size of this effect was constant across the different magnitudes, but varied with the direction of the prescribed force. Acceleration degrades control of force production. This finding may indicate that the motor system misinterprets the unusual gravitoinertial environment and/or that proprioceptive feedback is degraded due to increased muscle tone. The production of excessive isometric force could affect the safe operation of high-performance aircraft.
Severity assessments enable prioritization of problems encountered during usability evaluations and thereby provide a device for guiding the utilization of design resources. However, designers' response to usability evaluations is also influenced by other factors, which may overshadow severity....... With the purpose of enhancing the impact of severity assessments, this study combines a field study of factors that influence the impact of evaluations with an experimental study of severity assessments made during usability inspections. The results show that even in a project receptive to input from evaluations...... their impact was highly dependent on conducting evaluations early. This accorded with an informal method that blended elements of usability evaluation and participatory design and could be extended with user-made severity assessments. The major cost associated with the evaluations was not finding but fixing...
Vi, Chi Thanh; Hornbæk, Kasper; Subramanian, Sriram
Usability has a distinct subjective component, yet surprisingly little is known about its neural basis and relation to the neuroanatomy of aesthetics. To begin closing this gap, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in which participants were shown static webpages (in...... the first study) and videos of interaction with webpages (in the second study). The webpages were controlled so as to exhibit high and low levels of perceived usability and perceived aesthetics. Our results show unique links between perceived usability and brain areas involved in functions such as emotional...... processing (left fusiform gyrus, superior frontal gyrus), anticipation of physical interaction (precentral gyrus), task intention (anterior cingulate cortex), and linguistic processing (medial and bilateral superior frontal gyri). We use these findings to discuss the brain correlates of perceived usability...
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 1. Isometric multipliers of a vector valued Beurling algebra on a discrete semigroup. Research Article Volume 127 Issue 1 February 2017 pp 109- ... Keywords. Weighted semigroup; multipliers of a semigroup; Beurling algebra; isometric multipliers.
Clemmensen, Torkil; Yammiyavar, Pradeep; Ørngreen, Rikke
This paper focuses on presenting and discussing the aim, context, challenges, results, and impact of the Cultural usability project named as CultUsab. This project was a four year international research effort from 2006 to 2009, which was supported by a grant for the Danish Research Councils...... for Independent Research in Culture and Communication. The project aimed at innovating processes in Information and Communication Technology development through an understanding of culturally sensitive aspects of usability evaluation methods....
Black, Nancy L; Das, Biman
The three-dimensional Computerized Isometric Strength Measurement System (CISMS) reliably and accurately measures isometric pull and push strengths in work spaces of paraplegic populations while anticipating comparative studies with other populations. The main elements of the system were: an extendable arm, a vertical supporting track, a rotating platform, a force transducer, stability sensors and a computerized data collection interface. The CISMS with minor modification was successfully used to measure isometric push-up and pull-down strengths of paraplegics and isometric push, pull, push-up and pull-down strength in work spaces for seated and standing able-bodied populations. The instrument has satisfied criteria of versatility, safety and comfort, ease of operation, and durability. Results are accurate within 2N for aligned forces. Costing approximately $1,500 (US) including computer, the system is affordable and accurate for aligned isometric strength measurements.
Jordan, A; Mehlsen, J; Bülow, P M
A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature.......A descriptive study involving maximal isometric strength measurements of the cervical musculature....
Eriksson, Elina; Cajander, Åsa; Gulliksen, Jan
How do you do usability work when no usability expertise is available? What happens in an organization when system developers, with no previous HCI knowledge, after a 3-day course, start applying usability methods, and particularly field studies? In order to answer these questions qualitative data were gathered through participatory observations, a feed back survey, field study documentation and interviews from 47 system developers from a public authority. Our results suggest that field studies enhance the developer’s understanding of the user perspective, and provide a more holistic overview of the use situation, but that some developers were unable to interpret their observations and see solutions to the users’ problems. The field study method was very much appreciated and has now become standard operating procedure within the organization. However, although field studies may be useful, it does not replace the need for usability pro fes sion als, as their knowledge is essential for more complex observations, analysis and for keeping the focus on usability.
Theresa A. Zesiewicz
Full Text Available Background: Tremors may be difficult to classify.Case Report: An 83‐year‐old male presented with an unusual left wrist tremor. The tremor could be reproducibly elicited by making a fist or carrying a weighted object (e.g., a shopping bag, bottle of water of approximately 1 lb or more, and it intensified with heavier weights. The tremor was difficult to classify, although it shared features with isometric tremor.Discussion: This specific presentation of tremor has not been reported previously. We hope that the detailed description we provide will aid other neurologists who encounter this or similar tremors in their clinics.
Full Text Available Like any other software system quality attribute, usability places requirements on software components. In particular, it has been demonstrated that certain usability features have a direct impact throughout the software process. This paper details an approach that looks at how to deal with certain usability features in the early software development stages. In particular, we consider usability features as functional usability requirements using patterns that have been termed usability patterns to elicit requirements. Additionally, we clearly establish the responsibilities of all the players at the usability requirements elicitation stage.
McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Michael J; Winchester, Jason B; Nelson, Arnold G
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between measures of maximal isometric force (peak force [PF]), rate of force development (RFD), vertical jump performance (VJ) and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) strength in recreationally trained men. The subjects in this study were 26 men ([mean +/- SD]: age 22 +/- 1 years; height 175 +/- 7 cm; mass 90 +/- 10 kg). They were tested for PF using the isometric midthigh pull exercise. The 1RM for the squat and bench press exercise were determined as a measure of dynamic strength. Explosive strength was measured as RFD from the isometric force-time curve. Correlations between the variables were calculated using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. There was a nearly perfect correlation between measures of PF and 1RM squat (r = 0.97, p isometric maximum strength determined during the isometric midthigh pull test correlated well with 1RM and VJ testing. However, RFD measured during the same test did not appear to correlate as well with other measures. The isometric midthigh pull provides an efficient method for assessing strength in recreationally trained individuals. Practitioners wishing to obtain performance data related to maximum strength may wish to consider isometric testing as a less time intensive method of testing.
My topic of the thesis is usability of PostgreSQL. It presents basic information aboutPostgreSQL, such as its history, function, and comparison with one of the most popular databases - MySQL. PostgreSQL has been tested in different environments and with different programming languages. The research is based on the documents from PostgreSQL official website.The thesis introduces and proves the usability and the compatibility of PostgreSQL. PostgreSQL has been installed on Windows workstation a...
Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren
We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences' helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users' cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...
Clemmensen, Torkil; Hertzum, Morten; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren
We discuss the impact of cultural differences on usability evaluations that are based on the thinking-aloud method (TA). The term ‘cultural differences’ helps distinguish differences in the perception and thinking of Westerners (people from Western Europe and US citizens with European origins...... and evaluator. In conclusion, we point to the importance of matching the task presentation to users’ cultural background, the different effects of thinking aloud on task performance between Easterners and Westerners, the differences in nonverbal behaviour that affect usability problem detection, and, finally...
Nicolajsen, Hanne Westh; Ahola, Titta; Fleury, Alexandre
In this deliverable usability and user experience are defined in relation to MAGNET Beyond technologies, and it is described how the main MAGNET Beyond concepts can be evaluated through the involvement of users. The concepts include the new "Activity based communication approach" for interacting...... with the MAGNET Beyond system, as well as the core concepts: Personal Network, Personal Network-Federation, Service Discovery, User Profile Management, Personal Network Management, Privacy and Security and Context Awareness. The overall plans for the final usability evaluation are documented based on the present...
Masood, Tahir; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Kalliokoski, Kari K
The objective of this study was to investigate the relative contributions of superficial and deep ankle plantarflexors during repetitive submaximal isometric contractions using surface electromyography (SEMG) and positron emission tomography (PET). Myoelectric signals were obtained from twelve...
Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Newell, Karl M
The relation between force and temporal variability in discrete impulse production has been viewed as independent (R. A. Schmidt, H. Zelaznik, B. Hawkins, J. S. Frank, & J. T. Quinn, 1979 ) or dependent on the rate of force (L. G. Carlton & K. M. Newell, 1993 ). Two experiments in an isometric single finger force task investigated the joint force-time entropy with (a) fixed time to peak force and different percentages of force level and (b) fixed percentage of force level and different times to peak force. The results showed that the peak force variability increased either with the increment of force level or through a shorter time to peak force that also reduced timing error variability. The peak force entropy and entropy of time to peak force increased on the respective dimension as the parameter conditions approached either maximum force or a minimum rate of force production. The findings show that force error and timing error are dependent but complementary when considered in the same framework with the joint force-time entropy at a minimum in the middle parameter range of discrete impulse.
Chisman, Janet; Walbridge, Sharon; Diller, Karen
Discusses the development and results of usability testing of Washington State University's Web-based OPAC (online public access catalog); examines how easily users could navigate the catalog and whether they understood what they were seeing; and identifies problems and what action if any was taken. (LRW)
Nielsen, Glen; Vedel, Michael; Jensen, Christian D.
. This is done to ensure an appropriate degree of security, but instead, it makes it difficult for users to remember their password, which results in passwords that are either insecure, but easy to remember, or written down on paper. In this paper we address the problem of usability in user authentication...
Zaputryaeva, E S
We consider isometric deformations (motions) of polygons (so-called carpenter's rule problem) in the case of self-intersecting polygons with the additional condition that the index of the polygon is preserved by the motion. We provide general information about isometric deformations of planar polygons and give a complete solution of the carpenter's problem for quadrilaterals. Bibliography: 17 titles
Jaja, Cheedy; Pares-Avila, Jose; Wolpin, Seth; Berry, Donna
The Personal Patient Profile-Prostate (P4) program is an interactive Web-based decision support system that provides men with localized prostate cancer customized education and coaching with which to make the best personal treatment decision. This study assessed functionality and usability of the P4 program and identified problems in user-computer interaction in a sample of African American men. Usability testing was conducted with 12 community-dwelling African American adult men. The health status of participants was not known or collected by the research team. Each participant worked with the P4 program and provided simultaneous feedback using the "think aloud" technique. Handwritten field notes were collated and assigned to 3 standard coded categories. Aspects of P4 program usability was made based on common issues in the assigned categories. Summary statistics were derived for types and frequency of usability issues noted in the coded data. Twelve participants reported a total of 122 usability comments, with a mean of 9 usability comments. The most common usability issue by participant was completeness of information content, which comprised 53 (43%) of the total issues. Comprehensibility of text and graphics was second, comprising 51 (42%) of the total issues. This study provided initial inventory of usability issues for community African American men that may potentially interfere with application of the P4 system in the community setting and overall system usability, confirming the need for usability testing of a culturally appropriate Internet-based decision support system before community application.
This book provides a detailed overview of various parameters/factors involved in inventory analysis. It especially focuses on the assessment and modeling of basic inventory parameters, namely demand, procurement cost, cycle time, ordering cost, inventory carrying cost, inventory stock, stock out level, and stock out cost. In the context of economic lot size, it provides equations related to the optimum values. It also discusses why the optimum lot size and optimum total relevant cost are considered to be key decision variables, and uses numerous examples to explain each of these inventory parameters separately. Lastly, it provides detailed information on parameter estimation for different sectors/products. Written in a simple and lucid style, it offers a valuable resource for a broad readership, especially Master of Business Administration (MBA) students.
Bruun, Anders; Stage, Jan
a high level of usability in order to enable their users to employ the required functionality, especially if the target user group is elderly people. This paper reports from a usability evaluation of a home telemedicine system. Five elderly persons carried out specified tasks with the system, and based...... on that we identified usability problems with the system. The problems are presented, analysed in relation to 12 different usability themes and related to results from other evaluations of similar systems....
Full Text Available This study presents a usability testing as method, which can be used to improve controlling of web map sites. Study refers to the basic principles of this method and describes particular usability tests of mapping sites. In this paper are identified potential usability problems of web sites: Amapy.cz, Google maps and Mapy.cz. The usability testing was focused on problems related with user interfaces, addresses searching and route planning of the map sites.
Full Text Available (with knowledge of usability engineering and system domain knowledge) who inspect the Indira Padayachee, Paula Kotz? and Alta van der Merwe 302 interface and determine its compliance with recognized usability principles (the ?heuristics... presents a summary of the results of the severity rating. Table 2: Severity Rating Scale for Usability Problems (Nielsen 2007b) 0 I don?t agree that this is a usability problem at all 1 Cosmetic problem only: need not be fixed unless there is extra...
Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda W.; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine; Jaspers, Monique W.
In a Health Information Technology (HIT) regulatory context in which the usability of this technology is more and more a critical issue, there is an increasing need for evidence based usability practice. However, a clear definition of evidence based usability practice and how to achieve it is still
Jacobsen, Niels Ebbe; Hertzum, Morten; John, Bonnie E.
Usability tests are applied in industry to evaluate systems and in research as a yardstick for other usability evaluation methods. However, one potential threat to the reliability of usability tests has been left unaddressed: the evaluator effect. In this study, four evaluators analyzed four vide...
Three core themes are explored in eight papers: Usability work as a human activity, usability practice and methods, and persuasiveness of evaluation results and feedback. We explore how usability work is much more than methods and work procedures, and argue that maturing our understanding...
Full Text Available Elaborating an efficient and usable mapping between input commands and output movements is still a key challenge for the design of robotic arm prostheses. In order to address this issue, we present and compare three different control modes, by assessing them in terms of performance as well as general usability. Using an isometric force transducer as the command device, these modes convert the force input signal into either a position or a velocity vector, whose magnitude is linearly or quadratically related to force input magnitude. With the robotic arm from the open source 3D-printed Poppy Humanoid platform simulating a mobile prosthesis, an experiment was carried out with eighteen able-bodied subjects performing a 3-D target-reaching task using each of the three modes. The subjects were given questionnaires to evaluate the quality of their experience with each mode, providing an assessment of their global usability in the context of the task. According to performance metrics and questionnaire results, velocity control modes were found to perform better than position control mode in terms of accuracy and quality of control as well as user satisfaction and comfort. Subjects also seemed to favor quadratic velocity control over linear (proportional velocity control, even if these two modes did not clearly distinguish from one another when it comes to performance and usability assessment. These results highlight the need to take into account user experience as one of the key criteria for the design of control modes intended to operate limb prostheses.
Rio, Ebonie; Kidgell, Dawson; Purdam, Craig; Gaida, Jamie; Moseley, G Lorimer; Pearce, Alan J; Cook, Jill
Few interventions reduce patellar tendinopathy (PT) pain in the short term. Eccentric exercises are painful and have limited effectiveness during the competitive season. Isometric and isotonic muscle contractions may have an immediate effect on PT pain. This single-blinded, randomised cross-over study compared immediate and 45 min effects following a bout of isometric and isotonic muscle contractions. Outcome measures were PT pain during the single-leg decline squat (SLDS, 0-10), quadriceps strength on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and measures of corticospinal excitability and inhibition. Data were analysed using a split-plot in time-repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). 6 volleyball players with PT participated. Condition effects were detected with greater pain relief immediately from isometric contractions: isometric contractions reduced SLDS (mean±SD) from 7.0±2.04 to 0.17±0.41, and isotonic contractions reduced SLDS (mean±SD) from 6.33±2.80 to 3.75±3.28 (peffect on inhibition (pre 30.26±3.89, post 31.92±4.67; p=0.004). Condition by time analysis showed pain reduction was sustained at 45 min postisometric but not isotonic condition (ptendon pain immediately for at least 45 min postintervention and increased MVIC. The reduction in pain was paralleled by a reduction in cortical inhibition, providing insight into potential mechanisms. Isometric contractions can be completed without pain for people with PT. The clinical implications are that isometric muscle contractions may be used to reduce pain in people with PT without a reduction in muscle strength. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Høegh, Rune Thaarup; Nielsen, Christian Monrad; Pedersen, Michael Bach
of the system. This article presents results from an exploratory study of 2 ways of providing feedback from a usability evaluation: observation of user tests and reading usability reports. A case study and a field experiment were used to explore how observation and usability reports impact developers......' understanding of usability data. The results indicate that observation of user tests facilitated a rich understanding of usability problems and created empathy with the users and their work. The usability report had a strong impact on the developers' understanding of specific usability problems and supported...
Ramli, Rindra M.; Bukhari, Duaa
This usability testing project was conducted to elicit an understanding of our community use of the library website. The researchers wanted to know how our users are interacting with the library website and the ease of obtaining relevant information from the website. The methodology deployed was computer user testing where participants are made to answer several questions and executing the actions on the library website. Their actions are recorded via Techsmith Camtasia software for later analysis by the researchers.
Ramli, Rindra M.
This usability testing project was conducted to elicit an understanding of our community use of the library website. The researchers wanted to know how our users are interacting with the library website and the ease of obtaining relevant information from the website. The methodology deployed was computer user testing where participants are made to answer several questions and executing the actions on the library website. Their actions are recorded via Techsmith Camtasia software for later analysis by the researchers.
Uldall-Espersen, Tobias; Frøkjær, Erik
Usability, Case Study, Software Engineering, Software Quality, Organizational Impact, Usability Requirement Management, CHI 2007 workshop......Usability, Case Study, Software Engineering, Software Quality, Organizational Impact, Usability Requirement Management, CHI 2007 workshop...
In his article “The Usability Construct: A Dead End?”, Tractinsky (in Human-Computer Interaction) contends that for scientific research on usability to progress, the usability construct should be unbundled and replaced by well-defined constructs. This contention is presented as the conclusion...... that follows naturally from taking a scientist’s viewpoint on usability. Similar calls for definitive concepts – constructs in Tractinsky’s terminology – have been made in other scientific fields with concepts as ambiguous as that of usability. But counterarguments have also been presented....
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset is a digital representation of the 1:24,000 Land Use Riparian Areas Inventory for the state of Kansas. The dataset includes a 100 foot buffer around all...
Høegh, Rune Thaarup
This paper presents a study of the strengths and weaknesses of written, multimedia and oral feedback from usability evaluations to developers. The strengths and weaknesses are related to how well the feedback supports the developers in addressing usability problems in a software system. The study...... concludes that using the traditional written usability report, as the only form of feedback from usability evaluations is associated with problems related to the report not supporting the process of addressing the usability problems. The report is criticized for representing an overwhelming amount...... of information, while still not offering the required information to address usability problems. Other forms of feedback, such as oral or multimedia feedback helps the developer in understanding the usability problems better, but are on the other hand less cost-effective than a written description....
Usability evaluation provide software development teams with insights on the degree to which a software application enables a user to achieve his/her goals, how fast these goals can be achieved, how easy it is to learn and how satisfactory it is in use Although usability evaluations are crucial...... in the process of developing software systems with a high level of usability, its use is still limited in the context of small software development companies. Several approaches have been proposed to support software development practitioners (SWPs) in conducting usability evaluations, and my thesis explores two...... of these: 1) The first approach is to support SWPs by training them to drive usability evaluations. 2) The second approach to support SWPs involves minimalist training of end users to drive usability evaluations. In related work, a set of five quality criteria for usability evaluations is applied...
Sørensen, Jannick Kirk
Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources...... for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa...... in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals...
Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman
This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues
Følstad, Asbjørn; Hornbæk, Kasper
Usability evaluation helps to determine whether interactive systems support users in their work tasks. However, knowledge about those tasks and, more generally, about the work-domain is difficult to bring to bear on the processes and outcome of usability evaluation. One way to include such work......-domain knowledge might be Cooperative Usability Testing, an evaluation method that consists of (a) interaction phases, similar to classic usability testing, and (b) interpretation phases, where the test participant and the moderator discuss incidents and experiences from the interaction phases. We have studied...... whether such interpretation phases improve the relevance of usability evaluations in the development of work-domain specific systems. The study included two development cases. We conclude that the interpretation phases generate additional insight and redesign suggestions related to observed usability...
Lozano, María D; Tesoriero, Ricardo; Penichet, Victor MR
Written by international researchers in the field of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs), this book brings together important contributions regarding collaboration and usability in Distributed User Interface settings. Throughout the thirteen chapters authors address key questions concerning how collaboration can be improved by using DUIs, including: in which situations a DUI is suitable to ease the collaboration among users; how usability standards can be used to evaluate the usability of systems based on DUIs; and accurately describe case studies and prototypes implementing these concerns
Frank, T. D.; Patanarapeelert, K.; Beek, P. J.
We derive a fundamental relationship between the mean and the variability of isometric force. The relationship arises from an optimal collection of active motor units such that the force variability assumes a minimum (optimal isometric force). The relationship is shown to be independent of the explicit motor unit properties and of the dynamical features of isometric force production. A constant coefficient of variation in the asymptotic regime and a nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem for optimal isometric force are predicted.
Frank, T.D.; Patanarapeelert, K.; Beek, P.J.
We derive a fundamental relationship between the mean and the variability of isometric force. The relationship arises from an optimal collection of active motor units such that the force variability assumes a minimum (optimal isometric force). The relationship is shown to be independent of the explicit motor unit properties and of the dynamical features of isometric force production. A constant coefficient of variation in the asymptotic regime and a nonequilibrium fluctuation-dissipation theorem for optimal isometric force are predicted
Sabitov, I Kh
This paper deals with the problem of isometric immersions and embeddings of two-dimensional locally Euclidean metrics in the Euclidean plane. We find explicit formulae for the immersions of metrics defined on a simply connected domain and a number of sufficient conditions for the existence of isometric embeddings. In the case when the domain is multiply connected we find necessary conditions for the existence of isometric immersions and classify the cases when the metric admits no isometric immersion in the Euclidean plane
There has been roughly 15 years of research into approaches for aligning research in Human Computer Interaction with computer Security, more colloquially known as ``usable security.'' Although usability and security were once thought to be inherently antagonistic, today there is wide consensus that systems that are not usable will inevitably suffer security failures when they are deployed into the real world. Only by simultaneously addressing both usability and security concerns will we be able to build systems that are truly secure. This book presents the historical context of the work to dat
future versions of the prod- uct? The results show that users write about product use in terms related to standard and popularly researched aspects of usability and user experience, e.g. effiiency, effectiveness, enjoyment, frustration. The frequency with which different aspects are depicted in reviews...... differs significantly between product domains. We also find that reviews contain descriptions of more persistent usability issues. I devise automatic methods for classifying sentences with regard to dimensions of both usability and user experience and usability problems and perform a linguistic analysis...
Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Westenberg, Y.; Duysens, J.E.J.
Fifty-six children between 5 and 12 years of age and 15 adults performed a task (pressing on a lever with the index finger of the preferred hand), in which a force had to be maintained constant at five levels with on-line visual feedback. Since this is a simple isometric task, the hypothesis is that
Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Westenberg, Y.; Duysens, J.E.J.
Fifty-six children between 5 and 12 years of age and 15 adults performed a task (pressing on a lever with the index finger of the preferred hand), in which a force had to be maintained constant at five levels with on-line visual feedback. Since this is a simple isometric task, the hypothesis is that
Blood pressure at rest is not predictive of roundthe- clock values. Blood pressure should therefore be measured during effort to evaluate hypertension and its response to treatment. The effect of sustained-release verapamil (240 mg taken once a day) on blood pressure at rest and during isometric effort was therefore ...
In this paper,we introduce a new norm on C (1) (X), which is induced by a hexagon on R 2 , and prove that every isometric operator on C (1) (X) can be induced by a homeomorphism of X, where X is a connected subset of R.
Todd, J Tee; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Butler, Susan G
The tongue contributes to a safe swallow. It facilitates bolus control during mastication, maintains a bolus in the oral cavity to prevent premature entry of the bolus into the hypopharynx, and helps generate pressure in the hypopharynx during swallowing. This study examined isometric tongue strength and tongue pressure measured during swallowing in healthy young and older adults. Prospective group design. One hundred twenty-six healthy individuals who were recruited as part of a larger study on swallowing participated in this study. Participants were divided into three age groups: 20 to 40 years, 41 to 60 years, and ≥61 years. A KayPentax Digital Swallowing Workstation with an air-filled bulb array was placed on the tongue of each participant (anterior to posterior). Participants completed three isometric tongue presses and three swallows. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed a significant main effect of age (P = .01) and gender by tongue bulb location interaction (P = .02) for isometric tongue strength. That is, older adults had lower isometric tongue strength than young adults, and females had a greater difference between anterior and posterior tongue strength than males. Tongue strength during swallowing yielded significantly greater anterior versus posterior tongue pressure. This study comprises one of the largest in terms of number of healthy participants reported to date and confirms previous findings that isometric tongue strength decreases with age. Furthermore, given young and older adults generate similar swallowing pressures, swallowing is a submaximal strength activity, yet older adults have less functional reserve. 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Gupta, Deepak; Ahlawat, Anil K.; Sagar, Kalpna
Evaluation of software quality is an important aspect for controlling and managing the software. By such evaluation, improvements in software process can be made. The software quality is significantly dependent on software usability. Many researchers have proposed numbers of usability models. Each model considers a set of usability factors but do not cover all the usability aspects. Practical implementation of these models is still missing, as there is a lack of precise definition of usability. Also, it is very difficult to integrate these models into current software engineering practices. In order to overcome these challenges, this paper aims to define the term `usability' using the proposed hierarchical usability model with its detailed taxonomy. The taxonomy considers generic evaluation criteria for identifying the quality components, which brings together factors, attributes and characteristics defined in various HCI and software models. For the first time, the usability model is also implemented to predict more accurate usability values. The proposed system is named as fuzzy hierarchical usability model that can be easily integrated into the current software engineering practices. In order to validate the work, a dataset of six software development life cycle models is created and employed. These models are ranked according to their predicted usability values. This research also focuses on the detailed comparison of proposed model with the existing usability models.
de Castro Lozano, Carlos; Salcines, Enrique García; Sainz de Abajo, Beatriz; Burón Fernández, F. Javier; Ramírez, José Miguel; Recellado, José Gabriel Zato; Montoya, Rafael Sanchez; Bell, John; Marin, Francisco Alcantud
When designing "interfaces for everyone" for interactive systems, it is important to consider factors such as cost, the intended market, the state of the environment, etc. User interfaces are fundamental for the developmental process in any application, and its design must be contemplated from the start. Of the distinct parts of a system (hardware and software), it is the interface that permits the user access to computer resources. The seven principles of "Universal Design" or "Design for Everyone" focus on a universal usable design, but at the same time acknowledge the influences of internal and external factors. Structural changes in social and health services could provide an increase in the well-being of a country's citizens through the use of self-care programming and proactive management/prevention of disease. Automated home platforms can act as an accessibility instrument which permits users to avoid, compensate, mitigate, or neutralize the deficiencies and dependencies caused by living alone.
Penedo, Janaina Rodrigues; Diniz, Morganna; Ferreira, Simone Bacellar Leal; Silveira, Denis S.; Capra, Eliane
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the usability of a remote learning system in its initial development phase, using a quantitative usability evaluation method through Markov models. Design/methodology/approach: The paper opted for an exploratory study. The data of interest of the research correspond to the possible accesses of users…
Jorritsma, Wiard; Cnossen, Fokie; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.
Objectives: To compare the usability of different Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) workstations, determine whether a usability test has added value with respect to the traditional way of comparing PACSs based on functional requirements, and to evaluate the appropriateness of a
Ruyter, de B.E.R.; Vet, de J.H.M.
Improving usability of consumer applications has been the focus of much research. Estimating the advantage of these efforts, however, still is very cumbersome since evaluating product improvements in terms of their usability requires good measuring methods and tools. In this paper activities in the
Nørgaard, Mie; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren
The format used to present feedback from usability evaluations to developers affects whether problems are understood, accepted, and fixed. Yet, little research has investigated which formats are the most effective. We describe an explorative study where three developers assess 40 usability findings...... presented using five feedback formats. Our usability findings comprise 35 problems and 5 positive comments. Data suggest that feedback serves multiple purposes. Initially, feedback must convince developers about the relevance of a problem and convey an understanding of this. Feedback must next be easy...... working with the feedback to address the usability problems, there were no significant differences among the developers' ratings of the value of the different formats. This suggests that all of the formats may serve equally well as reminders in later stages of working with usability problems...
Full Text Available Usability is an attribute of any good product, just as its functionality. It refers mainly to the utility of a product for its indented users, as well as to its ease of use. And whilst a correct functionality is critical for the commercial success of any product, its value comes through the human needs that it fulfills, which is determined through various marketing research techniques. In parallel, the IT&C community has developed in the last two decades its own type of research, called usability testing, used mainly to evaluate interface ease of use and all usability problems associated with.software products. This article aims at finding the right place for usability testing and usability professionals in the marketing community, as well as drawing a wider picture, from a marketing research perspective, on one of the most popular topics in IT&C community for the benefit of marketing scholars and professionals.
Uldall-Espersen, Tobias; Frøkjær, Erik; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren
Analyzing usability improvement processes as they take place in real-life organizations is necessary to understand the practice of usability work. This paper describes a case study where the usability of an information system is improved and a relationship between the improvements...... and the evaluation efforts is established. Results show that evaluation techniques complemented each other by suggesting different kinds of usability improvement. Among the techniques applied, a combination of questionnaires and Metaphors of Human Thinking (MOT) showed the largest mean impact and MOT produced...... the largest number of impacts. Logging of real-life use of the system over 6 months indicated six aspects of improved usability, where significant differences among evaluation techniques were found. Concerning five of the six aspects Think Aloud evaluations and the above-mentioned combination of questionnaire...
Lizano, Fulvio; Sandoval, Maria Marta; Bruun, Anders
Several emerging countries experience increasing software development activities. With the purpose of provide useful feedback on possible courses of action for increasing application of usability evaluation in such countries, this paper explores the status of usability evaluation in a digitally...... emerging country. Our aim is to identifying common characteristics or behavioral patterns that could be compared with digitally advanced countries. We used an online survey answered by 26 software development organizations, which gave a snapshot of the application of usability evaluation...... in these organizations. We found many similarities with advanced countries, several completely new obstacles more connected with software development matters and a relatively positive improvement in the lack of “usability culture”. These findings suggest good conditions to improve conduction of usability evaluations...
Full Text Available This paper is focused on the testing and evaluating of public administration electronic forms from the usability point of view. Its objective is to design a suitable methodology for usability testing of electronic forms and their description and distribution to public administration information systems professionals. Firstly, methods of usability engineering are summarized and a suitable method for usability testing and evaluation of electronic forms is selected. Farther, the methodology of electronic forms usability testing that uses the selected method is suggested. In the last part of the paper the case study that uses the proposed methodology is suggested and performed. The main benefit of the work is the design of testing methodology and proposition of the set of recommendations for new public administration electronic forms design.
The subject of this thesis is optimization of inventory in selected organization. Inventory optimization is a very important topic in each organization because it reduces storage costs. At the beginning the inventory theory is presented. It shows the meaning and types of inventory, inventory control and also different methods and models of inventory control. Inventory optimization in the enterprise can be reached by using models of inventory control. In the second part the company on which is...
Nacke, Lennart E.
This paper presents a brief review of current game usability models. This leads to the conception of a high-level game development-centered usability model that integrates current usability approaches in game industry and game research.
Argues that usability research has particular relevance for enhancing the effectiveness of websites. Examines the nature and value of usability research, and the elements of an effective website based on usability principles. (SR)
Bentley, Richard S
.... The Technology Acceptance Model suggests that information systems must not only be useful but also be usable and a large body of usability engineering knowledge exists to support usable design. In addition, the U.S...
Hemmen, J L van; Wreszinski, Walter F
The Villain transform plays a key role in spin-wave theory, a bosonization of elementary excitations in a system of extensively many Heisenberg spins. Intuitively, it is a representation of the spin operators in terms of an angle and its canonically conjugate angular momentum operator and, as such, has a few nasty boundary-condition twists. We construct an isometric phase representation of spin operators that conveys a precise mathematical meaning to the Villain transform and is related to both classical mechanics and the Pegg-Barnett-Bialynicki-Birula boson (photon) phase operators by means of suitable limits. In contrast to the photon case, unitary extensions are inadequate because they describe the wrong physics. We also discuss in some detail the application to spin-wave theory, pointing out some examples in which the isometric representation is indispensable
Deraniyagala, Rohan; Amdur, Robert J; Boyer, Arthur L; Kaylor, Scott
A major strategy for improving radiation oncology education and competence evaluation is to develop eLearning programs that reproduce the real work environment. A valuable measure of the quality of an eLearning program is "usability," which is a multidimensional endpoint defined from the end user's perspective. The gold standard for measuring usability is the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The purpose of this study is to use the SUMI to measure usability of an eLearning course that uses innovative software to teach and test contouring of nodal stations of the head and neck. This is a prospective institutional review board-approved study in which all participants gave written informed consent. The study population was radiation oncology residents from 8 different programs across the United States. The subjects had to pass all sections of the same 2 eLearning modules and then complete the SUMI usability evaluation instrument. We reached the accrual goal of 25 participants. Usability results for the EduMod eLearning course, "Nodal Stations of the Head and Neck," were compared with a large database of scores of other major software programs. Results were evaluated in 5 domains: Affect, Helpfulness, Control, Learnability, and Global Usability. In all 5 domains, usability scores for the study modules were higher than the database mean and statistically superior in 4 domains. This is the first study to evaluate usability of an eLearning program related to radiation oncology. Usability of 2 representative modules related to contouring nodal stations of the head and neck was highly favorable, with scores that were superior to the industry standard in multiple domains. These results support the continued development of this type of eLearning program for teaching and testing radiation oncology technical skills. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The purpose of the inventory abstraction as directed by the development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999b) is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M and O 1999c, 1999d). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) (NRC 1999) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [Spent Nuclear Fuel] are released from the EBS [Engineered Barrier System] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release to the accessible environment. The inventory abstraction is important in assessing system performance because
The purpose of the inventory abstraction, which has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (CRWMS M andO 2000e for/ICN--02 of the present analysis, and BSC 2001e for ICN 03 of the present analysis), is to: (1) Interpret the results of a series of relative dose calculations (CRWMS M andO 2000c, 2000f). (2) Recommend, including a basis thereof, a set of radionuclides that should be modeled in the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and the Total System Performance Assessment in Support of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (TSPA-FEIS). (3) Provide initial radionuclide inventories for the TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS models. (4) Answer the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)'s Issue Resolution Status Report ''Key Technical Issue: Container Life and Source Term'' (CLST IRSR) key technical issue (KTI): ''The rate at which radionuclides in SNF [spent nuclear fuel] are released from the EBS [engineered barrier system] through the oxidation and dissolution of spent fuel'' (NRC 1999, Subissue 3). The scope of the radionuclide screening analysis encompasses the period from 100 years to 10,000 years after the potential repository at Yucca Mountain is sealed for scenarios involving the breach of a waste package and subsequent degradation of the waste form as required for the TSPA-SR calculations. By extending the time period considered to one million years after repository closure, recommendations are made for the TSPA-FEIS. The waste forms included in the inventory abstraction are Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (CSNF), DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel (DSNF), High-Level Waste (HLW), naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF), and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) plutonium waste. The intended use of this analysis is in TSPA-SR and TSPA-FEIS. Based on the recommendations made here, models for release, transport, and possibly exposure will be developed for the isotopes that would be the highest contributors to the dose given a release
Full Text Available With the major advances of the Internet throughout the past couple of years, websites have come to play a central role in the modern marketing business program. However, simply owning a website is not enough for a business to prosper on the Web. Indeed, it is the level of usability of a website that determines if a user stays or abandons it for another competing one. It is therefore crucial to understand the importance of usability on the web, and consequently the need for its evaluation. Nonetheless, there exist a number of obstacles preventing software organizations from successfully applying sound website usability evaluation strategies in practice. From this point of view automation of the latter is extremely beneficial, which not only assists designers in creating more usable websites, but also enhances the Internet users’ experience on the Web and increases their level of satisfaction. As a means of addressing this problem, an Intelligent Usability Evaluation (IUE tool is proposed that automates the usability evaluation process by employing a Heuristic Evaluation technique in an intelligent manner through the adoption of several research-based AI methods. Experimental results show there exists a high correlation between the tool and human annotators when identifying the considered usability violations.
Chezar, A; Berkovitch, Y; Haddad, M; Keren, Y; Soudry, M; Rosenberg, N
The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for each decade of life. Maximal isometric force was measured at standardised positions for supraspinatus, infraspinatus and subscapularis muscles in both shoulders in every person. Torque of the force was calculated and normalised to lean body mass. The profiles of mean torque-time curves for each age and gender group were compared. Our data showed that men gradually gained maximal strength in the fifth decade, and showed decreased strength in the sixth. In women the maximal strength was gained in the fourth decade with gradual decline to the sixth decade of life. The dominant arm was stronger in most of the tested groups. The torque profiles of the rotator cuff muscles in men at all ages were significantly higher than that in women. We found previously unrecognised variations of rotator cuff muscles' isometric strength according to age, gender and dominancy in a normal population. The presented data may serve as a basis for the future studies for identification of the abnormal patterns of muscle isometric strength in patients with pathology of the rotator cuff muscles. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2013;2:214-19.
Chezar, A.; Berkovitch, Y.; Haddad, M.; Keren, Y.; Soudry, M.; Rosenberg, N.
Objectives The most prevalent disorders of the shoulder are related to the muscles of rotator cuff. In order to develop a mechanical method for the evaluation of the rotator cuff muscles, we created a database of isometric force generation by the rotator cuff muscles in normal adult population. We hypothesised the existence of variations according to age, gender and dominancy of limb. Methods A total of 400 healthy adult volunteers were tested, classified into groups of 50 men and women for e...
Blazevich, Anthony J; Gill, Nicholas; Newton, Robert U
The purpose of the present study was first to examine the reliability of isometric squat (IS) and isometric forward hack squat (IFHS) tests to determine if repeated measures on the same subjects yielded reliable results. The second purpose was to examine the relation between isometric and dynamic measures of strength to assess validity. Fourteen male subjects performed maximal IS and IFHS tests on 2 occasions and 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) free-weight squat and forward hack squat (FHS) tests on 1 occasion. The 2 tests were found to be highly reliable (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC](IS) = 0.97 and ICC(IFHS) = 1.00). There was a strong relation between average IS and 1-RM squat performance, and between IFHS and 1-RM FHS performance (r(squat) = 0.77, r(FHS) = 0.76; p squat and FHS test performances (r squat and FHS test performance can be attributed to differences in the movement patterns of the tests
Hagen, Marco; Lahner, Matthias; Winhuysen, Martin; Maiwald, Christian
Due to the specific anatomy of the subtalar joint with its oblique axis, isometric pronator and supinator strength is not well documented. The purpose of this study was to determine intra- and between-session reliability of pronator and supinator strength and lower leg muscle activity measurements during maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). Pronator and supinator peak torques (PT), with and without supplementary visual muscle strength biofeedback (FB), and muscular activities of peroneus longus (PL) and tibialis anterior (TA) were assessed twice 3 days apart by the same examiner in 21 healthy young male adults (mean age: 27.6 years; SD = 3.9). Limits of agreement (LoA) and minimum detectable change (MDC) were evaluated. By applying FB, reliability of both pronator and supinator PT was improved: LoA were reduced from 32% to 26% and from 20% to 18% and MDC from 20% to 15% and from 16% to 12% in supinator and pronator PT, respectively. Learning effects in pronator and supinator PT (p isometric subtalar pronator and supinator strength testing is reliable in healthy subjects. LoA of 18% and 26% have to be exceeded for pronator and supinator PT, respectively, to detect relevant effects in repeated measures.
Koltyn, K F; Knauf, M T; Brellenthin, A G
Little is known about the effects of isometric exercise on temporal summation of heat pain. Thus, the purposes of study 1 and study 2 were to examine the influence of exhaustive and non-exhaustive isometric exercise on temporal summation of heat pain in men and women. Forty-four men and 44 women (mean age = 20 years) completed an informed consent document and a packet of questionnaires. Ten heat pulses were applied to the thenar eminence of the dominant hand using a standardized temporal summation protocol. Participants rated the intensity of the heat pulses using a 0-100 pain rating scale before and following isometric exercise consisting of squeezing a hand dynamometer at 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) to exhaustion (exhaustive exercise, study 1) and at 25% MVC for 3 min (non-exhaustive exercise, study 2). Muscle pain and perceived exertion were rated every 30 s during exercise using validated rating scales. The data were analysed with repeated measures analysis of variance. The results indicated there were no sex differences (p > 0.05) in time to exhaustion (study 1), muscle pain or perceived exertion (studies 1 and 2). There was a significant reduction (p heat pain in men and women. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.
Sparks, Randall; Hartson, Rex
The work we report on here addresses the problem of low return on investment in software usability engineering and offers support for usability practitioners in identifying, understanding, documenting...
Organizational usability is about the match between the user and the system, between the organization and the system, and between the environment and the system. While the first of these matches can, to a large extent, be evaluated in the lab, the two others cannot. Organizational usability must......, provide a brief example, and discuss the challenges it presents. To strengthen the focus on evaluation in the three contexts we propose the measurement of specified effects, combined with a sensitivity toward emergent effects. Incorporating effects in the evaluation of organizational usability makes...
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Traumas and war injuries, next to chronic occlusive artery disease and diabetes mellitus-derived complications, are the most frequent cause of the lower limbs amputation. They affect mostly younger population that need a higher level of activities as compared with the elderly. Medical rehabilitation is very significant for the muscle performance improvement in this population providing their social reintegration. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of below-knee amputation on the hip isometric muscle strength and effect of rehabilitation on improvement of hip muscle strength in below-knee amputees, secondary to war wounding. Methods. Forty below-knee amputees (after war wounding, average age 35.6±10.6 years, that were included in primary rehabilitation program with prosthetics, were examined. Objective parameters were used to evaluate therapeutical effects. Isometric muscle strength of hip flexors, extensors, abductors and adductors was measured by dynamometer and expressed in Newton (N at admission, control and discharge for each patient. Average length of the treatment was 51 ± 34.1 days. Results. For isometric hip flexors (t = - 1.99346, p < 0.05, extensors (t = -4.629073, p < 0.001, abductors (t = -4.9408, p < 0.001 and adductors (t = -2.00228, p < 0.05, muscle strength was significantly less on the amputated than on nonamputated side. The highest differences in muscle strength between amputated and nonamputated limbs were noted for hip abductors (26.6% and extensors (23.3%. There was significant improvement of mean values of strength for all examined hip muscles after rehabilitation and prosthetics for both legs in comparison to beginning of the therapy. The hip abductor on the amputated side was for 19.4% weaker after rehabilitation in comparison to the nonamputated limb. Conclusion. Decreases of isometric muscle strength in all examined hip muscles were observed, more in the amputated limb. Rehabilitation
Boothe, Chase; Strawderman, Lesley; Hosea, Ethan
Inconsistencies among testing methods and results in previous research prompted this study that builds upon a systematic usability testing research framework to better understand how interface medium influences users' abilities to detect usability flaws in applications. Interface medium was tested to identify its effects on users' perceptions of usability and abilities to detect usability problems and severe usability problems. Results indicated that medium has no effect on users' abilities to detect usability problems or perceptions of usability. However, results did indicate an interaction between the medium and the tested application in which users were able to identify significantly more usability problems on a higher fidelity medium using a particular application. Results also indicated that as users' perceptions of an application's usability increases, the users are less able to detect usability problems in that application. Usability testing should begin early in the design process, even if low fidelity mediums will be used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Bruun, Anders; Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.
This report presents the results of a usability evaluation of the budget.com website. The evaluation was carried out by a team of 4 HCI experts, and it involved 10 potential users. The evaluation is based on measurement of (1) task completion time, (2) task completion, (3) user satisfaction and (4......) perceived workload. We have also analyzed the user interaction with the website for (5) usability problems. Through the evaluation, we have found the following weaknesses of the website: Reservation takes considerably more time than promised. The website indicates that a reservation can be made in 60...... is not useful for specific purposes. The user satisfaction is generally low. Except one high and two low scores, the user satisfaction was in the middle range. There are too many severe usability problems. The evaluation identified a considerable number of usability problems. 5 of them were critical which means...
Wale-Kolade, Adeola; Nielsen, Peter Axel
In this article we report from a case study of a software development organization and we study in particular the developers’ and product managers’ attitudes towards integrating usability work into software development. We offer explanations based on system justification theory illuminating what...... would-be integrators might be up against. The analysis shows how the developers only pay lip service to usability work and how they treat users superficially. It further shows how that leads to stereotyping of usability designers and users in order to preserve status quo, and how internalization...... of inequality between the developers and usability designers rationalizes the preservation of status quo. These findings will have significant implications for managers of software development....
Usability tests are conducted to gauge users’ experience with a system, preferably before it is released for real use, and thereby find any problems that prevent users from completing their tasks, slow them down, or otherwise degrade their user experience. Such tests are important to successful...... systems development, yet test procedures vary and the quality of test results is sometimes contested. While there is no single accepted procedure for usability specialists to follow when conducting usability tests, these tests normally involve users who think out loud while using a system and an evaluator...... who observes the users’ behavior and listens in on their thoughts. This common core of usability tests is illustrated in Figure 1. The possible variations include, for example, whether the users work individually or in pairs, whether the evaluator is in the room with the user or in an adjoining room...
Van Kuijk, J.I.
Problem statement: Even though there is a large amount of methods for user-centred design, the usability of electronic consumer products (e.g., portable music players, washing machines and mobile phones) is under pressure. Usability is the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use. That the usability of electronic consumer products is under pressure is attributed to an incre...
Jordan, N; Sagar, H J; Cooper, J A
Paradigms of isometric force control allow study of the generation and release of movement in the absence of complications due to disordered visuomotor coordination. The onset and release of isometric force in Parkinson's disease (PD) was studied, using computerised determinants of latency of response and rate of force generation and release. Components of isometric force control were related to measures of cognitive, affective and clinical motor disability. The effects of treatment were dete...
When digital tools are developed it is important to consider the usability of the tool. Usability evaluation was done on the Afrikaanse idiome-woordeboek to determine with what success it can be used. Discount usability methods, viz. heuristic evaluation and usability testing were used. This article reports on the findings from ...
McGuire, Jessica; Green, Lara A.; Gabriel, David A.
Abstract This study compared the effects of a simple versus complex contraction pattern on the acquisition, retention, and transfer of maximal isometric strength gains and reductions in force variability. A control group (N = 12) performed simple isometric contractions of the wrist flexors. An experimental group (N = 12) performed complex proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) contractions consisting of maximal isometric wrist extension immediately reversing force direction to wrist flexion within a single trial. Ten contractions were completed on three consecutive days with a retention and transfer test 2‐weeks later. For the retention test, the groups performed their assigned contraction pattern followed by a transfer test that consisted of the other contraction pattern for a cross‐over design. Both groups exhibited comparable increases in strength (20.2%, P < 0.01) and reductions in mean torque variability (26.2%, P < 0.01), which were retained and transferred. There was a decrease in the coactivation ratio (antagonist/agonist muscle activity) for both groups, which was retained and transferred (35.2%, P < 0.01). The experimental group exhibited a linear decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves, indicating transfer to the simple contraction pattern (P < 0.01). The control group underwent a decrease in variability of the torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves from the first day of training to retention, but participants returned to baseline levels during the transfer condition (P < 0.01). However, the difference between torque RMS error versus the variability in torque‐ and sEMG‐time curves suggests the demands of the complex task were transferred, but could not be achieved in a reproducible way. PMID:25428951
Bobbert, Maarten F.
Jump height, defined as vertical displacement in the airborne phase, depends on vertical takeoff velocity. For centuries, researchers have speculated on how jump height is affected by body size and many have adhered to what has come to be known as Borelli’s law, which states that jump height does not depend on body size per se. The underlying assumption is that the amount of work produced per kg body mass during the push-off is independent of size. However, if a big body is isometrically downscaled to a small body, the latter requires higher joint angular velocities to achieve a given takeoff velocity and work production will be more impaired by the force-velocity relationship of muscle. In the present study, the effects of pure isometric scaling on vertical jumping performance were investigated using a biologically realistic model of the human musculoskeletal system. The input of the model, muscle stimulation over time, was optimized using jump height as criterion. It was found that when the human model was miniaturized to the size of a mouse lemur, with a mass of about one-thousandth that of a human, jump height dropped from 40 cm to only 6 cm, mainly because of the force-velocity relationship. In reality, mouse lemurs achieve jump heights of about 33 cm. By implication, the unfavourable effects of the small body size of mouse lemurs on jumping performance must be counteracted by favourable effects of morphological and physiological adaptations. The same holds true for other small jumping animals. The simulations for the first time expose and explain the sheer magnitude of the isolated effects of isometric downscaling on jumping performance, to be counteracted by morphological and physiological adaptations. PMID:23936494
Maarten F Bobbert
Full Text Available Jump height, defined as vertical displacement in the airborne phase, depends on vertical takeoff velocity. For centuries, researchers have speculated on how jump height is affected by body size and many have adhered to what has come to be known as Borelli's law, which states that jump height does not depend on body size per se. The underlying assumption is that the amount of work produced per kg body mass during the push-off is independent of size. However, if a big body is isometrically downscaled to a small body, the latter requires higher joint angular velocities to achieve a given takeoff velocity and work production will be more impaired by the force-velocity relationship of muscle. In the present study, the effects of pure isometric scaling on vertical jumping performance were investigated using a biologically realistic model of the human musculoskeletal system. The input of the model, muscle stimulation over time, was optimized using jump height as criterion. It was found that when the human model was miniaturized to the size of a mouse lemur, with a mass of about one-thousandth that of a human, jump height dropped from 40 cm to only 6 cm, mainly because of the force-velocity relationship. In reality, mouse lemurs achieve jump heights of about 33 cm. By implication, the unfavourable effects of the small body size of mouse lemurs on jumping performance must be counteracted by favourable effects of morphological and physiological adaptations. The same holds true for other small jumping animals. The simulations for the first time expose and explain the sheer magnitude of the isolated effects of isometric downscaling on jumping performance, to be counteracted by morphological and physiological adaptations.
Brinkman, W.P.; Haakma, R.; Bouwhuis, D.G.; Bastide, R.; Palanque, P.; Roth, J.
This paper addresses the issue of usability testing in a component-based software engineering environment, specifically measuring the usability of different versions of a component in a more powerful manner than other, more holistic, usability methods. Three component-specific usability measures are
Hendradewa, Andrie Pasca
Usability is a key factor that determine success of a product or interactive system, like smartphone. The increasing use of smartphone and its rapid technology development, requires usability evaluation method that is more accurate and effective to found usability problem, so it can be used for product improvement in development process. This study suggests a usability evaluation method that is most effective to identify problem in smartphone usage. Three usability evaluation methods that com...
Van Kuijk, J.I.
Problem statement: Even though there is a large amount of methods for user-centred design, the usability of electronic consumer products (e.g., portable music players, washing machines and mobile phones) is under pressure. Usability is the extent to which a product can be used by specified users to
Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda; Beuscart-Zephir, Marie-Catherine
Usability is a critical factor in the acceptance, safe use, and success of health IT. The User-Centred Design process is widely promoted to improve usability. However, this traditional case by case approach that is rooted in the sound understanding of users' needs is not sufficient to improve
In ziekenhuizen wordt steeds meer gebruik gemaakt van informatiesystemen, maar de usability laat vaak te wensen over. Reza Khajouei testte twee methodes om de usability te beoordelen. Hij constateert dat beide methoden ongeveer evenveel, maar verschillende problemen aan het licht brengen. Uit een
Web mapping sites are interactive maps that are accessed via Webpages. With the rapid development of Internet and Geographic Information System (GIS) field, public web mapping sites are not foreign to people. Nowadays, people use these web mapping sites for various reasons, in that increasing maps and related map services of web mapping sites are freely available for end users. Thus, increased users of web mapping sites led to more usability studies. Usability Engineering (UE), for instance, is an approach for analyzing and improving the usability of websites through examining and evaluating an interface. In this research, UE method was employed to explore usability problems of four public web mapping sites, analyze the problems quantitatively and provide guidelines for future design based on the test results. Firstly, the development progress for usability studies were described, and simultaneously several usability evaluation methods such as Usability Engineering (UE), User-Centered Design (UCD) and Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) were generally introduced. Then the method and procedure of experiments for the usability test were presented in detail. In this usability evaluation experiment, four public web mapping sites (Google Maps, Bing maps, Mapquest, Yahoo Maps) were chosen as the testing websites. And 42 people, who having different GIS skills (test users or experts), gender (male or female), age and nationality, participated in this test to complete the several test tasks in different teams. The test comprised three parts: a pretest background information questionnaire, several test tasks for quantitative statistics and progress analysis, and a posttest questionnaire. The pretest and posttest questionnaires focused on gaining the verbal explanation of their actions qualitatively. And the design for test tasks targeted at gathering quantitative data for the errors and problems of the websites. Then, the results mainly from the test part were analyzed. The
Van Nuland, Sonya E; Eagleson, Roy; Rogers, Kem A
Online educational technologies and e-learning tools are providing new opportunities for students to learn worldwide, and they continue to play an important role in anatomical sciences education. Yet, as we shift to teaching online, particularly within the anatomical sciences, it has become apparent that e-learning tool success is based on more than just user satisfaction and preliminary learning outcomes-rather it is a multidimensional construct that should be addressed from an integrated perspective. The efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction with which a user can navigate an e-learning tool is known as usability, and represents a construct which we propose can be used to quantitatively evaluate e-learning tool success. To assess the usability of an e-learning tool, usability testing should be employed during the design and development phases (i.e., prior to its release to users) as well as during its delivery (i.e., following its release to users). However, both the commercial educational software industry and individual academic developers in the anatomical sciences have overlooked the added value of additional usability testing. Reducing learner frustration and anxiety during e-learning tool use is essential in ensuring e-learning tool success, and will require a commitment on the part of the developers to engage in usability testing during all stages of an e-learning tool's life cycle. Anat Sci Educ 10: 190-199. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.
Borycki, Elizabeth M; Monkman, Helen; Griffith, Janessa; Kushniruk, Andre W
The use of mobile devices and healthcare applications is increasing exponentially worldwide. This has lead to the need for the healthcare industry to develop a better understanding of the impact of the usability of mobile software and hardware upon consumer and health professional adoption and use of these technologies. There are many methodological approaches that can be employed in conducting usability evaluation of mobile technologies. More obtrusive approaches to collecting study data may lead to changes in study participant behaviour, leading to study results that are less consistent with how the technologies will be used in the real-world. Alternatively, less obstrusive methods used in evaluating the usability of mobile software and hardware in-situ and laboratory settings can lead to less detailed information being collected about how an individual interacts with both the software and hardware. In this paper we review and discuss several innovative mobile usability evaluation methods on a contiuum from least to most obtrusive and their effects on the quality of the usability data collected. The strengths and limitations of methods are also discussed.
A common operation in many geometry processing algorithms consists of finding correspondences between pairs of shapes by finding structure-preserving maps between them. A particularly useful case of such maps is isometries, which preserve geodesic distances between points on each shape. Although several algorithms have been proposed to find approximately isometric maps between a pair of shapes, the structure of the space of isometries is not well understood. In this paper, we show that under mild genericity conditions, a single correspondence can be used to recover an isometry defined on entire shapes, and thus the space of all isometries can be parameterized by one correspondence between a pair of points. Perhaps surprisingly, this result is general, and does not depend on the dimensionality or the genus, and is valid for compact manifolds in any dimension. Moreover, we show that both the initial correspondence and the isometry can be recovered efficiently in practice. This allows us to devise an algorithm to find intrinsic symmetries of shapes, match shapes undergoing isometric deformations, as well as match partial and incomplete models efficiently. Journal compilation © 2010 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K
We investigated the effect of age on the complexity of muscle activity and the variance in the force of isometric contraction. Surface electromyography (sEMG) from biceps brachii muscle and force of contraction were recorded from 96 subjects (20-70 years of age) during isometric contractions. There was a reduction in the complexity of sEMG associated with aging. The relationship of age and complexity was approximated using a bilinear fit, with the average knee point at 45 years. There was an age-associated increase in the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the force of muscle contraction, and this increase was correlated with the decrease in complexity of sEMG (r(2) = 0.76). There was an age-associated increase in CoV and also a reduction in the complexity of sEMG. The correlation between these 2 factors can be explained based on the age-associated increase in motor unit density. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Noé Gomes Borges Junior
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare maximum isometric grip strength (Fmaxbetween different sports and between the dominant (FmaxD and non-dominant (FmaxND hand. Twenty-nine male aikido (AI, jiujitsu (JJ, judo (JU and rowing (RO athletes and 21non-athletes (NA participated in the study. The hand strength test consisted of maintainingmaximum isometric grip strength for 10 seconds using a hand dynamometer. The position of the subjects was that suggested by the American Society of Hand Therapy. Factorial 2X5 ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, followed by a paired t test and Tukey test, was used for statistical analysis. The highest Fmax values were observed for the JJ group when using the dominant hand,followed by the JU, RO, AI and NA groups. Variation in Fmax could be attributed to handdominance (30.9%, sports modality (39.9% and the interaction between hand dominance andsport (21.3%. The present results demonstrated significant differences in Fmax between the JJ and AI groups and between the JJ and NA groups for both the dominant and non-dominant hand. Significant differences in Fmax between the dominant and non-dominant hand were only observed in the AI and NA groups. The results indicate that Fmax can be used for comparisonbetween different sports modalities, and to identify differences between the dominant and nondominanthand. Studies involving a larger number of subjects will permit the identification of differences between other modalities.
Rajanen, Dorina; Clemmensen, Torkil; Iivari, Netta
This paper examines the views of user experience (UX) professionals on the definitions of usability and UX, and compares the findings between countries and within different socio-cultural groups. A mixed-method analysis was employed on data gathered on 422 professionals through a survey in Turkey......, Finland, Denmark, France, and Malaysia. Usability appears to be an established concept, respondents across all countries agreeing on the importance of the ISO 9241-11 definition. There is also a tendency that UX professionals attach organizational perspective to usability. UX professionals diverge when...... defining UX, and there are systematic differences related to socio-cultural conditions. UX professionals in Finland and France incline more towards the definition highlighting the experiential qualities, when compared to Turkey and Malaysia that incline towards the definition reflecting the ease of use...
There are indications that established methods for evaluating information system usability that have been developed for use in, e.g. Europe or the USA, fail to give reliable results in countries such as India, China or Malaysia. This paper presents the theoretical background, related work...... and a definition of culture that should be useful for studies of multiple-country usability testing. This includes a discussion of cultural fit and the consequences of cultural (in)consistencies between stakeholders in system development and use. As an illustrative example of the kind of academic research...... that needs to be done, a pilot study is described. The pilot study exemplifies themes to explore, who should be participants and where should the study be done, how to find examples of multiple-country usability testing, how to collect data and how to analyse that data and what kind of results and discussion...
Schaefer, Laura V; Bittmann, Frank N
In isometric muscle function, there are subjectively two different modes of performance: one can either hold isometrically - thus resist an impacting force - or push isometrically - therefore work against a stable resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not two different isometric muscle actions - the holding vs. pushing one (HIMA vs PIMA) - can be distinguished by objective parameters. Ten subjects performed two different measuring modes at 80% of MVC realized by a special pneumatic system. During HIMA the subject had to resist the defined impacting force of the pneumatic system in an isometric position, whereby the force of the cylinder works in direction of elbow flexion against the subject. During PIMA the subject worked isometrically in direction of elbow extension against a stable position of the system. The signals of pressure, force, acceleration and mechanomyography/-tendography (MMG/MTG) of the elbow extensor (MMGtri/MTGtri) and the abdominal muscle (MMGobl) were recorded and evaluated concerning the duration of maintaining the force level (force endurance) and the characteristics of MMG-/MTG-signals. Statistical group differences comparing HIMA vs. PIMA were estimated using SPSS. Significant differences between HIMA and PIMA were especially apparent regarding the force endurance: During HIMA the subjects showed a decisively shorter time of stable isometric position (19 ± 8 s) in comparison with PIMA (41 ± 24 s; p = .005). In addition, during PIMA the longest isometric plateau amounted to 59.4% of the overall duration time of isometric measuring, during HIMA it lasted 31.6% ( p = .000). The frequency of MMG/MTG did not show significant differences. The power in the frequency ranges of 8-15 Hz and 10-29 Hz was significantly higher in the MTGtri performing HIMA compared to PIMA (but not for the MMGs). The amplitude of MMG/MTG did not show any significant difference considering the whole measurement. However
I. What is usability and why should I care?A. Overview chapter Isbister and Schaffer (Editors)Introduces key concepts and positions book for primary audiences: game developers andstudents aspiring to work in game development. Addresses key concerns that developersmay have about adopting usability, and sets a broad road map of what is to come in thebook.B. Interview with Tobi Saulnier of 1st PlayableA discussion with the CEO of a small game studio about why and how she uses usabilitytechniques in her development.C. Interview with Don Norman of Nielsen Norman groupA discussion with one of the pr
Larsen, Lars Bo
This work is centred on the methods and problems associated with defining and measuring the usability of Spoken Dialogue Systems (SDS). The starting point is the fact that speech based interfaces has several times during the last 20 years fallen short of the high expectations and predictions held...... by industry, researchers and analysts. Several studies in the literature of SDS indicate that this can be ascribed to a lack of attention from the speech technology community towards the usability of such systems. The experimental results presented in this work are based on a field trial with the OVID home...
Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Froberg, Karsten
The objective of this study was to examine the association of screen time viewing behavior with isometric trunk muscle strength in youth.......The objective of this study was to examine the association of screen time viewing behavior with isometric trunk muscle strength in youth....
Jackson, Allen; And Others
A study was made to determine if a combination of functional isometrics and standard isotonic training would be superior to a standard isotonic program in an instructional setting. The results provide support for functional isometrics as an enhancement where achievement of maximum strength is the goal. (Author/MT)
Drake, David; Kennedy, Rodney; Wallace, Eric
Isometric multi-joint tests are considered reliable and have strong relationships with 1RM performance. However, limited evidence is available for the isometric squat in terms of effects of familiarization and reliability. This study aimed to assess, the effect of familiarization, stability reliability, determine the smallest detectible difference, and the correlation of the isometric squat test with 1RM squat performance. Thirty-six strength-trained participants volunteered to take part in this study. Following three familiarization sessions, test-retest reliability was evaluated with a 48-hour window between each time point. Isometric squat peak, net and relative force were assessed. Results showed three familiarizations were required, isometric squat had a high level of stability reliability and smallest detectible difference of 11% for peak and relative force. Isometric strength at a knee angle of ninety degrees had a strong significant relationship with 1RM squat performance. In conclusion, the isometric squat is a valid test to assess multi-joint strength and can discriminate between strong and weak 1RM squat performance. Changes greater than 11% in peak and relative isometric squat performance should be considered as meaningful in participants who are familiar with the test.
Rogers, Benjamin H; Brown, Justin C; Gater, David R; Schmitz, Kathryn H
To characterize the relationship between 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Community-dwelling breast cancer survivors (N=295). Not applicable. 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer, with 3 maximal contractions of the left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Among 295 breast cancer survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1kg (range, 2.2-43.0kg), and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8kg (range, 9.0-43.0kg). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7kg (95% limits of agreement, -8.2 to 17.6kg). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=.31; Pstrength (R 2 =.23). Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer survivors. 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frank, T.D.; Patanarapeelert, K.; Beek, P.J.
We derive a fundamental relationship between the mean and the variability of isometric force. The relationship arises from an optimal collection of active motor units such that the force variability assumes a minimum (optimal isometric force). The relationship is shown to be independent of the
Bo, Sit [Forest Resource Div., Forest Department (Myanmar)
Forest inventory in Myanmar started in 1850s. Up till 1975, Myanmar Forest Department conducted forest inventories covering approximately one forest division every year. The National Forest Survey and Inventory Project funded by UNDP and assisted by FAO commenced in 1981 and the National Forest Management and Inventory project followed in 1986. Up till end March 1993, pre-investment inventory has covered 26.7 million acres, reconnaissance inventory 5.4 million acres and management inventory has carried out in 12 townships
Forest inventory in Myanmar started in 1850s. Up till 1975, Myanmar Forest Department conducted forest inventories covering approximately one forest division every year. The National Forest Survey and Inventory Project funded by UNDP and assisted by FAO commenced in 1981 and the National Forest Management and Inventory project followed in 1986. Up till end March 1993, pre-investment inventory has covered 26.7 million acres, reconnaissance inventory 5.4 million acres and management inventory has carried out in 12 townships
Full Text Available The subject of the research is software usability and the aim is construction of mathematicalmodel of estimation and providing of the set level of usability. Methodology of structural analysis,methods of multicriterion optimization and theory of making decision, method of convolution,scientific methods of analysis and analogies is used in the research. The result of executed work isthe model for software usability automated evaluation and assurance that allows not only toestimate the current level of usability during every iteration of agile development but also tomanage the usability of created software products. Results can be used for the construction ofautomated support systems of management the software usability.
Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine
This paper contributes to the HCI literature on usability practice with insights about the empirical challenges and global emerging practices caused by the advent of agile software development (ASD). In the paper we report from a worldwide study involving 12 usability professionals from 12...... different countries. The findings show that the usability professionals share a forced development and innovation in their practice that stem from their clients’ adoption and use of ASD methods. The ASD methods challenge the way usability testing is performed, the abilities of the usability expert......, the usability deliverables, and the experts’ assumptions about the importance of validity....
Jiang, Y.; Sun, X.; Li, H.
in the study, their understanding of fun systems differs across cultural backgrounds. Also, easy-to-use and useful systems are perceived as being similar or different depending on the usability professional’s cultural background. Most other cross-cultural differences relate to categories of construct......Culture influences many aspects of the design and use of computer systems; understanding better this influence on their own thinking may benefit usability professionals who do cross-cultural usability work. Using Kelly’s notion of personal constructs, we focus on one mediator of culture: how...
Chan, Alvita J.; Islam, Mohammad K.; Rosewall, Tara; Jaffray, David A.; Easty, Anthony C.; Cafazzo, Joseph A.
Background and purpose: Heuristic evaluations have been used to evaluate safety of medical devices by identifying and assessing usability issues. Since radiotherapy treatment delivery systems often consist of multiple complex user-interfaces, a heuristic evaluation was conducted to assess the potential safety issues of such a system. Material and methods: A heuristic evaluation was conducted to evaluate the treatment delivery system at Princess Margaret Hospital (Toronto, Canada). Two independent evaluators identified usability issues with the user-interfaces and rated the severity of each issue. Results: The evaluators identified 75 usability issues in total. Eighteen of them were rated as high severity, indicating the potential to have a major impact on patient safety. A majority of issues were found on the record and verify system, and many were associated with the patient setup process. While the hospital has processes in place to ensure patient safety, recommendations were developed to further mitigate the risks of potential consequences. Conclusions: Heuristic evaluation is an efficient and inexpensive method that can be successfully applied to radiotherapy delivery systems to identify usability issues and improve patient safety. Although this study was conducted only at one site, the findings may have broad implications for the design of these systems.
Hultman, Gretchen; Marquard, Jenna; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Mink, Pamela; Rizvi, Rubina; Ramer, Tim; Khairat, Saif; Fickau, Keri; Melton, Genevieve B
Despite widespread electronic health record (EHR) adoption, poor EHR system usability continues to be a significant barrier to effective system use for end users. One key to addressing usability problems is to employ user testing and user-centered design. To understand if redesigning an EHR-based navigation tool with clinician input improved user performance and satisfaction. A usability evaluation was conducted to compare two versions of a redesigned ambulatory navigator. Participants completed tasks for five patient cases using the navigators, while employing a think-aloud protocol. The tasks were based on Meaningful Use (MU) requirements. The version of navigator did not affect perceived workload, and time to complete tasks was longer in the redesigned navigator. A relatively small portion of navigator content was used to complete the MU-related tasks, though navigation patterns were highly variable across participants for both navigators. Preferences for EHR navigation structures appeared to be individualized. This study demonstrates the importance of EHR usability assessments to evaluate group and individual performance of different interfaces and preferences for each design.
Bringula, Rex P.; Basa, Roselle S.
The study investigated the factors that might significantly affect web portal usability. Results of the study were intended to serve as inputs for faculty web portal development of the University of the East-Manila. Descriptive statistics utilized questionnaire data from 82 faculty members. The data showed that most of the respondents were…
Saad Masood Butt
Full Text Available Agile methods are the best fit for tremendously growing software industry due to its flexible and dynamic nature. But the software developed using agile methods do meet the usability standards? To answer this question we can see that majority of agile software development projects currently involve interactive user interface designs, which can only be possible by following User Centered Design (UCD in agile methods. The question here is, how to integrate UCD with agile models. Both Agile models and UCD are iterative in nature but agile models focus on coding and development of software; whereas, UCD focuses on user interface of the software. Similarly, both of them have testing features where the agile model involves automated tested code while UCD involves an expert or a user to test the user interface. In this paper, a new agile usability model is proposed and the evaluation is of the proposed model is presented by practically implementing it in three real life projects. . Key results from these projects clearly show: the proposed agile model incorporates usability evaluation methods, improves the relationship between usability experts to work with agile software experts; in addition, allows agile developers to incorporate the result from UCD into subsequent interactions.
Your next usability project could be waiting for you in the college library, registration office, or online admissions process that your college or university utilizes in their daily transactions. As an added bonus, these exercises supplement the IS2002 curriculum model, benefit the instructor's institution, build inter-departmental collaboration,…
Schmettow, Martin; Bach, Cedric; Scapin, Dominique
This paper examines combinations of complementary evaluation methods as a strategy for efficient usability problem discovery. A data set from an earlier study is re-analyzed, involving three evaluation methods applied to two virtual environment applications. Results of a mixed-effects logistic
Full Text Available Evolutionary development of isometric force impulse frequencies, power, and the directional concordance of changes in oscillatory tremor during performance of a two-digit force regulation task was examined. Analyses compared a patient group having tremor confounding volitional force regulation with a control group having no neuropathological diagnosis. Dependent variables for tremor varied temporally and spatially, both within individual trials and across trials, across individuals, across groups, and between digits. Particularly striking findings were magnitude increases during approaches to cue markers and shifts in the concordance phase from pinching toward rigid sway patterns as the magnitude increased. Magnitudes were significantly different among trace line segments of the task and were characterized by differences in relative force required and by the task progress with respect to cue markers for beginning, reversing force change direction, or task termination. The main systematic differences occurred during cue marker approach and were independent of trial sequence order.
Izakov, V.Ya.; Bykov, B.L.; Kimmelman, I.Ya.
The dependence of the exponential decay constant expressing the isometric relaxation of the myocardium on temperature is investigated in animals with various specific contents of myocardial sarcoplasmic reticulum. Experiments were performed on cardiac ventricles and atria isolated from rabbits, frogs and turtles and electrically stimulated to produce maximal contraction at temperatures from 10 to 35 C. Arrhenius plots derived from the data are found to be linear in the myocardia of the rabbit and frog, with a greater activation energy for the relaxation found in the rabbit. The Arrhenius plot for the turtle, which has a sarcoplasmic reticulum content intermediate between those of the frog and rabbit, corresponds to two straight lines with different activation energies. Results thus support the hypothesis of two separate mechanisms of calcium removal, involving the sarcoplasmic reticulum and cellular membrane, in muscle relaxation.
Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva
This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.
Zhang, Yun; Li, Benwei; Wang, Lin; Wang, Wen; Wang, Zibin
Principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) are well-known linear dimensionality reductions for fault classification. However, since they are linear methods, they perform not well for high-dimensional data that has the nonlinear geometric structure. As kernel extension of PCA, Kernel PCA is used for nonlinear fault classification. However, the performance of Kernel PCA largely depends on its kernel function which can only be empirically selected from finite candidates. Thus, a novel rotating machine fault diagnosis approach based on geometrically motivated nonlinear dimensionality reduction named isometric feature mapping (Isomap) is proposed. The approach can effectively extract the intrinsic nonlinear manifold features embedded in high-dimensional fault data sets. Experimental results with rotor and rolling bearing data show that the proposed approach overcomes the flaw of conventional fault pattern recognition approaches and obviously improves the fault classification performance.
Laura V. Schaefer
Full Text Available Muscles oscillate with a frequency around 10 Hz. But what happens with myofascial oscillations, if two neuromuscular systems interact? The purpose of this study was to examine this question, initially, on the basis of a case study. Oscillations of the triceps brachii muscles of two subjects were determined through mechanomyography (MMG during isometric interaction. The MMG-signals were analyzed concerning the interaction of the two subjects with algorithms of nonlinear dynamics. In this case study it could be shown, that the muscles of both neuromuscular systems also oscillate with the known frequency (here 12 Hz during interaction. Furthermore, both subjects were able to adapt their oscillations against each other. This adjustment induced a significant ( < .05 coherent behavior, which was characterized by a phase shifting of approximately 90°. The authors draw the conclusion, that the complementary neuromuscular partners potentially have the ability of mutual synchronization.
Granata, Kevin P.; Bennett, Bradford C.
Pushing and pulling tasks are increasingly prevalent in industrial workplaces. Few studies have investigated low-back biomechanical risk factors associated with pushing, and we are aware of none that has quantified spinal stability during pushing exertions. Data recorded from 11 healthy participants performing isometric pushing exertions demonstrated that trunk posture, vector force direction of the applied load, and trunk moment were influenced (p pushing task, and foot position. A biomechanical model was used to analyze the posture and hand force data gathered from the pushing exertions. Model results indicate that pushing exertions provide significantly (p pushing exertions. If one maintains stability by means of cocontraction, additional spinal load is thereby created, increasing the risk of overload injury. Thus it is important to consider muscle cocontraction when evaluating the biomechanics of pushing exertions. Potential applications of this research include improved assessment of biomechanical risk factors for the design of industrial pushing tasks. PMID:16435695
Zhou, G.; Wei, J.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, R.; Huang, W.; Sha, H.; Chen, J.
Decision tree (DT) induction has been widely used in different pattern classification. However, most traditional DTs have the disadvantage that they consider only non-spatial attributes (ie, spectral information) as a result of classifying pixels, which can result in objects being misclassified. Therefore, some researchers have proposed a co-location decision tree (Cl-DT) method, which combines co-location and decision tree to solve the above the above-mentioned traditional decision tree problems. Cl-DT overcomes the shortcomings of the existing DT algorithms, which create a node for each value of a given attribute, which has a higher accuracy than the existing decision tree approach. However, for non-linearly distributed data instances, the euclidean distance between instances does not reflect the true positional relationship between them. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper proposes an isometric mapping method based on Cl-DT (called, (Isomap-based Cl-DT), which is a method that combines heterogeneous and Cl-DT together. Because isometric mapping methods use geodetic distances instead of Euclidean distances between non-linearly distributed instances, the true distance between instances can be reflected. The experimental results and several comparative analyzes show that: (1) The extraction method of exposed carbonate rocks is of high accuracy. (2) The proposed method has many advantages, because the total number of nodes, the number of leaf nodes and the number of nodes are greatly reduced compared to Cl-DT. Therefore, the Isomap -based Cl-DT algorithm can construct a more accurate and faster decision tree.
Full Text Available Decision tree (DT induction has been widely used in different pattern classification. However, most traditional DTs have the disadvantage that they consider only non-spatial attributes (ie, spectral information as a result of classifying pixels, which can result in objects being misclassified. Therefore, some researchers have proposed a co-location decision tree (Cl-DT method, which combines co-location and decision tree to solve the above the above-mentioned traditional decision tree problems. Cl-DT overcomes the shortcomings of the existing DT algorithms, which create a node for each value of a given attribute, which has a higher accuracy than the existing decision tree approach. However, for non-linearly distributed data instances, the euclidean distance between instances does not reflect the true positional relationship between them. In order to overcome these shortcomings, this paper proposes an isometric mapping method based on Cl-DT (called, (Isomap-based Cl-DT, which is a method that combines heterogeneous and Cl-DT together. Because isometric mapping methods use geodetic distances instead of Euclidean distances between non-linearly distributed instances, the true distance between instances can be reflected. The experimental results and several comparative analyzes show that: (1 The extraction method of exposed carbonate rocks is of high accuracy. (2 The proposed method has many advantages, because the total number of nodes, the number of leaf nodes and the number of nodes are greatly reduced compared to Cl-DT. Therefore, the Isomap -based Cl-DT algorithm can construct a more accurate and faster decision tree.
Noé Gomes Borges Junior
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n3p292 The objective of this study was to compare maximum isometric grip strength (Fmaxbetween different sports and between the dominant (FmaxD and non-dominant (FmaxND hand. Twenty-nine male aikido (AI, jiujitsu (JJ, judo (JU and rowing (RO athletes and 21non-athletes (NA participated in the study. The hand strength test consisted of maintainingmaximum isometric grip strength for 10 seconds using a hand dynamometer. The position of the subjects was that suggested by the American Society of Hand Therapy. Factorial 2X5 ANOVA with Bonferroni correction, followed by a paired t test and Tukey test, was used for statistical analysis. The highest Fmax values were observed for the JJ group when using the dominant hand,followed by the JU, RO, AI and NA groups. Variation in Fmax could be attributed to handdominance (30.9%, sports modality (39.9% and the interaction between hand dominance andsport (21.3%. The present results demonstrated significant differences in Fmax between the JJ and AI groups and between the JJ and NA groups for both the dominant and non-dominant hand. Significant differences in Fmax between the dominant and non-dominant hand were only observed in the AI and NA groups. The results indicate that Fmax can be used for comparisonbetween different sports modalities, and to identify differences between the dominant and nondominanthand. Studies involving a larger number of subjects will permit the identification of differences between other modalities.
Bornoe, Nis; Stage, Jan
Despite an interest and use of different usability engineering methods small software development organizations find it challenging to implement usability engineering into the software development process. We present the results from a study about usability engineering in practice. Through a series...... of semistructured interviews we want to get an understanding of how usability is implemented into the organizations and how it’s practiced in reality. We found that the developers found it problematic to combine agile software development methods with classic usability engineering methods. A lack of solid usability...... engineering expertise and not least experience seems to be a main obstacle for a successful implementation of usability engineering into current software development practices. They are requesting methods and procedures that fit better with their current practices and strategies to implement usability...
Usability testing has evolved in response to a search for tests that are cheap, early, easy, and fast. In addition, it accords with a situational definition of usability, such as the one propounded by ISO. By approaching usability from an organizational perspective, this author argues that usabil......Usability testing has evolved in response to a search for tests that are cheap, early, easy, and fast. In addition, it accords with a situational definition of usability, such as the one propounded by ISO. By approaching usability from an organizational perspective, this author argues...... that usability should (also) be evaluated late, that usability professionals should be wary of thinking aloud, and that they should focus more on effects achievement than problem detection....
Markopoulos, P.; Bekker, M.M.
The paper motivates the need to acquire methodological knowledge for involving children as test users in usability testing. It introduces a methodological framework for delineating comparative assessments of usability testing methods for children participants. This framework consists in three
Brenda M Scholtz
Full Text Available Though the field of management information systems, as a sector and a discipline, is the inventor of many guidelines and models, it appears to be a slow runner on practical implications of interface usability. This usability can influence end users’ attitude and behavior to use IT. The purpose of this paper was to examine the interface usability of a popular Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP software system, SAP, and to identify related issues and implications to the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM. A survey was conducted of 112 SAP ERP users from an organization in the heavy metal industry in Bangladesh. The partial least squares technique was used to analyze the survey data. The survey findings empirically confirmed that interface usability has a significant impact on users’ perceptions of usefulness and ease of use which ultimately affects attitudes and intention to use the ERP software. The research model extends the TAM by incorporating three criteria of interface usability. It is the first known study to investigate usability criteria as an extension of TAM.
Campbell, Bryan A; Tossell, Chad C; Byrne, Michael D; Kortum, Philip
The goal of this research was to assess the usability of a voting system designed for smart-phones. Smartphones offer remote participation in elections through the use of pervasive technology. Voting on these devices could, among other benefits, increase voter participation while allowing voters to use familiar technology. However, the usability of these systems has not been assessed. A mobile voting system optimized for use on a smartphone was designed and tested against traditional voting platforms for usability. There were no reliable differences between the smartphone-based system and other voting methods in efficiency and perceived usability. More important, though, smartphone owners committed fewer errors on the mobile voting system than on the traditional voting systems. Even with the known limitations of small mobile platforms in both displays and controls, a carefully designed system can provide a usable voting method. Much of the concern about mobile voting is in the area of security; therefore, although these results are promising, security concerns and usability issues arising from mitigating them must be strongly considered. The results of this experiment may help to inform current and future election and public policy officials about the benefits of allowing voters to vote with familiar hardware.
The paper proposes a contingent, learner-centred usability evaluation method and a prototype tool of such systems. This is a new usability evaluation method for web-based learning systems using a set of empirically-supported usability factors and can be done effectively with limited resources. During the evaluation process, the method allows for…
Bunz, Ulla K.
This paper discusses Web site usability issues. Specifically, it assumes that the usability of a Web site depends more on the perception of the user than on the objectively assessable usability criteria of the Web site. Two pilot studies, based on theoretical notions of uses and gratifications theory and similar theories, are presented. In the…
Bruun , Anders
Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; Lack of usability specialists, high resource requirements and developer mindsets are three considerable barriers for introducing usability engineering into software companies. This Ph.D. project explores the effect of letting software developers and end users apply usability engineering methods instead of a specialist, a solution which may reduce the barriers.
Can we use the methods of Web usability testing to learn about library instruction? This article is among the first in the field trying to establish a link between usability and instruction. The author discusses useful insights that Web usability can bring to our pedagogy as well as to the efficiency of library instruction. The result of a Web…
Lizano, Fulvio; Stage, Jan
Remote Usability Testing (RUT) is an alternative method of usability evaluations. The main aim of RUT is the reduction of costs in the usability evaluation process. Since middle of the 90s RUT, has emerged as a technique which seems as is gaining maturity across the time. In general any discipline...
Full Text Available A Study about libraries' web sites evaluation, that is the Usability, the study talking about methods of usability testing and define it, and its important in web sites evaluation, then details the methods of usability: questionnaire, core groups, testing experimental model, cards arrangement, and composed evaluation.
Chtara, Moktar; Rouissi, Mehdi; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Owen, Adam L; Haddad, Monoem; Chamari, Karim
Soccer requires maintaining unilateral balance when executing movement with the contralateral leg. Despite the fact that balance requires standing with maintaining isometric posture with the support leg, currently there is a lack of studies regarding the implication of isometric strength on dynamic balance's performance among young soccer players. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the Y-Balance Test and 12 lower limbs isometric strength tests. Twenty-six right footed soccer players (mean±SD, age=16.2±1.6 years, height=175±4.2 cm, body mass=68.8±6.1 kg) performed a dynamic balance test (star excursion balance-test with dominant- (DL) and nondominant-legs (NDL). Furthermore, maximal isometric contraction tests of 12 lower limb muscle groups were assessed in DL and NDL. Correlations analysis reported a significant positive relationship between some of isometric strength tests (with DL and NDL) and the Y-Balance Test. Furthermore, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that maximal isometric strength explained between 21.9% and 49.4% of the variance of the Y-Balance Test. Moreover, maximal isometric strength was dependent upon the reaching angle of the Y-Balance Test and the leg used to support body weight. This study showed a significant implication of maximal isometric strength of the lower limb and the Y-Balance Test. Moreover, the present investigation suggests the implementation of specific lower limb strengthening exercises depending on players' deficit in each reaching direction and leg. This result suggests that further studies should experiment if increasing lower limbs isometric strength could improve dynamic balance ability among young soccer players.
Rogers, Benjamin H.; Brown, Justin C.; Gater, David R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.
Objective One-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength is considered the gold standard to quantify upper-body muscular strength. Isometric handgrip strength is frequently used as a surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer (BrCa) survivors. The relationship between 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength, however, has not been characterized among BrCa survivors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling BrCa survivors. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer with three maximal contractions of left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Results Among 295 BrCa survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1 kg (range: 2.2-43.0) and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8 kg (range: 9.0-43.0). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=0.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7 kg (95% limits of agreement: −8.2 to 17.6). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=0.31; Pstrength (R2=0.23). Conclusions Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among BrCa survivors. 1-RM bench press and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. PMID:27543047
Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....
Sarupria, J.S.; Kunte, P.D.
The nature of oceanographic data and the management of inventory level information are described in Integrated Inventory Information System (IIIS). It is shown how a ROSCOPO (report on observations/samples collected during oceanographic programme...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The World Glacier Inventory (WGI) contains information for over 130,000 glaciers. Inventory parameters include geographic location, area, length, orientation,...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Enterprise Data Inventory (EDI) is the comprehensive inventory listing of agency data resources including public, restricted public, and non-public datasets.
The Science Inventory is a searchable database of research products primarily from EPA's Office of Research and Development. Science Inventory records provide descriptions of the product, contact information, and links to available printed material or websites.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland area features mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National Wetlands Inventory is a national program sponsored by the US Fish and...
Alexander, Keith; Blakstad, Siri; Hansen, Geir
The paper argues for the development of usability concepts, methodologies and tools, in considering the effects of the built environment from a user, organisational and community perspective, in order to have a positive influence on social outcomes. Since it was formed over ten years ago, the CIB W......111 on Usability has been exploring concepts, methods and tools, developed in the evaluation of all kinds of consumer products, applied to the built environment. In the most recent phase of this work, conducted over the past three years, an international network of partners has collaborated to focus...... properties of a workplace, they could better manage and design the facilities for improved social outcomes. Interpretation and analysis of the built environment (and support services) based on how it is socially constructed will enable integration of organisational use and the facilities provided to arrive...
Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Jamaludin, Nur Hafiza; Moh, Somia T. L.
This paper reports on a usability evaluation of Lazada mobile application, an online shopping app for mobile devices. The evaluation was conducted using 12 users of ages 18 to 24. Seven (7) were expert users and the other 5 were novice users. The study objectives were to evaluate the perceived effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction of the mobile application. The result provides a positive feedback and shows that the mobile shopping app is effective, efficient, and satisfying as perceived by the study participants. However, there are some observed usability issues with the main menu and the payment method that necessitates improvements to increase the application's effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. The suggested improvements include: 1) the main menu should be capitalized and place on the left side of mobile app and 2) payment method tutorial should be included as a hyperlink in the payment method page. This observation will be helpful to the owners of the application in future version development of the app.
Both the United States and Russia are retaining as strategic reserves more plutonium and HEU for potential reuse as weapons, than is legitimately needed. Both have engaged in discussions and have programs in various stages of development to dispose of excess plutonium and HEU. These fissile material disposition programs will take decades to complete. In the interim there will be, as there is now, hundreds of tons of separated weapon-usable fissile material stored in tens of thousands of transportable canisters, each containing from a few to several tons of kgs of weapon-usable fissile material. This material must be secured against theft and unauthorized use. To have high confidence that the material is secure, one must establish criteria against which the adequacy of the protective systems can be judged. For example, one finds such criteria in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) regulations for the protection of special nuclear materials
Full Text Available One strategy used to assure that an interface meets user requirements is to conduct usability testing. When conducting such testing one of the unknowns is sample size. Since extensive testing is costly, minimizing the number of participants can contribute greatly to successful resource management of a project. Even though a significant number of models have been proposed to estimate sample size in usability testing, there is still not consensus on the optimal size. Several studies claim that 3 to 5 users suffice to uncover 80% of problems in a software interface. However, many other studies challenge this assertion. This study analyzed data collected from the user testing of a web application to verify the rule of thumb, commonly known as the “magic number 5”. The outcomes of the analysis showed that the 5-user rule significantly underestimates the required sample size to achieve reasonable levels of problem detection.
Garcés, Ma. I.; Torralba, B.
The Research and Development (R&D) project on “Theoretical and Methodological Approaches to Integrated System Validation of Control Rooms, 2014-2015”, in which the research activities described in this report are framed, has two main objectives: to develop the items for an usability methodology conceived as a part of the measurement framework for performance-based control room evaluation that the OECD Halden Reactor Project will test in the experiments planned for 2015; and the statistical analysis of the data generated in the experimental activities of the Halden Man-Machine Laboratory (HAMMLAB) facility, with previous usability questionnaires, in 2010 and 2011. In this report, the procedure designed to meet the first goal of the project is described, in particular, the process followed to identify the items related to operating procedures, both computer and paper-based, one of the elements to be included in the usability questionnaire. Three phases are performed, in the first one, the approaches developed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, NRC, are reviewed, the models used by the nuclear industry and their technical support organizations, mainly, the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, are analyzed, and scientist advances are also explored. In the remaining stages, general and specific guidelines for computerized and paper-based procedures are compared and criteria for the preliminary selection of the items that should be incorporated into the usability questionnaire are defined. This proposal will be reviewed and adapted by the Halden Reactor Project to the design of the specific experiments performed in HAMLAB.
Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M; Kannry, Joseph
The need for improved usability in healthcare IT has been widely recognized. In addition, methods from usability engineering, including usability testing and usability inspection have received greater attention. Many vendors of healthcare software are now employing usability testing methods in the design and development of their products. However, despite this, the usability of healthcare IT is still considered to be problematic and many healthcare organizations that have purchased systems that have been tested at vendor testing sites are still reporting a range of usability and safety issues. In this paper we explore the distinction between commercial usability testing (conducted at centralized vendor usability laboratories and limited beta test sites) and usability testing that is carried out locally within healthcare organizations that have purchased vendor systems and products (i.e. public "in-situ" usability testing). In this paper it will be argued that both types of testing (i.e. commercial vendor-based testing) and in-situ testing are needed to ensure system usability and safety.
Crewe, Nancy M.; Athelstan, Gary T.
This manual, which provides extensive new instructions for administering the Functional Assessment Inventory (FAI), is intended to enable counselors to begin using the inventory without undergoing any special training. The first two sections deal with the need for functional assessment and issues in the development and use of the inventory. The…
Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan
We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....
Bornoe, Nis; Stage, Jan
The essence of usability evaluations is to produce feedback that supports the downstream utility so the interaction design can be improved and problems can be fixed. In practice, software development organizations experience several obstacles for conducting usability engineering. One suggested...... approach is to train and involve developers in all phases of usability activities from evaluations, to problem reporting, and making redesign proposals. Only limited work has previously investigated the impact of actively involving developers in usability engineering. In this paper, we present two small......, and problem fixing. At the organizational level, we found that the attitude towards and understanding of the role of usability engineering improved....
Full Text Available Physical exercise can be regarded as a period of increased sympathetic activity with simultaneous parasympathetic withdrawal. Many circulatory changes occur during exercise due to mass sympathetic discharge. The exercise cap acity among gender may differ due to substantial anatomical, physiological, and morphological differences. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the gender difference in the cardiovascular response during isometric hand grip exercise. MATERIALS AND METHOD S: 30 healthy young adult male & 30 female students aged between 18 - 24 years who had no prior endurance training were asked to perform Isometric handgrip contractions using an isometric handgrip apparatus. The heart rate was calculated using BIOPAC MP30. Blood p ressure measurements were obtained using a sphygmomanometer. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The results of the present study showed significant increase in the blood pressure values in men during isometric exercise compared to women which may be because of increase d catecholamine release to acute stress among men
Ge, H-Y; Nie, Hongling; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Sustained isometric muscle contraction (fatiguing contraction) recruits segmental and/or extrasegmental descending inhibition in healthy subjects but not in fibromyalgia (FM). We hypothesized that fatiguing contraction may shift descending pain modulation from inhibition towards...
Nuclear utilities are becoming more aware of the importance of having an inventory investment that supports two opposing philosophies. The business philosophy wants a minimal inventory investment to support a better return on invested dollars. This increase in return comes from having the dollars available to invest versus having the money tied up in inventory sitting on the shelf. The opposing viewpoint is taken by maintenance/operations organizations, which desire the maximum inventory available on-site to repair any component at any time to keep the units on-line at all times. Financial managers also want to maintain cash flow throughout operations so that plants run without interruptions. Inventory management is therefore a mixture of financial logistics with an operation perspective in mind. A small amount of common sense and accurate perception also help. The challenge to the materials/inventory manager is to optimize effectiveness of the inventory by having high material availability at the lowest possible cost
Amery, G; Moodley, J
Embeddings into higher dimensions are of direct importance in the study of higher dimensional theories of our Universe, in high energy physics and in classical general relativity. Theorems have been established that guarantee the existence of local and global codimension-1 embeddings between pseudo-Riemannian manifolds, particularly for Einstein embedding spaces. A technique has been provided to determine solutions to such embeddings. However, general solutions have not yet been found and most known explicit solutions are for embedded spaces with relatively simple Ricci curvature. Motivated by this, we have considered isometric embeddings of 4-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian spacetimes into 5-dimensional Einstein manifolds. We have applied the technique to treat specific 4-dimensional cases of interest in astrophysics and cosmology (including the global monopole exterior and Vaidya-de Sitter-class solutions), and provided novel physical insights into, for example, Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. Since difficulties arise in solving the 5-dimensional equations for given 4-dimensional spaces, we have also investigated embedded spaces, which admit bulks with a particular metric form. These analyses help to provide insight to the general embedding problem
Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association of a novel test of upper body isometric strength against a 1RM bench press measurement. Forty college age adults (n = 20 female, n = 20 male; age 22.8 ± 2.8 years; body height 171.6 ± 10.8 cm; body mass 73.5 ± 16.3 kg; body fat 23.1 ± 5.4% volunteered for the present investigation. The participants reported to the lab on three occasions. The first visit included anthropometric measurements and familiarization with both the upper body isometric test and bench press exercise. The final visits were conducted in a randomized order, with one being a 1RM assessment on the bench press and the other consisting of three trials of the upper body isometric assessment. For the isometric test, participants were positioned in a “push-up” style position while tethered (stainless steel chain to a load cell (high frequency anchored to the ground. The peak isometric force was consistent across all three trials (ICC = 0.98 suggesting good reliability. Multiple regression analysis was completed with the predictors: peak isometric force, gender, against the outcome variable 1RM bench press. The analysis resulted in a significant model (r2 = 0.861, p≤0.001 with all predictor variables attaining significance in the model (p<0.05. Isometric peak strength had the greatest effect on the model (Beta = 5.19, p≤0.001. Results from this study suggest that the described isometric upper body strength assessment is likely a valid and reliable tool to determine strength. Further research is warranted to gather a larger pool of data in regard to this assessment.
Bellar, David; Marcus, Lena; Judge, Lawrence W
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association of a novel test of upper body isometric strength against a 1RM bench press measurement. Forty college age adults (n = 20 female, n = 20 male; age 22.8 ± 2.8 years; body height 171.6 ± 10.8 cm; body mass 73.5 ± 16.3 kg; body fat 23.1 ± 5.4%) volunteered for the present investigation. The participants reported to the lab on three occasions. The first visit included anthropometric measurements and familiarization with both the upper body isometric test and bench press exercise. The final visits were conducted in a randomized order, with one being a 1RM assessment on the bench press and the other consisting of three trials of the upper body isometric assessment. For the isometric test, participants were positioned in a "push-up" style position while tethered (stainless steel chain) to a load cell (high frequency) anchored to the ground. The peak isometric force was consistent across all three trials (ICC = 0.98) suggesting good reliability. Multiple regression analysis was completed with the predictors: peak isometric force, gender, against the outcome variable 1RM bench press. The analysis resulted in a significant model (r2 = 0.861, p≤0.001) with all predictor variables attaining significance in the model (pIsometric peak strength had the greatest effect on the model (Beta = 5.19, p≤0.001). Results from this study suggest that the described isometric upper body strength assessment is likely a valid and reliable tool to determine strength. Further research is warranted to gather a larger pool of data in regard to this assessment.
Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Froberg, Karsten; Wedderkopp, Niels; Brage, Søren; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Andersen, Lars Bo; Møller, Niels Christian
The objective of this study was to examine the association of screen time viewing behavior with isometric trunk muscle strength in youth. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 606 adolescents (14-16 yr old) participating in the Danish European Youth Heart Study, a population-based study with assessments conducted in either 1997/1998 or 2003/2004. Maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain gauge dynamometer, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) was obtained using a maximal cycle ergometer test. TV viewing time, computer use, and other lifestyle behaviors were obtained by self-report. Analyses of association of screen use behaviors with isometric trunk muscle strength were carried out using multivariable adjusted linear regression. The mean (SD) isometric strength was 0.87 (0.16) N·kg-1. TV viewing, computer use, and total screen time use were inversely associated with isometric trunk muscle strength in analyses adjusted for lifestyle and sociodemographic factors. After further adjustment for CRF and waist circumference, associations remained significant for computer use and total screen time, but TV viewing was only marginally associated with muscle strength after these additional adjustments (-0.05 SD (95% confidence interval, -0.11 to 0.005) difference in strength per 1 h·d-1 difference in TV viewing time, P = 0.08). Each 1 h·d-1 difference in total screen time use was associated with -0.09 SD (95% confidence interval, -0.14 to -0.04) lower isometric trunk muscle strength in the fully adjusted model (P = 0.001). There were no indications that the association of screen time use with isometric trunk muscle strength was attenuated among highly fit individuals (P = 0.91 for CRF by screen time interaction). Screen time use was inversely associated with isometric trunk muscle strength independent of CRF and other confounding factors.
Bellar, David; Marcus, Lena; Judge, Lawrence W.
The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the association of a novel test of upper body isometric strength against a 1RM bench press measurement. Forty college age adults (n = 20 female, n = 20 male; age 22.8 ± 2.8 years; body height 171.6 ± 10.8 cm; body mass 73.5 ± 16.3 kg; body fat 23.1 ± 5.4%) volunteered for the present investigation. The participants reported to the lab on three occasions. The first visit included anthropometric measurements and familiarization with both the upper body isometric test and bench press exercise. The final visits were conducted in a randomized order, with one being a 1RM assessment on the bench press and the other consisting of three trials of the upper body isometric assessment. For the isometric test, participants were positioned in a “push-up” style position while tethered (stainless steel chain) to a load cell (high frequency) anchored to the ground. The peak isometric force was consistent across all three trials (ICC = 0.98) suggesting good reliability. Multiple regression analysis was completed with the predictors: peak isometric force, gender, against the outcome variable 1RM bench press. The analysis resulted in a significant model (r2 = 0.861, p≤0.001) with all predictor variables attaining significance in the model (p<0.05). Isometric peak strength had the greatest effect on the model (Beta = 5.19, p≤0.001). Results from this study suggest that the described isometric upper body strength assessment is likely a valid and reliable tool to determine strength. Further research is warranted to gather a larger pool of data in regard to this assessment. PMID:26557203
Full Text Available Limitations of current methods: The assessment of human variability in various compartments of daily energy expenditure (EE under standardized conditions is well defined at rest (as basal metabolic rate and thermic effect of feeding, and currently under validation for assessing the energy cost of low-intensity dynamic work. However, because physical activities of daily life consist of a combination of both dynamic and isometric work, there is also a need to develop standardized tests for assessing human variability in the energy cost of low-intensity isometric work.Experimental objectives: Development of an approach to study human variability in isometric thermogenesis by incorporating a protocol of intermittent leg press exercise of varying low-intensity isometric loads with measurements of EE by indirect calorimetry. Results: EE was measured in the seated position with the subject at rest or while intermittently pressing both legs against a press-platform at 5 low-intensity isometric loads (+5, +10, + 15, +20 and +25 kg force, each consisting of a succession of 8 cycles of press (30 s and rest (30 s. EE, integrated over each 8-min period of the intermittent leg press exercise, was found to increase linearly across the 5 isometric loads with a correlation coefficient (r > 0.9 for each individual. The slope of this EE-Load relationship, which provides the energy cost of this standardized isometric exercise expressed per kg force applied intermittently (30 s in every min, was found to show good repeatability when assessed in subjects who repeated the same experimental protocol on 3 separate days: its low intra-individual coefficient of variation (CV of ~ 10% contrasted with its much higher inter-individual CV of 35%; the latter being mass-independent but partly explained by height. Conclusion: This standardized approach to study isometric thermogenesis opens up a new avenue for research in EE phenotyping and metabolic predisposition to obesity
Citaker, Seyit; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Yazici, Gokhan; Bayraktar, Deniz; Nazliel, Bijen; Irkec, Ceyla
Muscle strength and standing balance decrease in patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the lower extremity isometric muscle strength and standing balance in patients with MS. Forty-seven patients with MS and 10 healthy volunteers were included. Neurological disability level was assessed using Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Isometric strength of seven lower extremity muscles (hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor) was assessed using hand-held dynamometer. Duration of static one-leg standing balance was measured using digital chronometer. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength, and duration of one-leg standing balance were decreased in patients with MS when compared with controls (p isometric muscle strength and EDSS level was related duration of one-leg standing balance in patients with MS. All assessed lower extremity isometric muscle strength (except ankle dorsal flexor) was related with EDSS. Hip flexor-extensor-abductor-adductor, knee flexor-extensor, and ankle dorsal flexor isometric muscle strength decreases in ambulatory MS patients. Lower extremity muscle weakness and neurological disability level are related with imbalance in MS population. Hip and knee region muscles weakness increases the neurological disability level. For the better balance and decrease neurological disability level whole lower extremity muscle strengthening should be included in rehabilitation programs.
Goebel, Ruben; Haddad, Monoem; Kleinöder, Heinz; Yue, Zengyuan; Heinen, Thomas; Mester, Joachim
The aim of the study was to determine whether a combination of strength training (ST) and local vibration (LV) improved the isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. ST was applied to the left arm of the subjects; LV was applied to the right arm of the same subjects. The main aim was to examine the effect of LV during a dumbbell biceps curl (Scott Curl) on isometric maximum force of the opposite muscle among the same subjects. It is hypothesized, that the intervention with LV produces a greater gain in isometric force of the arm flexors than ST. Twenty-seven collegiate students participated in the study. The training load was 70% of the individual 1 RM. Four sets with 12 repetitions were performed three times per week during four weeks. The right arm of all subjects represented the vibration trained body side (VS) and the left arm served as the traditional trained body side (TTS). A significant increase of isometric maximum force in both body sides (Arms) occurred. VS, however, significantly increased isometric maximum force about 43% in contrast to 22% of the TTS. The combined intervention of ST and LC improves isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. III.
Sousa, Vanessa E C; Dunn Lopez, Karen
The use of e-health can lead to several positive outcomes. However, the potential for e-health to improve healthcare is partially dependent on its ease of use. In order to determine the usability for any technology, rigorously developed and appropriate measures must be chosen. To identify psychometrically tested questionnaires that measure usability of e-health tools, and to appraise their generalizability, attributes coverage, and quality. We conducted a systematic review of studies that measured usability of e-health tools using four databases (Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, and HAPI). Non-primary research, studies that did not report measures, studies with children or people with cognitive limitations, and studies about assistive devices or medical equipment were systematically excluded. Two authors independently extracted information including: questionnaire name, number of questions, scoring method, item generation, and psychometrics using a data extraction tool with pre-established categories and a quality appraisal scoring table. Using a broad search strategy, 5,558 potentially relevant papers were identified. After removing duplicates and applying exclusion criteria, 35 articles remained that used 15 unique questionnaires. From the 15 questionnaires, only 5 were general enough to be used across studies. Usability attributes covered by the questionnaires were: learnability (15), efficiency (12), and satisfaction (11). Memorability (1) was the least covered attribute. Quality appraisal showed that face/content (14) and construct (7) validity were the most frequent types of validity assessed. All questionnaires reported reliability measurement. Some questionnaires scored low in the quality appraisal for the following reasons: limited validity testing (7), small sample size (3), no reporting of user centeredness (9) or feasibility estimates of time, effort, and expense (7). Existing questionnaires provide a foundation for research on e-health usability. However
Cox, David W.
The effects of grade level and socioeconomic status upon Purdue Elementary Problem-Solving Inventory (PEPSI) scores were investigated with 123 elementary students. It was concluded that the PEPSI is usable with most grade two through grade six pupils at both lower and middle socioeconomic levels, and has potential utility in teaching…
Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.
Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an
Gabriela Trindade Perry
Full Text Available In this paper, we present the results of a usability evaluation for Xenubi, a cell phone game about the periodic table. We describe and discuss the issues that we faced during the evaluation, which took place in a state high school. These issues are related to conflicts between the data that were gathered through video recordings and through a questionnaire. We also point to the poor performance of the game mechanics during the evaluation. This result was unexpected because the game had an excellent performance in the pilot test. Possible causes for these differences are discussed.
Calado, Alexana Vilar Soares; Soares, Marcelo Márcio
This paper refers to the comparative study of the equipment used for cooking in commercial of kitchens restaurants that use the system of traditional cooking and those ones which use the system called smart cooking (combination oven). The study investigates the usability issues concerning to the two systems, analyzing comparatively the aspects related to anthropometry, dimensional variables, the use of the product and also the product safety, as well as issues of information related to operation of the new concepts of cooking in intelligent systems.
Diebner, Hans H.; Grond, Florian
We discuss the synchronization features of a previously introduced adaptive system for dynamics recognition in more detail. We investigate the usability of synchronization for modeling and parameter estimations. It is pointed out inhowfar the adaptive system based on synchronization can become a powerful tool in modeling. The adaptive system can store modules of pre-adapted dynamics and is potentially capable of undergoing self-modification. We compare the stored modules with pre-knowledge that a modeler puts into his or her models. In this sense the adaptive system functions like an expert system
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP force-time characteristics (peak force and time-specific force vales (100–250 ms and dynamic performance and compare dynamic performance between stronger and weaker athletes. Forty-three athletes from different sports (rowing, soccer, bicycle motocross, and hockey performed three trials of the squat jump (SJ, countermovement jump (CMJ, and IMTP, and performed a one repetition maximum power clean (PC. Reactive strength index modified (RSImod was also calculated from the CMJ. Statistically significant large correlations between IMTP force-time characteristics and PC (ρ = 0.569–0.674, p < 0.001, and moderate correlations between IMTP force-time characteristics (excluding force at 100 ms and RSImod (ρ = 0.389–0.449, p = 0.013–0.050 were observed. Only force at 250 ms demonstrated a statistically significant moderate correlation with CMJ height (ρ = 0.346, p = 0.016 and no statistically significant associations were observed between IMTP force-time characteristics and SJ height. Stronger athletes (top 10 demonstrated statistically significantly greater CMJ heights, RSImods, and PCs (p ≤ 0.004, g = 1.32–1.89 compared to weaker (bottom 10 athletes, but no differences in SJ height were observed (p = 0.871, g = 0.06. These findings highlight that the ability to apply rapidly high levels of force in short time intervals is integral for PC, CMJ height, and reactive strength.
Full Text Available Background. Bouldering and lead climbing are divergent disciplines of the sport of rock climbing. Bouldering moves are short and powerful, whilst sport climbing is longer and require a greater degree of endurance. Aim. The aim of this study was to compare forearm muscle oxygenation during sustained isometric contraction between lead climbers (LC and boulderers (BO. Methods. Eight BO and twelve LC completed maximal finger flexor strength test and sustained contractions to exhaustion at 60% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Differences between BO and LC in maximal strength, time to exhaustion, force time integral (FTI, and tissue oxygenation (SmO2 were assessed by t-test for independent samples. Results. LC showed significantly lower level of average tissue oxygenation (BO 38.9% SmO2, s = 7.4; LC 28.7% SmO2, s = 7.1 and maximal tissue deoxygenation (BO 25.6% SmO2, s = 8.2; LC 13.5% SmO2, s = 8.5. LC demonstrated significantly lower finger flexor strength (519 N, s = 72 than BO (621 N, s = 142. LC sustained a longer time of contraction (not significantly (BO 52.2 s, s = 11.5; LC 60.6 s, s = 13 and achieved a similar value of FTI (BO 17421 Ns, s = 4291; LO 17476 Ns, s = 5036 in the endurance test. Conclusions. The results showed lower deoxygenation during sustained contraction in BO than LC despite similar FTI, indicating different local metabolic pathways in both groups.
Paulus, David C; Reiser, Raoul F; Troxell, Wade O
In order to load a muscle optimally during resistance exercise, it should be heavily taxed throughout the entire range of motion for that exercise. However, traditional constant resistance squats only tax the lower-extremity muscles to their limits at the "sticking region" or a critical joint configuration of the exercise cycle. Therefore, a linear motion (Smith) exercise machine was modified with pneumatics and appropriate computer control so that it could be capable of adjusting force to control velocity within a repetition of the squat exercise or other exercise performed with the device. Prior to application of this device in a dynamic squat setting, the maximum voluntary isometric force (MVIF) produced over a spectrum of knee angles is needed. This would reveal the sticking region and overall variation in strength capacity. Five incremental knee angles (90, 110, 130, 150, and 170 degrees, where 180 degrees defined full extension) were examined. After obtaining university-approved informed consent, 12 men and 12 women participated in the study. The knee angle was set, and the pneumatic cylinder was pressurized such that the subject could move the barbell slightly but no more than two-centimeters. The peak pressure exerted over a five-second maximum effort interval was recorded at each knee angle in random order and then repeated. The average of both efforts was then utilized for further analysis. The sticking region occurred consistently at a 90 degrees knee angle, however, the maximum force produced varied between 110 degrees and 170 degrees with the greatest frequency at 150 degrees for both men and women. The percent difference between the maximum and minimum MVIF was 46% for men and 57% for women.
van der Weegen S
Full Text Available Sanne van der Weegen,1 Renée Verwey,1,2 Huibert J Tange,3 Marieke D Spreeuwenberg,1 Luc P de Witte1,2 1Department of Health Services Research, CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, the Netherlands; 2Research Centre Technology in Care, Zuyd University of Applied Sciences, Heerlen, the Netherlands; 3Department of General Practice, CAPHRI School for Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Health Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, the Netherlands Introduction: A monitoring and feedback tool to stimulate physical activity, consisting of an activity sensor, smartphone application (app, and website for patients and their practice nurses, has been developed: the 'It's LiFe!' tool. In this study the usability of the tool was evaluated by technology experts and end users (people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or type 2 diabetes, with ages from 40–70 years, to improve the user interfaces and content of the tool. Patients and methods: The study had four phases: 1 a heuristic evaluation with six technology experts; 2 a usability test in a laboratory by five patients; 3 a pilot in real life wherein 20 patients used the tool for 3 months; and 4 a final lab test by five patients. In both lab tests (phases 2 and 4 qualitative data were collected through a thinking-aloud procedure and video recordings, and quantitative data through questions about task complexity, text comprehensiveness, and readability. In addition, the post-study system usability questionnaire (PSSUQ was completed for the app and the website. In the pilot test (phase 3, all patients were interviewed three times and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI was completed. Results: After each phase, improvements were made, mainly to the layout and text. The main improvement was a refresh button for active data synchronization between activity sensor, app, and server
Sukardjo, Moch.; Sugiyanta, Lipur
implemented thoroughly. The only way to get test with high quality results is to start testing at the beginning of the design process and continuously testing each of the next steps. This research performs usability testing on of website by using WAMMI criterion (Website Analysis and Measurement Inventory) and will be focused on how convenience using the website application. Components of Attractiveness, Controllability, Efficiency, Helpfulness, and Learnability are applied. The website in Multimedia Interactive Learning for Mathematics SMK Class X can be in accordance with the purpose to be accepted by student to improve student learning outcomes. The results show that WAMMI method show the usability value of Multimedia Mathematics SMK Class X is about from 70% to 90%.
Brinkman, W.P.; Haakma, R.; Bouwhuis, D.G.; Jacob, R.J.K.; Limbourg, Q; Vanderdonckt, J.
Component-based Software Engineering (CBSE) is concerned with the development of systems from reusable parts (components), and the development and maintenance of these parts. This study addresses the issue of usability testing in a CBSE environment, and specifically automatically measuring the
Vendor-managed inventory (VMI) represents the methodology through which the upstream stage of a supply chain (vendor) takes responsibility for managing the inventories at the downstream stage (customer) based on previously agreed limits. VMI is another method by which supply chains can be managed...... review, we have identified six dimensions of VMI: namely, inventory, transportation, manufacturing, general benefits, coordination/collaboration, and information sharing. In addition, there are, three methodological classifications: modelling, simulation, and case studies. Finally, we will consider...
Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.
The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.
as relevant and strategic human–computer interaction (HCI) activities in the software development process, there are obstacles that limit the complete, effective and efficient integration of this kind of testing into the software development process. Two main obstacles are the cost of usability evaluations...... and the software developers' resistance to accepting users’ opinions regarding the lack of usability in their software systems. The ‘cost obstacle’ refers to the constraint of conducting usability evaluations in the software process due to the significant amount of resources required by this type of testing. Some......This thesis addresses the integration of usability evaluations into the software development process. The integration here is contextualized in terms of how to include usability evaluation as an activity in the software development lifecycle. Even though usability evaluations are considered...
Yunus, U.; Anindito; Tanuar, E.; Maryani
Indonesian tourism has been viewed as one of the source of foreign exchange, therefore visit Indonesia campaign through Wonderful Indonesia should be given attention. This research aims to test the usability of web http://www.indonesia.travel/en, at the end can give input to the Tourism Ministry of the Republic of Indonesia. The concept used based on usabilitygeek.com which mentions the three main categories for usability testing, i. e. explorative, assessment and comparative with the users are three classes of Communication Department students of Bina Nusantara University with a total of 120 students, however finally only 22 students were elected because of the criteria are the students should be like travelling and access to the tourism website more than 12 times. The methodology used is qualitative descriptive and experiments, with data collection techniques through observation and interviews after participants’ access to the web: Due to their one-on-one nature, interviews enable the observer to ask direct questions to the user and the participants posted their opinion in online discussion forum. The results mentioned that the elements web of Wonderful Indonesia has a high learning ability and memorability but less efficiency and satisfaction, as well as several times errors when used. In conclusion, to maximize about the visit of tourism to Indonesia, this web is only able to learn and impress the visitor, but do not give satisfaction to users.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Linear wetland features (including selected streams, ditches, and narrow wetland bodies) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The National...
Bazyler, Caleb D; Beckham, George K; Sato, Kimitake
The isometric squat has been used to detect changes in kinetic variables as a result of training; however, controversy exists in its application to dynamic multijoint tasks. Thus, the purpose of this study was to further examine the relationship between isometric squat kinetic variables and isoinertial strength measures. Subjects (17 men, 1-repetition maximum [1RM]: 148.2 ± 23.4 kg) performed squats 2 d · wk(-1) for 12 weeks and were tested on 1RM squat, 1RM partial squat, and isometric squat at 90° and 120° of knee flexion. Test-retest reliability was very good for all isometric measures (intraclass correlation coefficients > 0.90); however, rate of force development 250 milliseconds at 90° and 120° seemed to have a higher systematic error (relative technical error of measurement = 8.12%, 9.44%). Pearson product-moment correlations indicated strong relationships between isometric peak force at 90° (IPF 90°) and 1RM squat (r = 0.86), and IPF 120° and 1RM partial squat (r = 0.79). Impulse 250 milliseconds (IMP) at 90° and 120° exhibited moderate to strong correlations with 1RM squat (r = 0.70, 0.58) and partial squat (r = 0.73, 0.62), respectively. Rate of force development at 90° and 120° exhibited weak to moderate correlations with 1RM squat (r = 0.55, 0.43) and partial squat (r = 0.32, 0.42), respectively. These findings demonstrate a degree of joint angle specificity to dynamic tasks for rapid and peak isometric force production. In conclusion, an isometric squat performed at 90° and 120° is a reliable testing measure that can provide a strong indication of changes in strength and explosiveness during training.
Diamond, Laura E; Wrigley, Tim V; Hinman, Rana S; Hodges, Paul W; O'Donnell, John; Takla, Amir; Bennell, Kim L
This study investigated isometric and isokinetic hip strength in individuals with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The specific aims were to: (i) determine whether differences exist in isometric and isokinetic hip strength measures between groups; (ii) compare hip strength agonist/antagonist ratios between groups; and (iii) examine relationships between hip strength and self-reported measures of either hip pain or function in those with FAI. Cross-sectional. Fifteen individuals (11 males; 25±5 years) with symptomatic FAI (clinical examination and imaging (alpha angle >55° (cam FAI), and lateral centre edge angle >39° and/or positive crossover sign (combined FAI))) and 14 age- and sex-matched disease-free controls (no morphological FAI on magnetic resonance imaging) underwent strength testing. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength of hip muscle groups and isokinetic hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) strength (20°/s) were measured. Groups were compared with independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Participants with FAI had 20% lower isometric abduction strength than controls (p=0.04). There were no significant differences in isometric strength for other muscle groups or peak isokinetic ER or IR strength. The ratio of isometric, but not isokinetic, ER/IR strength was significantly higher in the FAI group (p=0.01). There were no differences in ratios for other muscle groups. Angle of peak IR torque was the only feature correlated with symptoms. Individuals with symptomatic FAI demonstrate isometric hip abductor muscle weakness and strength imbalance in the hip rotators. Strength measurement, including agonist/antagonist ratios, may be relevant for clinical management of FAI. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Business-Intelligence-Systeme stehen im Spannungsfeld zwischen Usability und Sicherheit. Die Gefahren und Sicherheitsmaßnahmen für Informationssysteme werden ermittelt und ökonomisch in Bezug zur Gebrauchstauglichkeit gesetzt. Es entsteht ein Sicherheitsprofil für Business-Intelligence-Systeme. Business-Intelligence-Systems are in tension between Usability and IT-Security. Risks and safety measures of informationsystems are defined and set in (economic) regard to Usability. A security prof...
Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.
Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.
Tyllinen, Mari; Kaipio, Johanna; Lääveri, Tinja
Usability should be considered already by the procuring organizations when selecting future systems. In this paper, we present a framework for usability evaluation during electronic health record (EHR) system procurement. We describe the objectives of the evaluation, the procedure, selected usability attributes and the evaluation methods to measure them. We also present the emphasis usability had in the selection process. We do not elaborate on the details of the results, the application of methods or gathering of data. Instead we focus on the components of the framework to inform and give an example to other similar procurement projects.
The cultural diversity of users of technology challenges our methods for usability testing. This article suggests templates for cross-culturally and culturally specific usability testing, based on studies of usability testing in companies in Mumbai, Beijing, and Copenhagen. Study 1 was a cross...... tests. The result was the construction of templates for usability testing. The culturally specific templates were in Mumbai “user-centered evaluation,” Copenhagen “client-centered evaluation,” and Beijing “evaluator-centered evaluation.” The findings are compared with related research...
Bias, Randolph G; Bias, Randolph G
You just know that an improvement of the user interface will reap rewards, but how do you justify the expense and the labor and the time-guarantee a robust ROI!-ahead of time? How do you decide how much of an investment should be funded? And what is the best way to sell usability to others? In this completely revised and new edition, Randolph G. Bias (University of Texas at Austin, with 25 years' experience as a usability practitioner and manager) and Deborah J. Mayhew (internationally recognized usability consultant and author of two other seminal books including The Usability Enginee
Stephanie Bettina Linek
Full Text Available The usability of Web sites and online services is of rising importance. When creating a completely new Web site, qualitative data are adequate for identifying the most usability problems. However, changes of an existing Web site should be evaluated by a quantitative benchmarking process. The proposed paper describes the creation of a questionnaire that allows a quantitative usability benchmarking, i.e. a direct comparison of the different versions of a Web site and an orientation on general standards of usability. The questionnaire is also open for qualitative data. The methodology will be explained by the digital library services of the ZBW.
The purposes of this article are to describe usability testing and introduce designs and methods of usability testing research as it relates to upper-limb prosthetics. This article defines usability, describes usability research, discusses research approaches to and designs for usability testing, and highlights a variety of methodological considerations, including sampling, sample size requirements, and usability metrics. Usability testing is compared with other types of study designs used in prosthetic research.
Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.
This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, CO...
Aardenne, van J.A.
Emission inventories provide information about the amount of a pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere as a result of a specific anthropogenic or natural process at a given time or place. Emission inventories can be used for either policy or scientific purposes. For
Emission inventories provide information about the amount of a pollutant that is emitted to the atmosphere as a result of a specific anthropogenic or natural process at a given time or place. Emission inventories can be used for either policy or scientific purposes. For
Illerup, J. B.; Lyck, E.; Winther, M.
This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report reported to the Conference of the Parties under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) due by 15 April 2001. The report contains information on Denmark's inventories for all years' from 1990 to 1999 for CO2, CH4, N2O, ......, NMVOC, SO2, HFCs, PFCs and SF6....
Fisher, Harry; Stephenson, Mitchell L; Graves, Kyle K; Hinshaw, Taylour J; Smith, Derek T; Zhu, Qin; Wilson, Margaret A; Dai, Boyi
Decreased knee flexion angles during landing are associated with increased anterior cruciate ligament loading. The underlying mechanisms associated with decreased self-selected knee flexion angles during landing are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between the peak force production at various knee flexion angles (35, 55, 70, and 90°) during isometric squats and the actual knee flexion angles that occur during landing in both men and women. A total of 18 men and 18 women recreational/collegiate athletes performed 4 isometric squats at various knee flexion angles while vertical ground reaction forces were recorded. Participants also performed a jump-landing-jump task while lower extremity kinematics were collected. For women, significant correlations were found between the peak force production at 55 and 70° of knee flexion during isometric squats and the knee flexion angle at initial contact of landing. There were also significant correlations between the peak force production at 55, 70, and 90° of knee flexion during isometric squats and the peak knee flexion angle during landing. These correlations tended to be stronger during isometric squats at greater knee flexion compared with smaller knee flexion. No significant correlations were found for men. Posture-specific strength may play an important role in determining self-selected knee flexion angles during landing for women.
Kordi, Mehdi; Goodall, Stuart; Barratt, Paul; Rowley, Nicola; Leeder, Jonathan; Howatson, Glyn
From a cycling paradigm, little has been done to understand the relationships between maximal isometric strength of different single joint lower body muscle groups and their relation with, and ability to predict PPO and how they compare to an isometric cycling specific task. The aim of this study was to establish relationships between maximal voluntary torque production from isometric single-joint and cycling specific tasks and assess their ability to predict PPO. Twenty male trained cyclists participated in this study. Peak torque was measured by performing maximum voluntary contractions (MVC) of knee extensors, knee flexors, dorsi flexors and hip extensors whilst instrumented cranks measured isometric peak torque from MVC when participants were in their cycling specific position (ISOCYC). A stepwise regression showed that peak torque of the knee extensors was the only significant predictor of PPO when using SJD and accounted for 47% of the variance. However, when compared to ISOCYC, the only significant predictor of PPO was ISOCYC, which accounted for 77% of the variance. This suggests that peak torque of the knee extensors was the best single-joint predictor of PPO in sprint cycling. Furthermore, a stronger prediction can be made from a task specific isometric task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Toumi, Hechmi; Poumarat, Georges; Best, Thomas M; Martin, Alain; Fairclough, John; Benjamin, Mike
The purpose of the present study was to compare vertical jump performance after 2 different fatigue protocols. In the first protocol, subjects performed consecutive sets of 10 repetitions of stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) contractions. In the second protocol, successive sets of 10 repetitions of isometric contractions were performed for 10 s with the knee at 90 degrees of flexion. The exercises were stopped when the subjects failed to reach 50% of their maximum voluntary isometric contractions. Maximal isometric force and maximal concentric power were assessed by performing supine leg presses, squat jumps, and drop jumps. Surface EMG was used to determine changes in muscle activation before and after fatigue. In both groups, the fatigue exercises reduced voluntary isometric force, maximal concentric power, and drop jump performance. Kinematic data showed a decrease in knee muscle-tendon stiffness accompanied by a lengthened ground contact time. EMG analysis showed that the squat and drop jumps were performed similarly before and after the fatigue exercise for both groups. Although it was expected that the stiffness would decrease more after SSC than after isometric fatigue (as a result of a greater alteration of the reflex sensitivity SSC), our results showed that both protocols had a similar effect on knee muscle stiffness during jumping exercises. Both fatigue protocols induced muscle fatigue, and the decrease in jump performance was linked to a decrease in the strength and stiffness of the knee extensor muscles.
McKenna, Victoria S; Zhang, Bin; Haines, Morgan B; Kelchner, Lisa N
This systematic review summarizes the effects of isometric lingual strength training on lingual strength and swallow function in adult populations. Furthermore, it evaluates the designs of the reviewed studies and identifies areas of future research in isometric lingual strength training for dysphagia remediation. A comprehensive literature search of 3 databases and additional backward citation search identified 10 studies for inclusion in the review. The review reports and discusses the isometric-exercise intervention protocols, pre- and postintervention lingual-pressure data (maximum peak pressures and lingual-palatal pressures during swallowing), and oropharyngeal swallowing measures such as penetration-aspiration scales, oropharyngeal residue and duration, lingual volumes, and quality-of-life assessments. Studies reported gains in maximum peak lingual pressures following isometric lingual strength training for both healthy adults and select groups of individuals with dysphagia. However, due to the variability in study designs, it remains unclear whether strength gains generalize to swallow function. Although isometric lingual strength training is a promising intervention for oropharyngeal dysphagia, the current literature is too variable to confidently report specific therapeutic benefits. Future investigations should target homogenous patient populations and use randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy of this treatment for individuals with dysphagia.
Abdelzaher, Ibrahim E; Ababneh, Anas F; Alzyoud, Jehad M
The purpose of this study was to compare isometric strength of elbow extensors measured in supine- and prone-lying positions at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees. Twenty-two male subjects under single-blind procedures participated in the study. Each subject participated in both supine-lying and prone-lying measuring protocols. Calibrated cable tensiometer was used to measure isometric strength of the right elbow extensors and a biofeedback electromyography was used to assure no substitution movements from shoulder girdle muscles. The mean values of isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees were 11.1 ± 4.2 kg and 13.1 ± 4.6 kg, while those measured from prone-lying position were 9.9 ± 3.6 kg and 12 ± 4.2 kg, respectively. There is statistical significant difference between the isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees compared to that measured from prone-lying position (p isometric strength of elbow extensors since supine-lying starting position is better than prone-lying starting position.
Tucci, Helga T; Ciol, Marcia A; de Araújo, Rodrigo C; de Andrade, Rodrigo; Martins, Jaqueline; McQuade, Kevin J; Oliveira, Anamaria S
Controlled laboratory study. To assess the activation of 7 shoulder muscles under 2 closed kinetic chain (CKC) tasks for the upper extremity using submaximal isometric effort, thus providing relative quantification of muscular isometric effort for these muscles across the CKC exercises, which may be applied to rehabilitation protocols for individuals with shoulder weakness. CKC exercises favor joint congruence, reduce shear load, and promote joint dynamic stability. Additionally, knowledge about glenohumeral and periscapular muscle activity elicited during CKC exercises may help clinicians to design protocols for shoulder rehabilitation. Using surface electromyography, activation level was measured across 7 shoulder muscles in 20 healthy males, during the performance of a submaximal isometric wall press and bench press. Signals were normalized to the maximal voluntary isometric contraction, and, using paired t tests, data were analyzed between the exercises for each muscle. Compared to the wall press, the bench press elicited higher activity for most muscles, except for the upper trapezius. Levels of activity were usually low but were above 20% maximal voluntary isometric contraction for the serratus anterior on both tasks, and for the long head triceps brachii on the bench press. Both the bench press and wall press, as performed in this study, led to relatively low EMG activation levels for the muscles measured and may be considered for use in the early phases of rehabilitation.
Finning International Inc. is in the business of selling, financing and servicing Caterpillar and complementary equipment. Its main markets are in western Canada, Britain and Chile. This paper discusses the parts inventory strategies system for Finning (Canada). The company's territory covers British Columbia, Alberta, the Yukon and the Northwest Territories. Finning's parts inventory consists of 80,000 component units valued at more than $150 M. Distribution centres are located in Langley, British Columbia and Edmonton, Alberta. To make inventory and orders easier to control, Finning has designed a computer-based system, with software written exclusively for Caterpillar dealers. The system makes use of a real time electronic interface with all Finning locations, plus all Caterpillar facilities and other dealers in North America. Details of the system are discussed, including territorial stocking procedures, addition to stock, exhaustion of stock, automatic/suggest order controls, surplus inventory management, and procedures for jointly managed inventory. 3 tabs., 1 fig
Caspary, P.J.; Hollibaugh, J.B.; Licklider, P.L.; Patel, K.P.
In an effort to maintain their competitive edge, most utilities are reevaluating many of their conventional practices and policies in an effort to further minimize customer revenue requirements without sacrificing system reliability. Over the past several years, Illinois Power has been rethinking its traditional fuel inventory strategies, recognizing that coal supplies are competitive and plentiful and that carrying charges on inventory are expensive. To help the Company achieve one of its strategic corporate goals, an optimal fuel inventory study was performed for its five major coal-fired generating stations. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe Illinois Power's system and past practices concerning coal inventories, highlight the analytical process behind the optimal fuel inventory study, and discuss some of the recent experiences affecting coal deliveries and economic dispatch
Full Text Available Online biodiversity portals and databases enabling access to large volumes of biological information represent a potentially extensive set of resources for a variety of user groups. However, in order for these resources to live up to their promise they need to be both useful and easy to use. We discuss a number of principles for designing systems for usability, examine how these have been applied to the development of online biodiversity resources and compare this with a portal project developed by the Astrophysics community. We highlight a lack of user involvement and formalised requirements analysis by biodiversity projects resulting in a poor understanding of both the users and their tasks. We suggest a change in the way large biodiversity portal projects are structured, that is by providing infrastructure and supporting user groups developing individual interfaces.
Veland, Oeystein; Kaarstad, Magnhild; Seim, Lars Aage; Foerdestroemmen, Nils T.
This document describes the result of a study on alarm systems conducted by IFE in Halden. The study was initiated by the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate. The objective was to identify and formulate a set of important properties for useful and usable alarm systems. The study is mainly based on review of the latest international recognised guidelines and standards on alarm systems available at the time of writing, with focus on realistic solutions from research and best practice from different industries. In addition, IFE experiences gathered through specification and design of alarm systems and experimental activities in HAMMLAB and bilateral projects, have been utilized where relevant. The document presents a total of 43 recommendations divided into a number of general recommendations and more detailed recommendations on alarm generation, structuring, prioritisation, presentation and handling. (Author)
Kavathatzopoulos, Iordanis; Kostrzewa, Agata; Laaksoharju, Mikael
The objectives of the tutorial are to provide knowledge of basic ethical, psychological and organizational theories that are relevant to consider ethical aspects during design and use of IT systems; knowledge and skills about handling and solving ethical problems in connection with design and use of IT-systems; and skills in using questionnaires, surveys, interviews and the like in connection with software development and IT-use. It contains lectures, workshop and exercises; use of special tools to identify and consider IT ethical issues during planning, construction, installation and use of IT systems; and group exercises where the participants train their ethical skills on IT ethical conflicts and problems. Intended participants are system developers, purchasers, usability experts, academics, HCI teachers.
José Manuel Ojel-Jaramillo
Full Text Available Demographic and sociological changes in the last 50 years have forced Western societies to create services to attend to elderly people in their homes, where they can live within familiar environments. Telecare involves a device plugged into a telephonic network that provides access to teams of professionals who can attend to the needs of the elderly in their homes. These devices have been designed according to the principles of universal design, but the great number of erroneous calls to telecare centers point to the necessity of enhancing the usability of the devices. One analysis of the cognitive functioning of elderly people showed that a possible cause of these errors could be the difficulty elderly people have when processing language. In our experiment, we tested the hypothesis that the numbers of errors could be reduced by using icons instead of words in the device interface. The results support this hypothesis.
Dona Sabila Alzena; Mustafid Mustafid; Suryono Suryono
The inventory control system has a strategic role for the business in managing inventory operations. Management of conventional inventory creates problems in the stock of goods that often runs into vacancies and excess goods at the retail level. This study aims to build inventory control system that can maintain the stability of goods availability at the retail level. The implementation of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) method on inventory control system provides transparency of sales data an...
Hohenauer, Erich; Cescon, Corrado; Deliens, Tom; Clarys, Peter; Clijsen, Ron
The central- and peripheral mechanisms by which heat strain limits physical performance are not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, pre-cooling is often used in an attempt to improve subsequent performance. This study compared the effects of pre-cooling vs. a pre-thermoneutral application on central- and peripheral fatigue during 60% of isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Furthermore, the effects between a pre-cooling and a pre-thermoneutral application on isometric MVC of the right quadriceps femoris muscle and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were investigated. In this randomized controlled trial, 18 healthy adults voluntarily participated. The participants received either a cold (experimental) application (+8°C) or a thermoneutral (control) application (+32°C) for 20min on their right thigh (one cuff). After the application, central (fractal dimension - FD) and peripheral (muscle fiber conduction velocity - CV) fatigue was estimated using sEMG parameters during 60% of isometric MVC. Surface EMG signals were detected from the vastus medialis and lateralis using bidimensional arrays. Immediately after the submaximal contraction, isometric MVC and RPE were assessed. Participants receiving the cold application were able to maintain a 60% isometric MVC significantly longer when compared to the thermoneutral group (mean time: 78 vs. 46s; p=0.04). The thermoneutral application had no significant impact on central fatigue (p>0.05) compared to the cold application (p=0.03). However, signs of peripheral fatigue were significantly higher in the cold group compared to the thermoneutral group (p=0.008). Pre-cooling had no effect on isometric MVC of the right quadriceps muscle and ratings of perceived exertion. Pre-cooling attenuated central fatigue and led to significantly longer submaximal contraction times compared to the pre-thermoneutral application. These findings support the use of pre-cooling procedures
Cross, E. V., III; Perera, J. S.; Hanson, A. M.; English, K.; Vu, L.; Amonette, W.
Each exercise device on the International Space Station (ISS) has a unique, customized software system interface with unique layouts / hierarchy, and operational principles that require significant crew training. Furthermore, the software programs are not adaptable and provide no real-time feedback or motivation to enhance the exercise experience and/or prevent injuries. Additionally, the graphical user interfaces (GUI) of these systems present information through multiple layers resulting in difficulty navigating to the desired screens and functions. These limitations of current exercise device GUI's lead to increased crew time spent on initiating, loading, performing exercises, logging data and exiting the system. To address these limitations a Next Generation One Portal (NextGen One Portal) Crew Countermeasure System (CMS) was developed, which utilizes the latest industry guidelines in GUI designs to provide an intuitive ease of use approach (i.e., 80% of the functionality gained within 5-10 minutes of initial use without/limited formal training required). This is accomplished by providing a consistent interface using common software to reduce crew training, increase efficiency & user satisfaction while also reducing development & maintenance costs. Results from the usability evaluations showed the NextGen One Portal UI having greater efficiency, learnability, memorability, usability and overall user experience than the current Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) UI used by astronauts on ISS. Specifically, the design of the One-Portal UI as an app interface similar to those found on the Apple and Google's App Store, assisted many of the participants in grasping the concepts of the interface with minimum training. Although the NextGen One-Portal UI was shown to be an overall better interface, observations by the test facilitators noted specific exercise tasks appeared to have a significant impact on the NextGen One-Portal UI efficiency. Future updates to
Gajsar, Hannah; Titze, Christina; Hasenbring, Monika Ilona
.07). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this pilot study indicate that isometric back exercise produces local and remote hypoalgesia. Remote EIH was only demonstrated in women, supporting the influence of sex in the hypoalgesic response after exercise. The effect of isometric back exercise on pain sensitivity in patients......OBJECTIVE: Isometric exercises produce an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity, known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Existing EIH paradigms use exercises at the extremities with more pronounced EIH at local compared to remote body sites, indicating local inhibition in addition to central...... inhibitory mechanisms. So far the results on EIH in patients with low back pain (LBP) are equivocal and no studies have investigated an EIH paradigm targeting the lower back in order to assess EIH in patients with LBP. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess pressure pain sensitivity at local...
Peltonen, Heikki; Walker, Simon; Lähitie, Anuliisa; Häkkinen, Keijo; Avela, Janne
This study monitored strength-training adaptations via isometric parameters throughout 2 × 10 weeks of hypertrophic (HYP I-II) or 10 weeks maximum strength (MS) followed by 10 weeks power (P) training with untrained controls. Trainees performed bilateral isometric leg press tests analyzed for peak force (maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) and rate of force development (RFD) every 3.5 weeks. These parameters were compared with dynamic performance, voluntary and electrically induced isometric contractions, muscle activity, and cross-sectional area (CSA) in the laboratory before and after 10 and 20 weeks. RFD increased similarly during the first 7 weeks (HYP I, 44% ± 53%; MS, 48% ± 55%, P strength/power training, while MVC cannot distinguish between strength or muscle mass changes. Monitoring RFD provided important information regarding plateaus in RFD improvement, which were observed in dynamic explosive performances after HYP II compared with P.
Vinge, Lotte; Jakobsen, Johannes; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Andersen, Henning
In patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), muscle strength is expected to decrease gradually during the day due to physical activities. Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 10 MG patients (MGFA class II-IV) who were receiving usual medical treatment and in 10 control subjects. To determine diurnal and day-to-day variation, muscle strength was measured 4 times during day 1 and once at day 2. Knee extension strength decreased during the day in both patients and controls. Neither diurnal nor day-to-day variation of muscle strength was higher in patients compared with controls. Patients with mild to moderate MG did not have increased variation of isometric muscle strength during the day or from day-to-day compared with controls. This suggests that isometric muscle performance can be determined with high reproducibility in similar groups of MG patients without regard to time of day. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Li, Kai Way; Chiu, Wen-Sheng
Sustained carrying could result in muscular fatigue of the upper limb. Ten male and ten female subjects were recruited for measurements of isometric arm strength before and during carrying a load for a period of 4 minutes. Two levels of load of carrying were tested for each of the male and female subjects. Exponential function based predictive equations for the isometric arm strength were established. The mean absolute deviations of these models in predicting the isometric arm strength were in the range of 3.24 to 17.34 N. Regression analyses between the subjective ratings of upper limb fatigue and force change index (FCI) for the carrying were also performed. The results indicated that the subjective rating of muscular fatigue may be estimated by multiplying the FCI with a constant. The FCI may, therefore, be adopted as an index to assess muscular fatigue for two-handed carrying tasks.
Comeaux, David J.
Digital libraries continue to flourish. At the same time, the principles of user-centered design and the practice of usability testing have been growing in popularity, spreading their influence into the library sphere. This article explores the confluence of these two trends by surveying the current literature on usability studies of digital…
Koohang, Alex; Ondracek, James
This study examined users' views about the usability of digital libraries' current and perceived importance. Age, gender, prior experience with the Internet, college status, and digital library proficiency are the independent variables. Users' current views about the usability of digital libraries and users perceived importance of digital library…
Barlach, Anders; Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper
This chapter reports on the usability-engineering work performed throughout the pilot implementation of an Electronic Healthcare Record (EHR). The case describes and analyzes the use of pilot implementations to formatively evaluate whether the usability of the EHR meets the effects specified for ...
Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; Heerkens, Johannes M.G.
This article analyzes the usability of a multi-criteria decision analysis based on a real options AHP (ROAHP) method for IT-investment decisions. The study presents ROAHP to Chief Information Officers (CIO’s) and collects their opinions on prerequisites for usability, strengths and weaknesses. To
Describes the redesign of the Web site at the virtual library of the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). Discusses usability problems with the original site, including navigation difficulties; focus groups to determine user needs; usability testing for the new Web site; and the importance of customer input. (LRW)
Jameson, Daphne A.
The increasing availability of recording technologies makes it easier to include usability testing projects in business communication courses. Usability testing is a method of discovering whether people can navigate, read, and understand a print or electronic communication well enough to achieve a particular purpose in a reasonable time frame.…
Jorritsma, Wiard; Cnossen, Fokie; Dierckx, Rudi; Oudkerk, Matthijs; van Ooijen, Peter
Objective To evaluate the usability of a radiology workstation after deployment in a hospital. Significance In radiology, it is difficult to perform valid pre-deployment usability evaluations due to the heterogeneity of the user group, the complexity of the radiological workflow, and the complexity
Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine
This paper contributes to the HCI literature on usability practice with insights about the empirical challenges and global emerging practices caused by the advent of agile software development (ASD). In the paper we report from a worldwide study involving 12 usability professionals from 12 differ...
Chowdhury, G G
Gives an overview of the necessary issues relating to information users and the usability of information services in the digital world, including user-centred design, and the characteristics and behaviour of information users. This book helps readers understand why information users and the usability of information services are important.
Skov, Mikael Brasholt; Stage, Jan
Many efforts to improve the interplay between usability evaluation and software development rely either on better methods for conducting usability evaluations or on better formats for presenting evaluation results in ways that are useful for software designers and developers. Both of these approaches depend on a complete division of work between…
Nowadays, many users experience usability issues with their electronic products. It does not work as they expect or otherwise irritates the user, so he becomes dissatisfied about the product and may even complain about it. Th ese numbers of complaints to companies and usability issues are high and
Schultz, Nette; Kirk Sørensen, Jannick; Sørensen, Lene
Internal report of WP1 task 4 activities from August 2006 to December 2006. This report describes the setup of a usability evaluation framework for evaluating core MAGNET concepts in terms of usability. Initially, these core concepts are identified and modes of operation involving...
Cruz Zapata, Belén; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis; Toval, Ambrosio; Idri, Ali
One of the key factors for the adoption of mobile technologies, and in particular of mobile health applications, is usability. A usable application will be easier to use and understand by users, and will improve user's interaction with it. This paper proposes a software requirements catalog for usable mobile health applications, which can be used for the development of new applications, or the evaluation of existing ones. The catalog is based on the main identified sources in literature on usability and mobile health applications. Our catalog was organized according to the ISO/IEC/IEEE 29148:2011 standard and follows the SIREN methodology to create reusable catalogs. The applicability of the catalog was verified by the creation of an audit method, which was used to perform the evaluation of a real app, S Health, application created by Samsung Electronics Co. The usability requirements catalog, along with the audit method, identified several usability flaws on the evaluated app, which scored 83%. Some flaws were detected in the app related to the navigation pattern. Some more issues related to the startup experience, empty screens or writing style were also found. The way a user navigates through an application improves or deteriorates user's experience with the application. We proposed a reusable usability catalog and an audit method. This proposal was used to evaluate a mobile health application. An audit report was created with the usability issues identified on the evaluated application.
Chow, Anthony S.; Croxton, Rebecca A.
This study examined the usability of five virtual reference services--instant messenger chat, e-mail, telephone, text messaging, and Skype videoconferencing--by having 31 undergraduate and graduate students evaluate the usability of the virtual reference services of two different universities. The study's results suggest that user preference and…
Jorritsma, Wiard; Cnossen, Fokie; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Van Ooijen, Peter M. A.
Objectives: To determine the number, nature and severity of usability issues radiologists encounter while using a commercially available radiology workstation in clinical practice, and to assess how well the results of a pre-deployment usability evaluation of this workstation generalize to clinical
Marcilly, Romaric; Peute, Linda
This paper discusses how and why to build evidence-based knowledge on usability evaluation methods. At each step of building evidence, requisites and difficulties to achieve it are highlighted. Specifically, the paper presents how usability evaluation studies should be designed to allow capitalizing
Campbell, Nicole; Walbridge, Sharon; Chisman, Janet; Diller, Karen R.
This interview focuses on usability testing, one method for evaluating whether library Web sites are useful for users. Discussion includes: benefits and drawbacks of usability testing; why it is important; lessons learned from testing; advice for someone interested in doing a study; and recommendations. (AEF)
Thyvalikakath, Thankam Paul; Monaco, Valerie; Thambuganipalle, Himabindu; Schleyer, Titus
Usability methods, such as heuristic evaluation, cognitive walk-throughs and user testing, are increasingly used to evaluate and improve the design of clinical software applications. There is still some uncertainty, however, as to how those methods can be used to support the development process and evaluation in the most meaningful manner. In this study, we compared the results of a heuristic evaluation with those of formal user tests in order to determine which usability problems were detected by both methods. We conducted heuristic evaluation and usability testing on four major commercial dental computer-based patient records (CPRs), which together cover 80% of the market for chairside computer systems among general dentists. Both methods yielded strong evidence that the dental CPRs have significant usability problems. An average of 50% of empirically-determined usability problems were identified by the preceding heuristic evaluation. Some statements of heuristic violations were specific enough to precisely identify the actual usability problem that study participants encountered. Other violations were less specific, but still manifested themselves in usability problems and poor task outcomes. In this study, heuristic evaluation identified a significant portion of problems found during usability testing. While we make no assumptions about the generalizability of the results to other domains and software systems, heuristic evaluation may, under certain circumstances, be a useful tool to determine design problems early in the development cycle.
Method and system for monitoring present location and/or present status of a target inventory item, where the inventory items are located on one or more inventory shelves or other inventory receptacles that communicate with an inventory base station through use of responders such as RFIDs. A user operates a hand held interrogation and display (lAD) module that communicates with, or is part of the base station to provide an initial inquiry. lnformation on location(s) of the larget invenlory item is also indicated visibly and/or audibly on the receptacle(s) for the user. Status information includes an assessment of operation readiness and a time, if known, that the specified inventory item or class was last removed or examined or modified. Presentation of a user access level may be required for access to the target inventgory item. Another embodiment provides inventory informatin for a stack as a sight-impaired or hearing-impaired person adjacent to that stack.
Full Text Available Usability of medical devices is one of the main determining factors in preventing use errors in treatment and strongly correlates to patient safety and quality of treatment. This thesis demonstrates the usability testing and evaluation of a prototype for locomotor therapy of infants. Therefore, based on the normative requirements of the EN 62366, a concept combined of evaluation procedures and assessing methods was created to enable extensive testing and analysis of the different aspects of usability. On the basis of gathered information weak points were identified and appropriate measures were presented to increase the usability and operating safety of the locomotor prototype. The overall outcome showed an usability value of 77.4% and an evaluation score of 6.99, which can be interpreted as “satisfactory”.
Gabbard, Joseph; Swan, J. E., II; Hix, Deborah; Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Livingston, Mark; Brown, Dennis B.; Julier, Simon J.
This paper discusses our usability engineering process for the Battlefield Augmented Reality System (BARS). Usability engineering is a structured, iterative, stepwise development process. Like the related disciplines of software and systems engineering, usability engineering is a combination of management principals and techniques, formal and semi- formal evaluation techniques, and computerized tools. BARS is an outdoor augmented reality system that displays heads- up battlefield intelligence information to a dismounted warrior. The paper discusses our general usability engineering process. We originally developed the process in the context of virtual reality applications, but in this work we are adapting the procedures to an augmented reality system. The focus of this paper is our work on domain analysis, the first activity of the usability engineering process. We describe our plans for and our progress to date on our domain analysis for BARS. We give results in terms of a specific urban battlefield use case we have designed.
Castien, Rene; Blankenstein, Annette; De Hertogh, Willem
In patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) changes in pressure pain in the cervical region are associated with peripheral or central sensitization. It is hypothesized that an increase of isometric strength of neck flexors would lead to a decrease of pressure pain in CTTH, as an expression of reduced peripheral or central sensitization In this study we aimed to analyze the correlation between change in isometric strength of the neck flexors and change in pressure pain scores (PPS) in patients with CTTH. Comparative analysis of data from previous study. Primary healthcare center. Data from 145 patients with CTTH who underwent a manual therapy program including isometric strength training of the neck flexors were analyzed at 8 and 26 weeks post-treatment. PPS were measured as a total of pain scores on a numeric rating scale (score 0 to 10) on application of a pressure stimulus of 3kg/cm at 8 cervical- and suboccipital muscles. Isometric strength of the neck flexors was measured in seconds. Correlations were computed between changes in PPS and isometric neck flexor strength. Isometric strength of neck flexors scored significantly different compared to baseline measurement (mean 30.0 seconds, sd:25.2), and increased with a mean difference of 17.33 seconds (95%CI: 20.61 to 14.05) at 8 weeks and 19.18 seconds (95%CI: 23.48 to 14.87) at 26 weeks. Similarly, compared to PPS baseline measurement (31.6 points, sd:18.6), mean difference in PPS was significantly decreased at 8 and 26 weeks: -11.3 points (95%CI: -8.77 to -13.83) and -11.15 points (95%CI: -8.31 to -13.99). There is a negative correlation between changes in PPS and changes in isometric strength of neck flexors which is weak at 8 weeks (r = -0.243, P = 0.004) and moderate at 26 weeks (r = -0.318, P isometric strength of neck flexors in patients with CTTH in short- and long-term.
Small Business Administration — SBA’s Network Components & Software Inventory contains a complete inventory of all devices connected to SBA’s network including workstations, servers, routers,...
This is an unrefined proposal for a study that could form part of the exploratory phase of the Cultural Usability project. The proposed study compares three cultures (Chinese, Danish, and Indian) and two stakeholder groups (users and developers) with respect to their conceptions of usability....
Watbled, Ludivine; Marcilly, Romaric; Guerlinger, Sandra; Bastien, J-M Christian; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Beuscart, Régis
Poor usability of health technology is thought to diminish work system performance, increase error rates and, potentially, harm patients. The present study (i) used a combination of usability evaluation methods to highlight the chain that leads from usability flaws to usage problems experienced by users and, ultimately, to negative patient outcomes, and (ii) validated this approach by studying two different discharge summary production systems. To comply with quality guidelines, the process of drafting and sending discharge summaries is increasingly being automated. However, the usability of these systems may modify their impact (or the absence thereof) in terms of production times and quality, and must therefore be evaluated. Here, we applied three successive techniques for usability evaluation (heuristic evaluation, user testing and field observation) to two discharge summary production systems (underpinned by different technologies). The systems' main usability flaws led respectively to an increase in the time need to produce a discharge summary and the risk of patient misidentification. Our results are discussed with regard to the possibility of linking the usability flaws, usage problems and the negative outcomes by successively applying three methods for evaluating usability (heuristic evaluation, user testing and in situ observations) throughout the system development life cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data exchange allows states to submit data to the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emissions Inventory (NEI). NEI is a national database of air...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Emission Inventory contains measured, modeled, and estimated data for emissions of all known source categories in the US (stationary sources, fires,...
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...
Office of Personnel Management — Inventory of maps and descriptions of the business processes of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM), with an emphasis on the processes of the Office of the...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...
US Agency for International Development — AIDM is used to track USAID assets such as furniture, computers, and equipment. Using portable bar code readers, receiving and inventory personnel can capture...
Department of the Interior — Data associated with the 2015 hemlock inventory project in NCR. Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is a coniferous tree native to the NE and Appalachian regions of...
Department of Transportation — The Logistics and Inventory System (LIS) is the agencys primary supply/support automation tool. The LIS encompasses everything from order entry by field specialists...
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This theme is a scanned and rectified version of the Minnesota DNR - Division of Waters "Public Waters Inventory" (PWI) maps. DNR Waters utilizes a small scale...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Department of Veterans Affairs Enterprise Data Inventory accounts for all of the datasets used in the agency's information systems. This entry was approved for...
Visser, J.; Mans, E.; de Visser, M.; van den Berg-Vos, R. M.; Franssen, H.; de Jong, J. M. B. V.; van den Berg, L. H.; Wokke, J. H. J.; de Haan, R. J.
Context. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction, a method quantitatively assessing muscle strength, has proven to be reliable, accurate and sensitive in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Hand-held dynamometry is less expensive and more quickly applicable than maximal voluntary isometric contraction.
Full Text Available Near Field Communication (NFC as relatively new wireless communication technology pushes new challenges to application developers to make their applications easier to use and simpler to operate. This point of view known as usability element. Usability is one of the elements for creating good quality applications. This study aims to analyse the usability of mobile-based application embeds with NFC. We also try to evaluate usability in applications used by children. We developed an application called Receptionist which has a primary function as a communication tool between students, teachers and parents at a middle school. To know the impact of the NFC, the Receptionist input system is designed with two methods, via conventional navigation (using buttons and via NFC. To understand the usability of each method, we do user testing and questioners on students. The results show, using the NFC there is a significant increase in usability attributes: efficiency, effectiveness, and learnability. On the other hand, there is decreases of user satisfaction comparing to conventional method. In general, this study demonstrates the potential of new input device technologies that can improve the usability of mobile-based applications.
Full Text Available “Reusable learning objects” oriented towards increasing their potential reusability are required to satisfy concerns about their granularity and their independence of concrete contexts of use. Such requirements also entail that the definition of learning object “usability,” and the techniques required to carry out their “usability evaluation” must be substantially different from those commonly used to characterize and evaluate the usability of conventional educational applications. In this article, a specific characterization of the concept of learning object usability is discussed, which places emphasis on “reusability,” the key property of learning objects residing in repositories. The concept of learning object reusability is described as the possibility and adequacy for the object to be usable in prospective educational settings, so that usability and reusability are considered two interrelated – and in many cases conflicting – properties of learning objects. Following the proposed characterization of two characteristics or properties of learning objects, a method to evaluate usability of specific learning objects will be presented.
Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.; Almazini, Hassan; Almazini, Hussein
Like searching for a "needle" in a "haystack", suppose that there is a large set of signals (finite sequences of numbers) fs1; s2; s3; g, and a special signal q that may or may not be in the collection. How can the signals be found in the collection that is similar, or identical to q, and how can this be done quickly? A solution to this question is the basis of the Shazam smart phone app, where a listener captures a short excerpt of a recorded song with the smart phone's microphone, and in a matter of moments the app reports the name of the song and the artist. Here, the "needle" is the excerpt, and the "haystack" is a vast corpus of popular music. The Shazam algorithm is powered by Fourier analysis. This paper presents a report on a usability evaluation of Amazon Shazam app. The researchers present the outcome based on a task-based evaluation that involved 15 users of different level of experience who performed 5 tasks using the Shazam mobile app. Post-test questionnaire was used to capture users' perceptions about the app. The results demonstrate that most of the participants were satisfied with services provided by the app.
De Bruijn, E.; Nijmeijer, S. W. R.; Forbes, P. A.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Van Der Helm, F. C. T.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; Happee, R.
Objective: To identify effects of a deviant motor drive in the autospectral power of dystonic muscles during voluntary contraction in cervical dystonia patients. Methods: Submaximal (20%) isometric head-neck tasks were performed with the head fixed, measuring surface EMG of the sternocleidomastoid,
Mischi, M.; Cardinale, M. (Marco)
The aim of this study was to evaluate activation and coactivation of biceps and triceps muscles during isometric exercise performed with and without superimposing a vibration stimulation. Methods: Twelve healthy volunteers (age = 22.7 +/- 2.6 yr) participated in this study. The subjects performed
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between maximum isometric strength levels in different upper and lower limb joints and serve velocity in competitive tennis players as well as to develop a prediction model based on this information. Twelve male competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body height: 180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg were tested using maximum isometric strength levels (i.e., wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion and extension; leg and back extension; shoulder external and internal rotation. Serve velocity was measured using a radar gun. Results showed a strong positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder internal rotation (r = 0.67; p < 0.05. Low to moderate correlations were also found between serve velocity and wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion – extension, leg and back extension and shoulder external rotation (r = 0.36 – 0.53; p = 0.377 – 0.054. Bivariate and multivariate models for predicting serve velocity were developed, with shoulder flexion and internal rotation explaining 55% of the variance in serve velocity (r = 0.74; p < 0.001. The maximum isometric strength level in shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to serve velocity, and a large part of the variability in serve velocity was explained by the maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and shoulder flexion.
Vinge, Lotte; Jakobsen, Johannes; Pedersen, Asger Roer
INTRODUCTION: In patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), muscle strength is expected to decrease gradually during the day due to physical activities. METHODS: Isometric muscle strength at the shoulder, knee, and ankle was determined in 10 MG patients (MGFA class II-IV) who were receiving usual...
Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Albrecht, Chelesa; Pendleton, Daniel M.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if physical arousal produced by isometric hand-dynamometer contraction performed during word-list learning affects young adults' free recall or recognition memory. Method: Twenty-four young adults (12 female; M[subscript age] = 22 years) were presented with 4 20-item word lists. Moderate arousal…
van Dijk, Henk; Mulder, Theo; Hermens, Hermie J.
This study addressed the interaction between age and the informational content of feedback on learning an isometric force-production task. Healthy men and women (30 young adults: 20 to 35 years; 30 older adults: 55 to 70 years) were randomly assigned to a certain type of feedback: knowledge of
Tillin, Neale Anthony; Pain, Matthew Thomas Gerard; Folland, Jonathan
This study investigated the association between explosive force production during isometric squats and athletic performance (sprint time and countermovement jump height). Sprint time (5 and 20 m) and jump height were recorded in 18 male elite-standard varsity rugby union players. Participants also completed a series of maximal- and explosive-isometric squats to measure maximal force and explosive force at 50-ms intervals up to 250 ms from force onset. Sprint performance was related to early phase (≤100 ms) explosive force normalised to maximal force (5 m, r = -0.63, P = 0.005; and 20 m, r = -0.54, P = 0.020), but jump height was related to later phase (>100 ms) absolute explosive force (0.51 squats (33-67%; 0.001 squats was associated with athletic performance. Specifically, sprint performance was most strongly related to the proportion of maximal force achieved in the initial phase of explosive-isometric squats, whilst jump height was most strongly related to absolute force in the later phase of the explosive-isometric squats.
Kubo, Keitaro; Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Ikebukuro, Toshihiro
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of plyometric and isometric training on tendon properties during ramp and ballistic contractions and muscle stiffness under passive and active conditions. Eleven subjects completed 12 weeks (3 days/week) of a unilateral training program for the plantar flexors. They performed plyometric training on one side (PLY) and isometric training on the other side (ISO). Active muscle stiffness in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was calculated according to changes in estimated muscle force and fascicle length during fast stretching after submaximal isometric contractions. Passive muscle stiffness was also calculated from estimated passive muscle force and fascicle length during slow passive stretching. Stiffness and hysteresis of tendon structures were measured using ultrasonography during ramp and ballistic contractions. Passive muscle stiffness and tendon hysteresis did not change for PLY or ISO Active muscle stiffness significantly increased for PLY, but not for ISO Tendon stiffness during ramp and ballistic contractions increased significantly for ISO, but not for PLY In addition, tendon elongation values at force production levels beyond 100 N during ballistic contractions increased for PLY These results suggest that plyometric training (but not isometric training) enhances the extensibility of tendon structures during ballistic contractions and active muscle stiffness during fast stretching, and these changes may be related to improved performances during stretch-shortening cycle exercises. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
Denier van der Gon, J.J.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Zuylen, Van E.J.
The behaviour of motor units in the m. biceps brachii (long head), in the m. brachialis and in the m. supinator during slow isometric contraction and relaxation was studied when subjects were performing different motor tasks. These tasks were: flexion of the elbow joint, supination of the forearm
Crenshaw, Albert G.; Bronee, Lars; Krag, Ida
/or (2) fatigue development. Nine males performed 2-min sustained isometric knee extensions at 15% and 30% maximum voluntary contraction during which oxygenation and EMG were recorded simultaneously from proximal and distal locations of the vastus lateralis muscle. Near infrared spectroscopy variables...
Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Rameckers, Eugene A.; Houdijk, Han; de Groot, Sonja; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Becher, Jules G.
Purpose: To determine the relationship between isometric leg muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to typically developing (TD) peers. Method: Participants were 62 children with CP (6-13 years), able to walk with (n=10) or without (n=52) walking aids,
Michel Moraes Gonçalves
Full Text Available It was our objective to correlate specific performance in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT and the maximum isometric handgrip (HGSMax, scapular traction (STSMax and lumbar traction (LTSMax strength tests in military judo athletes. Twenty-two military athletes from the judo team of the Brazilian Navy Almirante Alexandrino Instruction Centre, with average age of 26.14 ± 3.31 years old, and average body mass of 83.23 ± 14.14 kg participated in the study. Electronic dynamometry tests for HGSMax, STSMax and LTSMax were conducted. Then, after approximately 1 hour-interval, the SJFT protocol was applied. All variables were adjusted to the body mass of the athletes. Pearson correlation coefficient for statistical analysis was used. The results showed moderate negative correlation between the SJFT index and STSMax (r= -0.550, p= 0.008, strong negative correlations between the SJFT index and HGSMax (r= -0.706, p< 0.001, SJFT index and LTSMax (r= -0.721; p= 0.001, besides the correlation between the sum of the three maximum isometric strength tests and the SJFT index (r= -0.786, p< 0.001. This study concludes that negative correlations occur between the SJFT index and maximum isometric handgrip, shoulder and lumbar traction strength and the sum of the three maximum isometric strength tests in military judokas.
Hartog, R. (Renee); D. Bolignano (Davide); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); Pucci, G. (Giacomo); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco)
textabstractBackground: Vascular aging is known to induce progressive stiffening of the large elastic arteries, altering vascular hemodynamics under both rest and stress conditions. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in vascular hemodynamics in response to isometric handgrip exercise
Zoladz, Jerzy A; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Majerczak, Joanna; Grandys, Marcin; Duda, Krzysztof; Grassi, Bruno
The effect of maximal voluntary isometric strength training of knee extensor muscles on pulmonary V'O(2) on-kinetics, the O(2) cost of cycling and peak oxygen uptake (V'O(2peak)) in humans was studied. Seven healthy males (mean ± SD, age 22.3 ± 2.0 years, body weight 75.0 ± 9.2 kg, V'O(2peak) 49.5 ± 3.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) performed maximal isometric strength training lasting 7 weeks (4 sessions per week). Force during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) increased by 15 % (P Strength training resulted in a significant decrease (by ~7 %; P Isometric strength training rapidly (i.e., after 1 week) decreases the O(2) cost of cycling during moderate-intensity exercise, whereas it does not affect the amplitude of the slow component of the V'O(2) on-kinetics during heavy-intensity exercise. Isometric strength training can have beneficial effects on performance during endurance events.
Hirano, Masahiro; Gomi, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori
[Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of trunk stability on isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement while sitting by performing simultaneous measurements with a handheld dynamometer (HHD) and an isokinetic dynamometer (IKD) in the same seated condition. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 30 healthy volunteers. Isometric knee extension muscle strength was simultaneously measured with a HHD and an IKD by using an IKD-specific chair. The measurement was performed twice. Measurement instrument variables and the number of measurements were examined by using the analysis of variance and correlation tests. [Results] The measurement instrument variables and the number of measurements were not significantly different. The correlation coefficients between the HHD and IKD measurements were ≥0.96. [Conclusion] Isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement using the HHD in the sitting position resulted in a lower value than that using the IKD, presumably because of the effect of trunk stability on the measurement. In the same seated posture with trunk stability, no significant difference in measurement values was observed between the HHD and IKD. The present findings suggest that trunk stability while seated during isometric knee extension muscle strength measurement influenced the HHD measurement.
Ashton, T. Edwin J.; Singh, Mohan
This study determined the maximal mean values for concentric and eccentric back-lift strength as well as isometric, and examined and compared the relationships between the mean peak voltage of the erectores spinae muscle(s) and maximal force exerted for the three types of muscle contractions. (RC)
Baiget, Ernest; Corbi, Francisco; Fuentes, Juan Pedro; Fernández-Fernández, Jaime
The aims of this study were to analyze the relationship between maximum isometric strength levels in different upper and lower limb joints and serve velocity in competitive tennis players as well as to develop a prediction model based on this information. Twelve male competitive tennis players (mean ± SD; age: 17.2 ± 1.0 years; body height: 180.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 71.9 ± 5.6 kg) were tested using maximum isometric strength levels (i.e., wrist, elbow and shoulder flexion and extension; leg and back extension; shoulder external and internal rotation). Serve velocity was measured using a radar gun. Results showed a strong positive relationship between serve velocity and shoulder internal rotation (r = 0.67; p isometric strength level in shoulder internal rotation was strongly related to serve velocity, and a large part of the variability in serve velocity was explained by the maximum isometric strength levels in shoulder internal rotation and shoulder flexion.
Hamilton, David F; Gatherer, Don
Head and neck injury is relatively common in Rugby Union. Despite this, strength and range-of-motion characteristics of the cervical spine are poorly characterised. The aim of this study was to provide data on the strength and range-of-motion of the cervical spine of professional rugby players to guide clinical rehabilitation. A cohort study was performed evaluating 27 players from a single UK professional rugby club. Cervical isometric strength and range-of-motion were assessed in 3 planes of reference. Anthropometric data was collected and multivariate regression modelling performed with a view to predicting cervical isometric strength. Largest forces were generated in extension, with broadly equal isometric side flexion forces at around 90% of extension values. The forwards generated significantly more force than the backline in all parameters bar flexion. The forwards had substantially reduced cervical range-of-motion and larger body mass, with differences observed in height, weight, neck circumference and chest circumference (p isometric extension (adjusted R(2) = 30.34). Rehabilitative training programs aim to restore individuals to pre-injury status. This work provides reference ranges for the strength and range of motion of the cervical spine of current elite level rugby players.
Grasiéla Nascimento Correia
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The pelvic floor muscle (PFM training is the most common treatment for urinary incontinence (UI, however many women performed the contraction of PFM with associated contraction of abdominal, gluteus and hip adductors muscles. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of pelvic floor muscle (PFM training on isometric and isokinetic hip adductors peak torque (PT among women suffering from urinary incontinence (UI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a longitudinal and prospective exploratory study. This study included 15 physically active women aged 45 years old and over, who presented complaints of UI. The PFM function (digital evaluation and perineometry, isometric and isokinetic hip adductors PT and one hour pad test were performed before and after treatment. The PFM training was performed in group, one hour once a week for 12 sessions. RESULTS: Significant improvement of PFM function and pressure level (p = 0.003, and significant decrease of hip adductors isometric PT and one-hour pad test, were found post-treatment. Moderate negative correlations between PFM contraction pressure and hip adductors isokinetic PT for dominant side (DS (r = -0.62; p = 0.03 and non-dominant side (NDS (r = -0.64; p = 0.02; and between PFM fast fibers contraction and hip adductors isometric PT for DS (r = -0.60; p = 0.03 and NDS (r = -0.59; p = 0.04 were also found. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM training decreased hip adductors PT and improved PFM functions and UI.
Janssen, T W; van Oers, C A; Hollander, A P; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); van der Woude, L H
This study investigated in rather specific wheelchair tests the relationships among estimates of isometric upper-body strength (Fiso), sprint power (P30), aerobic power (VO2peak), and maximal power output (POaer) in a group of 44 men (age 34 +/- 12 yr) with longstanding spinal cord injuries ranging
Gambari, Isiaka A.; Balogun, Sherifat A.; Alfa, Ahmadu S.
This paper discusses importance of technology education and evidences of declining performance of junior secondary school students in basic technology subject. Potentials on interactive whiteboard (IWB) as one of the new technologies to meet the challenges of the 21st century are also discussed. The efficacy of IWB for teaching Isometric and…
Savelberg, Hans H.C.M.; Willems, Paul J.B.; Willems, P.; Baan, Guus C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.
In this study, the deformation of different fibers of the rat m. plantaris during isometric contractions at different muscle lengths was considered. Because the m. plantaris has an obviously inhomogeneous architecture, its fibers on the medial side of the muscle belly are judged to be shorter than
ShahAli, Shabnam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Bahmani, Andia; Karimi, Noureddin; Nabavi, Hoda
The study was designed to evaluate the intra-examiner reliability of ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of abdominal muscles activity when supine lying and during two isometric endurance tests in subjects with and without Low back pain (LBP). A total of 19 women (9 with LBP, 10 without LBP) participated in the study. Within-day reliability of the US thickness measurements at supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests were assessed in all subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability of thickness measurement. The standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate the absolute reliability. Results indicated high ICC scores (0.73-0.99) and also small SEM and MDC scores for within-day reliability assessment. The Bland-Altman plots of agreement in US measurement of the abdominal muscles during the two isometric endurance tests demonstrated that 95% of the observations fall between the limits of agreement for test and retest measurements. Together the results indicate high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all the positions tested. According to the study's findings, US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscles activity in supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests employed, in participants with and without LBP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
. This paper presents a comprehensive literature study of research conducted in this area, where 129 papers are analyzed in terms of research focus, empirical basis, types of training participants and training costs. Findings show a need for further empirical research regarding long term effects of training...... to fund usability specialists or comprehensive consultancy. Training of non-usability personnel in critical usability engineering methods has the potential of easing these challenges. It is, however, unknown how much and what kind of research that has been committed to novice training in UE methods......, training costs and training in user based evaluation methods....
Nielsen, C. M.; Overgaard, M.; Pedersen, M. B.
This paper reports from an exploratory study of means for providing feedback from a usability evaluation to the user interface designers. In this study, we conducted a usability evaluation of a mobile system that is used by craftsmen to register use of time and materials. The results...... and weaknesses of the system. The findings indicate that detailed descriptions of problems and log descriptions of the user's interaction with the system and of system interaction are useful for the designers when trying to understand the usability problems that the users have encountered....
Clemmensen, Torkil; Ørngreen, Rikke; Roese, Kerstin
it into interaction design. The workshop will present current research into cultural usability and human work interaction design. Cultural usability is a comprehensive concept, which adheres to all kinds of contexts in which humans are involved (private family, work, public and private organizations, nature......, Workplace observation, Think-Aloud Usability Test, etc. These techniques often give - seemingly - similar results when applied in diverse cultural settings, but experience shows that we need a deep understanding of the cultural, social and organizational context to interpret the results, and to transform...
Teka, Degif; Dittrich, Y.; Kifle, Mesfin
be adapted and integrated into the Scrum-agile development with especial emphasis on the Ethiopian context. The research aims at adapting software engineering and ICT development methods to the specific situation and integrating user-centered design (UCD) and lightweight usability methods into agile...... end users and developers. Culturally adapted user pair testing and heuristic evaluation supported usability testing and supported developers in getting early feedback. Integrated approach of discount usability with the Scrum process has been developed and evaluated first with the involved...
Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi
To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.
Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common problem within our society. Upper trapezius sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae are the most common postural muscles that tends to get shorten leading to restricted neck mobility. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation when compared with static stretching exercises. The aim is to find out the effectiveness of Post isometric relaxation Versus Static stretching in the subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation technique on pain by using Visual analoge scale, range of motion by using Universal Goniometry, and functional disability by using Neck Disability Index in chronic nonspecific neck pain. Methods: A convenient sample of thirty seven subjects was diagnosed with nonspecific neck pain was randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups on the basis of the inclusion criteria. The experimental group (n=15 received three sessions of post isometric relaxation technique for trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae and control group (n=15 received the three sessions of static stretching for trapezius, sternocliedomastiod and levator scapulae for four weeks. Results: Non parametric tests demonstrated a statistically significant difference with experimental group showing greater improvement in ROM, VAS, and NDI than the control group and significant difference within the group also. Conclusion: This study concluded and the results reflected that post isometric relaxation technique group had better improvement in reduction of pain, improvement in the range of motion, and increased neck functional activities than the static stretching group.
Kocjan, Andrej; Sarabon, Nejc
The aim of the study was to assess the differences in maximal isometric trunk extension and flexion strength during standing, sitting and kneeling. Additionally, we were interested in correlations between the maximal strength in sagittal, frontal and transverse plane, measured in the sitting position. Sixty healthy subjects (24 male, 36 female; age 41.3 ± 15.1 yrs; body height 1.70 ± 0.09 m; body mass 72.7 ± 13.3 kg) performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles in standing, sitting and kneeling position. The subjects also performed lateral flexions and rotations in the sitting position. Each task was repeated three times and average of maximal forces was used for data analysis. RANOVA with post-hoc testing was applied to the flexion and extension data. The level of statistical significance was set to p strength showed the strongest correlation, followed by frontal-transverse and sagittal-frontal plane correlation pairs (R(2) = 0.830, 0.712 and 0.657). The baseline trunk isometric strength data provided by this study should help further strength diagnostics, more precisely, the prevention of low back disorders. Key pointsMaximal voluntary isometric force of the trunk extensors increased with the angle at the hips (highest in sitting, medium in kneeling and lowest in upright standing).The opposite trend was true for isometric MVC force of trunk flexors (both genders together and men only).In the sitting position, the strongest correlation between MVC forces was found between sagittal (average flexion/extension) and transverse plane (average left/right rotation).IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE VALIDITY OF TRUNK STRENGTH TESTING THE LETTER SHOULD INCLUDE: specific warm-up, good pelvic fixation and visual feedback.
Geary, Kevin; Green, Brian S; Delahunt, Eamonn
To investigate the effectiveness of a neck strengthening program on the isometric neck strength profile of male rugby union players. Controlled laboratory study. Professional rugby union club. Fifteen professional and 10 semiprofessional rugby union players. The 15 professional players undertook a 5-week neck strengthening intervention, which was performed twice per week, whereas the 10 semiprofessional players acted as the control group. Isometric strength of the neck musculature was tested using a hand-held dynamometer, for flexion (F), extension (E), left-side flexion (LSF), and right-side flexion (RSF). Preintervention and postintervention evaluations were undertaken. No significant between-group differences in isometric neck strength were noted preintervention. A significant main effect for time was observed (P isometric neck strength in all planes after the 5-week intervention (F preintervention = 334.45 ± 39.31 N vs F postintervention 396.05 ± 75.55 N; E preintervention = 606.19 ± 97.34 vs E postintervention = 733.88 ± 127.16 N; LSF preintervention = 555.56 ± 88.34 N vs LSF postintervention = 657.14 ± 122.99 N; RSF preintervention = 570.00 ± 106.53 N vs RSF postintervention = 668.00 ± 142.18 N). No significant improvement in neck strength was observed for control group participants. The results of the present study indicate that a 5-week neck strengthening program improves isometric neck strength in rugby union players, which may have implications for injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation. The strengthening program described in the present study may facilitate rehabilitation specialists in the development of neck injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation protocols.
Tanaka, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Umehara, Jun; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Nishishita, Satoru; Fujita, Kosuke; Araki, Kojiro; Ichihashi, Noriaki
Tanaka, H, Ikezoe, T, Umehara, J, Nakamura, M, Umegaki, H, Kobayashi, T, Nishishita, S, Fujita, K, Araki, K, and Ichihashi, N. Influences of fascicle length during isometric training on improvement of muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3249-3255, 2016-This study investigated whether low-intensity isometric training would elicit a greater improvement in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at the same fascicle length, rather than the joint angle, adopted during training. Sixteen healthy women (21.8 ± 1.5 years) were randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group. Before (Pre) and after (Post) training, isometric plantarflexion MVCs were measured every 10° through the range of ankle joint position from 20° dorsiflexion to 30° plantarflexion (i.e., 6 ankle angles). Medial gastrocnemius fascicle length was also measured at each position, using B-mode ultrasound under 3 conditions of muscle activation: at rest, 30%MVC at respective angles, and MVC. Plantarflexion resistance training at an angle of 20° plantarflexion was performed 3 days a week for 4 weeks at 30%MVC using 3 sets of twenty 3-second isometric contractions. Maximum voluntary contraction in the intervention group increased at 0 and 10° plantarflexion (0°; Pre: 81.2 ± 26.5 N·m, Post: 105.0 ± 21.6 N·m, 10°; Pre: 63.0 ± 23.6 N·m, Post: 81.3 ± 20.3 N·m), which was not the angle used in training (20°). However, the fascicle length adopted in training at 20° plantarflexion and 30%MVC was similar to the value at 0 or 10° plantarflexion at MVC. Low-intensity isometric training at a shortened muscle length may be effective for improving MVC at a lengthened muscle length because of specificity of the fascicle length than the joint angle.
Dallmeijer, Annet J; Rameckers, Eugene A; Houdijk, Han; de Groot, Sonja; Scholtes, Vanessa A; Becher, Jules G
To determine the relationship between isometric leg muscle strength and mobility capacity in children with cerebral palsy (CP) compared to typically developing (TD) peers. Participants were 62 children with CP (6-13 years), able to walk with (n = 10) or without (n = 52) walking aids, and 47 TD children. Isometric muscle strength of five muscle groups of the leg was measured using hand-held dynamometry. Mobility capacity was assessed with the 1-min walk, the 10-m walk, sit-to-stand, lateral-step-up and timed-stair tests. Isometric strength of children with CP was reduced to 36-82% of TD. When adjusted for age and height, the percentage of variance in mobility capacity that was explained by isometric strength of the leg muscles was 21-24% (walking speed), 25% (sit-to-stand), 28% (lateral-step-up) and 35% (timed-stair) in children with CP. Hip abductors and knee flexors had the largest contribution to the explained variance, while knee extensors showed the weakest correlation. Weak or no associations were found between strength and mobility capacity in TD children. Isometric strength, especially hip abductor and knee flexor strength, is moderately related to mobility capacity in children with CP, but not in TD children. To what extent training of these muscle groups will lead to better mobility capacity needs further study. Implications for Rehabilitation Strength training in children with cerebral palsy (CP) may be targeted more specifically at hip abductors and knee flexors. The moderate associations imply that large improvements in mobility capacity may not be expected when strength increases.
Mazayev, S.N.; Prokofiev, Yu.G.
Investigations of hydrogen inventory in gallium (99.9%) were carried out after saturation both from molecular phase and from glow discharge plasma at room temperature, 370 and 520 K. Saturation took place during 3000 s under hydrogen pressure of 20 Pa, and ion flux was about 1x10 15 ions/cm 2 s with an energy about 400 eV during discharge. Hydrogen concentration in Ga at room temperature and that for 370 K by the saturation from gaseous phase was (2-3)x10 14 cm -3 Pa -1/2 . Hydrogen concentration at temperature 520 K increased by five times. Inventory at room temperature for irradiation from discharge was 7x10 16 cm -3 at the dose about 3x10 18 ions/cm 2 . It was more than inventory at temperature 520 K by four times and more than maximum inventory from gaseous phase at 520 K by a factor of 10. Inventory increased when temperature decreased. Diffusion coefficient D=0.003 exp(-2300/RT) cm 2 /s, was estimated from temperature dependence. ((orig.))
Doerr, R.W.; Nichols, D.H.
In any processing, manufacturing, or active storage facility it is impractical to assume that any physical security system can prevent the diversion of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). It is, therefore, the responsibility of any DOE Contractor, Licensee, or other holder of SNM to provide assurance that loss or diversion of a significant quantity of SNM is detectable. This ability to detect must be accomplishable within a reasonable time interval and can be accomplished only by taking physical inventories. The information gained and decisions resulting from these inventories can be no better than the SNM accounting system and the quality of measurements performed for each receipt, removal and inventory. Inventories interrupt processing or production operations, increase personnel exposures, and can add significantly to the cost of any operation. Therefore, realistic goals for the inventory must be defined and the relationship of the inherent parameters used in its validation be determined. Purpose of this document is to provide a statement of goals and a plan of action to achieve them
Bentley, Richard S
.... This research effort seeks to establish an understanding of how well common practice usability design principles and government mandated accessibility guidelines are followed by Air Force intranet web sites...
Johansen, Sune Alstrup; Noergaard, Mie; Soerensen, Janus Rau
Good computer games need to be challenging while at the same time being easy to use. Accordingly, besides struggling with well known challenges for usability work, such as persuasiveness, the computer game industry also faces system-specific challenges, such as identifying methods that can provide...... data on players' attention during a game. This position paper discusses how eye tracking may address three core challenges faced by computer game producer IO Interactive in their on-going work to ensure games that are fun, usable, and challenging. These challenges are: (1) Persuading game designers...... about the relevance of usability results, (2) involving game designers in usability work, and (3) identifying methods that provide new data about user behaviour and experience....
Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan
is based on an empirical study where 36 teams with a total of 234 first-year university students on software development and design educations were trained in a simple approach for user-based website usability testing that was taught in a 40 hour course. This approach supported them in planning, conducting......Many improvements of the interplay between usability evaluation and software development rely either on better methods for conducting usability evaluations or on better formats for presenting evaluation results in ways that are useful for software designers and developers. Both approaches involve...... a complete division of work between developers and evaluators, which is an undesirable complexity for many software development projects. This paper takes a different approach by exploring to what extent software developers and designers can be trained to carry out their own usability evaluations. The paper...
Haan, de G.; Terken, J.M.B.
This paper discusses usability research concerning a wearable system for spoken advice: a field experiment to investigate key concepts, a laboratory experiment to investigate interaction design, and field trials to evaluate the system. Conclusions are drawn about designing wearable appliances.
The reliability and usability of district health information software: case studies from Tanzania. ... The District Health Information System (DHIS) software from the Health Information System ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Availability and Usability of Behavioral Health Organization Encounter Data in MAX 2009, published in Volume 4, Issue 2 of Medicare and Medicaid Research Review,...
Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren; Effie Lai Chong, Law
are generally low: effectiveness measures (e.g., errors) and efficiency measures (e.g., time) has a correlation of .247 ± .059 (Pearson's product-moment correlation with 95% confidence interval), efficiency and satisfaction (e.g., preference) one of .196 ± .064, and effectiveness and satisfaction one of .164......Understanding the relation between usability measures seems crucial to deepen our conception of usability and to select the right measures for usability studies. We present a meta-analysis of correlations among usability measures calculated from the raw data of 73 studies. Correlations...... ± .062. Changes in task complexity do not influence these correlations, but use of more complex measures attenuates them. Standard questionnaires for measuring satisfaction appear more reliable than homegrown ones. Measures of users' perceptions of phenomena are generally not correlated with objective...
Jensen, Janne Jul
social context is considered important, only little research has been done to identify how it influences usability evaluations. In this thesis I explore how social context affects the process and product of a usability evaluation and explain the findings in terms of the theory of behaviour settings...... leader) and non-operatives (members, spectators, neutrals and potentials) from the theory of behaviour settings to usability evaluations generates an understanding and create an awareness of the level of power possessed by each of the participants in the social context. 2. On the operative level...... and a field experiment. Findings from these activities are presented in five published paper contributions. I furthermore introduce the theory of behaviour settings as a tool to help characterise the key concepts of social context which, together with an understanding of usability evaluations, provide...
... has ever used the API; hence, no analysis was accomplished with respect to usability attributes, The project sponsor desires public release of the API, especially within the Department of Defense (DoD...
Masood, T.; Khan, H.M.M.H.
To compare the effects of isokinetic and isometric strength trainings on hamstring and quadriceps average-peak-torques, physical performance, and pain. Methodology: Twenty athletes with knee pain were randomly assigned to two equal groups: Isokinetic training and isometric training. Both groups were trained on Biodex System 3 Pro for 10 sessions. Isokinetic-group received isokinetic training on 5 different velocities while isometric-group performed isometric contractions at 3 knee joint angles. Results: Hamstring isokinetic average-peak-torque was significantly higher at all velocities without significant improvement in quadriceps average-peak-torque except for at the slowest velocity. Isometric training did not cause significant change in isometric average-peak-torque at any knee angle for either hamstring or quadriceps. Agility, elastic leg strength, and pain improved significantly in both groups with no significant between-group differences. No significant statistical correlation was observed between pain and any other parameter after either type of training. Conclusions: Athletes participating in sports requiring dynamic hamstring strength should prefer isokinetic strength training for physical rehabilitation of knee pain. However, physical performance and pain can be improved with both isometric and isokinetic strength training. (author)
Anwer, Shahnawaz; Alghadir, Ahmad
[Purpose] The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of isometric quadriceps exercise on muscle strength, pain, and function in knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Outpatients (N=42, 21 per group; age range 40-65 years; 13 men and 29 women) with osteoarthritis of the knee participated in the study. The experimental group performed isometric exercises including isometric quadriceps, straight leg raising, and isometric hip adduction exercise 5 days a week for 5 weeks, whereas the control group did not performed any exercise program. The outcome measures or dependent variables selected for this study were pain intensity, isometric quadriceps strength, and knee function. These variables were measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS), strength gauge device, and reduced WOMAC index, respectively. All the measurements were taken at baseline (week 0) and at the end of the trial at week 5. [Results] In between-group comparisons, the maximum isometric quadriceps strength, reduction in pain intensity, and improvement in function in the isometric exercise group at the end of the 5th week were significantly greater than those of the control group (pisometric quadriceps exercise program showed beneficial effects on quadriceps muscle strength, pain, and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.
Mathew, Gloriya; Thomas, Shiney
User authentication is one of the most important part of information security. Computer security most commonly depends on passwords to authenticate human users. Password authentication systems will be either been usable but not secure, or secure but not usable. While there are different types of authentication systems available alphanumeric password is the most commonly used authentication mechanism. But this method has significant drawbacks. An alternative solution to the text based authenti...
Yen, Po-Yin; Wantland, Dean; Bakken, Suzanne
We developed a customizable questionnaire, the Health Information Technology (IT) Usability Evaluation Scale (Health-ITUES) and conducted an exploratory factor analysis to examine the scale’s psychometric properties. Nurses (n=377) completed Health-ITUES to rate the usability of a web-based communication system for scheduling nursing staff. The analysis revealed a four-factor structure of Health-ITUES. The results provided preliminary evidence for the factorial validity and internal consistency reliability of Health-ITUES. PMID:21347112
Tracking user activities online can be done in order to improve systems usability, understand user behaviour or to increase monetary prot, to mention a few things. The software tools for this purpose can vary, for example in terms of usability of the tool itself, features, security, price, accessibility and support options. In this study I have developed a methodology to evaluate a selection of modern tools and map them depending on various properties. I have also analysed learning theories t...
Romano, C.; Gay, P.; Owens, R.; Burlea, G.
Citizen science projects must undergo usability testing and optimization if they are to meet their stated goals. This presentation will include video of usability tests conducted upon citizen science websites. Usability testing is essential to the success of online interaction, however, citizen science projects have just begun to include this critical activity. Interaction standards in citizen science lag behind those of commercial interests, and published research on this topic is limited. Since online citizen science is by definition, an exchange of information, a clear understanding of how users experience an online project is essential to informed decision-making. Usability testing provides that insight. Usability testing collects data via direct observation of a person while she interacts with a digital product, such as a citizen science website. The test participant verbalizes her thoughts while using the website or application; the moderator follows the participant and captures quantitative measurement of the participant's confidence of success as she advances through the citizen science project. Over 15 years of usability testing, we have observed that users who do not report a consistent sense of progress are likely to abandon a website after as few as three unrewarding interactions. Since citizen science is also a voluntary activity, ensuring seamless interaction for users is mandatory. Usability studies conducted on citizen science websites demonstrate that project teams frequently underestimate a user's need for context and ease of use. Without usability testing, risks to online citizen science projects include high bounce rate (users leave the website without taking any action), abandonment (of the website, tutorials, registration), misunderstanding instructions (causing disorientation and erroneous conclusions), and ultimately, underperforming projects.
Nicholas Kipkurui Kiget; Professor G. Wanyembi; Anselemo Ikoha Peters
The use of e-learning systems has increased significantly in the recent times. E-learning systems are supplementing teaching and learning in universities globally. Kenyan universities have adopted e-learning technologies as means for delivering course content. However despite adoption of these systems, there are considerable challenges facing the usability of the systems. Lecturers and students have different perceptions in regard to the usability of e-learning systems. The aim of this study ...
Cardoni, Jeffrey N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Radionuclide inventories are generated to permit detailed analyses of the Fukushima Daiichi meltdowns. This is necessary information for severe accident calculations, dose calculations, and source term and consequence analyses. Inventories are calculated using SCALE6 and compared to values predicted by international researchers supporting the OECD/NEA's Benchmark Study on the Accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (BSAF). Both sets of inventory information are acceptable for best-estimate analyses of the Fukushima reactors. Consistent nuclear information for severe accident codes, including radionuclide class masses and core decay powers, are also derived from the SCALE6 analyses. Key nuclide activity ratios are calculated as functions of burnup and nuclear data in order to explore the utility for nuclear forensics and support future decommissioning efforts.
Thomson, William Murray; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Enoki, Kaori; Hopcraft, Matthew; Ling, Guo Y
Objectives To determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan and New Zealand. Study design Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (N = 50), Australia (N = 637 and N = 245), Japan (N = 401) and New Zealand (N = 167 and N = 86). Data were analysed using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version. Results Almost all data-sets revealed a single extracted factor which explained about half of the variance, with Cronbach’s alpha values of at least 0.70. When mean scale scores were plotted against a “gold standard” xerostomia question, statistically significant gradients were observed, with the highest score seen in those who always had dry mouth, and the lowest in those who never had it. Conclusion The Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version is valid for measuring xerostomia symptoms in clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:21684773
Moore, Mary; Bias, Randolph G; Prentice, Katherine; Fletcher, Robin; Vaughn, Terry
Skilled website developers value usability testing to assure user needs are met. When the target audience differs substantially from the developers, it becomes essential to tailor both design and evaluation methods. In this study, researchers carried out a multifaceted usability evaluation of a website (Healthy Texas) designed for Hispanic audiences with lower computer literacy and lower health literacy. METHODS INCLUDED: (1) heuristic evaluation by a usability engineer, (2) remote end-user testing using WebEx software; and (3) face-to-face testing in a community center where use of the website was likely. Researchers found standard usability testing methods needed to be modified to provide interpreters, increased flexibility for time on task, presence of a trusted intermediary such as a librarian, and accommodation for family members who accompanied participants. Participants offered recommendations for website redesign, including simplified language, engaging and relevant graphics, culturally relevant examples, and clear navigation. User-centered design is especially important when website developers are not representative of the target audience. Failure to conduct appropriate usability testing with a representative audience can substantially reduce use and value of the website. This thorough course of usability testing identified improvements that benefit all users but become crucial when trying to reach an underserved audience.
Full Text Available Nowadays there are different evaluation methods focused in the assessment of the usability of telematic methods. The assessment of 3rd generation web environments evaluates the effectiveness and usability of application with regard to the user needs. Wireless usability and, specifically in mobile phones, is concentrated in the validation of the features and tools management using conventional interactive environments. There is not a specific and suitable criterion to evaluate created environments and m-learning platforms, where the restricted and sequential representation is a fundamental aspect to be considered.The present paper exposes the importance of the conventional usability methods to verify both: the employed contents in wireless formats, and the possible interfaces from the conception phases, to the validations of the platform with such characteristics.The development of usability adapted inspection could be complemented with the Remote’s techniques of usability testing, which are being carried out these days in the mobile devices field and which pointed out the need to apply common criteria in the validation of non-located learning scenarios.
In the non linear delta-model conserved tensor currents connected with the isometrical, homothetic and affine motions in the space Vsup(N) of the chiral field values are constructed. New classes of the exact solutions are obtained in the SO(3) and SO(5) invariant delta-models using the connection between the groups of isometrical and homothetic motions in the space-time and isometrical motions in Vsup(N). Some methods of obtaining exact solutions in 4-dimensional delta-model with non trivial topological charge are considered
Efuni, S N; Kudriashov, V E; Rodionov, V V; Beletskiĭ, Iu V; Telegin, Iu N
The isometric test was conducted prior to and after a hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO) session in 31 coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. The results were compared with the findings provided by the examination of 138 coronary patients and 23 normal subjects receiving no HBO treatment. It was shown that the isometric test makes it possible to objectively assess the HBO effect in CHD patients. The results of the test reflect reduction in the severity of angina pectoris or cardiac failure following hyperbarotherpy. The results obtained justify the recommendation of the isometric test for the individual evaluation of the hyperbaric treatment in CHD.
Schnall, Rebecca; Cho, Hwayoung; Liu, Jianfang
Mobile technology has become a ubiquitous technology and can be particularly useful in the delivery of health interventions. This technology can allow us to deliver interventions to scale, cover broad geographic areas, and deliver technologies in highly tailored ways based on the preferences or characteristics of users. The broad use of mobile technologies supports the need for usability assessments of these tools. Although there have been a number of usability assessment instruments developed, none have been validated for use with mobile technologies. The goal of this work was to validate the Health Information Technology Usability Evaluation Scale (Health-ITUES), a customizable usability assessment instrument in a sample of community-dwelling adults who were testing the use of a new mobile health (mHealth) technology. A sample of 92 community-dwelling adults living with HIV used a new mobile app for symptom self-management and completed the Health-ITUES to assess the usability of the app. They also completed the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ), a widely used and well-validated usability assessment tool. Correlations between these scales and each of the subscales were assessed. The subscales of the Health-ITUES showed high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alpha=.85-.92). Each of the Health-ITUES subscales and the overall scale was moderately to strongly correlated with the PSSUQ scales (r=.46-.70), demonstrating the criterion validity of the Health-ITUES. The Health-ITUES has demonstrated reliability and validity for use in assessing the usability of mHealth technologies in community-dwelling adults living with a chronic illness. ©Rebecca Schnall, Hwayoung Cho, Jianfang Liu. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 05.01.2018.
Ratna Purwaningsih; Ikhsan Yenifi
Website development needs to pay attention to usability aspect which consist of four factors: efficiency, effectiveness, satisfactions and error rate. The website of International Office of Diponegoro University provides academic information for Indonesian students and foreign students. The website still has some problem, especially on searching certain information. This research aims to evaluate the design of the existing website and measures the usability. A well-designed website will help ...
Satwicz, T.; Bharadwaj, A.; Evans, J.; Dirks, J.; Clark Cole, K.
Transforming geological data into information that has broad scientific and societal impact is a process fraught with barriers. Data sets and tools are often reported to have poor user experiences (UX) that make scientific work more challenging than it needs be. While many other technical fields have benefited from ongoing improvements to the UX of their tools (e.g., healthcare and financial services) scientists are faced with using tools that are labor intensive and not intuitive. Our research team has been involved in a multi-year effort to understand and improve the UX of scientific tools and data sets. We use a User-Centered Design (UCD) process that involves naturalistic behavioral observation and other qualitative research methods adopted from Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and related fields. Behavioral observation involves having users complete common tasks on data sets, tools, and websites to identify usability issues and understand the severity of the issues. We measure how successfully they complete tasks and diagnosis the cause of any failures. Behavioral observation is paired with in-depth interviews where users describe their process for generating results (from initial inquiry to final results). By asking detailed questions we unpack common patterns and challenges scientists experience while working with data. We've found that tools built using the UCD process can have a large impact on scientist work flows and greatly reduce the time it takes to process data before analysis. It is often challenging to understand the organization and nuances of data across scientific fields. By better understanding how scientists work we can create tools that make routine tasks less-labor intensive, data easier to find, and solve common issues with discovering new data sets and engaging in interdisciplinary research. There is a tremendous opportunity for advancing scientific knowledge and helping the public benefit from that work by creating intuitive, interactive
Bellar, David; LeBlanc, Nina R; Campbell, Brian
Ergogenic aides are widely used by fitness enthusiasts and athletes to increase performance. Alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine (A-GPC) has demonstrated some initial promise in changing explosive performance. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine if 6 days of supplementation with A-GPC would augment isometric force production compared to a placebo. Thirteen college-aged males (Means ± SD; Age: 21.9 ± 2.2 years, Height: 180.3 ± 7.7 cm, Weight: 87.6 ± 15.6 kg; VO2 max: 40.08 ± 7.23 ml O2*Kg(-1)*min(-1), Body Fat: 17.5 ± 4.6%) gave written informed consent to participate in the study. The study was a double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over design. The participants reported to the lab for an initial visit where they were familiarized with the isometric mid thigh pull in a custom squat cage on a force platform and upper body isometric test against a high frequency load cell, and baseline measurements were taken for both. The participant then consumed either 600 mg per day of A-GPC or placebo and at the end of 6 days performed isometric mid thigh pulls and an upper body isometric test. A one-week washout period was used before the participants' baseline was re-measured and crossed over to the other treatment. The A-GPC treatment resulted in significantly greater isometric mid thigh pull peak force change from baseline (t = 1.76, p = 0.044) compared with placebo (A-GPC: 98.8. ± 236.9 N vs Placebo: -39.0 ± 170.9 N). For the upper body test the A-GPC treatment trended towards greater change from baseline force production (A-GPC: 50.9 ± 67.2 N Placebo: -14.9 ± 114.9 N) but failed to obtain statistical significance (t = 1.16, p = 0.127). A-GPC is effective at increasing lower body force production after 6 days of supplementation. Sport performance coaches can consider adding A-GPC to the diet of speed and power athletes to enhance muscle performance.
Sarmento, Adriana de Oliveira; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Dantas, Marciano Moacir; Oliveira Marques, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento, Leone Severino; Barbosa, Bruno Teixeira; Dos Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues; Andrade, Maria do Amparo; Jaguaribe-Lima, Anna Myrna; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro
The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis) and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline) and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver). Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac sympathetic activity compared to physically active older adult subjects at baseline (63.13±3.31 vs 50.45±3.55 nu, P=0.02). The variance (heart rate variability index) was increased in active older adults (1,438.64±448.90 vs 1,402.92±385.14 ms, P=0.02), and cardiac sympathetic activity (symbolic analysis) was increased in sedentary older adults (5,660.91±1,626.72 vs 4,381.35±1,852.87, P=0.03) during isometric handgrip exercise. Sedentary older adults showed higher cardiac sympathetic activity (spectral analysis) (71.29±4.40 vs 58.30±3.50 nu, P=0.03) and lower parasympathetic modulation (28.79±4.37 vs 41.77±3.47 nu, P=0.03) compared to physically active older adult subjects during isometric handgrip exercise. Regarding muscle vasodilation response, there was an increase in the skeletal muscle blood flow in the second (4.1±0.5 vs 3.7±0.4 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.01) and third minute (4.4±0.4 vs 3.9±0.3 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.03) of handgrip exercise in active older adults. The results indicate that
Dwi Susanto, Tony; Ingesti Prasetyo, Anisa; Astuti, Hanim Maria
At this moment, the need for web as an information media is highly important. Not only confined in the infotainment area, government, and education, but health as well uses the web media as a medium for providing information effectively. BloobIS is a web based application which integrates blood supply and distribution information at the Blood Transfusion Unit. Knowing how easy information is on BloobIS is marked by how convenient the website is used. Up until now, the BloobIS website is nearing completion but testing has not yet been performed to users and is on the testing and development phase in the Development Life Cycle software. Thus, an evaluation namely the quality control software which focuses on the perspective of BloobIs web usability is required. Hallway Usability Testing and ISO 9241:11 are the methods chosen to measure the BloobIS application usability. The expected outputs of the quality control software focusing on the usability evaluation are being able to rectify the usability deficiencies on the BloobIs web and provide recommendations to develop the web as a basic BloobIS web quality upgraed which sets a goal to amplify the satisfaction of web users based on usability factors in ISO 9241:11.
This paper studies heuristic usability evaluation of user interfaces. The literature review distinguishes characteristics of augmented reality and smartphones, presents heuristic evaluation, PACMAD usability model, personal navigation assistants, video games, augmented reality and J. Nielsen usability heuristics. In research part, usability heuristics of related subject fields and design guidelines are combined. Created heuristics and control questionnaire are used for evaluation of augmented...
McFarlane, I.; Gehshan, T.
In an effort to reduce operations and maintenance costs among nuclear plants, many utilities are taking a closer look at their inventory investment. Various approaches for inventory reduction have been used and discussed, but these approaches are often limited to an inventory management perspective. Interaction with purchasing and planning personnel to reduce inventory investment is a necessity in utility efforts to become more cost competitive. This paper addresses the activities that purchasing and inventory management personnel should conduct in an effort to optimize inventory investment while maintaining service-level goals. Other functions within a materials management organization, such as the warehousing and investment recovery functions, can contribute to optimizing inventory investment. However, these are not addressed in this paper because their contributions often come after inventory management and purchasing decisions have been made
A data processing system designed to facilitate inventory taking is described. The process depends upon the earliest possible application of computer techniques and the elimination of manual operations. Data is recorded in optical character recognition (OCR) 'A' form and read by a hand held wand reader. Limited validation checks are applied before recording on mini-tape cassettes. 5 refs
Steverson, C.A.; Angerman, M.I.
As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) goals and Department of Energy (DOE) inventory requirements are frequently in conflict at facilities across the DOE complex. The authors wish, on one hand, to verify the presence of correct amounts of nuclear materials that are in storage or in process; yet on the other hand, we wish to achieve ALARA goals by keeping individual and collective exposures as low as social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations permit. The Experimental Inventory Verification System (EIVSystem) is a computer-based, camera-driven system that utilizes image processing technology to detect change in vault areas. Currently in the test and evaluation phase at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, this system guards personnel. The EIVSystem continually monitors the vault, providing proof of changed status for objects sorted within the vault. This paper reports that these data could provide the basis for reducing inventory requirements when no change has occurred, thus helping implement ALARA policy; the data will also help describe there target area of an inventory when change has been shown to occur
Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn
This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…
Full Text Available The purpose of the project is to find the optimal value for the Economic Order Quantity Model and then use a lean manufacturing Kanban equation to find a numeric value that will minimize the total cost and the inventory size.
Bjørn, Anders; Moltesen, Andreas; Laurent, Alexis
of different sources. The output is a compiled inventory of elementary flows that is used as basis of the subsequent life cycle impact assessment phase. This chapter teaches how to carry out this task through six steps: (1) identifying processes for the LCI model of the product system; (2) planning...
Winther, M.; Illerup, J. B.; Fenhann, J.
CORINAIR is the most comprehensive European air emission inventory programme. It consists of a defined emission calculation methodology and software for storing and further data processing. In CORINAIR 28 different emission species are estimated in 11 main sectors which are further sub-divided, a...
Thomson, W.M.; Putten, G.J. van der; Baat, C. de; Ikebe, K.; Matsuda, K.; Enoki, K.; Hopcraft, M.S.; Ling, G.Y.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan, and New Zealand. STUDY DESIGN: Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (n = 50), Australia (n
Gillmore, Gerald M.; Aleamoni, Lawrence M.
This 42-item Student Attitude Inventory (SAI) was administered to entering college freshmen at the University of Illinois (see TM 001 015). The SAI items are divided into nine categories on the basis of content as follows: voting behavior, drug usage, financial, Viet Nam war, education, religious behavior, pollution, housing, and alienation. A…
The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement
Paul, Celeste Lyn
A review of case studies about usability in eight Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects showed that an important issue regarding a usability initiative in the project was the lack of user research. User research is a key component in the user-centered design (UCD) process and a necessary step for creating usable products. Reasons why FLOSS projects suffered from a lack of user research included poor or unclear project leadership, cultural differences between developer and designers, and a lack of usability engineers. By identifying these critical issues, the FLOSS usability community can begin addressing problems in the efficacy of usability activities and work towards creating more usable FLOSS products.
Lee, Jaejin; Kim, Dohyeon; Yu, Kyunghoon; Cho, Youngki; You, Joshua H
Isometric cervical flexor system exercise (ICF) and isometric cervical extensor system exercise (ICE) are cervical stabilization techniques that have been used to restore cervical crossed syndrome (CCS)-associated forward head posture. However, the therapeutic effects and underlying motor control mechanisms remain elusive. The purpose of present study was investigating the concurrent therapeutic effects of ICF and ICE on muscle size, muscle imbalance ratio, and muscle recruitment sequence using ultrasound imaging and electromyography. A total of 18 participants (7 females; age=24±4.0 years) with CCS associated with forward head posture underwent ICF and ICE. Paired t-test analysis was used for statistical analysis. Paired t-test analysis showed that sternocleidomastoid thickness was greater during ICF than ICE. Similarly, cross-sectional area and horizontal thickness of the longus colli were greater during ICE than ICF. The upper trapezius/lower trapezius muscle imbalance ratio and the pectoralis major/lower trapezius muscle imbalance ratio were significantly decreased during the application of ICE compared to ICF. These results provide compelling, mechanistic evidence as to how ICE is more beneficial for the restoration of neuromuscular imbalance than ICF in individuals with CCS.
Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Alberton, Cristine Lima; da Silva, Eduardo Marczwski; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins
This study was designed to compare surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal and force production during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVCs) in water and on dry land. The reproducibility of sEMG and isometric force measurements between water and dry land environments was also assessed. Nine women performed MVC for elbow flexion and extension, hip flexion, and extension against identical fixed resistance in both environments. The sEMG signal from biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris was recorded with waterproof adhesives placed over each electrode. The sEMG and force production showed no significant difference between water and dry land, except for HEX (p = 0.035). In addition, intraclass correlation coefficient values were significant and ranged from moderate to high (0.66-0.96) for sEMG and force production between environments. These results showed that the environment did not influence the sEMG and force in MVC.
Park, H.J.; Lee, S.J. [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea)
In this study was proposed that a new estimating method for investigation of contractile state changes which generated from continuous isometric contraction of skeletal muscle. The physiological changes (EMG, ECG) and the psychological changes by CNS(central nervous system) were measured by experiments, while the muscle of subjects contracted continuously with isometric contraction in constant load. The psychological changes were represented as three-step-change named 'fatigue', 'pain' and 'sick(greatly pain)' from oral test, and the method which compared physiological change with psychological change on basis of these three steps was developed. The result of analyzing the physiological signals, EMG and ECG signal changes were observed at the vicinity of judging point in time of psychological changes. Namely, it is supposed that contractile states have three kind of states pattern (stable, fatigue, pain) instead of two states (stable, fatigue). (author). 24 refs., 7 figs.
Fedorchuk, Curtis A; McCoy, Matthew; Lightstone, Douglas F; Bak, David A; Moser, Jacque; Kubricht, Brett; Packer, John; Walton, Dustin; Binongo, Jose
This study investigates the impact of isometric contraction of anterior cervical muscles on cervical lordosis. 29 volunteers were randomly assigned to an anterior head translation (n=15) or anterior head flexion (n=14) group. Resting neutral lateral cervical x-rays were compared to x-rays of sustained isometric contraction of the anterior cervical muscles producing anterior head translation or anterior head flexion. Paired sample t-tests indicate no significant difference between pre and post anterior head translation or anterior head flexion. Analysis of variance suggests that gender and peak force were not associated with change in cervical lordosis. Chamberlain's to atlas plane line angle difference was significantly associated with cervical lordosis difference during anterior head translation (p=0.01). This study shows no evidence that hypertonicity, as seen in muscle spasms, of the muscles responsible for anterior head translation and anterior head flexion have a significant impact on cervical lordosis.
Roh, Jinsook; Lee, Sang Wook; Wilger, Kevin D
Muscle coordination of isometric force production can be explained by a smaller number of modules. Variability in force output, however, is higher during exploratory/transient force development phases than force maintenance phase, and it is not clear whether the same modular structure underlies both phases. In this study, eight neurologically-intact adults isometrically performed target force matches in 54 directions at hands, and electromyographic (EMG) data from eight muscles were parsed into four sequential phases. Despite the varying degree of motor complexity across phases (significant between-phase differences in EMG-force correlation, angular errors, and between-force correlations), the number/composition of motor modules were found equivalent across phases, suggesting that the CNS systematically modulated activation of the same set of motor modules throughout sequential force development.
Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh; Kalra, Chandan; Burne, John; Bastos, Teodiano
This study reports the effects of age and gender on the surface electromyogram while performing isometric contraction. Experiments were conducted with two age groups--Young (Age: 20-29) and Old (Age: 60-69) where they performed sustained isometric contractions at various force levels (50%, 75%, 100% of maximum voluntary contraction). Traditional features such as root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) were computed from the recorded sEMG. The result indicates that the MDF of sEMG was not significantly affected by age, but was impacted by gender in both age groups. Also there was a significant change in the RMS of sEMG with age and gender at all levels of contraction. The results also indicate a large inter-subject variation. This study will provide an understanding of the underlying physiological effects of muscle contraction and muscle fatigue in different cohorts.
Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K; Bastos, Teodiano
This study has investigated the effect of age on the fractal based complexity measure of muscle activity and variance in the force of isometric muscle contraction. Surface electromyogram (sEMG) and force of muscle contraction were recorded from 40 healthy subjects categorized into: Group 1: Young - age range 20-30; 10 Males and 10 Females, Group 2: Old - age range 55-70; 10 Males and 10 Females during isometric exercise at Maximum Voluntary contraction (MVC). The results show that there is a reduction in the complexity of surface electromyogram (sEMG) associated with aging. The results demonstrate that there is an increase in the coefficient of variance (CoV) of the force of muscle contraction and a decrease in complexity of sEMG for the Old age group when compared with the Young age group.
Fieseler, Georg; Jungermann, Philipp; Koke, Alexander; Irlenbusch, Lars; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Schwesig, René
The aim of our study was to investigate the relation of workload on range of motion and isometric strength of team handball athletes' shoulders over a competitive season. 31 Professional male handball athletes underwent clinical shoulder examinations. Athletes were examined subsequently during the complete playing season (week 0, 6, 22 and 40) to determine bilateral isometric shoulder rotational strength and active range of motion (ROM). In addition, relative (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and absolute (standard error of measurement) reliability were calculated. Intraobserver reliability was excellent (ICC 0.76-0.98) for isometric strength and flexibility measurements. Internal rotation (IR) and total arc ROM in the throwing shoulder (TS) decreased significantly (p handball players' shoulders changed significantly from the beginning to the end of a season. More specifically, the repetitive forces accumulated during the competitive season resulted in altered GIRD, ERG and isometric strength of the dominant glenohumeral joint.
Gittings, William; Aggarwal, Harish; Stull, James T; Vandenboom, Rene
The isometric potentiation associated with myosin phosphorylation is force dependent. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of a pre-existing period of isometric force on the concentric force potentiation displayed by mouse muscles with and without the ability to phosphorylate myosin. We tested isometric (ISO) and concentric (CON) potentiation, as well as concentric potentiation after isometric force (ISO-CON), in muscles from wild-type (WT) and skeletal myosin light chain kinase-deficient (skMLCK(-/-)) mice. A conditioning stimulus increased (i.e., potentiated) mean concentric force in the ISO-CON and CON conditions to 1.31 ± 0.02 and 1.35 ± 0.02 (WT) and to 1.19 ± 0.02 and 1.21 ± 0.01 (skMLCK(-/-)) of prestimulus levels, respectively (data n = 6-8, p muscles.
Hazime, Fuad Ahmad; da Cunha, Ronaldo Alves; Soliaman, Renato Rozenblit; Romancini, Ana Clara Bezerra; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Baptista, Abrahão Fontes
Weakness of the rotator cuff muscles can lead to imbalances in the strength of shoulder external and internal rotators, change the biomechanics of the glenohumeral joint and predispose an athlete to injury. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has demonstrated promising results in a variety of health conditions. However few studies addressed its potential approach in the realm of athletics. The purpose of this study was to investigate if transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) technique increases the isometric muscle strength of shoulder external and internal rotators in handball athletes. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Eight female handball players aged between 17 and 21 years (Mean=19.65; SD=2.55) with 7.1 ± 4.8 years of experience in training, participating in regional and national competitions were recruited. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of shoulder external and internal rotator muscles was evaluated during and after 30 and 60 minutes post one session of anodal and sham current (2mA; 0.057mA/cm 2 ) with a one-week interval between stimulations. Compared to baseline, MVIC of shoulder external and internal rotators significantly increased after real but not sham tDCS. Between-group differences were observed for external and internal rotator muscles. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction of external rotation increased significantly during tDCS, and 30 and 60 minutes post-tDCS for real tDCS compared to that for sham tDCS. For internal rotation MVIC increased significantly during and 60 minutes post-tDCS. The results indicate that transcranial direct current stimulation temporarily increases maximal isometric contractions of the internal and external rotators of the shoulder in handball players. 2.
In this paper, we review geometric aspects of quasi-local energies proposed by Brown–York, Liu–Yau, and Wang–Yau. These quasi-local energy functions, having the important positivity property, share a common feature that they are defined via the canonical Hamiltonian approach, and therefore an isometric embedding of the two-surface into a background space is used as a reference. (topical review)
Lee, Benjamin C Y; McGill, Stuart M
Although core stiffness enhances athletic performance traits, controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of isometric vs. dynamic core training methods. This study aimed to determine whether long-term changes in stiffness can be trained, and if so, what is the most effective method. Twenty-four healthy male subjects (23 ± 3 years; 1.8 ± 0.06 m; 77.5 ± 10.8 kg) were recruited for passive and active stiffness measurements before and after a 6-week core training intervention. Twelve subjects (22 ± 2 years; 1.8 ± 0.08 m; 78.3 ± 12.3 kg) were considered naive to physical and core exercise. The other 12 subjects (24 ± 3 years; 1.8 ± 0.05 m; 76.8 ± 9.7 kg) were Muay Thai athletes (savvy). A repeated-measures design compared core training methods (isometric vs. dynamic, with a control group) and subject training experience (naive vs. savvy) before and after a 6-week training period. Passive stiffness was assessed on a "frictionless" bending apparatus and active stiffness assessed through a quick release mechanism. Passive stiffness increased after the isometric training protocol. Dynamic training produced a smaller effect, and as expected, there was no change in the control group. Active stiffness did not change in any group. Comparisons between subject and training groups did not reveal any interactions. Thus, an isometric training approach was superior in terms of enhancing core stiffness. This is important since increased core stiffness enhances load bearing ability, arrests painful vertebral micromovements, and enhances ballistic distal limb movement. This may explain the efficacy reported for back and knee injury reduction.
Sabitov, Idzhad Kh
Simple methods are used to give new proofs, and sometimes to make them more precise, of basic theorems on isometric surfaces with a common mean curvature, which are usually called Bonnet pairs. The considerations are conducted under the assumption of minimally admissible smoothness of the objects in question, and certain necessary or sufficient criteria are given for the non-existence of Bonnet pairs with a common non-constant mean curvature among compact surfaces. Bibliography: 26 titles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Methods Thirteen males (age 23 ± 6 y; height 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.0 ± 10.5 kg, matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n = 6 or β-alanine (n = 7; 6.4 g·d-1 over 4 weeks supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. Results IKET hold-time increased by 9.7 ± 9.4 s (13.2% and impulse by 3.7 ± 1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9% following β-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11 = 2.9, p ≤0.05; impulse: t(11 = 3.1, p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Conclusion Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels.
Thomas, Christopher; Jones, Paul A; Rothwell, James; Chiang, Chieh Y; Comfort, Paul
Research has demonstrated a clear relationship between dynamic strength and vertical jump (VJ) performance; however, the relationship of isometric strength and VJ performance has been studied less extensively. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between isometric strength and performance during the squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ). Twenty-two male collegiate athletes (mean ± SD; age = 21.3 ± 2.9 years; height = 175.63 ± 8.23 cm; body mass = 78.06 ± 10.77 kg) performed isometric midthigh pulls (IMTPs) to assess isometric peak force (IPF), maximum rate of force development, and impulse (IMP) (I100, I200, and I300). Force-time data, collected during the VJs, were used to calculate peak velocity, peak force (PF), peak power (PP), and jump height. Absolute IMTP measures of IMP showed the strongest correlations with VJ PF (r = 0.43-0.64; p ≤ 0.05) and VJ PP (r = 0.38-0.60; p ≤ 0.05). No statistical difference was observed in CMJ height (0.33 ± 0.05 m vs. 0.36 ± 0.05 m; p = 0.19; ES = -0.29) and SJ height performance (0.29 ± 0.06 m vs. 0.33 ± 0.05 m; p = 0.14; ES = -0.34) when comparing stronger to weaker athletes. The results of this study illustrate that absolute IPF and IMP are related to VJ PF and PP but not VJ height. Because stronger athletes did not jump higher than weaker athletes, dynamic strength tests may be more practical methods of assessing the relationships between relative strength levels and dynamic performance in collegiate athletes.
Dos'Santos, Thomas; Thomas, Christopher; Jones, Paul A; Comfort, Paul
To investigate the within-session reliability of bilateral- and unilateral-stance isometric midthigh-pull (IMTP) force-time characteristics including peak force (PF), relative PF, and impulse at time bands (0-100, 0-200, 0-250, and 0-300 milliseconds) and to compare isometric force-time characteristics between right and left and dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) limbs. Professional male rugby league and multisport male college athletes (N = 54; age, 23.4 ± 4.2 y; height, 1.80 ± 0.05 m; mass, 88.9 ± 12.9 kg) performed 3 bilateral IMTP trials and 6 unilateral-stance IMTP trials (3 per leg) on a force plate sampling at 600 Hz. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficients of variation (CVs) demonstrated high within-session reliability for bilateral and unilateral IMTP PF (ICC = .94, CV = 4.7-5.5%). Lower reliability measures and greater variability were observed for bilateral and unilateral IMTP impulse at time bands (ICC = .81-.88, CV = 7.7-11.8%). Paired-sample t tests and Cohen d effect sizes revealed no significant differences for all isometric force-time characteristics between right and left limbs in male college athletes (P >.05, d ≤ 0.32) and professional rugby league players (P > .05, d ≤ 0.11); however, significant differences were found between D and ND limbs in male college athletes (P isometric force-time characteristics between D and ND limbs in male athletes.
Steele, S. L. Jr; Ray, C. A.
PURPOSE: Although the autonomic and cardiovascular responses to arm and leg exercise have been studied, the sympathetic adjustments to exercise of the neck have not. The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to determine sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric contractions of the neck extensors and 2) to compare sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric exercise of the neck and forearm. METHODS: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate were measured in nine healthy subjects while performing isometric neck extension (INE) and isometric handgrip (IHG) in the prone position. After a 3-min baseline period, subjects performed three intensities of INE for 2.5 min each: 1) unloaded (supporting head alone), 2) 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and 3) 30% MVC, then subjects performed two intensities (10% and 30% MVC) of IHG for 2.5 min. RESULTS: Supporting the head by itself did not significantly change any of the variables. During [NE, MAP significantly increased by 10 +/- 2 and 31 +/- 4 mm Hg and MSNA increased by 67 +/- 46 and 168 +/- 36 units/30 s for 10% and 30% MVC, respectively. IHG and INE evoked similar responses at 10% MVC, but IHG elicited higher peak MAP and MSNA at 30% MVC (37 +/- 7 mm Hg (P INE can elicit marked increases in MSNA and cardiovascular responses but that it evokes lower peak responses as compared to IHG. We speculate that possible differences in muscle fiber type composition, muscle mass, and/or muscle architecture of the neck and forearm are responsible for these differences in peak responses.
Jubeau, Marc; Muthalib, Makii; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Nosaka, Kazunori
This study compared between maximal voluntary (VOL) and electrically stimulated (ES) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors for changes in indirect markers of muscle damage to investigate whether ES would induce greater muscle damage than VOL. Twelve non-resistance-trained men (23-39 years) performed VOL with one arm and ES with the contralateral arm separated by 2 weeks in a randomised, counterbalanced order. Both VOL and ES (frequency 75 Hz, pulse duration 250 μs, maximally tolerated intensity) exercises consisted of 50 maximal isometric contractions (4-s on, 15-s off) of the elbow flexors at a long muscle length (160°). Changes in maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC), range of motion, muscle soreness, pressure pain threshold and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured before, immediately after and 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h following exercise. The average peak torque over the 50 isometric contractions was greater (P < 0.05) for VOL (32.9 ± 9.8 N m) than ES (16.9 ± 6.3 N m). MVC decreased greater and recovered slower (P < 0.05) after ES (15% lower than baseline at 96 h) than VOL (full recovery). Serum CK activity increased (P < 0.05) only after ES, and the muscles became more sore and tender after ES than VOL (P < 0.05). These results showed that ES induced greater muscle damage than VOL despite the lower torque output during ES. It seems likely that higher mechanical stress imposed on the activated muscle fibres, due to the specificity of motor unit recruitment in ES, resulted in greater muscle damage.
Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Lyck, Erik; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth
This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2.......This report is Denmark's National Inventory Report 2010. The report contains information on Denmark's emission inventories for all years' from 1990 to 2008 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....
Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo
[Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furth...
Kuipers, Nathan T; Sauder, Charity L; Kearney, Matthew L; Ray, Chester A
The purpose of the study was to determine the interactive effect of aging and forearm muscle heating on renal vascular conductance and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during ischemic isometric handgrip. A tube-lined, water-perfused sleeve was used to heat the forearm in 12 young (27 +/- 1 yr) and 9 older (63 +/- 1 yr) subjects. Ischemic isometric handgrip was performed before and after heating. Muscle temperature (intramuscular thermistor) was 34.3 +/- 0.2 and 38.7 +/- 0.1 degrees C during normothermia and heating, respectively. At rest, heating had no effect on renal blood velocity (Doppler ultrasound) or renal vascular conductance in either group (young, n = 12; older, n = 8). Heating compared with normothermia caused a significantly greater increase in renal vasoconstriction during exercise and postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) in both groups. However, the increase in renal vasoconstriction during heating was greater in the older compared with the young subjects (18 +/- 3 vs. 8 +/- 3%). During handgrip, heating elicited greater increases in MSNA responses in the older group (young, n = 12; older, n = 6), whereas no statistical difference was observed between groups during PEMI. In summary, aging augments renal vascular responses to ischemic isometric handgrip during heating of the exercising muscle. The greater renal vasoconstriction was associated with augmented MSNA in the older subjects.
Baur, Heiner; Groppa, Alessia Severina; Limacher, Regula; Radlinger, Lorenz
Maximum strength and rate of force development (RFD) are 2 important strength characteristics for everyday tasks and athletic performance. Measurements of both parameters must be reliable. Expensive isokinetic devices with isometric modes are often used. The possibility of cost-effective measurements in a practical setting would facilitate quality control. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of measurements of maximum isometric strength (Fmax) and RFD on a conventional leg press. Sixteen subjects (23 ± 2 y, 1.68 ± 0.05 m, 59 ± 5 kg) were tested twice within 1 session. After warm-up, subjects performed 2 times 5 trials eliciting maximum voluntary isometric contractions on an instrumented leg press (1- and 2-legged randomized). Fmax (N) and RFD (N/s) were extracted from force-time curves. Reliability was determined for Fmax and RFD by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the test-retest variability (TRV), and the bias and limits of agreement. Reliability measures revealed good to excellent ICCs of .80-.93. TRV showed mean differences between measurement sessions of 0.4-6.9%. The systematic error was low compared with the absolute mean values (Fmax 5-6%, RFD 1-4%). The implementation of a force transducer into a conventional leg press provides a viable procedure to assess Fmax and RFD. Both performance parameters can be assessed with good to excellent reliability allowing quality control of interventions.
Mirloo, Mahsa; Ebrahimnezhad, Hosein
In this paper, a novel method is proposed to detect 3D object salient points robust to isometric variations and stable against scaling and noise. Salient points can be used as the representative points from object protrusion parts in order to improve the object matching and retrieval algorithms. The proposed algorithm is started by determining the first salient point of the model based on the average geodesic distance of several random points. Then, according to the previous salient point, a new point is added to this set of points in each iteration. By adding every salient point, decision function is updated. Hence, a condition is created for selecting the next point in which the iterative point is not extracted from the same protrusion part so that drawing out of a representative point from every protrusion part is guaranteed. This method is stable against model variations with isometric transformations, scaling, and noise with different levels of strength due to using a feature robust to isometric variations and considering the relation between the salient points. In addition, the number of points used in averaging process is decreased in this method, which leads to lower computational complexity in comparison with the other salient point detection algorithms.
Mutchler, Jessica A; Weinhandl, Joshua T; Hoch, Matthew C; Van Lunen, Bonnie L
Muscle fatigue is a common consideration when evaluating and rehabilitating athletic injuries. The presence of muscular fatigue has been previously determined by quantifying median frequency (MF) through a power spectral analysis on EMG signals collected throughout an endurance task. Research has not yet determined if a prolonged isometric test in a standing position generates muscular fatigue of the hip. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and fatigue characteristics of a standing hip isometric endurance test. Twenty healthy participants completed one 60-s Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction of standing hip flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction. MF of the participants' dominant limb rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and adductor longus (ADD) was determined via surface electromyography during two sessions, 30-min apart. Reliability values (ICC2,1) were moderate-to-excellent for all time intervals of each action (FlexionRF: >0.80; ExtensionBF: >0.89; ExtensionGMax: >0.60; AdductionADD: >0.78; AbductionGMed: >0.60) and MF significantly decreased over time for all actions. Results suggest the endurance test is a reliable technique to generate muscular fatigue for hip flexion, extension, adduction and abduction. It can be used as a time efficient fatigue protocol specific to the RF, BF, GMax, ADD and GMed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Shu; Huang, Weijian; Zeng, Yu; Shi, Wenxiu; Diao, Xianfen; Wei, Xiguang; Ling, Shan
Ultrasonography has been widely employed to estimate the morphological changes of muscle during contraction. To further investigate the motion pattern of quadriceps during isometric knee extensions, we studied the relative motion pattern between femur and quadriceps under ultrasonography. An interesting observation is that although the force of isometric knee extension can be controlled to change almost linearly, femur in the simultaneously captured ultrasound video sequences has several different piecewise moving patterns. This phenomenon is like quadriceps having several forward gear ratios like a car starting from rest towards maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and then returning to rest. Therefore, to verify this assumption, we captured several ultrasound video sequences of isometric knee extension and collected the torque/force signal simultaneously. Then we extract the shapes of femur from these ultrasound video sequences using video processing techniques and study the motion pattern both qualitatively and quantitatively. The phenomenon can be seen easier via a comparison between the torque signal and relative spatial distance between femur and quadriceps. Furthermore, we use cluster analysis techniques to study the process and the clustering results also provided preliminary support to the conclusion that, during both ramp increasing and decreasing phases, quadriceps contraction may have several forward gear ratios relative to femur.
Kitson, Nicole A; Price, Morgan; Bowen, Michael; Lau, Francis
Medication errors are a significant source of actual and potential harm for patients. Community medication records have the potential to reduce medication errors, but they can also introduce unintended consequences when there is low fit to task (low cognitive fit). PharmaNet is a provincially managed electronic repository that contains the records for community-based pharmacy-dispensed medications in British Columbia. This research explores the usability of PharmaNet, as a representative community-based medication repository. We completed usability inspections of PharmaNet through vendor applications. Vendor participants were asked to complete activity-driven scenarios, which highlighted aspects of medication management workflow. Screen recording was later reviewed. Heuristics were applied to explore usability issues and improvement opportunities. Usability inspection was conducted with four PharmaNet applications. Ninety-six usability issues were identified; half of these had potential implications for patient safety. These were primarily related to login and logout procedures; display of patient name; display of medications; update and display of alert information; and the changing or discontinuation of medications. PharmaNet was designed primarily to support medication dispensing and billing activities by community pharmacies, but is also used to support care providers with monitoring and prescribing activities. As such, some of the features do not have a strong fit for other clinical activities. To improve fit, we recommend: having a Current Medications List and Displaying Medication Utilization Charts.
Full Text Available In this research, an E-learning environment is developed for the teacher candidates taking the course on Scientific Research Methods. The course contents were adapted to one of the constructivist approach models referred to as 5E, and an expert opinion was received for the compliance of this model. An usability analysis was also performed to determine the usability of the e-learning environment. The participants of the research comprised 42 teacher candidates. The mixed method was used in the research. 3 different data collection tools were used in order to measure the three basic concepts of usability analyses, which are the dimensions of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. Two of the data collection tools were the scales developed by different researchers and were applied with the approval received from the researchers involved. On the other hand, the usability test as another data tool was prepared by the researchers who conducted this study for the purpose of determining the participants’ success in handling the twelve tasks assigned to them with respect to the use of elearning environment, the seconds they spent on that environment and the number of clicks they performed. Considering the results of the analyses performed within the data obtained, the usability of the developed e-learning environment proved to be at a higher rate.
Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily; Omar, Mohd Adan
This paper discuss on the dimensions that has been derived for the hearing-impaired mobile applications usability model. General usability model consist of general dimension for evaluating mobile application however requirements for the hearing-impaired are overlooked and often scanted. This led towards mobile application developed for the hearing-impaired are left unused. It is also apparent that these usability models do not consider accessibility dimensions according to the requirement of the special users. This complicates the work of usability practitioners as well as academician that practices research usability when application are developed for the specific user needs. To overcome this issue, dimension chosen for the hearing-impaired are ensured to be align with the real need of the hearing-impaired mobile application. Besides literature studies, requirements for the hearing-impaired mobile application have been identified through interview conducted with hearing-impaired mobile application users that were recorded as video outputs and analyzed using Nvivo. Finally total of 6 out of 15 dimensions gathered are chosen for the proposed model and presented.
Abdul Ghani Aida Affina
Full Text Available With more than 200 number of shopping centre in Klang Valley itself, we the consumer actually have vast of choices. Instead of the machineries varieties from the lower class product till the posh one, each of those shopping centres eventually offers the typical product same as others. Those shopping centers are competing with each other and in great endeavour to attract more consumers, to visit and spend. As for the visitor, the typical product and boring ambience seems similar in all malls, and is looking something beyond the standard. Something that promising quality embedded in shopping centre which evokes the various emotions of the user along their journey in malls. This quality is known as usability. Usability; as defined generally is a global user’s experience response with product, environment, service or facilities. It is an assessment in extracting the qualities of shopping centre design. In mapping it, there are a few synthesizing methods to implement it. Therefore, this paper purposely to review the method that been used in usability of Malaysia’s shopping centre research with a few references on previous research done in usability assessment by predecessor’s scholars. With the accentuation on three elements that anchoring what the usability is: effectiveness, efficient and satisfaction, it is hope that this overview can lead other researcher in portraying its relationship with the quality and ‘user friendly’ design of shopping centre.
This session is intended to apprise one of the various aspects of procedures and routines that Exxon Nuclear uses with respect to its nuclear materials physical inventory program. The presentation describes how plant physical inventories are planned and taken. The description includes the planning and preparation for taking the inventory, the clean-out procedures for converting in-process material to measurable items, the administrative procedures for establishing independent inventory teams and for inventorying each inventory area, the verification procedures used to include previously measured tamper-safed items in the inventory, and lastly, procedures used to reconcile the inventory and calculate MUF (materials unaccounted for). The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the planning and pre-inventorty procedures and their importance; (2) understand the need for and the required intensity of clean-out procedures; (3) understand how inventory teams are formed, and how the inventory is conducted; (4) understand the distinction between inventory previously measured tamper-safed items and other materials not so characterized; (5) understand the reconciliation procedures; and (6) calculate a MUF given the book and inventory results
Khan, Muhammad; Soomro, Rabail Rani; Ali, Syed Shahzad
To evaluate the effectiveness of isometric exercises as compared to general exercises in chronic non-specific neck pain. For this randomised controlled trial total 68 patients (34 each group) with chronic non-specific neck pain were recruited from Alain Poly Clinic and Institute of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi between May, 2012 and August, 2012. Simple randomisation method was used to assign participants into isometric exercise group and general exercise groups. The isometric exercise group performed exercises for neck muscle groups with a rubber band and general exercises group performed active range of movement exercises for all neck movements. Patients in both groups received 3 supervised treatment sessions per week for 12 weeks. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), North wick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire and goniometer were used to assess pain, disability and neck range of movements at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both interventions showed statistically significant improvements in pain, function and range of movement p = 0.001f or isometric exercise group, p = 0.04 for general exercises group and p = 0.001 for range of movement. However, mean improvements in post intervention VAS score and North wick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire score was better in isometric exercises group as compared to general exercise group. In conclusion, both interventions are effective in the treatment of chronic non-specific neck pain however; isometric exercises are clinically more effective than general exercises.
Kanada, Yoshikiyo; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Sugiura, Yoshito; Arai, Tomoaki; Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo
[Purpose] To create a regression formula in order to estimate 1RM for knee extensors, based on the maximal isometric muscle strength measured using a hand-held dynamometer and data regarding the body composition. [Subjects and Methods] Measurement was performed in 21 healthy males in their twenties to thirties. Single regression analysis was performed, with measurement values representing 1RM and the maximal isometric muscle strength as dependent and independent variables, respectively. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis was performed, with data regarding the body composition incorporated as another independent variable, in addition to the maximal isometric muscle strength. [Results] Through single regression analysis with the maximal isometric muscle strength as an independent variable, the following regression formula was created: 1RM (kg)=0.714 + 0.783 × maximal isometric muscle strength (kgf). On multiple regression analysis, only the total muscle mass was extracted. [Conclusion] A highly accurate regression formula to estimate 1RM was created based on both the maximal isometric muscle strength and body composition. Using a hand-held dynamometer and body composition analyzer, it was possible to measure these items in a short time, and obtain clinically useful results.
Dona Sabila Alzena
Full Text Available The inventory control system has a strategic role for the business in managing inventory operations. Management of conventional inventory creates problems in the stock of goods that often runs into vacancies and excess goods at the retail level. This study aims to build inventory control system that can maintain the stability of goods availability at the retail level. The implementation of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI method on inventory control system provides transparency of sales data and inventory of goods at retailer level to supplier. Inventory control is performed by calculating safety stock and reorder point of goods based on sales data received by the system. Rule-based reasoning is provided on the system to facilitate the monitoring of inventory status information, thereby helping the process of inventory updates appropriately. Utilization of SMS technology is also considered as a medium of collecting sales data in real-time due to the ease of use. The results of this study indicate that inventory control using VMI ensures the availability of goods ± 70% and can reduce the accumulation of goods ± 30% at the retail level.
Sabila, Alzena Dona; Mustafid; Suryono
The inventory control system has a strategic role for the business in managing inventory operations. Management of conventional inventory creates problems in the stock of goods that often runs into vacancies and excess goods at the retail level. This study aims to build inventory control system that can maintain the stability of goods availability at the retail level. The implementation of Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) method on inventory control system provides transparency of sales data and inventory of goods at retailer level to supplier. Inventory control is performed by calculating safety stock and reorder point of goods based on sales data received by the system. Rule-based reasoning is provided on the system to facilitate the monitoring of inventory status information, thereby helping the process of inventory updates appropriately. Utilization of SMS technology is also considered as a medium of collecting sales data in real-time due to the ease of use. The results of this study indicate that inventory control using VMI ensures the availability of goods ± 70% and can reduce the accumulation of goods ± 30% at the retail level.
The National Biological Monitoring Inventory, initiated in 1975, currently consists of four computerized data bases and voluminous manual files. MAIN BIOMON contains detailed information on 1,021 projects, while MINI BIOMON provides skeletal data for over 3,000 projects in the 50 states, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, plus a few in Canada and Mexico. BIBLIO BIOMON and DIRECTORY BIOMON complete the computerized data bases. The structure of the system provides for on-line search capabilities to generate details of agency sponsorship, indications of funding levels, taxonomic and geographic coverage, length of program life, managerial focus or emphasis, and condition of the data. Examples of each of these are discussed and illustrated, and potential use of the Inventory in a variety of situations is emphasized
Weber, J.H.; Clark, J.P.
Determining the cause of an inventory difference (ID) that exceeds warning or alarm limits should not only involve investigation into measurement methods and reexamination of the model assumptions used in the calculation of the limits, but also result in corrective actions that improve the quality of the accountability measurements. An example illustrating methods used by Savannah River Site (SRS) personnel to resolve an ID is presented that may be useful to other facilities faced with a similar problem. After first determining that no theft or diversion of material occurred and correcting any accountability calculation errors, investigation into the IDs focused on volume and analytical measurements, limit of error of inventory difference (LEID) modeling assumptions, and changes in the measurement procedures and methods prior to the alarm. There had been a gradual gain trend in IDs prior to the alarm which was reversed by the alarm inventory. The majority of the NM in the facility was stored in four large tanks which helped identify causes for the alarm. The investigation, while indicating no diversion or theft, resulted in changes in the analytical method and in improvements in the measurement and accountability that produced a 67% improvement in the LEID
Nasseroleslami, Bahman; Lakany, Heba; Conway, Bernard A
The electroencephalographic (EEG) activity patterns in humans during motor behaviour provide insight into normal motor control processes and for diagnostic and rehabilitation applications. While the patterns preceding brisk voluntary movements, and especially movement execution, are well described, there are few EEG studies that address the cortical activation patterns seen in isometric exertions and their planning. In this paper, we report on time and time-frequency EEG signatures in experiments in normal subjects (n=8), using multichannel EEG during motor preparation, planning and execution of directional centre-out arm isometric exertions performed at the wrist in the horizontal plane, in response to instruction-delay visual cues. Our observations suggest that isometric force exertions are accompanied by transient and sustained event-related potentials (ERP) and event-related (de-)synchronisations (ERD/ERS), comparable to those of a movement task. Furthermore, the ERPs and ERD/ERS are also observed during preparation and planning of the isometric task. Comparison of ear-lobe-referenced and surface Laplacian ERPs indicates the contribution of superficial sources in supplementary and pre-motor (FC(z)), parietal (CP(z)) and primary motor cortical areas (C₁ and FC₁) to ERPs (primarily negative peaks in frontal and positive peaks in parietal areas), but contribution of deep sources to sustained time-domain potentials (negativity in planning and positivity in execution). Transient and sustained ERD patterns in μ and β frequency bands of ear-lobe-referenced and surface Laplacian EEG indicate the contribution of both superficial and deep sources to ERD/ERS. As no physical displacement happens during the task, we can infer that the underlying mechanisms of motor-related ERPs and ERD/ERS patterns do not only depend on change in limb coordinate or muscle-length-dependent ascending sensory information and are primary generated by motor preparation, direction
Full Text Available Abstract Background Side bridge endurance protocols have been suggested to evaluate lateral trunk flexor and/or spine stabilizer muscles. To date, no study has investigated muscle recruitment and fatigability during these protocols. Therefore the purpose of our study was to quantify fatigue parameters in various trunk muscles during a modified side bridge endurance task (i.e. a lateral isometric hold test on a 45° roman chair apparatus and determine which primary trunk muscles get fatigued during this task. It was hypothesized that the ipsilateral external oblique and lumbar erector spinae muscles will exhibit the highest fatigue indices. Methods Twenty-two healthy subjects participated in this study. The experimental session included left and right lateral isometric hold tasks preceded and followed by 3 maximal voluntary contractions in the same position. Surface electromyography (EMG recordings were obtained bilaterally from the external oblique, rectus abdominis, and L2 and L5 erector spinae. Statistical analysis were conducted to compare the right and left maximal voluntary contractions (MVC, surface EMG activities, right vs. left holding times and decay rate of the median frequency as the percent change from the initial value (NMFslope. Results No significant left and right lateral isometric hold tests differences were observed neither for holding times (97.2 ± 21.5 sec and 96.7 ± 24.9 sec respectively nor for pre and post fatigue root mean square during MVCs. However, participants showed significant decreases of MVCs between pre and post fatigue measurements for both the left and right lateral isometric hold tests. Statistical analysis showed that a significantly NMFslope of the ipsilateral external oblique during both conditions, and a NMFslope of the contralateral L5 erector spinae during the left lateral isometric hold test were steeper than those of the other side’s respective muscles. Although some participants
Teka, Degif; Dittrich, Yvonne; Kifle, Mesfin
Usability and user centered design (UCD) are central to software development. In developing countries, the gap between IT development and the local use situation is larger than in western countries. However, usability is neither well addressed in software practice nor at the policy making level...... in Ethiopia. Software practitioners focus on functional requirements, meeting deadlines and budget. The software development industry in Ethiopia is in its early stage. The article aims at understanding usability practices in an Ethiopian software development company. Developers, system analysts, product...... configuration, their experience, cultural knowledge and common sense regarding the users' situation guided the design. Prototypes and fast delivery of working versions helped in getting user feedback even if early user focus proved to be a challenge as communication between developers and users suffered from...
Background: In complex buildings with many types of users it can be difficult to satisfy the numerous, often contradictory requirements. Research in usability mostly focuses on evaluating products or facilities with users, after they were built. This paper is part of a PhD project “Usability...... with various users/stakeholders, using creative boundary objects at workshops. Practical Implications: The research results have relevance to researchers, client organisations, facility managers and architects planning new complex facilities. Research limitations: The proposed model is theoretical and needs...... briefing for hospitals”, where methods for capturing user needs and experiences at hospital facilities are investigated in order to feed into design processes and satisfy the users’ needs and maximise the effectiveness of facilities. Purpose: This paper introduces the concept of usability briefing...
Matraf, Munya Saleh Ba; Hussain, Azham
Evaluation for mobile e-book applications are limited and did not address all the important usability measurements. Hence, this study aimed to identify the characteristics that affect user satisfaction on the usability of mobile e-book applications. Five characteristics that have a significant effect on the user satisfaction of mobile e-book applications have been identified namely readability, effectiveness, accessibility, efficiency, and navigation. A usability evaluation was conducted on three mobile e-book applications namely Adobe Acrobat Reader, Ebook Reader, and Amazon Kindle. 30 students from Universiti Utara Malaysia evaluated the mobile e-book applications and their satisfaction was measured using questionnaire. The outcomes discovered that the five characteristics have a significant positive relationship with user satisfaction. This provides insights into the main characteristics that increase user satisfaction.
Full Text Available This data article provides a data description on article entitled “A framework for improving web accessibility and usability of Open Course Ware sites”  This Data in Brief presents the data obtained from the accessibility and usability evaluation of the UTPL OCW. The data obtained from the framework evaluation consists of the manual evaluation of the standards criteria and the automatic evaluation of the tools Google PageSpeed and Google Analytics. In addition, this article presents the synthetized tables from standards that are used by the framework to evaluate the accessibility and usability of OCW, and the questionnaires required to extract the data. As a result, the article also provides the data required to reproduce the evaluation of other OCW.
Full Text Available The article describes the design of a mobile workplace learning tool for trainers of the International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization. The motivation behind is to provide trainers with a practical tool that will enable them to recall information at the moment of need and continue to learn in context. On this purpose a set of visual augmented reality cards was created, taking into consideration the fundamental mobile learning and usability principles. The nature of the article is empirical as it reports an experiment carried out with trainers which aimed at testing cards usability and learnability. Results show that the integration of both online and offline strategies was perceived as an added value as trainers could choose to retrieve information as they mostly like; finally, it also resulted in high usability scores, an aspect that contributes to their effectiveness at the workplace.
Zahra, Fatima; Hussain, Azham; Mohd, Haslina
The range and availability of mobile applications is expanding rapidly. With the increased processing power available on portable devices, developers are increasing the range of services by embracing smartphones in their extensive and diverse practices. While usability testing and evaluations of mobile applications have not yet touched the accuracy level of other web based applications. The existing usability models do not adequately capture the complexities of interacting with applications on a mobile platform. Therefore, this study aims to presents review on existing usability models for mobile applications. These models are in their infancy but with time and more research they may eventually be adopted. Moreover, different categories of mobile apps (medical, entertainment, education) possess different functional and non-functional requirements thus customized models are required for diverse mobile applications.
Physical inventories are taken periodically to meet Company, State and IAEA requirements. Those physical inventories may be verified by IAEA and/or State inspectors. This presentation describes in an introductory but detailed manner the approaches and procedures used in planning, preparing, conducting, reconciling and reporting physical inventories for the Model Plant. Physical inventories are taken for plant accounting purposes to provide an accurate basis for starting and closing the plant material balance. Physical inventories are also taken for safeguards purposes to provide positive assurance that the nuclear materials of concern are indeed present and accounted for
Full Text Available Digital technologies have opened a large set of opportunities for new electronic services (e-commerce, e-health, e-studies etc.. There are many considerations that need to be made when programmers are building new application software or system software. The software needs to be attractive enough that people want to look at it. It also needs to contain all necessary information that developers want to share with their readers (customers, users in order to help them achieve the objective for which they came to their website, use their software, or interact with their teaching packages. The oversupply of e-services products has created a need for usability research and development. “Usability means making products and systems easier to use, and matching them more closely to user needs and requirements”. Usability is a key concept of the human-computer interface and is concerned with making computer systems easy to learn and easy to use through a user-centered design process. The in-depth understanding of usability concepts and processes are critical for large-scale acceptance of new e-services and knowledge productivity. Poorly designed software can be extremely annoying to users. Smith and Mayes state that „usability is now recognised as a vital determining factor in the success of any new computer system or computer-based service”. Studies have shown that the main health problems of computer users are repetitive strain injuries, visual discomfort and stress-related disorders. Beside other risk factors, such as poor workstation design, uncomfortable work postures, long hours of computer use every day, stress, etc., also poor design and usability of the computer systems, as well as computer technical problems, add to the pressure felt by the user, which may in turn cause stress-related disorders.
Full Text Available Rafael dos Reis Vieira Olher,1,2,* Danilo Sales Bocalini,3,* Reury Frank Bacurau,4 Daniel Rodriguez,5 Aylton Figueira Jr,5 Francisco Luciano Pontes Jr,4 Francisco Navarro,6 Herbert Gustavo Simões,1 Ronaldo Carvalho Araujo,7 Milton Rocha Moraes8 1Universidade Católica de Brasília, Distrito Federal, 2Universidade Gama Filho, Rio de Janeiro, 3Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, 4Universidade de São Paulo – Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, São Paulo, 5Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT, São Paulo, Brazil, 6Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Maranhão, 7Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, São Paulo, 8Universidade Federal de São Paulo – Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Arterial hypertension is a serious health problem affecting mainly the elderly population. Recent studies have considered both aerobic and resistance exercises as a non-pharmacological aid for arterial hypertension treatment. However, the cardiovascular responses of the elderly to isometric resistance exercise (eg, isometric handgrip [IHG] have not yet been documented. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiovascular responses to different intensities of isometric exercise, as well as the occurrence of post-isometric exercise hypotension in hypertensive elderly people under antihypertensive medication treatment. Patients and methods: Twelve women volunteered to participate in the study after a maximal voluntary contraction test (MVC and standardization of the intervention workload consisting of two sessions of IHG exercise performed in four sets of five contractions of a 10-second duration. Sessions were performed both at 30% of the MVC and 50% of the MVC, using a unilateral IHG protocol. Both intensities were compared with a control session without exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP at rest
Meza, David; Berndt, Sarah
The purpose of the Sentiment of Search Study for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is to gain insight into the intranet search environment. With an initial usability survey, the authors were able to determine a usability score based on the Systems Usability Scale (SUS). Created in 1986, the freely available, well cited, SUS is commonly used to determine user perceptions of a system (in this case the intranet search environment). As with any improvement initiative, one must first examine and document the current reality of the situation. In this scenario, a method was needed to determine the usability of a search interface in addition to the user's perception on how well the search system was providing results. The use of the SUS provided a mechanism to quickly ascertain information in both areas, by adding one additional open-ended question at the end. The first ten questions allowed us to examine the usability of the system, while the last questions informed us on how the users rated the performance of the search results. The final analysis provides us with a better understanding of the current situation and areas to focus on for improvement. The power of search applications to enhance knowledge transfer is indisputable. The performance impact for any user unable to find needed information undermines project lifecycle, resource and scheduling requirements. Ever-increasing complexity of content and the user interface make usability considerations for the intranet, especially for search, a necessity instead of a 'nice-to-have'. Despite these arguments, intranet usability is largely disregarded due to lack of attention beyond the functionality of the infrastructure (White, 2013). The data collected from users of the JSC search system revealed their overall sentiment by means of the widely-known System Usability Scale. Results of the scores suggest 75%, +/-0.04, of the population rank the search system below average. In terms of a grading scaled, this equated to D or
Nawaz, Ather; Clemmensen, Torkil
As the number of website users in Asia grows, there is an increasing need to gain an overview of human–computer interaction (HCI) research about users and websites in that context. This article presents an overview of HCI research on website usability in Asia “from within,” which outlines...... discusses the results and the need for a greater sensitivity to what is “local” and “from within” in HCI research and what this can add to the existing literature on website usability....
Kushniruk, Andre; Senathirajah, Yalini; Borycki, Elizabeth
The usability and safety of health information systems have become major issues in the design and implementation of useful healthcare IT. In this paper we describe a multi-phased multi-method approach to integrating usability engineering methods into system testing to ensure both usability and safety of healthcare IT upon widespread deployment. The approach involves usability testing followed by clinical simulation (conducted in-situ) and "near-live" recording of user interactions with systems. At key stages in this process, usability problems are identified and rectified forming a usability and technology-induced error "safety net" that catches different types of usability and safety problems prior to releasing systems widely in healthcare settings.
Vanessa L. Cazás-Moreno
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of general and specific warm-up protocols on rate of force development (RFD, relative RFD (rRFD, ground reaction force (GRF and relative ground reaction force (rGRF during an isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP, after WBV exposure. Methods: Fifteen healthy recreationally trained males (age: 24.1 ± 2.3 yrs, height: 72.9 ± 7.8 cm; mass: 86.9 ± 8.3 completed five protocols: baseline, isometric vibration (iVib, isometric no vibration (iNV, dynamic vibration (dVib and dynamic no vibration (dNV. The baseline was completed without any warm-up prior to the IMTP. The intervention protocols had the same prescription of 4 sets of 30-second bouts of quarter squats (dynamic [DQS] and isometric [IQS] on the WBV platform with or without vibration. Following a one-minute rest period after each protocol, participants completed three maximal IMTPs. Results: Repeated measures ANOVA with a Bonferroni post hoc demonstrated that RFD in dNV (7657.8 ± 2292.5 N/s was significantly greater than iVib (7156.4 ± 2170.0 N/s. However, the other experimental trials for RFD demonstrated no significant differences (p>0.05. There were also no significant differences for rRFD, GRF or rGRF between protocols. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that a dynamic warm-up without WBV elicits greater RFD than an isometric warm-up with WBV prior to a maximal isometric exercise. Further research needs to be investigated utilizing dynamic and isometric warm-ups in conjunction with WBV and power output. Keywords: males, recreationally trained, power
Riddle, Daniel L; Stratford, Paul W
Muscle force testing is one of the more common categories of diagnostic tests used in clinical practice. Clinicians have little evidence to guide interpretations of muscle force tests when pain is elicited during testing. The purpose of this study was to examine the construct validity of isometric quadriceps muscle strength tests by determining whether the relationship between maximal isometric quadriceps muscle strength and functional status was influenced by pain during isometric testing. A cross-sectional design was used. Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were used to identify 1,344 people with unilateral knee pain and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale scores of 1 or higher on the involved side. Measurements of maximal isometric quadriceps strength and ratings of pain during isometric testing were collected. Outcome variables were WOMAC physical function subscale, 20-m walk test, 400-m walk test, and a repeated chair stand test. Multiple regression models were used to determine whether pain during testing modified or confounded the relationship between strength and functional status. Pearson r correlations among the isometric quadriceps strength measures and the 4 outcome measures ranged from -.36 (95% confidence interval=-.41, -.31) for repeated chair stands to .36 (95% confidence interval=.31, .41) for the 20-m walk test. In the final analyses, neither effect modification nor confounding was found for the repeated chair stand test, the 20-m walk test, the 400-m walk test, or the WOMAC physical function subscale. Moderate or severe pain during testing was weakly associated with reduced strength, but mild pain was not. The disease spectrum was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms, and the pain measurement scale used during muscle force testing was not ideal. Given that the spectrum of the sample was skewed toward mild or moderate symptoms and disease, the data suggest that isometric quadriceps muscle
Le Turdu Valéry
Full Text Available Natural armourstone is widely used for hydraulic works, both in the coastal domain and in border of rivers and torrents, especially to protect against flood and the effects of waves and currents. To meet the expectations associated with this resource, an inventory of armourstone quarries was realized on a national scale in France. This inventory informs not only about the localization of quarries but also about the quality and the availability of materials. To fully optimize this inventory in a dynamic format, the association of all actors of the sector was preferred to archival research. This partnership approach led to project deliverables that can constitute durably a shared reference. The database can indeed be updated regularly thanks to the contacts established with the professionals of quarries. The access to this database is offered to a wide public: maritime and fluvial ports, local authorities in charge of planning and managing structures that protect against flood and other hydraulic hazards. This new database was organized considering its importance on the operational plan. This led to a hierarchical organization at two levels for each quarry face: first level, a synthesis sheet brings the essential information to realize choices upstream to the operational phases. Second level, a detailed specification sheet presents the technical characteristics observed in the past on the considered face. The atlas has two information broadcasting formats: a pdf file with browsing functions and a geographical information system that allows remote request of the database. These two media have their own updating rhythms, annual for the first and continue for the second.
Damgaard, Cecilie Maria; Nguyen, Vivi Thuy; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik
in the retail supply chains. The goal is to find and evaluate the parameters which affect the decision making process, when finding the optimal order quantity and order time. The paper takes a starting point in the retail industry but links to other industries.......The paper investigates how inventory control of perishable items is managed and line up some possible options of improvement. This includes a review of relevant literature dealing with the challenges of determining ordering policies for perishable products and a study of how the current procedures...
Nawaz, Ather; Skjæret, Nina; Lægdheim Helbostad, Jorunn
Serious games (exergames) have the potential to be effective for postural balance and increasing muscle strength. Several games have been developed to increase physical fitness and balance among older adults. However, it is unclear to which degree usability and acceptability of exergames for olde...
We aimed to assess the level of microbial contamination of re-usable laryngoscope blades at a public hospital in South Africa. Setting. The theatre complex of a secondary-level public hospital in Johannesburg. Methods. Blades from two different theatres were sampled twice daily, using a standardised technique, over a ...
sensitivity, and colour vision data were collected under protocol 2013-073: Automated Target Cueing in Scene Search (Dr. Mackenzie Glaholt, DRDC Toronto... Psychological Science, 1(3), 181- 210. Ryu, Y. S., & Smith-Jackson, T. L. (2006). Reliability and Validity of the Mobile Phone Usability Questionnaire
Hornbæk, K.; Stage, Jan
of the workshop are motivated and an outline of the contents of the papers that were presented in the workshop is given. In addition we summarize some challenges to the interplay between usability evaluation and user interface design agreed upon at the workshop, as well as some solutions that were debated....
Andersen, Malene Hjortboe; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Brooks, Eva Irene
of these methods is that they are designed for adults and are not necessarily appropriate to investigations including children. The guiding questions for this systematic literature review are (1) the motivation for conducting usability tests with children, and (2) the kind of methodological, practical, and ethical...
Department of Computer Science, University of Dar-es-Salaam, P.O. Box 35062, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania ... in order to assure usability and reduce the incidences and impact of human .... the questions were directed during the DHIS user.
Williams, Sarah C.; Foster, Anita K.
Discovery tools are the next phase of library search systems. Illinois State University's Milner Library implemented EBSCO Discovery Service in August 2010. The authors conducted usability studies on the system in the fall of 2010. The aims of the study were twofold: first, to determine how Milner users set about using the system in order to…
Full Text Available in these types of development projects, the dream of the providing effective access may remain just that – a dream. This paper highlights the important role that usability plays in the drive towards narrowing the digital divide. We report on the outcome of a...
Upitis, Rena; Boese, Karen; Abrami, Philip C.; Anwar, Zaeem
The Digital Resource Exchange About Music (DREAM) is a virtual space for exchanging information about digital learning tools. The purpose of the present study was to determine how users responded to DREAM in the first four months after its public release. This study is the second phase of usability research on DREAM, and was conducted to guide…
Full Text Available To protect users from numerous password inference attacks, we invent a novel context aware privacy enhancing keyboard (PEK for Android touch-based devices. Usually PEK would show a QWERTY keyboard when users input text like an email or a message. Nevertheless, whenever users enter a password in the input box on his or her touch-enabled device, a keyboard will be shown to them with the positions of the characters shuffled at random. PEK has been released on the Google Play since 2014. However, the number of installations has not lived up to our expectation. For the purpose of usable security and privacy, we designed a two-stage usability test and performed two rounds of iterative usability testing in 2016 and 2017 summer with continuous improvements of PEK. The observations from the usability testing are educational: (1 convenience plays a critical role when users select an input method; (2 people think those attacks that PEK prevents are remote from them.
Tri, Y.; Erna, A.; Gellysa, U.
Presentation of programs with user interface that can be accessed online through the website of course greatly provide user benefits. User can easily access the program they need. There are usability values that serve as a benchmark for the success of a user accessible program, ie efficiency, effectiveness, and convenience. These usability values also determine the development of the program for the better use. Therefore, on the review title thesis program that will be implemented in STT Dumai was measured usability evaluation. It aims to see which sides are not yet perfect and need to be improved to improve the performance and utilization of the program. Usability evaluation was measured by using smartPLS software. Database used was the result of respondent questionnaires that include questions about the experience when they used program. The result of a review of thesis title program implemented in STT Dumai has an efficiency value of 22.615, the effectiveness of 20.612, and satisfaction of 33.177.
André H. du Plessis
Full Text Available In the development of the metalexicography, the primary focus of metalexicographers was on the development of printed dictionaries. As technology advances, the focus now shifts towards online and electronic products. Tarp (2009:23–24 posits that this shift results in metalexicographic shortcomings. This means that the theories used to create and evaluate dictionaries are not sufficient anymore. Bergenholtz and Bothma (2011:54 show that dictionaries as data carriers are now not only limited to the field of lexicography, but also to information technological fields. For current lexicographers to be successful in the digital age, the theories used in designing, developing and critiquing dictionaries must adapt with regards to current information technological trends, norms and practices. One aspect that must be addressed is the usability of dictionaries and other electronic lexicographic tools. By using usability theories and standards, current metalexicographical principles can be adapted for the digital age in a streamlined fashion. This study aims to show how usability theories and standards can be advantageous for metalexicography and that future electronic metalexicographic endeavours should not be undertaken without considering the usability as part of the theoretical framework.
Full Text Available Various studies have shown that the wine consumption decline in young generation could be influenced by the perception of wine as intimidating and difficult to understand, and by the lack of adaptability of the product’s communication strategy and packaging design to their lifestyle. Information available on the packaging is often complex and confusing for novice wine consumers and sometimes even irrelevant in regards to the intrinsic characteristics of the product. Furthermore, wine is seen by young adult consumers as old fashion, formal and mostly not associated with their relaxed attitude and “on the move” lifestyle. The objective of this paper is to analyse the usability key principles and heuristic and their applicability in wine marketing as a mean to improve the perception and increase understanding of wine for the young and/or novice consumers. The paper aims to review the existing knowledge and findings about the concept of usability (with special emphasis on Usability Engineering and Human Computer Interaction (HCI, in order to explore the aspects applicable in wine marketing. The usability concept proves useful in wine marketing to simplify the decision process, to make the meeting with the product less intimidating and more engaging, and to decrease the risk perception for the inexperienced wine consumers.
Razak, Mohd Nur Faiz Abd; Hussain, Azham; Hamdi, Mohd Maizan Fishol
Nowadays, YouTube is the 3rd most visited website in the world. It was created for users to search, watch and share video. Statistics show that YouTube run in more than 88 countries and support 76 different languages which covered almost 95% of Internet population globally. Therefore, a usability study is for specific type of users such as based on gender, range of age and country is considered a must for this kind of top website. In this study, we focus on YouTube website usability for Malaysian teenagers that are currently schooling in boarding school with limited access of Internet. It was done in a controlled lab environment with proper devices and software as MacBook, LCD Monitor, and WhatPulse heat map tracker. The evaluation was made based on usability metrics: ease of use, usefulness and satisfaction of users with combination of recording videos, mouse and keyboard heat map and questionnaires. Findings show that most of the respondents just use YouTube for video watching only while ignoring other features in the same time. There are difficulties in using it at the first moment but could catch up in short time. It shows how usable YouTube website especially in the learnability and memorability aspects.
Girard, Tulay; Pinar, Musa
This research advances the understanding of the usability of marketing case study modules in the area of interactive web-based technologies through the assignment of seven interactive case modules in a Principles of Marketing course. The case modules were provided for marketing students by the publisher, McGraw Hill Irwin, of the…
Usability evaluation methods (UEMs) are widely recognised as an essential part of systems development. Assessments of the performance of UEMs, however, have been criticised for low validity and limited reliability. The present study extends this critique by describing seven dogmas in recent work ...... research approaches that may help move beyond the dogmas. In particular, we emphasise detailed studies of evaluation processes, assessments of the impact of UEMs on design carried out in real-world systems development and analyses of how UEMs may be combined......Usability evaluation methods (UEMs) are widely recognised as an essential part of systems development. Assessments of the performance of UEMs, however, have been criticised for low validity and limited reliability. The present study extends this critique by describing seven dogmas in recent work...... on UEMs. The dogmas include using inadequate procedures and measures for assessment, focusing on win-lose outcomes, holding simplistic models of how usability evaluators work, concentrating on evaluation rather than on design and working from the assumption that usability problems are real. We discuss...
Lautenbach, M.A.E.; Schegget, I.E. ter; Schoute, A.E.; Witteman, C.L.M.
An evaluation of the Utrecht University website was carried out with 240 students. New criteria were drawn from the literature and operationalized for the study. These criteria are surveyability and findability. Web pages can be said to satisfy a usability criterion if their efficiency and
Thiruvenkadam, G.; Brombacher, A.C.; Lu, Y.; Ouden, den P.H.
In this paper we report the findings of a study intended to assess the usability of consumer related information sources in order to improve the design processes of innovative electronic products. Specifically, an evaluation is done of the quality and content of information that would help product
Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Ebert, Hans
The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz while it is essentially useless for higher frequencies.
As the popularity of online banking Websites has increased, the security of these sites has become increasingly critical as attacks against these sites are on the rise. However, the design decisions made during construction of the sites could make usability more difficult, where the user has difficulty making good security decisions. This study…
Liu, Min; Traphagan, Tomoko; Huh, Jin; Koh, Young Ihn; Choi, Gilok; McGregor, Allison
The purpose of this paper is to report on a usability study for ESL websites conducted to gain insights from learners of English as a second language (ESL) as they interacted with specific sites. Five carefully selected ESL sites were tested by 10 different users generating a total of fifty testing sessions. Two major research questions guided the…
Meng, Liqiu; Winter, Stephan; Popovich, Vasily
This book reports the newest research and technical achievements on the following theme blocks: Design of mobile map services and its constraints; Typology and usability of mobile map services; Visualization solutions on small displays for time-critical tasks; Mobile map users; Interaction and adaptation in mobile environments; and Applications of map-based mobile services.
Zhang, Tao; Maron, Deborah J.; Charles, Christopher C.
This article reports results from an empirical usability evaluation of Human-Animal Bond Research Initiative Central as part of the effort to develop an open access research repository and collaboration platform for human-animal bond researchers. By repurposing and altering key features of the original HUBzero system, Human-Animal Bond Research…
Møller, Margrethe Hansen
Based on experience from the research project “User Manuals for Older Adults”, this paper discusses whether there are special ethical concerns with older adults as test persons in a usability test involving the think-aloud method. In this context, older adults are defined as individuals with normal...
Full Text Available The Digital Doorway (DD) is a non-standard computer system deployed to promote computer literacy amongst underprivileged communities in South Africa. Since its inception there has been no usability evaluation of the software installed on the DD...
Sørensen, Morten; Franek, Ondrej; Christensen, Søren K.
The workbench Faraday Cage method (WBFC) is a time efficient module pre-compliance test regarding radiated emission. This work investigates the method’s usability and credibility and concludes that for this particular case the WBFC perform a tolerable compliance test for frequencies below 360 MHz...
Briesch, Amy M.; Briesch, Jacquelyn M.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.
Although teachers are often asked to implement classroom interventions to address student behavior, little is known about their perceived usability of many evidence-based strategies. One thousand five elementary schoolteachers completed the Usage Rating Profile-Intervention-Revised (URP-IR) with regard to the use of one of five evidence-based…
Discusses the need for an intuitive library information gateway to meet users' information needs and describes the process involved in redesigning a library Web site based on experiences at Roger Williams University. Explains usability testing methods that were used to discover how users were interacting with the Web site interface. (Author/LRW)
Ana Castillo-Díaz, Ph. D.
Full Text Available In an increasingly competitive environment in which Internet occupies a prominent place, transferring a brand from the offline to the online environment has become a vital issue for companies. Usability and accessibility have become crucial to enable adequate online brand communication. Ensuring websites are usable and accessible will facilitate web navigation, will improve the company’s image, and will favour loyalty towards the brand.This article presents the results of an investigation measuring the extent to what small and medium enterprises (SMEs employ usability and accessibility as supporting pillars of brand in the online environment to communicate with their audiences. The results indicate that usability is in fact taken into account by SMEs, but it is seen more as a technological element than as a promotion tool for the brand. Accessibility, on the other hand, is of secondary concern in the design of websites analysed, since they are not certified by any standard and are not fully accessible. Thus, it can be argued that the concern to transmit the brand online is incipient but, currently, SMEs do not take advantage of all the potential offered by the Web.
Vicente Oliveros, Noelia; Gramage Caro, Teresa; Pérez Menéndez-Conde, Covadonga; Álvarez-Diaz, Ana María; Martín-Aragón Álvarez, Sagrario; Bermejo Vicedo, Teresa; Delgado Silveira, Eva
The complexity of an electronic medication administration record (eMAR) has been underestimated by most designers in the past. Usability issues, such as poorly designed user application flow in eMAR, are therefore of vital importance, since they can have a negative impact on nursing activities and result in poor outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usability of an eMAR application during its development. A usability evaluation was conducted during the development of the eMAR application. Two usability methods were used: a heuristic evaluation complemented by usability testing. Each eMAR application version provided by the vendor was evaluated by 2 hospital pharmacists, who applied the heuristic method. They reviewed the eMAR tasks, detected usability problems and their heuristic violations, and rated the severity of the usability problems. Usability testing was used to assess the final application version by observing how 3 nurses interacted with the application. Thirty-four versions were assessed before the eMAR application was considered usable. During the heuristic evaluation, the usability problems decreased from 46 unique usability problems in version 1 (V1) to 9 in version 34 (V34). In V1, usability problems were categorized into 154 heuristic violations, which decreased to 27 in V34. The average severity rating also decreased from major usability problem (2.96) to no problem (0.23). During usability testing, the 3 nurses did not encounter new usability problems. A thorough heuristic evaluation is a good method for obtaining a usable eMAR application. This evaluation points key areas for improvement and decreases usability problems and their severity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Adriana de Oliveira Sarmento,1–3 Amilton da Cruz Santos,1,4 Ivani Credidio Trombetta,2,5 Marciano Moacir Dantas,1 Ana Cristina Oliveira Marques,1,4 Leone Severino do Nascimento,1,4 Bruno Teixeira Barbosa,1,2 Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos,2 Maria do Amparo Andrade,3 Anna Myrna Jaguaribe-Lima,3,6 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos1,3,4 1Laboratory of Physical Training Studies Applied to Health, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 2Unit of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology – Heart Institute (InCor/HC-FMUSP, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Graduate Program in Physiotherapy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil; 4Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education UPE/UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil; 5Graduate Program in Medicine, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Department of Morphology and Animal Physiology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver. Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac
Lamont, Hugh S; Cramer, Joel T; Bemben, Debra A; Shehab, Randa L; Anderson, Mark A; Bemben, Michael G
Resistance training interventions aimed at increasing lower-body power and rates of force development have produced varying results. Recent studies have suggested that whole-body low-frequency vibration (WBLFV) may elicit an acute postactivation potentiation response, leading to acute improvements in power and force development. Potentially, the use of WBLFV between sets of resistance training rather than during training itself may lead to increased recruitment and synchronization of high-threshold motor units, minimize fatigue potential, and facilitate the chronic adaptation to resistance exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of applying TriPlaner, WBLFV, prior to and then intermittently between sets of Smith machine squats on short-term adaptations in explosive isometric force expression. Thirty recreationally resistance trained men aged 18-30 were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: resistance training only (SQT, n = 11), resistance plus whole-body vibration (SQTV, n = 13), or active control (CON, n = 6). An isometric squat test was performed prior to and following a 6-week periodized Smith machine squat program. Whole-body low-frequency vibration was applied 180 seconds prior to the first work set (50 Hz, 2-4 mm, 30 seconds) and intermittently (50 Hz, 4-6 mm, 3 x 10 seconds, 60 seconds between exposures) within a 240-second interset rest period. Subjects were instructed to assume a quarter squat posture while positioning their feet directly under their center of mass, which was modified using a handheld goniometer to a knee angle of 135 +/- 5 degrees . Instructions were given to subjects to apply force as fast and as hard as possible for 3.5 seconds. Isometric force (N) and rates of force development (N.s(-1)) were recorded from the onset of contraction (F(0)) to time points corresponding to 30, 50, 80, 100, 150, and 250 milliseconds, as well as the peak isometric rate of force development (PISORFD), and rate of force development to
Atta Idrawani Zaini
Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR is widely being researched within various aspects of real-world applications. As architecture and urban design are very much adhered to evaluating and designing space, physical representations are deemed as incompetent to deliver a full-scale depiction of a space. Similarly, digital models are very much also limited in that sense. VR can deliver a full-scale virtual environment (VE, tricking users to be immersed in the replicated environment. This is an advantage for the aforementioned design disciplines, as more relatable and realistic depiction of a space can be modelled. The notion of its usability has become important to be understood from the perspective of architecture and urban design. This paper measured the respondents’ perceptions of VR’s usability through measuring its quality of use based on several criteria. The criteria established were the ease of use, usefulness, and satisfaction. Different levels of architectural details were decided as a form of control. A total of N=96 randomly selected respondents from various backgrounds participated in the survey as they were divided into four different group of treatments. Each group experienced a different VE with different level of architectural details. The first section of analysis is a one-sample analysis and the second is a group difference analysis. From the first analysis, it was found that the respondents perceived VR as a usable tool for architectural or territorial representation. Using Kruskal-Wallis test, it was found that there was no statistically significant difference between groups, suggesting that the respondents perceived VR as usable regardless of the level of architectural details. As this paper used perception data based on the quality of use alone, the efficiency of VR system was not measured. Thus, this paper recommends further studies to be conducted on the system’s efficiency to reflect its usability in full extent.
Spaeth, J; Schweizer, T; Schmutz, A; Buerkle, H; Schumann, S
The anaesthesia ventilator represents the key equipment for intraoperative respiratory care. Improper operation of this device may threaten a patient's health. A self-explanatory interface facilitates handling and decreases the risk of operating errors. This study systematically evaluates the usability of user interfaces in four modern anaesthesia ventilators. Twenty naïve operators were asked to execute 20 tasks on each of four different anaesthesia ventilators (Avance CS2™, GE Healthcare; Flow-i™, Maquet; and Perseus™ and Primus™, Dräger) in a randomized order. The success of task execution, frequency of requests for assistance, and processing times were recorded. During the tasks, the operators' visual focus was measured via eye-tracking. Additionally, subjective assessments of usability were evaluated by a standardized questionnaire. For comparison, six experienced operators undertook the same protocol. The overall rate of falsely executed tasks was low. Naïve operators requested assistance least when using the Perseus (26). Pooled processing times were shortest for the Perseus (222 s), followed by the Primus (223 s), the Avance (238 s), and the Flow-i (353 s). Task-specific processing times differed considerably between the devices. Eye-tracking analyses revealed associated interface issues that impeded the operators' performance. Operators rated usability best for the Perseus [mean (sd): 67 (17) arbitrary units] and worst for the Flow-i [50 (16) arbitrary units]. Results from experienced operators support these findings by trend. The usability of modern anaesthesia ventilators differs considerably. Interface issues of specific tasks impair the operator's efficiency. Eliminating the specific usability issues might improve the operator's performance and, as a consequence, the patient's safety. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please
Berning, Joseph M; Adams, Kent J; DeBeliso, Mark; Sevene-Adams, Patricia G; Harris, Chad; Stamford, Bryant A
Functional isometrics (FIs) combine dynamic and isometric muscle actions and may hyperstimulate the nervous system leading to an enhanced postactivation potentiation (PAP) and improved subsequent performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of an FI squat on the countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) in resistance trained and untrained men. Thirteen trained men (age: 22.8 +/- 3.2 years, mass: 90.0 +/- 16.3 kg, and height: 178.9 +/- 7.1 cm) and 8 untrained men (age: 28.5 +/- 5.9 years, mass: 101.5 +/- 23.0 kg, and height: 177.0 +/- 4.8 cm) participated. On separate days, subjects performed CMVJs after 2 different warm-up conditions. The warm-up conditions consisted of either 5 minutes of low-intensity cycling or 5 minutes of low-intensity cycling plus a 3-second FI squat with 150% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM). A 2 x 3 repeated-measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc revealed that when comparing the 2 warm-up conditions in the trained subjects, a significant increase (p squat. This increase was maintained when subjects were retested at 5 minutes post (2.6 cm, + 5.5%). No significant difference in CMVJ was detected in the untrained group (p = 0.49). Results support the addition of an FI squat performed at 150% of 1RM to a low-intensity cycling warm-up to enhance PAP in resistance trained but not in untrained men as measured by CMVJ. Practically, adding functional isometrics to a warm-up scheme may significantly enhance acute, short-term power output in resistance trained men.
Rice, David A; McNair, Peter J; Lewis, Gwyn N; Mannion, Jamie
Populations with knee joint damage, including arthritis, have noted impairments in the regulation of submaximal muscle force. It is difficult to determine the exact cause of such impairments given the joint pathology and associated neuromuscular adaptations. Experimental pain models that have been used to isolate the effects of pain on muscle force regulation have shown impaired force steadiness during acute pain. However, few studies have examined force regulation during dynamic contractions, and these findings have been inconsistent. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of experimental knee joint pain on submaximal quadriceps force regulation during isometric and dynamic contractions. The study involved fifteen healthy participants. Participants were seated in an isokinetic dynamometer. Knee extensor force matching tasks were completed in isometric, eccentric, and concentric muscle contraction conditions. The target force was set to 10 % of maximum for each contraction type. Hypertonic saline was then injected into the infrapatella fat pad to generate acute joint pain. The force matching tasks were repeated during pain and once more 5 min after pain had subsided. Hypertonic saline resulted in knee pain with an average peak pain rating of 5.5 ± 2.1 (0-10 scale) that lasted for 18 ± 4 mins. Force steadiness significantly reduced during pain across all three muscle contraction conditions. There was a trend to increased force matching error during pain but this was not significant. Experimental knee pain leads to impaired quadriceps force steadiness during isometric, eccentric, and concentric contractions, providing further evidence that joint pain directly affects motor performance. Given the established relationship between submaximal muscle force steadiness and function, such an effect may be detrimental to the performance of tasks in daily life. In order to restore motor performance in people with painful arthritic conditions of the
Full Text Available Although activity of the rectus femoris (RF differs from that of the other synergists in quadriceps femoris muscle group during physical activities in humans, it has been suggested that the activation pattern of the vastus intermedius (VI is similar to that of the RF. The purpose of present study was to examine activation of the VI during isometric hip flexion. Ten healthy men performed isometric hip flexion contractions at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction at hip joint angles of 90°, 110° and 130°. Surface electromyography (EMG was used to record activity of the four quadriceps femoris muscles and EMG signals were root mean square processed and normalized to EMG amplitude during an isometric knee extension with maximal voluntary contraction. The normalized EMG was significantly higher for the VI than for the vastus medialis during hip flexion at 100% of maximal voluntary contraction at hip joint angles of 110° and 130° (P < 0.05. The onset of VI activation was 230-240 ms later than the onset of RF activation during hip flexion at each hip joint angle, which was significantly later than during knee extension at 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (P < 0.05. These results suggest that the VI is activated later than the RF during hip flexion. Activity of the VI during hip flexion might contribute to stabilize the knee joint as an antagonist and might help to smooth knee joint motion, such as in the transition from hip flexion to knee extension during walking, running and pedaling.
Drury, Daniel G; Faggiono, Heath; Stuempfle, Kristin J
Recently, a new product called the Tri-Bar has been introduced as an alternative to the standard round weightlifting bar. The Tri-Bar has the same weight, length, and circumference as a standard weightlifting bar and differs only in that the shape of the bar is formed like a triangle with rounded edges. Theoretically, the shape of the bar will enhance gripping comfort and increase muscular endurance. We studied 32 moderately trained males who were free from upper-body injury or limitation. Each participant completed 4 visits to the lab as part of 2 separate investigations. The first investigation was a comparison of straight-arm hang times while grasping a standard Olympic bar or a Tri-Bar attached to the top of a power rack. The second investigation involved grasping a standard revolving cable handle or a Tri-Bar revolving handle attached to a weight equal to half the subject's body weight. In both investigations, time was used as a measure of isometric muscular endurance. Differences were determined using a dependent t-test, and a level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Mean hang times were significantly longer when the men hung from the Tri-Bar (107.6 seconds) versus the standard bar (95.4 seconds) (p = 0.015). Conversely, in the investigation using the revolving handles, the round bar produced longer grasping times (71.5 seconds) than the Tri-Bar (62.6 seconds) (p = 0.000). The results of this investigation indicate that a fixed and stable Tri-Bar may help to increase hang time, but a Tri-Bar free to rotate within the grasp may decrease grasping time in comparison to a standard round handle. With regard to exercises that require isometric grasping, the Tri-Bar may be an effective alternative to the standard bar for increasing isometric grasping endurance.
Kliziene, Irina; Sipaviciene, Saule; Vilkiene, Jovita; Astrauskiene, Audrone; Cibulskas, Gintautas; Klizas, Sarunas; Cizauskas, Ginas
To evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises designed to improve isometric trunk extension and flexion strength of muscles in women with chronic low back pain (cLBP). Female volunteers with cLBP were divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 27) and a control group (CG; n = 27). Pilates exercises were performed twice per week by the EG; the duration of each session was 60 min. The program lasted for 16 weeks; thus patients underwent a total of 32 exercise sessions. The maximum isometric waist bending strength of the EG had improved significantly (p = 0.001) after 16 weeks of the Pilates program. The results of trunk flexion muscle endurance tests significantly depended on the trunk extension muscle endurance before the intervention, and at 1 month (r = 0.723, p Pilates exercise program. At the end of the 16-week exercise program, cLBP intensity decreased by 2.01 ± 0.8 (p Pilates exercise program the pain intensified and the functional state deteriorated much faster than the maximum trunk muscle strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that, to decrease pain and improve functional condition, regular exercise (and not only improved strength and endurance) is required. We established that, although the 16-week lumbar stabilization exercise program increased isometric trunk extension and flexion strength and this increase in strength persisted for 2 months, decreased LBP and improved functional condition endured for only 1 month. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dos Santos, Ricardo Barreto Monteiro; Kauffman, Fábio Neumann; de Lima, Gabriel Praxedes; Ferreira, Avraham Machado Costa; Dos Santos, Saulo Monteiro; Aguiar, José Lamartine de Andrade
To evaluate the function of the subscapularis muscle by means of isometric strength, clinical examination and analysis of fatty infiltration in patients with recurrent anterior dislocation of the shoulder undergoing Latarjet-Patte surgery. 38 patients operated from March 2011 to March 2012, with minimum follow-up of two years were evaluated, being 26 males and 12 females, with a mean age of 28.7 years old. Isometric strength was measured using a portable dynamometer and measuring the distance from the back of the hand during the lift-off test. We used the Rowe and Walch-Duplay scores for clinical evaluation. The degree of fatty infiltration of the subscapularis belly was assessed by computed tomography. The mean scores in the Walch-Duplay and Rowe were 84.7 and 89.4, respectively. The mean distance to the back of the hand was 7.34 cm on the operated side and 8.72 cm on the opposite side (p strength measured in the lift-off test was 0.38 kg lower than on the contralateral side (p = 0.001). There was no fatty infiltration of the subscapularis in 16 patients (42.1%). Sixteen patients (42.1%) were classified as Goutallier grade 1 and six (15.8%) as grade 2. We found that the measured isometric strength decreases with increasing the degree of fatty infiltration (p strength, albeit of low magnitude (0.38 kg), was directly related to the degree of fatty infiltration and worse clinical outcomes. Level of Evidence III, Therapeutic Study - Investigating the Results of Treatment.
Vannebo, Katrine Tranaas; Iversen, Vegard Moe; Fimland, Marius Steiro; Mork, Paul Jarle
There is a lack of test-retest reliability studies of measurements of cervical muscle strength, taking into account gender and possible learning effects. To investigate test-retest reliability of measurement of maximal isometric cervical muscle strength by handheld dynamometry. Thirty women (age 20-58 years) and 28 men (age 20-60 years) participated in the study. Maximal isometric strength (neck flexion, neck extension, and right/left lateral flexion) was measured on three separate days at least five days apart by one evaluator. Intra-rater consistency tended to improve from day 1-2 measurements to day 2-3 measurements in both women and men. In women, the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for day 2 to day 3 measurements were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.95) for neck flexion, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76-0.94) for neck extension, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68-0.92) for right lateral flexion, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.78-0.95) for left lateral flexion. The corresponding ICCs among men were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-0.93) for neck flexion, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.85-0.97) for neck extension, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-0.91) for right lateral flexion and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.50-0.87) for left lateral flexion. This study describes a reliable and easy-to-administer test for assessing maximal isometric cervical muscle strength.
Vargas, Valentine Z; Baptista, Abrahão F; Pereira, Guilherme O C; Pochini, Alberto C; Ejnisman, Benno; Santos, Marcelo B; João, Silvia M A; Hazime, Fuad A
Vargas, VZ, Baptista, AF, Pereira, GOC, Pochini, AC, Ejnisman, B, Santos, MB, João, SMA, and Hazime, FA. Modulation of isometric quadriceps strength in soccer players with transcranial direct current stimulation: a crossover study. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1336-1341, 2018-The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on the maximum isometric muscle contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors in soccer players at the preprofessional level. Twenty female soccer players aged 15-17 years (mean = 16.1; SD = 0.9) with 5.2 ± 2.6 years of training were randomly divided into 2 groups to receive either active or sham tDCS in a single session (2 mA; 0.057 mA·cm). The MVIC of the knee extensors was evaluated in both lower limbs by manual dynamometry in 5 sets of contractions divided into 4 blocks: (a) prestimulation, (b) during tDCS, (c) 30 minutes after tDCS, and (d) 60 minutes after tDCS. After an interval of 7 days, the groups were evaluated again, and the type of initial stimulation was inverted between participants. The MVIC of the knee extensors increased significantly during active tDCS (dominant limb (DL) = 0.4; IC = 0.1-0.8 N·Kg), 30 minutes after active tDCS (DL = 0.9; IC 0.4-1.4 N·Kg), and 60 minutes after active tDCS (DL = 1.0; IC 0.3-1.6 N·Kg) but not for sham tDCS. Our conclusion was that tDCS temporarily increases isometric quadriceps strength in adolescent female soccer players, which may be useful for both strength training and rehabilitation.
Full Text Available Exercise training induces muscular adaptations that are highly specific to the type of exercise. For a systematic study of the differentiated exercise adaptations on a molecular level mouse models have been used successfully. The aim of the current study was to develop a suitable mouse model of isometric strength exercise training characterized by specific adaptations known from strength training. C57BL/6 mice performed an isometric strength training (ST for 10 weeks 5 days/week. Additionally, either a sedentary control group (CT or a regular endurance training group (ET groups were used as controls. Performance capacity was determined by maximum holding time (MHT and treadmill spirometry, respectively. Furthermore, muscle fiber types and diameter, muscular concentration of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK, succinate dehydrogenase (SDHa, and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 were determined. In a further approach, the effect of ST on glucose intolerance was tested in diabetic mice. In mice of the ST group we observed an increase of MHT in isometric strength tests, a type II fiber hypertrophy, and an increased GLUT4 protein content in the membrane fraction. In contrast, in mice of the ET group an increase of VO(2max, a shift to oxidative muscle fiber type and an increase of oxidative enzyme content was measured. Furthermore strength training was effective in reducing glucose intolerance in mice fed a high fat diet. An effective murine strength training model was developed and evaluated, which revealed marked differences in adaptations known from endurance training. This approach seems also suitable to test for therapeutical effects of strength training.
Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar
Previous studies reported that humans produce exaggerated isometric forces (20-50%) in microgravity, hypergravity, and under water. Subjects were not provided with visual feedback and exaggerations were attributed to proprioceptive deficits. The few studies that provided visual feedback in micro- and hypergravity found no deficits. The present work was undertaken to find out whether visual feedback can reduce or eliminate isometric force exaggerations during shallow water immersion, a working environment for astronauts and divers. There were 48 subjects who had to produce isometric forces of 15 N with a joystick; targets were presented via screen. Procedures were similar to earlier studies, but provided visual feedback. Subjects were tested 16.4 ft (5 m) under water (WET) and on dry land (DRY). Response accuracy was calculated with landmarks such as initial and peak force magnitude, and response timing. Initial force and response timing were equal in WET compared to DRY. A small but significant force exaggeration (+5%) remained for peak force in WET that was limited to directions toward the trunk. Force exaggeration under water is largely compensated, but not completely eliminated by visual feedback. As in earlier studies without visual feedback, force exaggeration manifested during later but not early response parts, speaking for impaired proprioceptive feedback rather than for erroneous central motor planning. Since in contrast to micro/hypergravity, visual feedback did not sufficiently abolish force deficits under water, proprioceptive information seems to be weighted differently in micro/hypergravity and shallow water immersion, probably because only the latter environment produces increased ambient pressure, which is known to induce neuronal changes.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several regression models have been proposed for estimation of isometric joint torque using surface electromyography (SEMG signals. Common issues related to torque estimation models are degradation of model accuracy with passage of time, electrode displacement, and alteration of limb posture. This work compares the performance of the most commonly used regression models under these circumstances, in order to assist researchers with identifying the most appropriate model for a specific biomedical application. Methods Eleven healthy volunteers participated in this study. A custom-built rig, equipped with a torque sensor, was used to measure isometric torque as each volunteer flexed and extended his wrist. SEMG signals from eight forearm muscles, in addition to wrist joint torque data were gathered during the experiment. Additional data were gathered one hour and twenty-four hours following the completion of the first data gathering session, for the purpose of evaluating the effects of passage of time and electrode displacement on accuracy of models. Acquired SEMG signals were filtered, rectified, normalized and then fed to models for training. Results It was shown that mean adjusted coefficient of determination (Ra2 values decrease between 20%-35% for different models after one hour while altering arm posture decreased mean Ra2 values between 64% to 74% for different models. Conclusions Model estimation accuracy drops significantly with passage of time, electrode displacement, and alteration of limb posture. Therefore model retraining is crucial for preserving estimation accuracy. Data resampling can significantly reduce model training time without losing estimation accuracy. Among the models compared, ordinary least squares linear regression model (OLS was shown to have high isometric torque estimation accuracy combined with very short training times.
Alsouhibani, Ali; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Hoeger Bement, Marie
Physically active individuals show greater conditioned pain modulation (CPM) compared with less active individuals. Understanding the effects of acute exercise on CPM may allow for a more targeted use of exercise in the management of pain. This study investigated the effects of acute isometric exercise on CPM. In addition, the between-session and within-session reliability of CPM was investigated. Experimental, randomized crossover study. Laboratory at Marquette University. Thirty healthy adults (19.3±1.5 years, 15 males). Subjects underwent CPM testing before and after isometric exercise (knee extension, 30% maximum voluntary contraction for three minutes) and quiet rest in two separate experimental sessions. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the quadriceps and upper trapezius muscles were assessed before, during, and after ice water immersions. PPTs increased during ice water immersion (i.e., CPM), and quadriceps PPT increased after exercise (P CPM decreased similarly following exercise and quiet rest (P > 0.05). CPM within-session reliability was fair to good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43-0.70), and the between-session reliability was poor (ICC = 0.20-0.35). Due to the variability in the systemic exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) response, participants were divided into systemic EIH responders (N = 9) and nonresponders (N = 21). EIH responders experienced attenuated CPM following exercise (P = 0.03), whereas the nonresponders showed no significant change (P > 0.05). Isometric exercise decreased CPM in individuals who reported systemic EIH, suggesting activation of shared mechanisms between CPM and systemic EIH responses. These results may improve the understanding of increased pain after exercise in patients with chronic pain and potentially attenuated CPM.
The two volumes of the Energy Education Materials Inventory (EEMI) comprise an annotated bibliography of widely available energy education materials and reference sources. This systematic listing is designed to provide a source book which will facilitate access to these educational resources and hasten the inclusion of energy-focused learning experiences in kindergarten through grade twelve. EEMI Volume II expands Volume I and contains items that have become available since its completion in May, 1976. The inventory consists of three major parts. A core section entitled Media contains titles and descriptive information on educational materials, categorized according to medium. The other two major sections - Grade Level and Subject - are cross indexes of the items for which citations appear in the Media Section. These contain titles categorized according to grade level and subject and show the page numbers of the full citations. The general subject area covered includes the following: alternative energy sources (wood, fuel from organic wastes, geothermal energy, nuclear power, solar energy, tidal power, wind energy); energy conservation, consumption, and utilization; energy policy and legislation, environmental/social aspects of energy technology; and fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, petroleum). (RWR)
Lear, G.E.; Thompson, O.O.
The NRC Inventory of Dams has been prepared as required by the charter of the NRC Dam Safety Officer. The inventory lists 51 dams associated with nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams (licensed by NRC) in the US as of February 1, 1982. Of the 85 listed nuclear power plants (148 units), 26 plants obtain cooling water from impoundments formed by dams. The 51 dams associated with the plants are: located on a plant site (29 dams at 15 plant sites); located off site but provide plant cooling water (18 dams at 11 additional plant sites); and located upstream from a plant (4 dams) - they have been identified as dams whose failure, and ensuing plant flooding, could result in a radiological risk to the public health and safety. The dams that might be considered NRC's responsibility in terms of the federal dam safety program are identified. This group of dams (20 on nuclear power plant sites and 14 uranium mill tailings dams) was obtained by eliminating dams that do not pose a flooding hazard (e.g., submerged dams) and dams that are regulated by another federal agency. The report includes the principal design features of all dams and related useful information
Drake, David; Kennedy, Rodney; Wallace, Eric
Researchers and practitioners working in sports medicine and science require valid tests to determine the effectiveness of interventions and enhance understanding of mechanisms underpinning adaptation. Such decision making is influenced by the supportive evidence describing the validity of tests within current research. The objective of this study is to review the validity of lower body isometric multi-joint tests ability to assess muscular strength and determine the current level of supporting evidence. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed in a systematic fashion to search, assess and synthesize existing literature on this topic. Electronic databases such as Web of Science, CINAHL and PubMed were searched up to 18 March 2015. Potential inclusions were screened against eligibility criteria relating to types of test, measurement instrument, properties of validity assessed and population group and were required to be published in English. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to assess methodological quality and measurement property rating of included studies. Studies rated as fair or better in methodological quality were included in the best evidence synthesis. Fifty-nine studies met the eligibility criteria for quality appraisal. The ten studies that rated fair or better in methodological quality were included in the best evidence synthesis. The most frequently investigated lower body isometric multi-joint tests for validity were the isometric mid-thigh pull and isometric squat. The validity of each of these tests was strong in terms of reliability and construct validity. The evidence for responsiveness of tests was found to be moderate for the isometric squat test and unknown for the isometric mid-thigh pull. No tests using the isometric leg press met the criteria for inclusion in the best evidence synthesis. Researchers and
Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok
Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...
NIKOLAOS AGGELOUSIS; NIKOLAOS MANTZOURANIS; THEOPHILOS PILIANIDIS; GEORGIOS DASTERIDIS
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different training programs on electromyographic activity (EMG), isometric strength and quadriceps hypertrophy in track and field athletes. 27 male adolescents athletes were divided in three (3) groups of nine (9), the Neuromuscular Group (NeuroGr), the Hypertrophy Group (HyperGr) and the Control Group (ControlG). The participants in both NeuroGr and HyperGr trained 3 times per week for 8 weeks while the athletes’of ControlGr did not tak...
Full Text Available Concentration-response curves of isometric tension studies on isolated blood vessels are obtained traditionally. Although parameters such as Imax, EC50 and pA2 may be readily calculated, this method does not provide information on the temporal profile of the responses or the actual nature of the reaction curves. Computerized data acquisition systems can be used to obtain average data that represent a new source of otherwise inaccessible information, since early and late responses may be observed separately in detail
Full Text Available Introduction: Strengthening exercises have been routinely used in persons with orthopaedic problems and athletes to increase force production or minimize muscle imbalance and joint injuries.Many studies have reported that isometric contractions can rapidly increases strength in quadriceps muscle. Objective: Objective of the study was to find out the effect of isometric strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint and also to compare the effect of strengthening exercise on strength of quadriceps at multiple angles of knee joint among control and experimental group. Methodology: This was a ccomparative experimental study with forty female healthy subjects from physiotherapy department of KPJ Healthcare University College, Malaysia. Convenient sampling method used to select the samples. The subjects were selected by inclusion criteria and randomly divided equally in to two with 20 subjects in each group. Isometric strengthening exercise and squatting exercise were given as intervention program for eight weeks respectively for experimental and control group. Pre and post data of quadriceps muscle strength measured were collected separately at 45 and 90 degree of knee joint using goniometry during resisted extension of knee in multi gym. Result: In experimental group Pre –Post statistical analysis found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.0001.****In control group quadriceps pre-post statistical analysis found no significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength at 45 and 90 degree with P<0.083NS and P<0.055 NS respectively. Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 90 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of quadriceps strength with P< 0.001.*** Comparative study between experimental and control groups for quadriceps strength at 45 degree of knee joint found significant effect in increase of
Buccianti, Antonella; Zuo, Renguang
The aim of this contribution is to explore the relationship among some concepts, often considered to be unrelated, such as weathering reactions, compositional data and fractals by means of distribution analysis. Weathering reactions represent the necessary transfer of heat and entropy to the environment in geochemical cycles. Compositional data express the relative abundance of chemical elements/species in a given total (i.e. volume or weight). Fractals are temporal or spatial objects with self-similarity and scale-invariance, so that internal structures repeat themselves over multiple levels of magnification or scales of measurement. Gibbs's free energy and the application of the Law Mass Action can be used to model weathering reactions, under the hypothesis of chemical equilibrium. Compositional data are obtained in the analytical phase after the determination of the concentrations of chemicals in sampled solid, liquid or gaseous materials. Fractals can be measured by using their fractal dimensions. In this paper, the presence of fractal structures is observed when the frequency distribution of isometric log-ratio coordinates is investigated, showing the logarithm of the cumulative number of samples exceeding a certain coordinate value plotted against the coordinate value itself. Isometric log-ratio coordinates (or balances) were constructed by using the sequential binary partition (SBP) method. The balances were identified to maintain, as far as possible, the similarity with a corresponding weathering reaction affecting the Arno river catchment (Tuscany, central Italy) as described by the Law of Mass Action. The emergence of fractal structures indicates the presence of dissipative systems, which require complexity, large numbers of inter-connected elements and stochasticity. - Highlights: • Frequency distribution analysis links compositional data and fractals. • Isometric log-ratio coordinates simulate chemical reactions in weathering processes. • Fractal
Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Mueller, Karoline; Heise, Sandra; Gube, Martin; Beuster, Nico; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Fischer, Dagmar-C; Bruhn, Sven
This study investigated effects of plyometric training (6 weeks, 3 sessions/week) on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) strength and neural activation of the knee extensors during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Maximum voluntary torques (MVT) during the different types of contraction were measured at 110° knee flexion (180°=full extension). The interpolated twitch technique was applied at the same knee joint angle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to measure voluntary activation. In addition, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal at MVT was calculated. The twitch torque signal induced by electrical nerve stimulation at rest was used to evaluate training-related changes at the muscle level. In addition, jump height in countermovement jump was measured. After training, MVT increased by 20Nm (95% CI: 5-36Nm, P=0.012), 24Nm (95% CI: 9-40Nm, P=0.004) and 27Nm (95% CI: 7-48Nm, P=0.013) for isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs compared to controls, respectively. The strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation during isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs by 7.8% (95% CI: 1.8-13.9%, P=0.013), 7.0% (95% CI: 0.4-13.5%, P=0.039) and 8.6% (95% CI: 3.0-14.2%, P=0.005), respectively. Changes in the twitch torque signal of the resting muscle, induced by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve, were not observed, indicating no alterations at the muscle level, whereas jump height was increased. Given the fact that the training exercises consisted of eccentric muscle actions followed by concentric contractions, it is in particular relevant that the plyometric training increased MVC strength and neural activation of the quadriceps muscle regardless of the contraction mode. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jacobsen, Søren; Wildschiødtz, Gordon; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B
Twenty women with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and 20 age matched healthy women were investigated. The subjects performed maximum voluntary isokinetic contractions of the right quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer. Maximum voluntary isometric contractions of the right quadriceps were performed...... of superimposed twitches was 65% in the patient group and 15% in the control group (p = 0.003). Patients with primary fibromyalgia have a lower maximum voluntary muscle strength than expected. The increased presence of superimposed electrically elicited twitches during maximum voluntary contraction indicates...... submaximal force application in primary fibromyalgia syndrome....
Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J
Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...
Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Gonzalez-Sanchez, Manuel
No study relating the changes obtained in the architecture of erector spinae (ES) muscle were registered with ultrasound and different intensities of muscle contraction recorded by surface EMG (electromyography) on the ES muscle was found. The aim of this study was analyse the relationship in the response of the ES muscle during isometric moderate and light lumbar isometric extension considering architecture and functional muscle variables. Cross-sectional study. 46 subjects (52% men) with a group mean age of 30.4 (±7.78). The participants developed isometric lumbar extension while performing moderate and low isometric trunk and hip extension in a sitting position with hips flexed 90 degrees and the lumbar spine in neutral position. During these measurements, electromyography recordings and ultrasound images were taken bilaterally. Bilaterally pennation angle, muscle thickness, torque and muscle activation were measured. This study was developed at the human movement analysis laboratory of the Health Science Faculty of the University of Malaga (Spain). Strong and moderate correlations were found at moderate and low intensities contraction between the variable of the same intensity, with correlation values ranging from 0.726 (Torque Moderate – EMG Left Moderate) to 0.923 (Angle Left Light – Angle Right Light) (p < 0.001). This correlation is observed between the variables that describe the same intensity of contraction, showing a poor correlation between variables of different intensities. There is a strong relationship between architecture and function variables of ES muscle when describe an isometric lumbar extension at light or moderate intensity
Mortensen, Kristian H.; Jones, Alexander; Steeden, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Muthurangu, Vivek [UCL Centre for Cardiovascular MR, UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Level 6 Old Nurses Home, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom)
Isometric exercise may unmask cardiovascular disease not evident at rest, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is proven for comprehensive resting assessment. This study devised a simple isometric exercise CMR methodology and assessed the hemodynamic response evoked by isometric exercise. A biceps isometric exercise technique was devised for CMR, and 75 healthy volunteers were assessed at rest, after 3-minute biceps exercise, and 5-minute of recovery using: (1) blood pressure (BP) and (2) CMR measured aortic flow and left ventricular function. Total peripheral resistance (SVR) and arterial compliance (TAC), cardiac output (CO), left ventricular volumes and function (ejection fraction, stroke volume, power output), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product were assessed at all time points. Image quality was preserved during stress. During exercise there were increases in CO (+14.9 %), HR (+17.0 %), SVR (+9.8 %), systolic BP (+22.4 %), diastolic BP (+25.4 %) and mean BP (+23.2 %). In addition, there were decreases in TAC (-22.0 %) and left ventricular ejection fraction (-6.3 %). Age and body mass index modified the evoked response, even when resting measures were similar. Isometric exercise technique evokes a significant cardiovascular response in CMR, unmasking physiological differences that are not apparent at rest. (orig.)
Mortensen, Kristian H.; Jones, Alexander; Steeden, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Muthurangu, Vivek
Isometric exercise may unmask cardiovascular disease not evident at rest, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is proven for comprehensive resting assessment. This study devised a simple isometric exercise CMR methodology and assessed the hemodynamic response evoked by isometric exercise. A biceps isometric exercise technique was devised for CMR, and 75 healthy volunteers were assessed at rest, after 3-minute biceps exercise, and 5-minute of recovery using: (1) blood pressure (BP) and (2) CMR measured aortic flow and left ventricular function. Total peripheral resistance (SVR) and arterial compliance (TAC), cardiac output (CO), left ventricular volumes and function (ejection fraction, stroke volume, power output), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and rate pressure product were assessed at all time points. Image quality was preserved during stress. During exercise there were increases in CO (+14.9 %), HR (+17.0 %), SVR (+9.8 %), systolic BP (+22.4 %), diastolic BP (+25.4 %) and mean BP (+23.2 %). In addition, there were decreases in TAC (-22.0 %) and left ventricular ejection fraction (-6.3 %). Age and body mass index modified the evoked response, even when resting measures were similar. Isometric exercise technique evokes a significant cardiovascular response in CMR, unmasking physiological differences that are not apparent at rest. (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Although activation of blood coagulation system in response to physical activity has been identified to some extent, but the contribution of eccentric activity in comparison with isometric activity as resistance exercise, is not clear yet. Therefore, this research was carried out with the purpose of investigating the effect of one session of eccentric and isometric resistance exercise on some coagulation factors in male bodybuilders. Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 28 volunteers were randomly selected from male bodybuilders and divided into two experimental groups and one control group. One of the experimental groups performed eccentric exercise [controlled return (extension of the elbow flexion movement involving an eccentric contraction] and another group performed isometric exercises (holding barbell while flexing elbows at 45 degrees. In order to assess coagulation indices, blood sampling was performed 15 minutes before and immediately after the exercise. Results: Thromboplastin and prothrombin times did not significantly change immediately after the exercise, but the number of platelets significantly increased in both isometric and eccentric types of exercise immediately after the exercise. Conclusion: The results of isometric and eccentric acute resistance exercise showed that the exercise had no negative impact on blood coagulation factors, and increased coagulation system activity reflects the increased number of platelets. The difference between the results of researches carried out in this direction can be resulted from the difference between the exercise protocols, methods and measurement time, and level of preparedness of the participants in the research.
Dallmeijer, A J; Baker, R; Dodd, K J; Taylor, N F
The purpose of this study was to determine the association between isometric muscle strength of the lower limbs and gait joint kinetics in adolescents and young adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-five participants (11 males) with bilateral spastic CP, aged 14-22 years (mean: 18.9, sd: 2.0 yr) and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II (n=19) and III (n=6) were tested. Hand held dynamometry was used to measure isometric strength (expressed in Nm/kg) of the hip, knee, and ankle muscles using standardized testing positions and procedures. 3D gait analysis was performed with a VICON system to calculate joint kinetics in the hip, knee and ankle during gait. Ankle peak moments exceeded by far the levels of isometric strength of the plantar flexors, while the knee and hip peak moments were just at or below maximal isometric strength of knee and hip muscles. Isometric muscle strength showed weak to moderate correlations with peak ankle and hip extension moment and power during walking. Despite considerable muscle weakness, joint moment curves were similar to norm values. Results suggest that passive stretch of the muscle-tendon complex of the triceps surae contributes to the ankle moment during walking and that muscle strength assessment may provide additional information to gait kinetics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Toohey, Liam Anthony; De Noronha, Marcos; Taylor, Carolyn; Thomas, James
Muscle strength measurement is a key component of physiotherapists' assessment and is frequently used as an outcome measure. A sphygmomanometer is an instrument commonly used to measure blood pressure that can be potentially used as a tool to assess isometric muscle strength. To systematically review the evidence on the reliability and validity of a sphygmomanometer for measuring isometric strength of hip muscles. A literature search was conducted across four databases. Studies were eligible if they presented data on reliability and/or validity, used a sphygmomanometer to measure isometric muscle strength of the hip region, and were peer reviewed. The individual studies were evaluated for quality using a standardized critical appraisal tool. A total of 644 articles were screened for eligibility, with five articles chosen for inclusion. The use of a sphygmomanometer to objectively assess isometric muscle strength of the hip muscles appears to be reliable with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.66 to 0.94 in elderly and young populations. No studies were identified that have assessed the validity of a sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer appears to be reliable for assessment of isometric muscle strength around the hip joint, but further research is warranted to establish its validity.
Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten
This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2011 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2.......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2013. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2011 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2....
Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten
This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2017. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2015 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2017. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2015 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...
Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Winther, Morten
This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2......This report is Denmark’s National Inventory Report 2014. The report contains information on Denmark’s emission inventories for all years’ from 1990 to 2012 for CO2, CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs and SF6, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2...
The purpose of this presentation is to help you reduce the inventory in your operation. We will accomplish that task by discussing six specific methods that companies have used successfully to reduce their inventory. One common attribute of these successes is that they also build teamwork among the people. Every business operation today is concerned with methods to improve customer service. The real trick is to accomplish that task without increasing inventory. We are all concerned with improving our skills at keeping inventory low.
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Culverts. This data contains small culverts locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...
Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS
communicate their subjective opinions. Keywords: Usability Analysis; CAVETM (Cave Automatic Virtual Environments); Human Computer Interface (HCI...the differences in interaction when compared with traditional human computer interfaces. This paper provides analysis via usability study methods
Mohammed, Naitullah; Syed.Mohammed, Mahamood Ur Rahman
The relationship between the perceived usability of a beautiful interface and of an ugly interface is analyzed in this study. This study correlates the visual aesthetics of the website with perceived usability. This research is performed to know the significance of visual aesthetics on perceived usability. A website is designed with two interfaces. One interface is designed by following design guidelines with respect to usability and the other interface is designed without following guideline...