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Sample records for isomers colors discuss

  1. Carotenoids and Their Isomers: Color Pigments in Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueming Jiang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are colorful pigment-containing food sources. Owing to their nutritional benefits and phytochemicals, they are considered as ‘functional food ingredients’. Carotenoids are some of the most vital colored phytochemicals, occurring as all-trans and cis-isomers, and accounting for the brilliant colors of a variety of fruits and vegetables. Carotenoids extensively studied in this regard include β-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin. Coloration of fruits and vegetables depends on their growth maturity, concentration of carotenoid isomers, and food processing methods. This article focuses more on several carotenoids and their isomers present in different fruits and vegetables along with their concentrations. Carotenoids and their geometric isomers also play an important role in protecting cells from oxidation and cellular damages.

  2. Tuning the Colors of the Dark Isomers of Photochromic Boron Compounds with Fluoride Ions: Four-State Color Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellerup, Soren K; Rao, Ying-Li; Amarne, Hazem; Wang, Suning

    2016-09-02

    Combining a three-coordinated boron (BMes2) moiety with a four-coordinated photochromic organoboron unit leads to a series of new diboron compounds that undergo four-state reversible color switching in response to stimuli of light, heat, and fluoride ions. Thus, these hybrid diboron systems allow both convenient color tuning/switching of such photochromic systems, as well as visual fluoride sensing by color or fluorescent emission color change.

  3. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions

  4. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika; Singh, Balraj

    2015-01-01

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015

  5. Atlas of Nuclear Isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar, E-mail: ajainfph@iitr.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Garg, Swati; Patial, Monika [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247667 (India); Singh, Balraj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario-L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    We present an atlas of nuclear isomers containing the experimental data for the isomers with a half-life ≥ 10 ns together with their various properties such as excitation-energy, half-life, decay mode(s), spin-parity, energies and multipolarities of emitted gamma transitions, etc. The ENSDF database complemented by the XUNDL database has been extensively used in extracting the relevant data. Recent literature from primary nuclear physics journals, and the NSR bibliographic database have been searched to ensure that the compiled data Table is as complete and current as possible. The data from NUBASE-12 have also been checked for completeness, but as far as possible original references have been cited. Many interesting systematic features of nuclear isomers emerge, some of them new; these are discussed and presented in various graphs and figures. The cutoff date for the extraction of data from the literature is August 15, 2015.

  6. Treatment of isomers in nucleosynthesis codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reifarth, René; Fiebiger, Stefan; Göbel, Kathrin; Heftrich, Tanja; Kausch, Tanja; Köppchen, Christoph; Kurtulgil, Deniz; Langer, Christoph; Thomas, Benedikt; Weigand, Mario

    2018-03-01

    The decay properties of long-lived excited states (isomers) can have a significant impact on the destruction channels of isotopes under stellar conditions. In sufficiently hot environments, the population of isomers can be altered via thermal excitation or de-excitation. If the corresponding lifetimes are of the same order of magnitude as the typical time scales of the environment, the isomers have to be treated explicitly. We present a general approach to the treatment of isomers in stellar nucleosynthesis codes and discuss a few illustrative examples. The corresponding code is available online at http://exp-astro.de/isomers/.

  7. Terms of Engagement: Men of Color Discuss Their Experiences in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardenshire-Crooks, Alissa; Collado, Herbert; Martin, Kasey; Castro, Alma

    2010-01-01

    Community colleges provide access to higher education for millions of Americans who might not otherwise be able to pursue it. However, despite the pivotal role these institutions play in promoting social equity, they continue to struggle with low student persistence and completion rates, particularly among male students of color. It is this…

  8. "Pink Is a Girl's Color": A Case Study of Bilingual Kindergarteners' Discussions about Gender Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, So Jung

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the results of an empirical study that examined young bilingual students' discussions of picture books dealing with gender themes in a Spanish/English bilingual classroom. The study focused on the reading of five picture books by sixteen 5-year-old Mexican-origin children at a small charter school. The data were collected by…

  9. Alpha and gamma spectroscopy of fission isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.

    1988-01-01

    The attempts to discover in the experiment decay of fission isomers of heavy nuclei in the U-Am range by emitting α particles or γ quanta are considered. Some facilities for searching αdecay of spontaneously fissile isomers are given in brief. The first experimental results are discussed

  10. Seniority isomers in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Isacker, P

    2011-01-01

    Seniority isomers are nuclear states with an electromagnetic decay that is hindered by selection rules related to the seniority quantum number. A simple analysis is presented of their possible formation with reference to the nickel isotopes 70–76 Ni and the N = 50 isotones from molybdenum to cadmium. It is shown that the existence of seniority isomers in a j = 9/2 shell is predominantly governed by the quadrupole pairing matrix element of the nucleon-nucleon interaction. The analysis is generalized to shells with larger j.

  11. Trans-dinitroglycoluril isomers-A DFT treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemi Türker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Isomers of trans-1,4-Dinitroglycoluril (trans-DINGU and their 1,3-tautomers are considered within the constraints of B3LYP/6-31++G (d,p and B3LYP/CC-PVTZ levels of DFT calculations. Additionally, the interactions of these isomers and proton in vacuum are investigated. The data have revealed that two of the three isomers undergo CH bond cleavage as the result of interaction with proton in vacuum. The total energies, some structural properties, the calculated IR and UV spectra are discussed.

  12. The importance of stimulated gamma release from isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, H.

    1997-01-01

    The potential applications of the gamma-ray laser are discussed to illustrate the potential benefit of the development of this field of nuclear science, as well as the risks and responsibilities associated with isomer development beyond their current status as nuclear curiosities. The similarities and differences between the development of a gamma-ray laser based on nuclear isomers and the initial development of nuclear science and engineering are compared

  13. Color naming

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Ebru

    1998-01-01

    Ankara : Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and Institute of Fine Arts, 1998. Thesis (Ph.D) -- Bilkent University, 1998 Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, visual aspects of color and neurophysiological processes involved in the phenomenon, language of color and color models were explained in addition to the discussion of different ideas, orientations and previous works behind the subject of matter. Available color ...

  14. Can voltammetry distinguish glycan isomers?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trefulka, Mojmír; Paleček, Emil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2015), s. 241-244 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : oligosaccharide isomers * Os(VI) complexes * chemical modification Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2015

  15. Development of high-spin isomer beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaohong

    2000-01-01

    The physical motivations with high-spin isomer beams were introduced. Taking HSIB of RIKEN as an example, the methods to produce, separate, transport and purity high-spin isomer beams were described briefly, and the detection of γ rays emitted from the reactions induced by the high-spin isomer beams was presented. Finally, the progress to develop the high-spin isomers in the N = 83 isotones as second beams was stressed

  16. Encyclopedia of color science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Color Science and Technology provides an authoritative single source for understanding and applying the concepts of color to all fields of science and technology, including artistic and historical aspects of color. Many topics are discussed in this timely reference, including an introduction to the science of color, and entries on the physics, chemistry and perception of color. Color is described as it relates to optical phenomena of color and continues on through colorants and materials used to modulate color and also to human vision of color. The measurement of color is provided as is colorimetry, color spaces, color difference metrics, color appearance models, color order systems and cognitive color. Other topics discussed include industrial color, color imaging, capturing color, displaying color and printing color. Descriptions of color encodings, color management, processing color and applications relating to color synthesis for computer graphics are included in this work. The Encyclo...

  17. Laser isotope and isomer separations: History and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letok'ov, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    Paper will review history and principles of laser isotope and nuclear isomer separation: laser multistep photoionization of isotopic and isomeric atoms, laser IR-UV two-step photodissociation of molecules, laser IR multiphoton photodissociation of polyatomic molecules. The comparison and areas of applications of these methods will be considered. Paper will discuss a present state of art of technology of these methods in practical scale in various countries. In conclusion the trends of research in this field including applications of laser-separated isotopes and isomers will be considered

  18. UV laser induced photochemistry of nitrobenzene and nitrotoluene isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmidis, C.; Clark, A.; Deas, R.M.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; Marshall, A.; Singhal, R.P.

    1995-01-01

    The photofragmentation of nitrobenzene and the isomers of nitrotoluene in the gas phase are studied in the wavelength region 210-270 nm using a pulsed UV laser in conjunction with a time of flight mass spectrometer. Laser induced mass spectra are analysed and compared with those produced by the electron impact (EI) technique. The generation of the observed fragment ions is explained by invoking different fragmentation pathways followed by these molecules. Observed differences in the mass spectra of the o-, m-, and p-nitrotoluene isomers are discussed as a possible way for a laser based method for their identification. (author)

  19. Colored operads

    CERN Document Server

    Yau, Donald

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this book is the theory of operads and colored operads, sometimes called symmetric multicategories. A (colored) operad is an abstract object which encodes operations with multiple inputs and one output and relations between such operations. The theory originated in the early 1970s in homotopy theory and quickly became very important in algebraic topology, algebra, algebraic geometry, and even theoretical physics (string theory). Topics covered include basic graph theory, basic category theory, colored operads, and algebras over colored operads. Free colored operads are discussed in complete detail and in full generality. The intended audience of this book includes students and researchers in mathematics and other sciences where operads and colored operads are used. The prerequisite for this book is minimal. Every major concept is thoroughly motivated. There are many graphical illustrations and about 150 exercises. This book can be used in a graduate course and for independent study.

  20. Calorimetric study of bromoacetophenone isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Luísa M.P.F.; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A calorimetric study of bromoacetophenone isomers was performed. • Enthalpies of formation were derived by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. • Enthalpies of phase transition were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. • Cox scheme was applied for the estimation of Δ f H m o (g) for the compounds. • The values of Δ f H m o (g) were compared with literature values for similar compounds. - Abstract: The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2-, 2′-, 3′- and 4′-bromoacetophenones were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion in oxygen, to yield CO 2 (g) and HBr·600H 2 O (l) at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies associated with phase transitions of the isomers studied at T = 298.15 K, were obtained by high temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of all the bromoacetophenone isomers in the gaseous phase at T = 298.15 K were derived from the experimental results. The gas-phase enthalpies of formation were also estimated by the empirical scheme developed by Cox and the values obtained were compared with the experimental ones. The results are interpreted in terms of the energetic increments for the introduction of the substituents in the benzene ring

  1. Isomers chart; Table des isomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont-Gautier, P; Chantelot, S; Moisson, N [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The nuclear isomers are nuclides offering the same mass number and the same atomic number, but different energy levels. In the following chart the zero energy ground states are omitted and the metastable isomers, i.e. of non-zero energy, known and of measurable lifetime, are listed. The lower limit of this lifetime was set here to 0.1 x 10{sup -6} s. The various isomers were classified in increasing lifetimes. (authors) [French] Les isomeres nucleaires sont des nucleides presentant le meme nombre de masse et le meme numero atomique, mais des niveaux energetiques differents. Dans la table suivante, on a neglige les etats fondamentaux d'energie nulle et on a recense les isomeres metastables, c'est-a-dire d'energie non nulle, connus et de periode mesurable. La limite inferieure de cette periode a ete fixee ici a 0,1 x 10{sup -6} s. Les differents isomeres ont ete classes par periodes croissantes. (auteurs)

  2. Isomers chart; Table des isomeres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont-Gautier, P.; Chantelot, S.; Moisson, N. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The nuclear isomers are nuclides offering the same mass number and the same atomic number, but different energy levels. In the following chart the zero energy ground states are omitted and the metastable isomers, i.e. of non-zero energy, known and of measurable lifetime, are listed. The lower limit of this lifetime was set here to 0.1 x 10{sup -6} s. The various isomers were classified in increasing lifetimes. (authors) [French] Les isomeres nucleaires sont des nucleides presentant le meme nombre de masse et le meme numero atomique, mais des niveaux energetiques differents. Dans la table suivante, on a neglige les etats fondamentaux d'energie nulle et on a recense les isomeres metastables, c'est-a-dire d'energie non nulle, connus et de periode mesurable. La limite inferieure de cette periode a ete fixee ici a 0,1 x 10{sup -6} s. Les differents isomeres ont ete classes par periodes croissantes. (auteurs)

  3. Atlas of nuclear isomers and their systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Maheshwari, Bhoomika

    2015-01-01

    Isomers can be viewed as a separate class of nuclei and offer interesting possibilities to study the behavior of nuclei under varied conditions of excitation energy, spin, life-time and particle configuration. We have completed a horizontal evaluation of nuclear isomers and the resulting data set contains a wealth of information which offers new insights in the nuclear structure of a wide range of configurations, nuclei approaching the drip lines etc. We now have reliable data on approximately 2460 isomers having a half-life ≥ 10 ns. A few of the systematics of the properties of nuclear isomers like excitation energy, half-life, spin, abundance etc. will be presented. The data set of semi-magic isomers strongly supports the existence of seniority isomers originating from the higher spin orbitals. (author)

  4. K-Isomers as a Probe of Nuclear Structure and Advanced Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondev, F. G.

    2005-05-01

    Nuclear K-isomers play a pivotal role in understanding the structure of deformed, axially symmetric nuclei. Examples are presented of recent studies of exotic multi-quasiparticle isomers in the A˜180 rare-earth region at the extreme of angular momentum and neutron number. A specific band-mixing scenario is invoked to explain the unusual decay path of the Kπ=57/2- isomer (T1/2=22 ns) in 175Hf, the highest spin K-isomer known in nature. The discovery of a suite of high-K isomers, above the previously known Kπ=23/2- (T1/2=160 d) state in 177Lu, using deep-inelastic and multi-nucleon transfer reactions is discussed.

  5. K-Isomers as a Probe of Nuclear Structure and Advanced Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondev, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear K-isomers play a pivotal role in understanding the structure of deformed, axially symmetric nuclei. Examples are presented of recent studies of exotic multi-quasiparticle isomers in the A∼180 rare-earth region at the extreme of angular momentum and neutron number. A specific band-mixing scenario is invoked to explain the unusual decay path of the Kπ=57/2- isomer (T1/2=22 ns) in 175Hf, the highest spin K-isomer known in nature. The discovery of a suite of high-K isomers, above the previously known Kπ=23/2- (T1/2=160 d) state in 177Lu, using deep-inelastic and multi-nucleon transfer reactions is discussed

  6. High spin isomer beam line at RIKEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishida, T.; Ideguchi, E.; Wu, H.Y. [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Saitama (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Nuclear high spin states have been the subject of extensive experimental and theoretical studies. For the production of high spin states, fusion reactions are usually used. The orbital angular momentum brought in the reaction is changed into the nuclear spin of the compound nucleus. However, the maximum induced angular momentum is limited in this mechanism by the maximum impact parameter of the fusion reaction and by the competition with fission reactions. It is, therefore, difficult to populate very high spin states, and as a result, large {gamma}-detector arrays have been developed in order to detect subtle signals from such very high spin states. The use of high spin isomers in the fusion reactions can break this limitation because the high spin isomers have their intrinsic angular momentum, which can bring the additional angular momentum without increasing the excitation energy. There are two methods to use the high spin isomers for secondary reactions: the use of the high spin isomers as a target and that as a beam. A high spin isomer target has already been developed and used for several experiments. But this method has an inevitable shortcoming that only {open_quotes}long-lived{close_quotes} isomers can be used for a target: {sup 178}Hf{sup m2} (16{sup +}) with a half-life of 31 years in the present case. By developing a high spin isomer beam, the authors can utilize various short-lived isomers with a short half-life around 1 {mu}s. The high spin isomer beam line of RIKEN Accelerator Facility is a unique apparatus in the world which provides a high spin isomer as a secondary beam. The combination of fusion-evaporation reaction and inverse kinematics are used to produce high spin isomer beams; in particular, the adoption of `inverse kinematics` is essential to use short-lived isomers as a beam.

  7. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground...

  8. Color models of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, O.W.; Nelson, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    The evidence for a three-valued 'color' degree of freedom in hadron physics is reviewed. The structure of color models is discussed. Consequences of color models for elementary particle physics are discussed, including saturation properties of hadronic states, π 0 →2γ and related decays, leptoproduction, and lepton pair annihilation. Signatures are given which distinguish theories with isolated colored particles from those in which color is permanently bound. (Auth.)

  9. Comparative aerobic soil metabolism of fenvalerate isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.W.; Powell, W.R.; Stearns, S.M.; McConnell, O.J.

    1987-01-01

    An aerobic soil metabolism study was conducted to determine the degradation rate of individual isomer of fenvalerate and to assess the potential influence of the RS, SR, and RR isomers to the metabolism of the most insecticidally active SS isomer. Individual [phenoxyphenyl- 14 C]fenvalerate isomers degraded at different rates. The calculated half-lives for the SR, RS, SS, and RR isomers in fenvalerate (racemic mixture) were 155, 89, 108, and 178 days, respectively. The resolved SS isomer degraded at a faster rate with a calculated half-life of 74 days. Racemization of the resolved SS isomer did not occur. A qualitative difference in the chemical nature of soil metabolites between fenvalerate and the resolved SS isomer was not observed. Soil degradation products, phenoxybenzoic acid, 3-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)benzoic acid, and 4'-OH- and CONH 2 -fenvalerate, each accounted for less than 2% of the applied radioactivity. Extensive degradation of these soil metabolites was evident since approximately 50% of the applied radioactivity was recovered as 14 C 2 and as unextractable bound residues

  10. Evidence for an isomer in 76Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, M.; Pfuetzner, M.; Grzywacz, R.; Daugas, J.M.; Belier, G.; Sauvestre, J.E.; Matea, I.; Lewitowicz, M.; Georgiev, G.; Grawe, H.; Mayet, P.; Becker, F.; Bingham, C.; Borcea, R.; Hammache, F.; Ibrahim, F.; Bouchez, E.; Buta, A.; Dragulescu, E.; Giovinazzo, J.; Meot, V.; Negoita, F.; De Oliveira Santos, F.; Perru, O.; Roig, O.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Sorlin, O.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.; Stodel, C.; Theisen, C.; Verney, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the experiment performed at the LISE2000 spectrometer at GANIL neutron-rich nickel isotopes were studied by microsecond isomer spectroscopy. Evidence for an isomer in 76 Ni is found, consistently with the shell model prediction of an 8 + state of ν(g 9/2 ) 2 structure. (orig.)

  11. FY2011 Annual Report for the Actinide Isomer Detection Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Glen A.; Francy, Christopher J.; Ressler, Jennifer J.; Erikson, Luke E.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Hatarik, R.

    2011-01-01

    This project seeks to identify a new signature for actinide element detection in active interrogation. This technique works by exciting and identifying long-lived nuclear excited states (isomers) in the actinide isotopes and/or primary fission products. Observation of isomers in the fission products will provide a signature for fissile material. For the actinide isomers, the decay time and energy of the isomeric state is unique to a particular isotope, providing an unambiguous signature for SNM. This project entails isomer identification and characterization and neutron population studies. This document summarizes activities from its third year - completion of the isomer identification characterization experiments and initialization of the neutron population experiments. The population and decay of the isomeric state in 235U remain elusive, although a number of candidate gamma rays have been identified. In the course of the experiments, a number of fission fragment isomers were populated and measured (Ressler 2010). The decays from these isomers may also provide a suitable signature for the presence of fissile material. Several measurements were conducted throughout this project. This report focuses on the results of an experiment conducted collaboratively by PNNL, LLNL and LBNL in December 2010 at LBNL. The measurement involved measuring the gamma-rays emitted from an HEU target when bombarded with 11 MeV neutrons. This report discussed the analysis and resulting conclusions from those measurements. There was one strong candidate, at 1204 keV, of an isomeric signature of 235U. The half-life of the state is estimated to be 9.3 μs. The measured time dependence fits the decay time structure very well. Other possible explanations for the 1204-keV state were investigated, but they could not explain the gamma ray. Unfortunately, the relatively limited statistics of the measurement limit, and the lack of understanding of some of the systematic of the experiment, limit

  12. Isomer-specific combustion chemistry in allene and propyne flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Nils; Miller, James A. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Westmoreland, Phillip R. [Department of Chem. Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kasper, Tina [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Kohse-Hoeinghaus, Katharina [Department of Chemistry, Bielefeld University, D-33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Wang, Juan; Cool, Terrill A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    A combined experimental and modeling study is performed to clarify the isomer-specific combustion chemistry in flames fueled by the C{sub 3}H{sub 4} isomers allene and propyne. To this end, mole fraction profiles of several flame species in stoichiometric allene (propyne)/O{sub 2}/Ar flames are analyzed by means of a chemical kinetic model. The premixed flames are stabilized on a flat-flame burner under a reduced pressure of 25 Torr (=33.3 mbar). Quantitative species profiles are determined by flame-sampling molecular-beam mass spectrometry, and the isomer-specific flame compositions are unraveled by employing photoionization with tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation. The temperature profiles are measured by OH laser-induced fluorescence. Experimental and modeled mole fraction profiles of selected flame species are discussed with respect to the isomer-specific combustion chemistry in both flames. The emphasis is put on main reaction pathways of fuel consumption, of allene and propyne isomerization, and of isomer-specific formation of C{sub 6} aromatic species. The present model includes the latest theoretical rate coefficients for reactions on a C{sub 3}H{sub 5} potential [J.A. Miller, J.P. Senosiain, S.J. Klippenstein, Y. Georgievskii, J. Phys. Chem. A 112 (2008) 9429-9438] and for the propargyl recombination reactions [Y. Georgievskii, S.J. Klippenstein, J.A. Miller, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 9 (2007) 4259-4268]. Larger peak mole fractions of propargyl, allyl, and benzene are observed in the allene flame than in the propyne flame. In these flames virtually all of the benzene is formed by the propargyl recombination reaction. (author)

  13. Electronic structure and isomer shifts of Sn halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, J.; Guenzburger, D.

    1988-01-01

    The all-electron first-principles Discrete Variational method was employed to study the electronic structure of SnF 4 , SnCl 4 , SnBr 4 and SnI 4 . Values of the electronic density at the Sn nucleus were derived and related to 119 Sn Isomer Shifts to obtain the nuclear constant Δ 2 >. Differences in values of ρ(o) area discussed in terms of the chemical bonding between Sn and halogen atoms. (author) [pt

  14. High spin states and Yrast isomers in 211Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Morrison, I.

    1981-01-01

    Excited states in 211 Rn with spins up to 53/2 have been identified using (HI,xn) reactions and γ-ray techniques. A shell model calculation can reproduce the ordering of the yrast sequence up to spin 41/2 - . Several yrast isomers have been identified. Enhanced E3 transitions are observed and their systematic occurrence in this region discussed. The influence of the neutron hole, and possible core excitations on the effective moment of inertia are also pointed out

  15. High spin states and yrast isomers in 211Rn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Morrison, I.

    1980-12-01

    Excited states in 211 Rn with spins up to 53/2 have been identified using (HI,xn) reactions and γ-ray techniques. A shell model calculation can reproduce the ordering of the yrast sequence up to spin 41/2. Several yrast isomers have been identified. Enhanced E3 transitions are observed and their systematic occurrence in this region discussed. The influence of the neutron hole, and possible core excitations on the effective moment of inertia are also pointed out

  16. 6/sup +/ isomer state in /sup 46/Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzeti, P G; Maurenzig, P R; Poggi, G [Florence Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica; Lo Bianco, G [Milan Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica

    1975-01-11

    The decay of the expected isomer, obtained from the reaction /sup 48/Ca(p,p2n)/sup 46/Ca, has been observed as a delayed activity after bombardment of a 97.2% enriched /sup 48/CaC0/sub 3/ target with 35 MeV protons. The experimental apparatus used at AUF cyclotron of Milan is described. Data are reported and discussed.

  17. Color and experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief review of the color hypothesis and the motivations for its introduction, the experimental tests arare discussed. It is assumed that colored states have not been produced at present energies and only experimental tests which apply below the color threshold, when color is a ''hidden symmetry,'' are discussed. Some of these tests offer the possibility of distinguishing between quark models with fractional and integral quark charges. (auth)

  18. Using color management in color document processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehab, Smadar

    1995-04-01

    Color Management Systems have been used for several years in Desktop Publishing (DTP) environments. While this development hasn't matured yet, we are already experiencing the next generation of the color imaging revolution-Device Independent Color for the small office/home office (SOHO) environment. Though there are still open technical issues with device independent color matching, they are not the focal point of this paper. This paper discusses two new and crucial aspects in using color management in color document processing: the management of color objects and their associated color rendering methods; a proposal for a precedence order and handshaking protocol among the various software components involved in color document processing. As color peripherals become affordable to the SOHO market, color management also becomes a prerequisite for common document authoring applications such as word processors. The first color management solutions were oriented towards DTP environments whose requirements were largely different. For example, DTP documents are image-centric, as opposed to SOHO documents that are text and charts centric. To achieve optimal reproduction on low-cost SOHO peripherals, it is critical that different color rendering methods are used for the different document object types. The first challenge in using color management of color document processing is the association of rendering methods with object types. As a result of an evolutionary process, color matching solutions are now available as application software, as driver embedded software and as operating system extensions. Consequently, document processing faces a new challenge, the correct selection of the color matching solution while avoiding duplicate color corrections.

  19. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed

  20. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  1. Identifying Tm-C82 isomers with density functional theory calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Limin; He Hongqing; Yang Minghui; Zeng Qun; Yang Mingli

    2010-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations have been performed to study the geometrical and electronic properties of endohedral metallofullerene Tm-C 82 isomers. Three energetically favorable isomers (with C s , C 2 and C 2v symmetry, respectively) are identified which are consistent with the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) observations. The simulated ultraviolet photoelectron spectra (UPS) based on the three structures agree well with the measurements. Particularly, the parent cage of the experimentally observed Tm-C 82 isomer with C s symmetry is newly assigned, which matches the experiments better than early assignments. In addition, strong interaction between an endohedral Tm atom and the C 82 cage is discussed and is thought to be responsible for the dramatic change in the relative stability of C 82 isomers when Tm is encapsulated.

  2. Nuclear isomers and their possible applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear isomers are the long lived excited states of nuclei having half-lives much larger than the half-lives of normal excited states. They are also known as the meta-stable states of atomic nuclei which are formed in nuclear reactions or, in radioactive decay of nuclei. Typical half-lives of isomers may range from nanoseconds to years. One of the most direct applications of nuclear isomers is in nuclear medicine. Radioisotopes are being widely used for imaging and therapeutic applications. They are particularly suitable for Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography (SPECT) imaging, where a single and relatively low energy γ ray photon is emitted. The most common example is "9"9"mTc (T_1_/_2 = 6 hours) which decays via a 142 keV γ ray photon. Examples of other isomers that are used in medical applications will be presented. Relatively long-lived isomers, such as "1"9"3"mPt and "1"9"5"mPt, for example, are being used in certain cancer treatments. Because of the high multi-pole order of the decaying transitions, most of the decays occur via internal conversion electrons, with subsequent emission of Auger electrons that can be used to kill various cancer cells. There are also some cases where the isomer decays by positron emission and is used for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging

  3. Experimental thermochemical study of two chlorodinitroaniline isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Ferreira, Ana I.M.C. Lobo; Galvao, Tiago L.P.

    2010-01-01

    The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2-chloro-4,6-dinitroaniline and 4-chloro-2,6-dinitroaniline, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the combination of the values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, and of the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at the same temperature. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, were derived from the standard massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation were calculated, by the application of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, to the vapour pressures at several temperatures, measured by Knudsen effusion technique. The values of the standard molar enthalpies of formation of 2-chloro-4,6-dinitroaniline and 4-chloro-2,6-dinitroaniline, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, are discussed in terms of enthalpic increments, and the enthalpy of isomerization between the two compounds is compared with the same parameter for two isomers of chloronitroaniline, studied in previous works.

  4. Natural Colorants: Food Colorants from Natural Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdson, Gregory T; Tang, Peipei; Giusti, M Mónica

    2017-02-28

    The color of food is often associated with the flavor, safety, and nutritional value of the product. Synthetic food colorants have been used because of their high stability and low cost. However, consumer perception and demand have driven the replacement of synthetic colorants with naturally derived alternatives. Natural pigment applications can be limited by lower stability, weaker tinctorial strength, interactions with food ingredients, and inability to match desired hues. Therefore, no single naturally derived colorant can serve as a universal alternative for a specified synthetic colorant in all applications. This review summarizes major environmental and biological sources for natural colorants as well as nature-identical counterparts. Chemical characteristics of prevalent pigments, including anthocyanins, carotenoids, betalains, and chlorophylls, are described. The possible applications and hues (warm, cool, and achromatic) of currently used natural pigments, such as anthocyanins as red and blue colorants, and possible future alternatives, such as purple violacein and red pyranoanthocyanins, are also discussed.

  5. Colorism/Neo-Colorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2017-01-01

    There are numerous aspects to being non-Caucasian that may not be known by Whites. Persons of color suggest folks who are African, South Americans, Native Americans, Biracial, Asians and others. The question is what do these individuals feel relative to their color and facial characteristics. Eugene Robinson suggest that the future favorable color…

  6. K isomers as probes of nuclear structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandel, S. K.

    2014-08-01

    K isomers are studied in Pu and Cm isotopes, and also in Hf and W nuclei. Many high-K states, several of which are isomeric, are identified. Lifetime measurements spanning the ns-s range have been performed, and decay paths of isomers established. Rotational bands built on high-K states are also identified in many cases. Isomer decays are considerably hindered in many instances, both in the A≈180 and 250 regions indicating that K is an approximately conserved quantum number. High-K states become the favored excitation mode at high spins in the A≈180 region. The energies of the 2-quasiparticle high-K states in Cm isotopes suggest the presence of a deformed subshell gap at N=152.

  7. K isomers as probes of nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandel, S. K., E-mail: sujit.tandel@cbs.ac.in [UM-DAE Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2014-08-14

    K isomers are studied in Pu and Cm isotopes, and also in Hf and W nuclei. Many high-K states, several of which are isomeric, are identified. Lifetime measurements spanning the ns-s range have been performed, and decay paths of isomers established. Rotational bands built on high-K states are also identified in many cases. Isomer decays are considerably hindered in many instances, both in the A≈180 and 250 regions indicating that K is an approximately conserved quantum number. High-K states become the favored excitation mode at high spins in the A≈180 region. The energies of the 2-quasiparticle high-K states in Cm isotopes suggest the presence of a deformed subshell gap at N=152.

  8. Color evaluation of computer-generated color rainbow holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yile; Wang, Hui; Wu, Qiong

    2013-01-01

    A color evaluation approach for computer-generated color rainbow holography (CGCRH) is presented. Firstly, the relationship between color quantities of a computer display and a color computer-generated holography (CCGH) colorimetric system is discussed based on color matching theory. An isochromatic transfer relationship of color quantity and amplitude of object light field is proposed. Secondly, the color reproduction mechanism and factors leading to the color difference between the color object and the holographic image that is reconstructed by CGCRH are analyzed in detail. A quantitative color calculation method for the holographic image reconstructed by CGCRH is given. Finally, general color samples are selected as numerical calculation test targets and the color differences between holographic images and test targets are calculated based on our proposed method. (paper)

  9. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, we discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  10. Color response and color transport in a quark-gluon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using color kinetic theory, the authors discuss color conduction and color response in a quark-gluon plasma. Collective color oscillations and their damping rates are investigated. An instability of the thermal equilibrium state in high T QCD is discovered

  11. A field guide to digital color

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Maureen Stone's field guide to digital color presents a survey of digital color with special emphasis on those fields important for computer graphics. The book provides the foundation for understanding color and its applications, discusses color media and color management and the use of color in computer graphics, including color design and selection. The book provides a guide for anyone who wants to understand and apply digital color. An annotated bibliography provides in-depth references for further study on each topic.

  12. Study of the Si fullerene cage isomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fthenakis, Z.G.; Havenith, R.W.A.; Menon, M.; Fowler, P.W.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a study on the structural and electronic properties of the Si38 fullerene isomers, which are constructed by making all possible permutations among their pentagons and hexagons. These structures were firstly fully optimized with a tight binding molecular dynamics method and

  13. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  14. Color transparency study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, J.A.; Pordes, S.; Botts, J.; Bunce, G.; Farrar, G.

    1990-01-01

    The group studied the relatively new notion of color transparency, discussed present experimental evidence for the effect, and explored several ideas for future experiments. This write-up summarizes these discussions. 11 refs., 1 fig

  15. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  16. Structure of two-, four-, and six-quasiparticle isomers in 174Yb and K-forbidden decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Byrne, A. P.; Kibédi, T.; Watanabe, H.; Ahmad, I.; Carpenter, M. P.; Freeman, S. J.; Janssens, R. V.; Hammond, N. J.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Mukherjee, G.; Seweryniak, D.; Chowdhury, P.; Tandel, S. K.

    2005-04-01

    The stable nucleus 174Yb has been studied using deep-inelastic reactions and time-correlated γ-ray spectroscopy. New intrinsic states assigned include a 370-ns isomer at 1765 keV, which we associate with a predicted Kπ=7- two-quasineutron configuration. Analysis of the alignment and in-band properties of its rotational band, identified using time-correlated coincidences, allows characterization of the configuration. The properties of a newly identified rotational band built on the known 830-μs isomer at 1518 keV support the 6+, 2-quasineutron configuration assignment proposed previously. The 6+ band is fed by a four-quasiparticle, Kπ=14+ isomer at 3699 keV and several higher multiquasiparticle states, including a six-quasiparticle isomer at 6147 keV with K=(22,23). The results are discussed in terms of the states predicted on the basis of multiquasiparticle calculations. The anomalously fast K-forbidden transition strengths from the 14+ isomer are attributed to either K mixing in the neutron configuration or to random mixing in the high-level-density region. The 7- isomer decays are not abnormal, whereas the very hindered E2 transition from the 6+ isomer to the ground-state band remains unexplained.

  17. Colour isomers in quark material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegaasen, H.

    1981-01-01

    Quantum chromodynamics is stated to be analogous to quantum electrodynamics and colour to electric charge. However since there are eight gluon fields and only one photon field, and gluons have colour while photons are electrically neutral, QCD is much more complicated than QED. The concept of colour confine confinement is introduced and the addition rules for colour multiplets are discussed. It is shown that quark colour leads to isomeric meson states. Bubble chamber films from CERN groups have been examined and hyperons and (sup a)Y* resonance particles have been found, which appears to confirm the theory. (JIW)

  18. Color Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Monica; Raclariu, Ana-Maria; Strominger, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    A transient color flux across null infinity in classical Yang-Mills theory is considered. It is shown that a pair of test `quarks' initially in a color singlet generically acquire net color as a result of the flux. A nonlinear formula is derived for the relative color rotation of the quarks. For weak color flux the formula linearizes to the Fourier transform of the soft gluon theorem. This color memory effect is the Yang-Mills analog of the gravitational memory effect.

  19. Summary discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs

  20. Thermochemical study of four isomers of dichloroanisole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The present work reports the values of the gaseous standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of four isomers of dichloroanisole: 2,3-, 2,4-, 2,6-, and 3,5-dichloroanisole, at T = 298.15 K. For all compounds, those values were derived from measurements of the standard molar energies of combustion in the condensed phase, using a rotating bomb combustion calorimeter, together with measurements of the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation or vaporization, measured by high temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. Moreover, the enthalpies and the temperatures of fusion for the crystalline isomers of dichloroanisoles were measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The derived standard molar enthalpies of formation in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, for the title compounds were compared with the same parameters estimated by the Cox scheme and interpreted in terms of molecular structure

  1. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  2. Stability Computations for Isomers of La@Cn (n = 72, 74, 76

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwik Adamowicz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Density-functional theory calculations are presented for low-energy La@C72, La@C74 and La@C76 isomers with IPR (isolated pentagon rule and non-IPR cages. The relative isomeric production yields at high temperatures are evaluated using the calculated terms, and the relationships to observations are discussed.

  3. Experimental thermochemical study of the monochloronitrobenzene isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Moreno, Ana Rita G.

    2009-01-01

    The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of 2-, 3-, and 4-chloronitrobenzene isomers, in the crystalline state, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of the isomers, at T = 298.15 K, were obtained by high temperature Calvet microcalorimetry. From the determined experimental data, the values of the gaseous standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation for the three monochloronitrobenzene isomers were derived. The gas-phase enthalpies of formation were also estimated by the empirical scheme developed by Cox showing that for meta- and para-chloronitrobenzene the estimated values are in close agreement with the experimental ones whereas, in the case of ortho-chloronitrobenzene it is shown that a different enthalpic interaction increment is needed, when the substituents in the adjacent carbon ring atoms are a chlorine atom and a nitro group

  4. High-spin, multiparticle isomers in 121,123Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G. A.; Walker, P. M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Cullen, I. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Liu, Z.; Thompson, N. J.; Williams, S. J.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Carroll, J. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Hackman, G.; Chowdhury, P.; Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.

    2008-01-01

    Isomers in near-spherical Z=51, antimony isotopes are reported here for the first time using fusion-fission reactions between 27 Al and a pulsed 178 Hf beam of energy, 1150 MeV. γ rays were observed from the decay of isomeric states with half-lives, T 1/2 =200(30) and 52(3)μs, and angular momenta I=((25/2)) and I π =(23/2) + , in 121,123 Sb, respectively. These states are proposed to correspond to ν(h (11/2) ) 2 configurations, coupled to an odd d (5/2) or g (7/2) proton. Nanosecond isomers were also identified at I π =(19/2) - [T 1/2 =8.5(5) ns] in 121 Sb and I π =((15/2) - ) [T 1/2 =37(4) ns] in 123 Sb. Information on spins and parities of states in these nuclei was obtained using a combination of angular correlation and intensity-balance measurements. The configurations of states in these nuclei are discussed using a combination of spin/energy systematics and shell-model calculations for neighboring tin isotones and antimony isotopes

  5. Colored Quantum Algebra and Its Bethe State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin-Zheng; Jia Xiao-Yu; Wang Shi-Kun

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the colored Yang—Baxter equation. Based on a trigonometric solution of colored Yang—Baxter equation, we construct a colored quantum algebra. Moreover we discuss its algebraic Bethe ansatz state and highest wight representation. (general)

  6. Panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  7. The proportion of lycopene isomers in human plasma is modulated by lycopene isomer profile in the meal but not by lycopene preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Richelle, Myriam; Lambelet, Pierre; Rytz, Andreas; Tavazzi, Isabelle; Mermoud, Anne-France; Juhel, Christine; Borel, Patrick; Bortlik, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    Dietary lycopene consists mostly of the (all-E) isomer. Upon absorption, (all-E) lycopene undergoes isomerisation into various (Z)-isomers. Because these isomers offer potentially better health benefits than the (all-E) isomer, the aim of the present study was to investigate if the profile of lycopene isomers in intestinal lipoproteins is affected by the profile of lycopene isomers in the meal and by the tomato preparation. Six postprandial, crossover tests were performed in healthy men. Thre...

  8. Accumulation of D- vs. L-isomers of alanine and leucine in rat prostatic adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Schmall, B.; Bigler, R.E.; Zanzonico, P.B.; Kleinert, E.; Whitmore, W.F. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported that tumor tissue may accumulate some D-amino acids preferentially over the L-isomers. In order to investigate the potential use of carbon-11 labeled amino acid isomers for in vivo tumor studies with positron emission tomography in patients, the tissue distributions of alanine and leucine, substrates for the A-type and L-type amino acid transport systems, respectively, were studied in Copenhagen rates bearing the Dunning R3327G prostatic adenocarcinoma. The authors have previously reported differences in the accumulation of A-type vs. L-type amino acids in rat prostatic adenocarcinoma and normal tissues. All compounds were labeled with C-14 in the carboxyl position with specific activities of 30.0-56.6 mCi/mmol. Higher levels of C-14 activity (Relative Concentration (RC)=dpm found per gm tissue + dpm inject per gm animal mass) were observed in tumor tissue using D-alanine (0.71) compared to L- (0.21) or DL-alanine (0.27) at 45 min post-injection. While tumor/prostate and tumor/liver ratios were above 2 for all three substrates, tumor/blood and tumor/muscle were above one for only the D-isomer. Comparisons made with D-, L-, and DL-leucine also demonstrated a higher level of RC in tumor tissue with the D-isomer (0.84) vs. the L-(0.66) and DL-leucine (0.63). In this case, however, tumor/blood, tumor/prostate, and tumor/muscle ratios were above one for all three substrates, while tumor/liver ratios were below one. These results support the observation of a preferential accumulation of D-amino acids in tumor tissue over the natural L-isomers. Observed differences in the accumulation of the isomers in normal tissues are discussed

  9. Discussion Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    , time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present......Much research has focused on studying complex phenomena through their reflection in social media, from drawing neighborhood boundaries to inferring relationships between medicines and diseases. While it is generally recognized in the social sciences that such studies should be conditioned on gender...... a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context...

  10. Thermochemical study of the monobromonitrobenzene isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.; Santos, Ana Filipa L.O.M.; Rocha, Ines M.

    2010-01-01

    The standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, of the 2-, 3-, and 4-monobromonitrobenzene isomers, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, were derived from the standard massic energies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. From the temperature dependence of the vapour pressures of these compounds, measured by the Knudsen effusion technique, their standard molar enthalpies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

  11. Gamma-ray Spectroscopy of Nano-second Isomers in Neutron-rich Ni Region Produced by Deep-inelastic Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tetsuro; Asai, Masato; Kleinheinz, Peter; Matsuda, Makoto; Ichikawa, Shinichi; Makishima, Akiyasu; Ogawa, Masao

    2001-10-01

    We have been studying nuclear structure of neutron-rich nuclei produced by heavy-ion deep-inelastic collisions at the JAERI Tandem Booster facility. In our method using an `isomer-scope', γ-rays only from isomers with T_1/2 > 1ns are measured by shielding Ge detectors from prompt γ rays emitted at the target position. Atomic numbers of isomers can be also identified by detecting projectile-like fragments with Si Δ E-E detectors. Until now, we have found several new isomers in neutron-rich Ni region using about 8 MeV/nucleon ^70Zn, ^76Ge and ^82Se beams and a ^198Pt target of 4.3 mg/cm^2 thickness. In the doubly magic ^68_28Ni_40, the (ν g_9/2^2 ν p_1/2-2)8^+ isomer with T_1/2=23(1) ns was found. In its neighbor nuclei ^69,71Cu, the 19/2^- isomers were found and the energy levels decaying from the isomers can be calculated very accurately by a parameter-free shell model calculation using experimental energy levels as two-body residual interactions. I will also briefly discuss nano-second isomers in ^32,33Si and ^34P produced by 9 MeV/nucleon ^37Cl beams.

  12. Color Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. The difficulty addressed here is the fact that, because of metamerism, we cannot know with certainty the spectrum that produced a particular color solely on the basis of sensory data. Knowledge of the spectrum is not required to compute additive mixture of colors, but is critical for subtractive (multiplicative) mixture. Therefore, we cannot predict with certainty the multiplicative interactions between colors based solely on sensory data. There are two potential applications of a color algebra: first, to aid modeling phenomena of human visual perception, such as color constancy and transparency; and, second, to provide better models of the interactions of lights and surfaces for computer graphics rendering.

  13. Ocean Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Satellite-derived Ocean Color Data sets from historical and currently operational NASA and International Satellite missions including the NASA Coastal Zone Color...

  14. Isomers in neutron-rich A ∼ 190 nuclides from 208Pb fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rykaczewski, Krzysztof Piotr; Caamano, M.; Banu, A.; Walker, P.M.; Morton, N.H.; Regan, P. H.; Regan, Patrick H; Pfutzner, M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Gerl, J.; Hellstrom, M.; Mayet, P.; Miernik, K.; Mineva, M.N.; Aprahamian, A.; Benlliure, J.; Bruce, A.M.; Butler, P.A.; Cortina Gil, D.; Cullen, D.M.; Doring, J.; Enqvist, T.; Fox, C.; Garces Narro, J.; Geissel, H.; Gelletly, W.; Giovinazzo, J.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Grzywacz, R.; Kleinbohl, A.; Korten, W.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lucas, R.; Mach, H.; O'Leary, C.D.; De Oliveira, F.; Pearson, C.J.; Rejmund, F.

    2004-01-01

    Relativistic projectile fragmentation of 208 Pb has been used to produce isomers in neutron-rich, A ∼ 190 nuclides. A forward-focusing spectrometer provided ion-by-ion mass and charge identification. The detection of gamma-rays emitted by stopped ions has led to the assignment of isomers in 188 Ta, 190 W, 192 Re, 193 Re, 195 Os, 197 Ir, 198 Ir, 200 Pt, 201 Pt, 202 Pt and 203 Au, with half-lives ranging from approximately 10 ns to 1 ms. Tentative isomer information has been found also for 174 Er, 175 Er, 185 Hf, 191 Re, 194 Re and 199 Ir. In most cases, time-correlated, singles gamma-ray events provided the first spectroscopic data on excited states for each nuclide. In 200 Pt and 201 Pt, the assignments are supported by gamma-gamma coincidences. Isomeric ratios provide additional information, such as half-life and transition energy constraints in particular cases. The level structures of the platinum isotopes are discussed, and comparisons are made with isomer systematics

  15. Infrared spectroscopy of the acetyl cation and its protonated ketene isomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, J. D.; Young, J. W.; Duncan, M. A.

    2014-07-01

    [C2,H3,O]+ ions are generated with a pulsed discharge in a supersonic expansion containing methyl acetate or acetone. These ions are mass selected and their infrared spectra are recorded via laser photodissociation and the method of argon tagging. Computational chemistry is employed to investigate structural isomers and their spectra. The acetyl cation (CH3CO+) is the global minimum and protonated ketene (CH2COH+) is the next lowest energy isomer (+176.2 kJ/mol). When methyl acetate is employed as the precursor, the infrared spectrum reveals that only the acetyl cation is formed. Partially resolved rotational structure reveals rotation about the C3 axis. When acetone is used as the precursor, acetyl is still the most abundant cation, but there is also a minor component of protonated ketene. Computations reveal a significant barrier to interconversion between the two isomers (+221 kJ/mol), indicating that protonated ketene must be obtained via kinetic trapping. Both isomers may be present in interstellar environments, and their implications for astrochemistry are discussed.

  16. Comparative Autoignition Trends in Butanol Isomers at Elevated Pressure

    KAUST Repository

    Weber, Bryan W.

    2013-03-21

    Autoignition experiments of stoichiometric mixtures of s-, t-, and i-butanol in air have been performed using a heated rapid compression machine (RCM). At compressed pressures of 15 and 30 bar and for compressed temperatures in the range 715-910 K, no evidence of a negative temperature coefficient region in terms of ignition delay response is found. The present experimental results are also compared with previously reported RCM data of n-butanol in air. The order of reactivity of the butanols is n-butanol > s-butanol ≈ i-butanol > t-butanol at the lower pressure but changes to n-butanol > t-butanol > s-butanol > i-butanol at higher pressure. In addition, t-butanol shows preignition heat release behavior, which is especially evident at higher pressures. To help identify the controlling chemistry leading to this preignition heat release, off-stoichiometric experiments are further performed at 30 bar compressed pressure, for t-butanol at φ = 0.5 and φ = 2.0 in air. For these experiments, higher fuel loading (i.e., φ = 2.0) causes greater preignition heat release (as indicated by greater pressure rise) than the stoichiometric or φ = 0.5 cases. Comparison of the experimental ignition delays with the simulated results using two literature kinetic mechanisms shows generally good agreement, and one mechanism is further used to explore and compare the fuel decomposition pathways of butanol isomers. Using this mechanism, the importance of peroxy chemistry in the autoignition of the butanol isomers is highlighted and discussed. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  17. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  18. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  19. Anaerobic Degradation of Lindane and Other HCH Isomers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehboob, F.; Langenhoff, A.A.M.; Schraa, G.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Lindane (¿-HCH) is a pesticide that has mainly been used in agriculture. Lindane and the other HCH isomers are highly chlorinated hydrocarbons. The presence of a large number of electron withdrawing chlorine groups makes some of the HCH isomers rather recalcitrant in oxic environments. Especially

  20. Search for isomers in nuclei near N = 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taras, P.; Haas, B.; Merdinger, J.C.; Styczen, J.

    1979-01-01

    Targets of sup (58, 60, 61, 62, 64) Ni, Co, and Cu have been bombarded with 42 MeV 16 O beams. Several isomers were produced but no new isomer was found, in particular in 74 Kr which is expected to be a good candidate for yrast traps in the N = 50 region. (author)

  1. Isomer 103Rh excitation in the electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpatov, V.G.; Berezkin, V.V.; Vysotskij, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Rhodium foil targets were irradiated by a beam of electrons from a linear accelerator containing a minor impurity of bremsstrahlung. X-ray and γ-quanta from decay of 103m Rh isomer states were detected. The ratio of isomer cross section activation by bremsstrahlung, formed in the target, and electrons, equals 89. 7 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  2. Evidence for an isomer in {sup 76}Ni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicka, M.; Pfuetzner, M. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, PL-00-681, Warszawa (Poland); Grzywacz, R. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University, PL-00-681, Warszawa (Poland); Physics Division, ORNL, TN 37831-6371, Oak Ridge (United States); Daugas, J.M.; Belier, G.; Sauvestre, J.E. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel DIF/DPTA/SPN, BP 12, F-91680, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France); Matea, I.; Lewitowicz, M.; Georgiev, G. [GANIL, BP 5027, F-14021, Caen Cedex (France); Grawe, H.; Mayet, P. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, F. [GANIL, BP 5027, F-14021, Caen Cedex (France); GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Bingham, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, TN 37996, Knoxville (United States); Borcea, R.; Hammache, F.; Ibrahim, F. [IPN, 91406, Orsay Cedex (France); Bouchez, E. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Buta, A.; Dragulescu, E. [IFIN-HH, P.O. Box MG6, 76900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Giovinazzo, J. [CENBG, BP 120, F-33175, Gradignan Cedex (France); Meot, V.; Negoita, F.; De Oliveira Santos, F.; Perru, O.; Roig, O.; Rykaczewski, K.P.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.; Sorlin, O.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.; Stodel, C.; Theisen, C.; Verney, D.

    2004-04-01

    In the experiment performed at the LISE2000 spectrometer at GANIL neutron-rich nickel isotopes were studied by microsecond isomer spectroscopy. Evidence for an isomer in {sup 76}Ni is found, consistently with the shell model prediction of an 8{sup +} state of {nu}(g{sub 9/2}){sup 2} structure. (orig.)

  3. Energetics and Vibrational Analysis of Methyl Salicylate Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Richard D.; Dai, Yafei; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2009-08-01

    Energetics and vibrational analysis study of six isomers of methyl salicylate in their singlet ground state and first excited triple state is put forward in this work at the density functional theory level and large basis sets. The ketoB isomer is the lowest energy isomer, followed by its rotamer ketoA. For both ketoB and ketoA their enolized tautomers are found to be stable as well as their open forms that lack the internal hydrogen bond. The calculated vibrational spectra are in excellent agreement with IR experiments of methyl salicylate in the vapor phase. It is demonstrated that solvent effects have a weak influence on the stability of these isomers. The ionization reaction from ketoB to ketoA shows a high barrier of 0.67 eV ensuring that thermal and chemical equilibria yield systems containing mostly the ketoB isomer at normal conditions.

  4. Short-lived isomers in 94Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Dare, J. A.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Simpson, G. S.; Urban, W.; Soldner, T.; Jolie, J.; Linnemann, A.; Orlandi, R.; Smith, J. F.; Scherillo, A.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Zlomaniec, A.; Dorvaux, O.; Gall, B. J. P.; Roux, B.

    2008-01-01

    The medium-spin structure of the neutron-rich, odd-odd nucleus 94 Rb was studied by means of γ-ray spectroscopy. Excited levels were populated in the neutron-induced fission of 235 U and in the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf and 248 Cm. Two isomeric states were found at 1485.2 and 2074.8 keV with half-lives of 18 and 107 ns, respectively. The probable structures of the two isomers involve the fully aligned, proton-neutron configurations [π(g 9/2 ) x ν(g 7/2 )] 8 + and [π(g 9/2 ) x ν(h 11/2 )] 10 - , respectively. These new data give information on the single-particle energies in the region

  5. Complete Hexose Isomer Identification with Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Gabe; Pohl, Nicola L. B.

    2015-04-01

    The first analytical method is presented for the identification and absolute configuration determination of all 24 aldohexose and 2-ketohexose isomers, including the D and L enantiomers for allose, altrose, galactose, glucose, gulose, idose, mannose, talose, fructose, psicose, sorbose, and tagatose. Two unique fixed ligand kinetic method combinations were discovered to create significant enough energetic differences to achieve chiral discrimination among all 24 hexoses. Each of these 24 hexoses yields unique ratios of a specific pair of fragment ions that allows for simultaneous determination of identification and absolute configuration. This mass spectrometric-based methodology can be readily employed for accurate identification of any isolated monosaccharide from an unknown biological source. This work provides a key step towards the goal of complete de novo carbohydrate analysis.

  6. Optimization of C20 isomers structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndjaka, J.M.B.; Charlier, J.C.

    2001-07-01

    We have performed geometry optimization of various possible planar and three-dimensional C 20 geometries. The planar structures considered include a linear chain, a monoclinic ring, and a bicyclic bow tie; while the three-dimensional geometric; consisted of a bowl or corranulene structure and a fullerene cage. In agreement with Wang et al MP2's calculations, our results predict the corranulene bowl to be the lowest energy structure. From the ground state geometry to the highest energy, considered C 20 structures, listed in increasing energy, are bowl, cage, bow tie, ring and chain. For the ring and bow tie isomers, the shape of the optimized structure deviates from that of the initial configuration; while the shape of the optimised bowl, cage and chain remain unchanged. (author)

  7. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy T. Woods

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white. In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  8. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  9. Identification of isomers of organometallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbue, Sona Peter; Cho, Kwang Hwi [Dept. of Bioinformatics and Life Science, School of Systems Biomedical Science, Soongsil University,Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The yaChI is a newly suggested chemical naming system. However, yaChI is a derivative of the IUPAC InChI with a modified algorithm that includes additional layers of chemical structure information. Consequently, yaChI string contains more structure details while preserving the original structure file information and can distinctively identify very closely related compounds reducing the chances of ambiguity in chemical compound databases as opposed to the general SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey. This study examines the relative performances of yaChI, SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey in duplication check for isomers. For simplicity, a small data set of 28 organometallic compounds (structural isomers of Rh-containing compounds) subdivided into three major groups (A, B, and C) based on the number and the type of ligands attached to the center atom was used to study the performances of each encoding scheme in describing chemical structures. SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey were generated using Openbabel and RDkit, whereas yaChI strings were generated with in-house program. Strings generated from SMILES, InChI, and InChIKey though different, resulted to only three unique chemical identifiers, with each belonging to one group indicating the presence of only three unique compounds in the study data. However, yaChI results depicted that all structures in each group are indeed unique and differ among themselves as well as those from other groups, mapping each structure with a unique identifier given a total number of 28 unique structures in the study data. This high perception of yaChI probe justifies its accuracy and reliability in duplication check among closely related compounds especially structures exhibiting stereo properties.

  10. Color Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  11. Color categories and color appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  12. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  13. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  14. Color metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasson, Raymond.

    1976-06-01

    After a short introduction explaining the reasons why color metallography was adopted, the various operations involved in this technique are described in turn and illustrated by colored photomicrographs. The sample preparation (cutting, covering) and surface preparation (trimming, polishing, finishing) are described briefly. The operations specific to color metallography are then detailed: revelation of the structure of polished surfaces, dye impregnation techniques, optical systems used in macrography, in micrography, different light sources used in microscopy, photographic methods [fr

  15. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    OpenAIRE

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The experiments conducted prove the difference between color categorization by the cognitive processes color discrimination and color memory. In addition, they yield a Color Look-Up Table, which can improve c...

  16. Color in interior spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Demirörs, Müge Bozbeyli

    1992-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design and the Institute of Fine Arts of Bilkent University, 1992. Thesis (Master's) -- -Bilkent University, 1992. Includes bibliographical references leaves 95-99. Color can be approached from different perspectives and disciplines such as, biology, theory, technology, and psychology. This thesis discusses color, from the stand point of interior spaces, which to some extent involves most of these discipli...

  17. COLOR IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Lafon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present specific capabilities and limitations of the use of color digital images in a characterization process. The whole process is investigated, from the acquisition of digital color images to the analysis of the information relevant to various applications in the field of material characterization. A digital color image can be considered as a matrix of pixels with values expressed in a vector-space (commonly 3 dimensional space whose specificity, compared to grey-scale images, is to ensure a coding and a representation of the output image (visualisation printing that fits the human visual reality. In a characterization process, it is interesting to regard color image attnbutes as a set of visual aspect measurements on a material surface. Color measurement systems (spectrocolorimeters, colorimeters and radiometers and cameras use the same type of light detectors: most of them use Charge Coupled Devices sensors. The difference between the two types of color data acquisition systems is that color measurement systems provide a global information of the observed surface (average aspect of the surface: the color texture is not taken into account. Thus, it seems interesting to use imaging systems as measuring instruments for the quantitative characterization of the color texture.

  18. Influence of photoisomers in bilirubin determinations on Kodak Ektachem and Hitachi analysers in neonatal specimens study of the contribution of structural and configurational isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulian, J M; Dalmasso, C; Millet, V; Unal, D; Charrel, M

    1995-08-01

    We compared data obtained with the Kodak Ektachem and Hitachi 717 Analysers and HPLC from 83 neonates under phototherapy. Total bilirubin values determined with the Kodak and Hitachi are in good agreement, but we observed a large discrepancy in the results for conjugated (Kodak) and direct (Hitachi) bilirubin. HPLC revealed that all the samples contained configurational isomers, while only 7.7% and 30.8% contained conjugated bilirubin and structural isomers, respectively. We developed a device for the specific and quantitative production of configurational or structural isomers, by irradiation with blue or green light. In vitro, total bilirubin values are coherent for the routine analysers in the presence of configurational or structural isomers. With configurational isomers, unconjugated bilirubin (Kodak) is lower than total bilirubin (Kodak), and conjugated bilirubin (Kodak) is always equal to zero, so the apparatus gives a false positive response for delta bilirubin. In contrast, the direct bilirubin (Hitachi) is constant. Furthermore, in the presence of structural isomers, unconjugated bilirubin (Kodak) is unexpectedly higher than total bilirubin (Kodak), conjugated bilirubin (Kodak) is proportional to the quantity of these isomers, and direct bilirubin (Hitachi) is constant. The contribution of photoisomers in bilirubin measurements is discussed.

  19. Colored Chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 7 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 30, 2002 during the Southern Fall season in Atlantis Chaos. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -34.5, Longitude 183.6 East (176.4 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D

  20. Properties of neutron-rich hafnium high-spin isomers

    CERN Multimedia

    Tungate, G; Walker, P M; Neyens, G; Billowes, J; Flanagan, K; Koester, U H; Litvinov, Y

    It is proposed to study highly-excited multi-quasiparticle isomers in neutron-rich hafnium (Z=72) isotopes. Long half-lives have already been measured for such isomers in the storage ring at GSI, ensuring their accessibility with ISOL production. The present proposal focuses on:\\\\ (i) an on-line experiment to measure isomer properties in $^{183}$Hf and $^{184}$Hf, and\\\\ (ii) an off-line molecular breakup test using REXTRAP, to provide Hf$^{+}$ beams for future laser spectroscopy and greater sensitivity for the future study of more neutron-rich isotopes.

  1. Colored leptons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harari, H.

    1985-01-01

    If leptons are composite and if they contain colored preons, one expects the existence of heavy color-octet fermions with quantum numbers similar to those of ordinary leptons. Such a ''colored lepton'' should decay into a gluon and a lepton, yielding a unique experimental signature. Charged ''colored leptons'' probably have masses of the order of the compositeness scale Λ > or approx. 1 TeV. They may be copiously produced at future multi-TeV e + e - , ep and hadron colliders. ''Colored neutrinos'' may have both Dirac and Majorana masses. They could be much lighter than Λ, possibly as light as 100 GeV or less. In such a case they should be readily produced at the CERN anti pp collider, yielding spectacular monojet and dijet events. They may also be produced at LEP and HERA. (orig.)

  2. What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Color Blindness? Who Is at Risk for Color Blindness? Color Blindness Causes Color Blindness Diagnosis and Treatment How Color Blindness Is Tested What Is Color Blindness? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el daltonismo? Written ...

  3. Separation behavior of octadecadienoic acid isomers and identification of cis- and trans-isomers using gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibamoto, Shigeaki; Gooley, Andrew; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    2015-01-01

    Using a strongly polar cyanopropyl capillary column we have investigated the gas chromatography (GC) separation behaviors of 24 octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (18:2ME) isomers compared against saturated methyl stearate (18:0ME) and arachidic acid methyl ester (20:0ME), and the dependency on the GC column temperature. The 24 isomers were obtained by performing cis-to trans-isomerization of six regioisomers: five of the 18:2ME isomers were prepared by the partial reduction of methyl α-linolenate and methyl γ-linolenate C18 trienoic acids with different double bond positions, whereas the sixth isomer, 18:2ME (c5, c9), was obtained from a raw constituent fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) sample extracted from Japanese yew seeds. There are no reference standards commercially available for 18:2ME isomers, and in elucidating the elution order of these isomers this study should help the future identification of cis- and trans-type of 18:2ME. We also report the identification method of cis- and trans-type of FAME using equivalent chain lengths and attempt the identification of cis- and trans-type of 18:2ME isomers from partially hydrogenated canola oil.

  4. Even-odd alternation of the formation of dimer isomers in irradiated polycrystalline alkanes: evidence from product analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudson, T.; Tilquin, B.

    1984-01-01

    Recent ESR studies on n-alkanes from n-C 11 to n-C 25 have shown that a prominent chain end (-CH 2 -CH 2 ) alkyl radical is formed in odd members of the series. In this preliminary discussion of our study, we shall report the capillary chromatogram in the dimer isomers range for n-alkanes ranging from n-C 11 to n-C 17 irradiated at 80 kGy. Dimer isomers, produced in part by the combination of chain end radicals, are eluted at the end chromatogram. The combination of two chain end radicals gives the dimer (D 11 ) isomer eluted at the last place. It is shown that dimers produced by the combination of chain end alkyl radicals are more important for the odd members of the series than for the even members. (author)

  5. Colored tracks of heavy ion particles recorded on photographic color film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuge, K.; Yasuda, N.; Kumagai, H.; Aoki, N.; Hasegawa, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new method to obtain the three-dimensional information on nuclear tracks was developed using color photography. Commercial color films were irradiated with ion beam and color-developed. The ion tracks were represented with color images in which different depths were indicated by different colors, and the three-dimensional information was obtained from color changes. Details of this method are reported, and advantages and limitations are discussed in comparison with a conventional method using a nuclear emulsion

  6. Isospin quantum number and structure of the excited states in halo nuclei. Halo-isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izosimov, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that isobar-analog (IAS), double isobar-analog (DIAS), configuration (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo-like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in 6-8 Li, 8-10 Be, 8,10,11 B, 10-14 C, 13-17 N, 15-17,19 O, and 17 F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure, but the excited state may have one.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Two Isomers of Asarone in Piper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Simultaneous Determination of Two Isomers of Asarone in Piper sarmentosum Roxburgh (Piperaceae) Extracts using Different Chromatographic Columns. Mohd Shahrul Ridzuan Hamil, Abdul Hakeem Memon, Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid, Zhari Ismail ...

  8. Isomer spectroscopy of {sup 125,127}Cd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, F. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Koeln (Germany); GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Pietri, S. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Caceres, L. [GSI, Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Departmento de Fisicia Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Jungclaus, A. [Departmento de Fisicia Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Pfuetzner, M. [IEP, Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Regan, P.H; Podolyak, Z. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford (United Kingdom); Rudolf, D. [Department of Physics, Lund University (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The results of investigations of isomeric decay in odd mass heavy Cd isotopes namely {sup 125,127}Cd are reported. To date information has been obtained on even mass heavy Cd isotopes and the systematics show evolution of single particle energies for them. The experiment was performed at GSI, Darmstadt to investigate the single particle level structure of odd mass heavy Cd isotopes. Nuclei of interest were produced in fragmentation reaction of {sup 136}Xe beam at energy 750MeV/u on a {sup 9}Be target of 4g/cm{sup 2} thickness. Selection of ions from unwanted reaction products and event by event identification was facilitated by FRagment Separator (FRS). Isomers populated in the reaction were implanted in a plastic catcher surrounded by 15 Ge cluster detectors from RISING array to detect gamma radiations. Level schemes based on the intensity balance and life time information were constructed for the first time for these nuclei. Comparison of the experimental results with shell model calculation are discussed.

  9. Minuutit (Colors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a captioned black-and-white drawing to be colored. (CFM)

  10. Thermochemical study of some dichloroacetophenone isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Amaral, Luisa M.P.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation in the condensed phase, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(cr,l), for 2',4'-, 2',5'-, and 3',4'-dichloroacetophenones were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, {Delta}{sub c}U{sub m}{sup 0} in oxygen, to yield CO{sub 2}(g) and HCl . 600H{sub 2}O(l), at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of vapourization or sublimation, {Delta}{sub cr,l}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup 0}, of these compounds, at T = 298.15 K were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. For the 3',4'-dichoroacetophenone, the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, was derived by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, from the temperature dependence of the vapour pressures of this compound, measured by the Knudsen effusion technique. From the values of {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(cr,l) and {Delta}{sub cr,l}{sup g}H{sub m}{sup 0} the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three isomers, in the gaseous phase, {Delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup 0}(g), at T = 298.15 K were derived and compared with the same parameters estimated by the Cox Scheme. (table)

  11. Color tejido

    OpenAIRE

    Rius Tormo, Palmira

    2010-01-01

    Póster presentado en el IX Congreso Nacional del Color, Alicante, 29-30 junio, 1-2 julio 2010. La exposición que se propone tiene como núcleo principal el color y muestra las posibilidades expresivas que aporta a los diferentes materiales. Las 7 obras presentadas buscan la armonía estética y la fuerza simbólica.

  12. Isomer Information from Ion Mobility Separation of High-Mannose Glycan Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David J; Seabright, Gemma E; Vasiljevic, Snezana; Crispin, Max; Struwe, Weston B

    2018-05-01

    Extracted arrival time distributions of negative ion CID-derived fragments produced prior to traveling-wave ion mobility separation were evaluated for their ability to provide structural information on N-linked glycans. Fragmentation of high-mannose glycans released from several glycoproteins, including those from viral sources, provided over 50 fragments, many of which gave unique collisional cross-sections and provided additional information used to assign structural isomers. For example, cross-ring fragments arising from cleavage of the reducing terminal GlcNAc residue on Man 8 GlcNAc 2 isomers have unique collision cross-sections enabling isomers to be differentiated in mixtures. Specific fragment collision cross-sections enabled identification of glycans, the antennae of which terminated in the antigenic α-galactose residue, and ions defining the composition of the 6-antenna of several of the glycans were also found to have different cross-sections from isomeric ions produced in the same spectra. Potential mechanisms for the formation of the various ions are discussed and the estimated collisional cross-sections are tabulated. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. INFRARED COLOR-COLOR DIAGRAMS FOR AGB STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available We present infrared color-color diagrams of AGB stars from the observations at near and mid infrared bands. We compile the observations for hundreds of OH/IR stars and carbon stars using the data from the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX, the two micron sky survey (2MASS, and the IRAS point source catalog (PSC. We compare the observations with the theoretical evolutionary tracks of AGB stars. From the new observational data base and the theoretical evolution tracks, we discuss the meaning of the infrared color-color diagrams at different wavelengths.

  14. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  15. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground-Background Color Combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Andy T; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined.

  16. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  17. Isolation by crystallization of translational isomers of a bistable donor-acceptor [2]catenane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Olson, Mark A.; Fang, Lei; Benítez, Diego; Tkatchouk, Ekaterina; Basu, Subhadeep; Basuray, Ashish N.; Zhang, Deqing; Zhu, Daoben; Goddard, William A.; Stoddart, J. Fraser

    2010-01-01

    The template-directed synthesis of a bistable donor-acceptor [2]catenane wherein both translational isomers—one in which a tetrathiafulvalene unit in a mechanically interlocked crown ether occupies the cavity of a cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene) ring and the other in which a 1,5-dioxynaphthalene unit in the crown ether resides inside the cavity of the tetracationic cyclophane—exist in equilibrium in solution, has led to the isolation and separation by hand picking of single crystals colored red and green, respectively. These two crystalline co-conformations have been characterized separately at both the molecular and supramolecular levels, and also by dynamic NMR spectroscopy in solution where there is compelling evidence that the mechanically interlocked molecules are present as a complex mixture of translational, configurational, and conformational isomers wherein the isomerization is best described as being a highly dynamic and adaptable phenomenon. PMID:20663950

  18. Modeling human color categorization: Color discrimination and color memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heskes, T.; van den Broek, Egon; Lucas, P.; Hendriks, Maria A.; Vuurpijl, L.G.; Puts, M.J.H.; Wiegerinck, W.

    2003-01-01

    Color matching in Content-Based Image Retrieval is done using a color space and measuring distances between colors. Such an approach yields non-intuitive results for the user. We introduce color categories (or focal colors), determine that they are valid, and use them in two experiments. The

  19. Tree Colors: Color Schemes for Tree-Structured Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennekes, Martijn; de Jonge, Edwin

    2014-12-01

    We present a method to map tree structures to colors from the Hue-Chroma-Luminance color model, which is known for its well balanced perceptual properties. The Tree Colors method can be tuned with several parameters, whose effect on the resulting color schemes is discussed in detail. We provide a free and open source implementation with sensible parameter defaults. Categorical data are very common in statistical graphics, and often these categories form a classification tree. We evaluate applying Tree Colors to tree structured data with a survey on a large group of users from a national statistical institute. Our user study suggests that Tree Colors are useful, not only for improving node-link diagrams, but also for unveiling tree structure in non-hierarchical visualizations.

  20. Color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-01-01

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken

  1. Color superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  2. A new high-spin isomer in {sup 195}Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, T.; Mukherjee, G.; Rana, T.K.; Bhattacharya, Soumik; Asgar, Md.A.; Bhattacharya, C.; Bhattacharya, S.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Pai, H. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Madhavan, N.; Bala, I.; Gehlot, J.; Gurjar, R.K.; Jhingan, A.; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Nath, S.; Singh, R.P.; Varughese, T. [Inter University Acclerator Centre, New Delhi (India); Basu, K.; Bhattacharjee, S.S.; Ghugre, S.S.; Raut, R.; Sinha, A.K. [UGC-DAE-CSR Kolkata Centre, Kolkata (India); Palit, R. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Mumbai (India)

    2015-11-15

    A new high-spin isomer has been identified in {sup 195}Bi at the focal plane of the HYbrid Recoil mass Analyser (HYRA) used in the gas-filled mode. The fusion evaporation reactions {sup 169}Tm ({sup 30}Si, x n) {sup 193,} {sup 195}Bi were used with the beam energies on targets of 168 and 146MeV for 6n and 4n channels, respectively. The evaporation residues, separated from the fission fragments, and their decays were detected at the focal plane of HYRA using MWPC, Si-Pad and clover HPGe detectors. The half-life of the new isomer in {sup 195}Bi has been measured to be 1.6(1) μs. The configuration of the new isomer has been proposed and compared with the other isomers in this region. The Total Routhian Surface (TRS) calculations for the three-quasiparticle configurations corresponding to the new isomer suggest an oblate deformation for this isomeric state. The same calculations for different configurations in {sup 195}Bi and for the even-even {sup 194}Pb core indicate that the proton i{sub 13/2} orbital has a large shape driving effect towards oblate shape in these nuclei. (orig.)

  3. Substitution effects on the absorption spectra of nitrophenolate isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanko, Marius; Houmøller, Jørgen; Støchkel, Kristian; Suhr Kirketerp, Maj-Britt; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted; Rubio, Angel

    2012-10-05

    Charge-transfer excitations highly depend on the electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor groups. Nitrophenolates are simple examples of charge-transfer systems where the degree of coupling differs between ortho, meta and para isomers. Here we report the absorption spectra of the isolated anions in vacuo to avoid the complications of solvent effects. Gas-phase action spectroscopy was done with two different setups, an electrostatic ion storage ring and an accelerator mass spectrometer. The results are interpreted on the basis of CC2 quantum chemical calculations. We identified absorption maxima at 393, 532, and 399 nm for the para, meta, and ortho isomer, respectively, with the charge-transfer transition into the lowest excited singlet state. In the meta isomer, this π-π* transition is strongly redshifted and its oscillator strength reduced, which is related to the pronounced charge-transfer character, as a consequence of the topology of the conjugated π-system. Each isomer's different charge distribution in the ground state leads to a very different solvent shift, which in acetonitrile is bathochromic for the para and ortho, but hypsochromic for the meta isomer.

  4. QCD: color or glow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reya, E.

    1982-01-01

    The some of motivations for color and the numerous qualitative successes of QCD are presented. Non-leading higher order contributions to the (x, Q 2 )-dependence of scaling violations of non-singlet and singlet structure functions are discussed, especially non-perturbative correction to deep inelastic processes such as higher twist contributions. Finally the topic of how to account theoretically for the existence of free fractionally charged particles by concentrating mainly on spontaneously breaking SU(3) color is presented. (M.F.W.)

  5. Isomers of Cu6 cluster: a density function theory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yanhui; Wang Shanshan; Li Gongping

    2008-01-01

    The possible structure of Cu 6 cluster has been given with the GaussView that is a graphical user interface software. The structure optimization was performed on the B3LYP functional and SDD basic set of the quantum computational software of Gaussian03. And eight isomers of Cu 6 cluster were calculated. The binding energy and the structure of eight isomers have been investigated in detail. The result showed that the value of the binding energy was in reasonable agreement with available experimental data, as well as with other theoretical results, and the most stable structure was the triangle of plane. Three new isomers of the Cu 6 cluster have been got in our work, which would be the valuable data for the further theoretical and experimental study. (authors)

  6. A pocketful of tin isomers from heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, P.J.; Broda, R.; Fornal, B.; Mayer, R.H.; Nisius, D.; Bearden, I.; Benet, P.; Grabowski, Z.W.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L.; Liang, Y.; Lunardi, S.; Blomqvist, J.

    1992-01-01

    Reaction products of 122,124 Sn + 76 Ge( 8O Se) collisions 10--15% above the barrier have been studied by γ-ray spectroscopy, and new yrast isomers in 119--124 Sn isotopes have been identified and characterized. B(E2) values determined for (νh 11/2 ) n 10 + → 8 + transitions in even-A Sn nuclei pinpoint half-filling of the νh 11/2 subshell close to N = 73. In odd-A Sn isotopes, 19/2 + isomers with 1--10 μs half-lives occur systematically, and higher-lying (νh ll/2 ) n v=3 27/2 - isomers in 119 Sn and 121 Sn have also been identified. These deep inelastic excitation processes were found to populate a large number of neutron-rich nuclei strongly enough for yrast spectroscopy studies

  7. Color Sense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  8. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1993-01-01

    Imagine shooting a beam of protons of high momentum P through an atomic nucleus. Usually the nuclear interactions prevent the particles from emerging with momentum ∼P. Further, the angular distribution of elastically scattered protons is close to the optical diffraction pattern produced by a black disk. Thus the nucleus acts as a black disk and is not transparent. However, certain high momentum transfer reactions in which a proton is knocked out of the nucleus may be completely different. Suppose that the high momentum transfer process leads to the formation of a small-size color singlet wavepacket that is ejected from the nucleus. The effects of gluons emitted by color singlet systems of closely separated quarks and gluons tend to cancel. Thus the wavepacket-nuclear interactions are suppressed, the nucleus becomes transparant and one says that color transparency CT occurs. The observation of CT also requires that the wavepacket not expand very much while it moves through the nucleus. Simple quantum mechanical formulations can assess this expansion. The creation of a small-sized wavepacket is expected in asymptotic perturbative effects. The author reviews the few experimental attempts to observe color transparency in nuclear (e,e'p) and (p,pp) reactions and interpret the data and their implications

  9. Color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pire, B.; Ralston, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews the physics of color transparency and the unexpected energy dependence of recent measurements of high-energy fixed-angle elastic scattering in nuclear targets. The authors point out advantages of using transparency as a tool, introducing two concepts - spin and flavor flow filtering - that may be studied with nuclear targets. The special case of electroproduction is also considered

  10. Color guided amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broedel, Johannes [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Dixon, Lance J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Amplitudes in gauge thoeries obtain contributions from color and kinematics. While these two parts of the amplitude seem to exhibit different symmetry structures, it turns out that they can be reorganized in a way to behave equally, which leads to the so-called color-kinematic dual representations of amplitudes. Astonishingly, the existence of those representations allows squaring to related gravitational theories right away. Contrary to the Kawaii-Levellen-Tye relations, which have been used to relate gauge theories and gravity previously, this method is applicable not only to tree amplitudes but also at loop level. In this talk, the basic technique is introduced followed by a discussion of the existence of color-kinematic dual representations for amplitudes derived from gauge theory actions which are deformed by higher-operator insertions. In addition, it is commented on the implications for deformed gravitational theories.

  11. Color Processing in Synesthesia: What Synesthesia Can and Cannot Tell Us About Mechanisms of Color Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Janik, Agnieszka B; Banissy, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Synesthetic experiences of color have been traditionally conceptualized as a perceptual phenomenon. However, recent evidence suggests a role of higher order cognition in the formation of synesthetic experiences. Here, we discuss how synesthetic experiences of color differ from and influence veridical color processing, and how non-perceptual processes such as imagery and color memory might play a role in eliciting synesthetic color experience.

  12. Theoretical Study of the Diastereofacial Isomers of Aldrin and Dieldrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Zdravkovski

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The Diels-Alder reaction of hexachlorocyclopentadiene with norbornadiene givesaldrin but theoretically three other diastereofacial isomers are possible. On oxidation theseisomers can generate eight adducts one of which is known as dieldrin. All these, as well asthe corresponding reactions with hexafluorocyclopenadiene were studied by semiempirical(AM1 and PM3 and hybrid density functional (B3LYP methods. Besides the energy levels,the transition states were calculated for the reactions leading to the diastereofacial isomers ofaldrin, which indicate that aldrin is the favored product of the reaction both fromthermodynamic and kinetic point of view.

  13. Induced γ emission for nuclear isomer long-lived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianli; Hao Fanhua

    2007-06-01

    It is pointed that the induced 7 emission for long lived isomer 178m2 Hf by low energy X rays has been a topic subject in the nuclear field recently. The background and development status are described. A principle for T ray transitions induced by X rays and the theoretical about magnificent induced emission have been related. In addition, the possible method of 178m2 Hf produce has been introduced also. Although the argument has existed for the experimental results of induced 7 emission, it can push forward in solving energy crisis and in future military field after controlling effectively the releasing of high excited energy for isomer. (authors)

  14. Comparison of UVA induced cytotoxicity by iodoHoechst isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagiannis, T.C.; Lobachevsky, P.N.; Martin, R.F.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Isomers of the DNA minor groove binding ligand, iodoHoechst, have been shown to sensitise DNA to cleavage by ultraviolet type A (UVA). The DNA damage has been attributed to formation of a carbon-centred radical upon UVA induced dehalogenation of the drugs. Comparison of the efficacy of the ligands in inducing DNA single strand breaks in plasmid DNA has indicated that the ortho isomer is more efficient than the para- and meta-isomers, mainly due to a greater cross-section for dehalogenation, and to some extent from increased efficiency of DNA damage per dehalogenation event. In the present study, the efficiency of dehalogenation and cytotoxicity of the three iodoHoechst isomers has been compared in human erythroleukemic, K562 cells. The uptake of the iodoHoechst compounds in K562 nuclei has been measured, and the photoefficiency of the cellular associated dehalogenation by UVA has been established for the three isomers. The results indicate that the sensitivity to UVA mediated dehalogenation is much higher for the ortho analogue compared to the para and meta-analogues. Values of the UVA D37 doses for the ortho, para and meta isomers are 49 ± 2, 327 ± 29 and 251 ± 32 J/m 2 , respectively. Clonogenic survival assays have been used to compare the efficiency of sensitisation of cells to UVA irradiation by the analogues. The ortho analogue exhibits higher efficiency compared to the meta and para analogues. The numbers of dehalogenation events required for cell kill have been calculated from the clonogenic survival at various levels of drug uptake, and the results for the ortho, para and meta isomers are 1.2x10 4 , 3.9x10 4 and 11.6x10 4 , respectively. These results indicate that the ortho analogue is the most efficient isomer in sensitising cell kill by UVA irradiation due to both the high quantum yield for dehalogenation and the higher cytotoxic efficiency of dehalogenation events

  15. Simultaneous determination of naphthol isomers at poly(3-methylthiophene)-nano-Au modified electrode with the enhancement of surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Linlin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shandong Institute for Product Quality Inspection, Jinan 250100 (China); Liu, Enli; Wang, Xiaolin; Chen, Jia [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang, Xiaoli, E-mail: zhangxl@sdu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-08-01

    A polymer film incorporated gold nanoparticle modified electrode was fabricated. The fabricated process involved eletrodeposition of gold nanoparticles and electropolymerization of the 3-methylthiophene (abbreviated 3MT) onto the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The resulting electrode (P3MT-nano-Au/GCE) was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and a simultaneous determination of naphthol isomers at P3MT-nano-Au/GCE was studied using semi-derivative voltammetry. Because of the synergistic effect of gold nanoparticles and poly(3MT), the sensitivity and distinguishability in the simultaneous determination of naphthol isomers were greatly increased. Besides, a further increase in the detecting sensitivity of naphthol isomers could be obtained in the presence of surfactant, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Also, the role of different kinds of surfactants was texted and the action mechanism was discussed in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the linear calibration ranges of the determination of naphthols were 7.0 × 10{sup −7} to 1.5 × 10{sup −4} mol/L for 1-naphthol and 1.0 × 10{sup −6} to 1.5 × 10{sup −4} mol/L for 2-naphthol with detection limits of 1.0 × 10{sup −7} and 3.0 × 10{sup −7} mol/L (S/N = 3), respectively. - Highlights: • Nano-Au-polymer film was fabricated by eletrodeposition and electropolymerization. • Naphthol isomers were detected simultaneously. • Surfactant improved the sensitivity and selectivity.

  16. Medium-spin levels and the character of the 20.4 ns 13/2+ isomer in 145Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakkanen, A.; Muhonen, J.; Piiparinen, M.

    1981-06-01

    Levels of the N = 81 nucleus 145 Gd have been investigated by in-beam γ-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy with the 144 Sm( 3 He,2n) reaction. Fourteen new low- and medium-spin states between 1.0 and 2.4 MeV excitation, the known yrast levels up to spin (21/2) + , five other high-spin non-yrast states and a new 20.4 ns (13/2) + isomer at 2200.2 keV in 145 Gd have been observed. The isomer decays via a fast 927.3 keV E3 transition with B(E3) = 48 +- 7 W.u. Another weaker decay branch is a mixed, strongly hindered E1+M2+E3 transition to the νhsub(11/2)sup(-1) state. We propose an octupole νfsub(7/2)jsub(0)sup(-2)x3 - main configuration for the isomer, analogous to the 997 keV (13/2) + isomer in 147 Gd. The levels of 145 Gd are discussed on the basis of the spherical shell model. (author)

  17. Yrast spectroscopy: status of yrast isomers, oblate shapes and feeding of yrast states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoo, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    The properties of very-high-spin states at the yrast line are addressed. Three different but related topics are discussed: the status of yrast isomers (mainly in the A approx. 150 region); the nuclear shape along the yrast line; and the feeding of the yrast states as a function of spin. A recurrent theme is the response of the core to the polarizing effects of a successively increasing number of valence particles and how the investigation of very-high-spin states bears on this problem. 10 figures, 1 table

  18. Radioactive isotope and isomer separation with using light induced drift effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hradecny, C.; Slovak, J.; Tethal, T.; Ermolaev, I.M.; Shalagin, A.M.

    1991-01-01

    The isotope separation with using light induced drift (LID) is discussed. The basic theoretical characteristics of the method are deduced: separation simultaneously with an arbitrary high enrichment and without significant losses; separation productivity up to 100 μg/h. These characteristics are sufficient and very convenient for separation of expensive radioactive isotopes and isomers which are applied in medicine and science. The first experimental separation of the radioactive isotopes ( 22,24 Na) by using the LID effect is reported. 13 refs.; 5 figs

  19. Object color affects identification and repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Graf, Peter; Santacruz, Pilar

    2006-10-01

    We investigated the influence of color on the identification of both non-studied and studied objects. Participants studied black and white and color photos of common objects and memory was assessed with an identification test. Consistent with our meta-analysis of prior research, we found that objects were easier to identify from color than from black and white photos. We also found substantial priming in all conditions, and study-to-test changes in an object's color reduced the magnitude of priming. Color-specific priming effects were large for color-complex objects, but minimal for color-simple objects. The pattern and magnitude of priming effects was not influenced either by the extent to which an object always appears in the same color (i.e., whether a color is symptomatic of an object) or by the object's origin (natural versus fabricated). We discuss the implications of our findings for theoretical accounts of object perception and repetition priming.

  20. Conformational isomers of dichloro bis(1,3-diaminopropane copper(II: Synthesis, characterization and DFT modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Yadav

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Three isomers of [Cu(pn2Cl2] in solid state have been synthesized, isolated and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, FTIR, TGA, EPR, electronic spectra and DFT calculation. The molar conductance of 1 mM solution of the complexes measured in DMSO falls in 40–44 Scm2 mol−1. All the isomers in aqueous medium show similar absorption pattern in the UV–visible region of the spectra. They are nearly identical in solution although in the solid state they exist in three distinct colors. The change in the color of complexes is due to change in conformations of the propanediamine molecule. Cu(II in [Cu(pn2Cl2] lies on an inversion center. It is octahedrally coordinated to four nitrogen of 1,3-diaminopropane (pn and two chloride ions displaying three different spatial conformations namely chair–chair, chair–boat and boat–boat. The TGA of the complexes suggest that Cu is left as final residue at 600 °C. The entire data have been supported by DFT calculation.

  1. Pregnanolone isomers, pregnenolone and their polar conjugates around parturition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klak, J.; Hill, M.; Pařízek, A.; Havlíková, H.; Bičíková, M.; Hampl, R.; Fait, T.; Šulcová, J.; Pouzar, Vladimír; Kancheva, R.; Stárka, L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, - (2003), s. 211-221 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/00/1559 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : pregnanolone isomers * pregnanolone * maternal plasma Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  2. Study of nano - second isomers near 146Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramanik, Dibyadyuti; Sarkar, S.; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Ray, I.; Pradhan, M.K.; Goswami, A.; Banerjee, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Dey, Gautam; Krishichayan; Kshetri, R.; Ganguly, S.; Raut, R.; Ray Basu, M.; Ganguly, G.; Ghugre, S.S.; Sinha, A.K.; Basu, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    The nuclei near 146 Gd show rich variety in their excitation spectra. Spectra exhibiting characteristics of extreme single particle, multi-particle-hole excitation, magnetic bands to strong collectivity manifested through superdeformation, and triaxial superdeformation have been widely studied. In the present work, a few isomers in the mass ≅150 region using the RF - gamma coincidence data are studied

  3. The molecular properties of nitrobenzanthrone isomers and their mutagenic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojić, Bojana D; Stanković, Branislav; Ðorđević, Dragana S

    2014-06-01

    The mutagenic activity of five mono-substituted nitrobenzanthrones (NBA) has been determined in the Ames assay (Takamura-Enya et al., 2006). In the present study, a theoretical investigation of the electronic properties of all mono-substituted NBA isomers and their relation to mutagenic activity are presented. Equilibrium geometries, vertical ionization potentials (VIP), vertical electron affinities (VEA), relative energies, dipole moments and electronic dipole polarizabilities, and the IR and Raman spectra of NBA isomers calculated by Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods are presented. The position of the nitro group affects the spectral features of the IR and Raman spectra of the NBA isomers. The results show that a good linear relationship exists between the summation of Raman activities (∑ARaman) over all the 3N-6 vibrational modes and the mutagenic activity of the NBA isomers in Salmonella typhimurium strains. The spectroscopic results suggest that the unknown mutagenic activities of 4-NBA, 5-NBA, 6-NBA, 8-NBA and 10-NBA are predicted to follow the order 4-NBA>10-NBA>5-NBA>8-NBA>6-NBA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous Determination of Two Isomers of Asarone in Piper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HPLC) method to quantify the two isomers of asarones in P. sarmentosum ... ethanol and 50 % ethanol extracts, but absent in all water extracts. β-Asarone occurred in the range of ... In food and herbal industries it is required that .... Where δ = is the standard deviation of the Y ..... Cho J, Kim YH, Kong J-Y, Yang CH, Park CG.

  5. Isomer shifts of the octupole doublet in muonic 207Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budick, B.; Anigstein, R.; Kast, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Isomer shifts in the doublet 5/2 + , 7/2 + levels in muonic 207 Pb have been measured. The shifts are essentially the same as in the core 3 - collective state. They support the hypothesis that the octupole vibration does not conserve volume. (orig.)

  6. Heme isomers substantially affect heme's electronic structure and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    Inspection of heme protein structures in the protein data bank reveals four isomers of heme characterized by different relative orientations of the vinyl side chains; remarkably, all these have been reported in multiple protein structures. Density functional theory computations explain this as du...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ...

  8. Hydrocarbons and fuels analyses with the supersonic gas chromatography mass spectrometry--the novel concept of isomer abundance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Alexander B; Gordin, Alexander; Amirav, Aviv

    2008-06-27

    Hydrocarbon analysis with standard GC-MS is confronted by the limited range of volatile compounds amenable for analysis and by the similarity of electron ionization mass spectra for many compounds which show weak or no molecular ions for heavy hydrocarbons. The use of GC-MS with supersonic molecular beams (Supersonic GC-MS) significantly extends the range of heavy hydrocarbons that can be analyzed, and provides trustworthy enhanced molecular ion to all hydrocarbons. In addition, unique isomer mass spectral features are obtained in the ionization of vibrationally cold hydrocarbons. The availability of molecular ions for all hydrocarbons results in the ability to obtain unique chromatographic isomer distribution patterns that can serve as a new method for fuel characterization and identification. Examples of the applicability and use of this novel isomer abundance analysis (IAA) method to diesel fuel, kerosene and oil analyses are shown. It is suggested that in similarity to the "three ions method" for identification purposes, three isomer abundance patterns can serve for fuel characterization. The applications of the Supersonic GC-MS for engine motor oil analysis and transformer oil analysis are also demonstrated and discussed, including the capability to achieve fast 1-2s sampling without separation for oil and fuel fingerprinting. The relatively fast analysis of biodiesel is described, demonstrating the provision of molecular ions to heavy triglycerides. Isomer abundance analysis with the Supersonic GC-MS could find broad range of applications including petrochemicals and fuel analysis, arson analysis, environmental oil/fuel spill analysis, fuel adulteration analysis and motor oil analysis.

  9. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  10. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  11. Automatic color preference correction for color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukada, Masato; Funayama, Chisato; Tajima, Johji

    2000-12-01

    The reproduction of natural objects in color images has attracted a great deal of attention. Reproduction more pleasing colors of natural objects is one of the methods available to improve image quality. We developed an automatic color correction method to maintain preferred color reproduction for three significant categories: facial skin color, green grass and blue sky. In this method, a representative color in an object area to be corrected is automatically extracted from an input image, and a set of color correction parameters is selected depending on the representative color. The improvement in image quality for reproductions of natural image was more than 93 percent in subjective experiments. These results show the usefulness of our automatic color correction method for the reproduction of preferred colors.

  12. Optimization of $^{178m2}$/Hf isomer production in spallation reactions at projectile energies up to 100 MeV using STAPRE and ALICE code simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kirischuk, V I; Khomenkov, V P; Strilchuk, N V; Zheltonozhskij, V A

    2004-01-01

    /sup 178m2/Hf isomer production in different spallation reactions with protons, alpha particles and neutrons at projectile energies up to 100 MeV has been analyzed using both STAPRE and ALICE code simulations. The STAPRE code was used to calculate the isomeric ratios, while the ALICE code was used to simulate the excitation functions of the respective ground states. A number of spallation reactions have been compared taking into account not only /sup 178m2 /Hf isomer productivity but also, first, the isomeric ratios calculated by the STAPRE code; second, the accumulation of the most undesirable Hf isotopes and isomers, such as /sup 172/Hf, /sup 175 /Hf, and /sup 179m/Hf; and, third, the production of other admixtures and by-products that could degrade the quality of the produced /sup 178m2/Hf isomer sources, including all stable Hf isotopes as well. Possibilities and ways of optimizing /sup 178m2/Hf isomer production in spallation reactions at projectile energies up to 100 MeV are discussed. This can be consi...

  13. The Search for High Spin State Isomers in the Atomic Mass Region 178-192

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellahrah, M.S.; Arfa, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    Isomers for elements far a way from line of stability are a new field for research to produce artificial isomers that can store considerable amount of energy in small amount of mass without the dangerous hazards on life and environment. These isomers could have very short life time or very long one 10th and 100th of years. It will be possible to get the stored energy by stimulated emission . The purpose of this work to use a theorical model based on Bcs method to find out the possible isomers in the mass reg on 178-192 even -even isotopes so that experimentalists can concentrate their research on these predicted isomers.

  14. Contributions of early Arab scholars to color science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2017-09-01

    The Islamic world made important discoveries in the field of color science during the medieval era. These included many fundamental ideas on the nature of color. Some of the first hue scales, though partial were developed by these scholars. They also showed that color was a percept and light and color were ontologically distinct. Other contributions by these scholars include descriptions of the color mixtures, color tops, color theory, etc. A few of these contributions will be discussed in this paper with particular attention to the work of Ibn al-Haytham on color.

  15. Cognitive aspects of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  16. Process for separating the ortho- and para- isomers of hydroxymandelic acid or a salt thereof, the isomers thus obtained, the use of the ortho-isomer for the preparation of eddha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, A.J.; Van Bekkum, H.

    1994-01-01

    Abstract of WO 9414746 (A1) The invention relates to a method for separating the ortho- and para-isomers of hydroxymandelic acid or a salt thereof. For that purpose the starting material is a solid mixture of these ortho- and para-isomers in the alkali metal salt form. This mixture is extracted with

  17. Hypnotic color blindness and performance on the Stroop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, D; Bryant, R A

    2001-10-01

    A suggestion for hypnotic color blindness was investigated by administering a reverse Stroop color-naming task. Prior to the suggestion for color blindness, participants learned associations between color names and shapes. Following the color blindness suggestion, participants were required to name the shapes when they appeared in colors that were either congruent or incongruent with the learned associations. The 18 high hypnotizable participants who passed the suggestion were slower to name (a) shapes in which the color name was incongruent with the color in which it was printed, (b) "unseen" rather than "seen" shapes, and (c) color-incongruent shapes that were printed in the color in which they were "color-blind." These patterns are discussed in terms of potential cognitive and social mechanisms that may mediate responses to hypnotic color blindness.

  18. The Disunity of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Matthen, Mohan

    1999-01-01

    What is color? What is color vision? Most philosophers answer by reference to humans: to human color qualia, or to the environmental properties or "quality spaces" perceived by humans. It is argued, with reference to empirical findings concerning comparative color vision and the evolution of color vision, that all such attempts are mistaken. An adequate definition of color vision must eschew reference to its outputs in the human cognition and refer only to inputs: color vision consists in...

  19. Cyclic Versus Linear Isomers Produced by Reaction of the Methylidyne Radical (CH) with Small Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulay, Fabien; Trevitt, Adam J.; Meloni, Giovanni; Selby, Talitha M.; Osborn, David L.; Taatjes, Craig A.; Vereecken, Luc; Leone, Stephen R.

    2008-12-05

    The reactions of the methylidyne radical (CH) with ethylene, acetylene, allene, and methylacetylene are studied at room temperature using tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and time-resolved mass spectrometry. The CH radicals are prepared by 248 nm multiphoton photolysis of CHBr3 at 298 K and react with the selected hydrocarbon in a helium gas flow. Analysis of photoionization efficiency versus VUV photon wavelength permits isomer-specific detection of the reaction products and allows estimation of the reaction product branching ratios. The reactions proceed by either CH insertion or addition followed by H atom elimination from the intermediate adduct. In the CH + C2H4 reaction the C3H5 intermediate decays by H atom loss to yield 70(+-8)percent allene, 30(+-8)percent methylacetylene and less than 10percent cyclopropene, in agreement with previous RRKM results. In the CH + acetylene reaction, detection of mainly the cyclic C3H2 isomer is contrary to a previous RRKM calculation that predicted linear triplet propargylene to be 90percent of the total H-atom co-products. High-level CBS-APNO quantum calculations and RRKM calculation for the CH + C2H2 reaction presented in this manuscript predict a higher contribution of the cyclic C3H2 (27.0percent) versus triplet propargylene (63.5percent) than these earlier predictions. Extensive calculations on the C3H3 and C3H2D system combined with experimental isotope ratios for the CD + C2H2 reaction indicate that H-atom assisted isomerization in the present experiments is responsible for the discrepancy between the RRKM calculations and the experimental results. Cyclic isomers are also found to represent 30(+-6)percent of the detected products in the case of CH + methylacetylene, together with 33(+-6)percent 1,2,3-butatriene and 37(+-6)percent vinylacetylene. The CH + allene reaction gives 23(+-5)percent 1,2,3-butatriene and 77(+-5)percent vinylacetylene, whereas cyclic isomers are produced below the detection limit

  20. From ultra-dense QCD towards NICA densities: Color-flavor locking and other color superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, Andreas [University of Southampton, Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    At asymptotically large densities and sufficiently low temperatures, quark matter is a color superconductor in the color-flavor locked phase. I present a brief discussion of this phase and of possible other color superconductors that may appear at densities reached at NICA and in the interior of compact stars. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of the Weisskopf estimates in spin and K-isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Swati; Maheshwari, B.; Rajput, Rohit; Srivastava, P.C.; Jain, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear isomers are the excited metastable states, which exist due to the hindrance on their decay. Study of isomers has recently become very popular due to advances in the experimental techniques and also the arrival of radioactive beams. Large amount of new experimental data is becoming available. The very first 'Atlas of nuclear isomers' lists more than 2460 nuclear isomers with the half-life cut off at 10 ns. Spin isomers mostly exist due to the difficulty in meeting the spin selection rules and cluster around the semi-magic regions. The isomers far from the magic-numbers, which lie in the well-deformed region, mostly exist due to the goodness of the K-quantum number and large K-difference between the decaying states. They are known as K-isomers

  2. Pseudo-color processing in nuclear medical image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqian; Jin Yongjie

    1992-01-01

    The application of pseudo-color technology in nuclear medical image processing is discussed. It includes selection of the number of pseudo-colors, method of realizing pseudo-color transformation, function of pseudo-color transformation and operation on the function

  3. The Brainbow Connection: Supplementing the Romance of Classroom Color Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Hugh

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the role and use of color in instructional computing. Suggests teachers consider: (1) how color symbolically represents content and reinforces organization of lessons; (2) how color enhances a lesson's style and short/long-term memory; and (3) cost of classroom color computer assisted lessons. (Author/JN)

  4. Hearing Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieryla, Allyson; Diaz Merced, Wanda; Davis, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    In astronomy, the relationship between color and temperature is an important concept. This concept can be demonstrated in a laboratory or seen at telescope when observing stars. A blind/visually-impaired (B/VI) person would not be able to engage in the same observational demonstrations that are typically done to explain this concept. We’ve developed a tool for B/VI students to participate in these types of observational activities. Using an arduino compatible micro controller with and RGB light sensor, we are able to convert filtered light into sound. The device will produce different timbres for different wavelengths of light, which can then be used to distinguish the temperature of an object. The device is handheld, easy to program and inexpensive to reproduce (< $50). It is also fitted to mount on a telescope for observing. The design schematic and code will be open source and available for download.

  5. A holographic color camera for recording artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jith, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Advent of 3D televisions has created a new wave of public interest in images with depth. Though these technologies create moving pictures with apparent depth, it lacks the visual appeal and a set of other positive aspects of color holographic images. The above new wave of interest in 3D will definitely help to fuel popularity of holograms. In view of this, a low cost and handy color holography camera is designed for recording color holograms of artifacts. It is believed that such cameras will help to record medium format color holograms outside conventional holography laboratories and to popularize color holography. The paper discusses the design and the results obtained.

  6. Color oscillations and measuring the quark charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    Color oscillations analogous to neutrino oscillations but with very high frequency are shown to be present in hadron states below color threshold. Experiments to distinguish between fractionally charged and integrally charged quark models both below and above color threshold are discussed. The instantaneous quark charge is shown to be measurable only in very fast processes determined by the high energy behavior of transition amplitudes well above color threshold. Results from the naive parton model for deep inelastic processes which indicate that real charges of quarks and gluons can be measured are shown to be in error because of neglect of color oscillations and interference terms. (author)

  7. Shape Isomer in 236U Populated by Thermal Neutron Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Verner; Christensen, Carl Jørgen; Borggreen, J.

    1976-01-01

    The 116 ns shape isomer in 236U was populated by thermal neutron capture. Conversion electrons and X-rays were detected simultaneously in delayed coincidence with fission. The ratio of delayed to prompt fission was measured with the result, σIIf/σf = (1.0±0.2) × 10−5. A branching of the isomeric ...... decay σIIγ/σIIf = 7±2 was deduced from this number. No definite electron line structure was observed....

  8. Butane isomer separation with composite zeolite MFI mebranes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabánek, Pavel; Zikánová, Arlette; Bernauer, B.; Fíla, V.; Kočiřík, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 245, 1-3 (2009), s. 437-443 ISSN 0011-9164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1443; GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS401250509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : zeolite MFI * membranes * separation * butane isomers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.034, year: 2009

  9. Island of high-spin isomers near N = 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, J.; Back, B.B.; Bernthal, F.M.; Bjornholm, S.; Borggreen, J.; Christensen, O.; Folkmann, F.; Herskind, B.; Khoo, T.L.; Neiman, M.; Puehlhofer, F.; Sletten, G.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments aimed at testing for the existence of yrast traps are reported. A search for delayed γ radiation of lifetimes longer than approx. 10 ns and of high multiplicity has been performed by producing more than 100 compound nuclei between Ba and Pb in bombardments with 40 Ar, 50 Ti, and 65 Cu projectiles. An island of high-spin isomers is found to exist in the region 64 or approx. = 71 and N < or approx. = 82

  10. Characteristics of Butanol Isomers Oxidation in a Micro Flow Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Hamzah, Muhamad Firdaus

    2017-05-01

    Ignition and combustion characteristics of n-butanol/air, 2-butanol.air and isobutanol/air mixtures at stoichiometric (ϕ = 1) and lean (ϕ = 0.5) conditions were investigated in a micro flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile from 323 K to 1313 K, under atmospheric pressure. Sole distinctive weak flame was observed for each mixture, with inlet fuel/air mixture velocity set low at 2 cm/s. One-dimensional computation with comprehensive chemistry and transport was conducted. At low mixture velocities, one-stage oxidation was confirmed from heat release rate profiles, which was broadly in agreement with the experimental results. The weak flame positions were congruent with literature describing reactivity of the butanol isomers. These weak flame responses were also found to mirror the trend in Anti-Knock Indexes of the butanol isomers. Flux and sensitivity analyses were performed to investigate the fuel oxidation pathways at low and high temperatures. Further computational investigations on oxidation of butanol isomers at higher pressure of 5 atm indicated two-stage oxidation through the heat release rate profiles. Low temperature chemistry is accentuated in the region near the first weak cool flame for oxidation under higher pressure, and its impact on key species – such as hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide and carbon monoxide – were considered. Both experimental and computational findings demonstrate the advantage of employing the micro flow reactor in investigating oxidation processes in the temperature region of interest along the reactor channel. By varying physical conditions such as pressure, the micro flow reactor system is proven to be highly beneficial in elucidating oxidation behavior of butanol isomers in conditions in engines such as those that mirror HCCI operations.

  11. Isomer spectroscopy in 92Ru and 95Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorska, M.; Rejmund, M.; Schubart, R.; Grawe, H.; Heese, J.; Maier, K.H.; Spohr, K.; Fitzgerald, J.B.; Fossan, D.B.

    1996-01-01

    The parity changing γ-transitions like E1, M2, E3 in 92 Ru and 95 Pd nuclei have been investigated to probe the purity of the Shell Model. Two isomers of 92 Ru and 95 Pd have been produced in the 58 Ni + 40 Ca heavy ion reaction at 58 Ni beams energy 215 MeV. The gamma-ray transition strength have been deduced

  12. Observation of the new isomer 32mAl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.; Halse, P.; Lewitowicz, M.; Saint-Laurent, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    A new isomer in the neutron-rich isotope 32 Al has been identified among the fragmentation products of a 40 Ar 16+ beam using the LISE spectrometer at GANIL. The population of the isomeric state was inferred from the detection of γ-radiation following its decay in coincidence with its respective heavy-ion implantation signal. The half-life of 32m Al was determined to be 240 ± 30 ns. (author)

  13. Prolactin releasing effect of sulpiride isomers in rats and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, E E; Stefanini, E; Spano, P F [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Inst. of Pharmacology and Pharmacognosy; Camanni, F; Massara, F [Turin Univ. (Italy). Chair of Endocrinology; Locatelli, V; Cocchi, D

    1979-01-01

    Sulpiride, an antipsychotropic drug of the benzamide class, reportedly displaces stereospecifically (/sup 3/H)-butyrophenones from putative dopamine (DA) binding sites in rat striatum. To evaluate if sulpiride displays the same stereospecifity in the inhibition of pituitary DA receptors, the effect of the two(-)-and (+)-sulpiride isomers was tested with regard to their ability to stimulate prolactin (PRL) secretion in rats and man and to displace (/sup 3/H)-spiroperidol bound to rat anterior pituitary receptors. In male rats, (-)-sulpiride at doses of 0.1 and 0.1 mg/kg i.p., induced a maximum PRL-releasing effect, not different from that evoked by a dose of 10 mg/kg of the compound. (+)-Sulpiride was active only at the dose of 10mg/kg i.p., and its PRL-releasing effect was superimposable to that evoked by the same dose of (-)-sulpiride. Similarily, in 8 normal subjects (4 men and 4 women) only (-)-sulpiride was active as PRL releaser when the low dose of 0.25 mg i.v. was used; when the higher dose of sulpiride was used (4.0 mg i.v.), it induced a rise in plasma PRL of the same entity for both isomers at early post-injection times (15-30 min) but greater with the (-)-isomer at the following time intervals (45-120 min). (-)-Sulpiride displaced (/sup 3/H)-spiroperidol bound to rat anterior pituitary homogenates with a potency about 100 times greater as that showed by (+)-sulpiride. In all, these data indicate that sulpiride isomers display at the level of pituitary DA receptors for PRL control the same stereospecifity exhibited on a population of striatal DA receptors.

  14. Ternary fission of spontaneously fissile uranium isomers excited by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, V.E.; Molchanov, Y.D.; Otroshchenko, G.A.; Yan'kov, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    Spontaneously fissile isomers (SFI) of uranium were excited in the reactions 236,238 U(n,n') at an average neutron energy 4.5 MeV. A pulsed electrostatic accelerator and time analysis of the fission events were used. Fission fragments were detected by the scintillation method, and long-range particles from fission were detected by an ionization method. The relative probability of fission of nuclei through a spontaneously fissile isomeric state was measured: (1.30±0.01)·10 -4 ( 236 U) and (1.48±0.02)·10 -4 ( 238 U). Half-lives of the isomers were determined: 121±2 nsec (the SFI 236 U) and 267±13 nsec (the SFI 238 U). In study of the ternary fission of spontaneously fissile isotopes of uranium it was established that the probability of the process amounts to one ternary fission per 163±44 binary fissions of the SFI 236 U and one ternary fission per 49±14 binary fissions of the SFI 238 U. The substantial increase of the probability of ternary fission of SFI of uranium in comparison with the case of ternary fission of nuclei which are not in an isomeric state may be related to a special nucleon configuration of the fissile isomers of uranium

  15. Tautomeric preferences of the cis and trans isomers of axitinib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M. Saeed; Taherpour, Avat Arman

    2018-05-01

    The tautomeric preferences of axitinib, a potent anticancer drug, as tyrosine kinase inhibitor have been investigated using quantum chemical calculations and docking methods. The energy differences between the two tautomers of trans-isomer are around 4 and 3 kcal mol-1 in vacuo and water, respectively, and for its cis-isomer (major photochemical isomerization product) this equilibrium reversed completely in favour of the second tautomer (not considered previously), which is about 7-8 kcal mol-1 more stable in both gas and aqueous media. The results indicate a very high activation energy for proton exchange for both [1,2] and [1,5] H-shift (around 50 kcal mol-1) in the gas phase, but inclusion of protic solvents (e.g. water) decrease this barrier to around 14 and 35 kcal mol-1 for the both hydrogen shift processes, respectively. In order to have better insight about the electronic structure of axitinib tautomers, the NBO, HOMO-LUMO, NICS and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces (MESP) calculations have been carried out. Docking investigations on the two more stable tautomers revealed that binding of the trans isomer of tautomer I to the active site of the receptor is the most favourable in the terms of energy and structure. This more stability could be attributed to the more hydrogen bonding of this tautomer with the protein residues in comparison to the second tautomer.

  16. Calorimetric and computational studies for three nitroimidazole isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Tânia M.T.; Amaral, Luísa M.P.F.; Morais, Victor M.F.; Ribeiro da Silva, Maria D.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy of combustion of 4-nitroimidazole was measured by static bomb calorimetry. • Enthalpy of sublimation of 4-nitroimidazole was determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. • Gas-phase enthalpy of formation of 4-nitroimidazole derived from experimental measurements. • Gas-phase enthalpies of nitroimidazole isomers formation estimated from G3 calculations. - Abstract: In the present work, a combined experimental and computational thermochemical study of nitroimidazole isomers was carried out. The standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of combustion, in the crystalline phase, for 4-nitroimidazole was determined, at the temperature of 298.15 K, using a static bomb combustion calorimeter. Calvet microcalorimetry experiments were performed to measure its standard molar enthalpy of sublimation. The standard molar enthalpy of formation of 4-nitroimidazole, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, (116.9 ± 2.9) kJ·mol −1 , has been derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpy of formation in the crystalline phase and the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation. Computational studies for 4-nitroimidazole were performed to complement the experimental work. These were also extended to the 2- and 5-nitroimidazole isomers. The gas-phase enthalpies of formation were estimated from high level ab initio molecular orbital calculations, at the G3 level. Also investigated were the tautomeric equilibrium of 4(5)-nitroimidazole in the gaseous phase and it was concluded that the two tautomers are equally stable.

  17. Experimental and computational thermochemistry of the dihydroxypyridine isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, Victor M.F.; Miranda, Margarida S.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.

    2006-01-01

    The standard (p 0 = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation for crystalline 2,3-dihydroxypyridine was measured, at T = 298.15 K, by static bomb calorimetry and the standard molar enthalpy of sublimation, at T 298.15 K, was obtained using Calvet microcalorimetry. These values were used to derive the standard molar enthalpy of formation of 2,3-dihydroxypyridine in gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, -(263.9 ± 4.6) kJ . mol -1 . Additionally, high-level density functional theory calculations using the B3LYP hybrid exchange-correlation energy functional with extended basis sets have been performed for all dihydroxypyridine isomers to determine the thermochemical order of stability of these systems. The agreement between experiment and theory for the 2,3-dihydroxypyridine isomer gives confidence to the estimates of the enthalpies of formation concerning the other five isomers. It is found that the enthalpic increment for the dihydroxy substitution of pyridine is equal to the sum of the respective enthalpic increment of the monosubstituted pyridines

  18. Nuclear structure via isomer tagging of fission fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. Y.; Cline, D.; Simon, M. W.; Stoyer, M. A.

    1997-10-01

    The high efficiency for detecting high-fold γ rays by large Ge arrays makes it possible to study the detailed spectroscopy of many neutron-rich nuclei produced by fission. Major progress has been made using sealed spontaneous fission sources. Considerable improvement in selectivity is provided, with an open source, both by gating on isomers and by detection of both fission fragments in coincidence with the deexcitation γ rays (see the preceding contribution). The reconstructed kinematics allows a measure of fragment mass and the Doppler shift correction of γ rays. In a recent experiment, fission fragments were detected using half of the CHICO array and an annular PPAC in coincidence with deexcitation γ rays detected by the Rochester array of eight Compton-suppressed Ge detectors. The annular PPAC was located only 1.0" from a 3.7 μCi ^252Cf source for efficient isomer tagging. The correlation was studied between delayed, within a time window between 150 ns and 10 μs after a fission occurring, and prompt γ rays. Several prominent feeding patterns to isomers in the mass region around 100 and 130 are identified by such correlation study. Experimental details and results will be presented.

  19. Nuclear Structure Studies of Microsecond Isomers Near A=100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, G.; Genevey, J.; Pinston, J. A.; Urban, W.; Zlomaniec, A.; Orlandi, R.; Scherillo, A.; Tsekhanovich, I.; Smith, A. G.; Thallon, A.; Varley, B. J.; Jolie, J.; Warr, N.

    2007-04-01

    A large variety of shapes may be observed in Sr and Zr nuclei of the A = 100 region when the number of neutrons increases from N = 58 to N = 64. The lighter isotopes are rather spherical. It is also well established that three shapes co-exist in the transitional odd-A, N = 59, Sr and Zr nuclei. For N > 59, strongly deformed axially symmetric bands are observed. Recently, a new isomer of half-life 1.4(2) mu s was observed in 95Kr, the odd-odd 96Rb has been reinvestigated and a new high-spin isomer observed in the even-even 98Zr. These nuclei were studied by means of prompt gamma -ray spectroscopy of the spontaneous fission of 248Cm using the EUROGAM 2 Ge array and/or measurements of mu s isomers produced by fission of 239,241Pu with thermal neutrons at the ILL (Grenoble). To allow spectroscopic studies of isomeric states with lifetimes around 100 ns, across a broad range of medium-heavy neutron-rich nuclei, an experiment was performed at a neutron guide of the ILL using thermal-neutron-induced fission. Fission fragments were identified using a small spectrometer consisting of a section to measure time-of-flight and an ionization chamber. Isomeric gamma rays emitted from complementary fragments were detected in an array of Ge detectors.

  20. Photo-Induced depopulation of the 180mTa isomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, W.

    2015-10-01

    The 180mTa nucleus is the rarest isotope in the universe, existing only in an isomeric state at 77.2 keV (Jπ = 9-) with half-life of greater than 7.1 ×1015 years. The stellar production of this high-spin isomer has been a challenging astrophysical problem. Cross-section measurements for the depopulation of the 180mTa isomer with monoenergetic photon beams of energies 2.5 and 3.1 MeV have been carried out at the HI γS facility. The activated Ta foils of natural abundance and containing 14.4 mg of 180mTa were γ-ray counted at TUNL's low background facility using a 13% planar HPGe detector. A 8'' ×12'' NaI detector in combination with the standard HI γS scintillator paddle system was employed for absolute photon-flux determination. Preliminary results will be discussed, and measurements at lower energies are planned. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant NO. DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  1. Quasi-particle and collective magnetism: Rotation, pairing and blocking in high-K isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, N.J.; Stone, J.R.; Walker, P.M.; Bingham, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time, a wide range of collective magnetic g-factors g R , obtained from a novel analysis of experimental data for multi-quasi-particle configurations in high-K isomers, is shown to exhibit a striking systematic variation with the relative number of proton and neutron quasi-particles, N p −N n . Using the principle of additivity, the quasi-particle contribution to magnetism in high-K isomers of Lu–Re, Z=71–75, has been estimated. Based on these estimates, band-structure branching ratio data are used to explore the behavior of the collective contribution as the number and proton/neutron nature (N p , N n ), of the quasi-particle excitations, change. Basic ideas of pairing, its quenching by quasi-particle excitation and the consequent changes to moment of inertia and collective magnetism are discussed. Existing model calculations do not reproduce the observed g R variation adequately. The paired superfluid system of nucleons in these nuclei, and their excitations, present properties of general physics interest. The new-found systematic behavior of g R in multi-quasi-particle excitations of this unique system, showing variation from close to zero for multi-neutron states to above 0.5 for multi-proton states, opens a fresh window on these effects and raises the important question of just which nucleons contribute to the ‘collective’ properties of these nuclei

  2. New information on the T1/2=47 s isomer in the 136I nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Sarkar, S.; Durell, J.L.; Smith, A.G.; Genevey, J.A.; Pinston, J.A.; Simpson, G.S.; Ahmad, I.

    2006-01-01

    The 136 I nucleus, populated in the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm, was studied by means of prompt γ-ray spectroscopy using the EUROGAM2 array. The observation in this work of the 42.6 keV prompt-γ, M1+E2 transition de-exciting the 7 - level in 136 I indicates that this level, interpreted as the (πg 7/2 3 νf 7/2 ) 7- configuration, does not correspond to the T=47 s, β-decaying isomer in 136 I. The isomer is placed 42.6 keV below the 7 - level. It has spin 6 - and is interpreted as the (πg 7/2 2 d 5/2 νf 7/2 ) 6- configuration. This and other members of both multiplets can be reproduced properly only if one assumes that the πd 5/2 orbital in 136 I is located 400keV lower than in 133 Sb. Possible mechanisms causing this effect are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  4. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  5. Urine - abnormal color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  6. Skin color - patchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003224.htm Skin color - patchy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patchy skin color is areas where the skin color is irregular. ...

  7. Tooth - abnormal colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... Costume Contact Lenses Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored ...

  9. Chemical coloring on stainless steel by ultrasonic irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zuohui; Xue, Yongqiang; Ju, Hongbin

    2018-01-01

    To solve the problems of high temperature and non-uniformity of coloring on stainless steel, a new chemical coloring process, applying ultrasonic irradiation to the traditional chemical coloring process, was developed in this paper. The effects of ultrasonic frequency and power density (sound intensity) on chemical coloring on stainless steel were studied. The uniformity of morphology and colors was observed with the help of polarizing microscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the surface compositions were characterized by X-ray photoelectric spectroscopy (XPS), meanwhile, the wear resistance and the corrosion resistance were investigated, and the effect mechanism of ultrasonic irradiation on chemical coloring was discussed. These results show that in the process of chemical coloring on stainless steel by ultrasonic irradiation, the film composition is the same as the traditional chemical coloring, and this method can significantly enhance the uniformity, the wear and corrosion resistances of the color film and accelerate the coloring rate which makes the coloring temperature reduced to 40°C. The effects of ultrasonic irradiation on the chemical coloring can be attributed to the coloring rate accelerated and the coloring temperature reduced by thermal-effect, the uniformity of coloring film improved by dispersion-effect, and the wear and corrosion resistances of coloring film enhanced by cavitation-effect. Ultrasonic irradiation not only has an extensive application prospect for chemical coloring on stainless steel but also provides an valuable reference for other chemical coloring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Advanced Plasmonic Materials for Dynamic Color Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lei; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Wang, Jianfang

    2018-04-01

    Plasmonic structures exhibit promising applications in high-resolution and durable color generation. Research on advanced hybrid plasmonic materials that allow dynamically reconfigurable color control has developed rapidly in recent years. Some of these results may give rise to practically applicable reflective displays in living colors with high performance and low power consumption. They will attract broad interest from display markets, compared with static plasmonic color printing, for example, in applications such as digital signage, full-color electronic paper, and electronic device screens. In this progress report, the most promising recent examples of utilizing advanced plasmonic materials for the realization of dynamic color display are highlighted and put into perspective. The performances, advantages, and disadvantages of different technologies are discussed, with emphasis placed on both the potential and possible limitations of various hybrid materials for dynamic plasmonic color display. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Color on emergency mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lili; Qi, Qingwen; Zhang, An

    2007-06-01

    There are so many emergency issues in our daily life. Such as typhoons, tsunamis, earthquake, fires, floods, epidemics, etc. These emergencies made people lose their lives and their belongings. Every day, every hour, even every minute people probably face the emergency, so how to handle it and how to decrease its hurt are the matters people care most. If we can map it exactly before or after the emergencies; it will be helpful to the emergency researchers and people who live in the emergency place. So , through the emergency map, before emergency is occurring we can predict the situation, such as when and where the emergency will be happen; where people can refuge, etc. After disaster, we can also easily assess the lost, discuss the cause and make the lost less. The primary effect of mapping is offering information to the people who care about the emergency and the researcher who want to study it. Mapping allows the viewers to get a spatial sense of hazard. It can also provide the clues to study the relationship of the phenomenon in emergency. Color, as the basic element of the map, it can simplify and clarify the phenomenon. Color can also affects the general perceptibility of the map, and elicits subjective reactions to the map. It is to say, structure, readability, and the reader's psychological reactions can be affected by the use of color.

  12. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  13. Kinetic and sequence-structure-function analysis of known LinA variants with different hexachlorocyclohexane isomers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Here we report specific activities of all seven naturally occurring LinA variants towards three different isomers, α, γ and δ, of a priority persistent pollutant, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH. Sequence-structure-function differences contributing to the differences in their stereospecificity for α-, γ-, and δ-HCH and enantiospecificity for (+- and (--α -HCH are also discussed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Enzyme kinetic studies were performed with purified LinA variants. Models of LinA2(B90A A110T, A111C, A110T/A111C and LinA1(B90A were constructed using the FoldX computer algorithm. Turnover rates (min(-1 showed that the LinAs exhibited differential substrate affinity amongst the four HCH isomers tested. α-HCH was found to be the most preferred substrate by all LinA's, followed by the γ and then δ isomer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The kinetic observations suggest that LinA-γ1-7 is the best variant for developing an enzyme-based bioremediation technology for HCH. The majority of the sequence variation in the various linA genes that have been isolated is not neutral, but alters the enantio- and stereoselectivity of the encoded proteins.

  14. Application of Pattern Recognition Method for Color Assessment of Oriental Tobacco based on HPLC of Polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagnon S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The color of Oriental tobaccos was organoleptically assayed, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC of polyphenols was performed. The major tobacco polyphenols (chlorogenic acid, its isomers, and rutin, as well as scopoletin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside were quantified. HPLC polyphenol profiles were processed by pattern recognition method (PRM, and the values of indexes of similarity (Is,% between the cultivars studied were determined. It was shown that data from organoleptic color assessment and from PRM based on HPLC profiles of polyphenols of the cultivars studied are largely compatible. Hence, PRM can be suggested as an additional tool for objective color evaluation and classification of Oriental tobacco.

  15. Kodak's Photo CD and Proposed Photo YCC Color Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrows, Henry; Urrows, Elizabeth

    1991-01-01

    Describes new technology being developed by Eastman Kodak for storing 35mm color photos on compact disk (CD) and discusses its applications for desktop publishing. Benefits of photo CD and costs are examined, a proposed universal color standard that is an improved way to represent color digitally is explained, and software is discussed. (LRW)

  16. Representing Color Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  17. An Isomer-Specific Approach to Endocrine-Disrupting Nonylphenol in Infant Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Klaus; Räcker, Torsten; Böhme, Roswitha

    2017-02-15

    Nonylphenols (NPs) are persistent endocrine disruptors that are priority hazardous substances of the European Union Water Framework Directive. Their presence in the environment has caused growing concern regarding their impact on human health. Recent studies have shown that nonylphenol is ubiquitous in commercially available foodstuffs and is also present in human blood. The isomer distribution of 4-nonylphenol was analyzed by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry in 44 samples of infant food. Our study shows that the distribution of nonylphenol isomers is dependent on the foodstuff analyzed. Although some isomer groups prevail, different distributions are frequent. Variations are even found in the same food group. Nonylphenol is a complex mixture of isomers, and the estrogenic potentials of each of these isomers are very different. Consequently, to determine the potential toxicological impact of NP in food, an isomer-specific approach is necessary.

  18. Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed th...

  19. Cross-cultural color-odor associations

    OpenAIRE

    Levitan, C.A.; Ren, J.; Boesveldt, S.; Chan, J.; McKenzie, K.J.; Levin, J.A.; Leong, C.X.; Bosch, van den, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed th...

  20. Theoretical research on color indirect effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. C.; Liao, Changjun; Liu, Songhao

    1995-05-01

    Color indirect effects (CIE) means the physiological and psychological effects of color resulting from color vision. In this paper, we study CIE from the viewpoints of the integrated western and Chinese traditional medicine and the time quantum theory established by C. Y. Liu et al., respectively, and then put forward the color-automatic-nervous-subsystem model that could color excites parasympathetic subsystem and hot color excites sympathetic subsystem. Our theory is in agreement with modern color vision theory, and moreover, it leads to the resolution of the conflict between the color code theory and the time code theory oncolor vision. For the latitude phenomena on athlete stars number and the average lifespan, we also discuss the possibility of UV vision. The applications of our theory lead to our succeeding in explaining a number of physiological and psychological effects of color, in explaining the effects of age on color vision, and in explaining the Chinese chromophototherapy. We also discuss its application to neuroimmunology. This research provides the foundation of the clinical applications of chromophototherapy.

  1. Memory for color reactivates color processing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-11-25

    Memory is thought to be constructive in nature, where features processed in different cortical regions are synthesized during retrieval. In an effort to support this constructive memory framework, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study assessed whether memory for color reactivated color processing regions. During encoding, participants were presented with colored and gray abstract shapes. During retrieval, old and new shapes were presented in gray and participants responded 'old-colored', 'old-gray', or 'new'. Within color perception regions, color memory related activity was observed in the left fusiform gyrus, adjacent to the collateral sulcus. A retinotopic mapping analysis indicated this activity occurred within color processing region V8. The present feature specific evidence provides compelling support for a constructive view of memory.

  2. Color Functionality Used in Visual Display for Occupational and Environmental Safety and Managing Color Vision Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Nobuhisa; Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    The effects of color perception are utilized in visual displays for the purpose of safety in the workplace and in daily life. These effects, generally known as color functionality, are divided into four classifications: visibility, legibility, conspicuity and discriminability. This article focuses on the relationship between the color functionality of color schemes used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety and color vision deficiency (particularly congenital red-green color deficiency), a critical issue in ophthalmology, and examines the effects of color functionality on the perception of the color red in individuals with protan defects. Due to abrupt system reforms, current Japanese clinical ophthalmology finds itself in a situation where it is insufficiently prepared to handle congenital red-green color deficiencies. Indeed, occupational problems caused by color vision deficiencies have been almost completely neglected, and are an occupational safety and health concern that will need to be solved in the future. This report will present the guidelines for the color vision testing established by the British Health and Safety Executive (HSE), a pioneering example of a model meant to solve these problems. Issues relating to the creation of guidelines adapted to Japanese clinical ophthalmology will also be examined, and we will discuss ways to utilize color functionality used in visual displays for occupational and environmental safety to help manage color vision deficiency.

  3. The color of polarization in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, H.A.; Osofsky, M.S.; Lechter, W.L.; Pande, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for the identification of individual anisotropic grains in a heterogeneous and opaque material involves the observation of grain color in reflected light through crossed polarizers (color of polarization). Such colors are generally characteristic of particular phases. When grains of many members of the class of hole carrier cuprate superconductors are so viewed at room temperature with a 'daylight' source, a characteristic color of polarization is observed. This color was studied in many of these cuprate superconductors and a strong correlation was found between color and the existence of superconductivity. Two members were also examined of the electron cuprate superconductors and it was found that they possess the same color of polarization as the hole carrier cuprate superconductors so far examined. The commonality of the characteristic color regardless of charge carrier indicates that the presence of this color is independent of carrier type. The correlation of this color with the existence of superconductivity in the cuprate superconductors suggests that the origin of the color relates to the origin of superconductivity. Photometric techniques are also discussed

  4. Shape isomer excitation by mu-minus capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.N.; Monard, J.A.; Nagamiya, S.

    1975-06-01

    In a search for back-decay gamma rays from the shape isomer in 238 U following mu-minus capture, no candidates have been found with yields greater than 2 percent of the muon stoppings. The intensities of the gamma rays are insufficient to permit definitive lifetime measurements of individual peaks; however, for 500-keV energy ranges of gamma ray pulses, lifetimes have been determined that give results consistent with recent electron lifetime measurements. (6 figures, 2 tables) (U.S.)

  5. Decays of 116Sb isomers to levels in 116Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacsi, Z.; Raman, S.

    1994-01-01

    The excited states of 116 Sn were studied by means of the decays of the 15.8-min, 3 + 116 Sb ground state, and the 60.3-min, 8 - 116 Sb isomer. Over 50 γ rays were observed; these were incorporated into a level scheme consisting of 32 excited states. Except for one new level proposed at 3.986 MeV, the current study fully supports an exhaustive study of levels in 116 Sn reported earlier. The previous study was an attempt to develop a nearly ''complete'' level scheme of 116 Sn up to an excitation energy of 4.3 MeV

  6. Spins, Electromagnetic Moments, and Isomers of 107-129Cd

    CERN Document Server

    Yordanov, D T; Bieron, J; Bissell, M L; Blaum, K; Budincevic, I; Fritzsche, S; Frommgen, N; Georgiev, G; Geppert, Ch; Hammen, M; Kowalska, M; Kreim, K; Krieger, A; Neugart, R; Nortershauser, W; Papuga, J; Schmidt, S

    2013-01-01

    The neutron-rich isotopes of cadmium up to the N=82 shell closure have been investigated by high-resolution laser spectroscopy. Deep-UV excitation at 214.5 nm and radioactive-beam bunching provided the required experimental sensitivity. Long-lived isomers are observed in 127Cd and 129Cd for the first time. One essential feature of the spherical shell model is unambiguously confirmed by a linear increase of the 11/2- quadrupole moments. Remarkably, this mechanism is found to act well beyond the h11/2 shell.

  7. Isomers of fluoroamphetamines detected in forensic cases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe; Hansen, Tina Maria

    2012-01-01

    A study was performed on the detection, separation and quantification of isomers from the new designer drugs named fluoroamphetamines (FAs) in forensic cases in eastern Denmark. The drugs were detected in whole blood extracts by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass...... of drugs (DUID) cases, involving 4-fluoroamphetamine (4-FA) have been observed with whole blood concentrations ranging from 0.006 to 0.58 mg/kg. One autopsy case involved 4-FA; however, it was determined to be a combined intoxication. In 2010, ortho-fluoroamphetamine (2-FA) was discovered in forensic...

  8. Pairing and Blocking in High-K Isomers: Variation of the Collective Parameter gR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stone N.J.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the principle of additivity, the quasi-particle contribution to magnetism in high-K isomers of Lu - Re has been estimated. Based on these estimates band structure branching ratio data is used to explore the behavior of the collective contribution as the number and neutron/proton nature (Np, Nn, of the quasi-particle excitations, change. A striking systematic variation of the collective g-factor gR with the difference, Np – Nn, is revealed. Basic ideas of pairing, its quenching by quasi-particle excitation and the consequent changes to moment of inertia and collective magnetism are discussed. The new found systematic behaviour of gR opens a fresh window on these effects amenable to detailed theoretical investigation.

  9. Apparent molal volumes of symmetrical and asymmetrical isomers of tetrabutylammonium bromide in water at several temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Nicolás; Malagón, Andrés; Buchner, Richard; Vargas, Edgar F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Apparent molal volumes of five isomers of Bu 4 NBr in water have been measured. • The structural effect of branched and linear chains is discussed. • The structural contributions to the ionic volume were calculated. -- Abstract: Apparent molal volumes of a series of differently substituted quaternary ammonium bromides, namely tetra-iso-butyl-, tetra-sec-butyl-, tetra-n-butyl-, di-n-butyl-di-sec-butyl- and di-n-butyl-di-iso-butylammonium bromide have been determined as a function of molal concentration at (298.15, 303.15 and 308.15) K. Partial molar volumes at infinite dilution and ionic molar volumes of these quaternary ammonium cations were determined. Structural volume contributions to the ionic molar volume were also calculated. The symmetric and asymmetric quaternary ammonium cations are “structure making” ions. The contribution of the branched butyl chains predominates over the linear butyl chains in the asymmetric cations

  10. Identification of absolute geometries of cis and trans molecular isomers by Coulomb Explosion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablikim, Utuq; Bomme, Cédric; Xiong, Hui; Savelyev, Evgeny; Obaid, Razib; Kaderiya, Balram; Augustin, Sven; Schnorr, Kirsten; Dumitriu, Ileana; Osipov, Timur; Bilodeau, René; Kilcoyne, David; Kumarappan, Vinod; Rudenko, Artem; Berrah, Nora; Rolles, Daniel

    2016-12-02

    An experimental route to identify and separate geometric isomers by means of coincident Coulomb explosion imaging is presented, allowing isomer-resolved photoionization studies on isomerically mixed samples. We demonstrate the technique on cis/trans 1,2-dibromoethene (C 2 H 2 Br 2 ). The momentum correlation between the bromine ions in a three-body fragmentation process induced by bromine 3d inner-shell photoionization is used to identify the cis and trans structures of the isomers. The experimentally determined momentum correlations and the isomer-resolved fragment-ion kinetic energies are matched closely by a classical Coulomb explosion model.

  11. The behaviour of EDDHA isomers in soils as influenced by soil properties.

    OpenAIRE

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.; Reichwein, A.M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    FeEDDHA products are applied to correct iron chlorosis in plants and consist of a mixture of EDDHA isomers chelated to iron. In this study such mixtures have been divided into four (groups of) isomers: racemic o,o-EDDHA, meso o,o-EDDHA, o,p-EDDHA and rest-EDDHA. The physical and chemical properties of these isomers differ and hence does their ability to deliver Fe to plants. To come to a soil-specific iron fertilization recommendation, the behaviour of the EDDHA isomers in the soil needs to b...

  12. A high-spin isomer at high excitation energy in the neutron deficient nucleus $^{152}$Dy

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, J F W; Chmielewska, D; De Meijer, R J

    1976-01-01

    A T/sub 1/2/=60+or-5 ns isomer at E/sub x/ approximately=5 MeV is found in the /sup 154/Gd( alpha ,6n)/sup 152/Dy reaction. The possible spin values are 15isomer are observed. The isomer may be interpreted as a four-quasi-particle state situated on the yrast line. The regular level sequence above the isomer may then be an evidence for a decoupled rotational band built on top of this state. (10 refs).

  13. Identifying isomers of C-78 by means of x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassan, Arianna; Nyberg, Mats; Luo, Yi

    2002-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectra of C-78 isomers have been generated using density functional theory with inclusion of the full core-hole potentials. Strong isomer dependence has been found in absorption, but not in the photoelectron spectra. C-78 isomers can be thought to be formed by ...... by inserting 18 carbon atoms into an opened C-60. We have shown how the different local arrangements of these 18 carbon atoms are responsible for the significant isomer dependence observed. Our calculated spectra are in excellent agreement with the experimental counterparts....

  14. Color-emotion associations and color preferences: A case study for residences

    OpenAIRE

    Manav, Banu

    2007-01-01

    This study examines existing beliefs about "color" focusing on color-emotion associations by discussing how color can be used as a way of communicator to fulfill human needs in residences. Fifty people from various age groups participated in the study. They were asked to match a list of adjectives with the proper color samples from the catalogue of a quite popular color producer firm in Turkey. Results indicate that there is a strong dependency between the choice and use of green at residence...

  15. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  16. Impact of colors on advertisement and packaging on buying behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabinda Seher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this research paper is to find out relationship between varying color scheming in advertising and buying behavior. Data for this purpose were collected from 200 people through questionnaire. Results indicated that buying behavior is greatly influenced by color scheming of a product and its advertisement. Strategies discussing how to enhance color scheming of product and use of colors in ads are also discussed.

  17. Industrial Color Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Georg A

    2010-01-01

    This unique book starts with a short historical overview of the development of the theories of color vision and applications of industrial color physics. The three dominant factors producing color - light source, color sample, and observer - are described in detail. The standardized color spaces are shown and related color values are applied to characteristic color qualities of absorption as well as of effect colorants. The fundamentals of spectrometric and colorimetric measuring techniques together with specific applications are described. Theoretical models for radiative transfer in transparent, translucent, and opaque layers are detailed; the two, three, and multi-flux approximations are presented for the first time in a coherent formalism. These methods constitute the fundamentals not only for the important classical methods, but also modern methods of recipe prediction applicable to all known colorants. The text is supplied with 52 tables, more than 200 partially colored illustrations, an appendix, and a...

  18. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  19. Measurements of isomers at the FRS ion catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornung, Christine [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Collaboration: FRS Ion Catcher-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Projectile fragmentation and fission reactions at in-flight facilities are important production mechanisms to access short-lived exotic nuclei. It is a challenge to describe the angular momentum distribution after the collision of relativistic nuclei. This can be experimentally accessed by measuring the population of isomeric states. Isomeric ratios and excitation energies of isomers of short-lived exotic nuclei can be determined at the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI. At the FRS, projectile and fission fragments are produced at relativistic energies, separated in-flight and range-focused. They are slowed down and thermalized in a cryogenic stopping cell. In a multi-purpose RFQ beamline alpha spectroscopy can be performed. Alternatively the ions can be transported to a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS), where masses of the ground and isomeric states can be measured simultaneously with high resolving power. The MR-TOF-MS can also be used to spatially separate the ions in order to provide isomerically clean ion beams. During a recent experiment isomer-to-ground state ratios and excitation energies of uranium projectile and fission fragments produced at 1 GeV/u were measured. The ratios, measured with the MR-TOF-MS, were verified by alpha spectroscopy. Furthermore the ratios were compared to calculations based on an abrasion-ablation model of fragmentation.

  20. Calculations of long-lived isomer production in neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.B.; Young, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    We present theoretical calculations for the production of the long-lived isomers 93m Nb (1/2-, 16 yr), 121m Sn (11/2-, 55 yr), 166m Ho (7-, 1200 yr), 184m Re (8+, 165 d), 186m Re (8+, 2x10 5 yr), 178 Hf (16+, 31 yr), 179m Hf (25/2-, 25 d), and 192m Ir (9+, 241 yr), all of which pose potential radiation activation problems in nuclear fusion reactors if produced in 14-MeV neutron-induced reactions. We consider (n,2n), (n,n'), and (n,γ) production modes and compare our results both with experimental data (where available) and systematics. We also investigate the dependence of the isomeric cross section ratio on incident neutron energy for the isomers under consideration. The statistical Hauser-Feshbach plus preequilibrium code GNASH was used for the calculations. Where discrete state experimental information was lacking, rotational band members above the isomeric state, which can be justified theoretically but have not been experimentally resolved, were reconstructed. (author). 16 refs, 10 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Shape isomers: Mean-field description and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonche, P.; Krieger, S.J.; Weiss, M.S.; Dobaczewski, J.; Meyer, J.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear Hartree-Fock (HF) + BCS calculations have led to predictions of shape isomerism in isotopes of Pt, Hg and Os nuclei. These have been confirmed through the observation of superdeformed rotational bands in 190,hor-ellipsis,194 Hg. Encouraged by these measurements and similar observations in 194 Pb, we have extended these calculations to a wide range of contiguous nuclei. These HF results, for 192,194 Pt, 190,hor-ellipsis,198 Hg and 194 Pb, have been employed in a Generator Coordinate Method (GCM) calculation utilizing the quadrupole deformation as the generating variable. The resulting spectra confirm the conclusions drawn from the HF results and agree with those experiments which have been performed. Adding a phenomenological assumption for the moments of inertia of our GCM states, we can construct the radiative transitions within and out of the superdeformed band. The results are in good agreement with the observed de-population of the superdeformed band built upon the shape isomer both in minimum angular momentum and in rapidity of de-population. Inferences for the existence of shape isomers will be drawn. 19 refs., 4 figs

  2. Degradation of a chiral nonylphenol isomer in two agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Haifeng; Spiteller, Michael; Guenther, Klaus; Boehmler, Gabriele; Zuehlke, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    The degradation of a chiral nonylphenol isomer, 4-(1-ethyl-1,4-dimethylpentyl)phenol (NP 112 ), in two agricultural soils from Monheim and Dortmund, Germany has been studied. The degradation of NP 112 and the formation of a nitro-nonylphenol metabolite were determined by means of GC-MS analysis. The degradation followed bi-exponential order kinetics, with half-life of less than 5 days in both soils. The nitro-metabolite was found at different concentration levels in the two soils. The nitro-metabolite of NP 112 was more persistent than its parent compound. After 150 days about 13% of the initially applied NP 112 remained in the Monheim soil as its nitro-metabolite. Results of the E-screen assay revealed that the nitro-NP 112 has oestrogenic potency of 85% of that of NP 112 . Furthermore, the results of chiral GC-MS analysis revealed that no chiral degradation of NP 112 occurred in this study. - The degradation of a chiral nonylphenol isomer in agricultural soils followed bi-exponential order kinetics resulting in a more persistent nitro-metabolite.

  3. Chemical Simulations of Prebiotic Molecules: Interstellar Ethanimine Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Donghui; Herbst, Eric; Corby, Joanna F.; Durr, Allison; Hassel, George

    2016-06-01

    The E- and Z-isomers of ethanimine (CH3CHNH) were recently detected toward the star-forming region Sagittarius (Sgr) B2(N) using the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS cm-wave spectral data, and imaged by the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Ethanimine is not reported in the hot cores of Sgr B2, but only in gas that absorbs at +64 and +82 km s-1 in the foreground of continuum emission generated by H II regions. The ethanimine isomers can serve as precursors of the amino acid alanine and may play important roles in forming biological molecules in the interstellar medium. Here we present a study of the chemistry of ethanimine using a gas-grain simulation based on rate equations, with both isothermal and warm-up conditions. In addition, the density, kinetic temperature, and cosmic ray ionization rate have been varied. For a variety of physical conditions in the warm-up models for Sgr B2(N) and environs, the simulations show reasonable agreement with observationally obtained abundances. Isothermal models of translucent clouds along the same line of sight yield much lower abundances, so that ethanimine would be much more difficult to detect in these sources despite the fact that other complex molecules have been detected there.

  4. Studies of high-K isomers in hafnium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sletten, G.; Gjoerup, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    K-isomeric states built on high-Ω Nilsson orbitals from deformation-aligned high-j levels near the Fermi surface are found to cluster in the neutron rich Hf, W and Os nuclei. It has been shown that some of the high seniority states of this type have decay properties that indicate strong mixing of configurations and that in Osmium nuclei γ-softness cause strong deviations from the well established K-selection rule. Also in the Hafnium nuclei is the expected forbiddenness in isomeric decays an order of magnitude smaller than expected from the K-selection rule. A new 9 quasiparticle isomer has been discovered in 175 Hf at I=57/2. This isomer has the anomalous decay as the dominant mode. Other lower seniority states are also identified. At spin 35/2 and 45/2 the deformation aligned states become yrast, but the structure of the yrast line to even higher spins is not yet understood. (author)

  5. CHEMICAL SIMULATIONS OF PREBIOTIC MOLECULES: INTERSTELLAR ETHANIMINE ISOMERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quan, Donghui; Durr, Allison [Department of Chemistry, Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY 40475 (United States); Herbst, Eric [Departments of Chemistry and Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Corby, Joanna F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Hassel, George [Physics and Astronomy Department, Siena College, Loudonville, NY 12211 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    The E- and Z- isomers of ethanimine (CH{sub 3}CHNH) were recently detected toward the star-forming region Sagittarius (Sgr) B2(N) using the Green Bank Telescope PRIMOS cm-wave spectral data, and imaged by the Australia Telescope Compact Array. Ethanimine is not reported in the hot cores of Sgr B2, but only in gas that absorbs at +64 and +82 km s{sup −1} in the foreground of continuum emission generated by H ii regions. The ethanimine isomers can serve as precursors of the amino acid alanine and may play important roles in forming biological molecules in the interstellar medium. Here we present a study of the chemistry of ethanimine using a gas-grain simulation based on rate equations, with both isothermal and warm-up conditions. In addition, the density, kinetic temperature, and cosmic ray ionization rate have been varied. For a variety of physical conditions in the warm-up models for Sgr B2(N) and environs, the simulations show reasonable agreement with observationally obtained abundances. Isothermal models of translucent clouds along the same line of sight yield much lower abundances, so that ethanimine would be much more difficult to detect in these sources despite the fact that other complex molecules have been detected there.

  6. Cross-cultural color-odor associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levitan, C.A.; Ren, J.; Boesveldt, S.; Chan, J.; McKenzie, K.J.; Levin, J.A.; Leong, C.X.; Bosch, van den J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons

  7. The weight of color

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the weight of color, with the focus lying on the symbolic significance ofcolor. Exploring whether color in itself conveys symbolic significance and is the symbolicsignificance of color permanent, or is it an after construction? It will be looking at differentareas such as what makes us humans able to perceive colors in the first place, beginning withan insight at some of the foundations in the area of color theory. Mentioning experiments ondecomposed white light, that cont...

  8. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  9. A laboratory evaluation of color video monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.L.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video monitors used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color video technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories established a program to evaluate the newest relevant color video equipment. This report documents the evaluation of an integral component, color monitors. It briefly discusses a critical parameter, dynamic range, details test procedures, and evaluates the results

  10. Symbolic comparisons of objects on color attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, A; te Linde, J

    1980-11-01

    Symbolic comparisons of object brightness and color were investigated in two experiments using words and outline drawings as stimuli. Both experiments yielded orderly symbolic distance effects. Contrary to prediction, no reliable picture advantages emerged. For color comparison, individual differences in word fluency and color memory predicted decision time with word stimuli. These results contrast sharply with those of previous comparison studies involving concrete dimensions. The results are discussed in terms of dual-coding theory and the role of verbal mechanisms in memory for object color.

  11. A laboratory evaluation of color video monitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, P.L.

    1993-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has considerable experience with monochrome video monitors used in alarm assessment video systems. Most of these systems, used for perimeter protection, were designed to classify rather than to identify intruders. There is a growing interest in the identification function of security video systems for both access control and insider protection. Because color video technology is rapidly changing and because color information is useful for identification purposes, Sandia National Laboratories established a program to evaluate the newest relevant color video equipment. This report documents the evaluation of an integral component, color monitors. It briefly discusses a critical parameter, dynamic range, details test procedures, and evaluates the results.

  12. Do instantons like a colorful background?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, H.; Pawlowski, J.M.; Wetterich, C. [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jaeckel, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    We investigate chiral symmetry breaking and color symmetry breaking in QCD. The effective potential of the corresponding scalar condensates is discussed in the presence of non-perturbative contributions from the semiclassical one-instanton sector. We concentrate on a color singlet scalar background which can describe chiral condensation, as well as a color cotet scalar background which can generate mass for the gluons. Whereas a non-vanishing singlet chiral field is favored by the instantons, we have found no indication for a preference of color octet backgrounds. (orig.)

  13. Modelling the IRAS colors of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helou, G.

    1987-01-01

    A physical interpretation is proposed for the color-color diagram of galaxies which are powered only by star formation. The colors of each galaxy result from the combination of two components: cirrus-like emission from the neutral disk, and warmer emission from regions directly involved in on-going star formation. This approach to modelling the emission is based on dust properties, but independent evidence for it is found in the relation between the color sequence and the luminosity sequence. Implications of data and interpretations are discussed and possible tests mentioned for the model

  14. Optical spectroscopy of an atomic nucleus: Progress toward direct observation of the {sup 229}Th isomer transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hehlen, Markus P., E-mail: hehlen@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop E549, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Greco, Richard R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop E549, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Rellergert, Wade G.; Sullivan, Scott T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); DeMille, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Jackson, Robert A. [School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Hudson, Eric R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Torgerson, Justin R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop E549, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    The nucleus of the thorium-229 isotope possesses a first excited nuclear state ({sup 229m}Th) at an exceptionally low energy of 7.8{+-}0.5 eV above the nuclear ground state ({sup 229g}Th), as determined by earlier indirect measurements. This is the only nuclear excited state known that is within the range of optical spectroscopy. This paper reports progress toward detecting the {sup 229m}Th state directly by luminescence spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region. The estimated natural linewidth of the {sup 229g}Th{r_reversible}{sup 229m}Th isomer transition of 2{pi} Multiplication-Sign 0.1 to 2{pi} Multiplication-Sign 10 mHz is expected to broaden to {approx}10 kHz for {sup 229}Th{sup 4+} doped into a suitable crystal. The factors governing the choice of crystal system and the substantial challenges in acquiring a sufficiently large quantity of {sup 229}Th are discussed. We show that the {sup 229g}Th{r_reversible}{sup 229m}Th transition energy can be identified to within 0.1 nm by luminescence excitation and luminescence spectroscopy using the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. This would open the door for subsequent laser-based measurements of the isomer transition and future applications of {sup 229}Th in nuclear clocks. We also show that {sup 233}U-doped materials should produce an intrinsic, continuous, and sufficiently high rate of {sup 229m}Th{yields}{sup 229g}Th luminescence and could be a useful aid in the initial direct search of the isomer transition. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thorium-229 has a long-lived nuclear excited state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is the only known nuclear isomer within the reach of optical spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thorium-229 doped fluoride crystals may offer sufficiently high luminescence rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence excitation spectroscopy in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral region may enable the first direct observation of

  15. Colors in mind: a novel paradigm to investigate pure color imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wantz, Andrea L; Borst, Grégoire; Mast, Fred W; Lobmaier, Janek S

    2015-07-01

    Mental color imagery abilities are commonly measured using paradigms that involve naming, judging, or comparing the colors of visual mental images of well-known objects (e.g., "Is a sunflower darker yellow than a lemon"?). Although this approach is widely used in patient studies, differences in the ability to perform such color comparisons might simply reflect participants' general knowledge of object colors rather than their ability to generate accurate visual mental images of the colors of the objects. The aim of the present study was to design a new color imagery paradigm. Participants were asked to visualize a color for 3 s and then to determine a visually presented color by pressing 1 of 6 keys. We reasoned that participants would react faster when the imagined and perceived colors were congruent than when they were incongruent. In Experiment 1, participants were slower in incongruent than congruent trials but only when they were instructed to visualize the colors. The results in Experiment 2 demonstrate that the congruency effect reported in Experiment 1 cannot be attributed to verbalization of the color that had to be visualized. Finally, in Experiment 3, the congruency effect evoked by mental imagery correlated with performance in a perceptual version of the task. We discuss these findings with respect to the mechanisms that underlie mental imagery and patients suffering from color imagery deficits. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  17. Direct transitions from high-K isomers to low-K bands -- {gamma} softness or coriolis coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi R.; Narimatsu, Kanako; Ohtsubo, Shin-Ichi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Recent measurements of direct transitions from high-K isomers to low-K bands reveal severe break-down of the K-selection rule and pose the problem of how to understand the mechanism of such K-violation. The authors recent systematic calculations by using a simple {gamma}-tunneling model reproduced many of the observed hindrances, indicating the importance of the {gamma} softness. However, there are some data which cannot be explained in terms of the {gamma}-degree of freedom. In this talk, the authors also discuss the results of conventional Coriolis coupling calculations, which is considered to be another important mechanism.

  18. The behaviour of EDDHA isomers in soils as influenced by soil properties.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenkeveld, W.D.C.; Reichwein, A.M.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2007-01-01

    FeEDDHA products are applied to correct iron chlorosis in plants and consist of a mixture of EDDHA isomers chelated to iron. In this study such mixtures have been divided into four (groups of) isomers: racemic o,o-EDDHA, meso o,o-EDDHA, o,p-EDDHA and rest-EDDHA. The physical and chemical properties

  19. A new isomer in 195Bi identified at the focal plane of HYRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, T.; Mukherjee, G.; Asgar, Md. A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the presence of high-j (h 9/2 and i 13/2 ) orbitals near the proton and neutron Fermi levels, high spin isomers are expected to occur for neutron deficient Bismuth nuclei (Z = 83) in A = 190 region. A 750 ns isomer has been known for a long time in 195 Bi whose excitation energy and decay path have been reported recently. A rotational band has been reported in this nucleus based on 13/2 + isomer, originated from the deformation driving i 13/2 orbital. This band reported to have prompt feeding through a 457 keV γ-ray apart from a strong feeding from the 750 ns isomer. In 193 Bi, the 29/2 - state is a 3μs isomer, another isomer with half-life >10μs is also known in this nucleus but its excitation energy, spin and parity are not known. Similar isomer has not yet been observed in 195 Bi. The aim of the present work was to find isomers and their decays in 193,195 Bi

  20. Nano-Second Isomers in Neutron-Rich Ni Region Produced by Deep-Inelastic Collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, T.; Asai, M.; Matsuda, M.; Ichikawa, S.; Makishima, A.; Hossain, I.; Kleinheinz, P.; Ogawa, M.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear structure of the doubly magic 68 Ni and its neighbors has been studied by spectroscopic techniques. Developing a new instrument isomer-scope, we have measured γ rays from nano-second isomers produced in heavy-ion deep-inelastic collisions with great sensitivity. (author)

  1. Learning through Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin

    2004-01-01

    Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…

  2. Coloring mixed hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, Vitaly I

    2002-01-01

    The theory of graph coloring has existed for more than 150 years. Historically, graph coloring involved finding the minimum number of colors to be assigned to the vertices so that adjacent vertices would have different colors. From this modest beginning, the theory has become central in discrete mathematics with many contemporary generalizations and applications. Generalization of graph coloring-type problems to mixed hypergraphs brings many new dimensions to the theory of colorings. A main feature of this book is that in the case of hypergraphs, there exist problems on both the minimum and th

  3. Methods for computing color anaglyphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, David F.; Zhou, Ya; Sullivan, Sophia

    2010-02-01

    A new computation technique is presented for calculating pixel colors in anaglyph images. The method depends upon knowing the RGB spectral distributions of the display device and the transmission functions of the filters in the viewing glasses. It requires the solution of a nonlinear least-squares program for each pixel in a stereo pair and is based on minimizing color distances in the CIEL*a*b* uniform color space. The method is compared with several techniques for computing anaglyphs including approximation in CIE space using the Euclidean and Uniform metrics, the Photoshop method and its variants, and a method proposed by Peter Wimmer. We also discuss the methods of desaturation and gamma correction for reducing retinal rivalry.

  4. Kinetics of photoirradiation-induced synthesis of soy oil-conjugated linoleic acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vishal P; Proctor, Andrew

    2007-02-07

    Photoirradiation of soy oil with UV/visible light has been shown to produce significant amounts of trans,trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers through conversion of various synthesized intermediate cis,trans isomers. The objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of CLA isomers synthesis to better understand the production of various isomers. Soy oil was irradiated with UV/visible light for 144 h in the presence of an iodine catalyst and CLA isomers analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Arrhenius plots were developed for the conversion of soy oil linoleic acid (A) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA (B), conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA to form trans,trans-CLA (C) with respect to B, and formation of trans,trans-CLA isomers with respect to C. The kinetics of consumption of linoleic acid (LA) to form cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA was found to be of second-order with a rate constant of 9.01 x 10-7 L/mol s. The rate of formation of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers depends on the rate of formation from LA and its rate of consumption to form trans,trans-CLA isomers. The conversion of cis-, trans/trans-, cis-CLA isomers to trans,trans-CLA isomers was found to be of first-order with a rate constant of 2.75 x 10-6 s-1. However, the formation of thermodynamically stable trans,trans-CLA isomers (C) with respect to C was found to be a zero-order reaction with a rate constant of 10.66 x 10-7 mol/L s. The consumption of LA was found to be the rate-determining step in the CLA isomers formation reaction mechanism. The findings provide a better understanding of the mechanism of CLA isomers synthesis by photoirradiation and the factors controlling the ratio of various isomers.

  5. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  6. Aqueous phase partitioning of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) isomers by biosurfactant produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa WH-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Suman; Singh, Partapbir; Raj, Mayil; Chadha, Bhupinder Singh; Saini, Harvinder Singh

    2009-01-01

    The different isomers of technical-grade hexachlorocyclohexane (t-HCH) including the insecticidal γ-isomer, commonly known as lindane, have been reported to be toxic, carcinogenic and endocrine disrupters. The spatial arrangements of the chlorine atoms on different isomers and low aqueous phase solubility contribute to their persistence in environment, β-HCH being the most resistance to transformation. The biosurfactant preparation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate WH-2 was evaluated for its ability to improve the aqueous phase partitioning of different isomers of HCH-muck. Further, the ability of biosurfactant preparation to emulsify HCH and n-hexadecane was checked under different conditions, usually characteristic of sites contaminated with pollutants viz. wide range of pH, temperature, and salinity. The data obtained from this study will be helpful in designing suitable bioremediation strategies for huge stock piles of HCH-muck and sites polluted by reckless use/disposal of HCH-isomers.

  7. Correlating states across isomers in 152Ho isotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramanik, Dibyadyuti; Dey, G.; Sarkar, S.; Bisoi, A.; Ray, S.; Kshetri, R.; Ray, I.; Pradhan, M.K.; Goswami, A.; Banerjee, P.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Chakraborty, A.; Krishichayan; Ganguly, S.; Ray Basu, M.; Ganguly, G.; Raut, R.; Ghugre, S.S.; Sinha, A.K.; Basu, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The odd-odd 152 Ho (N = 85) is a very interesting candidate for investigation of interplay of single - particle oblate states and prolate collective states, because it is situated between the N=82 shell closure and the strongly collective N > 87 region. It has been shown that there is a possibility of shape coexistence even at lower spins in 153 Ho. The structural evolution of Ho isotopes from A = 151 to 154 has also been studied. The features observed have been interpreted theoretically using shell model as well as Total Routhian surface calculations. Results have been combined with that for 153 Ho to study the evolution of structural features in these Ho isotopes with increasing neutron numbers and increasing spin. In the present work, experimental data on 152 Ho have been analysed to connect the three groups of transitions and confirm the possibility of a fourth isomer in the excitation spectrum

  8. Energetics of cyclohexane isomers: a density-functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Yol

    1999-01-01

    The binding energies and the geometric structures of conformational isomers of cyclohexane (C 6 H 12 ) are determined from the density-functional theory combined with ultrasoft pseudopotentials and gradient-corrected nonlocal exchange-correlation functionals. The ground-state chair conformation is found to have a binding energy of 99.457 eV, and the metastable twist-boat conformation has 99.161 eV. The chair conformation converts to another conformation via a half-chair conformation with an energy barrier of 0.507 eV whereas the twist-boat conformation converts to another twist-boat conformation via a boat conformation with a much smaller energy barrier of 0.015 eV

  9. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of monochloroacetophenone isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Amaral, Luisa M.P.F.

    2010-01-01

    The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the liquids 2'-, 3'-, and 4'-chloroacetophenones were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, in oxygen, to yield CO 2 (g) and HCl . 600H 2 O(l), at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The Calvet microcalorimetry was used to measure the enthalpies of vaporization of the three compounds. These two thermodynamic parameters yielded the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the chloroacetophenone isomers, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K. (table) An empirical scheme, developed by Cox, was used to estimate the gas-phase enthalpies of formation and the obtained values were compared with the experimental ones.

  10. Lutein and Zeaxanthin Isomers in Eye Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Julie

    2016-07-17

    Current evidence suggests lutein and its isomers play important roles in ocular development in utero and throughout the life span, in vision performance in young and later adulthood, and in lowering risk for the development of common age-related eye diseases in older age. These xanthophyll (oxygen-containing) carotenoids are found in a wide variety of vegetables and fruits, and they are present in especially high concentrations in leafy green vegetables. Additionally, egg yolks and human milk appear to be bioavailable sources. The prevalence of lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin in supplements is increasing. Setting optimal and safe ranges of intake requires additional research, particularly in pregnant and lactating women. Accumulating evidence about variable interindividual response to dietary intake of these carotenoids, based on genetic or metabolic influences, suggests that there may be subgroups that benefit from higher levels of intake and/or alternate strategies to improve lutein and zeaxanthin status.

  11. Communication: "Position" does matter: The photofragmentation of the nitroimidazole isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, P.; Casavola, A. R.; Cartoni, A.; Richter, R.; Markus, P.; Borocci, S.; Chiarinelli, J.; Tošić, S.; Sa'adeh, H.; Masič, M.; Marinković, B. P.; Prince, K. C.; Avaldi, L.

    2016-11-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach has been used to disentangle the fundamental mechanisms of the fragmentation of the three isomers of nitroimidazole induced by vacuum ultra-violet (VUV) radiation, namely, 4-, 5-, and 2-nitroimidazole. The results of mass spectrometry as well as photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy display striking differences in the radiation-induced decomposition of the different nitroimidazole radical cations. Based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a model is proposed which fully explains such differences, and reveals the subtle fragmentation mechanisms leading to the release of neutral species like NO, CO, and HCN. Such species have a profound impact in biological media and may play a fundamental role in radiosensitising mechanisms during radiotherapy.

  12. Quantification of minerals and tocopherols isomers in chestnuts approach chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelazio de Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The levels of the ?, ?, and (?+?-tocopherol isomers and the amounts of the minerals Se, Zn, Ca, Fe, K, Mn, Mg, and Cu were analyzed in chestnuts. High contents of Zn (>65% relative to the recommended dietary intake (RDI were found in all chestnuts except macadamia nuts (25% of the RDI. All samples had Se contents higher than the RDI: Brazil nuts > macadamia nuts, cashew nuts > pecans > almonds > pistachio nuts > hazelnuts > European nuts. A greater concentration of ?-tocopherol was found in almonds (30% of RDI. All samples, except for hazelnuts, almonds, and macadamia nuts, had (?+?- tocopherols, with the largest amount found in pistachios. Only pecan nuts and European nuts had ?-tocopherol and only in low amounts. Multivariate analysis allowed for better characterization and distinction of the chestnuts

  13. Standard molar enthalpies of formation of monochloroacetophenone isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V., E-mail: risilva@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Amaral, Luisa M.P.F. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-12-15

    The standard (p{sup 0}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation of the liquids 2'-, 3'-, and 4'-chloroacetophenones were derived from the standard molar energies of combustion, in oxygen, to yield CO{sub 2}(g) and HCl . 600H{sub 2}O(l), at T = 298.15 K, measured by rotating-bomb combustion calorimetry. The Calvet microcalorimetry was used to measure the enthalpies of vaporization of the three compounds. These two thermodynamic parameters yielded the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the chloroacetophenone isomers, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K. (table) An empirical scheme, developed by Cox, was used to estimate the gas-phase enthalpies of formation and the obtained values were compared with the experimental ones.

  14. The near-UV absorber OSSO and its isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuang; Wan, Huabin; Xu, Jian; Lu, Bo; Lu, Yan; Eckhardt, André K; Schreiner, Peter R; Xie, Changjian; Guo, Hua; Zeng, Xiaoqing

    2018-05-01

    Disulfur dioxide, OSSO, has been proposed as the enigmatic "near-UV absorber" in the yellowish atmosphere of Venus. However, the fundamentally important spectroscopic properties and photochemistry of OSSO are scarcely documented. By either condensing gaseous SO or 266 laser photolysis of an S2O2 complex in Ar or N2 at 15 K, syn-OSSO, anti-OSSO, and cyclic OS([double bond, length as m-dash]O)S were identified by IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy for the first time. The observed absorptions (λmax) for OSSO at 517 and 390 nm coincide with the near-UV absorption (320-400 nm) found in the Venus clouds by photometric measurements with the Pioneer Venus orbiter. Subsequent UV light irradiation (365 nm) depletes syn-OSSO and anti-OSSO and yields a fourth isomer, syn-OSOS, with concomitant dissociation into SO2 and elemental sulfur.

  15. Microsecond and nanosecond isomers populated in fission reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G. A.; Walker, P. M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Williams, S. J.; Cullen, I. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Liu, Z.; Thompson, N. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Carroll, J. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Chowdhury, P.; Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Hackman, G.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion-fission reactions were induced by bombarding a thick 27Al target with 178Hf projectiles at a laboratory energy of 1150 MeV using the ATLAS accelerator at Argonne National Laboratory. The subsequent γ-ray decays were measured using the GAMMASPHERE germanium detector array. The beam was pulsed at two different ON/OFF cycles of 82.5/825 ns and 25/75 μs in order to observe the γ rays from the decay of isomeric states. In 121Sb 2721+Δ keV, Iπ=(25/2+) and 2434 keV, Iπ=19/2- states have measured half-lives of T1/2=200(30) μs and 8.2(2) ns respectively. The 2614+Δ keV, Iπ=(27/2+) and 2486 keV, Iπ=19/2+ states in 123Sb have measured half-lives of T1/2=52(3) μs and 7.9(4) ns respectively. The positive parity isomers in these nuclei correspond to a πd5/2 or πg7/2 configuration, in 121Sb and 123Sb respectively, coupled to aligned (h11/2)2 neutrons. The Iπ=19/2- isomeric state in 121Sb is proposed to have a νh11/2 x νd3/2 x πd5/2 configuration. A previously unobserved isomer has been identified in 99Mo at an energy of 3010 keV, decaying with T1/2=18(5) ns. This state is interpreted as an energetically favoured 3 quasi-particle alignment of ν ( d 5/2 g 7/2 ) x π(g 9/2 ) 2 configuration which is observed systematically in the even-Z N=57 isotones

  16. Table of superdeformed nuclear bands and fission isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; Singh, B.

    1994-06-01

    A minimum in the second potential well of deformed nuclei was predicted and the associated shell gaps are illustrated in the harmonic oscillator potential shell energy surface calculations shown in this report. A strong superdeformed minimum in 152 Dy was predicted for β 2 -0.65. Subsequently, a discrete set of γ-ray transitions in 152 DY was observed and, assigned to the predicted superdeformed band. Extensive research at several laboratories has since focused on searching for other mass regions of large deformation. A new generation of γ-ray detector arrays is already producing a wealth of information about the mechanisms for feeding and deexciting superdeformed bands. These bands have been found in three distinct regions near A=l30, 150, and 190. This research extends upon previous work in the actinide region near A=240 where fission isomers were identified and also associated with the second potential well. Quadrupole moment measurements for selected cases in each mass region are consistent with assigning the bands to excitations in the second local minimum. As part of our committment to maintain nuclear structure data as current as possible in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Reference File (ENSDF) and the Table of Isotopes, we have updated the information on superdeformed nuclear bands. As of April 1994, we have complied data from 86 superdeformed bands and 46 fission isomers identified in 73 nuclides for this report. For each nuclide there is a complete level table listing both normal and superdeformed band assignments; level energy, spin, parity, half-life, magneto moments, decay branchings; and the energies, final levels, relative intensities, multipolarities, and mixing ratios for transitions deexciting each level. Mass excess, decay energies, and proton and neutron separation energies are also provided from the evaluation of Audi and Wapstra

  17. Table of superdeformed nuclear bands and fission isomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Firestone, R.B. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Singh, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1994-06-01

    A minimum in the second potential well of deformed nuclei was predicted and the associated shell gaps are illustrated in the harmonic oscillator potential shell energy surface calculations shown in this report. A strong superdeformed minimum in {sup 152}Dy was predicted for {beta}{sub 2}-0.65. Subsequently, a discrete set of {gamma}-ray transitions in {sup 152}DY was observed and, assigned to the predicted superdeformed band. Extensive research at several laboratories has since focused on searching for other mass regions of large deformation. A new generation of {gamma}-ray detector arrays is already producing a wealth of information about the mechanisms for feeding and deexciting superdeformed bands. These bands have been found in three distinct regions near A=l30, 150, and 190. This research extends upon previous work in the actinide region near A=240 where fission isomers were identified and also associated with the second potential well. Quadrupole moment measurements for selected cases in each mass region are consistent with assigning the bands to excitations in the second local minimum. As part of our committment to maintain nuclear structure data as current as possible in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Reference File (ENSDF) and the Table of Isotopes, we have updated the information on superdeformed nuclear bands. As of April 1994, we have complied data from 86 superdeformed bands and 46 fission isomers identified in 73 nuclides for this report. For each nuclide there is a complete level table listing both normal and superdeformed band assignments; level energy, spin, parity, half-life, magneto moments, decay branchings; and the energies, final levels, relative intensities, multipolarities, and mixing ratios for transitions deexciting each level. Mass excess, decay energies, and proton and neutron separation energies are also provided from the evaluation of Audi and Wapstra.

  18. Theoretical investigation of the photophysics of methyl salicylate isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Richard D.; Blaisten-Barojas, Estela

    2011-10-01

    The photophysics of methyl salicylate (MS) isomers has been studied using time-dependent density functional theory and large basis sets. First electronic singlet and triplet excited states energies, structure, and vibrational analysis were calculated for the ketoB, enol, and ketoA isomers. It is demonstrated that the photochemical pathway involving excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) from the ketoB to the enol tautomer agrees well with the dual fluorescence in near-UV (from ketoB) and blue (from enol) wavelengths obtained from experiments. Our calculation confirms the existence of a double minimum in the excited state pathway along the O-H-O coordinate corresponding to two preferred energy regions: (1) the hydrogen belongs to the OH moiety and the structure of methyl salicylate is ketoB; (2) the hydrogen flips to the closest carboxyl entailing electronic rearrangement and tautomerization to the enol structure. This double well in the excited state is highly asymmetric. The Franck-Condon vibrational overlap is calculated and accounts for the broadening of the two bands. It is suggested that forward and backward ESIPT through the barrier separating the two minima is temperature-dependent and affects the intensity of the fluorescence as seen in experiments. When the enol fluoresces and returns to its ground state, a barrier-less back proton transfer repopulates the ground state of methyl salicylate ketoB. It is also demonstrated that the rotamer ketoA is not stable in an excited state close to the desired emission wavelength. This observation eliminates the conjecture that the near-UV emission of the dual fluorescence originates from the ketoA rotamer. New experimental results for pure MS in the liquid state are reported and theoretical results compared to them.

  19. Session 1 - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... One Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored Contact Lens Facts Over-the-Counter Costume ... new application of artificial intelligence shows whether a patient’s eyes point to high blood pressure or risk ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... away without suffering an eye injury. However, the natural protective mechanisms of the eye – such as the ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are ... this month in the New England Journal of Medicine. Unfortunately, this kind of injury is all too ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses ... 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel Do you know what the difference is between ophthalmologists and optometrists? A ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir ... Can Ruin Vision Eye Makeup Safety In fact, it is illegal to sell colored contact lenses without ...

  6. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color? Normal Human Retina What color is a strawberry? Most of us would say red, but do ... light and shorter wavelength corresponds to blue light. Strawberries and other objects reflect some wavelengths of light ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  8. Fingers that change color

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/003249.htm Fingers that change color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fingers or toes may change color when they are exposed to cold temperatures or ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ...

  10. Human Colors-The Rainbow Garden of Pathology: What Gives Normal and Pathologic Tissues Their Color?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Oviedo, Sergio; Ortiz-Hidalgo, Carlos; Ayala, Alberto G

    2017-03-01

    - Colors are important to all living organisms because they are crucial for camouflage and protection, metabolism, sexual behavior, and communication. Human organs obviously have color, but the underlying biologic processes that dictate the specific colors of organs and tissues are not completely understood. A literature search on the determinants of color in human organs yielded scant information. - To address 2 specific questions: (1) why do human organs have color, and (2) what gives normal and pathologic tissues their distinctive colors? - Endogenous colors are the result of complex biochemical reactions that produce biologic pigments: red-brown cytochromes and porphyrins (blood, liver, spleen, kidneys, striated muscle), brown-black melanins (skin, appendages, brain nuclei), dark-brown lipochromes (aging organs), and colors that result from tissue structure (tendons, aponeurosis, muscles). Yellow-orange carotenes that deposit in lipid-rich tissues are only produced by plants and are acquired from the diet. However, there is lack of information about the cause of color in other organs, such as the gray and white matter, neuroendocrine organs, and white tissues (epithelia, soft tissues). Neoplastic tissues usually retain the color of their nonneoplastic counterpart. - Most available information on the function of pigments comes from studies in plants, microorganisms, cephalopods, and vertebrates, not humans. Biologic pigments have antioxidant and cytoprotective properties and should be considered as potential future therapies for disease and cancer. We discuss the bioproducts that may be responsible for organ coloration and invite pathologists and pathology residents to look at a "routine grossing day" with a different perspective.

  11. Color perception involves color representations firstly at a semantic level and then at a lexical level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heurley, Loïc P; Brouillet, Thibaut; Chesnoy, Gabrielle; Brouillet, Denis

    2013-03-01

    Studies and models have suggested that color perception first involves access to semantic representations of color. This result leads to two questions: (1) is knowledge able to influence the perception of color when associated with a color? and (2) can the perception of color really involve only semantic representations? We developed an experiment where participants have to discriminate the color of a patch (yellow vs. green). The target patch is preceded either by a black-and-white line drawing or by a word representing a natural object associated with the same or a different color (banana vs. frog). We expected a priming effect for pictures because, with a 350-ms SOA, they only involve access to semantic representations of color, whereas words seem only elicit an access to lexical representations. As expected, we found a priming effect for pictures, but also for words. Moreover, we found a general slowdown of response times in the word-prime-condition suggesting the need of an additional processing step to produce priming. In a second experiment, we manipulated the SOA in order to preclude a semantic access in the word-prime-condition that could explain the additional step of processing. We also found a priming effect, suggesting that interaction with perception occurs at a lexical level and the additional step occurs at a color perception level. In the discussion, we develop a new model of color perception assuming that color perception involves access to semantic representations and then access to lexical representations.

  12. Enhanced E3 transitions and mixed configurations for core excited isomers in 210At and 211At

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Steed, C.A.; Byrne, A.P.; Poletti, S.J.; Stuchbery, A.E.; Bark, R.A.

    1986-09-01

    The lifetime and branching ratio of the 19 + isomer in 210 At have been measured. Its enhanced E3 decay and g-factor, and those of the related 39/2 - isomer in 211 At are compared with the results of a semi-empirical shell model calculation which includes couplings to the 3 - octupole vibration, resulting in mixed configurations. Lifetimes were also obtained for the 15 - isomer in 210 At, and he 29/2 + isomer in 209 At

  13. Color ordering in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Schuster, Theodor

    2013-01-01

    We derive color decompositions of arbitrary tree and one-loop QCD amplitudes into color ordered objects called primitive amplitudes. Furthermore, we derive general fermion flip and reversion identities spanning the null space among the primitive amplitudes and use them to prove that all color ordered tree amplitudes of massless QCD can be written as linear combinations of color ordered tree amplitudes of $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills theory.

  14. Alternatives to those artificial FD&C food colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E; Culver, Catherine A

    2012-01-01

    Replacement of artificial food dyes with natural colorants is a current marketing trend, notwithstanding the fact that neither the United States nor the European Union (EU) has defined natural with respect to food colors. Consumer groups have concerns over the safety of synthetic colorants, and in addition, many of the naturally derived colorants provide health benefits. Food scientists frequently have the assignment of replacing artificial colorants with natural alternatives. This can be challenging, as naturally derived colorants are usually less stable, and all desired hues might, in fact, not be obtainable. In this review, the chemical and physical properties, limitations, and more suitable applications for those colorants that are legally available as substitutes for the synthetic colorants are summarized. Issues and challenges for certain foods are discussed, and in addition, colorants that may be available in the future are briefly described.

  15. The Cool Colors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, second from left, a sample from the Cool Colors Project, a roof product ) (Jeff Chiu - AP) more Cool Colors make the front page of The Sacramento Bee (3rd highest circulation newspaper in California) on 14 August 2006! Read the article online or as a PDF. The Cool Colors Project

  16. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  17. Computing color categories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to develop a coherent framework for understanding, modeling, and computing color categories. The main assumption is that the structure of color category systems originates from the statistical structure of the perceived color environment. This environment can be modeled as

  18. Computational Cognitive Color Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehension of aesthetical color characteristics based on a computational model of visual perception and color cognition are presented. The computational comprehension is manifested by the machine’s capability of instantly assigning appropriate colors to the objects perceived. They form a scene

  19. ColorTracker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzheu, Stefanie; Lee, S.; Herneoja, Aulikki; Österlund, Toni; Markkanen, Piia

    2016-01-01

    With the work-in-progress research project ColorTracker we explore color as a formal design tool. This project-based paper describes a novel software application that processes color composition of a place and transcribes the data into three-dimensional geometries for architectural design. The

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far ... Use Facts About Colored Contacts and Halloween Safety Colored ...

  1. Cross-Cultural Color-Odor Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Carmel A.; Ren, Jiana; Woods, Andy T.; Boesveldt, Sanne; Chan, Jason S.; McKenzie, Kirsten J.; Dodson, Michael; Levin, Jai A.; Leong, Christine X. R.; van den Bosch, Jasper J. F.

    2014-01-01

    Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor), statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience), and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language). The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents), using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience. PMID:25007343

  2. Cross-cultural color-odor associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmel A Levitan

    Full Text Available Colors and odors are associated; for instance, people typically match the smell of strawberries to the color pink or red. These associations are forms of crossmodal correspondences. Recently, there has been discussion about the extent to which these correspondences arise for structural reasons (i.e., an inherent mapping between color and odor, statistical reasons (i.e., covariance in experience, and/or semantically-mediated reasons (i.e., stemming from language. The present study probed this question by testing color-odor correspondences in 6 different cultural groups (Dutch, Netherlands-residing-Chinese, German, Malay, Malaysian-Chinese, and US residents, using the same set of 14 odors and asking participants to make congruent and incongruent color choices for each odor. We found consistent patterns in color choices for each odor within each culture, showing that participants were making non-random color-odor matches. We used representational dissimilarity analysis to probe for variations in the patterns of color-odor associations across cultures; we found that US and German participants had the most similar patterns of associations, followed by German and Malay participants. The largest group differences were between Malay and Netherlands-resident Chinese participants and between Dutch and Malaysian-Chinese participants. We conclude that culture plays a role in color-odor crossmodal associations, which likely arise, at least in part, through experience.

  3. The color dielectric model of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirner, H.-J.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA

    1992-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the emergence of valence gluons and their bound states, the glueballs from perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD). We discuss the phenomenological constraints and theoretical method needed to generate effective glueballs actions. We show how color dielectric confinement works naively and in the lattice model of color dielectrics. This lattice model is derived for SU(2) color by a blockspinning Monte Carlo renormalization group procedure. We interpret the resulting long-distance as a strongly interacting lattice string theory where the valence link gluon fields randomize in the color dielectric background which mimics the integrated out high-frequency gluon modes in the vacuum. The fluctuations of the color dielectric fields are related to color neutral glueballs modes. We give the extension of this color dielectric SU(2) theory for general SU(N) with quarks and address the problems associated with combining confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. Finally we prove the efficiency of the effective theory in applications to the heavy quark system, the the baryon, to the nucleon-nucleon interaction, to baryon models and the gluon plasma transition. In all those cases the behavior of the higher energy gluons can be monitored via the color dielectric fields. An increase in the energy density from ''deconfining'' the higher frequency modes inside the flux tube or in thermally excited matter shows up as an increase in the value of the color dielectric field and its associated energy density. (Author)

  4. Summary of group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the workshop was the interaction and exchange of ideas and information among the 40 participants. To facilitate this activity the workshop participants were divided into five discussions groups. These groups reviewed selected subjects and reported back to the main body with summaries of their considerations. Over the 3 days the 5 discussion groups were requested to focus on the following subjects: the characteristics and capabilities of 'good' organisations; how to ensure sufficient resources; how to ensure competence within the organisation; how to demonstrate organisational suitability; the regulatory oversight processes - including their strengths and weaknesses. A list of the related questions that were provided to the discussion groups can be found in Appendix 3. Also included in Appendix 3 are copies of the slides the groups prepared that summarised their considerations

  5. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  6. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  7. Two plus blue equals green: Grapheme-color synesthesia allows cognitive access to numerical information via color

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J. Daniel; Barnes, Lianne N.; Alvarez, Bryan D.; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2013-01-01

    In grapheme-color synesthesia, graphemes (e.g., numbers or letters) evoke color experiences. It is generally reported that the opposite is not true: colors will not generate experiences of graphemes or their associated information. However, recent research has provided evidence that colors can implicitly elicit symbolic representations of associated graphemes. Here, we examine if these representations can be cognitively accessed. Using a mathematical verification task replacing graphemes with color patches, we find that synesthetes can verify such problems with colors as accurately as with graphemes. Doing so, however, takes time: ~250ms per color. Moreover, we find minimal reaction time switch-costs for switching between computing with graphemes and colors. This demonstrates that given specific task demands, synesthetes can cognitively access numerical information elicited by physical colors, and they do so as accurately as with graphemes. We discuss these results in the context of possible cognitive strategies used to access the information. PMID:24100131

  8. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    OpenAIRE

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the ge...

  9. Discussion on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)

  10. Summary of discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides summaries of the discussions occurred during the second international workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage. It concerns the second accident scenario: a fire on board of a ship transporting enriched uranium hexafluoride along the Danube River. (A.L.B.)

  11. Discussion 2: David Dobbs

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, David; Murray-Rust, Peter; Hatcher, Jordan; Pollock, Rufus

    2010-01-01

    David Dobbs writes on science, medicine and culture. He has contributed to a diversity of publications, including Scientific American, Slate magazine, Wired, Audubon, Atlantic Monthly, and the New York Times magazine. He has also authored a number of books. Other participants in this discussion were Peter Murray-Rust, Jordan Hatcher, and Rufus Pollock.

  12. Summary and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes and discusses results of the longitudinal study that comprises this monograph issue. Results concern: (1) marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships in families with single and remarried mothers; (2) the relationship between parenting style and adolescent adjustment; and (3) the relationship between marital transitions and…

  13. WORKSHOP: Discussion, debate, deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid

  14. The influence of isomer purity on trap states and performance of organic thin-film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Peter J; Hayes, Jacori; Welchman, Evan; Hallani, Rawad; Pookpanratana, Sujitra J; Hacker, Christina A; Richter, Curt A; Anthony, John E; Thonhauser, Timo; Jurchescu, Oana D

    2017-01-01

    Organic field-effect transistor (OFET) performance is dictated by its composition and geometry, as well as the quality of the organic semiconductor (OSC) film, which strongly depends on purity and microstructure. When present, impurities and defects give rise to trap states in the bandgap of the OSC, lowering device performance. Here, 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)-anthradithiophene is used as a model system to study the mechanism responsible for performance degradation in OFETs due to isomer coexistence. The density of trapping states is evaluated through temperature dependent current-voltage measurements, and it is discovered that OFETs containing a mixture of syn - and anti -isomers exhibit a discrete trapping state detected as a peak located at ~ 0.4 eV above the valence-band edge, which is absent in the samples fabricated on single-isomer films. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations do not point to a significant difference in electronic band structure between individual isomers. Instead, it is proposed that the dipole moment of the syn -isomer present in the host crystal of the anti -isomer locally polarizes the neighboring molecules, inducing energetic disorder. The isomers can be separated by applying gentle mechanical vibrations during film crystallization, as confirmed by the suppression of the peak and improvement in device performance.

  15. Chemometric deconvolution of gas chromatographic unresolved conjugated linoleic acid isomers triplet in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasko, Jaroslav; Kubinec, Róbert; Ostrovský, Ivan; Pavlíková, Eva; Krupcík, Ján; Soják, Ladislav

    2009-04-03

    A generally known problem of GC separation of trans-7;cis-9; cis-9,trans-11; and trans-8,cis-10 CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) isomers was studied by GC-MS on 100m capillary column coated with cyanopropyl silicone phase at isothermal column temperatures in a range of 140-170 degrees C. The resolution of these CLA isomers obtained at given conditions was not high enough for direct quantitative analysis, but it was, however, sufficient for the determination of their peak areas by commercial deconvolution software. Resolution factors of overlapped CLA isomers determined by the separation of a model CLA mixture prepared by mixing of a commercial CLA mixture and CLA isomer fraction obtained by the HPLC semi-preparative separation of milk fatty acids methyl esters were used to validate the deconvolution procedure. Developed deconvolution procedure allowed the determination of the content of studied CLA isomers in ewes' and cows' milk samples, where dominant isomer cis-9,trans-11 is eluted between two small isomers trans-7,cis-9 and trans-8,cis-10 (in the ratio up to 1:100).

  16. Decay and Fission Hindrance of Two- and Four-Quasiparticle K Isomers in ^{254}Rf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H M; Chen, J; Seweryniak, D; Kondev, F G; Gates, J M; Gregorich, K E; Ahmad, I; Albers, M; Alcorta, M; Back, B B; Baartman, B; Bertone, P F; Bernstein, L A; Campbell, C M; Carpenter, M P; Chiara, C J; Clark, R M; Cromaz, M; Doherty, D T; Dracoulis, G D; Esker, N E; Fallon, P; Gothe, O R; Greene, J P; Greenlees, P T; Hartley, D J; Hauschild, K; Hoffman, C R; Hota, S S; Janssens, R V F; Khoo, T L; Konki, J; Kwarsick, J T; Lauritsen, T; Macchiavelli, A O; Mudder, P R; Nair, C; Qiu, Y; Rissanen, J; Rogers, A M; Ruotsalainen, P; Savard, G; Stolze, S; Wiens, A; Zhu, S

    2015-09-25

    Two isomers decaying by electromagnetic transitions with half-lives of 4.7(1.1) and 247(73) μs have been discovered in the heavy ^{254}Rf nucleus. The observation of the shorter-lived isomer was made possible by a novel application of a digital data acquisition system. The isomers were interpreted as the K^{π}=8^{-}, ν^{2}(7/2^{+}[624],9/2^{-}[734]) two-quasineutron and the K^{π}=16^{+}, 8^{-}ν^{2}(7/2^{+}[624],9/2^{-}[734])⊗8^{-}π^{2}(7/2^{-}[514],9/2^{+}[624]) four-quasiparticle configurations, respectively. Surprisingly, the lifetime of the two-quasiparticle isomer is more than 4 orders of magnitude shorter than what has been observed for analogous isomers in the lighter N=150 isotones. The four-quasiparticle isomer is longer lived than the ^{254}Rf ground state that decays exclusively by spontaneous fission with a half-life of 23.2(1.1) μs. The absence of sizable fission branches from either of the isomers implies unprecedented fission hindrance relative to the ground state.

  17. Structural-based differences in ecotoxicity of benzoquinoline isomers to the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraak, M.H.S.; Wijnands, P.; Govers, H.A.J.; Admiraal, W.; Voogt, P. de [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    Effects of four benzoquinoline isomers on the filtration rate of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) were analyzed, to study the effect of minor differences in chemical structure on adverse biological effects. Filtration rates were measured after 48 h of exposure to different concentrations of acridine, phenanthridine, benzo[f]quinoline, and benzo[h]quinoline in the water. The 50% effective concentration (EC50) values for filtration rate of the four isomers differed significantly. Effects increased in the order benzo[f], -[h], -[b], and -[c]quinoline, and the difference between the most toxic isomer and the least toxic isomer amounted to a factor of 30. Attempts were made to relate these differences in toxicity to the structure of the isomers. Size- or topology-related molecular descriptors provided insufficient resolution to distinguish between the benzoquinoline isomers, and none of the electronic descriptors separately provided a significant correlation with the observed effects. In an alternative approach, molecular shape, accessibility, and minimum agent-macromolecule distance were used to represent repulsive and attractive forces between the benzoquinoline isomers and biological membranes. This approach could tentatively explain the observed effects and is supported by a high correlation between the EC50 data and the reversed-phase C18-HPLC behavior of the benzoquinolines (k{sub 0}), which is likely to be governed by similar processes.

  18. Supramolecular structures in N-isonicotinoyl arylaldehydehydrazones: multiple hydrogen-bonding modes in series of geometric isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Solange M S V; de Souza, Marcus V N; Wardell, James L; Low, John N; Glidewell, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    Sixteen N-isonicotinoyl arylaldehydehydrazones, NC(5)H(4)CONHN=CHC(6)H(4)R, have been studied and the structures of 14 of them have been determined, including the unsubstituted parent compound with R = H, and the complete sets of 2-, 3- and 4-substituted geometric isomers for R = F, Br and OMe, and two of the three isomers for R = Cl and OEt. The 2-chloro and 3-chloro derivatives are isostructural with the corresponding bromo isomers, and all compounds contain trans amide groups apart from the isostructural pair where R = 2-Cl and 2-Br, which contain cis amide groups. The structures exhibit a wide range of direction-specific intermolecular interactions, including eight types of hydrogen bonds, N-H...N, N-H...O, O-H...O, O-H...N, C-H...N, C-H...O, C-H...pi(arene) and C-H...pi(pyridyl), as well as pi...pi stacking interactions. The structures exhibit a very broad range of combinations of these interactions: the resulting hydrogen-bonded supramolecular structures range from one-dimensional when R = 2-F, 2-OMe or 2-OEt, via two-dimensional when R = 4-F, 3-Cl, 3-Br, 4-OMe or 3-OEt, to three-dimensional when R = H, 3-F, 2-Cl, 2-Br, 4-Br or 3-OMe. Minor changes in either the identity of the substituent or its location can lead to substantial changes in the pattern of supramolecular aggregation, posing significant problems of predictability. The new structures are compared with the recently published structures of the isomeric series having R = NO(2), with several monosubstituted analogues containing 2-pyridyl or 3-pyridyl units rather than 4-pyridyl, and with a number of examples having two or three substituents in the aryl ring: some 30 structures in all are discussed.

  19. Vibrational spectra and assignments for cis- and trans-1,2-difluorocyclopropane and three deuterium substituted modifications of each isomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, N.C.; Hu Chao, T.N.; Cuellar, E.; Hendriksen, D.E.; Koepke, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Infrared spectra under a variety of experimental conditions and Raman spectra for the liquid phase have been recorded for the cis and trans isomers of 1,2-difluorocyclopropane and the 1,2-d 2 , 3,3-d 2 , and d 4 deuterated modifications. Almost all of the 168 fundamentals of this set of eight molecules have been observed and assigned convincingly. For cis-1,2-difluorocyclopropane-d 0 the fundamentals are (a') 3105, 3063, 3023, 1450, 1365, 1224, 1135, 1047, 862, 784, 468, 209 cm -1 ; (a'') 3055, 1346, 1150, 1089, 1060, 993, 739, 621, 319 cm -1 . For trans-1,2-difluorocyclopropane-d 0 the fundamentals are (a) 3070, 3021, 1457, 1380, 1203, 1132, 1068, 961, 842, 415, 279 cm -1 ; (b) 3110, 3070, 1304, 1161, 1072, 1005, 937, 783, 452, 303 cm -1 . Only the 1089-cm -1 mode in the cis and the 937-cm -1 mode in the trans are in doubt. Group frequency descriptions are discussed qualitatively, and attention is drawn to the fundamentals near 1450 cm -1 which are characteristic of fluorocyclopropanes and appear to be largely due to ring stretching. From previously published equilibrium data for the cis-to-trans isomerization and the fundamental frequencies of the two isomers, an electronic energy difference of -2800 +- 200 cal/mol has been calculated. In contrast, the trans isomer of 1,2-difluoroethylene has an energy 1100 cal/mol greater than the cis, and the trans rotamer of 1,2-difluoroethane has an energy about 600 cal/mol greater than the gauche. (auth)

  20. Identification of (2-aminopropyl)indole positional isomers in forensic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Kenneth R; Power, John D; McDermott, Seán D; O'Brien, John E; Talbot, Brian N; Barry, Michael G; Kavanagh, Pierce V

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-API, 5-IT) was reported by Norwegian authorities to the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) via the Early Warning System (EWS). The 3- isomer, 3-(2-aminopropyl)indole (3-API, AMT, alpha-methyltryptamine), has been available on the recreational drugs market for a somewhat longer time, having first been reported to the EMCDDA by Finnish authorities in 2001. Both isomers are available from online vendors of 'legal highs'. Recently, three forensic drug cases (two tablets and one powder) were presented for routine analysis and the active constituent was tentatively identified as an API isomer. The six positional isomers (2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6- and 7-(2-aminopropyl)indoles) were synthesized and analyses by a combination gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) showed that these could be readily discriminated thus facilitating the identification of 3-API in the tablets and 5-API in the powder. With exception of 5- and 6-APIs, which co-eluted, it was found possible to separate the isomers by GC without derivatization. LC separation also proved to be a feasible method for the discrimination of the isomers. Although the 2- and 7- isomers were not fully resolved by LC, it was found possible to distinguish them using their product ion spectra as the 2- isomer produced the m/z 132 fragment ion formed by loss of vinylamine, whereas the 7- isomer formed m/z 158 through loss of methylamine. In the synthesis 2-API, a novel tricyclic by-product was formed in an annulation reaction where the reaction solvent, tetrahydrofuran, was incorporated into the molecule. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Relating color working memory and color perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I

    2014-11-01

    Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  3. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  4. Discussion with CERN Directorate

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Please note that the Discussion with CERN Directorate will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Prevessin 774-R-013 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.

  5. B(E2)s of high-spin isomers in generalized seniority scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on the isomers that arise due to the seniority selection rules and the role played by generalized seniority when multi-j configurations are involved. In particular, we concentrate on explaining the B(E2) values in the semi-magic isomeric chains by using a simple approach. In this paper, we study the B(E2) variation of these isomers by using the generalized seniority scheme, applicable to many-j degenerate orbits. We show that the isomers known to arise mainly from the high-j intruder orbitals, do require the configuration mixing as an essential requirement

  6. Effects of high-order deformation on high-K isomers in superheavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, H. L.; Bertulani, C. A.; Xu, F. R.; Walker, P. M.

    2011-01-01

    Using, for the first time, configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations with the inclusion of β 6 deformation, we find remarkable effects of the high-order deformation on the high-K isomers in 254 No, the focus of recent spectroscopy experiments on superheavy nuclei. For shapes with multipolarity six, the isomers are more tightly bound and, microscopically, have enhanced deformed shell gaps at N=152 and Z=100. The inclusion of β 6 deformation significantly improves the description of the very heavy high-K isomers.

  7. pH-dependent fluorescence property of methyl red isomers in silver colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Jian-How; Lee, Szetsen

    2012-01-01

    We report the use of silver (Ag) colloids in the spectroscopic differentiation of methyl red (MR) isomers (o-MR, m-MR, p-MR) by fluorescence techniques. Under different pH conditions, the formation of MR-Ag complex has an impact on the fluorescence band shapes and peak position shift, which are distinctive between MR isomers. The fluorescence quenching between 400 and 414 nm accompanied by simultaneous enhancement between 510 and 541 nm changes with pH are closely related to energy transfer efficiency and the interaction between the MR isomers and the Ag surface.

  8. Solvation effect on isomer stability and electronic structures of protonated serotonin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyan, Reza; Amanollahi, Zohreh; Azimi, Gholamhassan

    2017-07-01

    Microsolvation effect on geometry and transition energies of protonated serotonin has been investigated by MP2 and CC2 quantum chemical methods. Also, conductor-like screening model, implemented recently in the MP2 and ADC(2) methods, was examined to address the bulk water environment's effect on the isomer stability and electronic transition energies of protonated serotonin. It has been predicted that the dipole moment of gas phase isomers plays the main role on the isomer stabilization in water solution and electronic transition shifts. Also, both red- and blue-shift effects have been predicted to take place on electronic transition energies, upon hydration.

  9. Isomer-specific regulation of metabolism and PPARgamma signaling by CLA in human preadipocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, J Mark; Boysen, Maria Sandberg; Jensen, Søren Skov

    2003-01-01

    Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has previously been shown to be the CLA isomer responsible for CLA-induced reductions in body fat in animal models, and we have shown that this isomer, but not the cis-9,trans-11 CLA isomer, specifically decreased triglyceride (TG) accumulation...... transporter 4 gene expression. Furthermore, trans-10,cis-12 CLA reduced oleic acid uptake and oxidation when compared with all other treatments. In parallel to CLA's effects on metabolism, trans-10,cis-12 CLA decreased, whereas cis-9,trans-11 CLA increased, the expression of peroxisome proliferator...

  10. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo eUccula

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e. who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g. color, shape or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  11. Toroidal high-spin isomers in the nucleus 304120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staszczak, A.; Wong, Cheuk-Yin; Kosior, A.

    2017-05-01

    Background: Strongly deformed oblate superheavy nuclei form an intriguing region where the toroidal nuclear structures may bifurcate from the oblate spheroidal shape. The bifurcation may be facilitated when the nucleus is endowed with a large angular moment about the symmetry axis with I =Iz . The toroidal high-K isomeric states at their local energy minima can be theoretically predicted using the cranked self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method. Purpose: We use the cranked Skyrme-Hartree-Fock method to predict the properties of the toroidal high-spin isomers in the superheavy nucleus 120304184. Method: Our method consists of three steps: First, we use the deformation-constrained Skyrme-Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach to search for the nuclear density distributions with toroidal shapes. Next, using these toroidal distributions as starting configurations, we apply an additional cranking constraint of a large angular momentum I =Iz about the symmetry z axis and search for the energy minima of the system as a function of the deformation. In the last step, if a local energy minimum with I =Iz is found, we perform at this point the cranked symmetry- and deformation-unconstrained Skyrme-Hartree-Fock calculations to locate a stable toroidal high-spin isomeric state in free convergence. Results: We have theoretically located two toroidal high-spin isomeric states of 120304184 with an angular momentum I =Iz=81 ℏ (proton 2p-2h, neutron 4p-4h excitation) and I =Iz=208 ℏ (proton 5p-5h, neutron 8p-8h) at the quadrupole moment deformations Q20=-297.7 b and Q20=-300.8 b with energies 79.2 and 101.6 MeV above the spherical ground state, respectively. The nuclear density distributions of the toroidal high-spin isomers 120304184(Iz=81 ℏ and 208 ℏ ) have the maximum density close to the nuclear matter density, 0.16 fm-3, and a torus major to minor radius aspect ratio R /d =3.25 . Conclusions: We demonstrate that aligned angular momenta of Iz=81 ℏ and 208 ℏ arising from

  12. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  13. A study of glasses-type color CGH using a color filter considering reduction of blurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwami, Saki; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a glasses-type color computer generated hologram (CGH) by using a color filter. The proposed glasses consist of two "lenses" made of overlapping holograms and color filters. The holograms, which are calculated to reconstruct images in each primary color, are divided to small areas, which we called cells, and superimposed on one hologram. In the same way, colors of the filter correspond to the hologram cells. We can configure it very simply without a complex optical system, and the configuration yields a small and light weight system suitable for glasses. When the cell is small enough, the colors are mixed and reconstructed color images are observed. In addition, color expression of reconstruction images improves, too. However, using small cells blurrs reconstructed images because of the following reasons: (1) interference between cells because of the correlation with the cells, and (2) reduction of resolution caused by the size of the cell hologram. We are investigating in order to make a hologram that has high resolution reconstructed color images without ghost images. In this paper, we discuss (1) the details of the proposed glasses-type color CGH, (2) appropriate cell size for an eye system, (3) effects of cell shape on the reconstructed images, and (4) a new method to reduce the blurring of the images.

  14. Synesthesia for color is linked to improved color perception but reduced motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banissy, Michael J; Tester, Victoria; Muggleton, Neil G; Janik, Agnieszka B; Davenport, Aimee; Franklin, Anna; Walsh, Vincent; Ward, Jamie

    2013-12-01

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which one property of a stimulus (e.g., shape) triggers a secondary percept (e.g., color) not typically associated with the first. Work on synesthesia has predominantly focused on confirming the authenticity of synesthetic experience, but much less research has been conducted to examine the extent to which synesthesia is linked to broader perceptual differences. In the research reported here, we examined whether synesthesia is associated with differences in color and motion processing by comparing these abilities in synesthetes who experience color as their evoked sensation with nonsynesthetic participants. We show that synesthesia for color is linked to facilitated color sensitivity but decreased motion sensitivity. These findings are discussed in relation to the neurocognitive mechanisms of synesthesia and interactions between color and motion processing in typical adults.

  15. Color management: printing processes - opportunities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Samuel T.

    2002-06-01

    Digital tools have impacted traditional methods employed to reproduce color images during the past decade. The shift from a purely photomechanical process in color reproduction to colorimetric reproduction offers tremendous opportunity in the graphic arts industry. But good things do not necessarily come to all in the same package. Printing processes possess different reproduction attributes: tone reproduction, gray balance and color correction requirements are as different as the ingredient sets selected for color reproduction. This paper will provide insight toward understanding advantages and limitations offered by the new digital technologies in printing, publishing and packaging. For the past five years the Clemson University Graphic Communications Department has conducted numerous color projects using the new digital colorimetric tools during the previous decade. Several approaches have been used including experimental research and typical production workflows. The use of colorimetric data in color reproduction has given an opportunity to realize real gains in color use, predictability and consistency. Meeting an image's separation and reproduction requirements for a specified printing process can involve disruption of the anticipated workflow. Understanding the printing process requirements and the fit within the specifications of a colorimetric workflow are critical to the successful adoption of a color managed workflow. The paper will also provide an insight into the issues and challenges experienced with a color managed workflow. The printing processes used include offset litho, narrow and wide-web flexography (paper, liner board, corrugated and film), screen printing (paper board and polycarbonates), and digital imaging with toner, ink and inkjet systems. A proposal for technology integration will be the focus of the presentation drawn from documented experiences in over 300 applications of color management tools. Discussion will include the structure of

  16. Discussion Club "Profitable Heritage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors and participants of the project and the expert community analyze the problems related to the realization of a big-scale concept of renovation of the historical center “Irkutsk Quarters”. They discuss preservation of wooden architecture of the city, changes in social functions of the territory, inclusion of the new facilities in the fabric of the area, as well as the problems of the territory’s tourist function and preservation of the identity of Irkutsk downtown.

  17. Standard molar enthalpy of formation of methoxyacetophenone isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, Luísa M.P.F.; Morais, Victor M.F.; Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental and computational energetic study of methoxyacetophenone isomers. • Enthalpies of formation and phase transition determined by calorimetric techniques. • Quantum chemical calculations allowed estimation of enthalpies of formation. • Structure and energy correlations were established. - Abstract: Values of the standard (p o = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of 2′-, 3′- and 4′-methoxyacetophenones were derived from their standard molar energy of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The Calvet high temperature vacuum sublimation technique was used to measure the enthalpies of sublimation/vaporization of the compounds studied. The standard molar enthalpies of formation of the three compounds, in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K, have been derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of formation in the condensed phase and the standard molar enthalpies for the phase transition. The results obtained are −(232.0 ± 2.5), −(237.7 ± 2.7) and −(241.1 ± 2.1) kJ · mol −1 for 2′-, 3′- and 4′-methoxyacetophenone, respectively. Standard molar enthalpies of formation were also estimated from different methodologies: the Cox scheme as well as two different computational approaches using density functional theory-based B3LYP and the multilevel G3 methodologies

  18. Experimental standard molar enthalpies of formation of some methylbenzenediol isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro da Silva, Manuel A.V.; Lobo Ferreira, Ana I.M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The present work is part of a research program on the energetics of formation of alkyl substituted benzenediols, aiming the study of the enthalpic effect of the introduction of methyl substituents into benzenediols. In this work we present the results of the thermochemical research on 2-methylresorcinol, 3-methylresorcinol, 4-methylresorcinol, and methylhydroquinone. The standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline phase, at T = 298.15 K, of the compounds mentioned above were derived from their standard massic energies of combustion, measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry, while the standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of those compounds were obtained by the temperature dependence of their vapour pressures determined by the Knudsen effusion technique. From experimental values, the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the studied methylbenzenediols in the gaseous phase, at T = 298.15 K were then derived. The results are interpreted in terms of structural contributions to the energetics of the substituted benzenediols and compared with the same parameters estimated from the Cox Scheme. Moreover, the standard (p 0 =0.1MPa) molar enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived for the four isomers of methylbenzenediols.

  19. Panel discussion: Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake

  20. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  1. IRAS Colors of the Pleiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Sean J.; Shipman, R. F.; Clark, F. O.

    1996-01-01

    We present large scale images of the infrared emission of the region around the Pleiades using the ISSA data product from the IRAS mission. Residual Zodiacal background and a discontinuity in the image due to the scanning strategy of the satellite necessitated special background subtraction methods. The 60/100 color image clearly shows the heating of the ambient interstellar medium by the cluster. The 12/100 and 25/100 images peak on the cluster as expected for exposure of small dust grains to an enhanced UV radiation field; however, the 25/100 color declines to below the average interstellar value at the periphery of the cluster. Potential causes of the color deficit are discussed. A new method of identifying dense molecular material through infrared emission properties is presented. The difference between the 100 micron flux density and the 60 micron flux density scaled by the average interstellar 60/100 color ratio (Delta I(sub 100) is a sensitive diagnostic of material with embedded heating sources (Delta I(sub 100) less than 0) and cold, dense cores (Delta I(sub 100) greater than 0). The dense cores of the Taurus cloud complex as well as Lynds 1457 are clearly identified by this method, while the IR bright but diffuse Pleiades molecular cloud is virtually indistinguishable from the nearby infrared cirrus.

  2. Color-singlet and color-octet contributions to J/ψ photoproduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, M.

    1996-09-01

    I discuss the impact of color-octet contributions and higher-order QCD corrections on the cross section for inelastic J/ψ photoproduction. The theoretical predictions are compared with recent experimental data obtained at HERA. (orig.)

  3. Study on Separation of Structural Isomer with Magneto-Archimedes method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Mori, T.; Akiyama, Y.; Mishima, F.; Nishijima, S.

    2017-09-01

    Organic compounds are refined by separating their structural isomers, however each separation method has some problems. For example, distillation consumes large energy. In order to solve these problems, new separation method is needed. Considering organic compounds are diamagnetic, we focused on magneto-Archimedes method. With this method, particle mixture dispersed in a paramagnetic medium can be separated in a magnetic field due to the difference of the density and magnetic susceptibility of the particles. In this study, we succeeded in separating isomers of phthalic acid as an example of structural isomer using MnCl2 solution as the paramagnetic medium. In order to use magneto-Archimedes method for separating materials for food or medicine, we proposed harmless medium using oxygen and fluorocarbon instead of MnCl2 aqueous solution. As a result, the possibility of separating every structural isomer was shown.

  4. The Creation and Destruction of Hf-178m2 Isomer by Neutron Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hua [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); TechSource, Inc. Los Alamos, NM (United States); Talbert, Willard L. [TechSource, Inc. Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ward, Tom [TechSource, Inc. Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    The property of the isomer state in 178m2Hf was an interesting topic in nuclear structure studies during the time period 1970 to 1980. The state at 2.446 MeV with spin and parity Kπ = 16+, has a half-life of 31 years. The isomer is described as a four-quasi-particle state. The K forbidden deexcitatiion by gamma emission is the reason for long half-life. During 1980, the isomer became a troublesome issue for radiation safety workers, because this isomer can also be produced in the first wall of a fussion reactor containing tungsten and also in a tungsten beam stop of a high-energy accelerator.

  5. Conformational inversion-topomerization mechanism of ethylcyclohexyl isomers and its role in combustion kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Bian, Huiting; Wang, Zhandong; Sun, Jinhua; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    the formation of subsequent decomposition products. In this work, the conformational inversion-topomerization mechanism and H-migration reactions for six ethylcyclohexyl radical isomers were systematically studied by ab initio calculations and the transition

  6. G-factor for the K-6, Jsup(π) = 6+ isomer in 178Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faestermann, T.; Haeusser, O.; Ward, D.; Andrews, H.R.; Alexander, T.K.; Horn, D.

    1978-01-01

    High-K isomers are prevalent towards the end of the rare-earth region of deformed nuclei where the valence particles fill high Ω orbitals. Very little is known about the g-factors for these isomers mainly because in the half-life range encountered, 50 ns-50 μs, quadrupole and paramagnetic relaxation effects can destroy the nuclear alignment very rapidly. In 178 Hf a Isub(π)K=6 + 6 isomer with a half-life of 78 ns has recently been found. It decays predominantly to the ground band (K=O) 6 + and 4 + levels with gamma rays of 921.8 keV and 1247.3 keV respectively. The authors have measured the g-factor of this isomer with the method of perturbed angular distributions. (Auth.)

  7. Membrane Materials and Technology for Xylene Isomers Separation and Isomerization via Pervaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Bilaus, Rakan

    2014-01-01

    technology’s high energy intensity has become a growing concern. Membrane separation technology is a potential low-energy alternative. Polymeric membranes were investigated in a pervaporation experiment to separate xylene isomers. Polymers of intrinsic

  8. Three- and five-quasiparticle isomers, rotational bands and residual interactions in 175Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Walker, P.M.

    1980-03-01

    Two 3-quasiparticle isomers with spins, parities and half lives of 19/2 + , 1.1 μ and 23/2 - , 1.2 ns have been identified at 1433 and 1766 keV in 175 Hf. A third isomer possibly 35/2 - with a 1.2 μs half-life is found at 3015 keV. The first two are characterised as a 7/2 + (633) neutron coupled to the known 6 + and 8 - 2-proton isomers of the core nuclei. Rotational bands based on the 3-qp isomers are highly perturbed, due to Coriolis mixing, and their structure is reproduced in a band mixing calculation. The energy depression of the 3-quasiparticle states relative to the 2-quasiproton core states is attributed mainly to the residual proton-neutron interaction, and possibly also to blocking effects through neutron admixtures

  9. capital. A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  10. Results and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model

  11. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  12. Isomer shift and magnetic moment of the long-lived 1/2$^{+}$ isomer in $^{79}_{30}$Zn$_{49}$: signature of shape coexistence near $^{78}$Ni

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, X.F.; Xie, L.; Babcock, C.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M.L.; Blaum, K.; Cheal, B.; Flanagan, K.T.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Gins, W.; Gorges, C.; Grob, L.K.; Heylen, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Kowalska, M.; Kraemer, J.; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Papuga, J.; Sánchez, R.; Yordanov, D.T.

    2016-01-01

    Collinear laser spectroscopy has been performed on the $^{79}_{30}$Zn$_{49}$ isotope at ISOLDE-CERN. The existence of a long-lived isomer with a few hundred milliseconds half-life was confirmed, and the nuclear spins and moments of the ground and isomeric states in $^{79}$Zn as well as the isomer shift were measured. From the observed hyperfine structures, spins $I = 9/2$ and $I = 1/2$ are firmly assigned to the ground and isomeric states. The magnetic moment $\\mu$ ($^{79}$Zn) = $-$1.1866(10) $\\mu_{\\rm{N}}$, confirms the spin-parity $9/2^{+}$ with a $\

  13. Plasmonic- and dielectric-based structural coloring: from fundamentals to practical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taejun; Jang, Jaehyuck; Jeong, Heonyeong; Rho, Junsuk

    2018-01-01

    Structural coloring is production of color by surfaces that have microstructure fine enough to interfere with visible light; this phenomenon provides a novel paradigm for color printing. Plasmonic color is an emergent property of the interaction between light and metallic surfaces. This phenomenon can surpass the diffraction limit and achieve near unlimited lifetime. We categorize plasmonic color filters according to their designs (hole, rod, metal-insulator-metal, grating), and also describe structures supported by Mie resonance. We discuss the principles, and the merits and demerits of each color filter. We also discuss a new concept of color filters with tunability and reconfigurability, which enable printing of structural color to yield dynamic coloring at will. Approaches for dynamic coloring are classified as liquid crystal, chemical transition and mechanical deformation. At the end of review, we highlight a scale-up of fabrication methods, including nanoimprinting, self-assembly and laser-induced process that may enable real-world application of structural coloring.

  14. Occurrence of β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA and Isomers in Aquatic Environments and Aquatic Food Sources for Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Lance

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA, a non-protein amino acid produced by terrestrial and aquatic cyanobacteria and by micro-algae, has been suggested to play a role as an environmental factor in the neurodegenerative disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Parkinsonism-Dementia complex (ALS-PDC. The ubiquitous presence of BMAA in aquatic environments and organisms along the food chain potentially makes it public health concerns. However, the BMAA-associated human health risk remains difficult to rigorously assess due to analytical challenges associated with the detection and quantification of BMAA and its natural isomers, 2,4-diamino butyric acid (DAB, β-amino-N-methyl-alanine (BAMA and N-(2-aminoethyl glycine (AEG. This systematic review, reporting the current knowledge on the presence of BMAA and isomers in aquatic environments and human food sources, was based on a selection and a score numbering of the scientific literature according to various qualitative and quantitative criteria concerning the chemical analytical methods used. Results from the best-graded studies show that marine bivalves are to date the matrix containing the higher amount of BMAA, far more than most fish muscles, but with an exception for shark cartilage. This review discusses the available data in terms of their use for human health risk assessment and identifies knowledge gaps requiring further investigations.

  15. Occurrence of β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) and Isomers in Aquatic Environments and Aquatic Food Sources for Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Emilie; Arnich, Nathalie; Maignien, Thomas; Biré, Ronel

    2018-02-14

    The neurotoxin β- N -methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid produced by terrestrial and aquatic cyanobacteria and by micro-algae, has been suggested to play a role as an environmental factor in the neurodegenerative disease Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Parkinsonism-Dementia complex (ALS-PDC). The ubiquitous presence of BMAA in aquatic environments and organisms along the food chain potentially makes it public health concerns. However, the BMAA-associated human health risk remains difficult to rigorously assess due to analytical challenges associated with the detection and quantification of BMAA and its natural isomers, 2,4-diamino butyric acid (DAB), β-amino- N -methyl-alanine (BAMA) and N -(2-aminoethyl) glycine (AEG). This systematic review, reporting the current knowledge on the presence of BMAA and isomers in aquatic environments and human food sources, was based on a selection and a score numbering of the scientific literature according to various qualitative and quantitative criteria concerning the chemical analytical methods used. Results from the best-graded studies show that marine bivalves are to date the matrix containing the higher amount of BMAA, far more than most fish muscles, but with an exception for shark cartilage. This review discusses the available data in terms of their use for human health risk assessment and identifies knowledge gaps requiring further investigations.

  16. Rotation Invariant Color Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Swapna Borde; Udhav Bhosle

    2013-01-01

    The new technique for image retrieval using the color features extracted from images based on LogHistogram is proposed. The proposed technique is compared with Global color histogram and histogram ofcorners .It has been observed that number of histogram bins used for retrieval comparison of proposedtechnique (Log Histogram)is less as compared to Global Color Histogram and Histogram of corners. Theexperimental results on a database of 792 images with 11 classes indicate that proposed method (L...

  17. Colored fused filament fabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haichuan; Lefebvre, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Filament fused fabrication is the method of choice for printing 3D models at low cost, and is the de-facto standard for hobbyists, makers and schools. Unfortunately, filament printers cannot truly reproduce colored objects. The best current techniques rely on a form of dithering exploiting occlusion, that was only demonstrated for shades of two base colors and that behaves differently depending on surface slope. We explore a novel approach for 3D printing colored objects, capable of creating ...

  18. Discovery of a 7.6-hour high-spin isomer of einsteinium-256

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.; Daniels, W.R.; Wilhelmy, J.B.; Bunker, M.E.; Starner, J.W.; Jackson, S.V.; Lougheed, R.W.; Landrum, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A 7.6-hour, beta-emitting isomer of 256 Es has been produced via the (t,p) reaction by bombarding /sup 254g/Es with 16-MeV tritons. No evidence for an alpha branch was found. A number of gamma rays were observed, on the basis of which a partial decay scheme is proposed. It is concluded that the isomer has spin 7 or 8

  19. Study on gamma-ray transitions induced in nuclear spin isomers by X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianli; Hao Fanhua; Liu Xiaoya; Gong Jian

    2005-10-01

    The development of induced X-ray has been summarized for high spin isomer. the radiation model, transition mechanism and experiment plan have been introduced. The experiments about isomers 180m Ta and 178m2 Hf have been narrated in detail respectively, and the analysis between those results have been obtained. The reasonable theoretical frame and good experimental data have offered the powerful technique base for pumping γ-ray laser with low energy. (authors)

  20. Magnetic moments of ns-isomers in 105Ag and 103Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, L.; Kaeubler, L.; Prade, H.; Hagemann, U.; Story, F.

    1979-01-01

    In recent years a considerable amount of experimental work has been done in order to study the structure of odd-A transitional nuclei around Z=50. In order to obtain additional experimental information on excited states in 105 Ag and 103 Pd the magnetic moments of the 15/2 + isomer in 105 Ag and the 11/2 - isomer in 103 Pd were determined. (author)

  1. Studies on the decay of high-spin isomers in the W and Os isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer-Flecken, A.

    1988-01-01

    From the two experiments performed on the nucleus 180 Os the properties of the new high-spin isomer could be found. The excitation energy amounts to 5208 keV and the spin of the isomer amounts probably to I=19ℎ. The new measured half-life amounts to T 1/2 =41±10 ns. It is populated with an intensity of 1.6±0.4% relative to the (4 + → 2 +) transition in the Yrast band in an experiment with out use of the recoil-shadow technique. A preliminary decay scheme could be established from the sum spectra and exhibits similarities with the decay of the high-spin isomer in 182 Os. From the analysis of the experiment on the nucleus 178 W a new isomer with an excitation energy of 5271 keV and a half-life of T 1/2 =39±10 ns could be identified. The spin of the level has been determined to I=20±1. The half-life of the 3527 keV isomer has been determined to T 1/2 =28±4 ns. The spin of the isomer could be determined from the analysis of DCO ratios to I π =14 - . The configuration of the isomer could be fixed to ν6 + 5/2 - 5 512 7 x 7/2 5 514 7 +π8 - 7/2 + 5 404 7 x 9/2 5 514 7 because of the comparison with the 14 - isomer in 176 Hf and the comparison of the excitation energy for certain configurations with I π =14 - . (orig./HSI)

  2. Isomer effect on the near-infrared electrochromism of anthraquinone imides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Bin; Chen, Fengkun; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Wan, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Two pairs of unsubstituted isomers (Ia and Ib) and nitro-substituted isomers (IIa and IIb) of anthraquinone imides (AQIs), which are a unique type of cathodically-colouring NIR electrochromic materials bearing both quinone and imide moieties, were synthesized. • Isomer effect on the NIR electrochromism of n-type optoelectric materials was first approached. • A meaningful reference to design cathodically active NIR EC materials, in which the molecular planarity and the orientation of polar groups are two key elements must to be carefully considered, is provided. - Abstract: To deeply explore the interplay between molecular structure and near-infrared electrochromism of anthraquinone imides, two pairs of unsubstituted isomers (Ia and Ib) and nitro-substituted isomers (IIa and IIb) of anthraquinone imides were synthesized, in which the molecules Ia and IIa took more linear shapes than Ib and IIb. Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry were combined to investigate their electrochemical properties. Cyclic voltammetry showed that Ib and IIb revealed decreased first reduction potentials and low cyclic stability compared to their isomers, indicating that the isomerization weakened the stabilization effect. Upon one-electron reduction, both the absorption wavelengths and absorption intensities of radical anions were greatly dependent on the structures of isomers. The radical anions of Ia, IIa, and IIb illustrated NIR absorptions peaked at 820, 1260, and 1380 nm, respectively, but that of Ib exhibited only weak absorption in the visible region centered at 660 nm. Gaussian calculations suggested that the electrons were delocalized over the whole molecular skeletons of Ia and IIa radical anions, but the effective conjugation length was interrupted on the imide section in both Ib and IIb. The isomer effects on the effective conjugation length and electron density distribution were considered to rationalize the

  3. Autonomous physics-based color learning under daylight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berube Lauziere, Yves; Gingras, Denis J.; Ferrie, Frank P.

    1999-09-01

    An autonomous approach for learning the colors of specific objects assumed to have known body spectral reflectances is developed for daylight illumination conditions. The main issue is to be able to find these objects autonomously in a set of training images captured under a wide variety of daylight illumination conditions, and to extract their colors to determine color space regions that are representative of the objects' colors and their variations. The work begins by modeling color formation under daylight using the color formation equations and the semi-empirical model of Judd, MacAdam and Wyszecki (CIE daylight model) for representing the typical spectral distributions of daylight. This results in color space regions that serve as prior information in the initial phase of learning which consists in detecting small reliable clusters of pixels having the appropriate colors. These clusters are then expanded by a region growing technique using broader color space regions than those predicted by the model. This is to detect objects in a way that is able to account for color variations which the model cannot due to its limitations. Validation on the detected objects is performed to filter out those that are not of interest and to eliminate unreliable pixel color values extracted from the remaining ones. Detection results using the color space regions determined from color values obtained by this procedure are discussed.

  4. The Pragmatic Functions and Cultural Differences of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊屹

    2015-01-01

    Color relates to people very closely; with the development of society and culture, people’s understanding of color is not confided to the visual characteristics of color itself, besides, people give color cultural connotation and actual meanings. In language, the unique glamour that the color words demonstrate makes people regard them with special esteem. Color words describe colors of nature with different cultural implications. They have unique linguistic functions and symbolic connotations. Colors play an indispensable part in our life and it's an effective way to learn the different culture. There is an increase in mis-understanding and communicative barriers because of frequent cross-cultural communication. Chinese and English color words possess different cultural meanings and connotation due to the difference in customs and habits, history and traditions, religions and beliefs, geographic locations, national psychology and ways of thinking. Thus, it’s easy to make mistakes on understanding and comprehension. The methods used in the research procedure are like this: collect some representative color words both from Chinese and English and take them as samples, then make a comparison between cultural connotations. According to the comparison, make a summary about the differences of color words between China and England. This thesis brings a discussion of cultural differences between English and Chinese color words. Color words in learning English is very important. It can help us t make a better understanding of the culture difference of both nations, and achieve the effective cross-culture communication.

  5. Quasinuclear colored quark model for hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1978-09-01

    Lectures are presented in which a quasinuclear constituent quark model in which constituent quarks are assumed to be made of constituent interacting with a two-body color-exchange logarithmic potential is considered. The color degree of freedom is discussed in detail. Some properties of the logarithmic potential and the definition of the quasinuclear model and its validity, and a comparison of some of its predictions with experiment are described. 31 references

  6. Realtime Color Stereovision Processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Formwalt, Bryon

    2000-01-01

    .... This research takes a step forward in real time machine vision processing. It investigates techniques for implementing a real time stereovision processing system using two miniature color cameras...

  7. Final plenary discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federline, M.

    2004-01-01

    Rapporteur, chose to highlight other themes and issues from the seminar that appeared to be: - important for successful D and D; - worth further work in an international context; - controversial and worthy of further debate. The five main themes selected were as follows: - stakeholder involvement and communication; - strategy selection; - waste management and clearance; - funding and costs; - satisfying social demands. Various issues were identified under each one of these five themes and, in order to make best use of the time available for discussion, participants were invited to vote on the issues of most importance to them. Subsequent discussion was then focussed on the issues so identified. (author)

  8. Roles of the tyrosine isomers meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine in oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipson, Brett R; Fisher, Alfred L

    2016-05-01

    The damage to cellular components by reactive oxygen species, termed oxidative stress, both increases with age and likely contributes to age-related diseases including Alzheimer's disease, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cataract formation. In the setting of oxidative stress, hydroxyl radicals can oxidize the benzyl ring of the amino acid phenylalanine, which then produces the abnormal tyrosine isomers meta-tyrosine or ortho-tyrosine. While elevations in m-tyrosine and o-tyrosine concentrations have been used as a biological marker of oxidative stress, there is emerging evidence from bacterial, plant, and mammalian studies demonstrating that these isomers, particularly m-tyrosine, directly produce adverse effects to cells and tissues. These new findings suggest that the abnormal tyrosine isomers could in fact represent mediators of the effects of oxidative stress. Consequently the accumulation of m- and o-tyrosine may disrupt cellular homeostasis and contribute to disease pathogenesis, and as result, effective defenses against oxidative stress can encompass not only the elimination of reactive oxygen species but also the metabolism and ultimately the removal of the abnormal tyrosine isomers from the cellular amino acid pool. Future research in this area is needed to clarify the biologic mechanisms by which the tyrosine isomers damage cells and disrupt the function of tissues and organs and to identify the metabolic pathways involved in removing the accumulated isomers after exposure to oxidative stress. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Detection method of prawn irradiated in frozen state using tyrosine isomers as a marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, H.; Satomi, M.; Omura, Y.; Yano, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Internationally the use of food irradiation has been expanding. And therefore a method is needed to detect whether food has been irradiated or not. We examined the content of the tyrosine isomers, m-tyrosine and omicron-tyrosine, of prawns irradiated in the frozen state (< -30 deg C) as a marker of the detection method. The tyrosine isomer content linearly increased with increasing dose, and the level of tyrosine isomers in the frozen-irradiated prawn was 50 - 60 % of the un frozen ones. But the difference in the content of tyrosine isomers between non-irradiated and irradiated at 5.0 kGy, that is the approved dose for frozen shellfish in countries where this technique is approved, is enough for discrimination. In addition, the content of tyrosine isomers showed little change during the frozen storage for 120 days. So we think the method using tyrosine isomers is suitable for practical use in Japan for imports of many kinds of frozen shellfish

  10. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  11. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  12. Revisiting "Color Names and Color Notions": a contemporary examination of the language and attitudes of skin color among young black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, JeffriAnne

    2010-01-01

    Employing the pioneering work of Charles Parrish as a basis of comparison, this study serves as a follow-up to “Color Names and Color Notions” by deconstructing the contemporary language and attitudes surrounding skin color. Nine focus groups with 58 black women between the ages of 18 and 25 reveal that the color names and color notions offered were consistent with many of the terms and stereotypes that Parrish found, thereby indicating that there has been no change in colorist ideology among African Americans. Participants discussed 40 color names regularly employed to describe light, medium, and dark skin tones. The terms and attitudes associated with light skin tones were generally negative; conversely, the terms and attitudes associated with dark skin tones were derogatory. The language and beliefs connected to medium skin tones indicate that colorism operates as a three-tiered structure rather than the traditionally situated binary paradigm.

  13. Identification of Apo- Carotenoids' Crocin and Crocetin Isomers in Saffron Crude Extracts by HPLC Coupled to Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization and High Resolution Orbitrap Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraddin Hosseinpour azad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main metabolites in saffron are the Apo- carotenoids’ Crocin and Crocetin. Color intensity and quality of saffron mostly depend on the presence of Crocins that are glycosylated steric form of Crocetin by glycosyltransferase enzyme. The aim of this study is the characterization of these metabolites in methanolic and chloroformic extracts of saffron stigmas during anthesis stage by LC-APCI-MS. Identification of cis and trans isomers of Crocin and Crocetin was done by three parameters such as mass spectra registered in the negative ion mode, retention time and absorption ratio related to each metabolites. The variability of these parameters made it possible to detect the Crocins isomer with regard to the attached position and the number of UDP- glucose and Gentiobiosyl molecules to Crocetin structure. Crocins was the mainly detected components as there are polar components that are classified in the carotenoeids groups and the strified form of Crocetin Glucose (β-D-Glucopyranosyl and Gentiobiose (β-D-Glucopyranosyl-D-Glucose. Also doubly charged ions were found for trans-isomers of Crocin-4, due to the high symmetry of their molecules. Based on the data gathered, the applied chromatograph Machin in this project is accurate and it is most sensitive tools to investigate about plants’ natural components like saffron, also the used APCI-MS in negative ions mode is the most efficient method to distinguish different steric forms of Crocin based on the ion’s fragments related to united reduction of glycosyl and gentiobiosyl as well as molecular fractions.

  14. Exploring Solvent Shape and Function Using - and Isomer-Selective Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2010-06-01

    We illustrate the new types of information than can be obtained through isomer-selective ``hole-burning'' spectroscopy carried out in the vibrational manifolds of Ar-tagged cluster ions. Three examples of increasing complexity will be presented where the changes in a solute ion are correlated with different morphologies of a surrounding solvent cage. In the first, we discuss the weak coupling limit where different hydration morphologies lead to small distortions of a covalent ion. We then introduce the more interesting case of the hydrated electron, where different shapes of the water network lead to dramatic changes in the extent of delocalization in the diffuse excess electron cloud. We then turn to the most complex case involving hydration of the nitrosonium ion, where different arrangements of the same number of water molecules span the range in behavior from simple solvation to actively causing a chemical reaction. The latter results are particularly interesting as they provide a microscopic, molecular-level picture of the ``solvent coordinate'' commonly used to describe solvent mediated processes.

  15. Characterization of a single-isomer carboxymethyl-beta-cyclodextrin in chiral capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejős, Ida; Varga, Erzsébet; Benkovics, Gábor; Malanga, Milo; Sohajda, Tamás; Szemán, Julianna; Béni, Szabolcs

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the synthesis, characterization, and chiral capillary electrophoretic study of heptakis-(2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-carboxymethyl)-β-CD (HDMCM), a single-isomer carboxymethylated CD, are presented. The pH-dependent and selector concentration-dependent enantiorecognition properties of HDMCM were investigated and discussed herein. The enantioseparation was assessed applying a structurally diverse set of noncharged, basic, and zwitterionic racemates. The increase in the selector concentration and gross negative charge of HDMCM improved the enantioseparation that could be observed in the majority of the cases. HDMCM was also successfully applied as BGE additive in NACE using a methanol-based system in order to prove the separation selectivity features and to highlight the broad applicability of HDMCM. Over 25 racemates showed partial or baseline separation with HDMCM under the conditions investigated, among which optimal enantiomer migration order was found for the four stereoisomers of tadalafil, tapentadol, and dapoxetine, offering the possibility of a chiral CE method development for chiral purity profiling of these drugs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Nature's palette: the search for natural blue colorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Andrew G; Culver, Catherine A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-07-16

    The food and beverage industry is seeking to broaden the palette of naturally derived colorants. Although considerable effort has been devoted to the search for new blue colorants in fruits and vegetables, less attention has been directed toward blue compounds from other sources such as bacteria and fungi. The current work reviews known organic blue compounds from natural plant, animal, fungal, and microbial sources. The scarcity of blue-colored metabolites in the natural world relative to metabolites of other colors is discussed, and structural trends common among natural blue compounds are identified. These compounds are grouped into seven structural classes and evaluated for their potential as new color additives.

  17. Quantification of Structural Isomers via Mode-Selective Irmpd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polfer, Nicolas C.

    2016-06-01

    Mixtures of structural isomers can pose a challenge for vibrational ion spectroscopy. In cases where particular structures display diagnostic vibrations, these structures can be selectively "burned away". In ion traps, the ion population can be subjected to multiple laser shots, in order to fully deplete a particular structure, in effect allowing a quantification of this structure. Protonated para-amino benzoic acid (PABA) serves as an illustrative example. PABA is known to preferentially exist in the N-protonated (N-prot) form in solution, but in the gas phase it is energetically favorable in the O-protonated (O-prot) form. As shown in Figure 1, the N-prot structure can be kinetically trapped in the gas phase when sprayed from non-protic solvent, whereas the O-prot structure is obtained when sprayed from protic solvents, analogous to results by others [1,2]. y parking the light source on the diagnostic 3440 wn mode, the percentage of the O-prot structure can be determined, and by default the remainder is assumed to adopt the N-prot structure. It will be shown that the relative percentages of O-prot vs N-prot are highly dependent on the solvent mixture, going from close to 0% O-prot in non-protic solvents, to 99% in protic solvents. Surprisingly, water behaves much more like a non-protic solvent than methanol. It is observed that the capillary temperature, which aids droplet desolvation by black-body radiation in the ESI source, is critical to promote the appearance of O-prot structures. These results are consistent with the picture that a protic bridge mechanism is at play to facilitate proton transfer, and thus allow conversion from N-prot to O-prot, but that this mechanism is subject to appreciable kinetic barriers on the timescale of solvent evaporation. 1. J. Phys. Chem. A 2011, 115, 7625. 2. Anal. Chem. 2012, 84, 7857.

  18. Color balancing in CCD color cameras using analog signal processors made by Kodak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegundla, Ram

    1995-03-01

    The green, red, and blue color filters used for CCD sensors generally have different responses. It is often necessary to balance these three colors for displaying a high-quality image on the monitor. The color filter arrays on sensors have different architectures. A CCD with standard G R G B pattern is considered for the present discussion. A simple method of separating the colors using CDS/H that is a part of KASPs (Analog Signal Processors made by Kodak) and using the gain control, which is also a part of KASPs for color balance, is presented. The colors are separated from the video output of sensor by using three KASPs, one each for green, red, and blue colors and by using alternate sample pulses for green and 1 in 4 pulses for red and blue. The separated colors gain is adjusted either automatically or manually and sent to the monitor for direct display in the analog mode or through an A/D converter digitally to the memory. This method of color balancing demands high-quality ASPs. Kodak has designed four different chips with varying levels of power consumption and speed for analog signal processing of video output of CCD sensors. The analog ASICs have been characterized for noise, clock feedthrough, acquisition time, linearity, variable gain, line rate clamp, black muxing, affect of temperature variations on chip performance, and droop. The ASP chips have met their design specifications.

  19. Strategies to distinguish new synthetic cannabinoid FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) intake from its isomer THJ-2201: metabolism of FUBIMINA in human hepatocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Xingxing; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Wohlfarth, Ariane; Zhu, Mingshe; Pang, Shaokun; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2013, a new drugs-of-abuse trend attempts to bypass drug legislation by marketing isomers of scheduled synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), e.g., FUBIMINA (BIM-2201) and THJ-2201. It is much more challenging to confirm a specific isomer?s intake and distinguish it from its structural analog because the isomers and their major metabolites usually have identical molecular weights and display the same product ions. Here, we investigated isomers FUBIMINA and THJ-2201 and propose strategies to dist...

  20. Ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of geometric isomers of carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Sandberg, Daniel J.; Cong, Hong; Sandberg, Megan N.; Gibson, George N.; Birge, Robert R.; Frank, Harry A.

    2009-01-01

    The structures of a number of stereoisomers of carotenoids have been revealed in three-dimensional X-ray crystallographic investigations of pigment-protein complexes from photosynthetic organisms. Despite these structural elucidations, the reason for the presence of stereoisomers in these systems is not well understood. An important unresolved issue is whether the natural selection of geometric isomers of carotenoids in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes is determined by the structure of the protein binding site or by the need for the organism to accomplish a specific physiological task. The association of cis isomers of a carotenoid with reaction centers and trans isomers of the same carotenoid with light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes has led to the hypothesis that the stereoisomers play distinctly different physiological roles. A systematic investigation of the photophysics and photochemistry of purified, stable geometric isomers of carotenoids is needed to understand if a relationship between stereochemistry and biological function exists. In this work we present a comparative study of the spectroscopy and excited state dynamics of cis and trans isomers of three different open-chain carotenoids in solution. The molecules are neurosporene (n = 9), spheroidene (n = 10), and spirilloxanthin (n = 13), where n is the number of conjugated π-electron double bonds. The spectroscopic experiments were carried out on geometric isomers of the carotenoids purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and then frozen to 77 K to inhibit isomerization. The spectral data taken at 77 K provide a high resolution view of the spectroscopic differences between geometric isomers. The kinetic data reveal that the lifetime of the lowest excited singlet state of a cis-isomer is consistently shorter than that of its corresponding all-trans counterpart despite the fact that the excited state energy of the cis molecule is typically higher than that of the trans

  1. Millennial Teachers of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Mary E., Ed.

    2018-01-01

    "Millennial Teachers of Color" explores the opportunities and challenges for creating and sustaining a healthy teaching force in the United States. Millennials are the largest generational cohort in American history, with approximately ninety million members and, of these, roughly 43 percent are people of color. This book, edited by…

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." ... use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  3. Gauge color codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bombin Palomo, Hector

    2015-01-01

    Color codes are topological stabilizer codes with unusual transversality properties. Here I show that their group of transversal gates is optimal and only depends on the spatial dimension, not the local geometry. I also introduce a generalized, subsystem version of color codes. In 3D they allow...

  4. On color transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1989-10-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of high momentum transfer nuclear processes is presented. Color transparency, the suppression of initial and final state interaction effects, is shown to arise from using the closure approximation. New conditions for the appearance of color transparency are derived

  5. Color and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Schwinger's conjecture that the color degree of freedom of a quark is equivalent to its degree of freedom of taking different magnetic charges provides a plausible motivation for extending color to leptons. Leptons are just quarks with zero magnetic charges. It is shown that baryon number and lepton number can be replaced by fermion number and magnetic charge

  6. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  7. The Color of Lobsters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Arjan van

    2005-01-01

    Synthesis of 13C-enriched carotenoids. Carotenoids are natural colorants, ranging in color from pale yellow to deep purple, with important biological functions. Carotenoids in the human diet have a beneficial health effect, playing a role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. To

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by the FDA? Check the FDA's database of approved contact lenses . Related Stories Prevent Infection ...

  9. Perceptually optimal color reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yendrikhovskij, S.N.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Ridder, de H.; Rogowitz, B.E.; Pappas, T.N.

    1998-01-01

    What requirements do people place on optimal color reproduction of real-life scenes? We suggest that when people look at images containing familiar categories of objects, two primary factors shape their subjective impression of how optimal colors are reproduced: perceived naturalness and perceived

  10. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  11. Color Constancy by Deep Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, Z.; Gevers, T.; Hu, N.; Lucassen, M.P.; Xie, X.; Jones, M.W.; Tam, G.K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Computational color constancy aims to estimate the color of the light source. The performance of many vision tasks, such as object detection and scene understanding, may benefit from color constancy by estimating the correct object colors. Since traditional color constancy methods are based on

  12. Influence of Surrounding Colors in the Illuminant-Color Mode on Color Constancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuho Fukuda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available On color constancy, we showed that brighter surrounding colors had greater influence than dim colors (Uchikawa, Kitazawa, MacLeod, Fukuda, 2010 APCV. Increasing luminance of a stimulus causes the change in appearance from the surface-color to the illuminant-color mode. However it is unknown whether the visual system considers such color appearance mode of surrounding colors to achieve color constancy. We investigated the influence of surrounding colors that appeared illuminant on color constancy. The stimulus was composed of a central test stimulus and surrounding six colors: bright and dim red, green and blue. The observers adjusted the chromaticity of the test stimulus to be appeared as an achromatic surface. The luminance balance of three bright surrounding colors was equalized with that of the optimal colors in three illuminant conditions, then, the luminance of one of the three bright colors was varied in the range beyond the critical luminance of color appearance mode transition. The results showed that increasing luminance of a bright surrounding color shifted the observers' achromatic setting toward its chromaticity, but this effect diminished for the surrounding color in the illuminant-color mode. These results suggest that the visual system considers color appearance mode of surrounding colors to accomplish color constancy.

  13. Color quarks and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guersey, F.

    1974-01-01

    A mathematical framework based on octonions is developed for the description of the color quark scheme in which quarks are unobservable, the color SU(3) is exact, and only color singlets correspond to observable hadrons. The fictitious Hilbert space in which quarks operate is taken to be a space of vectors with octonion components. This space admits as a gauge group an exact SU(3) identified with the color SU/sub C/(3). Because of the nonassociativity of the underlying algebra, nonsinglet representations of SU/sub C/(3) are unobservable, while the subspace of color singlets satisfies associativity along with conditions for observability. Octonion quark fields satisfy the commutation relations of parafermions of order 3, leading to the correct SU(6) multiplets for hadrons. (U.S.)

  14. Stool Color: When to Worry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  15. Realizable Triples in Dominator Colorings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fletcher, Douglas M

    2007-01-01

    Given a graph G and its vertex set V(G), the chromatic number, Chi(G), represents the minimum number of colors required to color the vertices of G so that no two adjacent vertices have the same color...

  16. Deep inelastic reactions and isomers in neutron-rich nuclei across the perimeter of the A = 180 - 190 deformed region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Lane, G.J.; Byrne, A.P.; Watanabe, H.; Hughes, R.O.; Kondev, F.G.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C.J.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Chowdhury, P.; Shi, Y.; Xu, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent results on high-spin isomers populated in deep-inelastic reactions in the transitional tungsten-osmium region are outlined with a focus on 190 Os, 192 Os and 194 Os. As well as the characterization of several two-quasineutron isomers, the 12 + and 20 + isomers in 192 Os are interpreted as manifestations of maximal rotation alignment within the neutron i(13/2) and possibly proton h(11/2) shells at oblate deformation. (authors)

  17. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  18. Real color captures attention and overrides spatial cues in grapheme-color synesthetes but not in controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Hagoort, Peter; Händel, Barbara F

    2013-08-01

    Grapheme-color synesthetes perceive color when reading letters or digits. We investigated oscillatory brain signals of synesthetes vs. controls using magnetoencephalography. Brain oscillations specifically in the alpha band (∼10Hz) have two interesting features: alpha has been linked to inhibitory processes and can act as a marker for attention. The possible role of reduced inhibition as an underlying cause of synesthesia, as well as the precise role of attention in synesthesia is widely discussed. To assess alpha power effects due to synesthesia, synesthetes as well as matched controls viewed synesthesia-inducing graphemes, colored control graphemes, and non-colored control graphemes while brain activity was recorded. Subjects had to report a color change at the end of each trial which allowed us to assess the strength of synesthesia in each synesthete. Since color (synesthetic or real) might allocate attention we also included an attentional cue in our paradigm which could direct covert attention. In controls the attentional cue always caused a lateralization of alpha power with a contralateral decrease and ipsilateral alpha increase over occipital sensors. In synesthetes, however, the influence of the cue was overruled by color: independent of the attentional cue, alpha power decreased contralateral to the color (synesthetic or real). This indicates that in synesthetes color guides attention. This was confirmed by reaction time effects due to color, i.e. faster RTs for the color side independent of the cue. Finally, the stronger the observed color dependent alpha lateralization, the stronger was the manifestation of synesthesia as measured by congruency effects of synesthetic colors on RTs. Behavioral and imaging results indicate that color induces a location-specific, automatic shift of attention towards color in synesthetes but not in controls. We hypothesize that this mechanism can facilitate coupling of grapheme and color during the development of

  19. Older adults' memory for the color of pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, D C; Puglisi, J T

    1985-03-01

    Young and older adults were presented line drawings or matched words for study that were colored either red, green, yellow, or blue. Half of the research participants were instructed to remember the item and its color (intentional condition), whereas the other half studied only the item (incidental condition). Participants indicated their recognition of items and the color they believed positively recognized items were, regardless of their initial encoding instructions. Data analyses yielded evidence for a decline in color memory in old compared with young adults, particularly with respect to pictures. The color of pictures was generally better remembered than the color of words, particularly in the incidental memory conditions. The discussion suggests the effort required to remember color varies as a function of the stimulus with which it is associated.

  20. Quantification of spiroether isomers and herniarin of different parts of Matricaria matricarioides and flowers of Chamaemelum nobile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao-Mei; Winsor, Linda; Daneshtalab, Mohsen

    2007-01-01

    A simple HPLC-PAD-MS method was established to quantitatively analyse two spiroether isomers (cis-en-yn-dicycloether and trans-en-yn-dicycloether) and the main coumarin, herniarin, in chamomile herbs, simultaneously. By using this method, the contents of these three compounds in the flowers of two chamomile species, Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) and pineapple weed (Matricaria matricarioides), as well as in different parts of pineapple weed, were investigated. It was found that the flowers of both herbs contained large amounts of cis-en-yn-dicycloether and trans-en-yn-dicycloether, with the trans-form being more abundant than the cis-form. The leaves of pineapple weed were found to have the highest concentration of cis-en-yn-dicycloether and herniarin than the other parts. HPLC-PAD-MS-guided isolation and identification of other constituents are also discussed.

  1. Low-lying level structure of the neutron-rich nucleus {sup 109}Nb: A possible oblate-shape isomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H., E-mail: hiroshi@ribf.riken.j [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sumikama, T. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Nishimura, S. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Yoshinaga, K. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Li, Z. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Miyashita, Y. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Yamaguchi, K. [Department of Physics, Osaka University, Machikaneyama-machi 1-1, Osaka 560-0043 Toyonaka (Japan); Baba, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Berryman, J.S. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Blasi, N. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Bracco, A.; Camera, F. [INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Chiba, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba (Japan); Doornenbal, P. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Go, S.; Hashimoto, T.; Hayakawa, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Hinke, C. [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ideguchi, E. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, Hirosawa 2-1, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Isobe, T. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-01-31

    The neutron-rich nuclei {sup 109}Nb and {sup 109}Zr have been populated using in-flight fission of a {sup 238}U beam at 345 MeV/nucleon at the RIBF facility. A T{sub 1/2}=150(30) ns isomer at 313 keV has been identified in {sup 109}Nb for the first time. The low-lying levels in {sup 109}Nb have been also populated following the {beta}-decay of {sup 109}Zr. Based on the difference in feeding pattern between the isomeric and {beta} decays, the decay scheme from the isomeric state in {sup 109}Nb was established. The observed hindrances of the electromagnetic transitions deexciting the isomeric state are discussed in terms of possible shape coexistence. Potential energy surface calculations for single-proton configurations predict the presence of low-lying oblate-deformed states in {sup 109}Nb.

  2. Stork Color Proofing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, C. Frederick

    1989-04-01

    For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

  3. The color of money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni; Einarsdóttir, Kristin Vala

    2014-01-01

    of attention are affected by reward, and whether the effect involves general enhancement or is specific to discrete components of attention. Observers viewed brief displays of differentially colored letters and reported their identity. Each color signified a consistent monetary value and we measured......, by including conditions with color-contingent negative values. This gave an opportunity to compare high-gain with high-loss conditions. We found clear effects of value on selectivity when comparing high- and low-value conditions. When comparing equally valuable high-loss and high-gain conditions there were...

  4. Solvation effects on brain uptakes of isomers of 99mTc brain imaging agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of electrostatic hydration free energies of the isomers of the 99mTc-BAT and 99mTc-DADT complexes is carried out using the computer simulation technique. The results show that not only a correlation exists between the logarithm of the brain uptake and the electrostatic hydration free energy for the isomers of 99mTc-brain radiopharmaceuticals, but also a linear relationship exists between the logarithm of the ratio of the brain uptake of the syn isomer to that of the anti one and the difference between the electrostatic hydration free energy of the syn-isomer and that of the anti one. Furthermore, the investigation on the important factors influencing the brain uptakes of 99mTc-radiopharmaceuticals and the reasons of the different biodistribution of the isomers of the 99mTc-complexes is explored at the molecular level. The results may provide a reference for the rational drug design of brain imaging agents.

  5. Natural and bioremediated selective degradation of polycyclic aromatic alkyl isomers in oil-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; McCarthy, K.; Uhler, A.; Porta, A.

    1995-01-01

    In studies where 2- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are determined as part of characterizing released oil constituents in environmental samples, the changes in composition of PAHs from weathering (e.g., evaporation, dissolution) and biodegradation are most often represented by PAH alkyl homologue distributions. Concentrations of PAH alkyl groups are the sum of individual PAH isomers of similar carbon number; such as for C2-naphthalenes, the C2 alkyl group consists of dimethyl and ethyl substitutions on the parent naphthalene. In weathering and degradation studies, the changes in relative concentration of the individual isomers within an alkyl group are rarely reported. In a field study of oiled soils, the authors looked at the selective losses, for a period of a year, of individual PAH alkyl isomers that occur both naturally by weathering processes and through the use of bioremediation technology. Results showed that decreases in alkyl group concentrations were not always represented by similar losses of each isomer in the alkyl group, but were often due to the preferential or selective loss of certain isomers in the group

  6. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittleman, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The positive energy projection operators, just described by Prof. Sucher, convert the sick Hamiltonian, H/sub DC/, into a more robust one which can support bound states. They are however still a subject of some controversy. Prof. Grant pointed out that existing computer codes produce remarkable accuracy in numerical calculations which start from H/sub DC/ (with no projection operators) and so he questioned whether these operators were indeed necessary. In response, it was pointed out by several people in the audience that the codes implicitly limit the Dirac-Hartee-Fock wave functions to a normalizable sub-space and that this operation can be described as a projection operator which has the effect of eliminating the negative energy states which are not normalizable. This operation is however, not any of the three projection operators described by Sucher and so the question arises as to the sensitivity of the results (for the energy and wave functions) to the particular projection operators which are used. This appears to be an open question

  7. Three-quasiparticle isomer in 173Ta and the excitation energy dependence of K -forbidden transition rates

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, RT; Walker, PM; Lane, G J; Carroll, R. J.; Cullen, David; Dracoulis, G D; Hota, S. S.; Kibédi, T.; Palalani, N; Podolyak, Zs.; Reed, MW; Schiffl, K; Wright, A.M

    2017-01-01

    Using the 168Er(10B,5n) reaction at a beam energy of 68 MeV, new data have been obtained for the population and decay of a T1/2=148ns, Kπ=21/2− three-quasiparticle isomer at 1717 keV in 173Ta. Revised decay energies and intensities have been determined, together with newly observed members of a rotational band associated with the isomer. By comparison with other isomers in the A≈180 deformed region, the 173Ta isomer properties help to specify the key degrees of freedom that determine K-forbid...

  8. Statistical model calculation of fission isomer excitation functions in (n,n') and (n,γ) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, A.; Athougies, A.L.; Mehta, M.K.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical model developed by Britt and others (1971, 1973) to analyze isomer excitation functions in spallation type reactions like (α,2n) has been adopted in fission isomer calculations for (n,n') and (n,γ) reactions. Calculations done for 235 U(n,n')sup(238m)U and 235 U(n,γ)sup(236m)U reactions have been compared with experimental measurements. A listing of the computer program ISOMER using FORTRAN IV to calculate the isomer to prompt ratios is given. (M.G.B.)

  9. Characterization and analysis of structural isomers of dimethyl methoxypyrazines in cork stoppers and ladybugs (Harmonia axyridis and Coccinella septempunctata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabizki, Petra; Legrum, Charlotte; Meusinger, Reinhard; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2014-10-01

    The three constitutional isomers of dimethyl-substituted methoxypyrazines: 3,5-dimethyl-2-methoxypyrazine 1; 2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine 2; and 2,3-dimethyl-5-methoxypyrazine 3 are potent flavor compounds with similar mass spectrometric, gas chromatographic, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic behavior. Therefore, unambiguous analytical determination is critical, particularly in complex matrices. The unequivocal identification of 1-3 could be achieved by homo- and heteronuclear NMR correlation experiments. The observed mass fragmentation for 1-3 is proposed and discussed, benefitting from synthesized partially deuterated 1 and 2. On common polar and apolar stationary phases used in gas chromatography (GC) 1 and 2 show similar behavior whereas 3 can be separated. In our focus on off-flavor analysis with respect to wine aroma, 1 has been described as a "moldy" off-flavor compound in cork and 2 as a constituent in Harmonia axyridis contributing to the so-called "ladybug taint," whereas 3 has not yet been described as a constituent of wine aroma. A successful separation of 1 and 2 could be achieved on octakis-(2,3-di-O-pentyl-6-O-methyl)-γ-cyclodextrin as stationary phase in GC. Applying heart-cut multidimensional GC analysis with tandem mass spectrometric detection we could confirm the presence of 1 as a "moldy" off-flavor compound in cork. However, in the case of Harmonia axyridis, a previous identification of 2 has to be reconsidered. In our experiments we identified the constitutional isomer 1, which was also found in Coccinella septempunctata, another species discussed with respect to the "ladybug taint." The analysis of such structurally related compounds is a demonstrative example for the importance of a chromatographic separation, as mass spectrometric data by itself could not guarantee the unequivocal identification.

  10. Quantitative measurement of binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Ju; Sohn, Hosik; Lee, Seong-il; Ro, Yong Man; Park, Hyun Wook

    2011-04-11

    Human perception becomes difficult in the event of binocular color fusion when the color difference presented for the left and right eyes exceeds a certain threshold value, known as the binocular color fusion limit. This paper discusses the binocular color fusion limit for non-spectral colors within the color gamut of a conventional LCD 3DTV. We performed experiments to measure the color fusion limit for eight chromaticity points sampled from the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. A total of 2480 trials were recorded for a single observer. By analyzing the results, the color fusion limit was quantified by ellipses in the chromaticity diagram. The semi-minor axis of the ellipses ranges from 0.0415 to 0.0923 in terms of the Euclidean distance in the u'v´ chromaticity diagram and the semi-major axis ranges from 0.0640 to 0.1560. These eight ellipses are drawn on the chromaticity diagram. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  11. Color transparency: Enchantment and effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1991-01-01

    A quantum mechanical approach is used to study high momentum transfer reactions in which a nucleon is knocked out of the nucleus. We show that the nuclear interactions of the wave packet produced in such a process tend to cancel, so that the nuclear medium becomes transparent. The wave packet (ejectile)-nucleon interactions, including the production of nucleon resonances are also discussed. Color transparency effects in the (e,e'p) reaction may be significant at relatively low momentum transfer Q 2 = 3 - 6 (GeV 2 /c) 2 . 17 refs., 3 figs

  12. Food Coloring and Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1994-01-01

    The association between the ingestion of tartrazine synthetic food coloring and behavioral change in children referred for assessment of hyperactivity was investigated at the Royal Children’s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Australia.

  13. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  14. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy ... to its original shape after wearing orthokeratology lenses? Sep 13, 2017 Histoplasmosis Diagnosis Sep 01, 2017 How ...

  15. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ... a laser pointer several times, according to a report published this month in the New England Journal ...

  16. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ...

  17. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive ... after your vision… The Mystery of the Ghostly White Ring MAR 30, 2018 By Dan T. Gudgel ...

  18. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, ... APR 24, 2018 By Kate Rauch In a first, scientists in China have created artificial photoreceptors to ...

  19. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, ... not just at Halloween. But few know the risks associated with these lenses . "Most people believe that ...

  20. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours after ... are being sold illegally," Dr. Steinemann said. Never buy colored contact lenses from a retailer that does ...

  1. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  2. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados ... truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By Non- ...

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager ... the lenses. Never share contact lenses with another person. Get follow up exams with your eye care ...

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but ... require the same level of care or consideration as a standard contact lens because they can be ...

  5. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD, professor of ophthalmology at Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland. "This is far from the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In ...

  6. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ... wear costume contact lenses for Halloween or any time of year, follow these guidelines: Get an eye ...

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valid prescription that includes the brand name, lens measurements, and expiration date. Purchase the colored contact lenses ... with human-made versions. U.S. News Highlights the Value of Ophthalmologists APR 20, 2018 By Dan T. ...

  8. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at ...

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contact lenses , from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Are the colored lenses you are considering buying approved by ... 23, 2018 Solar Eclipse Inflicts Damage in the Shape of ...

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... colored contact lenses to enhance their costumes. From blood-drenched vampire eyes to glow-in-the-dark ... properly fitted may scratch the eye or cause blood vessels to grow into the cornea. Even if ...

  11. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to the journals may be interrupted during this time. We are working to resolve the issue quickly ... like a suction cup." Halloween is a popular time for people to use colored contact lenses to ...

  12. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be purchased over-the-counter or on the Internet," says Thomas Steinemann, MD, professor of ophthalmology at ... about the members of the eye-care team . Consumer warning about the improper use of colored contact ...

  13. 52-COLOR ASTEROID SURVEY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains 52-color IR data of asteroids, taken using a double circularly variable filter. The short wavelength portion of the CVF covered the octave...

  14. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.

  15. Physics of structural colors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, S; Yoshioka, S; Miyazaki, J

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, structural colors have attracted great attention in a wide variety of research fields. This is because they are originated from complex interaction between light and sophisticated nanostructures generated in the natural world. In addition, their inherent regular structures are one of the most conspicuous examples of non-equilibrium order formation. Structural colors are deeply connected with recent rapidly growing fields of photonics and have been extensively studied to clarify their peculiar optical phenomena. Their mechanisms are, in principle, of a purely physical origin, which differs considerably from the ordinary coloration mechanisms such as in pigments, dyes and metals, where the colors are produced by virtue of the energy consumption of light. It is generally recognized that structural colors are mainly based on several elementary optical processes including thin-layer interference, diffraction grating, light scattering, photonic crystals and so on. However, in nature, these processes are somehow mixed together to produce complex optical phenomena. In many cases, they are combined with the irregularity of the structure to produce the diffusive nature of the reflected light, while in some cases they are accompanied by large-scale structures to generate the macroscopic effect on the coloration. Further, it is well known that structural colors cooperate with pigmentary colors to enhance or to reduce the brilliancy and to produce special effects. Thus, structure-based optical phenomena in nature appear to be quite multi-functional, the variety of which is far beyond our understanding. In this article, we overview these phenomena appearing particularly in the diversity of the animal world, to shed light on this rapidly developing research field

  16. Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  17. PROTECTIVE COLORATION IN ANIMALS

    OpenAIRE

    Leena Lakhani

    2017-01-01

    Animals have range of defensive markings which helps to the risk of predator detection (camouflage), warn predators of the prey’s unpalatability (aposematism) or fool a predator into mimicry, masquerade. Animals also use colors in advertising, signalling services such as cleaning to animals of other species, to signal sexual status to other members of the same species. Some animals use color to divert attacks by startle (dalmatic behaviour), surprising a predator e.g. with eyespots or other f...

  18. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and 'real' colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anstis, S.; Vergeer, M.L.T.; Lier, R.J. van

    2012-01-01

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The

  19. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  20. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  1. The Trojan Color Conundrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewitt, David

    2018-02-01

    The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter and Neptune are likely to have been captured from original heliocentric orbits in the dynamically excited (“hot”) population of the Kuiper Belt. However, it has long been known that the optical color distributions of the Jovian Trojans and the hot population are not alike. This difference has been reconciled with the capture hypothesis by assuming that the Trojans were resurfaced (for example, by sublimation of near-surface volatiles) upon inward migration from the Kuiper Belt (where blackbody temperatures are ∼40 K) to Jupiter’s orbit (∼125 K). Here, we examine the optical color distribution of the Neptunian Trojans using a combination of new optical photometry and published data. We find a color distribution that is statistically indistinguishable from that of the Jovian Trojans but unlike any sub-population in the Kuiper Belt. This result is puzzling, because the Neptunian Trojans are very cold (blackbody temperature ∼50 K) and a thermal process acting to modify the surface colors at Neptune’s distance would also affect the Kuiper Belt objects beyond, where the temperatures are nearly identical. The distinctive color distributions of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojans thus present us with a conundrum: they are very similar to each other, suggesting either capture from a common source or surface modification by a common process. However, the color distributions differ from any plausible common source population, and there is no known modifying process that could operate equally at both Jupiter and Neptune.

  2. Activation of Reactive MALDI Adduct Ions Enables Differentiation of Dihydroxylated Vitamin D Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yulin; Müller, Miriam J.; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D compounds are secosteroids, which are best known for their role in bone health. More recent studies have shown that vitamin D metabolites and catabolites such as dihydroxylated species (e.g., 1,25- and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) play key roles in the pathologies of various diseases. Identification of these isomers by mass spectrometry is challenging and currently relies on liquid chromatography, as the isomers exhibit virtually identical product ion spectra under collision induced dissociation conditions. Here, we developed a simple MALDI-CID method that utilizes ion activation of reactive analyte/matrix adducts to distinguish isomeric dihydroxyvitamin D3 species, without the need for chromatography separation or chemical derivatization techniques. Specifically, reactive 1,5-diaminonaphthalene adducts of dihydroxyvitamin D3 compounds formed during MADI were activated and specific cleavages in the secosteroid's backbone structure were achieved that produced isomer-diagnostic fragment ions. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Discovery and identification of a series of alkyl decalin isomers in petroleum geological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huitong; Zhang, Shuichang; Weng, Na; Zhang, Bin; Zhu, Guangyou; Liu, Lingyan

    2015-07-07

    The comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOFMS) has been used to characterize a crude oil and a source rock extract sample. During the process, a series of pairwise components between monocyclic alkanes and mono-aromatics have been discovered. After tentative assignments of decahydronaphthalene isomers, a series of alkyl decalin isomers have been synthesized and used for identification and validation of these petroleum compounds. From both the MS and chromatography information, these pairwise compounds were identified as 2-alkyl-decahydronaphthalenes and 1-alkyl-decahydronaphthalenes. The polarity of 1-alkyl-decahydronaphthalenes was stronger. Their long chain alkyl substituent groups may be due to bacterial transformation or different oil cracking events. This systematic profiling of alkyl-decahydronaphthalene isomers provides further understanding and recognition of these potential petroleum biomarkers.

  4. Pronounced photosensitivity of molecular [Ru(bpy)2(OSO)]+ solutions based on two photoinduced linkage isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Volker; Eicke, Sebastian; Rack, Jeffrey J; Woike, Theo; Imlau, Mirco

    2009-08-17

    Photosensitive properties of [Ru(bpy)(2)(OSO)] PF(6) dissolved in propylene carbonate originating from photoinduced linkage isomerism have been studied by temperature and exposure dependent transmission and UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. An exceeding photochromic photosensitivity of S = (63 +/- 10) x 10(3) cm l J(-1) mol(-1) is determined. It is attributed to a maximum population of 100% molecules in the photoinduced isomers, a unique absorption cross section per molecule and a very low light exposure of Q(0) = (0.25 +/- 0.03) Ws cm(-2) for isomerism. Relaxation studies of O-bonded to S-bonded isomers at different temperatures verify the existence of two distinct structures of linkage isomers determined by the activation energies of E(A,1) = (0.76 +/- 0.08) eV and E(A,2) = (1.00 +/- 0.14) eV.

  5. Effect of isomers of hydroxybenzoic acid on the growth and metabolism of Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Chlorophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bajguz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The isomers o-, m-, and p- of hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA in the concentration range 10-1-10-4 M in the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae display marked biological activity. The o-HBA isomer, commonly known as salicylic acid, in a concentration of 10-4 M exerted the most stimulating effect on the parameters analysed (the number of cells, dry mass, the content of chlorophylls a and h, carotenoids, soluble proteins and their secretion, monosaccharides, DNA and RNA whereas p-HBA had weak stimulating properties. On the other hand, m-HBA had a weak inhibitory effect on the growth of C. vulgaris and all the biochemical parameters analysed in comparison with the control culture of algae devoid of HBA isomers.

  6. High-spin isomers in 212Rn in the region of triple neutron core-excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Byrne, A. P.; Davidson, P. M.; Kibédi, T.; Nieminen, P.; Watanabe, H.; Wilson, A. N.

    2008-04-01

    The level scheme of 212Rn has been extended to spins of ∼ 38 ℏ and excitation energies of about 13 MeV using the 204Hg(13C, 5n)212Rn reaction and γ-ray spectroscopy. Time correlated techniques have been used to obtain sensitivity to weak transitions and channel selectivity. The excitation energy of the 22+ core-excited isomer has been established at 6174 keV. Two isomers with τ = 25 (2) ns and τ = 12 (2) ns are identified at 12211 and 12548 keV, respectively. These are the highest-spin nuclear isomers now known, and are attributed to configurations involving triple neutron core-excitations coupled to the aligned valence protons. Semi-empirical shell-model calculations can account for most states observed, but with significant energy discrepancies for some configurations.

  7. High-spin isomers in 212Rn in the region of triple neutron core-excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Lane, G.J.; Byrne, A.P.; Davidson, P.M.; Kibedi, T.; Nieminen, P.; Watanabe, H.; Wilson, A.N.

    2008-01-01

    The level scheme of 212 Rn has been extended to spins of ∼38h and excitation energies of about 13 MeV using the 204 Hg( 13 C, 5n) 212 Rn reaction and γ-ray spectroscopy. Time correlated techniques have been used to obtain sensitivity to weak transitions and channel selectivity. The excitation energy of the 22 + core-excited isomer has been established at 6174 keV. Two isomers with τ=25(2) ns and τ=12(2) ns are identified at 12211 and 12548 keV, respectively. These are the highest-spin nuclear isomers now known, and are attributed to configurations involving triple neutron core-excitations coupled to the aligned valence protons. Semi-empirical shell-model calculations can account for most states observed, but with significant energy discrepancies for some configurations

  8. Study on the formation of fission isomer via 232Th + α reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vianna, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The formation of fission isomer through 232 Th+α reaction is studied using the distance-recoil method, employing policarbonate MAKROFOL detector. The total isomeric half-life measured has the value T 1/2 = 0.23 ± 0.03 ns and an ratio of formation of isomeric fission relative to prompt fission(σ i /σ p =0.75x10 -5 ). According to the energy of incident particle (Eα = 28 MeV), the cross-sections presented in the literature and the low value found for the total isomeric half-life, we attribute these half-life value to the 234 U isomer (even-even nucleus). The results were compared with those existent in the literature (La69, E170, Re70, Wo70, Po70, Br71) for this isomer. (author) [pt

  9. HPLC analysis of o-, m- and p-isomers using a betacyclodextrin column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haeger, J.

    1994-01-01

    The irradiation of foodstuffs containing protein leads to the hydroxylation of phenylalanine, due to which the position isomers o-tyrosine and m-tyrosine are formed in addition to the naturally occurring p-tyrosine. HPLC analysis of tyrosine isomers following sample processing and purification is generally carried out in a RP-C 18 column. In actual practice, the peaks of p-tyrosine and m-tyrosine overlap and a separation of o-tyrosine from baseline cannot always be achieved. Those separation problems may be solved, if a beta-cyclodextrin column is used in addition or as an alternative to the RP-C 18 column. The completely different separation characteristics of the latter provide a new pattern of elution for the tyrosine isomers. It is thus possible for p-tyrosine, which occurs in much higher concentrations than the other tyrosines, to be clearly separated chromatographically. (orig./vhe) [de

  10. Magnetic moment of the fragmentation-aligned F61e (9/2+) isomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matea, I.; Georgiev, G.; Lewitowicz, M.; Santos, F. de Oliveira; Daugas, J.M.; Belier, G.; Goutte, H.; Meot, V.; Roig, O.; Hass, M.; Baby, L.T.; Goldring, G.; Neyens, G.; Borremans, D.; Himpe, P.; Astabatyan, R.; Lukyanov, S.; Penionzhkevich, Yu.E.; Balabanski, D.L.; Sawicka, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report on the g factor measurement of an isomer in the neutron-rich F 26 61 e (E * =861 keV and T 1/2 =239(5) ns). The isomer was produced and spin aligned via a projectile-fragmentation reaction at intermediate energy, the time dependent perturbed angular distribution method being used for the measurement of the g factor. For the first time, due to significant improvements of the experimental technique, an appreciable residual alignment of the nuclear spin ensemble has been observed, allowing a precise determination of its g factor, including the sign: g=-0.229(2). In this way we open the possibility to study moments of very neutron-rich short-lived isomers, not accessible via other production and spin-orientation methods

  11. Resolution and Assignment of Differential Ion Mobility Spectra of Sarcosine and Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthias, Francis; Maatoug, Belkis; Glish, Gary L.; Moussa, Fathi; Maitre, Philippe

    2018-02-01

    Due to their central role in biochemical processes, fast separation and identification of amino acids (AA) is of importance in many areas of the biomedical field including the diagnosis and monitoring of inborn errors of metabolism and biomarker discovery. Due to the large number of AA together with their isomers and isobars, common methods of AA analysis are tedious and time-consuming because they include a chromatographic separation step requiring pre- or post-column derivatization. Here, we propose a rapid method of separation and identification of sarcosine, a biomarker candidate of prostate cancer, from isomers using differential ion mobility spectrometry (DIMS) interfaced with a tandem mass spectrometer (MS/MS) instrument. Baseline separation of protonated sarcosine from α- and β-alanine isomers can be easily achieved. Identification of DIMS peak is performed using an isomer-specific activation mode where DIMS- and mass-selected ions are irradiated at selected wavenumbers allowing for the specific fragmentation via an infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) process. Two orthogonal methods to MS/MS are thus added, where the MS/MS(IRMPD) is nothing but an isomer-specific multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method. The identification relies on the comparison of DIMS-MS/MS(IRMPD) chromatograms recorded at different wavenumbers. Based on the comparison of IR spectra of the three isomers, it is shown that specific depletion of the two protonated α- and β-alanine can be achieved, thus allowing for clear identification of the sarcosine peak. It is also demonstrated that DIMS-MS/MS(IRMPD) spectra in the carboxylic C=O stretching region allow for the resolution of overlapping DIMS peaks. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Analysis of conjugated linoleic acid and trans 18:1 isomers in synthetic and animal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, John K G; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina; Deng, Zeyuan; Zhou, Jianqiang; Jahreis, Gerhard; Dugan, Michael E R

    2004-06-01

    The chemistry of conjugated fatty acids, specifically octadecadienoic acids (18:2; commonly referred to as conjugated linoleic acid, or CLA), has provided many challenges to lipid analysts because of their unique physical properties and the many possible positional and geometric isomers. After the acid-labile properties of CLAs during analytic procedures were overcome, it became evident that natural products, specifically dairy fats, contain one dominant (c9,t11-CLA), 3 intermediate (t7,c9-, t9,c11-, and t11,c13-CLA), and up to 20 more minor CLA isomers. The best analytic techniques to date include a combination of gas chromatography that uses 100-m highly polar capillary columns, silver ion-HPLC, and a combination of silver ion-thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography to analyze the CLA and trans 18:1 isomers, because some of them serve as precursors of CLA in biological systems. These analytic techniques have assisted commercial suppliers to prepare pure CLA isomers and have permitted the evaluation of individual CLA isomers for their nutritional and biological activity in animal and human systems. It is increasingly evident that different CLA isomers have distinctly different physiologic and biochemical properties. These techniques are essential to evaluate dairy fats for their CLA content, to design experimental diets to increase the amount of CLA in dairy fats, and to determine the CLA profile in these CLA-enriched dairy fats. These improved techniques are used to evaluate the CLA profile in pork products from pigs fed different commercial CLA mixtures.

  13. New isomers and medium-spin structure of the 95Y nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, W.; Sieja, K.; Simpson, G. S.; Faust, H.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Zlomaniec, A.; Lukasiewicz, M.; Smith, A. G.; Durell, J. L.; Smith, J. F.; Varley, B. J.; Nowacki, F.; Ahmad, I.

    2009-01-01

    Excited states in 95 Y, populated following the spontaneous fission of 248 Cm and 252 Cf and following fission of 235 U induced by thermal neutrons, were studied by means of γ spectroscopy using the EUROGAM2 and GAMMASPHERE multidetector Ge arrays and the LOHENGRIN fission-fragment separator, respectively. We have found a new (17/2 - ) isomer in 95 Y at 3142.2 keV with a half-life of T 1/2 =14.9(5) ns. Another isomer was identified in 95 Y at 5022.1 keV and it was assigned a spin-parity (27/2 - ). For this isomer a half-life of T 1/2 =65(4) ns was determined and four decay branches were found, including an E3 decay. A new E3 decay branch was also found for the known, 1087.5-keV isomer in 95 Y, for which we measured a half-life of 51.2(9) μs. The B(E3) and B(E1) transition rates, of 2.0 and 3.8x10 -7 W.u., respectively, observed in 95 Y are significantly lower than in the neighboring 96 Zr core, suggesting that octupole correlations in this region are mainly due to the coupling of proton Δj=3 orbitals. Shell-model calculations indicate that the (27/2 - ) isomer in 95 Y corresponds to the πg 9/2 ν(g 7/2 h 11/2 ) maximally aligned configuration and that all three isomers in 95 Y decay, primarily, by M2 transitions between proton g 9/2 and f 5/2 orbitals.

  14. Differential Potency of 2,6-Dimethylcyclohexanol Isomers for Positive Modulation of GABAA Receptor Currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Luvana; Croft, Celine J; Goel, Shikha; Zaman, Naina; Tai, Angela C-S; Walch, Erin M; Smith, Kelly; Page, Alexandra; Shea, Kevin M; Hall, C Dennis; Jishkariani, D; Pillai, Girinath G; Hall, Adam C

    2016-06-01

    GABAA receptors meet all of the pharmacological requirements necessary to be considered important targets for the action of general anesthetic agents in the mammalian brain. In the following patch-clamp study, the relative modulatory effects of 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol diastereomers were investigated on human GABAA (α1β3γ2s) receptor currents stably expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. Cis,cis-, trans,trans-, and cis,trans-isomers were isolated from commercially available 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol and were tested for positive modulation of submaximal GABA responses. For example, the addition of 30 μM cis,cis-isomer resulted in an approximately 2- to 3-fold enhancement of the EC20 GABA current. Coapplications of 30 μM 2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol isomers produced a range of positive enhancements of control GABA responses with a rank order for positive modulation: cis,cis > trans,trans ≥ mixture of isomers > > cis,trans-isomer. In molecular modeling studies, the three cyclohexanol isomers bound with the highest binding energies to a pocket within transmembrane helices M1 and M2 of the β3 subunit through hydrogen-bonding interactions with a glutamine at the 224 position and a tyrosine at the 220 position. The energies for binding to and hydrogen-bond lengths within this pocket corresponded with the relative potencies of the agents for positive modulation of GABAA receptor currents (cis,cis > trans,trans > cis,trans-2,6-dimethylcyclohexanol). In conclusion, the stereochemical configuration within the dimethylcyclohexanols is an important molecular feature in conferring positive modulation of GABAA receptor activity and for binding to the receptor, a consideration that needs to be taken into account when designing novel anesthetics with enhanced therapeutic indices. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  15. Update on INCITS W1.1 standard for evaluating the color rendition of printing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookingham, Robert; Dalal, Edul N.; Farnand, Susan; Gusev, Dmitri; Kress, William C.; Martinez, Oscar; McCarthy, Ann; Topfer, Karin; Zeise, Eric K.

    2003-12-01

    The color rendition ad hoc team of INCITS W1.1 is working to address issues related to color and tone reproduction for printed output and its perceptual impact on color image quality. The scope of the work includes accuracy of specified colors with emphasis on memory colors, color gamut, and the effective use of tone levels, including issues related to contouring. The team has identified three sub-attributes of color rendition: (1) color quantization -- defined as the ability to merge colors where needed, (2) color scale -- defined as the ability to distinguish color where needed, and (3) color fidelity -- defined as the ability to match colors. Visual definitions and descriptions of how these sub-attributes are perceived have been developed. The team is presently defining measurement methods for these, with the first of the sub-attributes considered being color quantization. More recently, the problem of measuring color fidelity has been undertaken. This presentation will briefly review the definitions and appearance of the proposed sub-attributes. The remainder of the discussion will focus on the progress to date of developing test targets and associated measurement methods to quantify the color quantization and color fidelity sub-attributes.

  16. A relativistic colored spinning particle in an external color field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinz, U.

    1984-01-01

    I derive fully covariant equations of motion for a classical colored spinning particle in an external SU(3) color field. Although the total color charge and total spin of the particle are found to be separately constants of motion (here I disagree with a recent paper by Arodz), the dynamics of the orientation of the color and spin vectors are coupled to each other through interaction with the color field, even if the latter is homogeneous. (orig.)

  17. Conversion-electron experiment to characterize the decay of the 237Np shape isomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, E.A.; Becker, J.A.; Bauer, R.W.; Gardner, D.G.; Decman, D.J.; Meyer, R.A.; Roy, N.; Sale, K.E.

    1987-01-01

    Conversion electrons from the decay of low-lying levels of 237 Np have been measured to detect the population of these levels by gamma-ray decay of the 237 Np shape isomer. Analysis of the 208-keV transition L conversion-electron peak gives an upper limit of about 17 μb for the population of the 3/2 - 267-keV level in 237 Np from the shape isomer decay. Model calculations are compared with the measured limit. Improvements are suggested for this experiment. 9 refs., 4 figs

  18. Color Vision in Aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Hilde R; Hagen, Lene A; Landsend, Erlend C S; Gilson, Stuart J; Utheim, Øygunn A; Utheim, Tor P; Neitz, Maureen; Baraas, Rigmor C

    2018-04-01

    To assess color vision and its association with retinal structure in persons with congenital aniridia. We included 36 persons with congenital aniridia (10-66 years), and 52 healthy, normal trichromatic controls (10-74 years) in the study. Color vision was assessed with Hardy-Rand-Rittler (HRR) pseudo-isochromatic plates (4th ed., 2002); Cambridge Color Test and a low-vision version of the Color Assessment and Diagnosis test (CAD-LV). Cone-opsin genes were analyzed to confirm normal versus congenital color vision deficiencies. Visual acuity and ocular media opacities were assessed. The central 30° of both eyes were imaged with the Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 to grade the severity of foveal hypoplasia (FH, normal to complete: 0-4). Five participants with aniridia had cone opsin genes conferring deutan color vision deficiency and were excluded from further analysis. Of the 31 with aniridia and normal opsin genes, 11 made two or more red-green (RG) errors on HRR, four of whom also made yellow-blue (YB) errors; one made YB errors only. A total of 19 participants had higher CAD-LV RG thresholds, of which eight also had higher CAD-LV YB thresholds, than normal controls. In aniridia, the thresholds were higher along the RG than the YB axis, and those with a complete FH had significantly higher RG thresholds than those with mild FH (P = 0.038). Additional increase in YB threshold was associated with secondary ocular pathology. Arrested foveal formation and associated alterations in retinal processing are likely to be the primary reason for impaired red-green color vision in aniridia.

  19. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  20. Electric quadruple moments of high-spin isomers in 209Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Nicolescu, G.; Plostinaru, D.

    1998-01-01

    The electric quadrupole interaction of the 209 Po (17/2) - and (13/2) - isomers in a Bi single-crystal was measured. The results for the quadrupole moments are connected with studies of isomers in Po isotopes. A two level analysis procedure was employed for the combined data of (17/2) - and (13/2) - isomers. The quadrupole moments of the Po isotopes are of special interest for testing nuclear models because of supposed simple nuclear structure with two protons outside a closed magic number shell. While the g-factors are significant for the predominant few-particle structures often present at high spins, the quadrupole moments are sensitive to additional contributions arising from core deformation effects. A systematic study of quadrupole moments of 12 + isomers in Pb isotopes has indeed demonstrated that the valence neutron effective charge increases as more particle pairs are removed from the 208 Pb core. In the present work, quadrupole coupling constants were measured for the isomers by the time-differential perturbed angular distribution (TDPAD) technique, in the presence of quadrupole interactions from the internal electric field gradient (EFG) in Bi crystal. The experiments were performed using a pulsed deuteron-beam of 13 MeV. The (17/2) - isomer state (T 1/2 = 88 ns) and the (13/2) - isomer state (T 1/2 = 24 ns) were populated and aligned by the 209 Bi(d,2n) reaction. The repetition time of the pulse was 10 μs and the width was around 5 ns (FWHM). The rather low bombardment energy was chosen to reduce population of higher spin isomers and to optimize the population of 209 Po((17/2) - ) and 209 Po((13/2) - ). The 209 Po single crystal target was held at a temperature of 470 K in order to reduce possible radiation damage effects. The experiments have been performed with the c axis of the single crystal at 45 angle and 90 angle to the beam direction. We chose to use a calibration based on isomers with well-understood nuclear structure allowing a reliable

  1. Color transparency experiments at higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippone, B.W. [Caifornia Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The phenomena of Color Transparency has recently attracted a significant amount of theoretical (and experimental) interest. With an increase in the CEBAF beam energy to 8 - 10 GeV, important new data on the process could become available. The present status of the experiments and future prospects at CEBAF are discussed.

  2. Confinement, hidden color and multibaryon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolescu, B.

    1979-01-01

    Ideas and theoretical results on multiquark states are reviewed. The measuring of concepts such as 'quarks', 'color' and 'confinement' is analysed first then the possible existence of multiquark states is discussed. the example of dibaryons is used to study their properties in the bag model and in the Dual Topological Unitarization theory [fr

  3. The color class condensate RHIC and HERA

    CERN Document Server

    McLerran, L

    2002-01-01

    In this talk, I discuss a universal form of matter, the color glass condensate. It is this matter which composes the low x part of all hadronic wavefunctions. The experimental programs at RHIC and HERA, and future programs at LHC and RHIC may allow us to probe and study the properties of this matter. (8 refs).

  4. Goethe's Theory of Color and Scientific Intuition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, Arthur G.

    1976-01-01

    Summarizes Goethe's color studies and his methods of study. It is proposed that the act of accurate qualitative observation creates the capability in the observer for an intuitive understanding of the physical laws underlying the phenomena under observation. The use of such a method as a basis for laboratory instruction is discussed. (Author/CP)

  5. Mood perception of interior colors in a gym

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Haruyo; Koizumi, Naoko

    2002-06-01

    When people enter a gym, they feel more like exercising in some cases than other cases. The interior color of the space may be a contributing factor. This paper discusses how the interior color of a gym affects female subjects in their twenties and forties to fifties both physiologically and psychologically.

  6. Albedo and color maps of the Saturnian satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buratti, B.J.; Mosher, J.A.; Johnson, T.V.

    1990-01-01

    The paper discusses the production of maps of the albedos and colors of Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea over the full range of their imaged surfaces. Voyager images were used to prepare maps of the normal reflectances and color ratios (0.58/0.41 micron) of these satelites. 67 refs

  7. Affective color palettes in visualization

    OpenAIRE

    Patra, Abhisekh

    2017-01-01

    The communication of affect, a feeling or emotion, has a central role in creating engaging visual experiences. Prior work on the psychology of color has focused on its effect on emotions, color preferences and reactions to color. Studies have attempted to solve problems related to improving aesthetics and emotions of images by improving color themes and templates. However, we have little understanding of how designers manipulate color properties for effective visual communication in informati...

  8. SEPARATION OF ISOMERS OF NONYLPHENOL AND SELECT NONPHENYL POLYETHOXYLATES BY HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY ON A GRAPHITIC CARBON COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    p-Nonylphenol (NP) is ubiquitous degradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylate (NPE) surfactants and has been reported to be an endocrine disrupter. It is composed of numerous structural isomers resulting from ;the various branching patterns of the C-9 group. Twenty-two isome...

  9. Isomeric and high-spin states of 94Tc and the search for yrast isomers near Napprox.50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I.Y.; Johnson, N.R.; McGowan, F.K.; Young, G.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Yates, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    A search for isomers in the Napprox.50 region has produced no evidence of high-spin yrast isomerism. A new 4.5-ns low-multiplicity isomer has been identified and assigned to 94 Tc, while the yrast sequence of 94 Tc has been established to more than 5 MeV in excitation energy

  10. 40 CFR 180.438 - Lambda-cyhalothrin and an isomer gamma-cyhalothrin; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lambda-cyhalothrin and an isomer gamma... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.438 Lambda-cyhalothrin and an isomer gamma-cyhalothrin; tolerances for residues. (a) General. (1) Tolerances are established for the combined residues of the pyrethroid lambda...

  11. Robust Color Choice for Small-size League RoboCup Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhou

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of choosing a set of most separable colors in a given environment is discussed. The proposed method models the process of generating theoretically computed best colors, printing of these colors through a color printer, and imaging the printed colors through a camera into an integrated framework. Thus, it provides a feasible way to generate practically best separable colors for a given environment with a set of given equipment. A real world application (robust color choice for small-size league RoboCup competition is used as an example to illustrate the proposed method. Experimental results on this example show the competitiveness of the colors learned from our algorithm compared to the colors adopted by other teams which are chosen via an extensive trial and error process using standard color papers.

  12. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  13. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  14. [Cardiotoxicity of lindane, a gamma isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauviat, Martin-Pierre; Pages, Nicole

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the present review is to collect information concerning membrane effects induced by lindane intoxication, a y isomer of hexachiorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) that has been largely used as an insecticide and disinfectant in agriculture and entered also in the composition of some lotions, creams and shampoos used against parasites (lice and scabies). Absorbed through respiratory, digestive or transcutaneous pathways, lindane accumulates within lipid rich tissues. Lindane accumulation depends on the duration of the exposure and affects tissues in the following order: adipose tissues > brain > kidney > muscle > lungs > heart > liver > blood. Whatever the mode of lindane absorption, it accumulates in blood and is distributed throughout the body. It may affect human health by exerting systemic, immunologic, teratogenic, and/or cancerogenic effects. The symptoms of lindane intoxication are different according to the mode of intoxication, acute or chronic. The absorption of high doses of gamma-HCH is particularly toxic for the central nervous system and for the female and male reproduction apparatus in mammals where lindane is considered as an endocrine disruptor. Lindane is highly lipophilic and incorporates into biological membranes according to the following sequence: mitochondria > sarcoplasmic reticulum > myelin > brain microsomes > erythrocytes. Lindane exerts a stimulating action on synaptic transmission and inhibits the chloride current activated by gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) of many muscular and nervous preparations by interacting with the receptors GABA-chloride channel complex. It seems to affect calcium homeostasis of many tissues. The similarity between lindane and inositol (1, 4, 5) phosphate (IP3) suggested that lindane releases Ca2+ from IP3-sensitive intracellular stores in macrophages and myometrial cells. Ca2+ release from reticulum endoplasmic, mitochondria and other Ca2+ stores has been reported in cat kidney cells. Lindane altered

  15. Crystalline color superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena

  16. Mixed diphosphine/diamine ruthenium (II) isomers: Synthesis, structural characterization and catalytic hydrogenation of ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Rebecca D.; Silva, Andressa K.; Lião, Luciano M.; Deflon, Victor M.; Ueno, Leonardo T.; Dinelli, Luis R.; Bogado, André L.

    2018-01-01

    The complexes trans-[RuCl2(dppb)(cydn)] (1), trans-[RuCl2(dppb)(opda)] (2) and cis-[RuCl2(dppb)(cydn)] (3) were synthesized from [{RuCl2(dppb)}2-μ-(dppb)] {where: dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane; cydn = cis and trans (±) 1,2-diaminocyclohexane, and opda = o-phenylenediamine}. The complexes were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance of phosphorus (31P{1H} NMR), cyclic voltammetry (CV), infrared and ultraviolet/visible spectra (IR and UV/vis) as well as elemental analyses (CHN). The X-ray structures of (1) and (3) were determined and they are presented here. DFT calculations and experimental data showed that the trans isomers are obtained as thermodynamic products while the cis isomers are kinetic products. This behavior is different than described in the literature for similar complexes, where the cis isomer is obtained from the trans isomer. Additionally, the catalytic activity of the complexes (1), (2) and (3) was investigated, as pre-catalysts, in the reduction of the acetophenone and 4-methylacetophenone by transfer-hydrogenation.

  17. Effects of retinoic acid isomers on proteomic pattern in human breast cancer MCF-7 cell line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flodrová, Dana; Benkovská, Dagmar; Macejová, D.; Bialešová, L.; Bobálová, Janette; Brtko, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 4 (2013), s. 205-209 ISSN 1210-0668 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB12SK151 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : retinoic acid isomers * retinoid * breast cancer * malignant cells * proteomic analysis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  18. Quantum Zeno paradox and decay of the 235m U isomer in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panov, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    The known quantum Zeno paradox is considered from microscopic viewpoint as applied to observation of nuclear decay. It is shown that some phenomena, related with this paradox can produce sufficient effect on the constant of 235m U isomer decay during its implantation in metallic matrices. 43 refs., 3 figs

  19. Application of terahertz spectroscopy and theoretical calculation in dimethylurea isomers investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghong; Li, Zhi; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Huo; Qin, Binyi; Wu, Yifang

    2018-03-01

    The characteristic absorption spectra of two structural isomers of dimethylurea(DMU) in 0.6-1.8 THz region have been measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THZ-TDS) at room temperature. Significant differences have been found between their terahertz spectra and implied that the THZ-TDS is an effective means of identifying structural isomers. To simulate their spectra, calculations on single molecule and cluster of 1,1-DMU and 1,3-DMU were performed, and we found that the cluster calculations using DFT-D3 method are better to predict the experimental spectra. Using the normal mode as displacements in redundant internal coordinates and the GaussView program, most observed THz vibrational modes are assigned to bending and rocking modes related to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions, and twisting mode of ethyl groups. The different spectral features of two isomers mainly arise from different intermolecular hydrogen bonds resulting from different atom arrangements in molecules and different molecule arrangements in crystals. Using the reduced-density-gradient (RDG) analysis, the positions and types of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions in 1,1-DMU and 1,3-DMU crystals are visualized. Therefore, we can confirm that THz-TDS can be used as an effective means for the recognition of structural isomers and detection of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions in these crystals.

  20. Preparation, isolation and identification of non-conjugated C18:2 fatty acid isomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardin-Kia, Ali Reza

    2016-12-01

    Non-conjugated geometric/positional isomers of linoleic acid (c9,c12-18:2) are often present in processed foods and oils. The following work presents a simple addition/elimination reaction for preparation of non-conjugated 18:2 fatty acid isomers. A mixture containing positional and geometric isomers of C18:2 fatty acids was produced by addition of hydrobromic acid to the fatty acid double bonds, followed by its elimination with a strong sterically hindered base. Pure 8,12-, 8,13-, 9,12-, and 9,13-18:2 fatty acid methyl esters were isolated from the synthetic mixture by a combination of sub-ambient RP-HPLC and Ag + -HPLC. The determination of the double bond position was achieved by GC-MS using picolinyl esters derivatives. The determination of the fatty acid double bond geometric configuration was obtained by partial hydrogenation of the isolated isomer with hydrazine, followed by the GC-FID analysis. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Determination of activation level energy of nuclear isomers by calibration of microspectra of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, A.; Pavlicsek, I.

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear isomers with unknown activation level were irradiated by calibrated radioactive sources. The integral cross sections were calculated for different energies of the sources. The activation energy was given by values coinciding with each other within the limits of error. The method made the determination of the unknown level of 1180+-10 keV of 195 Pt nucleus possible. (author)

  2. High-spin isomer in 211Rn, and the shape of the yrast line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracoulis, G.D.; Fahlander, C.; Poletti, A.R.

    1981-08-01

    High spin yrast states in 211 Rn have been identified. A 61/2 - , 380 ns isomer found at 8856 keV is characterised as a core-excited configuration. The average shape of the yrast line shows a smooth behaviour with spin, in contrast to its neighbour 212 Rn. This difference is attributed to the presence of the neutron hole

  3. Observation of a new high-spin isomer in 94Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brock, T. S.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Wadsworth, R.; Boutachkov, P.; Gorska, M.; Grawe, H.; Pietri, S.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Caceres, L.; Engert, T.; Farinon, F.; Gerl, J.; Goel, N.; Kojuharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Prochazka, A.; Schaffner, H.; Weick, H.; Braun, N.

    2010-01-01

    A second γ-decaying high-spin isomeric state, with a half-life of 197(22)ns, has been identified in the N=Z+2 nuclide 94 Pd as part of a stopped-beam Rare Isotope Spectroscopic INvestigation at GSI (RISING) experiment. Weisskopf estimates were used to establish a tentative spin/parity of 19 - , corresponding to the maximum possible spin of a negative parity state in the restricted (p 1/2 , g 9/2 ) model space of empirical shell model calculations. The reproduction of the E3 decay properties of the isomer required an extension of the model space to include the f 5/2 and p 3/2 orbitals using the CD-Bonn potential. This is the first time that such an extension has been required for a high-spin isomer in the vicinity of 100 Sn and reveals the importance of such orbits for understanding the decay properties of high-spin isomers in this region. However, despite the need for the extended model space for the E3 decay, the dominant configuration for the 19 - state remains (πp 1/2 -1 g 9/2 -3 ) 11 x (νg 9/2 -2 ) 8 . The half-life of the known, 14 + , isomer was remeasured and yielded a value of 499(13) ns.

  4. 57Fe quadrupole splitting and isomer shift in various oxyhemoglobins: study using Mössbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Berkovsky, A. L.; Kumar, A.; Kundu, S.; Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Semionkin, V. A.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative study of normal human, rabbit and pig oxyhemoglobins and oxyhemoglobin from patients with chronic myeloleukemia and multiple myeloma using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution demonstrated small variations of the 57 Fe quadrupole splitting and isomer shift. These variations may be a result of small structural differences in the heme iron stereochemistry of various hemoglobins.

  5. {sup 57}Fe quadrupole splitting and isomer shift in various oxyhemoglobins: study using Moessbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail: oshtrakh@mail.utnet.ru [Ural Federal University (The former Ural State Technical University-UPI), Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Berkovsky, A. L. [Hematological Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kumar, A.; Kundu, S., E-mail: sumankundu@south.du.ac.in [University of Delhi South Campus, Department of Biochemistry (India); Vinogradov, A. V.; Konstantinova, T. S. [Ural State Medical Academy, Faculty of Internal Diseases Propedeutics (Russian Federation); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural Federal University (The former Ural State Technical University-UPI), Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation)

    2010-04-15

    A comparative study of normal human, rabbit and pig oxyhemoglobins and oxyhemoglobin from patients with chronic myeloleukemia and multiple myeloma using Moessbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution demonstrated small variations of the {sup 57}Fe quadrupole splitting and isomer shift. These variations may be a result of small structural differences in the heme iron stereochemistry of various hemoglobins.

  6. Cool diffusion flames of butane isomers activated by ozone in the counterflow

    KAUST Repository

    Alfazazi, Adamu; Al Omier, Abdullah Abdulaziz; Secco, Andrea; Selim, Hatem; Ju, Yiguang; Sarathy, Mani

    2018-01-01

    and sustenance of cool diffusion flames; as ozone-less cool diffusion flame of butane isomers could not be established even at high fuel mole fractions. The structure of a stable n-butane cool diffusion flame was qualitatively examined using a time of flight mass

  7. Differentiation of 2- and 6-isomers of (2-dimethylaminopropylbenzofuran by tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Shevyrin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Reliable identification of new psychoactive substances of 2-(2-methylaminopropylbenzofuran and 6-(2-methylaminopropylbenzofuran is problematic when analyzing by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method. It found that these two isomers can be reliably differentiated by MS/MS spectra obtained by collision-induced dissociation of their protonated molecules.

  8. Chromatographic retention and structure roofing tile effect of isomers and its fine structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walraven, J.J.; Ladon, A.W.; Keulemans, A.I.M.

    1968-01-01

    Logarithmic plots of gas chromatographic retention data for different classes of compds. on different pairs of stationary phases were constructed. A remarkable effect was found. Isomers are spread along parallel lines in a repeated pattern, forming a \\"roofing-tile\\" series. The scattering of points

  9. Dibenzoheptazethrene isomers with different biradical characters: An exercise of clar's aromatic sextet rule in singlet biradicaloids

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Zhe; Lee, Sangsu; Park, Kyuhyung; Zhu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Wenhua; Zheng, Bin; Hu, Pan; Zeng, Zebing; Das, Soumyajit; Li, Yuan; Chi, Chunyan; Li, Runwei; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Ding, Jun; Kim, Dongho; Wu, Jishan

    2013-01-01

    that the number of aromatic sextet rings plays an important role in determination of their ground states. In order to test the validity of this rule in singlet biradicaloids, the two soluble and stable dibenzoheptazethrene isomers DBHZ1 and DBHZ2 were prepared

  10. Response of Dendroctonus mexicanus (Hopkins) to two optical isomers of verbenone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente Diaz-Nunez; Guillermo Sanchez-Martinez; Nancy E. Gillette

    2006-01-01

    Given the need for diminishing the use of pesticides in natural environments, in this research we investigated the efficacy of two optical isomers of verbenone (4, 6, 6-trimethylbicyclo[3.1.1] hepto-3-en-e-1) as controls of the attack of Dendroctonus mexicanus (Hopkins) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae).Two experiments were established in the...

  11. Ultrafast time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of geometric isomers of xanthophylls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M.; Enriquez, Miriam M.; LaFountain, Amy M.; Frank, Harry A.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an ultrafast optical spectroscopic investigation of the excited state energies, lifetimes and spectra of specific geometric isomers of neoxanthin, violaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. All- trans- and 15,15'- cis-β-carotene were also examined. The spectroscopy was done on molecules purified by HPLC frozen immediately to inhibit isomerization. The spectra were taken at 77 K to maintain the configurations and to provide better spectral resolution than seen at room temperature. The kinetics reveal that for all of the molecules except neoxanthin, the S 1 state lifetime of the cis isomers is shorter than that of the all- trans isomers. The S 1 excited state energies of all the isomers were determined by recording S 1 → S 2 transient absorption spectra. The results obtained in this manner at cryogenic temperatures provide an unprecedented level of precision in the measurement of the S 1 energies of these xanthophylls, which are critical components in light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of green plants.

  12. Global Distribution Adjustment and Nonlinear Feature Transformation for Automatic Colorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terumasa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic colorization is generally classified into two groups: propagation-based methods and reference-based methods. In reference-based automatic colorization methods, color image(s are used as reference(s to reconstruct original color of a gray target image. The most important task here is to find the best matching pairs for all pixels between reference and target images in order to transfer color information from reference to target pixels. A lot of attractive local feature-based image matching methods have already been developed for the last two decades. Unfortunately, as far as we know, there are no optimal matching methods for automatic colorization because the requirements for pixel matching in automatic colorization are wholly different from those for traditional image matching. To design an efficient matching algorithm for automatic colorization, clustering pixel with low computational cost and generating descriptive feature vector are the most important challenges to be solved. In this paper, we present a novel method to address these two problems. In particular, our work concentrates on solving the second problem (designing a descriptive feature vector; namely, we will discuss how to learn a descriptive texture feature using scaled sparse texture feature combining with a nonlinear transformation to construct an optimal feature descriptor. Our experimental results show our proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in terms of robustness for color reconstruction for automatic colorization applications.

  13. Clustering of color map pixels: an interactive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yiu Sang; Luk, Franklin T.; Yuen, K. N.; Yeung, Hoi Wo

    2003-12-01

    The demand for digital maps continues to arise as mobile electronic devices become more popular nowadays. Instead of creating the entire map from void, we may convert a scanned paper map into a digital one. Color clustering is the very first step of the conversion process. Currently, most of the existing clustering algorithms are fully automatic. They are fast and efficient but may not work well in map conversion because of the numerous ambiguous issues associated with printed maps. Here we introduce two interactive approaches for color clustering on the map: color clustering with pre-calculated index colors (PCIC) and color clustering with pre-calculated color ranges (PCCR). We also introduce a memory model that could enhance and integrate different image processing techniques for fine-tuning the clustering results. Problems and examples of the algorithms are discussed in the paper.

  14. Future of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladson, Jack A.; Turner, Laraine B.; Green-Armytage, Paul; Hunt, Robert W. G.

    2002-06-01

    We live in a world in which styles and technologies are nearly the same from place to place, but change daily. This changing global culture is unprecedented, and reinforced by emerging new technologies that affect us all. The Future of Color, examines new technologies, how they will affect the selection and promulgation of color in the near future, and their impact upon us. We examine this topic from many perspectives - technological, business and commercial. Most importantly, as we understand how our world is emerging, we can position ourselves strategically for tomorrow.

  15. Plate Full of Color

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-08-04

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Plate Full of Color teaches the value of eating a variety of colorful and healthy foods.  Created: 8/4/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 8/5/2008.

  16. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  17. Reprint of: Energetics of 2- and 3-coumaranone isomers: A combined calorimetric and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Clara C.S.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.; Santos, Luís M.N.B.F.; Morais, Victor M.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental standard molar enthalpies of formation, sublimation of 2- and 3-coumaranone. • Mini-bomb combustion calorimetry, sublimation Calvet microcalorimetry. • DFT methods and high level composite ab initio calculations. • Theoretical estimate of the enthalpy of formation of isobenzofuranone. • Chemical shift (NICS) and the relative stability of the isomers. - Abstract: Condensed phase standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation for 2-coumaranone and 3-coumaranone were derived from the standard molar enthalpies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by mini-bomb combustion calorimetry. Standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of both isomers were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. These results were combined to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds, in gas phase, at T = 298.15 K. Additionally, accurate quantum chemical calculations have been performed using DFT methods and high level composite ab initio calculations. Theoretical estimates of the enthalpies of formation of the compounds are in good agreement with the experimental values thus supporting the predictions of the same parameters for isobenzofuranone, an isomer which has not been experimentally studied. The relative stability of these isomers has been evaluated by experimental and computational results. The importance of some stabilizing electronic intramolecular interactions has been studied and quantitatively evaluated through Natural Bonding Orbital (NBO) analysis of the wave functions and the nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) of the studied systems have been calculated in order to study and establish the effect of electronic delocalization upon the relative stability of the isomers

  18. Energetics of 2- and 3-coumaranone isomers: A combined calorimetric and computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Clara C.S.; Matos, M. Agostinha R.; Santos, Luís M.N.B.F.; Morais, Victor M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental standard molar enthalpies of formation, sublimation of 2- and 3-coumaranone. • Mini-bomb combustion calorimetry, sublimation Calvet microcalorimetry. • DFT methods and high level composite ab initio calculations. • Theoretical estimate of the enthalpy of formation of isobenzofuranone. • Chemical shift (NICS) and the relative stability of the isomers. -- Abstract: Condensed phase standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of formation for 2-coumaranone and 3-coumaranone were derived from the standard molar enthalpies of combustion, in oxygen, at T = 298.15 K, measured by mini-bomb combustion calorimetry. Standard molar enthalpies of sublimation of both isomers were determined by Calvet microcalorimetry. These results were combined to derive the standard molar enthalpies of formation of the compounds, in gas phase, at T = 298.15 K. Additionally, accurate quantum chemical calculations have been performed using DFT methods and high level composite ab initio calculations. Theoretical estimates of the enthalpies of formation of the compounds are in good agreement with the experimental values thus supporting the predictions of the same parameters for isobenzofuranone, an isomer which has not been experimentally studied. The relative stability of these isomers has been evaluated by experimental and computational results. The importance of some stabilizing electronic intramolecular interactions has been studied and quantitatively evaluated through Natural Bonding Orbital (NBO) analysis of the wave functions and the nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) of the studied systems have been calculated in order to study and establish the effect of electronic delocalization upon the relative stability of the isomers

  19. CYANOMETHANIMINE ISOMERS IN COLD INTERSTELLAR CLOUDS: INSIGHTS FROM ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE AND KINETIC CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazart, Fanny; Latouche, Camille; Skouteris, Dimitrios; Barone, Vincenzo [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56125 Pisa (Italy); Balucani, Nadia [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Universitá degli Studi di Perugia, Via Elce di Sotto 8, I-06123 Perugia (Italy)

    2015-09-10

    New insights into the formation of interstellar cyanomethanimine, a species of great relevance in prebiotic chemistry, are provided by electronic structure and kinetic calculations for the reaction CN + CH{sub 2} = NH. This reaction is a facile formation route of Z,E-C-cyanomethanimine, even under the extreme conditions of density and temperature typical of cold interstellar clouds. E-C-cyanomethanimine has been recently identified in Sgr B2(N) in the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) PRIMOS survey by P. Zaleski et al. and no efficient formation routes have been envisaged so far. The rate coefficient expression for the reaction channel leading to the observed isomer E-C-cyanomethanimine is 3.15 × 10-10 × (T/300){sup 0.152} × e{sup (−0.0948/T)}. According to the present study, the more stable Z-C-cyanomethanimine isomer is formed with a slightly larger yield (4.59 × 10{sup −10} × (T/300){sup 0.153} × e{sup (−0.0871/T)}. As the detection of E-isomer is favored due to its larger dipole moment, the missing detection of the Z-isomer can be due to the sensitivity limit of the GBT PRIMOS survey and the detection of the Z-isomer should be attempted with more sensitive instrumentation. The CN + CH{sub 2} = NH reaction can also play a role in the chemistry of the upper atmosphere of Titan where the cyanomethanimine products can contribute to the buildup of the observed nitrogen-rich organic aerosols that cover the moon.

  20. Providing theoretical data for detection of four formamidic acid isomers in astrophysical media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichietti, R. M.; da Silva, A. B. F.; Haiduke, R. L. A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a theoretical study, so that molecular data (geometrical parameters, vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, electronic energies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies) of four formamidic acid (FA) isomers (labeled here as FA1, FA2, FA3, and FA4) and formamide (HCONH2) are obtained from CCSD/cc-pVTZ, CCSD/aug-cc-pVTZ, CCSD/cc-pVQZ, and CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ calculations. Furthermore, on the basis of insufficient or even lacking theoretical and experimental results in the literature, we employed the aforementioned theory levels to determine benchmark values of dipole moments and rotational constants for these four FA isomers in order to contribute for their detection in astrophysical environments. Besides, we provide for the first time data about forward and reverse rate constants (200-4000 K) and Arrhenius' parameters for each interconversion reaction between pairs of FA isomers as well as for the tautomeric process involving FA4 and formamide, which were calculated from a Complete Basis Set (CBS) extrapolation equation obtained at CCSD/cc-pVTZ optimized geometries. Our kinetic analysis indicated a faster interconversion between the FA structures in comparison with the FA4 ↔ HCONH2 process, suggesting that these isomers could co-exist in astrophysical media. Finally, we estimated that these isomers may be detected with relative abundances, [FAx]/[HCONH2] (x = 1, 2, 3, and 4), between ∼0.01 and ∼0.1% in astrophysical sources at chemical equilibrium conditions and temperatures around 1000 K. However, these ratios can become as high as ∼1, ∼3, and ∼5%, respectively, in hotter regions with temperatures around 2000, 3000, and 4000 K (expected, for example, in massive star-forming regions).

  1. Effects of hue, saturation, and brightness on preference: a study on Goethe's color circle with RGB color space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camgoz, Nilgun; Yener, Cengiz

    2002-06-01

    In order to investigate preference responses for foreground- background color relationships, 85 university undergraduates in Ankara, Turkey, viewed 6 background colors (red, yellow, green, cyan, blue, and magenta) on which color squares of differing hues, saturations, and brightnesses were presented. All the background colors had maximum brightness (100%) and maximum saturation (100%). Subjects were asked to show the color square they preferred on the presented background color viewed through a computer monitor. The experimental setup consisted of a computer monitor located in a windowless room, illuminated with cove lighting. The findings of the experiment show that the brightness 100%- saturation 100% range is significantly preferred the most (p-value < 0.03). Thus, color squares that are most saturated and brightest are preferred on backgrounds of most saturated and brightest colors. Regardless of the background colors viewed, the subjects preferred blue the most (p-value < 0.01). Findings of the study are also discussed with pertinent research on the field. Through this analysis, an understanding of foreground-background color relationships in terms of preference is sought.

  2. Transparency and imaginary colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, W.; Koenderink, J.J.; Van Doorn, A.

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the Metelli monochrome transparencies, when overlays and their backgrounds have chromatic content, the inferred surface colors may not always be physically realizable, and are in some sense “imaginary.” In these cases, the inferred chromatic transmittance or reflectance of the overlay lies

  3. Why Leaves Change Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    For years, scientists have worked to understand the changes that happen to trees and shrubs in the autumn. Although we don't know all the details, we do know enough to explain the basics and help you to enjoy more fully Nature's multicolored autumn farewell. Three factors influence autumn leaf color-leaf pigments, length of night, and weather, but not quite...

  4. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  5. Color Wheel Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  6. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  7. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health / News Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an impulsive buy from a souvenir shop, but 10 hours ...

  8. Sorghum bi-color

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    2014-11-12

    Nov 12, 2014 ... Biomass materials require reduction and densification for the purpose of handling and space requirements. Guinea corn (Sorghum bi-color) is a major source of biomass material in the tropic regions. The densification process involves some ... a closed-end die, the temperature and the use of binder.

  9. Hupa Nature Coloring Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

  10. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Leer en Español: Peligros asociados con los lentes de contacto de color Sep. 26, 2013 It started as an ... the cause: a rare inflammatory condition called Cogan’s syndrome. Google AI May Reveal Health Risks Through Your ...

  11. Color in present culture of European architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Verena M.

    2002-06-01

    The influential architect Le Corbusier (1887 - 1965) was also involved in the adventure of contemporary painting, and color occupied half of his day, during twenty years, as he revealed in a study entitled 'Architectural Polychromy' written in the early thirties and recently published in 1997. In the present, contemporary architects in Central Europe are dealing with color in quite a different and exceptional way: most of them engage the artist to collaborate with them in their architectural projects. If painting is concerned with the interaction of color in the two-dimensional plane, architecture is deeply dependent on light and space, and deals entirely with the three- dimensional environment and its human perception. In the 1990s, the way architects and artists employed color in architecture was so striking that color offered a key to larger discussions and opened up an interesting aspect of architectural practice. It must be remembered that recent housing projects, such as the housing estate Pilotengasse in Vienna, Gigon & Guyer's Broelberg in Kilchberg (with Harald F. Muller), next to Zurich, and their Sport Center in Davos (with Adrian Schiess), Jean Nouvel's Cultural and Congress Center in Lucerne, or Sauerbruch & Hutton's Photonic Center and their GSW office building in Berlin have all been contributing to free color from its unconscious and dormant role. These works all impart qualities to color in architecture that were hitherto reserved to other materials and fields: they define the aspects of the interaction of visual and physical space, of materialization of volumes, and of the expression of wealth and luxury.

  12. Reading color barcodes using visual snakes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaub, Hanspeter (ORION International Technologies, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-05-01

    Statistical pressure snakes are used to track a mono-color target in an unstructured environment using a video camera. The report discusses an algorithm to extract a bar code signal that is embedded within the target. The target is assumed to be rectangular in shape, with the bar code printed in a slightly different saturation and value in HSV color space. Thus, the visual snake, which primarily weighs hue tracking errors, will not be deterred by the presence of the color bar codes in the target. The bar code is generate with the standard 3 of 9 method. Using this method, the numeric bar codes reveal if the target is right-side-up or up-side-down.

  13. QCD in the color-flow representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilian, W. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Fachbereich 7 - Physik; Ohl, T. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik; Reuter, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Speckner, C. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.

    2012-06-15

    For many practical purposes, it is convenient to formulate unbroken nonabelian gauge theories like QCD in a color-flow basis. We present a new derivation of SU(N) interactions in the color-flow basis by extending the gauge group to U(N) x U(1)' in such a way that the two U(1) factors cancel each other. We use the quantum action principles to show the equivalence to the usual basis to all orders in perturbation theory. We extend the known Feynman rules to exotic color representations (e.g. sextets) and interactions (e.g. {epsilon}{sub ijk}). We discuss practical applications as they occur in automatic computation programs.

  14. QCD in the color-flow representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilian, W.; Speckner, C.

    2012-06-01

    For many practical purposes, it is convenient to formulate unbroken nonabelian gauge theories like QCD in a color-flow basis. We present a new derivation of SU(N) interactions in the color-flow basis by extending the gauge group to U(N) x U(1)' in such a way that the two U(1) factors cancel each other. We use the quantum action principles to show the equivalence to the usual basis to all orders in perturbation theory. We extend the known Feynman rules to exotic color representations (e.g. sextets) and interactions (e.g. ε ijk ). We discuss practical applications as they occur in automatic computation programs.

  15. Hollywood's Conversion to Color: The Technological, Economic and Aesthetic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindem, Forham A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the film industry's conversion to color cinematography in the period between the 1920s and 1960s. Cites economic considerations, technological modifications, and aesthetic preferences by audiences as factors in this development. (JMF)

  16. Color waves : a simple heuristic for choosing false colors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overveld, van C.W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    A simple heuristic is presented for choosing false colors for visualizing scalar functions on two-dimensional domains. The color scheme allows inspection of the function on several length scales simultanously.

  17. A new method for skin color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    Skin tone is the most important color category in memory colors. Reproducing it pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the skin color preference on photographic color reproduction. Two key factors to successfully enhance skin colors are: a method to detect original skin colors effectively even if they are shifted far away from the regular skin color region, and a method to morph skin colors toward a preferred skin color region properly without introducing artifacts. A method for skin color enhancement presented by the authors in the same conference last year applies a static skin color model for skin color detection, which may miss to detect skin colors that are far away from regular skin tones. In this paper, a new method using the combination of face detection and statistical skin color modeling is proposed to effectively detect skin pixels and to enhance skin colors more effectively.

  18. Round Table Discussion on EASTWEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion is focused on various aspects of interrelations between East and West. Its participants discuss the problems of the increasing tourist flows from China and the specific characteristics of Chinese tourists. The future development of tourism in the Baikal region is formulated, and the peculiarities of ethno tourism and its prospects are discussed.

  19. Human preference for individual colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  20. Color superconductivity in dense quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Schmitt, Andreas; Rajagopal, Krishna; Schaefer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Matter at high density and low temperature is expected to be a color superconductor, which is a degenerate Fermi gas of quarks with a condensate of Cooper pairs near the Fermi surface that induces color Meissner effects. At the highest densities, where the QCD coupling is weak, rigorous calculations are possible, and the ground state is a particularly symmetric state, the color-flavor locked (CFL) phase. The CFL phase is a superfluid, an electromagnetic insulator, and breaks chiral symmetry. The effective theory of the low-energy excitations in the CFL phase is known and can be used, even at more moderate densities, to describe its physical properties. At lower densities the CFL phase may be disfavored by stresses that seek to separate the Fermi surfaces of the different flavors, and comparison with the competing alternative phases, which may break translation and/or rotation invariance, is done using phenomenological models. We review the calculations that underlie these results and then discuss transport properties of several color-superconducting phases and their consequences for signatures of color superconductivity in neutron stars.