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Sample records for isomerase electronic resource

  1. Electronic Resource Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ellingsen

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Computer applications which deal with electronic resource management (ERM are quite a recent development. They have grown out of the need to manage the burgeoning number of electronic resources particularly electronic journals. Typically, in the early years of e-journal acquisition, library staff provided an easy means of accessing these journals by providing an alphabetical list on a web page. Some went as far as categorising the e-journals by subject and then grouping the journals either on a single web page or by using multiple pages. It didn't take long before it was recognised that it would be more efficient to dynamically generate the pages from a database rather than to continually edit the pages manually. Of course, once the descriptive metadata for an electronic journal was held within a database the next logical step was to provide administrative forms whereby that metadata could be manipulated. This in turn led to demands for incorporating more information and more functionality into the developing application.

  2. Electronic Resource Management and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kimberly R.

    2015-01-01

    We have now reached a tipping point at which electronic resources comprise more than half of academic library budgets. Because of the increasing work associated with the ever-increasing number of e-resources, there is a trend to distribute work throughout the library even in the presence of an electronic resources department. In 2013, the author…

  3. Managing electronic resources a LITA guide

    CERN Document Server

    Weir, Ryan O

    2012-01-01

    Informative, useful, current, Managing Electronic Resources: A LITA Guide shows how to successfully manage time, resources, and relationships with vendors and staff to ensure personal, professional, and institutional success.

  4. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-11-05

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration is to consolidate all electronic resources into a single and centralized location. This would allow for better information sharing among library staff.

  5. Implementing CORAL: An Electronic Resource Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    A 2010 electronic resource management survey conducted by Maria Collins of North Carolina State University and Jill E. Grogg of University of Alabama Libraries found that the top six electronic resources management priorities included workflow management, communications management, license management, statistics management, administrative…

  6. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system

  7. Electronic Resources Management Project Presentation 2012

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation describes the electronic resources management project undertaken by the KAUST library. The objectives of this project is to migrate information from MS Sharepoint to Millennium ERM module. One of the advantages of this migration

  8. PRINCIPLES OF CONTENT FORMATION EDUCATIONAL ELECTRONIC RESOURCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О Ю Заславская

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers modern possibilities of information and communication technologies for the design of electronic educational resources. The conceptual basis of the open educational multimedia system is based on the modular architecture of the electronic educational resource. The content of the electronic training module can be implemented in several versions of the modules: obtaining information, practical exercises, control. The regularities in the teaching process in modern pedagogical theory are considered: general and specific, and the principles for the formation of the content of instruction at different levels are defined, based on the formulated regularities. On the basis of the analysis, the principles of the formation of the electronic educational resource are determined, taking into account the general and didactic patterns of teaching.As principles of the formation of educational material for obtaining information for the electronic educational resource, the article considers: the principle of methodological orientation, the principle of general scientific orientation, the principle of systemic nature, the principle of fundamentalization, the principle of accounting intersubject communications, the principle of minimization. The principles of the formation of the electronic training module of practical studies in the article include: the principle of systematic and dose based consistency, the principle of rational use of study time, the principle of accessibility. The principles of the formation of the module for monitoring the electronic educational resource can be: the principle of the operationalization of goals, the principle of unified identification diagnosis.

  9. Electronic Resources Management System: Recommendation Report 2017

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-01

    This recommendation report provides an overview of the selection process for the new Electronic Resources Management System. The library has decided to move away from Innovative Interfaces Millennium ERM module. The library reviewed 3 system as potential replacements namely: Proquest 360 Resource Manager, Ex Libris Alma and Open Source CORAL ERMS. After comparing and trialling the systems, it was decided to go for Proquest 360 Resource Manager.

  10. CHALLENGES OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION RESOURCES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the role of policy for proper and efficient library services in the electronic era. It points out some of the possible dangers of embarking in electronic resources without a proper focus at hand. Thus, it calls for today's librarians and policy makers to brainstorm and come up with working policies suitable to ...

  11. Library training to promote electronic resource usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Tove Faber; Tibyampansha, Dativa; Ibrahim, Glory

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing the usage of electronic resources is an issue of concern for many libraries all over the world. Several studies stress the importance of information literacy and instruction in order to increase the usage. Design/methodology/approach: The present article presents the results...

  12. Glucose (xylose) isomerase production from thermotolerant and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2012-11-13

    Nov 13, 2012 ... in the production of the high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) from corn starch. ... Key words: Glucose isomerase, xylose isomerase, enzyme activity, Klebsiella, ... Soil, water, and manure (five samples each) were collected from.

  13. Electronic resource management systems a workflow approach

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Elsa K

    2014-01-01

    To get to the bottom of a successful approach to Electronic Resource Management (ERM), Anderson interviewed staff at 11 institutions about their ERM implementations. Among her conclusions, presented in this issue of Library Technology Reports, is that grasping the intricacies of your workflow-analyzing each step to reveal the gaps and problems-at the beginning is crucial to selecting and implementing an ERM. Whether the system will be used to fill a gap, aggregate critical data, or replace a tedious manual process, the best solution for your library depends on factors such as your current soft

  14. use of electronic resources by graduate students of the department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    respondent's access electronic resources from the internet via Cybercafé .There is a high ... KEY WORDS: Use, Electronic Resources, Graduate Students, Cybercafé. INTRODUCTION ... Faculty of Education, University of Uyo, Uyo. Olu Olat ...

  15. Use of Electronic Resources in a Private University in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined awareness and constraints in the use of electronic resources by lecturers and students of Ajayi Crowther University, Oyo, Nigeria. It aimed at justifying the resources expended in the provision of electronic resources in terms of awareness, patronage and factors that may be affecting awareness and use ...

  16. Gender Analysis Of Electronic Information Resource Use: The Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings the study concluded that access and use of electronic information resources creates a “social digital divide” along gender lines. The study ... Finally, the library needs to change its marketing strategies on the availability of electronic information resources to increase awareness of these resources.

  17. Electronic Resource Management System. Vernetzung von Lizenzinformationen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Selbach

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten zehn Jahren spielen elektronische Ressourcen im Bereich der Erwerbung eine zunehmend wichtige Rolle: Eindeutig lässt sich hier ein Wandel in den Bibliotheken (fort vom reinen Printbestand zu immer größeren E-Only-Beständen feststellen. Die stetig wachsende Menge an E-Ressourcen und deren Heterogenität stellt Bibliotheken vor die Herausforderung, die E-Ressourcen effizient zu verwalten. Nicht nur Bibliotheken, sondern auch verhandlungsführende Institutionen von Konsortial- und Allianzlizenzen benötigen ein geeignetes Instrument zur Verwaltung von Lizenzinformationen, welches den komplexen Anforderungen moderner E-Ressourcen gerecht wird. Die Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG unterstützt ein Projekt des Hochschulbibliothekszentrums des Landes Nordrhein-Westfalen (hbz, der Universitätsbibliothek Freiburg, der Verbundzentrale des Gemeinsamen Bibliotheksverbundes (GBV und der Universitätsbibliothek Frankfurt, in dem ein bundesweit verfügbares Electronic Ressource Managementsystem (ERMS aufgebaut werden soll. Ein solches ERMS soll auf Basis einer zentralen Knowledge Base eine einheitliche Nutzung von Daten zur Lizenzverwaltung elektronischer Ressourcen auf lokaler, regionaler und nationaler Ebene ermöglichen. Statistische Auswertungen, Rechteverwaltung für alle angeschlossenen Bibliotheken, kooperative Datenpflege sowie ein über standardisierte Schnittstellen geführter Datenaustausch stehen bei der Erarbeitung der Anforderungen ebenso im Fokus wie die Entwicklung eines Daten- und Funktionsmodells. In the last few years the importance of electronic resources in library acquisitions has increased significantly. There has been a shift from mere print holdings to both e- and print combinations and even e-only subscriptions. This shift poses a double challenge for libraries: On the one hand they have to provide their e-resource collections to library users in an appealing way, on the other hand they have to manage these

  18. Electronic human resource management: Enhancing or entrancing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Poisat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article provides an investigation into the current level of development of the body of knowledge related to electronic human resource management (e-HRM by means of a qualitative content analysis. Several aspects of e-HRM, namely definitions of e-HRM, the theoretical perspectives around e-HRM, the role of e-HRM, the various types of e-HRM and the requirements for successful e-HRM, are examined. Research purpose: The purpose of the article was to determine the status of e-HRM and examine the studies that report on the link between e-HRM and organisational productivity. Motivation for the study: e-HRM has the capacity to improve organisational efficiency and leverage the role of human resources (HR as a strategic business partner. Main findings: The notion that the implementation of e-HRM will lead to improved organisational productivity is commonly assumed; however, empirical evidence in this regard was found to be limited. Practical/managerial implications: From the results of this investigation it is evident that more research is required to gain a greater understanding of the influence of e-HRM on organisational productivity, as well as to develop measures for assessing this influence. Contribution: This article proposes additional areas to research and measure when investigating the effectiveness of e-HRM. It provides a different lens from which to view e-HRM assessment whilst keeping it within recognised HR measurement parameters (the HR value chain. In addition, it not only provides areas for measuring e-HRM’s influence but also provides important clues as to how the measurements may be approached.

  19. Utilization of electronic information resources by academic staff at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the utilization of Electronic Information resources by the academic staff of Makerere University in Uganda. It examined the academic staff awareness of the resources available, the types of resources provided by the Makerere University Library, the factors affecting resource utilization. The study was ...

  20. Users satisfaction with electronic information resources and services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated users satisfaction on the use of electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ABU & UNIBEN. Two objectives and one null hypotheses were formulated and tested with respect to the users' satisfaction on electronic information resources and services in MTN Net libraries in ...

  1. The Role of the Acquisitions Librarian in Electronic Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Sarah B.

    2010-01-01

    With the ongoing shift to electronic formats for library resources, acquisitions librarians, like the rest of the profession, must adapt to the rapidly changing landscape of electronic resources by keeping up with trends and mastering new skills related to digital publishing, technology, and licensing. The author sought to know what roles…

  2. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined.

  3. Improving Electronic Resources through Holistic Budgeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusik, James P.; Vargas, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    To establish a more direct link between its collections and the educational goals of Saint Xavier University, the Byrne Memorial Library has adopted a "holistic" approach to collection development. This article examines how traditional budget practices influenced the library's selection of resources and describes how holistic collection…

  4. Page 170 Use of Electronic Resources by Undergraduates in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    undergraduate students use electronic resources such as NUC virtual library, HINARI, ... web pages articles from magazines, encyclopedias, pamphlets and other .... of Nigerian university libraries have Internet connectivity, some of the system.

  5. Utilisation of Electronic Information Resources By Lecturers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the use of information resources, specifically, electronic databases by lecturers/teachers in Universities and Colleges of Education in South Western Nigeria. Information resources are central to teachers' education. It provides lecturers/teachers access to information that enhances research and ...

  6. Preservation and conservation of electronic information resources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major holdings of the broadcast libraries of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) are electronic information resources; therefore, providing safe places for general management of these resources have aroused interest in the industry in Nigeria for sometimes. The need to study the preservation and conservation of ...

  7. Using XML Technologies to Organize Electronic Reference Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Huser, Vojtech; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2005-01-01

    Provision of access to reference electronic resources to clinicians is becoming increasingly important. We have created a framework for librarians to manage access to these resources at an enterprise level, rather than at the individual hospital libraries. We describe initial project requirements, implementation details, and some preliminary results.

  8. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  9. Building an electronic resource collection a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Stuart D

    2004-01-01

    This practical book guides information professionals step-by-step through building and managing an electronic resource collection. It outlines the range of electronic products currently available in abstracting and indexing, bibliographic, and other services and then describes how to effectively select, evaluate and purchase them.

  10. Organizational matters of competition in electronic educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Карловна Войтович

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the experience of the Udmurt State University in conducting competitions of educational publications and electronic resources. The purpose of such competitions is to provide methodological support to educational process. The main focus is on competition of electronic educational resources. The technology of such contests is discussed through detailed analysis of the main stages of the contest. It is noted that the main task of the preparatory stage of the competition is related to the development of regulations on competition and the definition of criteria for selection of the submitted works. The paper also proposes a system of evaluation criteria of electronic educational resources developed by members of the contest organizing committee and jury members. The article emphasizes the importance of not only the preparatory stages of the competition, but also measures for its completion, aimed at training teachers create quality e-learning resources.

  11. Neurological findings in triosephosphate isomerase deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poll-The, B. T.; Aicardi, J.; Girot, R.; Rosa, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two siblings with hemolytic anemia caused by triosephosphate isomerase deficiency developed a progressive neurological syndrome featuring dystonic movements, tremor, pyramidal tract signs, and evidence of spinal motor neuron involvement. Intelligence was unaffected. The findings in these patients

  12. Compact conformations of human protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yang

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI composed of four thioredoxin-like domains a, b, b', and a', is a key enzyme catalyzing oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations starting from the crystal structures of human PDI (hPDI in the oxidized and reduced states were performed. The results indicate that hPDI adopts more compact conformations in solution than in the crystal structures, which are stabilized primarily by inter-domain interactions, including the salt bridges between domains a and b' observed for the first time. A prominent feature of the compact conformations is that the two catalytic domains a and a' can locate close enough for intra-molecular electron transfer, which was confirmed by the characterization of an intermediate with a disulfide between the two domains. Mutations, which disrupt the inter-domain interactions, lead to decreased reductase activity of hPDI. Our molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical experiments reveal the intrinsic conformational dynamics of hPDI and its biological impact.

  13. Why and How to Measure the Use of Electronic Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bernon

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A complete overview of library activity implies a complete and reliable measurement of the use of both electronic resources and printed materials. This measurement is based on three sets of definitions: document types, use types and user types. There is a common model of definitions for printed materials, but a lot of questions and technical issues remain for electronic resources. In 2006 a French national working group studied these questions. It relied on the COUNTER standard, but found it insufficient and pointed out the need for local tools such as web markers and deep analysis of proxy logs. Within the French national consortium COUPERIN, a new working group is testing ERMS, SUSHI standards, Shibboleth authentication, along with COUNTER standards, to improve the counting of the electronic resources use. At this stage this counting is insufficient and its improvement will be a European challenge for the future.

  14. Access to electronic resources by visually impaired people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Craven

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research into access to electronic resources by visually impaired people undertaken by the Centre for Research in Library and Information Management has not only explored the accessibility of websites and levels of awareness in providing websites that adhere to design for all principles, but has sought to enhance understanding of information seeking behaviour of blind and visually impaired people when using digital resources.

  15. Practical guide to electronic resources in the humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Dubnjakovic, Ana

    2010-01-01

    From full-text article databases to digitized collections of primary source materials, newly emerging electronic resources have radically impacted how research in the humanities is conducted and discovered. This book, covering high-quality, up-to-date electronic resources for the humanities, is an easy-to-use annotated guide for the librarian, student, and scholar alike. It covers online databases, indexes, archives, and many other critical tools in key humanities disciplines including philosophy, religion, languages and literature, and performing and visual arts. Succinct overviews of key eme

  16. Discipline, availability of electronic resources and the use of Finnish National Electronic Library - FinELib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Torma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study elaborated relations between digital library use by university faculty, users' discipline and the availability of key resources in the Finnish National Electronic Library (FinELib, Finnish national digital library, by using nationwide representative survey data. The results show that the perceived availability of key electronic resources by researchers in FinELib was a stronger predictor of the frequency and purpose of use of its services than users' discipline. Regardless of discipline a good perceived provision of central resources led to a more frequent use of FinELib. The satisfaction with the services did not vary with the discipline, but with the perceived availability of resources.

  17. Access to electronic information resources by students of federal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses access to electronic information resources by students of Federal Colleges of Education in Eha-Amufu and Umunze. Descriptive survey design was used to investigate sample of 526 students. Sampling technique used was a Multi sampling technique. Data for the study were generated using ...

  18. Electronic Commerce Resource Centers. An Industry--University Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulledge, Thomas R.; Sommer, Rainer; Tarimcilar, M. Murat

    1999-01-01

    Electronic Commerce Resource Centers focus on transferring emerging technologies to small businesses through university/industry partnerships. Successful implementation hinges on a strategic operating plan, creation of measurable value for customers, investment in customer-targeted training, and measurement of performance outputs. (SK)

  19. ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF ELECTRONIC RESOURCES FOR THE STUDY OF LATIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yu. Balalaieva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the current state of development of e-learning content in the Latin language. It is noted that the introduction of ICT in the educational space has expanded the possibility of studying Latin, opened access to digital libraries resources, made it possible to use scientific and educational potential and teaching Latin best practices of world's leading universities. A review of foreign and Ukrainian information resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is given. Much attention was paid to the didactic potential of local and online multimedia courses of Latin, electronic textbooks, workbooks of interactive tests and exercises, various dictionaries and software translators, databases and digital libraries. Based on analysis of the world market of educational services and products the main trends in the development of information resources and electronic books are examined. It was found that multimedia courses with interactive exercises or workbooks with interactive tests, online dictionaries and translators are the most widely represented and demanded. The noticeable lagging of Ukrainian education and computer linguistics in quantitative and qualitative measures in this industry is established. The obvious drawback of existing Ukrainian resources and electronic editions for the study of Latin is their noninteractive nature. The prospects of e-learning content in Latin in Ukraine are outlined.

  20. Adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the adoption and use of electronic information resources by medical science students of the University of Benin. The descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study and 390 students provided the data. Data collected were analysed with descriptive Statistics(Simple percentage and ...

  1. Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern ICT Tools: Online Electronic Resources Sharing Using Web 2.0 and Its Implications For Library And Information Practice In Nigeria. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more ...

  2. Technical Communicator: A New Model for the Electronic Resources Librarian?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article explores whether technical communicator is a useful model for electronic resources (ER) librarians. The fields of ER librarianship and technical communication (TC) originated and continue to develop in relation to evolving technologies. A review of the literature reveals four common themes for ER librarianship and TC. While the…

  3. Thermoinactivation Mechanism of Glucose Isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leng Hong; Saville, Bradley A.

    In this article, the mechanisms of thermoinactivation of glucose isomerase (GI) from Streptomyces rubiginosus (in soluble and immobilized forms) were investigated, particularly the contributions of thiol oxidation of the enzyme's cysteine residue and a "Maillard-like" reaction between the enzyme and sugars in high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). Soluble GI (SGI) was successfully immobilized on silica gel (13.5 μm particle size), with an activity yield between 20 and 40%. The immobilized GI (IGI) has high enzyme retention on the support during the glucose isomerization process. In batch reactors, SGI (half-life =145 h) was more stable than IGI (half-life=27 h) at 60°C in HFCS, whereas at 80°C, IGI (half-life=12 h) was more stable than SGI (half-life=5.2 h). IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 60°C, which contributed to the enzyme's deactivation. IGI was subject to thiol oxidation at 80°C, but this did not contribute to the deactivation of the enzyme. SGI did not undergo thiol oxidation at 60°C, but at 80°C SGI underwent severe precipitation and thiol oxidation, which caused the enzyme to deactivate. Experimental results show that immobilization suppresses the destablizing effect of thiol oxidation on GI. A "Maillard-like" reaction between SGI and the sugars also caused SGI thermoinactivation at 60, 70, and 80°C, but had minimal effect on IGI. At 60 and 80°C, IGI had higher thermostability in continuous reactors than in batch reactors, possibily because of reduced contact with deleterious compounds in HFCS.

  4. MODEL OF AN ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF NEW GENERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy V. Loban

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical structure of the modular architecture of an electronic educational resource (EER of new generation, which allows to decompose the process of studying the subjects of the course at a hierarchically ordered set of data (knowledge and procedures for manipulating them, to determine the roles of participants of process of training of and technology the development and use of EOR in the study procrate.

  5. Functional differences in yeast protein disulfide isomerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Westphal, V; Tachibana, C

    2001-01-01

    PDI1 is the essential gene encoding protein disulfide isomerase in yeast. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome, however, contains four other nonessential genes with homology to PDI1: MPD1, MPD2, EUG1, and EPS1. We have investigated the effects of simultaneous deletions of these genes. In several...

  6. End-of-life resource recovery from emerging electronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuly, Keshav; Habib, Komal; Cimpan, Ciprian

    2016-01-01

    Integrating product design with appropriate end-of-life (EoL) processing is widely recognized to have huge potentials in improving resource recovery from electronic products. In this study, we investigate both the product characteristics and EoL processing of robotic vacuum cleaner (RVC), as a case...... of emerging electronic product, in order to understand the recovery fate of different materials and its linkage to product design. Ten different brands of RVC were dismantled and their material composition and design profiles were studied. Another 125 RVCs (349 kg) were used for an experimental trial...... at a conventional ‘shred-and-separate’ type preprocessing plant in Denmark. A detailed material flow analysis was performed throughout the recycling chain. The results show a mismatch between product design and EoL processing, and the lack of practical implementation of ‘Design for EoL’ thinking. In the best...

  7. Analysis of Human Resources Management Strategy in China Electronic Commerce Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fang

    The paper discussed electronic-commerce's influence on enterprise human resources management, proposed and proved the human resources management strategy which electronic commerce enterprise should adopt from recruitment strategy to training strategy, keeping talent strategy and other ways.

  8. Effects of Electronic Information Resources Skills Training for Lecturers on Pedagogical Practices and Research Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhukuvhani, Crispen; Chiparausha, Blessing; Zuvalinyenga, Dorcas

    2012-01-01

    Lecturers use various electronic resources at different frequencies. The university library's information literacy skills workshops and seminars are the main sources of knowledge of accessing electronic resources. The use of electronic resources can be said to have positively affected lecturers' pedagogical practices and their work in general. The…

  9. Electronic Resources and Mission Creep: Reorganizing the Library for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachokas, George

    2009-01-01

    The position of electronic resources librarian was created to serve as a specialist in the negotiation of license agreements for electronic resources, but mission creep has added more functions to the routine work of electronic resources such as cataloging, gathering information for collection development, and technical support. As electronic…

  10. Electronic Document Management: A Human Resource Management Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Groenewald

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study serve as exemplar regarding what can go wrong with the implementation of an electronic document management system. Knowledge agility and knowledge as capital, is outlined against the backdrop of the information society and knowledge economy. The importance of electronic document management and control is sketched thereafter. The literature review is concluded with the impact of human resource management on knowledge agility, which includes references to the learning organisation and complexity theory. The intervention methodology, comprising three phases, follows next. The results of the three phases are presented thereafter. Partial success has been achieved with improving the human efficacy of electronic document management, however the client opted to discontinue the system in use. Opsomming Die gevalle studie dien as voorbeeld van wat kan verkeerd loop met die implementering van ’n elektroniese dokumentbestuur sisteem. Teen die agtergrond van die inligtingsgemeenskap en kennishuishouding word kennissoepelheid en kennis as kapitaal bespreek. Die literatuurstudie word afgesluit met die inpak van menslikehulpbronbestuur op kennissoepelheid, wat ook die verwysings na die leerorganisasie en kompleksietydsteorie insluit. Die metodologie van die intervensie, wat uit drie fases bestaan, volg daarna. Die resultate van die drie fases word vervolgens aangebied. Slegs gedeelte welslae is behaal met die verbetering van die menslike doeltreffendheid ten opsigte van elektroniese dokumentbestuur. Die klient besluit egter om nie voort te gaan om die huidige sisteem te gebruik nie.

  11. Electronic Safety Resource Tools -- Supporting Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barilo, Nick F.

    2014-09-29

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Hydrogen Safety Program conducted a planning session in Los Angeles, CA on April 1, 2014 to consider what electronic safety tools would benefit the next phase of hydrogen and fuel cell commercialization. A diverse, 20-person team led by an experienced facilitator considered the question as it applied to the eight most relevant user groups. The results and subsequent evaluation activities revealed several possible resource tools that could greatly benefit users. The tool identified as having the greatest potential for impact is a hydrogen safety portal, which can be the central location for integrating and disseminating safety information (including most of the tools identified in this report). Such a tool can provide credible and reliable information from a trustworthy source. Other impactful tools identified include a codes and standards wizard to guide users through a series of questions relating to application and specific features of the requirements; a scenario-based virtual reality training for first responders; peer networking tools to bring users from focused groups together to discuss and collaborate on hydrogen safety issues; and a focused tool for training inspectors. Table ES.1 provides results of the planning session, including proposed new tools and changes to existing tools.

  12. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2015-06-16

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes pre-determining an association of the restricted computer resource and computer-resource-proximal environmental information. Indicia of user-proximal environmental information are received from a user requesting access to the restricted computer resource. Received indicia of user-proximal environmental information are compared to associated computer-resource-proximal environmental information. User access to the restricted computer resource is selectively granted responsive to a favorable comparison in which the user-proximal environmental information is sufficiently similar to the computer-resource proximal environmental information. In at least some embodiments, the process further includes comparing user-supplied biometric measure and comparing it with a predetermined association of at least one biometric measure of an authorized user. Access to the restricted computer resource is granted in response to a favorable comparison.

  13. The Internet School of Medicine: use of electronic resources by medical trainees and the reliability of those resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egle, Jonathan P; Smeenge, David M; Kassem, Kamal M; Mittal, Vijay K

    2015-01-01

    Electronic sources of medical information are plentiful, and numerous studies have demonstrated the use of the Internet by patients and the variable reliability of these sources. Studies have investigated neither the use of web-based resources by residents, nor the reliability of the information available on these websites. A web-based survey was distributed to surgical residents in Michigan and third- and fourth-year medical students at an American allopathic and osteopathic medical school and a Caribbean allopathic school regarding their preferred sources of medical information in various situations. A set of 254 queries simulating those faced by medical trainees on rounds, on a written examination, or during patient care was developed. The top 5 electronic resources cited by the trainees were evaluated for their ability to answer these questions accurately, using standard textbooks as the point of reference. The respondents reported a wide variety of overall preferred resources. Most of the 73 responding medical trainees favored textbooks or board review books for prolonged studying, but electronic resources are frequently used for quick studying, clinical decision-making questions, and medication queries. The most commonly used electronic resources were UpToDate, Google, Medscape, Wikipedia, and Epocrates. UpToDate and Epocrates had the highest percentage of correct answers (47%) and Wikipedia had the lowest (26%). Epocrates also had the highest percentage of wrong answers (30%), whereas Google had the lowest percentage (18%). All resources had a significant number of questions that they were unable to answer. Though hardcopy books have not been completely replaced by electronic resources, more than half of medical students and nearly half of residents prefer web-based sources of information. For quick questions and studying, both groups prefer Internet sources. However, the most commonly used electronic resources fail to answer clinical queries more than half

  14. Developing Humanities Collections in the Digital Age: Exploring Humanities Faculty Engagement with Electronic and Print Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachaluba, Sarah Buck; Brady, Jessica Evans; Critten, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on quantitative and qualitative research examining humanities scholars' understandings of the advantages and disadvantages of print versus electronic information resources. It explores how humanities' faculty members at Florida State University (FSU) use print and electronic resources, as well as how they perceive these…

  15. Electronic resource management practical perspectives in a new technical services model

    CERN Document Server

    Elguindi, Anne

    2012-01-01

    A significant shift is taking place in libraries, with the purchase of e-resources accounting for the bulk of materials spending. Electronic Resource Management makes the case that technical services workflows need to make a corresponding shift toward e-centric models and highlights the increasing variety of e-formats that are forcing new developments in the field.Six chapters cover key topics, including: technical services models, both past and emerging; staffing and workflow in electronic resource management; implementation and transformation of electronic resource management systems; the ro

  16. Electronic resources access and usage among the postgraduates of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and usage among the postgraduates of a Nigerian University of Technology. ... faced by postgraduates in using e-resources include takes too much time to find, ... Resources, Access, Use, Postgraduat, Students, University, Technology, Nigeria ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  17. 21 CFR 862.1570 - Phosphohexose isomerase test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Measurements of phosphohexose isomerase are used in the diagnosis and treatment of muscle diseases such as muscular dystrophy, liver diseases such as hepatitis or cirrhosis, and metastatic carcinoma. (b...

  18. Strategic Planning for Electronic Resources Management: A Case Study at Gustavus Adolphus College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulseberg, Anna; Monson, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Electronic resources, the tools we use to manage them, and the needs and expectations of our users are constantly evolving; at the same time, the roles, responsibilities, and workflow of the library staff who manage e-resources are also in flux. Recognizing a need to be more intentional and proactive about how we manage e-resources, the…

  19. impact of the use of electronic resources on research output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    manda

    ... Julita Nawe. University of Dar Es Salaam Library, P.O. Box 35092, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania .... significantly, while 28.3% observed that quality of service to the community had improved .... resources and evaluate them is an important area.

  20. Preservation of and Permanent Access to Electronic Information Resources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hodge, Gail

    2004-01-01

    The rapid growth in the creation and dissemination of electronic information has emphasized the digital environment's speed and ease of dissemination with little regard for its long-term preservation and access...

  1. Electronic conferencing for continuing medical education: a resource survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, R J

    1986-10-01

    The use of electronic technologies to link participants for education conferences is an option for providers of Continuing Medical Education. In order to profile the kinds of electronic networks currently offering audio- or videoteleconferences for physician audiences, a survey was done during late 1985. The information collected included range of services, fees, and geographic areas served. The results show a broad diversity of providers providing both interactive and didactic programming to both physicians and other health care professionals.

  2. Controlling user access to electronic resources without password

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fred Hewitt

    2017-08-22

    Described herein are devices and techniques for remotely controlling user access to a restricted computer resource. The process includes obtaining an image from a communication device of a user. An individual and a landmark are identified within the image. Determinations are made that the individual is the user and that the landmark is a predetermined landmark. Access to a restricted computing resource is granted based on the determining that the individual is the user and that the landmark is the predetermined landmark. Other embodiments are disclosed.

  3. Electron beam pasteurised oil palm waste: a potential feed resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Tamikazu Kume; Tachibana, H.

    2002-01-01

    Pasteurization of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed using electron beam single sided irradiation. The dose profiles of oil palm EFB samples for different thickness in both directions X and Y were established. The results showed the usual characteristics dose uniformity as sample thickness decreased. The mean average absorbed dose on both sides at the surface and bottom of the samples for different thickness samples lead to establishing depth dose curve. Based on depth dose curve and operation conditions of electron beam machine, the process throughput for pasteurized oil palm EFB were estimated. (Author)

  4. The human protein disulfide isomerase gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galligan James J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Enzyme-mediated disulfide bond formation is a highly conserved process affecting over one-third of all eukaryotic proteins. The enzymes primarily responsible for facilitating thiol-disulfide exchange are members of an expanding family of proteins known as protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs. These proteins are part of a larger superfamily of proteins known as the thioredoxin protein family (TRX. As members of the PDI family of proteins, all proteins contain a TRX-like structural domain and are predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Subcellular localization and the presence of a TRX domain, however, comprise the short list of distinguishing features required for gene family classification. To date, the PDI gene family contains 21 members, varying in domain composition, molecular weight, tissue expression, and cellular processing. Given their vital role in protein-folding, loss of PDI activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, most commonly related to the unfolded protein response (UPR. Over the past decade, UPR has become a very attractive therapeutic target for multiple pathologies including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, and type-2 diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms of protein-folding, specifically thiol-disulfide exchange, may lead to development of a novel class of therapeutics that would help alleviate a wide range of diseases by targeting the UPR.

  5. Availability of Electronic Resources for Service Provision in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study also revealed that majority of the University libraries have adequate basic infrastructure for effective electronic information services. ... acquired by the library are put into maximal use by the library clientele, thereby ensuring the achievement of the library's objective which is satisfying the users, information needs.

  6. Utilization of bio-resources by low energy electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    2003-01-01

    Utilization of bio-resources by radiation has been investigated for recycling the natural resources and reducing the environmental pollution. Polysaccharides such as chitosan and sodium alginate were easily degraded by irradiation and induced various kinds of biological activities, i.g. anti-microbial activity, promotion of plant growth, suppression of heavy metal stress, phytoalexins induction. Radiation degraded chitosan was effective to enhance the growth of plants in tissue culture. It was demonstrated that the liquid sample irradiation system using low energy EB was effective for the preparation of degraded polysaccharides. Methylcellulose (MC) can be crosslinked under certain radiation condition as same as carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and produced the biodegradable hydrogel for medical and agricultural use. Treatment of soybean seeds by low energy EB enhanced the growth and the number of rhizobia on the root. (author)

  7. Analysis of Pedagogic Potential of Electronic Educational Resources with Elements of Autodidactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: in recent years didactic properties of electronic educational resources undergo considerable changes, nevertheless, the question of studying of such complete phenomenon as “an electronic educational resource with autodidactics elements” remains open, despite sufficient scientific base of researches of the terms making this concept. Article purpose – determination of essence of electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements. Materials and Methods: the main method of research was the theoretical analysis of the pedagogical and psychological literature on the problem under study. We used the theoretical (analysis, synthesis, comparison and generalization methods, the method of interpretation, pedagogical modeling, and empirical methods (observation, testing, conversation, interview, analysis of students’ performance, pedagogical experiment, peer review. Results: we detected the advantages of electronic educational resources in comparison with traditional ones. The concept of autodidactics as applied to the subject of research is considered. Properties of electronic educational resources with a linear and nonlinear principle of construction are studied.The influence of the principle of construction on the development of the learners’ qualities is shown. We formulated an integral definition of electronic educational resources with elements of autodidactics, namely, the variability, adaptivity and cyclicity of training. A model of the teaching-learning process with electronic educational resources is developed. Discussion and Conclusions: further development of a problem will allow to define whether electronic educational resources with autodidactics elements pedagogical potential for realization of educational and self-educational activity of teachers have, to modify technological procedures taking into account age features of students, their specialties and features of the organization of process of training of

  8. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crytallographic analysis of phosphoglucose isomerase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akerboom, A.P.; Turnbull, A.P.; Hargreaves, D.; Fischer, M.; Geus, de D.; Sedelnikova, S.E.; Berrisford, J.M.; Baker, P.J.; Verhees, C.H.; Oost, van der J.; Rice, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    The glycolytic enzyme phosphoglucose isomerase catalyses the reversible isomerization of glucose 6-phosphate to fructose 6-phosphate. The phosphoglucose isomerase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which shows no sequence similarity to any known bacterial or eukaryotic

  9. A Study on Developing Evaluation Criteria for Electronic Resources in Evaluation Indicators of Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Younghee

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to improve the current state of electronic resource evaluation in libraries. While the use of Web DB, e-book, e-journal, and other e-resources such as CD-ROM, DVD, and micro materials is increasing in libraries, their use is not comprehensively factored into the general evaluation of libraries and may diminish the reliability of…

  10. Managing Selection for Electronic Resources: Kent State University Develops a New System to Automate Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Kent State University has developed a centralized system that manages the communication and work related to the review and selection of commercially available electronic resources. It is an automated system that tracks the review process, provides selectors with price and trial information, and compiles reviewers' feedback about the resource. It…

  11. Where Do Electronic Books Fit in the College Research Arsenal of Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Student use of electronic books has become an accepted supplement to traditional resources. Student use and satisfaction was monitored through an online course discussion board. Increased use of electronic books indicate this service is an accepted supplement to the print book collection.

  12. The National Site Licensing of Electronic Resources: An Institutional Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While academic libraries in most countries are struggling to negotiate with publishers and vendors individually or collaboratively via consortia, a few countries have experimented with a different model, national site licensing (NSL. Because NSL often involves government and large-scale collaboration, it has the potential to solve many problems in the complex licensing world. However, not many nations have adopted it. This study uses historical research approach and the comparative case study research method to explore the seemingly low level of adoption. The cases include the Canadian National Site Licensing Project (CNSLP, the United Kingdom’s National Electronic Site Licensing Initiative (NESLI, and the United States, which has not adopted NSL. The theoretical framework guiding the research design and data collection is W. Richard Scott’s institutional theory, which utilizes three supporting pillars—regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive—to analyze institutional processes. In this study, the regulative pillar and the normative pillar of NSL adoption— an institutional construction and change—are examined. Data were collected from monographs, research articles, government documents, and relevant websites. Based on the analysis of these cases, a preliminary model is proposed for the adoption of NSL. The factors that support a country’s adoption of NSL include the need for new institutions, a centralized educational policy-making system and funding system, supportive political trends, and the tradition of cooperation. The factors that may prevent a country from adopting NSL include decentralized educational policy and funding, diversity and the large number of institutions, the concern for the “Big Deal,” and the concern for monopoly.

  13. Cloning and characterization of peptidylprolyl isomerase B in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peptidylprolyl isomerases (PPIases) play essential roles in protein folding and are implicated in immune response and cell cycle control. Our previous proteomic analysis indicated that Bombyx mori PPIases may be involved in anti- Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) response. To help investigate this mechanism, ...

  14. Characteristics of chalcone isomerase promoter in crabapple leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthocyanins are secondary metabolites found in higher plants that contribute to the colors of plants and chalcone isomerase (CHI) is one of the key enzymes in anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway. What characteristic is CHI promoter known as the regulation sequence of CHI gene, has been rarely investigated. We isolated A ...

  15. [Deficiency of triosephosphate isomerase. Apropos of 2 new cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delso Martínez, M C; Uriel Miñana, P; Pérez Lugmus, G; Giménez Mas, J A; Baldellou Vázquez, A

    1983-08-01

    Two siblings, born of a no consanguineous couple, a female and a male, affected by a severe and progressive neurological disease and chronic hemolytic anemia are presented. Their clinical, hematological, biochemical and pathological studies are discussed. One of the patients showed a triosephosphate isomerase deficiency and the carrier condition of their parents was tested. Commentaries about physiopathology of this disease are made.

  16. Bioconversion of D-galactose into D-tagatose by expression of L-arabinose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, H J; Kim, P; Park, Y C; Choi, J H

    2000-02-01

    D-Tagatose is a potential bulking agent in food as a non-calorific sweetener. To produce D-tagatose from cheaper resources, plasmids harbouring the L-arabinose isomerase gene (araA) from Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhimurium were constructed because L-arabinose isomerase was suggested previously as an enzyme that mediates the bioconversion of galactose into tagatose as well as that of arabinose to ribulose. The constructed plasmids were named pTC101, pTC105 and pTC106, containing araA from E. coli, B. subtilis and S. typhimurium respectively. In the cultures of recombinant E. coli with pTC101, pTC105 and pTC106, tagatose was produced from galactose in 9.9, 7.1 and 6.9% yields respectively. The enzyme extract of E. coli with the plasmid pTC101 also converted galactose into tagatose with a 96.4% yield.

  17. A survey of the use of electronic scientific information resources among medical and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarnio Matti

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medical and dental students' utilization of electronic information resources. Methods A web survey sent to 837 students (49.9% responded. Results Twenty-four per cent of medical students and ninteen per cent of dental students searched MEDLINE 2+ times/month for study purposes, and thiry-two per cent and twenty-four per cent respectively for research. Full-text articles were used 2+ times/month by thirty-three per cent of medical and ten per cent of dental students. Twelve per cent of respondents never utilized either MEDLINE or full-text articles. In multivariate models, the information-searching skills among students were significantly associated with use of MEDLINE and full-text articles. Conclusion Use of electronic resources differs among students. Forty percent were non-users of full-text articles. Information-searching skills are correlated with the use of electronic resources, but the level of basic PC skills plays not a major role in using these resources. The student data shows that adequate training in information-searching skills will increase the use of electronic information resources.

  18. Analytical Study of Usage of Electronic Information Resources at Pharmacopoeial Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Tyagi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the rate and purpose of the use of e-resource by the scientists at pharmacopoeial libraries in India. Among other things, this study examined the preferences of the scientists toward printed books and journals, electronic information resources, and pattern of using e-resources. Non-probability sampling specially accidental and purposive technique was applied in the collection of primary data through administration of user questionnaire. The sample respondents chosen for the study consists of principle scientific officer, senior scientific officer, scientific officer, and scientific assistant of different division of the laboratories, namely, research and development, pharmaceutical chemistry, pharmacovigilance, pharmacology, pharmacogonosy, and microbiology. The findings of the study reveal the personal experiences and perceptions they have had on practice and research activity using e-resource. The major findings indicate that of the total anticipated participants, 78% indicated that they perceived the ability to use computer for electronic information resources. The data analysis shows that all the scientists belonging to the pharmacopoeial libraries used electronic information resources to address issues relating to drug indexes and compendia, monographs, drugs obtained through online databases, e-journals, and the Internet sources—especially polices by regulatory agencies, contacts, drug promotional literature, and standards.

  19. Considering Point-of-Care Electronic Medical Resources in Lieu of Traditional Textbooks for Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, LaDonna S; Wallace, Michelle M; Adams, Courtney R; Kaufman, Michelle L; Snyder, Courtney L

    2015-09-01

    Selecting resources to support didactic courses is a critical decision, and the advantages and disadvantages must be carefully considered. During clinical rotations, students not only need to possess strong background knowledge but also are expected to be proficient with the same evidence-based POC resources used by clinicians. Students place high value on “real world” learning and therefore may place more value on POC resources that they know practicing clinicians use as compared with medical textbooks. The condensed nature of PA education requires students to develop background knowledge and information literacy skills over a short period. One way to build that knowledge and those skills simultaneously is to use POC resources in lieu of traditional medical textbooks during didactic training. Electronic POC resources offer several advantages over traditional textbooks and should be considered as viable options in PA education.

  20. Elektronik Bilgi Kaynaklarının Seçimi / Selection of Electronic Information Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Al

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available For many years, library users have used only from the printed media in order to get the information that they have needed. Today with the widespread use of the Web and the addition of electronic information resources to library collections, the use of information in the electronic environment as well as in printed media is started to be used. In time, such types of information resources as, electronic journals, electronic books, electronic encyclopedias, electronic dictionaries and electronic theses have been added to library collections. In this study, selection criteria that can be used for electronic information resources are discussed and suggestions are provided for libraries that try to select electronic information resources for their collections.

  1. Use of electronic sales data to tailor nutrition education resources for an ethnically diverse population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, H; Rodgers, A; Ni Mhurchu, C

    2010-02-01

    Nutrition education may be most effective when personally tailored. Individualised electronic supermarket sales data offer opportunities to tailor nutrition education using shopper's usual food purchases. The present study aimed to use individualised electronic supermarket sales data to tailor nutrition resources for an ethnically diverse population in a large supermarket intervention trial in New Zealand. Culturally appropriate nutrition education resources (i.e. messages and shopping lists) were developed with the target population (through two sets of focus groups) and ethnic researchers. A nutrient database of supermarket products was developed using retrospective sales data and linked to participant sales to allow tailoring by usual food purchases. Modified Heart Foundation Tick criteria were used to identify 'healthier' products in the database suitable for promotion in the resources. Rules were developed to create a monthly report listing the tailored and culturally targeted messages to be sent to each participant, and to produce automated, tailored shopping lists. Culturally targeted nutrition messages (n = 864) and shopping lists (n = 3 formats) were developed. The food and nutrient database (n = 3000 top-selling products) was created using 12 months of retrospective sales data, and comprised 60%'healthier' products. Three months of baseline sales data were used to determine usual food purchases. Tailored resources were successfully mailed to 123 Māori, 52 Pacific and 346 non-Māori non-Pacific participants over the 6-month trial intervention period. Electronic supermarket sales data can be used to tailor nutrition education resources for a large number of ethnically diverse supermarket shoppers.

  2. REVIEW OF MOODLE PLUGINS FOR DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FROM LANGUAGE DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Today the problem of designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines in Moodle is very important. This system has a lot of different, powerful resources, plugins to facilitate the learning of students with language disciplines. This article presents an overview and comparative analysis of the five Moodle plugins for designing multimedia electronic educational resources from language disciplines. There have been considered their key features and functionality in order to choose the best for studying language disciplines in the Moodle. Plugins are compared by a group of experts according to the criteria: efficiency, functionality and easy use. For a comparative analysis of the plugins it is used the analytic hierarchy process.

  3. Effects of the Use of Electronic Human Resource Management (EHRM Within Human Resource Management (HRM Functions at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to examine the effect of e-hrm systems in assisting human resource practitioners to execute their duties and responsibilities. In comparison to developed economies of the world, information technology adoption in sub-Saharan Africa has not been without certain glitches. Some of the factors that are responsible for these include poor need identification, sustainable funding, and insufficient skills. Besides these factors, there is also the issue of change management and users sticking to what they already know. Although, the above factors seem negative, there is strong evidence that information systems such as electronic human resource management present benefits to an organization. To achieve this, a dual research approach was utilized. Literature assisted immensely in both the development of the conceptual framework upon which the study hinged as well as in the development of the questionnaire items. The study also made use of an interview checklist to guide the participants. The findings reveal a mix of responses that indicate that while there are gains in adopting e-hrm systems, it is wiser to consider supporting resources as well as articulate the needs of the university better before any investment is made.

  4. The Electron Microscopy Outreach Program: A Web-based resource for research and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosinsky, G E; Baker, T S; Hand, G; Ellisman, M H

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a centralized World Wide Web (WWW)-based environment that serves as a resource of software tools and expertise for biological electron microscopy. A major focus is molecular electron microscopy, but the site also includes information and links on structural biology at all levels of resolution. This site serves to help integrate or link structural biology techniques in accordance with user needs. The WWW site, called the Electron Microscopy (EM) Outreach Program (URL: http://emoutreach.sdsc.edu), provides scientists with computational and educational tools for their research and edification. In particular, we have set up a centralized resource containing course notes, references, and links to image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction software for investigators wanting to learn about EM techniques either within or outside of their fields of expertise. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  5. Identifying and evaluating electronic learning resources for use in adult-gerontology nurse practitioner education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hilaire J; Belza, Basia; Baker, Margaret; Christianson, Phyllis; Doorenbos, Ardith; Nguyen, Huong

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing existing curricula to meet newly published adult-gerontology advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) competencies in an efficient manner presents a challenge to nurse educators. Incorporating shared, published electronic learning resources (ELRs) in existing or new courses may be appropriate in order to assist students in achieving competencies. The purposes of this project were to (a) identify relevant available ELR for use in enhancing geriatric APRN education and (b) to evaluate the educational utility of identified ELRs based on established criteria. A multilevel search strategy was used. Two independent team members reviewed identified ELR against established criteria to ensure utility. Only resources meeting all criteria were retained. Resources were found for each of the competency areas and included formats such as podcasts, Web casts, case studies, and teaching videos. In many cases, resources were identified using supplemental strategies and not through traditional search or search of existing geriatric repositories. Resources identified have been useful to advanced practice educators in improving lecture and seminar content in a particular topic area and providing students and preceptors with additional self-learning resources. Addressing sustainability within geriatric APRN education is critical for sharing of best practices among educators and for sustainability of teaching and related resources. © 2014.

  6. USE OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES WHEN TRAINING IN WORK WITH SPREADSHEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Х А Гербеков

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today the tools for maintaining training courses based on opportunities of information and communication technologies are developed. Practically in all directions of preparation and on all subject matters electronic textbook and self-instruction manuals are created. Nevertheless the industry of computer educational and methodical materials actively develops and gets more and more areas of development and introduction. In this regard more and more urgent is a problem of development of the electronic educational resources adequate to modern educational requirements. Creation and the organization of training courses with use of electronic educational resources in particular on the basis of Internet technologies remains a difficult methodical task.In article the questions connected with development of electronic educational resources for use when studying the substantial line “Information technologies” of a school course of informatics in particular for studying of spreadsheets are considered. Also the analysis of maintenance of a school course and the unified state examination from the point of view of representation of task in him corresponding to the substantial line of studying “Information technologies” on mastering technology of information processing in spreadsheets and the methods of visualization given by means of charts and schedules is carried out.

  7. Purification and characterization of the d-xylose isomerase gene from Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, N W.Y.; Rosenfeld, S; Stevis, P; Tsao, G T

    1983-11-01

    A DNA fragment containing both the Escherichia coli D-xylose isomerase (D-xylose ketol-isomerase, EC 5.3.1.5) gene and the D-xylulokinase (ATP: D-xylulose 5-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.17) gene has been cloned on an E. coli plasmid. The D-xylose isomerase gene was separated from the D-xylulokinase gene by the construction of a new deletion plasmid, pLX7. The D-xylose isomerase gene cloned on pLX7 was found still to be an intact gene. The precise location of the D-xylose isomerase gene on the plasmid pLX7 was further determined by the construction of two more plasmids, pLX8 and pLX9. This is believed to be the first D-xylose isomerase gene that has been isolated and extensively purified from any organism. D-Xylose isomerase, the enzyme product of the D-xylose isomerase gene, is responsible for the conversion of D-xylose to D-xylulose, as well as D-glucose to D-fructose. It is widely believed that yeast cannot ferment D-xylose to ethanol primarily because of the lack of D-xylose isomerase in yeast. D-Xylose isomerase (also known as D-glucose isomerase) is also used for the commercial production of high-fructose syrups. The purification of the D-xylose isomerase gene may lead to the following industrial applications: (1) cloning and expression of the gene in yeast to make the latter organism capable of directly fermenting D-xylose to ethanol, and (2) cloning of the gene on a high-copy-number plasmid in a proper host to overproduce the enzyme, which should have a profound impact on the high-fructose syrup technology. 14 references.

  8. Methods of measuring Protein Disulfide Isomerase activity: a critical overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Monica; Laurindo, Francisco; Fernandes, Denise

    2014-09-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase is an essential redox chaperone from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and is responsible for correct disulfide bond formation in nascent proteins. PDI is also found in other cellular locations in the cell, particularly the cell surface. Overall, PDI contributes to ER and global cell redox homeostasis and signaling. The knowledge about PDI structure and function progressed substantially based on in vitro studies using recombinant PDI and chimeric proteins. In these experimental scenarios, PDI reductase and chaperone activities are readily approachable. In contrast, assays to measure PDI isomerase activity, the hallmark of PDI family, are more complex. Assessment of PDI roles in cells and tissues mainly relies on gain- or loss-of-function studies. However, there is limited information regarding correlation of experimental readouts with the distinct types of PDI activities. In this mini-review, we evaluate the main methods described for measuring the different kinds of PDI activity: thiol reductase, thiol oxidase, thiol isomerase and chaperone. We emphasize the need to use appropriate controls and the role of critical interferents (e.g., detergent, presence of reducing agents). We also discuss the translation of results from in vitro studies with purified recombinant PDI to cellular and tissue samples, with critical comments on the interpretation of results.

  9. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables

  10. Availability, Level of Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Resources by Law Lecturers in Public Universities in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusa, Oyintola Isiaka; Atinmo, Morayo

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) This study surveyed the level of availability, use and constraints to use of electronic resources among law lecturers in Nigeria. (Methodology) Five hundred and fifty-two law lecturers were surveyed and four hundred and forty-two responded. (Results) Data analysis revealed that the level of availability of electronic resources for the…

  11. GUIDELINES FOR EVALUATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina P. Lavrentieva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the causes of insufficient effective use of electronic learning resources and sets out the guidelines on ways to solve the aforementioned problems. The set of didactic, methodical, psychological, pedagogical, design and ergonomic quality requirements is considered for evaluation, selection and application of information and communication technologies in the educational process. The most appropriate mechanisms for the ICT introduction into the learning process are disclosed as it should meet the specific learning needs of the student and the objectives of the educational process. The guidance for psycho-educational assessment of quality of electronic educational resources is provided. It is argued that the effectiveness of the ICT use is to be improved by means of quality evaluation mechanisms involved into the educational process.

  12. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Loban; D. A. Lovtsov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with elec...

  13. A systematic review of portable electronic technology for health education in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Megan S; Fischer, Lydia J; Chun, Yeona; Vreeman, Rachel C

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature of how portable electronic technologies with offline functionality are perceived and used to provide health education in resource-limited settings. Three reviewers evaluated articles and performed a bibliography search to identify studies describing health education delivered by portable electronic device with offline functionality in low- or middle-income countries. Data extracted included: study population; study design and type of analysis; type of technology used; method of use; setting of technology use; impact on caregivers, patients, or overall health outcomes; and reported limitations. Searches yielded 5514 unique titles. Out of 75 critically reviewed full-text articles, 10 met inclusion criteria. Study locations included Botswana, Peru, Kenya, Thailand, Nigeria, India, Ghana, and Tanzania. Topics addressed included: development of healthcare worker training modules, clinical decision support tools, patient education tools, perceptions and usability of portable electronic technology, and comparisons of technologies and/or mobile applications. Studies primarily looked at the assessment of developed educational modules on trainee health knowledge, perceptions and usability of technology, and comparisons of technologies. Overall, studies reported positive results for portable electronic device-based health education, frequently reporting increased provider/patient knowledge, improved patient outcomes in both quality of care and management, increased provider comfort level with technology, and an environment characterized by increased levels of technology-based, informal learning situations. Negative assessments included high investment costs, lack of technical support, and fear of device theft. While the research is limited, portable electronic educational resources present promising avenues to increase access to effective health education in resource-limited settings, contingent

  14. Model of e-learning with electronic educational resources of new generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Loban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: improving of scientific and methodical base of the theory of the е-learning of variability. Methods used: conceptual and logical modeling of the е-learning of variability process with electronic educational resource of new generation and system analysis of the interconnection of the studied subject area, methods, didactics approaches and information and communication technologies means. Results: the formalization complex model of the е-learning of variability with electronic educational resource of new generation is developed, conditionally decomposed into three basic components: the formalization model of the course in the form of the thesaurusclassifier (“Author of e-resource”, the model of learning as management (“Coordination. Consultation. Control”, the learning model with the thesaurus-classifier (“Student”. Model “Author of e-resource” allows the student to achieve completeness, high degree of didactic elaboration and structuring of the studied material in triples of variants: modules of education information, practical task and control tasks; the result of the student’s (author’s of e-resource activity is the thesaurus-classifier. Model of learning as management is based on the principle of personal orientation of learning in computer environment and determines the logic of interaction between the lecturer and the student when determining the triple of variants individually for each student; organization of a dialogue between the lecturer and the student for consulting purposes; personal control of the student’s success (report generation and iterative search for the concept of the class assignment in the thesaurus-classifier before acquiring the required level of training. Model “Student” makes it possible to concretize the learning tasks in relation to the personality of the student and to the training level achieved; the assumption of the lecturer about the level of training of a

  15. Review of material recovery from used electric and electronic equipment-alternative options for resource conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning

    2012-09-01

    For waste from electric and electronic equipment, the WEEE Directive stipulates the separate collection of electric and electronic waste. As to new electric and electronic devices, the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive bans the use of certain chemicals dangerous for man and environment. From the implementation of the WEEE directive, many unsolved problems have been documented: poor collection success, emission of dangerous substances during collection and recycling, irretrievable loss of valuable metals among others. As to RoHS, data from the literature show a satisfying success. The problems identified in the process can be reduced to some basic dilemmas at the borders between waste management, product policy and chemical safety. The objectives of the WEEE Directive and the specific targets for use and recycling of appliances are not consistent. There is no focus on scarce resources. Extended producer responsibility is not sufficient to guarantee sustainable waste management. Waste management reaches its limits due to problems of implementation but also due to physical laws. A holistic approach is necessary looking at all branch points and sinks in the stream of used products and waste from electric and electronic equipment. This may be done with respect to the general rules for sustainable management of material streams covering the three dimensions of sustainable policy. The relationships between the players in the field of electric and electronic devices have to be taken into account. Most of the problems identified in the implementation process will not be solved by the current amendment of the WEEE Directive.

  16. [Use of internet and electronic resources among Spanish intensivist physicians. First national survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Tello, V; Latour-Pérez, J; Añón Elizalde, J M; Palencia-Herrejón, E; Díaz-Alersi, R; De Lucas-García, N

    2006-01-01

    Estimate knowledge and use habits of different electronic resources in a sample of Spanish intensivists: Internet, E-mail, distribution lists, and use of portable electronic devices. Self-applied questionnaire. A 50-question questionnaire was distributed among Spanish intensivists through the hospital marketing delegates of a pharmaceutical company and of electronic forums. A total of 682 questionnaires were analyzed (participation: 74%). Ninety six percent of those surveyed used Internet individually: 67% admitted training gap. Internet was the second source of clinical consultations most used (61%), slightly behind consultation to colleagues (65%). The pages consulted most were bibliographic databases (65%) and electronic professional journals (63%), with limited use of Evidence Based Medicine pages (19%). Ninety percent of those surveyed used e-mail regularly in the practice of their profession, although 25% admitted that were not aware of its possibilities. The use of E-mail decreased significantly with increase in age. A total of 62% of the intensivists used distribution lists. Of the rest, 42% were not aware of its existence and 32% admitted they had insufficient training to handle them. Twenty percent of those surveyed had portable electronic devices and 64% considered it useful, basically due to its rapid consultation at bedside. Female gender was a negative predictive factor of its use (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.2-0.63; p=0.0002). A large majority of the Spanish intensivists use Internet and E-mail. E-mail lists and use of portable devices are still underused resources. There are important gaps in training and infrequent use of essential pages. There are specific groups that require directed educational policies.

  17. Nucleotide sequence of the triosephosphate isomerase gene from Macaca mulatta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Old, S.E.; Mohrenweiser, H.W. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))

    1988-09-26

    The triosephosphate isomerase gene from a rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta, charon 34 library was sequenced. The human and chimpanzee enzymes differ from the rhesus enzyme at ASN 20 and GLU 198. The nucleotide sequence identity between rhesus and human is 97% in the coding region and >94% in the flanking regions. Comparison of the rhesus and chimp genes, including the intron and flanking sequences, does not suggest a mechanism for generating the two TPI peptides of proliferating cells from hominoids and a single peptide from the rhesus gene.

  18. The Synthesis of the Hierarchical Structure of Information Resources for Management of Electronic Commerce Entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutova Anzhelika S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to develop the theoretical bases for the classification and coding of economic information and the scientific justification of the content of information resources of an electronic commerce enterprise. The essence of information resources for management of electronic business entities is investigated. It is proved that the organization of accounting in e-commerce systems is advisable to be built on the basis of two circuits: accounting for financial flows and accounting associated with transformation of business factors in products and services as a result of production activities. There presented a sequence of accounting organization that allows to combine the both circuits in a single information system, which provides a possibility for the integrated replenishment and distributed simultaneous use of the e-commerce system by all groups of users. It is proved that the guarantee of efficient activity of the information management system of electronic commerce entities is a proper systematization of the aggregate of information resources on economic facts and operations of an enterprise in accordance with the management tasks by building the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. It is suggested to understand nomenclature as an objective, primary information aggregate concerning a certain fact of the economic activity of an enterprise, which is characterized by minimum requisites, is entered into the database of the information system and is to be reflected in the accounting system. It is proposed to build a database of e-commerce systems as a part of directories (constants, personnel, goods / products, suppliers, buyers and the hierarchy of accounting nomenclatures. The package of documents regulating the organization of accounting at an enterprise should include: the provision on the accounting services, the order on the accounting policy, the job descriptions, the schedules of information exchange, the report card and

  19. ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES FOR ONLINE SUPPORT OF MODERN CHEMISTRY CLASSES IN SPECIALIZED SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. Tukalo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contains material of some modern electronic educational resources that can be used via the Internet to support the modern chemistry classes in specialized school. It was drawn attention to the educational chemical experiments as means of knowledge; simulated key motivational characteristics to enhance students interest for learning subjects, their cognitive and practical activity in the formation of self-reliance and self-creative; commented forecasts for creating of conditions to enhance the creative potential of students in a modern learning environment.

  20. Arabidopsis Phosphomannose Isomerase 1, but Not Phosphomannose Isomerase 2, Is Essential for Ascorbic Acid Biosynthesis*S⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Maruta, Takanori; Yonemitsu, Miki; Yabuta, Yukinori; Tamoi, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    We studied molecular and functional properties of Arabidopsis phosphomannose isomerase isoenzymes (PMI1 and PMI2) that catalyze reversible isomerization between d-fructose 6-phosphate and d-mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6P). The apparent Km and Vmax values for Man-6P of purified recombinant PMI1 were 41.3 ± 4.2 μm and 1.89 μmol/min/mg protein, respectively, whereas those of purified recombinant PMI2 were 372 ± 13 μm and 22.5 μmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Both PMI1 ...

  1. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system should be assessed. Developed a model for the development of the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system, which is based on the main scientific approaches, used in adult education, and consists of five blocks: target, informative, technological, diagnostic and effective.

  2. A preliminary categorization of end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment as secondary metal resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinsuke; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Kida, Akiko; Kameya, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) as secondary metal resources. → The content and the total amount of metals in specific equipment are both important. → We categorized 21 EEE types from contents and total amounts of various metals. → Important equipment types as secondary resources were listed for each metal kind. → Collectability and possible collection systems of various EEE types were discussed. - Abstract: End-of-life electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has recently received attention as a secondary source of metals. This study examined characteristics of end-of-life EEE as secondary metal resources to consider efficient collection and metal recovery systems according to the specific metals and types of EEE. We constructed an analogy between natural resource development and metal recovery from end-of-life EEE and found that metal content and total annual amount of metal contained in each type of end-of-life EEE should be considered in secondary resource development, as well as the collectability of the end-of-life products. We then categorized 21 EEE types into five groups and discussed their potential as secondary metal resources. Refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, and CRT TVs were evaluated as the most important sources of common metals, and personal computers, mobile phones, and video games were evaluated as the most important sources of precious metals. Several types of small digital equipment were also identified as important sources of precious metals; however, mid-size information and communication technology (ICT) equipment (e.g., printers and fax machines) and audio/video equipment were shown to be more important as a source of a variety of less common metals. The physical collectability of each type of EEE was roughly characterized by unit size and number of end-of-life products generated annually. Current collection systems in Japan were examined and potentially appropriate collection

  3. Open-Source Electronic Health Record Systems for Low-Resource Settings: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syzdykova, Assel; Malta, André; Zolfo, Maria; Diro, Ermias; Oliveira, José Luis

    2017-11-13

    Despite the great impact of information and communication technologies on clinical practice and on the quality of health services, this trend has been almost exclusive to developed countries, whereas countries with poor resources suffer from many economic and social issues that have hindered the real benefits of electronic health (eHealth) tools. As a component of eHealth systems, electronic health records (EHRs) play a fundamental role in patient management and effective medical care services. Thus, the adoption of EHRs in regions with a lack of infrastructure, untrained staff, and ill-equipped health care providers is an important task. However, the main barrier to adopting EHR software in low- and middle-income countries is the cost of its purchase and maintenance, which highlights the open-source approach as a good solution for these underserved areas. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of open-source EHR systems based on the requirements and limitations of low-resource settings. First, we reviewed existing literature on the comparison of available open-source solutions. In close collaboration with the University of Gondar Hospital, Ethiopia, we identified common limitations in poor resource environments and also the main requirements that EHRs should support. Then, we extensively evaluated the current open-source EHR solutions, discussing their strengths and weaknesses, and their appropriateness to fulfill a predefined set of features relevant for low-resource settings. The evaluation methodology allowed assessment of several key aspects of available solutions that are as follows: (1) integrated applications, (2) configurable reports, (3) custom reports, (4) custom forms, (5) interoperability, (6) coding systems, (7) authentication methods, (8) patient portal, (9) access control model, (10) cryptographic features, (11) flexible data model, (12) offline support, (13) native client, (14) Web client,(15) other clients, (16) code

  4. Studies on the production of glucose isomerase by Bacillus licheniformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the effects of some culture conditions on the production of glucose isomerase by Bacillus licheniformis. The bacterium was selected based on the release of 3.62 mg/mL fructose from the fermentation of glucose. Enzyme was produced using a variety of carbon substrates but the highest enzyme activity was detected in a medium containing 0.5% xylose and 1% glycerol (specific activity = 6.88 U/mg protein. Media containing only xylose or glucose gave lower enzyme productivies (specific activities= 4.60 and 2.35 U/mg protein respectively. The effects of nitrogen substrates on glucose isomerase production showed that yeast extract supported maximum enzyme activity (specific activity = 5.24 U/mg protein. Lowest enzyme activity was observed with sodium trioxonitrate (specific activity = 2.44 U/mg protein. In general, organic nitrogen substrates supported higher enzyme productivity than inorganic nitrogen substrates. Best enzyme activity was observed in the presence of Mg2+ (specific activity = 6.85 U/mg protein while Hg2+ was inhibitory (specific activity = 1.02 U/mg protein. The optimum pH for best enzyme activity was 6.0 while optimum temperature for enzyme production was 50ºC.

  5. THE MODEL OF LINGUISTIC TEACHERS’ COMPETENCY DEVELOPMENT ON DESIGNING MULTIMEDIA ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES IN THE MOODLE SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Anton M. Avramchuk

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of developing the competency of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system. The concept of "the competence of teachers of language disciplines on designing multimedia electronic educational resources in the Moodle system" is justified and defined. Identified and characterized the components by which the levels of the competency development of teachers of language disciplines on designing ...

  6. Determining the level of awareness of the physicians in using the variety of electronic information resources and the effecting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papi, Ahmad; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Moradi, Salimeh

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of the medical society's from the types of information resources for quick and easy access to information is an imperative task in medical researches and management of the treatment. The present study was aimed to determine the level of awareness of the physicians in using various electronic information resources and the factors affecting it. This study was a descriptive survey. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire. The study population included all the physicians and specialty physicians of the teaching hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and numbered 350. The sample size based on Morgan's formula was set at 180. The content validity of the tool was confirmed by the library and information professionals and the reliability was 95%. Descriptive statistics were used including the SPSS software version 19. On reviewing the need of the physicians to obtain the information on several occasions, the need for information in conducting the researches was reported by the maximum number of physicians (91.9%) and the usage of information resources, especially the electronic resources, formed 65.4% as the highest rate with regard to meeting the information needs of the physicians. Among the electronic information databases, the maximum awareness was related to Medline with 86.5%. Among the various electronic information resources, the highest awareness (43.3%) was related to the E-journals. The highest usage (36%) was also from the same source. The studied physicians considered the most effective deterrent in the use of electronic information resources as being too busy and lack of time. Despite the importance of electronic information resources for the physician's community, there was no comprehensive knowledge of these resources. This can lead to less usage of these resources. Therefore, careful planning is necessary in the hospital libraries in order to introduce the facilities and full capabilities of the

  7. Success criteria for electronic medical record implementations in low-resource settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Fleur; Tilahun, Binyam; Dugas, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems have the potential of supporting clinical work by providing the right information at the right time to the right people and thus make efficient use of resources. This is especially important in low-resource settings where reliable data are also needed to support public health and local supporting organizations. In this systematic literature review, our objectives are to identify and collect literature about success criteria of EMR implementations in low-resource settings and to summarize them into recommendations. Our search strategy relied on PubMed queries and manual bibliography reviews. Studies were included if EMR implementations in low-resource settings were described. The extracted success criteria and measurements were summarized into 7 categories: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical, and training. We collected 381 success criteria with 229 measurements from 47 articles out of 223 articles. Most papers were evaluations or lessons learned from African countries, published from 1999 to 2013. Almost half of the EMR systems served a specific disease area like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The majority of criteria that were reported dealt with the functionality, followed by organizational issues, and technical infrastructures. Sufficient training and skilled personnel were mentioned in roughly 10%. Political, ethical, and financial considerations did not play a predominant role. More evaluations based on reliable frameworks are needed. Highly reliable data handling methods, human resources and effective project management, as well as technical architecture and infrastructure are all key factors for successful EMR implementation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Impact of Knowledge Resources Linked to an Electronic Health Record on Frequency of Unnecessary Tests and Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth; Grad, Roland; Pluye, Pierre; Nowacki, Amy; Hickner, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic knowledge resources have the potential to rapidly provide answers to clinicians' questions. We sought to determine clinicians' reasons for searching these resources, the rate of finding relevant information, and the perceived clinical impact of the information they retrieved. Methods: We asked general internists, family…

  9. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Electronic theses and dissertations: a review of this valuable resource for nurse scholars worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, L M

    2009-06-01

    A worldwide repository of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) could provide worldwide access to the most up-to-date research generated by masters and doctoral students. Until that international repository is established, it is possible to access some of these valuable knowledge resources. ETDs provide a technologically advanced medium with endless multimedia capabilities that far exceed the print and bound copies of theses and dissertations housed traditionally in individual university libraries. CURRENT USE: A growing trend exists for universities worldwide to require graduate students to submit theses or dissertations as electronic documents. However, nurse scholars underutilize ETDs, as evidenced by perusing bibliographic citation lists in many of the research journals. ETDs can be searched for and retrieved through several digital resources such as the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (http://www.ndltd.org), ProQuest Dissertations and Theses (http://www.umi.com), the Australasian Digital Theses Program (http://adt.caul.edu.au/) and through individual university web sites and online catalogues. An international repository of ETDs benefits the community of nurse scholars in many ways. The ability to access recent graduate students' research electronically from anywhere in the world is advantageous. For scholars residing in developing countries, access to these ETDs may prove to be even more valuable. In some cases, ETDs are not available for worldwide access and can only be accessed through the university library from which the student graduated. Public access to university library ETD collections is not always permitted. Nurse scholars from both developing and developed countries could benefit from ETDs.

  11. From Millennium ERM to Proquest 360 Resource Manager: Implementing a new Electronic Resources Management System ERMS in an International Graduate Research University in Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-17

    An overview of the Recommendation Study and the subsequent Implementation of a new Electronic Resources Management system ERMS in an international graduate research university in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It covers the timeline, deliverables and challenges as well as lessons learnt by the Project Team.

  12. Preparation of fluorescence quenched libraries containing interchain disulphide bonds for studies of protein disulphide isomerases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spetzler, J C; Westphal, V; Winther, Jakob R.

    1998-01-01

    Protein disulphide isomerase is an enzyme that catalyses disulphide redox reactions in proteins. In this paper, fluorogenic and interchain disulphide bond containing peptide libraries and suitable substrates, useful in the study of protein disulphide isomerase, are described. In order to establish...... the quenching chromophore (Tyr(NO2)) and Cys(pNpys) activated for reaction with a second thiol. The formation and cleavage of the interchain disulphide bonds in the library were monitored under a fluorescence microscope. Substrates to investigate the properties of protein disulphide isomerase in solution were...

  13. Crystal Structure of Escherichia coli L-Arabinose Isomerase (ECAI), The Putative Target of Biological Tagatose Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manjasetty,B.; Chance, M.

    2006-01-01

    Escherichia coli L-arabinose isomerase (ECAI; EC 5.3.1.4) catalyzes the isomerization of L-arabinose to L-ribulose in vivo. This enzyme is also of commercial interest as it catalyzes the conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose in vitro. The crystal structure of ECAI was solved and refined at 2.6 Angstroms resolution. The subunit structure of ECAI is organized into three domains: an N-terminal, a central and a C-terminal domain. It forms a crystallographic trimeric architecture in the asymmetric unit. Packing within the crystal suggests the idea that ECAI can form a hexameric assembly. Previous electron microscopic and biochemical studies supports that ECAI is hexameric in solution. A comparison with other known structures reveals that ECAI adopts a protein fold most similar to E. coli fucose isomerase (ECFI) despite very low sequence identity 9.7%. The structural similarity between ECAI and ECFI with regard to number of domains, overall fold, biological assembly, and active site architecture strongly suggests that the enzymes have functional similarities. Further, the crystal structure of ECAI forms a basis for identifying molecular determinants responsible for isomerization of arabinose to ribulose in vivo and galactose to tagatose in vitro.

  14. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Availability, Use and Constraints to Use of Electronic Information Resources by Postgraduates Students at the University of Ibadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare Samuel Adeleke

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Availability, awareness and use of electronic resources provide access to authoritative, reliable, accurate and timely access to information. The use of electronic information resources (EIRs can enable innovation in teaching and increase timeliness in research of postgraduate students which will eventual result into encouragement of the expected research-led enquiry in this digital age. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. Samples of 300 of postgraduate students within seven out 13 Faculties were randomly selected. Data were collected using questionnaire designed to elicit response from respondents and data were analyzed using descriptive statistics methods percentages, mean, and standard deviation. Results indicated that internet was ranked most available and used in the university. Low level of usage of electronic resources, in particular, full texts data bases is linked to a number of constraints: Interrupted power supply was ranked highest among other factors as speed and capacity of computers, retrieval of records with high recall and low precision, retrieving records relevant to information need, lack of knowledge of search techniques to retrieve information effectively, non possession of requisite IT skills and problems accessing the internet. The study recommended that usage of electronic resources be made compulsory, intensifying awareness campaigns concerning the availability, training on use of electronic resources and the problem of power outage be addressed.

  16. Using mobile electronic devices to deliver educational resources in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazal, Jonathan Robert; Ludwig, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Developing countries have far fewer trained radiography professionals than developed countries, which exacerbates the limited access to imaging services. The lack of trained radiographers reflects, in part, limited availability of radiographer-specific educational resources. Historically, organizations that provided such resources in the developing world faced challenges related to the limited stock of current materials as well as expenses associated with shipping and delivery. Four mobile electronic devices (MEDs) were loaded with educational content (e-books, PDFs, and digital applications) spanning major radiography topics. The MEDs were distributed to 4 imaging departments in Ghana, India, Nepal, and Nigeria based on evidence of need for radiography-specific resources, as revealed by survey responses. A cost comparison of postal delivery vs digital delivery of educational content was performed. The effectiveness of delivering additional content via Wi-Fi transmission also was evaluated. Feedback was solicited on users' experience with the MEDs as a delivery tool for educational content. An initial average per e-book expense of $30.05, which included the cost of the device, was calculated for the MED delivery method compared with $15.56 for postal delivery of printed materials. The cost of the MED delivery method was reduced to an average of $10.05 for subsequent e-book deliveries. Additional content was successfully delivered via Wi-Fi transmission to all recipients during the 3-month follow-up period. Overall user feedback on the experience was positive, and ideas for enhancing the MED-based method were identified. Using MEDs to deliver radiography-specific educational content appears to be more cost effective than postal delivery of printed materials on a long-term basis. MEDs are more efficient for providing updates to educational materials. Customization of content to department needs, and using projector devices could enhance the usefulness of MEDs for

  17. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystal analysis of Bacillus pallidusd-arabinose isomerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Kosei; Yoshida, Hiromi; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken; Kamitori, Shigehiro

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant B. pallidusd-arabinose isomerase was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution. d-Arabinose isomerase catalyzes the isomerization of d-arabinose to d-ribulose. Bacillus pallidusd-arabinose isomerase has broad substrate specificity and can catalyze the isomerization of d-arabinose, l-fucose, l-xylose, l-galactose and d-altrose. Recombinant B. pallidusd-arabinose isomerase was overexpressed, purified and crystallized. A crystal of the enzyme was obtained by the sitting-drop method at room temperature and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 144.9, b = 127.9, c = 109.5 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 2.3 Å resolution

  18. Structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobley, Carina M. C.; Aller, Pierre; Douangamath, Alice; Reddivari, Yamini; Bumann, Mario; Bird, Louise E.; Nettleship, Joanne E.; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Owens, Raymond J.; O’Toole, Paul W.; Walsh, Martin A.

    2012-01-01

    The crystal structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase has been determined to 1.72 Å resolution and is presented with a brief comparison to other known ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A structures. The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC188 has been determined at 1.72 Å resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, which identified the functional homodimer in the asymmetric unit. Despite only showing 57% sequence identity to its closest homologue, the structure adopted the typical α and β d-ribose 5-phosphate isomerase fold. Comparison to other related structures revealed high homology in the active site, allowing a model of the substrate-bound protein to be proposed. The determination of the structure was expedited by the use of in situ crystallization-plate screening on beamline I04-1 at Diamond Light Source to identify well diffracting protein crystals prior to routine cryocrystallography

  19. The electronic encapsulation of knowledge in hydraulics, hydrology and water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Michael B.

    The rapidly developing practice of encapsulating knowledge in electronic media is shown to lead necessarily to the restructuring of the knowledge itself. The consequences of this for hydraulics, hydrology and more general water-resources management are investigated in particular relation to current process-simulation, real-time control and advice-serving systems. The generic properties of the electronic knowledge encapsulator are described, and attention is drawn to the manner in which knowledge 'goes into hiding' through encapsulation. This property is traced in the simple situations of pure mathesis and in the more complex situations of taxinomia using one example each from hydraulics and hydrology. The consequences for systems architectures are explained, pointing to the need for multi-agent architectures for ecological modelling and for more general hydroinformatics systems also. The relevance of these developments is indicated by reference to ongoing projects in which they are currently being realised. In conclusion, some more general epistemological aspects are considered within the same context. As this contribution is so much concerned with the processes of signification and communication, it has been partly shaped by the theory of semiotics, as popularised by Eco ( A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1977).

  20. Plastics disassembly versus bulk recycling: engineering design for end-of-life electronics resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Pedro; Stuart, Julie Ann; Grant, Ed

    2003-12-01

    Annual plastic flows through the business and consumer electronics manufacturing supply chain include nearly 3 billion lb of high-value engineering plastics derived from petroleum. The recovery of resource value from this stream presents critical challenges in areas of materials identification and recycling process design that demand new green engineering technologies applied together with life cycle assessment and ecological supply chain analysis to create viable plastics-to-plastics supply cycles. The sustainable recovery of potentially high-value engineering plastics streams requires that recyclers either avoid mixing plastic parts or purify later by separating smaller plastic pieces created in volume reduction (shredding) steps. Identification and separation constitute significant barriers in the plastics-to-plastics recycling value proposition. In the present work, we develop a model that accepts randomly arriving electronic products to study scenarios by which a recycler might identify and separate high-value engineering plastics as well as metals. Using discrete eventsimulation,we compare current mixed plastics recovery with spectrochemical plastic resin identification and subsequent sorting. Our results show that limited disassembly with whole-part identification can produce substantial yields in separated streams of recovered engineering thermoplastics. We find that disassembly with identification does not constitute a bottleneck, but rather, with relatively few workers, can be configured to pull the process and thus decrease maximum staging space requirements.

  1. A single and two step isomerization process for d-tagatose and l-ribose bioproduction using l-arabinose isomerase and d-lyxose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manisha J; Akhani, Rekha C; Patel, Arti T; Dedania, Samir R; Patel, Darshan H

    2017-02-01

    l-ribose and d-tagatose are biochemically synthesized using sugar isomerases. The l-arabinose isomerase gene from Shigella flexneri (Sf-AI) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21. Sf-AI was applied for the bioproduction of d-tagatose from d-galactose. l-ribose synthesis was performed by two step isomerization using Sf-AI and d-lyxose/ribose isomerase from Cohnella laevoribosii. The overall 22.3% and 25% conversion rate were observed for d-tagatose and l-ribose production from d-galactose and l-arabinose respectively. In the present manuscript, synthesis of rare sugars from naturally available sugars is discussed along with the biochemical characterization of Sf-AI and its efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The secreted l-arabinose isomerase displays anti-hyperglycemic effects in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Rhimi, Moez; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G.; Huang, Yuan; Boudebbouze, Samira; Gaci, Nadia; Garnier, Alexandrine; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Mkaouar, H?la; Langella, Philippe; Maguin, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Background The l-arabinose isomerase is an intracellular enzyme which converts l-arabinose into l-ribulose in living systems and d-galactose into d-tagatose in industrial processes and at industrial scales. d-tagatose is a natural ketohexose with potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. The d-galactose isomerization reaction is thermodynamically equilibrated, and leads to secondary subproducts at high pH. Therefore, an attractive l-arabinose isomerase should be thermoactive and a...

  3. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  4. Triosephosphate isomerase is a common crystallization contaminant of soluble His-tagged proteins produced in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Guennadi; Vinaik, Roohi; Gehring, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    Crystals of E. coli triosephosphate isomerase were obtained as a contaminant and its structure was determined to 1.85 Å resolution. Attempts to crystallize several mammalian proteins overexpressed in Escherichia coli revealed a common contaminant, triosephosphate isomerase, a protein involved in glucose metabolism. Even with triosephosphate isomerase present in very small amounts, similarly shaped crystals appeared in the crystallization drops in a number of polyethylene glycol-containing conditions. All of the target proteins were His-tagged and their purification involved immobilized metal-affinity chromatography (IMAC), a step that was likely to lead to triosephosphate isomerase contamination. Analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase crystals led to the structure of E. coli triosephosphate isomerase at 1.85 Å resolution, which is a significant improvement over the previous structure

  5. Electronic Human Resources Management (e-HRM Adoption Studies: Past and Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winarto Winarto

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic human resource management (e-HRM systems become more widely used by profit and non-profit organization. However, the field currently lacks sound theoretical frameworks that can be useful in addressing a key issue concerning the implementation of e-HRM systems, in particular to obtain a better understanding of the factors influencing the adoption of e-HRM systems. The objective of this paper is to provide a foundation towards the development of a theoretical framework for the implementation of e-HRM systems and develop a conceptual model that would reflect the nature of e-HRM systems’ adoption through systematic literature review. Adopting Crossan and Apaydin’s procedure of systematic review, this paper investigated 21 empirical papers of electronics human resources management, then categorized them into 4 characteristics which influence the adoption; System and technology characteristics; Organizational characteristics; User/individual characteristics, and Environmental and contextual characteristics. Finally, the e-HRM adoption research framework is drawn and based on the framework; avenues for future research are discussed.   Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik (selanjutnya disebut dengan e-HRM semakin banyak digunakan oleh organisasi profit dan nonprofit. Namun, bidang dan topik ini belum memiliki kerangka teori yang mapan, yang dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis isu-isu terkait penerapan e-HRM, terutama mengenai faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi adopsi sistem e-HRM. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memberikan landasan bagi pengembangan kerangka teoritis untuk implementasi sistem e-HRM dan mengembangkan model konseptual yang akan menggambarkan adopsi sistem e-HRM melalui tinjauan literatur sistematis. Mengadopsi prosedur dan metode Crossan dan Apaydin untuk melakukan telaah literatur secara sistematis, paper ini menyelidiki 21 publikasi empiris manajemen sumber daya manusia elektronik dari 2

  6. Glucose isomerization in simulated moving bed reactor by Glucose isomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Alberto Borges da Silva

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the production of high-fructose syrup by Simulated Moving Bed (SMB technology. A mathematical model and numerical methodology were used to predict the behavior and performance of the simulated moving bed reactors and to verify some important aspects for application of this technology in the isomerization process. The developed algorithm used the strategy that considered equivalences between simulated moving bed reactors and true moving bed reactors. The kinetic parameters of the enzymatic reaction were obtained experimentally using discontinuous reactors by the Lineweaver-Burk technique. Mass transfer effects in the reaction conversion using the immobilized enzyme glucose isomerase were investigated. In the SMB reactive system, the operational variable flow rate of feed stream was evaluated to determine its influence on system performance. Results showed that there were some flow rate values at which greater purities could be obtained.Neste trabalho a tecnologia de Leito Móvel Simulado (LMS reativo é aplicada no processo de isomerização da glicose visando à produção de xarope concentrado de frutose. É apresentada a modelagem matemática e uma metodologia numérica para predizer o comportamento e o desempenho de unidades reativas de leito móvel simulado para verificar alguns aspectos importantes para o emprego desta tecnologia no processo de isomerização. O algoritmo desenvolvido utiliza a abordagem que considera as equivalências entre as unidades reativas de leito móvel simulado e leito móvel verdadeiro. Parâmetros cinéticos da reação enzimática são obtidos experimentalmente usando reatores em batelada pela técnica Lineweaver-Burk. Efeitos da transferência de massa na conversão de reação usando a enzima imobilizada glicose isomerase são verificados. No sistema reativo de LMS, a variável operacional vazão da corrente de alimentação é avaliada para conhecer o efeito de sua influência no

  7. Impact of Electronic Resources and Usage in Academic Libraries in Ghana: Evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akussah, Maxwell; Asante, Edward; Adu-Sarkodee, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the relationship between impact of electronic resources and its usage in academic libraries in Ghana: evidence from Koforidua Polytechnic & All Nations University College, Ghana. The study was a quantitative approach using questionnaire to gather data and information. A valid response rate of 58.5% was assumed. SPSS…

  8. Utilization of Electronic Information Resources by Undergraduate Students of University of Ibadan: A Case Study of Social Sciences and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Sola; Idowu, Oluwafemi A.; Okocha, Foluke; Ogundare, Atinuke Omotayo

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated utilization of electronic information resources by undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a study population of 1872 undergraduates in the Faculties of Education and the Social Sciences in University of Ibadan, from which a…

  9. Roles of Prolyl Isomerases in RNA-Mediated Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roopa Thapar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases that include immunophilins (cyclophilins and FKBPs and parvulins (Pin1, Par14, Par17 participate in cell signaling, transcription, pre-mRNA processing and mRNA decay. The human genome encodes 19 cyclophilins, 18 FKBPs and three parvulins. Immunophilins are receptors for the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A, FK506, and rapamycin that are used in organ transplantation. Pin1 has also been targeted in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease, asthma, and a number of cancers. While these PPIases are characterized as molecular chaperones, they also act in a nonchaperone manner to promote protein-protein interactions using surfaces outside their active sites. The immunosuppressive drugs act by a gain-of-function mechanism by promoting protein-protein interactions in vivo. Several immunophilins have been identified as components of the spliceosome and are essential for alternative splicing. Pin1 plays roles in transcription and RNA processing by catalyzing conformational changes in the RNA Pol II C-terminal domain. Pin1 also binds several RNA binding proteins such as AUF1, KSRP, HuR, and SLBP that regulate mRNA decay by remodeling mRNP complexes. The functions of ribonucleoprotein associated PPIases are largely unknown. This review highlights PPIases that play roles in RNA-mediated gene expression, providing insight into their structures, functions and mechanisms of action in mRNP remodeling in vivo.

  10. Protein Disulfide Isomerase and Host-Pathogen Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz S. Stolf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS production by immunological cells is known to cause damage to pathogens. Increasing evidence accumulated in the last decade has shown, however, that ROS (and redox signals functionally regulate different cellular pathways in the host-pathogen interaction. These especially affect (i pathogen entry through protein redox switches and redox modification (i.e., intra- and interdisulfide and cysteine oxidation and (ii phagocytic ROS production via Nox family NADPH oxidase enzyme and the control of phagolysosome function with key implications for antigen processing. The protein disulfide isomerase (PDI family of redox chaperones is closely involved in both processes and is also implicated in protein unfolding and trafficking across the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and towards the cytosol, a thiol-based redox locus for antigen processing. Here, we summarise examples of the cellular association of host PDI with different pathogens and explore the possible roles of pathogen PDIs in infection. A better understanding of these complex regulatory steps will provide insightful information on the redox role and coevolutional biological process, and assist the development of more specific therapeutic strategies in pathogen-mediated infections.

  11. Systematic review of electronic surveillance of infectious diseases with emphasis on antimicrobial resistance surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Vong, Sirenda; Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2018-02-01

    Electronic surveillance of infectious diseases involves rapidly collecting, collating, and analyzing vast amounts of data from interrelated multiple databases. Although many developed countries have invested in electronic surveillance for infectious diseases, the system still presents a challenge for resource-limited health care settings. We conducted a systematic review by performing a comprehensive literature search on MEDLINE (January 2000-December 2015) to identify studies relevant to electronic surveillance of infectious diseases. Study characteristics and results were extracted and systematically reviewed by 3 infectious disease physicians. A total of 110 studies were included. Most surveillance systems were developed and implemented in high-income countries; less than one-quarter were conducted in low-or middle-income countries. Information technologies can be used to facilitate the process of obtaining laboratory, clinical, and pharmacologic data for the surveillance of infectious diseases, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR) infections. These novel systems require greater resources; however, we found that using electronic surveillance systems could result in shorter times to detect targeted infectious diseases and improvement of data collection. This study highlights a lack of resources in areas where an effective, rapid surveillance system is most needed. The availability of information technology for the electronic surveillance of infectious diseases, including AMR infections, will facilitate the prevention and containment of such emerging infectious diseases. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Use of Electronic Resources by Academic Staff at the University of Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka; Orim, Faith; Ibrahim, Dauda Morenikeji; Memudu, Suleiman Ajala

    2018-01-01

    The use of e-resources is now commonplace among academics in tertiary educational institutions the world over. Many academics including those in the universities are exploring the opportunities of e-resources to facilitate teaching and research. As the use of e-resources is increasing particularly among academics at the University of Ilorin,…

  13. Modeling antecedents of electronic medical record system implementation success in low-resource setting hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing implementation of Electronic Medical Record Systems (EMR) in developing countries, there is a growing need to identify antecedents of EMR success to measure and predict the level of adoption before costly implementation. However, less evidence is available about EMR success in the context of low-resource setting implementations. Therefore, this study aims to fill this gap by examining the constructs and relationships of the widely used DeLone and MacLean (D&M) information system success model to determine whether it can be applied to measure EMR success in those settings. A quantitative cross sectional study design using self-administered questionnaires was used to collect data from 384 health professionals working in five governmental hospitals in Ethiopia. The hospitals use a comprehensive EMR system since three years. Descriptive and structural equation modeling methods were applied to describe and validate the extent of relationship of constructs and mediating effects. The findings of the structural equation modeling shows that system quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.32, P quality has significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.44, P service quality has strong significant influence on EMR use (β = 0.36, P effect of EMR use on user satisfaction was not significant. Both EMR use and user satisfaction have significant influence on perceived net-benefit (β = 0.31, P mediating factor in the relationship between service quality and EMR use (P effect on perceived net-benefit of health professionals. EMR implementers and managers in developing countries are in urgent need of implementation models to design proper implementation strategies. In this study, the constructs and relationships depicted in the updated D&M model were found to be applicable to assess the success of EMR in low resource settings. Additionally, computer literacy was found to be a mediating factor in EMR use and user satisfaction of

  14. Immobilization of Recombinant Glucose Isomerase for Efficient Production of High Fructose Corn Syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li-Qun; Xu, Qi; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Jia, Dong-Xu; Liao, Cheng-Jun; Chen, De-Shui; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-09-01

    Glucose isomerase is the important enzyme for the production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). One-step production of HFCS containing more than 55% fructose (HFCS-55) is receiving much attention for its industrial applications. In this work, the Escherichia coli harboring glucose isomerase mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T was immobilized for efficient production of HFCS-55. The immobilization conditions were optimized, and the maximum enzyme activity recovery of 92% was obtained. The immobilized glucose isomerase showed higher pH, temperature, and operational stabilities with a K m value of 272 mM and maximum reaction rate of 23.8 mM min -1 . The fructose concentration still retained above 55% after the immobilized glucose isomerase was reused for 10 cycles, and more than 85% of its initial activity was reserved even after 15 recycles of usage at temperature of 90 °C. The results highlighted the immobilized glucose isomerase as a potential biocatalyst for HFCS-55 production.

  15. Use and Cost of Electronic Resources in Central Library of Ferdowsi University Based on E-metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Davarpanah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the usage of electronic journals in Ferdowsi University, Iran based on e-metrics. The paper also aimed to emphasize the analysis of cost-benefit and the correlation between the journal impact factors and the usage data. In this study experiences of Ferdowsi University library on licensing and usage of electronic resources was evaluated by providing a cost-benefit analysis based on the cost and usage statistics of electronic resources. Vendor-provided data were also compared with local usage data. The usage data were collected by tracking web-based access locally, and by collecting vender-provided usage data. The data sources were one-year of vendor-supplied e-resource usage data such as Ebsco, Elsevier, Proquest, Emerald, Oxford and Springer and local usage data collected from the Ferdowsi university web server. The study found that actual usage values differ for vendor-provided data and local usage data. Elsevier has got the highest usage degree in searches, sessions and downloads. Statistics also showed that a small number of journals satisfy significant amount of use while the majority of journals were used less frequent and some were never used at all. The users preferred the PDF rather than HTML format. The data in subject profile suggested that the provided e-resources were best suited to certain subjects. There was no correlation between IF and electronic journal use. Monitoring the usage of e-resources gained increasing importance for acquisition policy and budget decisions. The article provided information about local metrics for the six surveyed vendors/publishers, e.g. usage trends, requests per package, cost per use as related to the scientific specialty of the university.

  16. Molecular identification, immunolocalization, and characterization of Clonorchis sinensis triosephosphate isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juanjuan; Liao, Hua; Li, Shan; Zhou, Chenhui; Huang, Yan; Li, Xuerong; Liang, Chi; Yu, Xinbing

    2015-08-01

    Clonorchis sinensis triosephosphate isomerase (CsTIM) is a key regulatory enzyme of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, which catalyzes the interconversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate. In this study, the biochemical characterizations of CsTIM have been examined. A full-length complementary DNA (cDNA; Cs105350) sequence encoding CsTIM was obtained from our C. sinensis cDNA library. The open reading frame of CsTIM contains 759 bp which encodes 252 amino acids. The amino acid sequence of CsTIM shares 60-65% identity with other species. Western blot analysis displayed that recombinant CsTIM (rCsTIM) can be probed by anti-rCsTIM rat serum and anti-C. sinensis excretory/secretory products (anti-CsESPs) rat serum. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and western blotting analysis revealed that CsTIM messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were differentially expressed in development cycle stages of the parasite, including adult worm, metacercaria, excysted metacercaria, and egg. In addition, immunolocalization assay showed that CsTIM was located in the seminal vesicle, eggs, and testicle. Moreover, rCsTIM exhibited active enzyme activity in catalytic reactions. The Michaelis constant (K m) of rCsTIM was 0.33 mM, when using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as the substrate. The optimal temperature and pH of CsTIM were 37 °C and 7.5-9.5, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that CsTIM is an important protein involved in glycometabolism, and CsTIM possibly take part in many biological functions in the growth and development of C. sinensis.

  17. High production of D-tagatose, a potential sugar substitute, using immobilized L-arabinose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, P; Yoon, S H; Roh, H J; Choi, J H

    2001-01-01

    An L-arabinose isomerase of Escherichia coli was immobilized using covalent binding to agarose to produce D-tagatose, a bulking sweetener that can be economically used as a sugar substitute. The immobilized L-arabinose isomerase stably produced an average of 7.5 g-tagatose/L.day for 7 days with a productivity exceeding that of the free enzyme (0.47 vs 0.30 mg/U.day). Using a scaled-up immobilized enzyme system, 99.9 g-tagatose/L was produced from galactose with 20% equilibrium in 48 h. The process was repeated two more times with production of 104.1 and 103.5 g-tagatose/L. D-Tagatose production using an immobilized L-arabinose isomerase has a high potential for commercial application.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Divya; Anand, Kanchan; Mathur, Deepika; Jagadish, Nirmala; Suri, Anil; Garg, Lalit C.

    2007-01-01

    The phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 2.8 Å resolution. Phosphoglucose isomerase is a ubiquitous enzyme that catalyzes the isomerization of d-glucopyranose-6-phosphate to d-fructofuranose-6-phosphate. The present investigation reports the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of the phosphoglucose isomerase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, which shares 46% sequence identity with that of its human host. The recombinant protein, which was prepared using an Escherichia coli expression system, was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.8 Å and belonged to the orthorhombic space group I2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 109.0, b = 119.8, c = 138.9 Å

  19. Directed evolution of xylose isomerase for improved xylose catabolism and fermentation in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Mi; Jellison, Taylor; Alper, Hal S

    2012-08-01

    The heterologous expression of a highly functional xylose isomerase pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae would have significant advantages for ethanol yield, since the pathway bypasses cofactor requirements found in the traditionally used oxidoreductase pathways. However, nearly all reported xylose isomerase-based pathways in S. cerevisiae suffer from poor ethanol productivity, low xylose consumption rates, and poor cell growth compared with an oxidoreductase pathway and, additionally, often require adaptive strain evolution. Here, we report on the directed evolution of the Piromyces sp. xylose isomerase (encoded by xylA) for use in yeast. After three rounds of mutagenesis and growth-based screening, we isolated a variant containing six mutations (E15D, E114G, E129D, T142S, A177T, and V433I) that exhibited a 77% increase in enzymatic activity. When expressed in a minimally engineered yeast host containing a gre3 knockout and tal1 and XKS1 overexpression, the strain expressing this mutant enzyme improved its aerobic growth rate by 61-fold and both ethanol production and xylose consumption rates by nearly 8-fold. Moreover, the mutant enzyme enabled ethanol production by these yeasts under oxygen-limited fermentation conditions, unlike the wild-type enzyme. Under microaerobic conditions, the ethanol production rates of the strain expressing the mutant xylose isomerase were considerably higher than previously reported values for yeast harboring a xylose isomerase pathway and were also comparable to those of the strains harboring an oxidoreductase pathway. Consequently, this study shows the potential to evolve a xylose isomerase pathway for more efficient xylose utilization.

  20. Use and User Perception of Electronic Information Resources: A Case Study of Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmurugan Chandran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to explore the use and user perception of electronic resources in Siva Institute of Frontier Technology, India. A total number of 123 users were taken into account for the study through a questionnaire-based survey method. A well-structured questionnaire was designed and distributed to the selected 200 students and staff members. 123 copies of the questionnaires were returned dully filled in and the overall response rate was 61.50 percent. The questionnaire contained both open- and close-ended questions. The collected data were classified, analyzed, and tabulated by using simple statistical methods. This study covers the impact of electronic resources on students and faculty in their academic pursuit.

  1. Escherichia coli rpiA gene encoding ribose phosphate isomerase A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Jensen, Bjarne; Maigaard, Marianne

    1993-01-01

    The rpiA gene encoding ribose phosphate isomerase A was cloned from phage 1A2(471) of the Kohara gene library. Subcloning, restriction, and complementation analyses revealed an 1,800-bp SspI-generated DNA fragment that contained the entire control and coding sequences. This DNA fragment was seque......The rpiA gene encoding ribose phosphate isomerase A was cloned from phage 1A2(471) of the Kohara gene library. Subcloning, restriction, and complementation analyses revealed an 1,800-bp SspI-generated DNA fragment that contained the entire control and coding sequences. This DNA fragment...

  2. Human triose-phosphate isomerase deficiency: a single amino acid substitution results in a thermolabile enzyme.

    OpenAIRE

    Daar, I O; Artymiuk, P J; Phillips, D C; Maquat, L E

    1986-01-01

    Triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI; D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ketol-isomerase, EC 5.3.1.1) deficiency is a recessive disorder that results in hemolytic anemia and neuromuscular dysfunction. To determine the molecular basis of this disorder, a TPI allele from two unrelated patients homozygous for TPI deficiency was compared with an allele from a normal individual. Each disease-associated sequence harbors a G X C----C X G transversion in the codon for amino acid-104 and specifies a structurally...

  3. Obtaining mutants of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339, producers of glucose isomerase, following gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhedzheva, G.; Stoeva, N.; Stojchev, M.

    1990-01-01

    A water suspension of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339 spores of a density of 8.7.10 6 spores/cm 3 is gamma irradiated ( 60 Co, RHM-γ-20, 30.3 Gy/min). The survival of Streptomyces griseoflavus strain 1339 spores was determined depending on radiation doses, exposure times and incubation temperature. Five major morphological types of colonies were isolated, characterized by different levels of glucose isomerase activity. Maximum specific glucose isomerase activity (GIU/g) was attained after the third gamma irradiation step using a dose of 3000 Gy. 2 tabs., 3 figs., 7 refs

  4. Xylose isomerase improves growth and ethanol production rates from biomass sugars for both Saccharomyces pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kristen P; Gowtham, Yogender Kumar; Henson, J Michael; Harcum, Sarah W

    2012-01-01

    The demand for biofuel ethanol made from clean, renewable nonfood sources is growing. Cellulosic biomass, such as switch grass (Panicum virgatum L.), is an alternative feedstock for ethanol production; however, cellulosic feedstock hydrolysates contain high levels of xylose, which needs to be converted to ethanol to meet economic feasibility. In this study, the effects of xylose isomerase on cell growth and ethanol production from biomass sugars representative of switch grass were investigated using low cell density cultures. The lager yeast species Saccharomyces pastorianus was grown with immobilized xylose isomerase in the fermentation step to determine the impact of the glucose and xylose concentrations on the ethanol production rates. Ethanol production rates were improved due to xylose isomerase; however, the positive effect was not due solely to the conversion of xylose to xylulose. Xylose isomerase also has glucose isomerase activity, so to better understand the impact of the xylose isomerase on S. pastorianus, growth and ethanol production were examined in cultures provided fructose as the sole carbon. It was observed that growth and ethanol production rates were higher for the fructose cultures with xylose isomerase even in the absence of xylose. To determine whether the positive effects of xylose isomerase extended to other yeast species, a side-by-side comparison of S. pastorianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was conducted. These comparisons demonstrated that the xylose isomerase increased ethanol productivity for both the yeast species by increasing the glucose consumption rate. These results suggest that xylose isomerase can contribute to improved ethanol productivity, even without significant xylose conversion. Copyright © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  5. Challenges in the implementation of an electronic surveillance system in a resource-limited setting: Alerta, in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Giselle

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease surveillance is a primary public health function in resource-limited settings. In 2003, an electronic disease surveillance system (Alerta was established in the Peruvian Navy with support from the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD. Many challenges arose during the implementation process, and a variety of solutions were applied. The purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss these issues. Methods This is a retrospective description of the Alerta implementation. After a thoughtful evaluation according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC guidelines, the main challenges to implementation were identified and solutions were devised in the context of a resource-limited setting, Peru. Results After four years of operation, we have identified a number of challenges in implementing and operating this electronic disease surveillance system. These can be divided into the following categories: (1 issues with personnel and stakeholders; (2 issues with resources in a developing setting; (3 issues with processes involved in the collection of data and operation of the system; and (4 issues with organization at the central hub. Some of the challenges are unique to resource-limited settings, but many are applicable for any surveillance system. For each of these challenges, we developed feasible solutions that are discussed. Conclusion There are many challenges to overcome when implementing an electronic disease surveillance system, not only related to technology issues. A comprehensive approach is required for success, including: technical support, personnel management, effective training, and cultural sensitivity in order to assure the effective deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system.

  6. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCE OF QUALITY OF ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES ON QUALITY OF TRAINING WITH USE OF DISTANCE TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Kravtsov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication improving of educational processes requires today new approaches to the management arrangements and forming of educational policy in the field of distance learning, which is based on the use of modern information and communication technologies. An important step in this process is the continuous monitoring of the development and implementation of information technology and, in particular, the distance learning systems in higher educational establishments. The main objective of the monitoring is the impact assessment on the development of distance learning following the state educational standards, curricula, methodical and technical equipment and other factors; factors revelation that influence the implementation and outcomes of distance learning; results comparison of educational institution functioning and distance education systems in order to determine the most efficient ways of its development. The paper presents the analysis results of the dependence of the quality of educational services on the electronic educational resources. Trends in educational services development was studied by comparing the quality influence of electronic educational resources on the quality of educational services of higher pedagogical educational institutions of Ukraine as of 2009-2010 and 2012-2013. Generally, the analysis of the survey results allows evaluating quality of the modern education services as satisfactory and it can be said that almost 70% of the success of their future development depends on the quality of the used electronic educational resources and distance learning systems in particular.

  7. Tracking the Flow of Resources in Electronic Waste - The Case of End-of-Life Computer Hard Disk Drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Komal; Parajuly, Keshav; Wenzel, Henrik

    2015-10-20

    Recovery of resources, in particular, metals, from waste flows is widely seen as a prioritized option to reduce their potential supply constraints in the future. The current waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment system is more focused on bulk metals, where the recycling rate of specialty metals, such as rare earths, is negligible compared to their increasing use in modern products, such as electronics. This study investigates the challenges in recovering these resources in the existing WEEE treatment system. It is illustrated by following the material flows of resources in a conventional WEEE treatment plant in Denmark. Computer hard disk drives (HDDs) containing neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets were selected as the case product for this experiment. The resulting output fractions were tracked until their final treatment in order to estimate the recovery potential of rare earth elements (REEs) and other resources contained in HDDs. The results further show that out of the 244 kg of HDDs treated, 212 kg comprising mainly of aluminum and steel can be finally recovered from the metallurgic process. The results further demonstrate the complete loss of REEs in the existing shredding-based WEEE treatment processes. Dismantling and separate processing of NdFeB magnets from their end-use products can be a more preferred option over shredding. However, it remains a technological and logistic challenge for the existing system.

  8. HELP (INFORMATION ELECTRONIC RESOURCE "CHRONICLE OF ONU: DATES, FACTS, EVENTS": HISTORY OF UNIVERSITY IN INFORMATION SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Гавриленко

    2016-03-01

    Object of research is the help information resource "The chronicle of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov: dates, facts, events". The main objective of our article – to state the main methodological bases of creation of information resource. One of advantages of information resource is possibility of continuous updating and replenishment by new information. Main objective of creation of this information resource is systematization of material on stories of the Odessa national university of I. I. Mechnikov from the date of his basis to the present, ensuring interactive access to information on the main dates, the most significant events in life of university. The base of research are sources on the history of university, chronology of historical development, formation of infrastructure, cadres and scientific researches. In information resource the main stages of development, functioning and transformation of the Odessa University are analyzed, information on its divisions is collected. For creation of this information resource in Scientific library the method of work was developed, the main selection criteria of data are allocated. This information resource have practical value for all who is interested in history of university, historians, scientists-researchers of history of science and the city of Odessa.

  9. Print and Electronic Resources: Usage Statistics at Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Kanta

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to quantify the use of electronic journals in comparison with the print collections in the Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Library. Design/methodology/approach: A detailed analysis was made of the use of lending services, the Xerox facility and usage of electronic journals such as Science Direct,…

  10. Understanding intention to use electronic information resources: A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model (TAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Donghua

    2008-11-06

    This study extended the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) by examining the roles of two aspects of e-resource characteristics, namely, information quality and system quality, in predicting public health students' intention to use e-resources for completing research paper assignments. Both focus groups and a questionnaire were used to collect data. Descriptive analysis, data screening, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) techniques were used for data analysis. The study found that perceived usefulness played a major role in determining students' intention to use e-resources. Perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use fully mediated the impact that information quality and system quality had on behavior intention. The research model enriches the existing technology acceptance literature by extending TAM. Representing two aspects of e-resource characteristics provides greater explanatory information for diagnosing problems of system design, development, and implementation.

  11. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  12. The level of the usage of the human resource information system and electronic recruitment in Croatian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Pivac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Performing business according to contemporary requirements influences companies for continuous usage of modern managerial tools, such as a human resource information system (HRIS and electronic recruitment (ER. Human resources have been recognised as curtail resources and the main source of a competitive advantage in creation of successful business performance. In order to attract and select the top employees, companies use quality information software for attracting internal ones, and electronic recruitment for attracting the best possible external candidates. The main aim of this paper is to research the level of the usage of HRIS and ER within medium-size and large Croatian companies. Moreover, the additional aim of this paper is to evaluate the relationship among the usage of these modern managerial tools and the overall success of human resource management within these companies. For the purpose of this paper, primary and secondary research has been conducted in order to reveal the level of the usage of HRIS and ER as well as the overall success of human resource management in Croatian companies. The companies’ classification (HRIS and ER is done by using the non-hierarchical k-means cluster method as well as the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test. Further, the companies are ranked by the multicriteria PROMETHEE method. Relevant nonparametric tests are used for testing the overall companies’ HRM. Finally, binary logistic regression is estimated, relating binary variable HRM and HRIS development. After detailed research, it can be concluded that large Croatian companies apply HRIS in majority (with a positive relation to HRM performance, but still require certain degrees of its development.

  13. Screening and selection of wild strains for L-arabinose isomerase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Manzo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of L-arabinose isomerases have been isolated by recombinant techniques, but this methodology implies a reduced technological application. For this reason, 29 bacterial strains, some of them previously characterized as L-arabinose isomerase producers, were assayed as L-arabinose fermenting strains by employing conveniently designed culture media with 0.5% (w/v L-arabinose as main carbon source. From all evaluated bacterial strains, Enterococcus faecium DBFIQ ID: E36, Enterococcus faecium DBFIQ ID: ETW4 and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC ID: 8042 were, in this order, the best L-arabinose fermenting strains. Afterwards, to assay L-arabinose metabolization and L-arabinose isomerase activity, cell-free extract and saline precipitated cell-free extract of the three bacterial cultures were obtained and the production of ketoses was determined by the cysteine carbazole sulfuric acid method. Results showed that the greater the L-arabinose metabolization ability, the higher the enzymatic activity achieved, so Enterococcus faecium DBFIQ ID: E36 was selected to continue with production, purification and characterization studies. This work thus describes a simple microbiological method for the selection of L-arabinose fermenting bacteria for the potential production of the enzyme L-arabinose isomerase.

  14. Effect of pH on simultaneous saccharification and isomerization by glucoamylase and glucose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abha; Debnath Das, Meera

    2002-01-01

    pH and temperature play critical roles in multistep enzymatic conversions. In such conversions, the optimal pH for individual steps differs greatly. In this article, we describe the production of glucoamylase (from Aspergillus oryzae MTCC152 in solid-state fermentation) and glucose isomerase (from Streptomyces griseus NCIM2020 in submerged fermentation), used in industries for producing high-fructose syrup. Optimum pH for glucoamylase was found to be 5.0. For glucose isomerase, the optimum pH ranged between 7.0 and 8.5, depending on the type of buffer used. Optimum temperature for glucoamylase and glucose isomerase was 50 and 60 degrees C, respectively. When both the enzymatic conversions were performed simultaneously at a compromised pH of 6.5, both the enzymes showed lowered activity. We also studied the kinetics at different pHs, which allows the two-step reaction to take place simultaneously. This was done by separating two steps by a thin layer of urease. Ammonia generated by the hydrolysis of urea consumed the hydrogen ions, thereby allowing optimal activity of glucose isomerase at an acidic pH of 5.0.

  15. Crystal structure of Pyrococcus furiosus phosphoglucose isomerase: Implications for substrate binding and catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrisford, J.M.; Akerboom, A.P.; Turnbull, A.P.; Geus, de D.; Sedelnikova, S.E.; Staton, I.; McLeod, C.W.; Verhees, C.H.; Oost, van der J.; Rice, D.W.; Baker, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) catalyzes the reversible isomerization between D-fructose 6-phosphate and D-glucose 6-phosphate as part of the glycolytic pathway. PGI from the Archaea Pyrococcus furiosus (Pfu) was crystallized, and its structure was determined by x-ray diffraction to a 2-Angstrom

  16. Inhibiting prolyl isomerase activity by hybrid organic-inorganic molecules containing rhodium(II) fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Jane M; Kundu, Rituparna; Cooper, Julian C; Ball, Zachary T

    2014-11-15

    A small molecule containing a rhodium(II) tetracarboxylate fragment is shown to be a potent inhibitor of the prolyl isomerase FKBP12. The use of small molecules conjugates of rhodium(II) is presented as a general strategy for developing new protein inhibitors based on distinct structural and sequence features of the enzyme active site. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A library of fluorescent peptides for exploring the substrate specificities of prolyl isomerases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoldak, G.; Aumuller, T.; Lucke, C.; Hritz, J.; Oostenbrink, C.; Fischer, G.; Schmid, F.X.

    2009-01-01

    To fully explore the substrate specificities of prolyl isomerases, we synthesized a library of 20 tetrapeptides that are labeled with a 2-aminobenzoyl (Abz) group at the amino terminus and a p-nitroanilide (pNA) group at the carboxy terminus. In this peptide library of the general formula

  18. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of the Human Cyclophilin Family of Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Tara L.; Walker, John R.; Campagna-Slater, Valérie; Finerty, Jr., Patrick J.; Paramanathan, Ragika; Bernstein, Galina; MacKenzie, Farrell; Tempel, Wolfram; Ouyang, Hui; Lee, Wen Hwa; Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano (Toronto); (Colorado)

    2011-12-14

    Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases catalyze the conversion between cis and trans isomers of proline. The cyclophilin family of peptidyl-prolyl isomerases is well known for being the target of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin, used to combat organ transplant rejection. There is great interest in both the substrate specificity of these enzymes and the design of isoform-selective ligands for them. However, the dearth of available data for individual family members inhibits attempts to design drug specificity; additionally, in order to define physiological functions for the cyclophilins, definitive isoform characterization is required. In the current study, enzymatic activity was assayed for 15 of the 17 human cyclophilin isomerase domains, and binding to the cyclosporin scaffold was tested. In order to rationalize the observed isoform diversity, the high-resolution crystallographic structures of seven cyclophilin domains were determined. These models, combined with seven previously solved cyclophilin isoforms, provide the basis for a family-wide structure:function analysis. Detailed structural analysis of the human cyclophilin isomerase explains why cyclophilin activity against short peptides is correlated with an ability to ligate cyclosporin and why certain isoforms are not competent for either activity. In addition, we find that regions of the isomerase domain outside the proline-binding surface impart isoform specificity for both in vivo substrates and drug design. We hypothesize that there is a well-defined molecular surface corresponding to the substrate-binding S2 position that is a site of diversity in the cyclophilin family. Computational simulations of substrate binding in this region support our observations. Our data indicate that unique isoform determinants exist that may be exploited for development of selective ligands and suggest that the currently available small-molecule and peptide-based ligands for this class of enzyme are insufficient for isoform

  19. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  20. Helping Patrons Find Locally Held Electronic Resources: An Interlibrary Loan Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The University of North Texas Libraries provide extensive online access to academic journals through major vendor databases. As illustrated by interlibrary loan borrowing requests for items held in our databases, patrons often have difficulty navigating the available resources. In this study, the Interlibrary Loan staff used data gathered from the…

  1. QR Codes as Finding Aides: Linking Electronic and Print Library Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Danielle; Schneidewind, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    As part of a focused, methodical, and evaluative approach to emerging technologies, QR codes are one of many new technologies being used by the UC Irvine Libraries. QR codes provide simple connections between print and virtual resources. In summer 2010, a small task force began to investigate how QR codes could be used to provide information and…

  2. Comparing the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase pathways in arabinose and xylose fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass is a sustainable option for the production of bioethanol. This process would greatly benefit from recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains also able to ferment, besides the hexose sugar fraction, the pentose sugars, arabinose and xylose. Different pathways can be introduced in S. cerevisiae to provide arabinose and xylose utilisation. In this study, the bacterial arabinose isomerase pathway was combined with two different xylose utilisation pathways: the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase pathways, respectively, in genetically identical strains. The strains were compared with respect to aerobic growth in arabinose and xylose batch culture and in anaerobic batch fermentation of a mixture of glucose, arabinose and xylose. Results The specific aerobic arabinose growth rate was identical, 0.03 h-1, for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase and xylose isomerase strain. The xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain displayed higher aerobic growth rate on xylose, 0.14 h-1, and higher specific xylose consumption rate in anaerobic batch fermentation, 0.09 g (g cells-1 h-1 than the xylose isomerase strain, which only reached 0.03 h-1 and 0.02 g (g cells-1h-1, respectively. Whereas the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain produced higher ethanol yield on total sugars, 0.23 g g-1 compared with 0.18 g g-1 for the xylose isomerase strain, the xylose isomerase strain achieved higher ethanol yield on consumed sugars, 0.41 g g-1 compared with 0.32 g g-1 for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain. Anaerobic fermentation of a mixture of glucose, arabinose and xylose resulted in higher final ethanol concentration, 14.7 g l-1 for the xylose reductase/xylitol dehydrogenase strain compared with 11.8 g l-1 for the xylose isomerase strain, and in higher specific ethanol productivity, 0.024 g (g cells-1 h-1 compared with 0.01 g (g cells-1 h-1

  3. On the structure and function of the phytoene desaturase CRTI from Pantoea ananatis, a membrane-peripheral and FAD-dependent oxidase/isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schaub

    Full Text Available CRTI-type phytoene desaturases prevailing in bacteria and fungi can form lycopene directly from phytoene while plants employ two distinct desaturases and two cis-tans isomerases for the same purpose. This property renders CRTI a valuable gene to engineer provitamin A-formation to help combat vitamin A malnutrition, such as with Golden Rice. To understand the biochemical processes involved, recombinant CRTI was produced and obtained in homogeneous form that shows high enzymatic activity with the lipophilic substrate phytoene contained in phosphatidyl-choline (PC liposome membranes. The first crystal structure of apo-CRTI reveals that CRTI belongs to the flavoprotein superfamily comprising protoporphyrinogen IX oxidoreductase and monoamine oxidase. CRTI is a membrane-peripheral oxidoreductase which utilizes FAD as the sole redox-active cofactor. Oxygen, replaceable by quinones in its absence, is needed as the terminal electron acceptor. FAD, besides its catalytic role also displays a structural function by enabling the formation of enzymatically active CRTI membrane associates. Under anaerobic conditions the enzyme can act as a carotene cis-trans isomerase. In silico-docking experiments yielded information on substrate binding sites, potential catalytic residues and is in favor of single half-site recognition of the symmetrical C(40 hydrocarbon substrate.

  4. Eavesdropping on Electronic Guidebooks: Observing Learning Resources in Shared Listening Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Allison; Aoki, Paul M.; Grinter, Rebecca E.; Hurst, Amy; Szymanski, Margaret H.; Thornton, James D.

    This paper describes an electronic guidebook, "Sotto Voce," that enables visitors to share audio information by eavesdropping on each others guidebook activity. The first section discusses the design and implementation of the guidebook device, key aspects of its user interface, the design goals for the audio environment, the eavesdropping…

  5. Genomic analysis of a xylose operon and characterization of novel xylose isomerase and xylulokinase from Bacillus coagulans NL01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Lin, Xi; Jiang, Ting; Ye, Weihua; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the xylose operon and properties of xylose isomerase and xylulokinase in Bacillus coagulans that can effectively ferment xylose to lactic acid. The xylose operon is widely present in B. coagulans. It is composed of four putative ORFs. Novel xylA and xylB from B. coagulans NL01 were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Sequence of xylose isomerase was more conserved than that of xylulokinase. Both the enzymes exhibited maximum activities at pH 7-8 but with a high temperature maximum of 80-85 °C, divalent metal ion was prerequisite for their activation. Xylose isomerase and xylulokinase were most effectively activated by Ni(2+) and Co(2+), respectively. Genomic analysis of xylose operon has contributed to understanding xylose metabolism in B. coagulans and the novel xylose isomerase and xylulokinase might provide new alternatives for metabolic engineering of other strains to improve their fermentation performance on xylose.

  6. Development and evolution of The Knowledge Hub for Pathology and related electronic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, David F; Sinard, John; Silva, Fred

    2011-06-01

    The Knowledge Hub for Pathology was created to provide authenticated and validated knowledge for United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology members and pathologists worldwide with access to the Web. Using the material presented at the annual meeting of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology with existing selection and review procedures ensured that these criteria were met without added costly procedures. Further submissions for courses and research papers are provided in electronic format and funded by universities and hospitals for their creation; thus, the principal costs borne by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology are Web site-posting costs. Use has escalated rapidly from 2 million hits in 2002 to 51 million in 2009 with use by 35,000 pathologists from now a total of 180 countries. This true "freemium" model is a successful process as are more traditional continuing professional development course structures such as Anatomic Pathology Electronic Case Series, a "premium" model for learning electronically also sponsored by the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-01-01

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  8. An Exploratory study on the use of LibAnswers to Resolve, Track and Monitor Electronic Resources Issues: The KAUST Library experience

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2017-05-03

    An Exploratory study on KAUST library use of LibAnswers in resolving electronic resources questions received in LibAnswers. It describes the findings of the questions received in LibAnswers. The author made suggestions based on the findings to improve the reference services in responding to e-resources questions.

  9. Designing a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirali Seyednaghavi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available : In the first phase of this study a model for electronic human resource management in government agencies based on new public services was explored by using software MAXQDA, then in the second phase, relationship between the elements of the theory were tested using software Smart PLS2. So the aim of this study is to design a model of electronic human resource management’s implementation at the Ministry of Communications and Information Technology. In this regard, according to Strauss and Corbin’s structured plan, five hypotheses were tested. Quantitative data analysis indicates that the pressures of the policies and global perspectives cause to move toward e-HRM. Among the contextual conditions macro structural mechanisms, considerations of actors, governance considerations have a significant impact on the strategy of new public services and therefore lead to the consequences of its implementation in public organizations. The findings suggest that e-HRM does not have a positive and meaningful impact on new public services, and in our country, although the recent political developments have somehow removed the gap between public policy makers, administrators, and the public, but there is still a long way to go.

  10. Preference and Use of Electronic Information and Resources by Blind/Visually Impaired in NCR Libraries in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailendra Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the preference and use of electronic information and resources by blind/visually impaired users in the leading National Capital Region (NCR libraries of India. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. The 125 in total users surveyed in all the five libraries were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of the users with experience of working in digital environments to participate in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using Excel software and 'Stata version 11'. The findings reveal that ICT have a positive impact in the lives of people with disabilities as it helps them to work independently and increases the level of confidence among them. The Internet is the most preferred medium of access to information among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. The 'Complexity of content available on the net' is found as the major challenge faced during Internet use by blind users of NCR libraries. 'Audio books on CDs/DVDs and DAISY books' are the most preferred electronic resources among the majority of blind/visually impaired users. This study will help the library professionals and organizations/institutions serving people with disabilities to develop effective library services for blind/visually impaired users in the digital environment on the basis of findings on information usage behavior in the study.

  11. Open reading frame 176 in the photosynthesis gene cluster of Rhodobacter capsulatus encodes idi, a gene for isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, F M; Baker, J A; Poulter, C D

    1996-01-01

    Isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) isomerase catalyzes an essential activation step in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway. A database search based on probes from the highly conserved regions in three eukaryotic IPP isomerases revealed substantial similarity with ORF176 in the photosynthesis gene cluster in Rhodobacter capsulatus. The open reading frame was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector. The encoded 20-kDa protein, which was purified in two steps by ion exchange and hydrophobic...

  12. Internet and electronic resources for inflammatory bowel disease: a primer for providers and patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Kyle J; Fournier, Marc R; Benchimol, Eric I

    2012-06-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly turning to the Internet to research their condition and engage in discourse on their experiences. This has resulted in new dynamics in the relationship between providers and their patients, with misinformation and advertising potentially presenting barriers to the cooperative patient-provider partnership. This article addresses important issues of online IBD-related health information and social media activity, such as quality, reliability, objectivity, and privacy. We reviewed the medical literature on the quality of online information provided to IBD patients, and summarized the most commonly accessed Websites related to IBD. We also assessed the activity on popular social media sites (such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube), and evaluated currently available applications for use by IBD patients and providers on mobile phones and tablets. Through our review of the literature and currently available resources, we developed a list of recommended online resources to strengthen patient participation in their care by providing reliable, comprehensive educational material. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  13. Characterization of a mutated Geobacillus stearothermophilus L-arabinose isomerase that increases the production rate of D-tagatose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-J; Kim, J-H; Oh, H-J; Oh, D-K

    2006-07-01

    Characterization of a mutated Geobacillus stearothermophilus L-arabinose isomerase used to increase the production rate of D-tagatose. A mutated gene was obtained by an error-prone polymerase chain reaction using L-arabinose isomerase gene from G. stearothermophilus as a template and the gene was expressed in Escherichia coli. The expressed mutated L-arabinose isomerase exhibited the change of three amino acids (Met322-->Val, Ser393-->Thr, and Val408-->Ala), compared with the wild-type enzyme and was then purified to homogeneity. The mutated enzyme had a maximum galactose isomerization activity at pH 8.0, 65 degrees C, and 1.0 mM Co2+, while the wild-type enzyme had a maximum activity at pH 8.0, 60 degrees C, and 1.0-mM Mn2+. The mutated L-arabinose isomerase exhibited increases in D-galactose isomerization activity, optimum temperature, catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) for D-galactose, and the production rate of D-tagatose from D-galactose. The mutated L-arabinose isomerase from G. stearothermophilus is valuable for the commercial production of D-tagatose. This work contributes knowledge on the characterization of a mutated L-arabinose isomerase, and allows an increased production rate for D-tagatose from D-galactose using the mutated enzyme.

  14. Protein disulfide isomerase interacts with tau protein and inhibits its fibrillization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Rong Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tau protein is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as tauopathies including Alzheimer disease, and Tau fibrillization is thought to be related to neuronal toxicity. Physiological inhibitors of Tau fibrillization hold promise for developing new strategies for treatment of Alzheimer disease. Because protein disulfide isomerase (PDI is both an enzyme and a chaperone, and implicated in neuroprotection against Alzheimer disease, we want to know whether PDI can prevent Tau fibrillization. In this study, we have investigated the interaction between PDI and Tau protein and the effect of PDI on Tau fibrillization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As evidenced by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy, human PDI interacts and co-locates with some endogenous human Tau on the endoplasmic reticulum of undifferentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The results from isothermal titration calorimetry show that one full-length human PDI binds to one full-length human Tau (or human Tau fragment Tau244-372 monomer with moderate, micromolar affinity at physiological pH and near physiological ionic strength. As revealed by thioflavin T binding assays, Sarkosyl-insoluble SDS-PAGE, and transmission electron microscopy, full-length human PDI remarkably inhibits both steps of nucleation and elongation of Tau244-372 fibrillization in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we find that two molecules of the a-domain of human PDI interact with one Tau244-372 molecule with sub-micromolar affinity, and inhibit both steps of nucleation and elongation of Tau244-372 fibrillization more strongly than full-length human PDI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate for the first time that human PDI binds to Tau protein mainly through its thioredoxin-like catalytic domain a, forming a 1∶1 complex and preventing Tau misfolding. Our findings suggest that PDI could act as a physiological inhibitor of Tau

  15. Structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobley, Carina M C; Aller, Pierre; Douangamath, Alice; Reddivari, Yamini; Bumann, Mario; Bird, Louise E; Nettleship, Joanne E; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Owens, Raymond J; O'Toole, Paul W; Walsh, Martin A

    2012-12-01

    The structure of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus salivarius UCC188 has been determined at 1.72 Å resolution. The structure was solved by molecular replacement, which identified the functional homodimer in the asymmetric unit. Despite only showing 57% sequence identity to its closest homologue, the structure adopted the typical α and β D-ribose 5-phosphate isomerase fold. Comparison to other related structures revealed high homology in the active site, allowing a model of the substrate-bound protein to be proposed. The determination of the structure was expedited by the use of in situ crystallization-plate screening on beamline I04-1 at Diamond Light Source to identify well diffracting protein crystals prior to routine cryocrystallography.

  16. Bacterial L-arabinose isomerases: industrial application for D-tagatose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudebbouze, Samira; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Rhimi, Moez

    2011-12-01

    D-tagatose is a natural monosaccharide with a low caloric value and has an anti-hyperglycemiant effect. This hexose has potential applications both in pharmaceutical and agro-food industries. However, the use of D-tagatose remains limited by its production cost. Many production procedures including chemical and biological processes were developed and patented. The most profitable production way is based on the use of L-arabinose isomerase which allows the manufacture of D-tagatose with an attractive rate. Future developments are focused on the generation of L-arabinose isomerases having biochemical properties satisfying the industrial applications. This report provides a brief review of the most recent patents that have been published relating to this area.

  17. A Protein Disulfide Isomerase Gene Fusion Expression System That Increases the Extracellular Productivity of Bacillus brevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Tsutomu; Ohto, Chikara; Muramatsu, Masayoshi; Obata, Shusei; Udaka, Shigezo; Yamada, Yukio; Takahashi, Haruo

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a versatile Bacillus brevis expression and secretion system based on the use of fungal protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a gene fusion partner. Fusion with PDI increased the extracellular production of heterologous proteins (light chain of immunoglobulin G, 8-fold; geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase, 12-fold). Linkage to PDI prevented the aggregation of the secreted proteins, resulting in high-level accumulation of fusion proteins in soluble and biologically active forms. We also show that the disulfide isomerase activity of PDI in a fusion protein is responsible for the suppression of the aggregation of the protein with intradisulfide, whereas aggregation of the protein without intradisulfide was prevented even when the protein was fused to a mutant PDI whose two active sites were disrupted, suggesting that another PDI function, such as chaperone-like activity, synergistically prevented the aggregation of heterologous proteins in the PDI fusion expression system. PMID:10653729

  18. Electronic medical records in diabetes consultations: participants' gaze as an interactional resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Penny; Small, Neil; Rowley, Emma; Langdon, Mark; Ariss, Steven; Wright, John

    2008-09-01

    Two routine consultations in primary care diabetes clinics are compared using extracts from video recordings of interactions between nurses and patients. The consultations were chosen to present different styles of interaction, in which the nurse's gaze was either primarily toward the computer screen or directed more toward the patient. Using conversation analysis, the ways in which nurses shift both gaze and body orientation between the computer screen and patient to influence the style, pace, content, and structure of the consultation were investigated. By examining the effects of different levels of engagement between the electronic medical record and the embodied patient in the consultation room, we argue for the need to consider the contingent nature of the interface of technology and the person in the consultation. Policy initiatives designed to deliver what is considered best-evidenced practice are modified in the micro context of the interactions of the consultation.

  19. Granulometric composition study of mineral resources using opto-electronic devices and Elsieve software system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaminski Stanislaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mechanical sieves has a great impact on measurement results because occurrence of anisometric particles causes undercounting the average size. Such errors can be avoided by using opto-electronic measuring devices that enable measurement of particles from 10 μm up to a few dozen millimetres in size. The results of measurement of each particle size fraction are summed up proportionally to its weight with the use of Elsieve software system and for every type of material particle-size distribution can be obtained. The software allows further statistical interpretation of the results. Beam of infrared radiation identifies size of particles and counts them precisely. Every particle is represented by an electronic impulse proportional to its size. Measurement of particles in aqueous suspension that replaces the hydrometer method can be carried out by using the IPS L analyser (range from 0.2 to 600 μm. The IPS UA analyser (range from 0.5 to 2000 μm is designed for measurement in the air. An ultrasonic adapter enables performing measurements of moist and aggregated particles from 0.5 to 1000 μm. The construction and software system allow to determine second dimension of the particle, its shape coefficient and specific surface area. The AWK 3D analyser (range from 0.2 to 31.5 mm is devoted to measurement of various powdery materials with subsequent determination of particle shape. The AWK B analyser (range from 1 to 130 mm measures materials of thick granulation and shape of the grains. The presented method of measurement repeatedly accelerates and facilitates study of granulometric composition.

  20. Molecular Characterization and Analysis of a Novel Protein Disulfide Isomerase-Like Protein of Eimeria tenella

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hongyu; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Shunhai; Zhao, Qiping; Jiang, Lianlian; Wang, Yange; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youlin; Huang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like proteins are members of the thioredoxin superfamily. They contain thioredoxin-like domains and catalyze the physiological oxidation, reduction and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds, which are involved in cell function and development in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, EtPDIL, a novel PDI-like gene of Eimeria tenella, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) according to the expressed sequence tag (EST). The EtPDI...

  1. Interaction of p53 with prolyl isomerases: Healthy and unhealthy relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Fiamma; Zannini, Alessandro; Rustighi, Alessandra; Del Sal, Giannino

    2015-10-01

    The p53 protein family, comprising p53, p63 and p73, is primarily involved in preserving genome integrity and preventing tumor onset, and also affects a range of physiological processes. Signal-dependent modifications of its members and of other pathway components provide cells with a sophisticated code to transduce a variety of stress signaling into appropriate responses. TP53 mutations are highly frequent in cancer and lead to the expression of mutant p53 proteins that are endowed with oncogenic activities and sensitive to stress signaling. p53 family proteins have unique structural and functional plasticity, and here we discuss the relevance of prolyl-isomerization to actively shape these features. The anti-proliferative functions of the p53 family are carefully activated upon severe stress and this involves the interaction with prolyl-isomerases. In particular, stress-induced stabilization of p53, activation of its transcriptional control over arrest- and cell death-related target genes and of its mitochondrial apoptotic function, as well as certain p63 and p73 functions, all require phosphorylation of specific S/T-P motifs and their subsequent isomerization by the prolyl-isomerase Pin1. While these functions of p53 counteract tumorigenesis, under some circumstances their activation by prolyl-isomerases may have negative repercussions (e.g. tissue damage induced by anticancer therapies and ischemia-reperfusion, neurodegeneration). Moreover, elevated Pin1 levels in tumor cells may transduce deregulated phosphorylation signaling into activation of mutant p53 oncogenic functions. The complex repertoire of biological outcomes induced by p53 finds mechanistic explanations, at least in part, in the association between prolyl-isomerases and the p53 pathway. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Proline-directed foldases: Cell signaling catalysts and drug targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome sequence of carboxylesterase, carboxylase and xylose isomerase producing alkaliphilic haloarchaeon Haloterrigena turkmenica WANU15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy Selim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report draft genome sequence of Haloterrigena turkmenica strain WANU15, isolated from Soda Lake. The draft genome size is 2,950,899 bp with a G + C content of 64% and contains 49 RNA sequence. The genome sequence can be accessed at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession no. LKCV00000000. Keywords: Soda Lake, Haloterrigena turkmenica, Carboxylesterase, Carboxylase, Xylose isomerase, Whole genome sequencing

  3. The crystal structure of a multifunctional protein: Phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor/neuroleukin

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuh-Ju; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Wei-Shone; Wu, Rong-Tsun; Meng, Menghsiao; Hsiao, Chwan-Deng

    1999-01-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) plays a central role in both the glycolysis and the gluconeogenesis pathways. We present here the complete crystal structure of PGI from Bacillus stearothermophilus at 2.3-Å resolution. We show that PGI has cell-motility-stimulating activity on mouse colon cancer cells similar to that of endogenous autocrine motility factor (AMF). PGI can also enhance neurite outgrowth on neuronal progenitor cells similar to that observed for neuroleukin. The results confirm tha...

  4. The secreted L-arabinose isomerase displays anti-hyperglycemic effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhimi, Moez; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G; Huang, Yuan; Boudebbouze, Samira; Gaci, Nadia; Garnier, Alexandrine; Gratadoux, Jean-Jacques; Mkaouar, Héla; Langella, Philippe; Maguin, Emmanuelle

    2015-12-21

    The L-arabinose isomerase is an intracellular enzyme which converts L-arabinose into L-ribulose in living systems and D-galactose into D-tagatose in industrial processes and at industrial scales. D-tagatose is a natural ketohexose with potential uses in pharmaceutical and food industries. The D-galactose isomerization reaction is thermodynamically equilibrated, and leads to secondary subproducts at high pH. Therefore, an attractive L-arabinose isomerase should be thermoactive and acidotolerant with high catalytic efficiency. While many reports focused on the set out of a low cost process for the industrial production of D-tagatose, these procedures remain costly. When compared to intracellular enzymes, the production of extracellular ones constitutes an interesting strategy to increase the suitability of the biocatalysts. The L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI) from Lactobacillus sakei was expressed in Lactococcus lactis in fusion with the signal peptide of usp45 (SP(Usp45)). The L-AI protein and activity were detected only in the supernatant of the induced cultures of the recombinant L. lactis demonstrating the secretion in the medium of the intracellular L. sakei L-AI in an active form. Moreover, we showed an improvement in the enzyme secretion using either (1) L. lactis strains deficient for their two major proteases, ClpP and HtrA, or (2) an enhancer of protein secretion in L. lactis fused to the recombinant L-AI with the SP(Usp45). Th L-AI enzyme secreted by the recombinant L. lactis strains or produced intracellularly in E. coli, showed the same functional properties than the native enzyme. Furthermore, when mice are fed with the L. lactis strain secreting the L-AI and galactose, tagatose was produced in vivo and reduced the glycemia index. We report for the first time the secretion of the intracellular L-arabinose isomerase in the supernatant of food grade L. lactis cultures with hardly display other secreted proteins. The secreted L-AI originated from the food

  5. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  6. The management of online resources and long-term saving of electronic documents by transfer into the digital space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Daniel MAREŞ

    2011-12-01

    The electronic archive refers to the electronic storage system, along with the totality of electronic-type stored documents, while using as storage support any environment that can support storing and from which an electronic document can be presented.

  7. Bioproduction of D-Tagatose from D-Galactose Using Phosphoglucose Isomerase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manisha J; Patel, Arti T; Akhani, Rekha; Dedania, Samir; Patel, Darshan H

    2016-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 phosphoglucose isomerase was purified as an active soluble form by a single-step purification using Ni-NTA chromatography that showed homogeneity on SDS-PAGE with molecular mass ∼62 kDa. The optimum temperature and pH for the maximum isomerization activity with D-galactose were 60 °C and 7.0, respectively. Generally, sugar phosphate isomerases show metal-independent activity but PA-PGI exhibited metal-dependent isomerization activity with aldosugars and optimally catalyzed the D-galactose isomerization in the presence of 1.0 mM MnCl2. The apparent Km and Vmax for D-galactose under standardized conditions were calculated to be 1029 mM (±31.30 with S.E.) and 5.95 U/mg (±0.9 with S.E.), respectively. Equilibrium reached after 180 min with production of 567.51 μM D-tagatose from 1000 mM of D-galactose. Though, the bioconversion ratio is low but it can be increased by immobilization and enzyme engineering. Although various L-arabinose isomerases have been characterized for bioproduction of D-tagatose, P. aeruginosa glucose phosphate isomerase is distinguished from the other L-arabinose isomerases by its optimal temperature (60 °C) for D-tagatose production being mesophilic bacteria, making it an alternate choice for bulk production.

  8. Domain architecture of protein-disulfide isomerase facilitates its dual role as an oxidase and an isomerase in Ero1p-mediated disulfide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulp, M. S.; Frickel, E. M.; Ellgaard, Lars

    2006-01-01

    reduction/rearrangement of non-native disulfides is poorly understood. We analyzed the role of individual PDI domains in disulfide bond formation in a reaction driven by their natural oxidant, Ero1p. We found that Ero1p oxidizes the isolated PDI catalytic thioredoxin domains, A and A' at the same rate......Native disulfide bond formation in eukaryotes is dependent on protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and its homologs, which contain varying combinations of catalytically active and inactive thioredoxin domains. However, the specific contribution of PDI to the formation of new disulfides versus...... catalytic (A) domain. The specific order of thioredoxin domains in PDI is important in establishing the asymmetry in the rate of oxidation of the two active sites thus allowing A and A', two thioredoxin domains that are similar in sequence and structure, to serve opposing functional roles as a disulfide...

  9. Development of an Electronic Medical Record Based Alert for Risk of HIV Treatment Failure in a Low-Resource Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttkammer, Nancy; Zeliadt, Steven; Balan, Jean Gabriel; Baseman, Janet; Destiné, Rodney; Domerçant, Jean Wysler; France, Garilus; Hyppolite, Nathaelf; Pelletier, Valérie; Raphael, Nernst Atwood; Sherr, Kenneth; Yuhas, Krista; Barnhart, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk. Methods Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005–2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6–12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves. Results Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6–12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2%) met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC) measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (pART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation. Conclusions Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs. PMID:25390044

  10. Development of an electronic medical record based alert for risk of HIV treatment failure in a low-resource setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Puttkammer

    Full Text Available The adoption of electronic medical record systems in resource-limited settings can help clinicians monitor patients' adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART and identify patients at risk of future ART failure, allowing resources to be targeted to those most at risk.Among adult patients enrolled on ART from 2005-2013 at two large, public-sector hospitals in Haiti, ART failure was assessed after 6-12 months on treatment, based on the World Health Organization's immunologic and clinical criteria. We identified models for predicting ART failure based on ART adherence measures and other patient characteristics. We assessed performance of candidate models using area under the receiver operating curve, and validated results using a randomly-split data sample. The selected prediction model was used to generate a risk score, and its ability to differentiate ART failure risk over a 42-month follow-up period was tested using stratified Kaplan Meier survival curves.Among 923 patients with CD4 results available during the period 6-12 months after ART initiation, 196 (21.2% met ART failure criteria. The pharmacy-based proportion of days covered (PDC measure performed best among five possible ART adherence measures at predicting ART failure. Average PDC during the first 6 months on ART was 79.0% among cases of ART failure and 88.6% among cases of non-failure (p<0.01. When additional information including sex, baseline CD4, and duration of enrollment in HIV care prior to ART initiation were added to PDC, the risk score differentiated between those who did and did not meet failure criteria over 42 months following ART initiation.Pharmacy data are most useful for new ART adherence alerts within iSanté. Such alerts offer potential to help clinicians identify patients at high risk of ART failure so that they can be targeted with adherence support interventions, before ART failure occurs.

  11. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  12. Consumer reports [electronic resource

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1942-01-01

    ... only. A limited number of selected reports, advice on product selection and safety alerts are freely available, as are a five year listing of product recalls, a listing of major consumer product...

  13. Triosephosphate isomerase: energetics of the reaction catalyzed by the yeast enzyme expressed in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickbarg, E.B.; Knowles, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase from bakers' yeast, expressed in Escherichia coli strain DF502(p12), has been purified to homogeneity. The kinetics of the reaction in each direction have been determined at pH 7.5 and 30 degrees C. Deuterium substitution at the C-2 position of substrate (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate and at the 1-pro-R position of substrate dihydroxyacetone phosphate results in kinetic isotope effects on kcat of 1.6 and 3.4, respectively. The extent of transfer of tritium from [1(R)- 3 H]dihydroxyacetone phosphate to product (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate during the catalyzed reaction is only 3% after 66% conversion to product, indicating that the enzymic base that mediates proton transfer is in rapid exchange with solvent protons. When the isomerase-catalyzed reaction is run in tritiated water in each direction, radioactivity is incorporated both into the remaining substrate and into the product. In the exchange-conversion experiment with dihydroxyacetone phosphate as substrate, the specific radioactivity of remaining dihydroxyacetone phosphate rises as a function of the extent of reaction with a slope of about 0.3, while the specific radioactivity of the products is 54% that of the solvent. In the reverse direction with (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate as substrate, the specific radioactivity of the product formed is only 11% that of the solvent, while the radioactivity incorporated into the remaining substrate (R)-glyceraldehyde phosphate also rises as a function of the extent of reaction with a slope of 0.3. These results have been analyzed according to the protocol described earlier to yield the free energy profile of the reaction catalyzed by the yeast isomerase

  14. Affinity labeling and characterization of the active site histidine of glucosephosphate isomerase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.R.; Gracy, R.W.; Hartman, F.C.

    1980-01-01

    N-bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate was found to act as a specific affinity label for the active center of glucosephosphate isomerase. The inactivation process followed pseudo-first order kinetics, was irreversible, and exhibited rate saturation kinetics with minimal half-lives of inactivation of 4.5 and 6.3 min for the enzyme isolated from human placenta and rabbit muscle, respectively. The pH dependence of the inactivation process closely paralleled the pH dependence of the overall catalytic process with pK/sub a/ values at pH 6.4 and 9.0. The stoichiometry of labeling of either enzyme, as determined with N-bromo[ 14 C 2 ]acetylethanolamine phosphate, was 1 eq of the affinity label/subunit of enzyme. After acid hydrolysis and amino acid analysis of the radioactive affinity-labeled human enzyme, only radioactive 3-carboxymethyl histidine was found. In the case of the rabbit enzyme, the only radioactive derivative obtained was 1-carboxymethyl histidine. Active site tryptic peptides were isolated by solvent extraction, thin layer peptide fingerprinting, and ion exchange chromatography before and after removal of the phosphate from the active site peptide. Amino acid analysis of the labeled peptides from the two species were very similar. Using high sensitivity methods for sequence analysis, the primary structure of the active site was established as Val-Leu-His-Ala-Glu-Asn-Val-Asp (Gly,Thr,Ser) Glu-Ile (Thr-Gly-His-Lys-Glx)-Tyr-Phe. Apparent sequence homology between the catalytic center of glucosephosphate isomerase and triosephosphate isomerase suggest that the two enzymes may have evolved from a common ancestral gene

  15. Glucose(xylose isomerase production by Streptomyces sp. CH7 grown on agricultural residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankiya Chanitnun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. CH7 was found to efficiently produce glucose(xylose isomerase when grown on either xylan or agricultural residues. This strain produced a glucose(xylose isomerase activity of roughly 1.8 U/mg of protein when it was grown in medium containing 1% xylose as a carbon source. Maximal enzymatic activities of about 5 and 3 U/mg were obtained when 1% xylan and 2.5% corn husks were used, respectively. The enzyme was purified from a mycelial extract to 16-fold purity with only two consecutive column chromatography steps using Macro-prep DEAE and Sephacryl-300, respectively. The approximate molecular weight of the purified enzyme is 170 kDa, and it has four identical subunits of 43.6 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE. Its Km values for glucose and xylose were found to be 258.96 and 82.77 mM, respectively, and its Vmax values are 32.42 and 63.64 μM/min/mg, respectively. The purified enzyme is optimally active at 85ºC and pH 7.0. It is stable at pH 5.5-8.5 and at temperatures up to 60ºC after 30 min. These findings indicate that glucose(xylose isomerase from Streptomyces sp. CH7 has the potential for industrial applications, especially for high-fructose syrup production and bioethanol fermentation from hemicellulosic hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  16. The electronic Rothamsted Archive (e-RA), an online resource for data from the Rothamsted long-term experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Sarah A M; Castells-Brooke, Nathalie I D; Glendining, Margaret J; Goulding, Keith W T; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Macdonald, Andy J; Ostler, Richard J; Poulton, Paul R; Rawlings, Christopher J; Scott, Tony; Verrier, Paul J

    2018-05-15

    The electronic Rothamsted Archive, e-RA (www.era.rothamsted.ac.uk) provides a permanent managed database to both securely store and disseminate data from Rothamsted Research's long-term field experiments (since 1843) and meteorological stations (since 1853). Both historical and contemporary data are made available via this online database which provides the scientific community with access to a unique continuous record of agricultural experiments and weather measured since the mid-19 th century. Qualitative information, such as treatment and management practices, plans and soil information, accompanies the data and are made available on the e-RA website. e-RA was released externally to the wider scientific community in 2013 and this paper describes its development, content, curation and the access process for data users. Case studies illustrate the diverse applications of the data, including its original intended purposes and recent unforeseen applications. Usage monitoring demonstrates the data are of increasing interest. Future developments, including adopting FAIR data principles, are proposed as the resource is increasingly recognised as a unique archive of data relevant to sustainable agriculture, agroecology and the environment.

  17. Rapid expansion of the protein disulfide isomerase gene family facilitates the folding of venom peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Li, Qing; Jackson, Ronneshia L.

    2016-01-01

    Formation of correct disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum is a crucial step for folding proteins destined for secretion. Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs) play a central role in this process. We report a previously unidentified, hypervariable family of PDIs that represents the most...... diverse gene family of oxidoreductases described in a single genus to date. These enzymes are highly expressed specifically in the venom glands of predatory cone snails, animals that synthesize a remarkably diverse set of cysteine-rich peptide toxins (conotoxins). Enzymes in this PDI family, termed...

  18. Crystal Structure and Substrate Specificity of D-Galactose-6-Phosphate Isomerase Complexed with Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Kul; Pan, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    D-Galactose-6-phosphate isomerase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LacAB; EC 5.3.1.26), which is encoded by the tagatose-6-phosphate pathway gene cluster (lacABCD), catalyzes the isomerization of D-galactose-6-phosphate to D-tagatose-6-phosphate during lactose catabolism and is used to produce rare sugars as low-calorie natural sweeteners. The crystal structures of LacAB and its complex with D-tagatose-6-phosphate revealed that LacAB is a homotetramer of LacA and LacB subunits, with a structure similar to that of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi). Structurally, LacAB belongs to the RpiB/LacAB superfamily, having a Rossmann-like αβα sandwich fold as has been identified in pentose phosphate isomerase and hexose phosphate isomerase. In contrast to other family members, the LacB subunit also has a unique α7 helix in its C-terminus. One active site is distinctly located at the interface between LacA and LacB, whereas two active sites are present in RpiB. In the structure of the product complex, the phosphate group of D-tagatose-6-phosphate is bound to three arginine residues, including Arg-39, producing a different substrate orientation than that in RpiB, where the substrate binds at Asp-43. Due to the proximity of the Arg-134 residue and backbone Cα of the α6 helix in LacA to the last Asp-172 residue of LacB with a hydrogen bond, a six-carbon sugar-phosphate can bind in the larger pocket of LacAB, compared with RpiB. His-96 in the active site is important for ring opening and substrate orientation, and Cys-65 is essential for the isomerization activity of the enzyme. Two rare sugar substrates, D-psicose and D-ribulose, show optimal binding in the LacAB-substrate complex. These findings were supported by the results of LacA activity assays. PMID:24015281

  19. Characterization of an L-arabinose isomerase from Bacillus thermoglucosidasius for D-tagatose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Myung-Ji

    2013-01-01

    L-Arabinose isomerase from Bacillus thermoglucosidasius KCTC 1828 (BTAI) was expressed in Escherichia coli. The optimal temperature and pH for the activity of the purified BTAI were 40 °C and pH 7.0. The Mn(2+) ion was an activator of BTAI activity. The kinetic parameters of BTAI for D-galactose were a K(m) of 175 mM and a k(cat)/K(m) of 2.8 mM(-1)min(-1). The conversion ratio by BTAI to D-tagatose reached 45.6% at 40 °C.

  20. Polimorfisme Enzim Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase pada Tiga Populasi Tuna Sirip Kuning (Thunnus albacares)

    OpenAIRE

    Permana, Gusti Ngurah; Hutapea, Jhon H.; Moria, Sari Budi; Haryanti, Haryanti

    2006-01-01

    Samples of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) were taken from three locations Bali, North Sulawesi and North Maluku. The glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) was analyzed from liver using allozyme electrophoresis method. Polymorphism of GPI enzyme was observed and four alleles (A, B ,C, D) were found in Bali population, three alleles (A,B,C) were found in North Maluku and North Sulawesi populations. Heterozygosity values, from Bali, North Maluku and North Sulawesi were 0.419; 0.417; 0.143 resp...

  1. Crystal structure and substrate specificity of D-galactose-6-phosphate isomerase complexed with substrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Suk Jung

    Full Text Available D-Galactose-6-phosphate isomerase from Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LacAB; EC 5.3.1.26, which is encoded by the tagatose-6-phosphate pathway gene cluster (lacABCD, catalyzes the isomerization of D-galactose-6-phosphate to D-tagatose-6-phosphate during lactose catabolism and is used to produce rare sugars as low-calorie natural sweeteners. The crystal structures of LacAB and its complex with D-tagatose-6-phosphate revealed that LacAB is a homotetramer of LacA and LacB subunits, with a structure similar to that of ribose-5-phosphate isomerase (Rpi. Structurally, LacAB belongs to the RpiB/LacAB superfamily, having a Rossmann-like αβα sandwich fold as has been identified in pentose phosphate isomerase and hexose phosphate isomerase. In contrast to other family members, the LacB subunit also has a unique α7 helix in its C-terminus. One active site is distinctly located at the interface between LacA and LacB, whereas two active sites are present in RpiB. In the structure of the product complex, the phosphate group of D-tagatose-6-phosphate is bound to three arginine residues, including Arg-39, producing a different substrate orientation than that in RpiB, where the substrate binds at Asp-43. Due to the proximity of the Arg-134 residue and backbone Cα of the α6 helix in LacA to the last Asp-172 residue of LacB with a hydrogen bond, a six-carbon sugar-phosphate can bind in the larger pocket of LacAB, compared with RpiB. His-96 in the active site is important for ring opening and substrate orientation, and Cys-65 is essential for the isomerization activity of the enzyme. Two rare sugar substrates, D-psicose and D-ribulose, show optimal binding in the LacAB-substrate complex. These findings were supported by the results of LacA activity assays.

  2. Effect of gamma irradiation on whole-cell glucose isomerase. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, S.; Gebicka, L.

    1984-01-01

    Gamma-rays induced inactivation of Actinoplanes missouriensis and Streptomyces olivaceus glucose isomerase has been studied. This enzyme exhibits high resistance against ionizing radiation. The D 37 value was found to be equal to 131 kGy for Actinoplanes missouriensis cells and 88 kGy for Streptomyces olivaceus cells when irradiated in the dry state in the presence of air. Mg 2+ ions do not affect the radiosensitivity of the enzyme in cells, while the addition of Co 2+ ions to the cell suspension increases its stability against ionizing radiation. (orig.) [de

  3. Control analysis of the role of triosephosphate isomerase in glucose metabolism in Lactococcus lactis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Købmann, Brian Jensen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2008-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), which catalyses the conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P), was studied for its control on glycolysis and mixed acid production in L. lactis subspecies lactis IL1403 and L. lactis subspecies cremoris MG1363. Strains...... metabolites glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate and DHAP in the IL1403 derivatives were essentially unchanged for TPI activities from 26% to 225%. At a TPI activity of 3%, the level of DHAP increased four times. The finding that an increased level of DHAP coincides with an increase in formate...

  4. Mechanism of ultraviolet light induced catabolite repression of L-arabinose isomerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, D; Bhattacharya, A K [Banaras Hindu Univ. (India). Inst. of Medical Sciences

    1982-12-01

    An attempt has been made to find out how U.V. irradiation of E.coli B/r cells causes catabolite repression to inhibit L-arabinose isomerase synthesis. The results presented show that U.V. irradiation leads to a lowering of the cellular cyclic AMP level and of the cyclic AMP binding activity. Unlike catabolite repression by glucose, no small molecular weight compound is involved in U.V. light induced inhibition of the binding activity. It is therefore concluded that the mechanism of catabolite repression induced by U.V. appears to be different from that of the catabolite repression by glucose.

  5. MTH1745, a protein disulfide isomerase-like protein from thermophilic archaea, Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicum involving in stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xia; Lv, Zhen-Mei; Zhao, Yang; Min, Hang; Yang, Wei-Jun

    2008-01-01

    MTH1745 is a putative protein disulfide isomerase characterized with 151 amino acid residues and a CPAC active-site from the anaerobic archaea Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicum. The potential functions of MTH1745 are not clear. In the present study, we show a crucial role of MTH1745 in protecting cells against stress which may be related to its functions as a disulfide isomerase and its chaperone properties. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses, the level of MTH1745 messenger RNA (mRNA) in the thermophilic archaea M. thermoautotrophicum was found to be stress-induced in that it was significantly higher under low (50 degrees C) and high (70 degrees C) growth temperatures than under the optimal growth temperature for the organism (65 degrees C). Additionally, the expression of MTH1745 mRNA was up-regulated by cold shock (4 degrees C). Furthermore, the survival of MTH1745 expressing Escherichia coli cells was markedly higher than that of control cells in response to heat shock (51.0 degrees C). These results indicated that MTH1745 plays an important role in the resistance of stress. By assay of enzyme activities in vitro, MTH1745 also exhibited a chaperone function by promoting the functional folding of citrate synthase after thermodenaturation. On the other hand, MTH1745 was also shown to function as a disulfide isomerase on the refolding of denatured and reduced ribonuclease A. On the basis of its single thioredoxin domain, function as a disulfide isomerase, and its chaperone activity, we suggest that MTH1745 may be an ancient protein disulfide isomerase. These studies may provide clues to the understanding of the function of protein disulfide isomerase in archaea.

  6. Principles of formation of the content of an educational electronic resource on the basis of general and didactic patterns of learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Юрьевна Заславская

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the influence of the development of technical means of teaching on the effectiveness of educational and methodical resources. Modern opportunities of information and communication technologies allow creating electronic educational resources that represent educational information that automates the learning process, provide information assistance, if necessary, collect and process statistical information on the degree of development of the content of the school material by schoolchildren, set an individual trajectory of learning, and so on. The main principle of data organization is the division of the training course into separate sections on the thematic elements and components of the learning process. General regularities include laws that encompass the entire didactic system, and in specific (particular cases, those whose actions extend to a separate component (aspect of the system. From the standpoint of the existence of three types of electronic training modules in the aggregate content of the electronic learning resource - information, control and module of practical classes - the principles of the formation of the electronic learning resource, in our opinion, should regulate all these components. Each of the certain principles is considered in the groups: scientific orientation, methodological orientation, systemic nature, accounting of interdisciplinary connections, fundamentalization, systematic and dosage sequence, rational use of study time, accessibility, minimization, operationalization of goals, unified identification diagnosis.

  7. The module of methodical support in system of electronic educational resources as the innovative element of the modern maintenance of formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Николаевна Крылова

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces some results of research, which were devoted to evaluation of tearches' mobility to introduce innovations in the contents of education. The author considers innovative potential of modules of the methodical support for system of electronic educational resources.

  8. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  9. SAXS-WAXS studies of the low-resolution structure in solution of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Maciej; Taube, Michał

    2009-10-01

    The structure and conformation of molecule of xylose/glucose isomerase from Streptomyces rubiginosus in solution (at pH 6 and 7.6; with and without the substrate) has been studied by small- and wide-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation (SAXS-WAXS). On the basis of the SAXS-WAXS data, the low-resolution structure in solution has been reconstructed using ab inito methods. A comparison of the models of glucose isomerase shows only small differences between the model in solution and the crystal structure.

  10. Theileria parasites secrete a prolyl isomerase to maintain host leukocyte transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsolier, J; Perichon, M; DeBarry, J D; Villoutreix, B O; Chluba, J; Lopez, T; Garrido, C; Zhou, X Z; Lu, K P; Fritsch, L; Ait-Si-Ali, S; Mhadhbi, M; Medjkane, S; Weitzman, J B

    2015-04-16

    Infectious agents develop intricate mechanisms to interact with host cell pathways and hijack their genetic and epigenetic machinery to change host cell phenotypic states. Among the Apicomplexa phylum of obligate intracellular parasites, which cause veterinary and human diseases, Theileria is the only genus that transforms its mammalian host cells. Theileria infection of bovine leukocytes induces proliferative and invasive phenotypes associated with activated signalling pathways, notably JNK and AP-1 (ref. 2). The transformed phenotypes are reversed by treatment with the theilericidal drug buparvaquone. We used comparative genomics to identify a homologue of the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase PIN1 in T. annulata (TaPIN1) that is secreted into the host cell and modulates oncogenic signalling pathways. Here we show that TaPIN1 is a bona fide prolyl isomerase and that it interacts with the host ubiquitin ligase FBW7, leading to its degradation and subsequent stabilization of c-JUN, which promotes transformation. We performed in vitro and in silico analysis and in vivo zebrafish xenograft experiments to demonstrate that TaPIN1 is directly inhibited by the anti-parasite drug buparvaquone (and other known PIN1 inhibitors) and is mutated in a drug-resistant strain. Prolyl isomerization is thus a conserved mechanism that is important in cancer and is used by Theileria parasites to manipulate host oncogenic signalling.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of l-rhamnose isomerase from Pseudomonas stutzeri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Wayoon, Poonperm; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken; Kamitori, Shigehiro

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant l-rhamnose isomerase from P. stutzeri has been crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.0 Å resolution. l-Rhamnose isomerase from Pseudomonas stutzeri (P. stutzeril-RhI) catalyzes not only the reversible isomerization of l-rhamnose to l-rhamnulose, but also isomerization between various rare aldoses and ketoses. Purified His-tagged P. stutzeril-RhI was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 74.3, b = 104.0, c = 107.0 Å, β = 106.8°. Diffraction data have been collected to 2.0 Å resolution. The molecular weight of the purified P. stutzeril-RhI with a His tag at the C-terminus was confirmed to be 47.7 kDa by MALDI–TOF mass-spectrometric analysis and the asymmetric unit is expected to contain four molecules

  12. In-house SIRAS phasing of the polyunsaturated fatty-acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liavonchanka, Alena; Hornung, Ellen; Feussner, Ivo; Rudolph, Markus

    2006-01-01

    Low iodide concentrations were sufficient to allow SAD and SIRAS phasing of cubic crystals of a novel fatty acid isomerase using Cu Kα radiation. The polyenoic fatty-acid isomerase from Propionibacterium acnes (PAI) catalyzes the double-bond isomerization of linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid, which is a dairy- or meat-derived fatty acid in the human diet. PAI was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity as a yellow-coloured protein. The nature of the bound cofactor was analyzed by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Single crystals of PAI were obtained in two crystal forms. Cubic shaped crystals belong to space group I2 1 3, with a unit-cell parameter of 160.4 Å, and plate-like crystals belong to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 133.7, b = 60.8, c = 72.2 Å, β = 115.8°. Both crystal forms contain one molecule per asymmetric unit and diffract to a resolution of better than 2.0 Å. Initial phases were obtained by SIRAS from in-house data from a cubic crystal that was soaked with an unusually low KI concentration of 0.25 M

  13. Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates using engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae harboring xylose isomerase-based pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Um, Youngsoon; Woo, Han Min; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2016-06-01

    The efficient co-fermentation of glucose and xylose is necessary for the economically feasible bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Even with xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the efficiency of the lignocellulosic ethanol production remains suboptimal mainly due to the low conversion yield of xylose to ethanol. In this study, we evaluated the co-fermentation performances of SXA-R2P-E, a recently engineered isomerase-based xylose utilizing strain, in mixed sugars and in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In a high-sugar fermentation with 70g/L of glucose and 40g/L of xylose, SXA-R2P-E produced 50g/L of ethanol with an yield of 0.43gethanol/gsugars at 72h. From dilute acid-pretreated hydrolysates of rice straw and hardwood (oak), the strain produced 18-21g/L of ethanol with among the highest yield of 0.43-0.46gethanol/gsugars ever reported. This study shows a highly promising potential of a xylose isomerase-expressing strain as an industrially relevant ethanol producer from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody that specifically inhibits triosephosphate isomerase activity of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Víctor, Sanabria-Ayala; Yolanda, Medina-Flores; Araceli, Zavala-Carballo; Lucía, Jiménez; Abraham, Landa

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we obtained and characterized partially a monoclonal antibody (4H11D10B11 mAb) against triosephosphate isomerase from Taenia solium (TTPI). This antibody recognized the enzyme by both ELISA and western blot and was able to inhibit its enzymatic activity in 74%. Moreover, the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs), products of digestion of the monoclonal antibody with papain, retained almost the same inhibitory effect. We determined the binding site by ELISA; synthetic peptides containing sequences from different non-conserved regions of the TTPI were confronted to the 4H11D10B11 mAb. The epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody was located on peptide TTPI-56 (ATPAQAQEVHKVVRDWIRKHVDAGIADKARI), and an analysis of mimotopes, obtained with the 4H11D10B11 mAb, suggests that the epitope spans the sequence WIRKHVDAGIAD, residues 193-204 of the enzyme. This epitope is located within helix 6, next to loop 6, an essential active loop during catalysis. The antibody did not recognize triosephosphate isomerase from man and pig, definitive and intermediary hosts of T. solium, respectively. Furthermore, it did not bind to the catalytic site, since kinetic analysis demonstrated that inhibition had a non-competitive profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Protaminobacter rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2005-01-01

    The P. rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA, a key enzyme in the industrial production of isomaltulose, was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution. Palatinose (isomaltulose, α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose), a nutritional and acariogenic reducing sugar, is industrially obtained from sucrose by using immobilized cells of Protaminobacter rubrum that produce the sucrose isomerase SmuA. The isomerization of sucrose catalyzed by this enzyme also results in the formation of trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) in smaller amounts and glucose, fructose and eventually isomaltose as by-products, which lower the yield of the reaction and complicate the recovery of palatinose. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of SmuA will provide a basis for rational protein-engineering studies in order to optimize the industrial production of palatinose. A recombinant form of the 67.3 kDa SmuA enzyme has been crystallized in the native state by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 81.4, c = 135.6 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source

  16. Preliminary crystallographic analysis of two hypothetical ribose-5-phosphate isomerases from Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chen; Fan, Xuexin; Cao, Xiaofang; Liu, Xiang; Li, Lanfen; Su, Xiaodong

    2012-01-01

    Two hypothetical ribose-5-phosphate isomerases from S. mutans have been produced in E. coli and crystallized. The crystals diffracted to high resolutions suitable for crystallographic analyses. Study of the enzymes from sugar metabolic pathways may provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the human oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Bioinformatics, biochemical and crystallization methods were used to characterize and understand the function of two putative ribose-5-phosphate isomerases: SMU1234 and SMU2142. The proteins were cloned and constructed with N-terminal His tags. Protein purification was performed by Ni 2+ -chelating and size-exclusion chromatography. The crystals of SUM1234 diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 48.97, b = 98.27, c = 101.09 Å, α = β = γ = 90°. The optimized SMU2142 crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.7, b = 54.1, c = 86.5 Å, α = 74.2, β = 73.5, γ = 83.7°. Initial phasing of both proteins was attempted by molecular replacement; the structure of SMU1234 could easily be solved, but no useful results were obtained for SMU2142. Therefore, SeMet-labelled SMU2142 will be prepared for phasing

  17. Human triose-phosphate isomerase deficiency: a single amino acid substitution results in a thermolabile enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, I O; Artymiuk, P J; Phillips, D C; Maquat, L E

    1986-10-01

    Triose-phosphate isomerase (TPI; D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate ketol-isomerase, EC 5.3.1.1) deficiency is a recessive disorder that results in hemolytic anemia and neuromuscular dysfunction. To determine the molecular basis of this disorder, a TPI allele from two unrelated patients homozygous for TPI deficiency was compared with an allele from a normal individual. Each disease-associated sequence harbors a G X C----C X G transversion in the codon for amino acid-104 and specifies a structurally altered protein in which a glutamate residue is replaced by an aspartate residue. The importance of glutamate-104 to enzyme structure and function is implicated by its conservation in the TPI protein of all species that have been characterized to date. The glutamate-to-aspartate substitution results in a thermolabile enzyme as demonstrated by assays of TPI activity in cultured fibroblasts of each patient and cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells that were stably transformed with the mutant alleles. Although this substitution conserves the overall charge of amino acid-104, the x-ray crystal structure of chicken TPI indicates that the loss of a side-chain methylene group (-CH2CH2COO- ---- -CH2COO-) is sufficient to disrupt the counterbalancing of charges that normally exists within a hydrophobic pocket of the native enzyme.

  18. Structural insights from a novel invertebrate triosephosphate isomerase from Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S.; Ramirez-Aguirre, Claudia D.; López-Hidalgo, Marisol; Benitez-Cardoza, Claudia G.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Diaz-Quezada, Corina; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Brieba, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM; EC 5.3.1.1) is a key enzyme involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glycolysis is one of the most regulated metabolic pathways, however little is known about the structural mechanisms for its regulation in non-model organisms, like crustaceans. To understand the structure and function of this enzyme in invertebrates, we obtained the crystal structure of triosephosphate isomerase from the marine Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, LvTIM) in complex with its inhibitor 2-phosphogyceric acid (2-PG) at 1.7 Å resolution. LvTIM assembles as a homodimer with residues 166-176 covering the active site and residue Glu166 interacting with the inhibitor. We found that LvTIM is the least stable TIM characterized to date, with the lowest range of melting temperatures, and with the lowest activation enthalpy associated with the thermal unfolding process reported. In TIMs dimer stabilization is maintained by an interaction of loop 3 by a set of hydrophobic contacts between subunits. Within these contacts, the side chain of a hydrophobic residue of one subunit fits into a cavity created by a set of hydrophobic residues in the neighboring subunit, via a "ball and socket" interaction. LvTIM presents a Cys47 at the "ball" inter-subunit contact indicating that the character of this residue is responsible for the decrease in dimer stability. Mutational studies show that this residue plays a role in dimer stability but is not a solely determinant for dimer formation. PMID:27614148

  19. A preliminary X-ray study of sedoheptulose-7-phosphate isomerase from Burkholderia pseudomallei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Shin, Dong Hae

    2009-01-01

    Sedoheptulose-7-phosphate isomerase (GmhA) from B. pseudomallei is one of the targets of antibiotic adjuvants for melioidosis. In this study, GmhA has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Sedoheptulose-7-phosphate isomerase (GmhA) converts d-sedoheptulose 7-phosphate to d,d-heptose 7-phosphate. This is the first step in the biosynthesis pathway of NDP-heptose, which is responsible for the pleiotropic phenotype. This biosynthesis pathway is the target of inhibitors to increase the membrane permeability of Gram-negative pathogens or of adjuvants working synergistically with known antibiotics. Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a seriously invasive disease in animals and humans in tropical and subtropical areas. GmhA from B. pseudomallei is one of the targets of antibiotic adjuvants for melioidosis. In this study, GmhA has been cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Synchrotron X-ray data were also collected to 1.9 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to the primitive orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 61.3, b = 84.2, c = 142.3 Å. A full structural determination is under way in order to provide insights into the structure–function relationships of this protein

  20. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  1. Enhanced pest resistance and increased phenolic production in maize callus transgenically expressing a maize chalcone isomerase -3 like gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant losses in maize production are due to damage by insects and ear rot fungi. A gene designated as chalcone-isomerase-like, located in a quantitative trait locus for resistance to Fusarium ear rot fungi, was cloned from a Fusarium ear rot resistant inbred and transgenically expressed in mai...

  2. Kinase-dead ATM protein is highly oncogenic and can be preferentially targeted by Topo-isomerase I inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Jiguang; Sprinzen, Lisa; Xu, Jun; Haddock, Christopher J; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J; Loredan, Denis G; Jiang, Wenxia; Vindigni, Alessandro; Wang, Dong; Rabadan, Raul; Zha, Shan

    2016-06-15

    Missense mutations in ATM kinase, a master regulator of DNA damage responses, are found in many cancers, but their impact on ATM function and implications for cancer therapy are largely unknown. Here we report that 72% of cancer-associated ATM mutations are missense mutations that are enriched around the kinase domain. Expression of kinase-dead ATM (Atm(KD/-)) is more oncogenic than loss of ATM (Atm(-/-)) in mouse models, leading to earlier and more frequent lymphomas with Pten deletions. Kinase-dead ATM protein (Atm-KD), but not loss of ATM (Atm-null), prevents replication-dependent removal of Topo-isomerase I-DNA adducts at the step of strand cleavage, leading to severe genomic instability and hypersensitivity to Topo-isomerase I inhibitors. Correspondingly, Topo-isomerase I inhibitors effectively and preferentially eliminate Atm(KD/-), but not Atm-proficientor Atm(-/-) leukemia in animal models. These findings identify ATM kinase-domain missense mutations as a potent oncogenic event and a biomarker for Topo-isomerase I inhibitor based therapy.

  3. Physiological and Pathogenic Roles of Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Metabolic Regulations via Multiple Signal Transduction Pathway Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Nakatsu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prolyl isomerases are divided into three groups, the FKBP family, Cyclophilin and the Parvulin family (Pin1 and Par14. Among these isomerases, Pin1 is a unique prolyl isomerase binding to the motif including pSer/pThr-Pro that is phosphorylated by kinases. Once bound, Pin1 modulates the enzymatic activity, protein stability or subcellular localization of target proteins by changing the cis- and trans-formations of proline. Several studies have examined the roles of Pin1 in the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer’s disease. On the other hand, recent studies have newly demonstrated Pin1 to be involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Interestingly, while Pin1 expression is markedly increased by high-fat diet feeding, Pin1 KO mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and diabetic vascular dysfunction. These phenomena result from the binding of Pin1 to several key factors regulating metabolic functions, which include insulin receptor substrate-1, AMPK, Crtc2 and NF-κB p65. In this review, we focus on recent advances in elucidating the physiological roles of Pin1 as well as the pathogenesis of disorders involving this isomerase, from the viewpoint of the relationships between signal transductions and metabolic functions.

  4. Evaluation of three electronic report processing systems for preparing hydrologic reports of the U.S Geological Survey, Water Resources Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiltner, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    In 1987, the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey undertook three pilot projects to evaluate electronic report processing systems as a means to improve the quality and timeliness of reports pertaining to water resources investigations. The three projects selected for study included the use of the following configuration of software and hardware: Ventura Publisher software on an IBM model AT personal computer, PageMaker software on a Macintosh computer, and FrameMaker software on a Sun Microsystems workstation. The following assessment criteria were to be addressed in the pilot studies: The combined use of text, tables, and graphics; analysis of time; ease of learning; compatibility with the existing minicomputer system; and technical limitations. It was considered essential that the camera-ready copy produced be in a format suitable for publication. Visual improvement alone was not a consideration. This report consolidates and summarizes the findings of the electronic report processing pilot projects. Text and table files originating on the existing minicomputer system were successfully transformed to the electronic report processing systems in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. Graphics prepared using a proprietary graphics software package were transferred to all the electronic report processing software through the use of Computer Graphic Metafiles. Graphics from other sources were entered into the systems by scanning paper images. Comparative analysis of time needed to process text and tables by the electronic report processing systems and by conventional methods indicated that, although more time is invested in creating the original page composition for an electronically processed report , substantial time is saved in producing subsequent reports because the format can be stored and re-used by electronic means as a template. Because of the more compact page layouts, costs of printing the reports were 15% to 25

  5. L-Rhamnose isomerase and its use for biotechnological production of rare sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2016-04-01

    L-Rhamnose isomerase (L-RI, EC 5.3.1.14), catalyzing the isomerization between L-rhamnose and L-rhamnulose, plays an important role in microbial L-rhamnose metabolism and thus occurs in a wide range of microorganisms. It attracts more and more attention because of its broad substrate specificity and its great potential in enzymatic production of various rare sugars. In this article, the enzymatic properties of various reported L-RIs were compared in detail, and their applications in the production of L-rhamnulose and various rare sugars including D-allose, D-gulose, L-lyxose, L-mannose, L-talose, and L-galactose were also reviewed.

  6. Mechanisms of Neuroprotection by Protein Disulphide Isomerase in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam K. Walker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterised by the progressive loss of motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within several years of onset. Although protein misfolding is a key feature of ALS, the upstream triggers of disease remain elusive. Recently, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress was identified as an early and central feature in ALS disease models as well as in human patient tissues, indicating that ER stress could be an important process in disease pathogenesis. One important chaperone induced by ER stress is protein disulphide isomerase (PDI, which is both upregulated and posttranslationally inhibited by S-nitrosylation in ALS. In this paper, we present evidence from studies of genetics, model organisms, and patient tissues which indicate an active role for PDI and ER stress in ALS disease processes.

  7. In silico cloning and B/T cell epitope prediction of triosephosphate isomerase from Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen; Ye, Bin

    2016-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus. Because the methods of diagnosis and treatment for cystic echinococcosis were limited, it is still necessary to screen target proteins for the development of new anti-hydatidosis vaccine. In this study, the triosephosphate isomerase gene of E. granulosus was in silico cloned. The B cell and T cell epitopes were predicted by bioinformatics methods. The cDNA sequence of EgTIM was composition of 1094 base pairs, with an open reading frame of 753 base pairs. The deduced amino acid sequences were composed of 250 amino acids. Five cross-reactive epitopes, locating on 21aa-35aa, 43aa-57aa, 94aa-107aa, 115-129aa, and 164aa-183aa, could be expected to serve as candidate epitopes in the development of vaccine against E. granulosus. These results could provide bases for gene cloning, recombinant expression, and the designation of anti-hydatidosis vaccine.

  8. Effects of peptidyl-prolyl isomerase 1 depletion in animal models of prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legname, Giuseppe; Virgilio, Tommaso; Bistaffa, Edoardo; De Luca, Chiara Maria Giulia; Catania, Marcella; Zago, Paola; Isopi, Elisa; Campagnani, Ilaria; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Giaccone, Giorgio; Moda, Fabio

    2018-04-20

    Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that induces the cis-trans conversion of specific Ser/Thr-Pro peptide bonds in phosphorylated proteins, leading to conformational changes through which Pin1 regulates protein stability and activity. Since down-regulation of Pin1 has been described in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD) and Huntington's Disease (HD), we investigated its potential role in prion diseases. Animals generated on wild-type (Pin1 +/+ ), hemizygous (Pin1 +/- ) or knock-out (Pin1 -/- ) background for Pin1 were experimentally infected with RML prions. The study indicates that, neither the total depletion nor reduced levels of Pin1 significantly altered the clinical and neuropathological features of the disease.

  9. Helicobacter pylori Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase Expression Is Associated with the Severity of Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oghalaie, Akbar; Saberi, Samaneh; Esmaeili, Maryam; Ebrahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Ghamarian, Abdolreza; Tashakoripoor, Mohammad; Abdirad, Afshin; Eshagh Hosseini, Mahmoud; Khalaj, Vahid; Mohammadi, Marjan

    2016-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori secretory peptidyl prolyl isomerase, HP0175, is progressively identified as a pro-inflammatory and pro-carcinogenic protein, which serves to link H. pylori infection to its more severe clinical outcomes. Here, we have analyzed host HP0175-specific antibody responses in relation to the severity of gastritis. The HP0175 gene fragment was PCR-amplified, cloned, expressed and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Serum antigen-specific antibody responses of non-ulcer dyspeptic patients (N = 176) against recombinant HP0175 were detected by western blotting. The infection status of these subjects was determined by rapid urease test, culture, histology, and serology. The grade of inflammation and stage of atrophy were scored blindly according to the OLGA staging system. The recombinant HP0175 (rHP0175) was expressed as a ~35 kDa protein and its identity was confirmed by western blotting using anti-6X His tag antibody and pooled H. pylori-positive sera. Serum IgG antibodies against rHP0175 segregated our patients into two similar-sized groups of sero-positives (90/176, 51.1 %) and sero-negatives (86/176, 48.9 %). The former presented with higher grades of gastric inflammation (OR = 4.4, 95 % CI = 1.9-9.9, P = 0.001) and stages of gastric atrophy (OR = 18.3, 95 %CI = 1.4-246.6, P = 0.028). Our findings lend further support to the pro-inflammatory nature of H. pylori peptidyl prolyl isomerase (HP0175) and recommends this antigen as a non-invasive serum biomarker of the severity of H. pylori-associated gastritis.

  10. Cyclophilin40 isomerase activity is regulated by a temperature-dependent allosteric interaction with Hsp90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Wear, Martin A; Landré, Vivian; Narayan, Vikram; Ning, Jia; Erman, Burak; Ball, Kathryn L; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2015-09-01

    Cyclophilin 40 (Cyp40) comprises an N-terminal cyclophilin domain with peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity and a C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain that binds to the C-terminal-EEVD sequence common to both heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and Hsp90. We show in the present study that binding of peptides containing the MEEVD motif reduces the PPIase activity by ∼30%. CD and fluorescence assays show that the TPR domain is less stable than the cyclophilin domain and is stabilized by peptide binding. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) shows that the affinity for the-MEEVD peptide is temperature sensitive in the physiological temperature range. Results from these biophysical studies fit with the MD simulations of the apo and holo (peptide-bound) structures which show a significant reduction in root mean square (RMS) fluctuation in both TPR and cyclophilin domains when-MEEVD is bound. The MD simulations of the apo-protein also highlight strong anti-correlated motions between residues around the PPIase-active site and a band of residues running across four of the seven helices in the TPR domain. Peptide binding leads to a distortion in the shape of the active site and a significant reduction in these strongly anti-correlated motions, providing an explanation for the allosteric effect of ligand binding and loss of PPIase activity. Together the experimental and MD results suggest that on heat shock, dissociation of Cyp40 from complexes mediated by the TPR domain leads to an increased pool of free Cyp40 capable of acting as an isomerase/chaperone in conditions of cellular stress. © 2015 Authors.

  11. Electronic resources of the rare books and valuable editions department of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University: open access for research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. К. Журавльова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes tasks that electronic collections of rare books fulfill: broad access for readers to rare and valuable editions providing, preservation of ensuring of the original. On the example of the electronic collection of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University – «eScriptorium: electronic archive of rare books and manuscripts for research and education» the possibility of the full-text resources of the valuable editions using is shown. The principles of creation, structure, chronological frameworks, directions of adding the documents to the archive are represented. The perspectives of the project development are outlined as well as examples of the digital libraries of the European countries and Ukraine are provided, the actual task of preserving the originals of the rare books of the country is raised, the innovative approaches to serving users with electronic resources are considered. The evidences of cooperation of the Central Scientific Library of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University with the largest world digital libraries: World Digital Library and Europeana are provided.

  12. The use of quality benchmarking in assessing web resources for the dermatology virtual branch library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel Boulos, M N; Roudsari, A V; Gordon, C; Muir Gray, J A

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health. They aim at creating online knowledge based communities, each concerned with some specific clinical and other health-related topics. This study is about the envisaged Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries of the National electronic Library for Health. It aims at selecting suitable dermatology Web resources for inclusion in the forthcoming Virtual Branch Libraries after establishing preliminary quality benchmarking rules for this task. Psoriasis, being a common dermatological condition, has been chosen as a starting point. Because quality is a principal concern of the National electronic Library for Health, the study includes a review of the major quality benchmarking systems available today for assessing health-related Web sites. The methodology of developing a quality benchmarking system has been also reviewed. Aided by metasearch Web tools, candidate resources were hand-selected in light of the reviewed benchmarking systems and specific criteria set by the authors. Over 90 professional and patient-oriented Web resources on psoriasis and dermatology in general are suggested for inclusion in the forthcoming Dermatology Virtual Branch Libraries. The idea of an all-in knowledge-hallmarking instrument for the National electronic Library for Health is also proposed based on the reviewed quality benchmarking systems. Skilled, methodical, organized human reviewing, selection and filtering based on well-defined quality appraisal criteria seems likely to be the key ingredient in the envisaged National electronic Library for

  13. Barriers to electronic access and delivery of educational information in resource constrained public schools: a case of Greater Tubatse Municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pholotho, T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are capable of expanding access to quality education, educational resources and provide teachers with new skills. Nevertheless, a majority of rural public schools have limited ICTs, mainly due...

  14. Electronic Grey Literature in Accelerator Science and Its Allied Subjects : Selected Web Resources for Scientists and Engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendiran, P

    2006-01-01

    Grey literature Web resources in the field of accelerator science and its allied subjects are collected for the scientists and engineers of RRCAT (Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology). For definition purposes the different types of grey literature are described. The Web resources collected and compiled in this article (with an overview and link for each) specifically focus on technical reports, preprints or e-prints, which meet the main information needs of RRCAT users.

  15. Rational design of Bacillus stearothermophilus US100 L-arabinose isomerase: potential applications for D-tagatose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhimi, Moez; Aghajari, Nushin; Juy, Michel; Chouayekh, Hichem; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Haser, Richard; Bejar, Samir

    2009-05-01

    L-arabinose isomerases catalyze the bioconversion of D-galactose into D-tagatose. With the aim of producing an enzyme optimized for D-tagatose production, three Bacillus stearothermophilus US100 L-arabinose isomerase mutants were constructed, purified and characterized. Our results indicate that mutant Q268K was significantly more acidotolerant and more stable at acidic pH than the wild-type enzyme. The N175H mutant has a broad optimal temperature range from 50 to 65 degrees C. With the aim of constructing an acidotolerant mutant working at relatively low temperatures we generated the Q268K/N175H construct. This double mutant displays an optimal pH in the range 6.0-7.0 and an optimal activity around 50-65 degrees C, temperatures at which the enzyme was stable without addition of metal ions.

  16. Mannose Phosphate Isomerase Isoenzymes in Plutella xylostella Support Common Genetic Bases of Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins in Lepidopteran Species

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero, Salvador; Ferré, Juan; Escriche, Baltasar

    2001-01-01

    A strong correlation between two mannose phosphate isomerase (MPI) isoenzymes and resistance to Cry1A toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis has been found in a Plutella xylostella population. MPI linkage to Cry1A resistance had previously been reported for a Heliothis virescens population. The fact that the two populations share similar biochemical, genetic, and cross-resistance profiles of resistance suggests the occurrence of homologous resistance loci in both species.

  17. Conserved Residues Lys57 and Lys401 of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Maintain an Active Site Conformation for Optimal Activity: Implications for Post-Translational Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Caba

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite its study since the 1960's, very little is known about the post-translational regulation of the multiple catalytic activities performed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, the primary protein folding catalyst of the cell. This work identifies a functional role for the highly conserved CxxC-flanking residues Lys57 and Lys401 of human PDI in vitro. Mutagenesis studies have revealed these residues as modulating the oxidoreductase activity of PDI in a pH-dependent manner. Non-conservative amino acid substitutions resulted in enzyme variants upwards of 7-fold less efficient. This attenuated activity was found to translate into a 2-fold reduction of the rate of electron shuttling between PDI and the intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum oxidase, ERO1α, suggesting a functional significance to oxidative protein folding. In light of this, the possibility of lysine acetylation at residues Lys57 and Lys401 was assessed by in vitro treatment using acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin. A total of 28 acetyllysine residues were identified, including acLys57 and acLys401. The kinetic behavior of the acetylated protein form nearly mimicked that obtained with a K57/401Q double substitution variant providing an indication that acetylation of the active site-flanking lysine residues can act to reversibly modulate PDI activity.

  18. Conserved Residues Lys57 and Lys401 of Protein Disulfide Isomerase Maintain an Active Site Conformation for Optimal Activity: Implications for Post-Translational Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caba, Cody; Ali Khan, Hyder; Auld, Janeen; Ushioda, Ryo; Araki, Kazutaka; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Mutus, Bulent

    2018-01-01

    Despite its study since the 1960's, very little is known about the post-translational regulation of the multiple catalytic activities performed by protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), the primary protein folding catalyst of the cell. This work identifies a functional role for the highly conserved CxxC-flanking residues Lys 57 and Lys 401 of human PDI in vitro . Mutagenesis studies have revealed these residues as modulating the oxidoreductase activity of PDI in a pH-dependent manner. Non-conservative amino acid substitutions resulted in enzyme variants upwards of 7-fold less efficient. This attenuated activity was found to translate into a 2-fold reduction of the rate of electron shuttling between PDI and the intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum oxidase, ERO1α, suggesting a functional significance to oxidative protein folding. In light of this, the possibility of lysine acetylation at residues Lys 57 and Lys 401 was assessed by in vitro treatment using acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). A total of 28 acetyllysine residues were identified, including acLys 57 and acLys 401 . The kinetic behavior of the acetylated protein form nearly mimicked that obtained with a K57/401Q double substitution variant providing an indication that acetylation of the active site-flanking lysine residues can act to reversibly modulate PDI activity.

  19. Biochemical properties of L-arabinose isomerase from Clostridium hylemonae to produce D-tagatose as a functional sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tien-Kieu; Hong, Moon-Gi; Chang, Pahn-Shick; Lee, Byung-Hoo; Yoo, Sang-Ho

    2018-01-01

    d-Tagatose has gained substantial interest due to its potential functionalities as a sucrose substitute. In this study, the gene araA, encoding l-arabinose isomerase (l-AI) from Clostridium hylemonae (DSM 15053), was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). This gene consists of 1,506 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 501 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of 56,554 Da. Since l-AI was expressed as an intracellular inclusion body, this enzyme was solubilized with guanidine hydrochloride, refolded, and activated with a descending concentration gradient of urea. The purified enzyme exhibited the greatest activity at 50°C, pH 7-7.5, and required 1 mM of Mg2+ as a cofactor. Notably, the catalytic efficiency (3.69 mM-1sec-1) of l-AI from C. hylemonae on galactose was significantly greater than that of other previously reported enzymes. The bioconversion yield of d-tagatose using the C. hylemonae l-arabinose isomerase at 60°C reached approximately 46% from 10 mM of d-galactose after 2 h. From these results, it is suggested that the l-arabinose isomerase from C. hylemonae could be utilized as a potential enzyme for d-tagatose production due to its high conversion yield at an industrially competitive temperature.

  20. Revisiting the mechanistic basis of the French Paradox: red wine inhibits the activity of protein disulfide isomerase in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinski, Christine N.; Zwicker, Jeffrey I.; Kennedy, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although epidemiologic evidence points to cardioprotective activity of red wine, the mechanistic basis for antithrombotic activity has not been established. Quercetin and related flavonoids are present in high concentrations in red but not white wine. Quercetin-glycosides were recently shown to prevent thrombosis in animal models through the inhibition of extracellular protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). We evaluated whether red or white wine inhibited PDI activity in vitro. Methods Quercetin levels in red and white wines were measured by HPLC analysis. Inhibition of PDI activity by red and white wines was assessed by an insulin reduction turbidity assay at various concentrations of wine. PDI inhibition was confirmed using a reduced peptide that contained a disulfide containing peptide as a substrate. The inhibition of PDI related thiol isomerases ERp5 and ERp57 was also assessed. Results We observed a dose-dependent decrease of PDI activity for a variety of red but not white wines. Red wine diluted to 3% final concentration resulted in over 80% inhibition of PDI activity by insulin reductase assay for all varieties tested. This inhibition was also observed in the peptide based assay. Red grape juice yielded similar results but ethanol alone did not affect PDI activity. Interestingly, red wine also inhibited the PDI related thiol isomerases ERp5 and ERp57, albeit to a lesser degree than PDI. Conclusions PDI activity is inhibited by red wine and grape juice, identifying a potentially novel mechanism underlying the cardiovascular benefits attributed to wine consumption. PMID:26585763

  1. Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources do not Guarantee Accuracy in Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs. A review of: McKibbon, K. Ann, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Effectiveness of Clinician‐selected Electronic Information Resources for Answering Primary Care Physicians’ Information Needs.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 13.6 (2006: 653‐9.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Ingrid Preddie

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine if electronic information resources selected by primary care physicians improve their ability to answer simulated clinical questions.Design – An observational study utilizing hour‐long interviews and think‐aloud protocols.Setting – The offices and clinics of primary care physicians in Canada and the United States.Subjects – Twenty‐five primary care physicians of whom 4 were women, 17 were from Canada, 22 were family physicians,and 24 were board certified.Methods – Participants provided responses to 23 multiple‐choice questions. Each physician then chose two questions and looked for the answers utilizing information resources of their own choice. The search processes, chosen resources and search times were noted. These were analyzed along with data on the accuracy of the answers and certainties related to the answer to each clinical question prior to the search.Main results – Twenty‐three physicians sought answers to 46 simulated clinical questions. Utilizing only electronic information resources, physicians spent a mean of 13.0 (SD 5.5 minutes searching for answers to the questions, an average of 7.3(SD 4.0 minutes for the first question and 5.8 (SD 2.2 minutes to answer the second question. On average, 1.8 resources were utilized per question. Resources that summarized information, such as the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, UpToDate and Clinical Evidence, were favored 39.2% of the time, MEDLINE (Ovid and PubMed 35.7%, and Internet resources including Google 22.6%. Almost 50% of the search and retrieval strategies were keyword‐based, while MeSH, subheadings and limiting were used less frequently. On average, before searching physicians answered 10 of 23 (43.5% questions accurately. For questions that were searched using clinician‐selected electronic resources, 18 (39.1% of the 46 answers were accurate before searching, while 19 (42.1% were accurate after searching. The difference of

  2. Self-Paced Interactive Multimedia Courseware: A Learning Support Resource for Enhancing Electronic Theses and Dissertations Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essel, Harry Barton; Osei-Poku, Patrick; Tachie-Menson, Akosua; Opoku-Asare, Nana Afia

    2016-01-01

    Submission of Electronic Theses and Dissertations (ETDs) by postgraduate students has become a common phenomenon in learning environments globally. The purpose of ETDs is to train postgraduate students as knowledge workers in online publishing and also extend their skills beyond word processing. The challenge however, is that many postgraduate…

  3. Web Accessibility Issues for Higher & Further Education. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, sixth in a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. In undertaking formative evaluation studies, the Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource…

  4. Analyzing the Academic Research Trends by Using University Digital Resources: A Bibliometric Study of Electronic Commerce in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Anam; Abbas, Asad; Ming, Wan; Zaheer, Ahmad Nawaz; Akhtar, Masood-ul-Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Technology plays a vital role in every field of life especially in business and education. Electronic commerce (EC) begins in the year of 1991 right after internet was introduced for commercial use. It is known to be the 12th five years' plan (2011 to 2015) of Chinese Ministry of Industry and Information Technology. The main "objective"…

  5. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-01-01

    Under third-party power intervention (TPPI), which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced ...

  6. Share and share alike: encouraging the reuse of academic resources through the Scottish electronic Staff Development Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorna M. Campbell

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Scottish electronic Staff Development Library (http://www.sesdl.scotcit.acuk is an ongoing collaborative project involving the Universities of Edinburgh, Paisley and Strathclyde which has been funded by SHEFC as part of their current ScotCIT Programme (http:llwww.scotcit.ac.uk. This project is being developed in response to the increasing demand for flexible, high-quality staff development materials.

  7. Engineering the l-Arabinose Isomerase from Enterococcus Faecium for d-Tagatose Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Marylane; Manzo, Ricardo M; García, José L; Mammarella, Enrique J; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Pessela, Benevides C

    2017-12-06

    l-Arabinose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.4) (l-AI) from Enterococcus faecium DBFIQ E36 was overproduced in Escherichia coli by designing a codon-optimized synthetic araA gene. Using this optimized gene, two N- and C-terminal His-tagged-l-AI proteins were produced. The cloning of the two chimeric genes into regulated expression vectors resulted in the production of high amounts of recombinant N -His-l-AI and C -His-l-AI in soluble and active forms. Both His-tagged enzymes were purified in a single step through metal-affinity chromatography and showed different kinetic and structural characteristics. Analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that C -His-l-AI was preferentially hexameric in solution, whereas N -His-l-AI was mainly monomeric. The specific activity of the N -His-l-AI at acidic pH was higher than that of C -His-l-AI and showed a maximum bioconversion yield of 26% at 50 °C for d-tagatose biosynthesis, with Km and Vmax parameters of 252 mM and 0.092 U mg -1 , respectively. However, C -His-l-AI was more active and stable at alkaline pH than N -His-l-AI. N -His-l-AI follows a Michaelis-Menten kinetic, whereas C -His-l-AI fitted to a sigmoidal saturation curve.

  8. Enhanced activity and stability of L-arabinose isomerase by immobilization on aminopropyl glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ye-Wang; Jeya, Marimuthu; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2011-03-01

    Immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis L: -arabinose isomerase (BLAI) on aminopropyl glass modified with glutaraldehyde (4 mg protein g support⁻¹) was found to enhance the enzyme activity. The immobilization yield of BLAI was proportional to the quantity of amino groups on the surface of support. Reducing particle size increased the adsorption capacity (q(m)) and affinity (k(a)). The pH and temperature for immobilization were optimized to be pH 7.1 and 33 °C using response surface methodology (RSM). The immobilized enzyme was characterized and compared to the free enzyme. There is no change in optimal pH and temperature before and after immobilization. However, the immobilized BLAI enzyme achieved 145% of the activity of the free enzyme. Correspondingly, the catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) was improved 1.47-fold after immobilization compared to the free enzyme. The thermal stability was improved 138-fold (t₁/₂) increased from 2 to 275 h) at 50 °C following immobilization.

  9. L-Arabinose isomerase and its use for biotechnological production of rare sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zheng; Li, Sha; Feng, Xiaohai; Liang, Jinfeng; Xu, Hong

    2014-11-01

    L-Arabinose isomerase (AI), a key enzyme in the microbial pentose phosphate pathway, has been regarded as an important biological catalyst in rare sugar production. This enzyme could isomerize L-arabinose into L-ribulose, as well as D-galactose into D-tagatose. Both the two monosaccharides show excellent commercial values in food and pharmaceutical industries. With the identification of novel AI family members, some of them have exhibited remarkable potential in industrial applications. The biological production processes for D-tagatose and L-ribose (or L-ribulose) using AI have been developed and improved in recent years. Meanwhile, protein engineering techniques involving rational design has effectively enhanced the catalytic properties of various AIs. Moreover, the crystal structure of AI has been disclosed, which sheds light on the understanding of AI structure and catalytic mechanism at molecular levels. This article reports recent developments in (i) novel AI screening, (ii) AI-mediated rare sugar production processes, (iii) molecular modification of AI, and (iv) structural biology study of AI. Based on previous reports, an analysis of the future development has also been initiated.

  10. A Role of a Newly Identified Isomerase From Yarrowia lipolytica in Erythritol Catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra M. Mirończuk

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Erythritol is a natural sweetener produced by microorganisms as an osmoprotectant. It belongs to the group of polyols and it can be utilized by the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. Despite the recent identification of the transcription factor of erythritol utilization (EUF1, the metabolic pathway of erythritol catabolism remains unknown. In this study we identified a new gene, YALI0F01628g, involved in erythritol assimilation. In silico analysis showed that YALI0F01628g is a putative isomerase and it is localized in the same region as EUF1. qRT-PCR analysis of Y. lipolytica showed a significant increase in YALI0F01628g expression during growth on erythritol and after overexpression of EUF1. Moreover, the deletion strain ΔF01628 showed significantly impaired erythritol assimilation, whereas synthesis of erythritol remained unchanged. The results showed that YALI0F1628g is involved in erythritol assimilation; thus we named the gene EYI1. Moreover, we suggest the metabolic pathway of erythritol assimilation in yeast Y. lipolytica.

  11. Engineering the l-Arabinose Isomerase from Enterococcus Faecium for d-Tagatose Synthesis

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    Marylane de Sousa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available l-Arabinose isomerase (EC 5.3.1.4 (l-AI from Enterococcus faecium DBFIQ E36 was overproduced in Escherichia coli by designing a codon-optimized synthetic araA gene. Using this optimized gene, two N- and C-terminal His-tagged-l-AI proteins were produced. The cloning of the two chimeric genes into regulated expression vectors resulted in the production of high amounts of recombinant N-His-l-AI and C-His-l-AI in soluble and active forms. Both His-tagged enzymes were purified in a single step through metal-affinity chromatography and showed different kinetic and structural characteristics. Analytical ultracentrifugation revealed that C-His-l-AI was preferentially hexameric in solution, whereas N-His-l-AI was mainly monomeric. The specific activity of the N-His-l-AI at acidic pH was higher than that of C-His-l-AI and showed a maximum bioconversion yield of 26% at 50 °C for d-tagatose biosynthesis, with Km and Vmax parameters of 252 mM and 0.092 U mg−1, respectively. However, C-His-l-AI was more active and stable at alkaline pH than N-His-l-AI. N-His-l-AI follows a Michaelis-Menten kinetic, whereas C-His-l-AI fitted to a sigmoidal saturation curve.

  12. Crystal structure and enzymatic properties of chalcone isomerase from the Antarctic vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica Desv.

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    Sun-Ha Park

    Full Text Available Chalcone isomerase (CHI is an important enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis that catalyzes the intramolecular cyclization of chalcones into (S-flavanones. CHIs have been classified into two types based on their substrate specificity. Type I CHIs use naringenin chalcone as a substrate and are found in most of plants besides legumes, whereas type II CHIs in leguminous plants can also utilize isoliquiritigenin. In this study, we found that the CHI from the Antarctic plant Deschampsia antarctica (DaCHI1 is of type I based on sequence homology but can use type II CHI substrates. To clarify the enzymatic mechanism of DaCHI1 at the molecular level, the crystal structures of unliganded DaCHI1 and isoliquiritigenin-bound DaCHI1 were determined at 2.7 and 2.1 Å resolutions, respectively. The structures revealed that isoliquiritigenin binds to the active site of DaCHI1 and induces conformational changes. Additionally, the activity assay showed that while DaCHI1 exhibits substrate preference for naringenin chalcone, it can also utilize isoliquiritigenin although the catalytic activity was relatively low. Based on these results, we propose that DaCHI1 uses various substrates to produce antioxidant flavonoids as an adaptation to oxidative stresses associated with harsh environmental conditions.

  13. Crystal structure and enzymatic properties of chalcone isomerase from the Antarctic vascular plant Deschampsia antarctica Desv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Ha; Lee, Chang Woo; Cho, Sung Mi; Lee, Hyoungseok; Park, Hyun; Lee, Jungeun; Lee, Jun Hyuck

    2018-01-01

    Chalcone isomerase (CHI) is an important enzyme for flavonoid biosynthesis that catalyzes the intramolecular cyclization of chalcones into (S)-flavanones. CHIs have been classified into two types based on their substrate specificity. Type I CHIs use naringenin chalcone as a substrate and are found in most of plants besides legumes, whereas type II CHIs in leguminous plants can also utilize isoliquiritigenin. In this study, we found that the CHI from the Antarctic plant Deschampsia antarctica (DaCHI1) is of type I based on sequence homology but can use type II CHI substrates. To clarify the enzymatic mechanism of DaCHI1 at the molecular level, the crystal structures of unliganded DaCHI1 and isoliquiritigenin-bound DaCHI1 were determined at 2.7 and 2.1 Å resolutions, respectively. The structures revealed that isoliquiritigenin binds to the active site of DaCHI1 and induces conformational changes. Additionally, the activity assay showed that while DaCHI1 exhibits substrate preference for naringenin chalcone, it can also utilize isoliquiritigenin although the catalytic activity was relatively low. Based on these results, we propose that DaCHI1 uses various substrates to produce antioxidant flavonoids as an adaptation to oxidative stresses associated with harsh environmental conditions.

  14. Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase PIN1 Directly Binds to and Stabilizes Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α.

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    Hyeong-Jun Han

    Full Text Available Peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PIN1 regulates the functional activity of a subset of phosphoproteins through binding to phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and subsequently isomerization of the phosphorylated bonds. Interestingly, PIN1 is overexpressed in many types of malignancies including breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers. However, its oncogenic functions have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that PIN1 directly interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1α in human colon cancer (HCT116 cells. PIN1 binding to HIF-1α occurred in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We also found that PIN1 interacted with HIF-1α at both exogenous and endogenous levels. Notably, PIN1 binding stabilized the HIF-1α protein, given that their levels were significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. The stabilization of HIF-1α resulted in increased transcriptional activity, consequently upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, a major contributor to angiogenesis. Silencing of PIN1 or pharmacologic inhibition of its activity abrogated the angiogenesis. By utilizing a bioluminescence imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate that PIN1 inhibition dramatically reduced the tumor volume in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model and angiogenesis as well as hypoxia-induced transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. These results suggest that PIN1 interacting with HIF-1α is a potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic target.

  15. Identification of triosephosphate isomerase as a novel allergen in Octopus fangsiao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Chen, Zhong-Wei; Hurlburt, Barry K; Li, Gui-Ling; Zhang, Yong-Xia; Fei, Dan-Xia; Shen, Hai-Wang; Cao, Min-Jie; Liu, Guang-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Octopus is an important mollusk in human dietary for its nutritional value, however it also causes allergic reactions in humans. Major allergens from octopus have been identified, while the knowledge of novel allergens remains poor. In the present study, a novel allergen with molecular weight of 28kDa protein was purified from octopus (Octopus fangsiao) and identified as triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) by mass spectrometry. TIM aggregated beyond 45°C, and its IgE-binding activity was affected under extreme pH conditions due to the altered secondary structure. In simulated gastric fluid digestion, TIM can be degraded into small fragments, while retaining over 80% of the IgE-binding activity. The full-length cDNA of O. fangsiao TIM (1140bp) was cloned, which encodes 247 amino acid residues, and the entire recombinant TIM was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21, which showed similar immunoreactivity to the native TIM. Different intensity of cross-reactivity among TIM from related species revealed the complexity of its epitopes. Eight linear epitopes of TIM were predicted following bioinformatic analysis. Furthermore, a conformational epitope (A 71 G 74 S 69 D 75 T 73 F 72 V 67 ) was confirmed by the phage display technology. The results revealed the physicochemical and immunological characteristics of TIM, which is significant in the development of hyposensitivity food and allergy diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping Soluble Guanylyl Cyclase and Protein Disulfide Isomerase Regions of Interaction.

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    Erin J Heckler

    Full Text Available Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC is a heterodimeric nitric oxide (NO receptor that produces cyclic GMP. This signaling mechanism is a key component in the cardiovascular system. NO binds to heme in the β subunit and stimulates the catalytic conversion of GTP to cGMP several hundred fold. Several endogenous factors have been identified that modulate sGC function in vitro and in vivo. In previous work, we determined that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI interacts with sGC in a redox-dependent manner in vitro and that PDI inhibited NO-stimulated activity in cells. To our knowledge, this was the first report of a physical interaction between sGC and a thiol-redox protein. To characterize this interaction between sGC and PDI, we first identified peptide linkages between sGC and PDI, using a lysine cross-linking reagent and recently developed mass spectrometry analysis. Together with Flag-immunoprecipitation using sGC domain deletions, wild-type (WT and mutated PDI, regions of sGC involved in this interaction were identified. The observed data were further explored with computational modeling to gain insight into the interaction mechanism between sGC and oxidized PDI. Our results indicate that PDI interacts preferentially with the catalytic domain of sGC, thus providing a mechanism for PDI inhibition of sGC. A model in which PDI interacts with either the α or the β catalytic domain is proposed.

  17. Comparison between serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen, sialic acid and phosphohexose isomerase in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, P.S.; Raval, G.N.; Rawal, R.M.; Balar, D.B.; Patel, G.H.; Shah, P.M.; Patel, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    The identification and application of quantifiable tumor markers as adjuncts to clinical care is a story of both success and failure. The present study compared serum levels of carcinoembryogenic antigen (CEA) with total sialic acid/total protein (TSA/TP) ration and phosphohexose isomerase (PHI) in 192 untreated lung cancer patients as well as 80 age and sex matched controls (44 non-smokers). CEA values were significantly raised (p < 0.001) in smokers as compared to the non-smokers; whereas, TSA/TP and PHI values were comparable between the groups of the groups of the controls. All the bio-markers were significantly elevated (p < 0.00.1) in untreated lung cancer patients as compared to the controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed higher sensitivities of TSA/TP and PHI as compared to CEA at different specificity levels between 60% and 95%. Mean values of CEA, TSA/TP and PHI were higher in non-responders compared to the responders. The results indicate that TSA/TP and PHI are superior tumor markers than CEA for lung cancer patients. (author)

  18. Functional Role of the Disulfide Isomerase ERp57 in Axonal Regeneration.

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    Valentina Castillo

    Full Text Available ERp57 (also known as grp58 and PDIA3 is a protein disulfide isomerase that catalyzes disulfide bonds formation of glycoproteins as part of the calnexin and calreticulin cycle. ERp57 is markedly upregulated in most common neurodegenerative diseases downstream of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress response. Despite accumulating correlative evidence supporting a neuroprotective role of ERp57, the contribution of this foldase to the physiology of the nervous system remains unknown. Here we developed a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses ERp57 in the nervous system under the control of the prion promoter. We analyzed the susceptibility of ERp57 transgenic mice to undergo neurodegeneration. Unexpectedly, ERp57 overexpression did not affect dopaminergic neuron loss and striatal denervation after injection of a Parkinson's disease-inducing neurotoxin. In sharp contrast, ERp57 transgenic animals presented enhanced locomotor recovery after mechanical injury to the sciatic nerve. These protective effects were associated with enhanced myelin removal, macrophage infiltration and axonal regeneration. Our results suggest that ERp57 specifically contributes to peripheral nerve regeneration, whereas its activity is dispensable for the survival of a specific neuronal population of the central nervous system. These results demonstrate for the first time a functional role of a component of the ER proteostasis network in peripheral nerve regeneration.

  19. The unfolded protein response and the role of protein disulphide isomerase in neurodegeneration.

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    Emma ePerri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance and regulation of proteostasis is a critical function for post-mitotic neurons and dysregulation of proteostasis is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Despite having different clinical manifestations, these disorders share similar pathology; an accumulation of misfolded proteins in neurons and subsequent disruption to cellular proteostasis. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an important component of proteostasis, and when the accumulation of misfolded proteins occurs within the ER, this disturbs ER homeostasis, giving rise to ER stress. This triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR, distinct signalling pathways that whilst initially protective, are pro-apoptotic if ER stress is prolonged. ER stress is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, and emerging evidence highlights the complexity of the UPR in these disorders, with both protective and detrimental components being described. Protein Disulphide Isomerase (PDI is an ER chaperone induced during ER stress that is responsible for the formation of disulphide bonds in proteins. Whilst initially considered to be protective, recent studies have revealed unconventional roles for PDI in neurodegenerative diseases, distinct from its normal function in the UPR and the ER, although these mechanisms remain poorly defined. However specific aspects of PDI function may offer the potential to be exploited therapeutically in the future. This review will focus on the evidence linking ER stress and the UPR to neurodegenerative diseases, with particular emphasis on the emerging functions ascribed to PDI in these conditions.

  20. Styrene Oxide Isomerase of Rhodococcus opacus 1CP, a Highly Stable and Considerably Active Enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröning, Janosch A. D.; Tischler, Dirk; Kaschabek, Stefan R.; Schlömann, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) is involved in peripheral styrene catabolism of bacteria and converts styrene oxide to phenylacetaldehyde. Here, we report on the identification, enrichment, and biochemical characterization of a novel representative from the actinobacterium Rhodococcus opacus 1CP. The enzyme, which is strongly induced during growth on styrene, was shown to be membrane integrated, and a convenient procedure was developed to highly enrich the protein in active form from the wild-type host. A specific activity of about 370 U mg−1 represents the highest activity reported for this enzyme class so far. This, in combination with a wide pH and temperature tolerance, the independence from cofactors, and the ability to convert a spectrum of substituted styrene oxides, makes a biocatalytic application imaginable. First, semipreparative conversions were performed from which up to 760 μmol of the pure phenylacetaldehyde could be obtained from 130 U of enriched SOI. Product concentrations of up to 76 mM were achieved. However, due to the high chemical reactivity of the aldehyde function, SOI was shown to be the subject of an irreversible product inhibition. A half-life of 15 min was determined at a phenylacetaldehyde concentration of about 55 mM, indicating substantial limitations of applicability and the need to modify the process. PMID:22504818

  1. The crystal structure of a multifunctional protein: phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor/neuroleukin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y J; Chou, C C; Chen, W S; Wu, R T; Meng, M; Hsiao, C D

    1999-05-11

    Phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) plays a central role in both the glycolysis and the gluconeogenesis pathways. We present here the complete crystal structure of PGI from Bacillus stearothermophilus at 2.3-A resolution. We show that PGI has cell-motility-stimulating activity on mouse colon cancer cells similar to that of endogenous autocrine motility factor (AMF). PGI can also enhance neurite outgrowth on neuronal progenitor cells similar to that observed for neuroleukin. The results confirm that PGI is neuroleukin and AMF. PGI has an open twisted alpha/beta structural motif consisting of two globular domains and two protruding parts. Based on this substrate-free structure, together with the previously published biological, biochemical, and modeling results, we postulate a possible substrate-binding site that is located within the domains' interface for PGI and AMF. In addition, the structure provides evidence suggesting that the top part of the large domain together with one of the protruding loops might participate in inducing the neurotrophic activity.

  2. Success factors for implementing and sustaining a mature electronic medical record in a low-resource setting: a case study of iSanté in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deRiel, E; Puttkammer, N; Hyppolite, N; Diallo, J; Wagner, S; Honoré, J G; Balan, J G; Celestin, N; Vallès, J S; Duval, N; Thimothé, G; Boncy, J; Coq, N R L; Barnhart, S

    2018-03-01

    Electronic health information systems, including electronic medical records (EMRs), have the potential to improve access to information and quality of care, among other things. Success factors and challenges for novel EMR implementations in low-resource settings have increasingly been studied, although less is known about maturing systems and sustainability. One systematic review identified seven categories of implementation success factors: ethical, financial, functionality, organizational, political, technical and training. This case study applies this framework to iSanté, Haiti's national EMR in use in more than 100 sites and housing records for more than 750 000 patients. The author group, consisting of representatives of different agencies within the Haitian Ministry of Health (MSPP), funding partner the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Haiti, and implementing partner the International Training and Education Center for Health (I-TECH), identify successes and lessons learned according to the seven identified categories, and propose an additional cross-cutting category, sustainability. Factors important for long-term implementation success of complex information systems are balancing investments in hardware and software infrastructure upkeep, user capacity and data quality control; designing and building a system within the context of the greater eHealth ecosystem with a plan for interoperability and data exchange; establishing system governance and strong leadership to support local system ownership and planning for system financing to ensure sustainability. Lessons learned from 10 years of implementation of the iSanté EMR system are relevant to sustainability of a full range of increasingly interrelated information systems (e.g. for laboratory, supply chain, pharmacy and human resources) in the health sector in low-resource settings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  3. Selection and Evaluation of Electronic Resources Elektronik Kaynakların Seçimi ve Değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doğan Atılgan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Publication boom and issues related to controlling and accession of printed sources have created some problems after World War II. Consequently, publishing industry has encountered the problem of finding possible solution for emerged situation. Industry of electronic publishing has started to improve with the rapid increase of the price of printed sources as well as the problem of publication boom. The first effects of electronic publishing were appeared on the academic and scholarly publications then electronic publishing became a crucial part of all types of publications. As a result of these developments, collection developments and service policies of information centers were also significantly changed. In this article, after a general introduction about selection and evaluation processes of electronic publications, the subscribed databases by a state and a privately owned university in Turkey and their usage were examined. İkinci dünya savaşından sonra görülen yayın patlaması, basılı kaynakların denetim ve erişiminde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Bu da yayıncılık sektöründe yeni arayışlara yol açmıştır. 1980’li yıllardan sonra basılı yayın fiyatlarındaki hızlı artış da bu etmenlere eklenince elektronik yayıncılık sektörü gelişmeye başlamıştır. Öncelikle bilimsel ve akademik yayınlarla başlayan elektronik yayın günümüzde tüm yayın türlerini kapsamaktadır. Yayıncılıktaki bu gelişim bilgi merkezlerinin derme geliştirme ve hizmet politikalarını da önemli ölçüde değiştirmiştir. Bu çalışmada elektronik yayınların seçim, değerlendirme ve sağlama konularında genel bir girişten sonra bir devlet üniversitesinin bir de özel üniversitenin abone olduğu veritabanları ve bu veri tabanlarının kullanımının değerlendirilmesi yapılmaktadır.

  4. Perturbation of the dimer interface of triosephosphate isomerase and its effect on Trypanosoma cruzi.

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    Vanesa Olivares-Illana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease affects around 18 million people in the American continent. Unfortunately, there is no satisfactory treatment for the disease. The drugs currently used are not specific and exert serious toxic effects. Thus, there is an urgent need for drugs that are effective. Looking for molecules to eliminate the parasite, we have targeted a central enzyme of the glycolytic pathway: triosephosphate isomerase (TIM. The homodimeric enzyme is catalytically active only as a dimer. Because there are significant differences in the interface of the enzymes from the parasite and humans, we searched for small molecules that specifically disrupt contact between the two subunits of the enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi but not those of TIM from Homo sapiens (HTIM, and tested if they kill the parasite.Dithiodianiline (DTDA at nanomolar concentrations completely inactivates recombinant TIM of T. cruzi (TcTIM. It also inactivated HTIM, but at concentrations around 400 times higher. DTDA was also tested on four TcTIM mutants with each of its four cysteines replaced with either valine or alanine. The sensitivity of the mutants to DTDA was markedly similar to that of the wild type. The crystal structure of the TcTIM soaked in DTDA at 2.15 A resolution, and the data on the mutants showed that inactivation resulted from alterations of the dimer interface. DTDA also prevented the growth of Escherichia coli cells transformed with TcTIM, had no effect on normal E. coli, and also killed T. cruzi epimastigotes in culture.By targeting on the dimer interface of oligomeric enzymes from parasites, it is possible to discover small molecules that selectively thwart the life of the parasite. Also, the conformational changes that DTDA induces in the dimer interface of the trypanosomal enzyme are unique and identify a region of the interface that could be targeted for drug discovery.

  5. Phycoerythrin-specific bilin lyase-isomerase controls blue-green chromatic acclimation in marine Synechococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Animesh; Biswas, Avijit; Blot, Nicolas; Partensky, Frédéric; Karty, Jonathan A; Hammad, Loubna A; Garczarek, Laurence; Gutu, Andrian; Schluchter, Wendy M; Kehoe, David M

    2012-12-04

    The marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus is the second most abundant phytoplanktonic organism in the world's oceans. The ubiquity of this genus is in large part due to its use of a diverse set of photosynthetic light-harvesting pigments called phycobiliproteins, which allow it to efficiently exploit a wide range of light colors. Here we uncover a pivotal molecular mechanism underpinning a widespread response among marine Synechococcus cells known as "type IV chromatic acclimation" (CA4). During this process, the pigmentation of the two main phycobiliproteins of this organism, phycoerythrins I and II, is reversibly modified to match changes in the ambient light color so as to maximize photon capture for photosynthesis. CA4 involves the replacement of three molecules of the green light-absorbing chromophore phycoerythrobilin with an equivalent number of the blue light-absorbing chromophore phycourobilin when cells are shifted from green to blue light, and the reverse after a shift from blue to green light. We have identified and characterized MpeZ, an enzyme critical for CA4 in marine Synechococcus. MpeZ attaches phycoerythrobilin to cysteine-83 of the α-subunit of phycoerythrin II and isomerizes it to phycourobilin. mpeZ RNA is six times more abundant in blue light, suggesting that its proper regulation is critical for CA4. Furthermore, mpeZ mutants fail to normally acclimate in blue light. These findings provide insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling an ecologically important photosynthetic process and identify a unique class of phycoerythrin lyase/isomerases, which will further expand the already widespread use of phycoerythrin in biotechnology and cell biology applications.

  6. A chalcone isomerase-like protein enhances flavonoid production and flower pigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yasumasa; Takagi, Kyoko; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Ishiguro, Kanako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Nitasaka, Eiji; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Saito, Norio; Kagami, Takashi; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru

    2014-04-01

    Flavonoids are major pigments in plants, and their biosynthetic pathway is one of the best-studied metabolic pathways. Here we have identified three mutations within a gene that result in pale-colored flowers in the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil). As the mutations lead to a reduction of the colorless flavonoid compound flavonol as well as of anthocyanins in the flower petal, the identified gene was designated enhancer of flavonoid production (EFP). EFP encodes a chalcone isomerase (CHI)-related protein classified as a type IV CHI protein. CHI is the second committed enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, but type IV CHI proteins are thought to lack CHI enzymatic activity, and their functions remain unknown. The spatio-temporal expression of EFP and structural genes encoding enzymes that produce flavonoids is very similar. Expression of both EFP and the structural genes is coordinately promoted by genes encoding R2R3-MYB and WD40 family proteins. The EFP gene is widely distributed in land plants, and RNAi knockdown mutants of the EFP homologs in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and torenia (Torenia hybrida) had pale-colored flowers and low amounts of anthocyanins. The flavonol and flavone contents in the knockdown petunia and torenia flowers, respectively, were also significantly decreased, suggesting that the EFP protein contributes in early step(s) of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to ensure production of flavonoid compounds. From these results, we conclude that EFP is an enhancer of flavonoid production and flower pigmentation, and its function is conserved among diverse land plant species. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Creation of metal-independent hyperthermophilic L-arabinose isomerase by homologous recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo; Pyun, Yu-Ryang; Lee, Sung Haeng

    2011-12-28

    Hyperthermophilic L-arabinose isomerases (AIs) are useful in the commercial production of D-tagatose as a low-calorie bulk sweetener. Their catalysis and thermostability are highly dependent on metals, which is a major drawback in food applications. To study the role of metal ions in the thermostability and catalysis of hyperthermophilic AI, four enzyme chimeras were generated by PCR-based hybridization to replace the variable N- and C-terminal regions of hyperthermophilic Thermotoga maritima AI (TMAI) and thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus AI (GSAI) with those of the homologous mesophilic Bacillus halodurans AI (BHAI). Unlike Mn(2+)-dependent TMAI, the GSAI- and TMAI-based hybrids with the 72 C-terminal residues of BHAI were not metal-dependent for catalytic activity. By contrast, the catalytic activities of the TMAI- and GSAI-based hybrids containing the N-terminus (residues 1-89) of BHAI were significantly enhanced by metals, but their thermostabilities were poor even in the presence of Mn(2+), indicating that the effects of metals on catalysis and thermostability involve different structural regions. Moreover, in contrast to the C-terminal truncate (Δ20 residues) of GSAI, the N-terminal truncate (Δ7 residues) exhibited no activity due to loss of its native structure. The data thus strongly suggest that the metal dependence of the catalysis and thermostability of hyperthermophilic AIs evolved separately to optimize their activity and thermostability at elevated temperatures. This may provide effective target regions for engineering, thereby meeting industrial demands for the production of d-tagatose.

  8. Structural effects of protein aging: terminal marking by deamidation in human triosephosphate isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio de la Mora-de la Mora

    Full Text Available Deamidation, the loss of the ammonium group of asparagine and glutamine to form aspartic and glutamic acid, is one of the most commonly occurring post-translational modifications in proteins. Since deamidation rates are encoded in the protein structure, it has been proposed that they can serve as molecular clocks for the timing of biological processes such as protein turnover, development and aging. Despite the importance of this process, there is a lack of detailed structural information explaining the effects of deamidation on the structure of proteins. Here, we studied the effects of deamidation on human triosephosphate isomerase (HsTIM, an enzyme for which deamidation of N15 and N71 has been long recognized as the signal for terminal marking of the protein. Deamidation was mimicked by site directed mutagenesis; thus, three mutants of HsTIM (N15D, N71D and N15D/N71D were characterized. The results show that the N71D mutant resembles, structurally and functionally, the wild type enzyme. In contrast, the N15D mutant displays all the detrimental effects related to deamidation. The N15D/N71D mutant shows only minor additional effects when compared with the N15D mutation, supporting that deamidation of N71 induces negligible effects. The crystal structures show that, in contrast to the N71D mutant, where minimal alterations are observed, the N15D mutation forms new interactions that perturb the structure of loop 1 and loop 3, both critical components of the catalytic site and the interface of HsTIM. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of TIM sequences, we propose the conservation of this mechanism for mammalian TIMs.

  9. Protein disulfide isomerases in the endoplasmic reticulum promote anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Randi; Duhachek-Muggy, Sara; Qi, Yue; Zolkiewski, Michal; Zolkiewska, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Metastatic breast cancer cells are exposed to stress of detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cultured breast cancer cells that survive this stress and are capable of anchorage-independent proliferation form mammospheres. The purpose of this study was to explore a link between mammosphere growth, ECM gene expression, and the protein quality control system in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We compared the mRNA and protein levels of ER folding factors in SUM159PT and MCF10DCIS.com breast cancer cells grown as mammospheres versus adherent conditions. Publicly available gene expression data for mammospheres formed by primary breast cancer cells and for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were analyzed to assess the status of ECM/ER folding factor genes in clinically relevant samples. Knock-down of selected protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members was performed to examine their roles in SUM159PT mammosphere growth. We found that cells grown as mammospheres had elevated expression of ECM genes and ER folding quality control genes. CTC gene expression data for an index patient indicated that upregulation of ECM and ER folding factor genes occurred at the time of acquired therapy resistance and disease progression. Knock-down of PDI, ERp44, or ERp57, three members of the PDI family with elevated protein levels in mammospheres, in SUM159PT cells partially inhibited the mammosphere growth. Thus, breast cancer cell survival and growth under detachment conditions require enhanced assistance of the ER protein folding machinery. Targeting ER folding factors, in particular members of the PDI family, may improve the therapeutic outcomes in metastatic breast cancer.

  10. Crystal structure of glucose isomerase in complex with xylitol inhibitor in one metal binding mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji-Eun; Kim, In Jung; Nam, Ki Hyun

    2017-11-04

    Glucose isomerase (GI) is an intramolecular oxidoreductase that interconverts aldoses and ketoses. These characteristics are widely used in the food, detergent, and pharmaceutical industries. In order to obtain an efficient GI, identification of novel GI genes and substrate binding/inhibition have been studied. Xylitol is a well-known inhibitor of GI. In Streptomyces rubiginosus, two crystal structures have been reported for GI in complex with xylitol inhibitor. However, a structural comparison showed that xylitol can have variable conformation at the substrate binding site, e.g., a nonspecific binding mode. In this study, we report the crystal structure of S. rubiginosus GI in a complex with xylitol and glycerol. Our crystal structure showed one metal binding mode in GI, which we presumed to represent the inactive form of the GI. The metal ion was found only at the M1 site, which was involved in substrate binding, and was not present at the M2 site, which was involved in catalytic function. The O 2 and O 4 atoms of xylitol molecules contributed to the stable octahedral coordination of the metal in M1. Although there was no metal at the M2 site, no large conformational change was observed for the conserved residues coordinating M2. Our structural analysis showed that the metal at the M2 site was not important when a xylitol inhibitor was bound to the M1 site in GI. Thus, these findings provided important information for elucidation or engineering of GI functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The disulfide isomerase ERp57 is required for fibrin deposition in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J; Wu, Y; Wang, L; Rauova, L; Hayes, V M; Poncz, M; Essex, D W

    2014-11-01

    ERp57 is required for platelet function; however, whether ERp57 contributes to fibrin generation is unknown. Using an inhibitory anti-ERp57 antibody (mAb1), Pf4-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice, Tie2-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice, and mutants of ERp57, we analyzed the function of ERp57 in laser-induced thrombosis. Fibrin deposition was decreased in Pf4-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice, consistent with a role for platelet ERp57 in fibrin generation. Fibrin deposition was further decreased with infusion of mAb1 and in Tie2-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice, consistent with endothelial cells also contributing to fibrin deposition. Infusion of eptibifatide inhibited platelet and fibrin deposition, confirming a role for platelets in fibrin deposition. Infusion of recombinant ERp57 corrected the defect in fibrin deposition but not platelet accumulation, suggesting a direct effect of ERp57 on coagulation. mAb1 inhibited thrombin generation in vitro, consistent with a requirement for ERp57 in coagulation. Platelet accumulation was decreased to similar extents in Pf4-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice, Tie2-Cre/ERp57(fl/fl) mice and normal mice infused with mAb1. Infusion of completely inactivated ERp57 or ERp57 with a non-functional second active site inhibited fibrin deposition and platelet accumulation, indicating that the isomerase activity of the second active site is required for these processes. ERp57 regulates thrombosis via multiple targets. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Heterologous expression and characterization of Bacillus coagulans L-arabinose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xingding; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2012-05-01

    Bacillus coagulans has been of great commercial interest over the past decade owing to its strong ability of producing optical pure L: -lactic acid from both hexose and pentose sugars including L: -arabinose with high yield, titer and productivity under thermophilic conditions. The L: -arabinose isomerase (L-AI) from Bacillus coagulans was heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of the L-AI has 1,422 nucleotides encoding a protein with 474 amino acid residues. The recombinant L-AI was purified to homogeneity by one-step His-tag affinity chromatography. The molecular mass of the enzyme was estimated to be 56 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was most active at 70°C and pH 7.0. The metal ion Mn(2+) was shown to be the best activator for enzymatic activity and thermostability. The enzyme showed higher activity at acidic pH than at alkaline pH. The kinetic studies showed that the K (m), V (max) and k (cat)/K (m) for the conversion of L: -arabinose were 106 mM, 84 U/mg and 34.5 mM(-1)min(-1), respectively. The equilibrium ratio of L: -arabinose to L: -ribulose was 78:22 under optimal conditions. L: -ribulose (97 g/L) was obtained from 500 g/l of L: -arabinose catalyzed by the enzyme (8.3 U/mL) under the optimal conditions within 1.5 h, giving at a substrate conversion of 19.4% and a production rate of 65 g L(-1) h(-1).

  13. Attachment and entry of Chlamydia have distinct requirements for host protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Abromaitis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia is an obligate intracellular pathogen that causes a wide range of diseases in humans. Attachment and entry are key processes in infectivity and subsequent pathogenesis of Chlamydia, yet the mechanisms governing these interactions are unknown. It was recently shown that a cell line, CHO6, that is resistant to attachment, and thus infectivity, of multiple Chlamydia species has a defect in protein disulfide isomerase (PDI N-terminal signal sequence processing. Ectopic expression of PDI in CHO6 cells led to restoration of Chlamydia attachment and infectivity; however, the mechanism leading to this recovery was not ascertained. To advance our understanding of the role of PDI in Chlamydia infection, we used RNA interference to establish that cellular PDI is essential for bacterial attachment to cells, making PDI the only host protein identified as necessary for attachment of multiple species of Chlamydia. Genetic complementation and PDI-specific inhibitors were used to determine that cell surface PDI enzymatic activity is required for bacterial entry into cells, but enzymatic function was not required for bacterial attachment. We further determined that it is a PDI-mediated reduction at the cell surface that triggers bacterial uptake. While PDI is necessary for Chlamydia attachment to cells, the bacteria do not appear to utilize plasma membrane-associated PDI as a receptor, suggesting that Chlamydia binds a cell surface protein that requires structural association with PDI. Our findings demonstrate that PDI has two essential and independent roles in the process of chlamydial infectivity: it is structurally required for chlamydial attachment, and the thiol-mediated oxido-reductive function of PDI is necessary for entry.

  14. Role of Loop-Clamping Side Chains in Catalysis by Triosephosphate Isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiang; Amyes, Tina L; Richard, John P

    2015-12-09

    The side chains of Y208 and S211 from loop 7 of triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) form hydrogen bonds to backbone amides and carbonyls from loop 6 to stabilize the caged enzyme-substrate complex. The effect of seven mutations [Y208T, Y208S, Y208A, Y208F, S211G, S211A, Y208T/S211G] on the kinetic parameters for TIM catalyzed reactions of the whole substrates dihydroxyacetone phosphate and d-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate [(k(cat)/K(m))(GAP) and (k(cat)/K(m))DHAP] and of the substrate pieces glycolaldehyde and phosphite dianion (k(cat)/K(HPi)K(GA)) are reported. The linear logarithmic correlation between these kinetic parameters, with slope of 1.04 ± 0.03, shows that most mutations of TIM result in an identical change in the activation barriers for the catalyzed reactions of whole substrate and substrate pieces, so that the transition states for these reactions are stabilized by similar interactions with the protein catalyst. The second linear logarithmic correlation [slope = 0.53 ± 0.16] between k(cat) for isomerization of GAP and K(d)(⧧) for phosphite dianion binding to the transition state for wildtype and many mutant TIM-catalyzed reactions of substrate pieces shows that ca. 50% of the wildtype TIM dianion binding energy, eliminated by these mutations, is expressed at the wildtype Michaelis complex, and ca. 50% is only expressed at the wildtype transition state. Negative deviations from this correlation are observed when the mutation results in a decrease in enzyme reactivity at the catalytic site. The main effect of Y208T, Y208S, and Y208A mutations is to cause a reduction in the total intrinsic dianion binding energy, but the effect of Y208F extends to the catalytic site.

  15. Substrate-Induced Dimerization of Engineered Monomeric Variants of Triosephosphate Isomerase from Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lara-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available The dimeric nature of triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs is maintained by an extensive surface area interface of more than 1600 Å2. TIMs from Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM are held in their dimeric state by two mechanisms: a ball and socket interaction of residue 45 of one subunit that fits into the hydrophobic pocket of the complementary subunit and by swapping of loop 3 between subunits. TvTIMs differ from other TIMs in their unfolding energetics. In TvTIMs the energy necessary to unfold a monomer is greater than the energy necessary to dissociate the dimer. Herein we found that the character of residue I45 controls the dimer-monomer equilibrium in TvTIMs. Unfolding experiments employing monomeric and dimeric mutants led us to conclude that dimeric TvTIMs unfold following a four state model denaturation process whereas monomeric TvTIMs follow a three state model. In contrast to other monomeric TIMs, monomeric variants of TvTIM1 are stable and unexpectedly one of them (I45A is only 29-fold less active than wild-type TvTIM1. The high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIMs contrast with the marginal catalytic activity of diverse monomeric TIMs variants. The stability of the monomeric variants of TvTIM1 and the use of cross-linking and analytical ultracentrifugation experiments permit us to understand the differences between the catalytic activities of TvTIMs and other marginally active monomeric TIMs. As TvTIMs do not unfold upon dimer dissociation, herein we found that the high enzymatic activity of monomeric TvTIM variants is explained by the formation of catalytic dimeric competent species assisted by substrate binding.

  16. Isolation of xylose isomerases by sequence- and function-based screening from a soil metagenomic library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parachin Nádia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Xylose isomerase (XI catalyses the isomerisation of xylose to xylulose in bacteria and some fungi. Currently, only a limited number of XI genes have been functionally expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism of choice for lignocellulosic ethanol production. The objective of the present study was to search for novel XI genes in the vastly diverse microbial habitat present in soil. As the exploitation of microbial diversity is impaired by the ability to cultivate soil microorganisms under standard laboratory conditions, a metagenomic approach, consisting of total DNA extraction from a given environment followed by cloning of DNA into suitable vectors, was undertaken. Results A soil metagenomic library was constructed and two screening methods based on protein sequence similarity and enzyme activity were investigated to isolate novel XI encoding genes. These two screening approaches identified the xym1 and xym2 genes, respectively. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the genes shared 67% similarity and belonged to different bacterial groups. When xym1 and xym2 were overexpressed in a xylA-deficient Escherichia coli strain, similar growth rates to those in which the Piromyces XI gene was expressed were obtained. However, expression in S. cerevisiae resulted in only one-fourth the growth rate of that obtained for the strain expressing the Piromyces XI gene. Conclusions For the first time, the screening of a soil metagenomic library in E. coli resulted in the successful isolation of two active XIs. However, the discrepancy between XI enzyme performance in E. coli and S. cerevisiae suggests that future screening for XI activity from soil should be pursued directly using yeast as a host.

  17. Utility of the electronic information resource UpToDate for clinical decision-making at bedside rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, J; See, K C; Khalizah, H J; Low, S P; Lim, T K

    2012-02-01

    Clinical questions often arise at daily hospital bedside rounds. Yet, little information exists on how the search for answers may be facilitated. The aim of this prospective study was, therefore, to evaluate the overall utility, including the feasibility and usefulness of incorporating searches of UpToDate, a popular online information resource, into rounds. Doctors searched UpToDate for any unresolved clinical questions during rounds for patients in general medicine and respiratory wards, and in the medical intensive care unit of a tertiary teaching hospital. The nature of the questions and the results of the searches were recorded. Searches were deemed feasible if they were completed during the rounds and useful if they provided a satisfactory answer. A total of 157 UpToDate searches were performed during the study period. Questions were raised by all ranks of clinicians from junior doctors to consultants. The searches were feasible and performed immediately during rounds 44% of the time. Each search took a median of three minutes (first quartile: two minutes, third quartile: five minutes). UpToDate provided a useful and satisfactory answer 75% of the time, a partial answer 17% of the time and no answer 9% of the time. It led to a change in investigations, diagnosis or management 37% of the time, confirmed what was originally known or planned 38% of the time and had no effect 25% of the time. Incorporating UpToDate searches into daily bedside rounds was feasible and useful in clinical decision-making.

  18. A dual inhibitor against prolyl isomerase Pin1 and cyclophilin discovered by a novel real-time fluorescence detection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Tadashi; Hidaka, Masafumi; Lin, Yi-Chin; Yoshizawa, Ibuki; Okabe, Takayoshi; Egashira, Shinichiro; Kojima, Hirotatsu; Nagano, Tetsuo; Koketsu, Mamoru; Takamiya, Mari; Uchida, Takafumi

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → A Pin1 (prolyl isomerase) inhibitor, TME-001, has been discovered by using a new established high-throughput screening method. → The TME-001 showed a cell-active inhibition with lower cytotoxic effect than known Pin1 inhibitors. → Kinetic analyses revealed that the TME-001 is the first compound that exhibits dual inhibition of Pin1 and another type of prolyl isomerase, cyclophilin. → Thus, similarities of structure and reaction mechanism between Pin1 and cyclophilin are proposed. -- Abstract: Pin1, a peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase), is a potential target molecule for cancer, infectious disease, and Alzheimer's disease. We established a high-throughput screening method for Pin1 inhibitors, which employs a real-time fluorescence detector. This screening method identified 66 compounds that inhibit Pin1 out of 9756 compounds from structurally diverse chemical libraries. Further evaluations of surface plasmon resonance methods and a cell proliferation assay were performed. We discovered a cell-active inhibitor, TME-001 (2-(3-chloro-4-fluoro-phenyl)-isothiazol-3-one). Surprisingly, kinetic analyses revealed that TME-001 is the first compound that exhibits dual inhibition of Pin1 (IC 50 = 6.1 μM) and cyclophilin, another type of PPIase, (IC 50 = 13.7 μM). This compound does not inhibit FKBP. This finding suggests the existence of similarities of structure and reaction mechanism between Pin1 and cyclophilin, and may lead to a more complete understanding of the active sites of PPIases.

  19. Increase in D-tagatose production rate by site-directed mutagenesis of L-arabinose isomerase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyo-Jung; Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2006-02-01

    Among single-site mutations of L-arabinose isomerase derived from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, two mutants were produced having the lowest and highest activities of D-tagatose production. Site-directed mutagenesis at these sites showed that the aromatic ring at amino acid 164 and the size of amino acid 475 were important for D-tagatose production. Among double-site mutations, one mutant converted D-galactose into D-tagatose with a yield of 58% whereas the wild type gave 46% D-tagatose conversion after 300 min at 65 degrees C.

  20. Kinetic analysis of the mechanism and specificity of protein-disulfide isomerase using fluorescence-quenched peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westphal, V; Spetzler, J C; Meldal, M

    1998-01-01

    Protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) is an abundant folding catalyst in the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells. PDI introduces disulfide bonds into newly synthesized proteins and catalyzes disulfide bond isomerizations. We have synthesized a library of disulfide-linked fluorescence......-quenched peptides, individually linked to resin beads, for two purposes: 1) to probe PDI specificity, and 2) to identify simple, sensitive peptide substrates of PDI. Using this library, beads that became rapidly fluorescent by reduction by human PDI were selected. Amino acid sequencing of the bead-linked peptides...

  1. The Expression of Millettia pinnata Chalcone Isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Salt-Sensitive Mutants Enhances Salt-Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; Hu, Tangjin; Huang, Jianzi; Lu, Xiang; Huang, Baiqu; Zheng, Yizhi

    2013-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI) whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM) via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp) was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequ...

  2. l-Arabinose Isomerase and d-Xylose Isomerase from Lactobacillus reuteri: Characterization, Coexpression in the Food Grade Host Lactobacillus plantarum, and Application in the Conversion of d-Galactose and d-Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The l-arabinose isomerase (l-AI) and the d-xylose isomerase (d-XI) encoding genes from Lactobacillus reuteri (DSMZ 17509) were cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The proteins were purified to homogeneity by one-step affinity chromatography and characterized biochemically. l-AI displayed maximum activity at 65 °C and pH 6.0, whereas d-XI showed maximum activity at 65 °C and pH 5.0. Both enzymes require divalent metal ions. The genes were also ligated into the inducible lactobacillal expression vectors pSIP409 and pSIP609, the latter containing a food grade auxotrophy marker instead of an antibiotic resistance marker, and the l-AI- and d-XI-encoding sequences/genes were coexpressed in the food grade host Lactobacillus plantarum. The recombinant enzymes were tested for applications in carbohydrate conversion reactions of industrial relevance. The purified l-AI converted d-galactose to d-tagatose with a maximum conversion rate of 35%, and the d-XI isomerized d-glucose to d-fructose with a maximum conversion rate of 48% at 60 °C. PMID:24443973

  3. Direct production of D-arabinose from D-xylose by a coupling reaction using D-xylose isomerase, D-tagatose 3-epimerase and D-arabinose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Ishrat; Mizanur, Rahman Md; Takeshita, Kei; Takada, Goro; Izumori, Ken

    2003-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae 40bXX, a mutant strain that constitutively produces D-arabinose isomerase (D-AI), was isolated through a series of repeated subcultures from the parent strain on a mineral salt medium supplemented with L-Xylose as the sole carbon source. D-AI could be efficiently immobilized on chitopearl beads. The optimum temperature for the activity of the immobilized enzyme was 40 degrees C and the enzyme was stable up to 50 degrees C. The D-Al was active at pH 10.0 and was stable in the range of pH 6.0-11.0. The enzyme required manganese ions for maximum activity. Three immobilized enzymes, D-xylose isomerase (D-XI), D-tagatose 3-epimerase (D-TE and D-AI were used for the preparation of D-arabinose from D-xylose in a coupling reaction. After completion of the reaction, degradation of D-xylulose was carried out by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The reaction mixture containing D-Xylose, D-ribulose and the product was then separated by ion exchange column chromatography. After crystallization, the product was checked by HPLC, IR spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy and optical rotation measurements. Finally, 2.0 g of D-arabinose could be obtained from 5 g of the substrate.

  4. Comprehensive evaluation of electronic medical record system use and user satisfaction at five low-resource setting hospitals in ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilahun, Binyam; Fritz, Fleur

    2015-05-25

    Electronic medical record (EMR) systems are increasingly being implemented in hospitals of developing countries to improve patient care and clinical service. However, only limited evaluation studies are available concerning the level of adoption and determinant factors of success in those settings. The objective of this study was to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinants of health professional's satisfaction towards a comprehensive EMR system implemented in Ethiopia where parallel documentation using the EMR and the paper-based medical records is in practice. A quantitative, cross-sectional study design was used to assess the usage pattern, user satisfaction level, and determinant factors of an EMR system implemented in Ethiopia based on the DeLone and McLean model of information system success. Descriptive statistical methods were applied to analyze the data and a binary logistic regression model was used to identify determinant factors. Health professionals (N=422) from five hospitals were approached and 406 responded to the survey (96.2% response rate). Out of the respondents, 76.1% (309/406) started to use the system immediately after implementation and user training, but only 31.7% (98/309) of the professionals reported using the EMR during the study (after 3 years of implementation). Of the 12 core EMR functions, 3 were never used by most respondents, and they were also unaware of 4 of the core EMR functions. It was found that 61.4% (190/309) of the health professionals reported over all dissatisfaction with the EMR (median=4, interquartile range (IQR)=1) on a 5-level Likert scale. Physicians were more dissatisfied (median=5, IQR=1) when compared to nurses (median=4, IQR=1) and the health management information system (HMIS) staff (median=2, IQR=1). Of all the participants, 64.4% (199/309) believed that the EMR had no positive impact on the quality of care. The participants indicated an agreement with the system and information

  5. Production of D-tagatose, a low caloric sweetener during milk fermentation using L-arabinose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhimi, Moez; Chouayekh, Hichem; Gouillouard, Isabelle; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Bejar, Samir

    2011-02-01

    Lactobacillusdelbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are used for the biotransformation of milk in yoghurt. During milk fermentation, these lactic acid bacteria (LAB) hydrolyze lactose producing a glucose moiety that is further metabolized and a galactose moiety that they are enable to metabolize. We investigated the ability of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus strains expressing a heterologous L-arabinose isomerase to convert residual D-galactose to D-tagatose. The Bacillus stearothermophilus US100l-arabinose isomerase (US100l-AI) was expressed in both LAB, using a new shuttle vector where the araA US100 gene is under the control of the strong and constitutive promoter of the L. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 hlbA gene. The production of L-AI by these LAB allowed the bioconversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose during fermentation in laboratory media and milk. We also established that the addition of L-AI to milk also allowed the conversion of D-galactose into D-tagatose during the fermentation process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and characterization of a novel L-arabinose isomerase from Anoxybacillus flavithermus useful in D-tagatose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Zhu, Yueming; Liu, Anjun; Sun, Yuanxia

    2011-05-01

    D-Tagatose is a highly functional rare ketohexose and many attempts have been made to convert D-galactose into the valuable D-tagatose using L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI). In this study, a thermophilic strain possessing L-AI gene was isolated from hot spring sludge and identified as Anoxybacillus flavithermus based on its physio-biochemical characterization and phylogenetic analysis of its 16s rRNA gene. Furthermore, the gene encoding L-AI from A. flavithermus (AFAI) was cloned and expressed at a high level in E. coli BL21(DE3). L-AI had a molecular weight of 55,876 Da, an optimum pH of 10.5 and temperature of 95°C. The results showed that the conversion equilibrium shifted to more D-tagatose from D-galactose by raising the reaction temperatures and adding borate. A 60% conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose was observed at an isomerization temperature of 95°C with borate. The catalytic efficiency (k (cat) /K (m)) for D-galactose with borate was 9.47 mM(-1) min(-1), twice as much as that without borate. Our results indicate that AFAI is a novel hyperthermophilic and alkaliphilic isomerase with a higher catalytic efficiency for D-galactose, suggesting its great potential for producing D-tagatose.

  7. Transmutation of human glutathione transferase A2-2 with peroxidase activity into an efficient steroid isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Par L; Johansson, Ann-Sofie; Mannervik, Bengt

    2002-08-16

    A major goal in protein engineering is the tailor-making of enzymes for specified chemical reactions. Successful attempts have frequently been based on directed molecular evolution involving libraries of random mutants in which variants with desired properties were identified. For the engineering of enzymes with novel functions, it would be of great value if the necessary changes of the active site could be predicted and implemented. Such attempts based on the comparison of similar structures with different substrate selectivities have previously met with limited success. However, the present work shows that the knowledge-based redesign restricted to substrate-binding residues in human glutathione transferase A2-2 can introduce high steroid double-bond isomerase activity into the enzyme originally characterized by glutathione peroxidase activity. Both the catalytic center activity (k(cat)) and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) match the values of the naturally evolved glutathione transferase A3-3, the most active steroid isomerase known in human tissues. The substrate selectivity of the mutated glutathione transferase was changed 7000-fold by five point mutations. This example demonstrates the functional plasticity of the glutathione transferase scaffold as well as the potential of rational active-site directed mutagenesis as a complement to DNA shuffling and other stochastic methods for the redesign of proteins with novel functions.

  8. Characterization of the triple-component linoleic acid isomerase in Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058 by genetic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B; Qi, H; Gu, Z; Zhang, H; Chen, W; Chen, H; Chen, Y Q

    2017-11-01

    To assess the mechanism for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production in Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058. CLA has attracted great interests for decades due to its health-associated benefits including anticancer, anti-atherogenic, anti-obesity and modulation of the immune system. A number of microbial CLA producers were widely reported including lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum ZS2058, an isolate from Chinese traditional fermented food, could convert LA to CLA with various intermediates. To characterize the genetic determinants for generating CLA, a cre-lox-based system was utilized to delete the genes encoding myosin cross-reactive antigen (MCRA), short-chain dehydrogenase/oxidoreductase (DH) and acetoacetate decarboxylase (DC) in Lact. plantarum ZS2058, respectively. Neither intermediate was detected in the corresponding gene deletion mutant. Meanwhile all those mutants could recover the ability to convert linoleic acid to CLA when the corresponding gene was completed. The results indicated that CLA production was a multiple-step reaction catalysed by triple-component linoleate isomerase system encoded by mcra, dh and dc. Multicomponent linoleic acid isomerase provided important results for illustration unique mechanism for CLA production in Lact. plantarum ZS2058. Lactobacilli with CLA production ability offer novel opportunities for functional food development. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Construction of phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) transformation vectors and evaluation of the effectiveness of vectors in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahariah, Bohari; Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Khalid, Norzulaani

    2012-01-01

    Phosphomannose isomerase (pmi) gene isolated from Escherichia coli allows transgenic plants carrying it to convert mannose-6- phosphate (from mannose), a carbon source that could not be naturally utilized by plants into fructose-6-phosphate which can be utilized by plants as a carbon source. This conversion ability provides energy source to allow the transformed cells to survive on the medium containing mannose. In this study, four transformation vectors carrying the pmi gene alone or in combination with the β-glucuronidase (gusA) gene were constructed and driven by either the maize ubiquitin (Ubi1) or the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV35S) promoter. Restriction digestion, PCR amplification and sequencing were carried out to ensure sequence integrity and orientation. Tobacco was used as a model system to study the effectiveness of the constructs and selection system. PMI11G and pMI3G, which carry gusA gene, were used to study the gene transient expression in tobacco. PMI3 construct, which only carries the pmi gene driven by CaMV35S promoter, was stably transformed into tobacco using biolistics after selection on 30 g 1(-1) mannose without sucrose. Transgenic plants were verified using PCR analysis. PMI/pmi - Phosphomannose isomerase, Ubi1 - Maize ubiquitin promoter, CaMV35S - Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, gusA - β-glucuronidase GUS reporter gene.

  10. Human cyclophilin B: A second cyclophilin gene encodes a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase with a signal sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.R.; Zydowsky, L.D.; Jin, Mingjie; Baker, C.H.; McKeon, F.D.; Walsh, C.T.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a second human cyclosporin A-binding protein (hCyPB). Homology analyses reveal that hCyPB is a member of the cyclophilin B (CyPB) family, which includes yeast CyPB, Drosophila nina A, and rat cyclophilin-like protein. This family is distinguished from the cyclophilin A (CyPA) family by the presence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-directed signal sequences. hCyPB has a hydrophobic leader sequence not found in hCyPA, and its first 25 amino acids are removed upon expression in Escherichia coli. Moreover, they show that hCyPB is a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase which can be inhibited by cyclosporin A. These observations suggest that other members of the CyPB family will have similar enzymatic properties. Sequence comparisons of the CyPB proteins show a central, 165-amino acid peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and cyclosprorin A-binding domain, flanked by variable N-terminal and C-terminal domains. These two variable regions may impart compartmental specificity and regulation to this family of cyclophilin proteins containing the conserved core domain. Northern blot analyses show that hCyPB mRNA is expressed in the Jurkat T-cell line, consistent with its possible target role in cyclosporin A-mediated immunosuppression

  11. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the mannose 6-phosphate isomerase from Salmonella typhimurium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gowda, Giri; Sagurthi, Someswar Rao [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Savithri, H. S. [Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India); Murthy, M. R. N., E-mail: mrn@mbu.iisc.ernet.in [Molecular Biophysics Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2008-02-01

    The cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of mannose 6-phosphate isomerase from S. typhimurium are reported. Mannose 6-phosphate isomerase (MPI; EC 5.3.1.8) catalyzes the reversible isomerization of d-mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) and d-fructose 6-phosphate (F6P). In the eukaryotes and prokaryotes investigated to date, the enzyme has been reported to play a crucial role in d-mannose metabolism and supply of the activated mannose donor guanosine diphosphate d-mannose (GDP-d-mannose). In the present study, MPI was cloned from Salmonella typhimurium, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified using Ni–NTA affinity column chromatography. Purified MPI crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 36.03, b = 92.2, c = 111.01 Å. A data set extending to 1.66 Å resolution was collected with 98.8% completeness using an image-plate detector system mounted on a rotating-anode X-ray generator. The asymmetric unit of the crystal cell was compatible with the presence of a monomer of MPI. A preliminary structure solution of the enzyme has been obtained by molecular replacement using Candida albicans MPI as the phasing model and the program Phaser. Further refinement and model building are in progress.

  12. Insights into evolution in Andean Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) from expanded understanding of the cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Brendan M; McHenry, Monique A; Barrington, David S

    2017-07-01

    Cytosolic phosphoglucose isomerase (pgiC) is an enzyme essential to glycolysis found universally in eukaryotes, but broad understanding of variation in the gene coding for pgiC is lacking for ferns. We used a substantially expanded representation of the gene for Andean species of the fern genus Polystichum to characterize pgiC in ferns relative to angiosperms, insects, and an amoebozoan; assess the impact of selection versus neutral evolutionary processes on pgiC; and explore evolutionary relationships of selected Andean species. The dataset of complete sequences comprised nine accessions representing seven species and one hybrid from the Andes and Serra do Mar. The aligned sequences of the full data set comprised 3376 base pairs (70% of the entire gene) including 17 exons and 15 introns from two central areas of the gene. The exons are highly conserved relative to angiosperms and retain substantial homology to insect pgiC, but intron length and structure are unique to the ferns. Average intron size is similar to angiosperms; intron number and location in insects are unlike those of the plants we considered. The introns included an array of indels and, in intron 7, an extensive microsatellite array with potential utility in analyzing population-level histories. Bayesian and maximum-parsimony analysis of 129 variable nucleotides in the Andean polystichums revealed that 59 (1.7% of the 3376 total) were phylogenetically informative; most of these united sister accessions. The phylogenetic trees for the Andean polystichums were incongruent with previously published cpDNA trees for the same taxa, likely the result of rapid evolutionary change in the introns and contrasting stability in the exons. The exons code a total of seven amino-acid substitutions. Comparison of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions did not suggest that the pgiC gene is under selection in the Andes. Variation in pgiC including two additional accessions represented by incomplete sequences

  13. Molecular characterization and analysis of a novel protein disulfide isomerase-like protein of Eimeria tenella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyu; Dong, Hui; Zhu, Shunhai; Zhao, Qiping; Jiang, Lianlian; Wang, Yange; Li, Liujia; Wu, Youlin; Huang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like proteins are members of the thioredoxin superfamily. They contain thioredoxin-like domains and catalyze the physiological oxidation, reduction and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds, which are involved in cell function and development in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, EtPDIL, a novel PDI-like gene of Eimeria tenella, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) according to the expressed sequence tag (EST). The EtPDIL cDNA contained 1129 nucleotides encoding 216 amino acids. The deduced EtPDIL protein belonged to thioredoxin-like superfamily and had a single predicted thioredoxin domain with a non-classical thioredoxin-like motif (SXXC). BLAST analysis showed that the EtPDIL protein was 55-59% identical to PDI-like proteins of other apicomplexan parasites. The transcript and protein levels of EtPDIL at different development stages were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. The messenger RNA and protein levels of EtPDIL were higher in sporulated oocysts than in unsporulated oocysts, sporozoites or merozoites. Protein expression was barely detectable in unsporulated oocysts. Western blots showed that rabbit antiserum against recombinant EtPDIL recognized only a native 24 kDa protein from parasites. Immunolocalization with EtPDIL antibody showed that EtPDIL had a disperse distribution in the cytoplasm of whole sporozoites and merozoites. After sporozoites were incubated in complete medium, EtPDIL protein concentrated at the anterior of the sporozoites and appeared on the surface of parasites. Specific staining was more intense and mainly located on the parasite surface after merozoites released from mature schizonts invaded DF-1 cells. After development of parasites in DF-1 cells, staining intensified in trophozoites, immature schizonts and mature schizonts. Antibody inhibition of EtPDIL function reduced the ability of E. tenella to invade DF-1 cells. These results

  14. Structural Basis for Redox Regulation of Cytoplasmic and Chloroplastic Triosephosphate Isomerases from Arabidopsis thaliana

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    Laura Margarita López-Castillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In plants triosephosphate isomerase (TPI interconverts glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP during glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the Calvin-Benson cycle. The nuclear genome of land plants encodes two tpi genes, one gene product is located in the cytoplasm and the other is imported into the chloroplast. Herein we report the crystal structures of the TPIs from the vascular plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTPIs and address their enzymatic modulation by redox agents. Cytoplasmic TPI (cTPI and chloroplast TPI (pdTPI share more than 60% amino acid identity and assemble as (β-α8 dimers with high structural homology. cTPI and pdTPI harbor two and one accessible thiol groups per monomer respectively. cTPI and pdTPI present a cysteine at an equivalent structural position (C13 and C15 respectively and cTPI also contains a specific solvent accessible cysteine at residue 218 (cTPI-C218. Site directed mutagenesis of residues pdTPI-C15, cTPI-C13 and cTPI-C218 to serine substantially decreases enzymatic activity, indicating that the structural integrity of these cysteines is necessary for catalysis. AtTPIs exhibit differential responses to oxidative agents, cTPI is susceptible to oxidative agents such as diamide and H2O2, whereas pdTPI is resistant to inhibition. Incubation of AtTPIs with the sulfhydryl conjugating reagents methylmethane thiosulfonate (MMTS and glutathione inhibits enzymatic activity. However, the concentration necessary to inhibit pdTPI is at least two orders of magnitude higher than the concentration needed to inhibit cTPI. Western-blot analysis indicates that residues cTPI-C13, cTPI-C218, and pdTPI-C15 conjugate with glutathione. In summary, our data indicate that AtTPIs could be redox regulated by the derivatization of specific AtTPI cysteines (cTPI-C13 and pdTPI-C15 and cTPI-C218. Since AtTPIs have evolved by gene duplication, the higher resistance of pdTPI to redox agents may be an adaptive consequence to

  15. Molecular characterization and analysis of a novel protein disulfide isomerase-like protein of Eimeria tenella.

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    Hongyu Han

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI and PDI-like proteins are members of the thioredoxin superfamily. They contain thioredoxin-like domains and catalyze the physiological oxidation, reduction and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds, which are involved in cell function and development in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, EtPDIL, a novel PDI-like gene of Eimeria tenella, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE according to the expressed sequence tag (EST. The EtPDIL cDNA contained 1129 nucleotides encoding 216 amino acids. The deduced EtPDIL protein belonged to thioredoxin-like superfamily and had a single predicted thioredoxin domain with a non-classical thioredoxin-like motif (SXXC. BLAST analysis showed that the EtPDIL protein was 55-59% identical to PDI-like proteins of other apicomplexan parasites. The transcript and protein levels of EtPDIL at different development stages were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. The messenger RNA and protein levels of EtPDIL were higher in sporulated oocysts than in unsporulated oocysts, sporozoites or merozoites. Protein expression was barely detectable in unsporulated oocysts. Western blots showed that rabbit antiserum against recombinant EtPDIL recognized only a native 24 kDa protein from parasites. Immunolocalization with EtPDIL antibody showed that EtPDIL had a disperse distribution in the cytoplasm of whole sporozoites and merozoites. After sporozoites were incubated in complete medium, EtPDIL protein concentrated at the anterior of the sporozoites and appeared on the surface of parasites. Specific staining was more intense and mainly located on the parasite surface after merozoites released from mature schizonts invaded DF-1 cells. After development of parasites in DF-1 cells, staining intensified in trophozoites, immature schizonts and mature schizonts. Antibody inhibition of EtPDIL function reduced the ability of E. tenella to invade DF-1 cells

  16. Role of hydrogen bonds in the reaction mechanism of chalcone isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Joseph M; Bowman, Marianne E; Noel, Joseph P

    2002-04-23

    In flavonoid, isoflavonoid, and anthocyanin biosynthesis, chalcone isomerase (CHI) catalyzes the intramolecular cyclization of chalcones into (S)-flavanones with a second-order rate constant that approaches the diffusion-controlled limit. The three-dimensional structures of alfalfa CHI complexed with different flavanones indicate that two sets of hydrogen bonds may possess critical roles in catalysis. The first set of interactions includes two conserved amino acids (Thr48 and Tyr106) that mediate a hydrogen bond network with two active site water molecules. The second set of hydrogen bonds occurs between the flavanone 7-hydroxyl group and two active site residues (Asn113 and Thr190). Comparison of the steady-state kinetic parameters of wild-type and mutant CHIs demonstrates that efficient cyclization of various chalcones into their respective flavanones requires both sets of contacts. For example, the T48A, T48S, Y106F, N113A, and T190A mutants exhibit 1550-, 3-, 30-, 7-, and 6-fold reductions in k(cat) and 2-3-fold changes in K(m) with 4,2',4'-trihydroxychalcone as a substrate. Kinetic comparisons of the pH-dependence of the reactions catalyzed by wild-type and mutant enzymes indicate that the active site hydrogen bonds contributed by these four residues do not significantly alter the pK(a) of the intramolecular cyclization reaction. Determinations of solvent kinetic isotope and solvent viscosity effects for wild-type and mutant enzymes reveal a change from a diffusion-controlled reaction to one limited by chemistry in the T48A and Y106F mutants. The X-ray crystal structures of the T48A and Y106F mutants support the assertion that the observed kinetic effects result from the loss of key hydrogen bonds at the CHI active site. Our results are consistent with a reaction mechanism for CHI in which Thr48 polarizes the ketone of the substrate and Tyr106 stabilizes a key catalytic water molecule. Hydrogen bonds contributed by Asn113 and Thr190 provide additional

  17. Identification and comparative analysis of sixteen fungal peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase repertoires

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    Pemberton Trevor J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase class of proteins is present in all known eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and archaea, and it is comprised of three member families that share the ability to catalyze the cis/trans isomerisation of a prolyl bond. Some fungi have been used as model systems to investigate the role of PPIases within the cell, however how representative these repertoires are of other fungi or humans has not been fully investigated. Results PPIase numbers within these fungal repertoires appears associated with genome size and orthology between repertoires was found to be low. Phylogenetic analysis showed the single-domain FKBPs to evolve prior to the multi-domain FKBPs, whereas the multi-domain cyclophilins appear to evolve throughout cyclophilin evolution. A comparison of their known functions has identified, besides a common role within protein folding, multiple roles for the cyclophilins within pre-mRNA splicing and cellular signalling, and within transcription and cell cycle regulation for the parvulins. However, no such commonality was found with the FKBPs. Twelve of the 17 human cyclophilins and both human parvulins, but only one of the 13 human FKBPs, identified orthologues within these fungi. hPar14 orthologues were restricted to the Pezizomycotina fungi, and R. oryzae is unique in the known fungi in possessing an hCyp33 orthologue and a TPR-containing FKBP. The repertoires of Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus nidulans were found to exhibit the highest orthology to the human repertoire, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae one of the lowest. Conclusion Given this data, we would hypothesize that: (i the evolution of the fungal PPIases is driven, at least in part, by the size of the proteome, (ii evolutionary pressures differ both between the different PPIase families and the different fungi, and (iii whilst the cyclophilins and parvulins have evolved to perform conserved

  18. Randomized Controlled Trial of Electronic Care Plan Alerts and Resource Utilization by High Frequency Emergency Department Users with Opioid Use Disorder

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    Niels Rathlev, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a paucity of literature supporting the use of electronic alerts for patients with high frequency emergency department (ED use. We sought to measure changes in opioid prescribing and administration practices, total charges and other resource utilization using electronic alerts to notify providers of an opioid-use care plan for high frequency ED patients. Methods: This was a randomized, non-blinded, two-group parallel design study of patients who had 1 opioid use disorder and 2 high frequency ED use. Three affiliated hospitals with identical electronic health records participated. Patients were randomized into “Care Plan” versus “Usual Care groups”. Between the years before and after randomization, we compared as primary outcomes the following: 1 opioids (morphine mg equivalents prescribed to patients upon discharge and administered to ED and inpatients; 2 total medical charges, and the numbers of; 3 ED visits, 4 ED visits with advanced radiologic imaging (computed tomography [CT] or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] studies, and 5 inpatient admissions. Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled. For ED and inpatients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 15.7%, while in the “Care Plan” group the proportion received in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 4.5% (ratio=0.29, 95% CI [0.07-1.12]; p=0.07. For discharged patients in the “Usual Care” group, the proportion of morphine mg equivalents prescribed in the post-period compared with the pre-period was 25.7% while in the “Care Plan” group, the proportion prescribed in the post-period compared to the pre-period was 2.9%. The “Care Plan” group showed an 89% greater proportional change over the periods compared with the “Usual Care” group (ratio=0.11, 95% CI [0.01-0.092]; p=0.04. Care plans did not change the total charges, or, the numbers

  19. Spectroscopic and computational studies of cobalamin species with variable lower axial ligation: implications for the mechanism of Co-C bond activation by class I cobalamin-dependent isomerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Karen S; Jordan, Christopher D; Brown, Kenneth L; Brunold, Thomas C

    2015-04-20

    5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B12, AdoCbl) serves as the cofactor for several enzymes that play important roles in fermentation and catabolism. All of these enzymes initiate catalysis by promoting homolytic cleavage of the cofactor's Co-C bond in response to substrate binding to their active sites. Despite considerable research efforts, the role of the lower axial ligand in facilitating Co-C bond homolysis remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we characterized several derivatives of AdoCbl and its one-electron reduced form, Co(II)Cbl, by using electronic absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopies. To complement our experimental data, we performed computations on these species, as well as additional Co(II)Cbl analogues. The geometries of all species investigated were optimized using a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method, and the optimized geometries were used to compute absorption spectra with time-dependent density functional theory. Collectively, our results indicate that a reduction in the basicity of the lower axial ligand causes changes to the cofactor's electronic structure in the Co(II) state that replicate the effects seen upon binding of Co(II)Cbl to Class I isomerases, which replace the lower axial dimethylbenzimidazole ligand of AdoCbl with a protein-derived histidine (His) residue. Such a reduction of the basicity of the His ligand in the enzyme active site may be achieved through proton uptake by the catalytic triad of conserved residues, DXHXGXK, during Co-C bond homolysis.

  20. There is a Relationship between Resource Expenditures and Reference Transactions in Academic Libraries. A Review of: Dubnjakovic, A. (2012. Electronic resource expenditure and the decline in reference transaction statistics in academic libraries. Journal of Academic Librarianship, 38(2, 94-100. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2012.01.001

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    Annie M. Hughes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide an analysis of the impact of expenditures on electronic resourcesand gate counts on the increase or decrease in reference transactions.Design – Analysis of results of existing survey data from the National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES 2006 Academic Library Survey(ALS.Setting – Academic libraries in the United States.Subjects – 3925 academic library respondents.Methods – The author chose to use survey data collected from the 2006 ALS conducted bythe NCES. The survey included data on various topics related to academic libraries, but in the case of this study, the author chose to analyze three of the 193 variables included. The three variables: electronic books expenditure, computer hardware and software, and expenditures on bibliographic utilities, were combined into one variable called electronic resource expenditure. Gate counts were also considered as a variable. Electronic resource expenditure was also split as a variable into three groups: low, medium, and high. Multiple regression analysis and general linear modeling, along with tests of reliability, were employed. Main Results – The author determined that low, medium, and high spenders with regard to electronic resources exhibited differences in gate counts, and gate counts have an effect on reference transactions in any given week. Gate counts tend to not have much of an effect on reference transactions for the higher spenders, and higher spenders tend to have a higher number of reference transactions overall. Low spenders have lower gate counts and also a lower amount of reference transactions.Conclusion – The findings from this study show that academic libraries spending more on electronic resources also tend to have an increase with regard to reference transactions. The author also concludes that library spaces are no longer the determining factor with regard to number of reference transactions. Spending more on electronic resources is

  1. Global application of disorders of sex development-related electronic resources: e-learning, e-consultation and e-information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Miriam; Kranenburg-van Koppen, Laura; Grijpink-van den Biggelaar, Kalinka; Drop, Stenvert L S

    2014-01-01

    The past 20 years have seen proliferation of electronic (e) resources that promote improved understanding of disorders of sex development (DSD): e-learning for physicians and trainees, e-consultation between clinicians, and e-information for families and affected individuals. Recent e-learning advances have emerged from the European Society for Pediatric Endocrinology's online learning portal for current physicians and trainees. Developed with attention to developing clinical competencies incorporating learning theory, and presenting material that represents international best practice, this e-learning portal offers advances in training, making information more accessible for clinicians and trainees. Multiple levels of instruction, authentic case examples, collaborative forums for physicians and trainees, individualized feedback and user-friendly tools represent advances in trainee and physician learning that can take place in any location. e-consultation is an emerging tool that aims to connect physicians with specialists experienced in DSD care. Although it faces logistical challenges, e-consultation carries the potential to improve DSD care, especially in remote areas with limited access to DSD specialists. e-information for families and patients of all ages is widely accessible online, often with focus on DSD biology, medical care, and psychological and social support. e-information tools aid self-management and support of those affected by DSD. Efforts to improve these resources should aim to map information to individual users, incorporate optimally clear nomenclature, and continue as a 'shared enterprise' of clinicians, affected individuals, families and researchers. Improving the quality of DSD-related e-learning and e-information and developing e-consultation carries the potential to transform DSD care and support for patients, families and physicians worldwide. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Enzymatic conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose: heterologous expression and characterisation of a thermostable L-arabinose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacter mathranii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, F; Hansen, O C; Stougaard, P

    2004-06-01

    The ability to convert D-galactose into D-tagatose was compared among a number of bacterial L-arabinose isomerases ( araA). One of the most efficient enzymes, from the anaerobic thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter mathranii, was produced heterologously in Escherichia coli and characterised. Amino acid sequence comparisons indicated that this enzyme is only distantly related to the group of previously known araA sequences in which the sequence similarity is evident. The substrate specificity and the Michaelis-Menten constants of the enzyme determined with L-arabinose, D-galactose and D-fucose also indicated that this enzyme is an unusual, versatile L-arabinose isomerase which is able to isomerise structurally related sugars. The enzyme was immobilised and used for production of D-tagatose at 65 degrees C. Starting from a 30% solution of D-galactose, the yield of D-tagatose was 42% and no sugars other than D-tagatose and D-galactose were detected. Direct conversion of lactose to D-tagatose in a single reactor was demonstrated using a thermostable beta-galactosidase together with the thermostable L-arabinose isomerase. The two enzymes were also successfully combined with a commercially available glucose isomerase for conversion of lactose into a sweetening mixture comprising lactose, glucose, galactose, fructose and tagatose.

  3. The peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1/Ess1 inhibits phosphorylation and toxicity of tau in a yeast model for Alzheimer’s disease

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    Ann De Vos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since hyperphosphorylation of protein tau is a crucial event in Alzheimer’s disease, additional mechanisms besides the interplay of kinase and phosphatase activities are investigated, such as the effect of the peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1. This isomerase was shown to bind and isomerize phosphorylated protein tau, thereby restoring the microtubule associated protein function of tau as well as promoting the dephosphorylation of the protein by the trans-dependent phosphatase PP2A. In this study we used models based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae to further elucidate the influence of Pin1 and its yeast ortholog Ess1 on tau phosphorylation and self-assembly. We could demonstrate that in yeast, a lack of Pin1 isomerase activity leads to an increase in phosphorylation of tau at Thr231, comparable to AD brain and consistent with earlier findings in other model organisms. However, we could also distinguish an effect by Pin1 on other residues of tau, i.e. Ser235 and Ser198/199/202. Furthermore, depletion of Pin1 isomerase activity results in reduced growth of the yeast cells, which is enhanced upon expression of tau. This suggests that the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated and aggregation-prone tau causes cytotoxicity in yeast. This study introduces yeast as a valuable model organism to characterize in detail the effect of Pin1 on the biochemical characteristics of protein tau, more specifically its phosphorylation and aggregation.

  4. Ranking Medical Terms to Support Expansion of Lay Language Resources for Patient Comprehension of Electronic Health Record Notes: Adapted Distant Supervision Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinying; Jagannatha, Abhyuday N; Fodeh, Samah J; Yu, Hong

    2017-10-31

    Medical terms are a major obstacle for patients to comprehend their electronic health record (EHR) notes. Clinical natural language processing (NLP) systems that link EHR terms to lay terms or definitions allow patients to easily access helpful information when reading through their EHR notes, and have shown to improve patient EHR comprehension. However, high-quality lay language resources for EHR terms are very limited in the public domain. Because expanding and curating such a resource is a costly process, it is beneficial and even necessary to identify terms important for patient EHR comprehension first. We aimed to develop an NLP system, called adapted distant supervision (ADS), to rank candidate terms mined from EHR corpora. We will give EHR terms ranked as high by ADS a higher priority for lay language annotation-that is, creating lay definitions for these terms. Adapted distant supervision uses distant supervision from consumer health vocabulary and transfer learning to adapt itself to solve the problem of ranking EHR terms in the target domain. We investigated 2 state-of-the-art transfer learning algorithms (ie, feature space augmentation and supervised distant supervision) and designed 5 types of learning features, including distributed word representations learned from large EHR data for ADS. For evaluating ADS, we asked domain experts to annotate 6038 candidate terms as important or nonimportant for EHR comprehension. We then randomly divided these data into the target-domain training data (1000 examples) and the evaluation data (5038 examples). We compared ADS with 2 strong baselines, including standard supervised learning, on the evaluation data. The ADS system using feature space augmentation achieved the best average precision, 0.850, on the evaluation set when using 1000 target-domain training examples. The ADS system using supervised distant supervision achieved the best average precision, 0.819, on the evaluation set when using only 100 target

  5. Impact of two interventions on timeliness and data quality of an electronic disease surveillance system in a resource limited setting (Peru: a prospective evaluation

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    Quispe Jose A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A timely detection of outbreaks through surveillance is needed in order to prevent future pandemics. However, current surveillance systems may not be prepared to accomplish this goal, especially in resource limited settings. As data quality and timeliness are attributes that improve outbreak detection capacity, we assessed the effect of two interventions on such attributes in Alerta, an electronic disease surveillance system in the Peruvian Navy. Methods 40 Alerta reporting units (18 clinics and 22 ships were included in a 12-week prospective evaluation project. After a short refresher course on the notification process, units were randomly assigned to either a phone, visit or control group. Phone group sites were called three hours before the biweekly reporting deadline if they had not sent their report. Visit group sites received supervision visits on weeks 4 & 8, but no phone calls. The control group sites were not contacted by phone or visited. Timeliness and data quality were assessed by calculating the percentage of reports sent on time and percentage of errors per total number of reports, respectively. Results Timeliness improved in the phone group from 64.6% to 84% in clinics (+19.4 [95% CI, +10.3 to +28.6]; p Conclusion Regular phone reminders significantly improved timeliness of reports in clinics and ships, whereas supervision visits led to improved data quality only among clinics. Further investigations are needed to establish the cost-effectiveness and optimal use of each of these strategies.

  6. Effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their derivatives on protein disulfide isomerase activity and growth hormone release of GH3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shoko; Yoshimura, Hiromi; Okada, Kazushi; Uramaru, Naoto; Sugihara, Kazumi; Kitamura, Shigeyuki; Imaoka, Susumu

    2012-03-19

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been used in a variety of consumer products such as flame retardants and recently have been known to be widespread environmental pollutants, which probably affect biological functions of mammalian cells. However, the risk posed by PBDE metabolites has not been clarified. Our previous study suggested that bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, binds to protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and inhibits its activity. PDI is an isomerase enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum and facilitates the formation or cleavage of disulfide bonds. PDI consists of a, b, b', and a' domains and the c region, with the a and a' domains having isomerase active sites. In the present study, we tested the effects of 10 kinds of PBDE compounds and their metabolites on PDI. OH-PBDEs specifically inhibited the isomerase activity of PDI, with 4'-OH-PBDE more effective than 2' (or 2)-OH-PBDEs. 4'-OH-PBDE inhibited the isomerase activity of the b'a'c fragment but not that of ab and a'c, suggesting that the b' domain of PDI is essential for the inhibition by 4'-OH-PBDE. We also investigated the effects of these chemicals on the production of growth hormone (GH) in GH3 cells. In GH3 cells, levels of mRNA and protein of GH stimulated by T(3) were reduced by 4'-OH-PBDE and 4'-MeO-PBDE. The reduction in GH expression caused by these compounds was not changed by the overexpression or knockdown of PDI in GH3 cells, while these manipulations of PDI levels significantly suppressed the expression of GH. These results suggest that the biological effects of PBDEs differed depending on their brominated and hydroxylated positions. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. The multidrug resistance IncA/C transferable plasmid encodes a novel domain-swapped dimeric protein-disulfide isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane; Kurth, Fabian; Neyer, Simon; Schembri, Mark A; Martin, Jennifer L

    2014-01-31

    The multidrug resistance-encoding IncA/C conjugative plasmids disseminate antibiotic resistance genes among clinically relevant enteric bacteria. A plasmid-encoded disulfide isomerase is associated with conjugation. Sequence analysis of several IncA/C plasmids and IncA/C-related integrative and conjugative elements (ICE) from commensal and pathogenic bacteria identified a conserved DsbC/DsbG homolog (DsbP). The crystal structure of DsbP reveals an N-terminal domain, a linker region, and a C-terminal catalytic domain. A DsbP homodimer is formed through domain swapping of two DsbP N-terminal domains. The catalytic domain incorporates a thioredoxin-fold with characteristic CXXC and cis-Pro motifs. Overall, the structure and redox properties of DsbP diverge from the Escherichia coli DsbC and DsbG disulfide isomerases. Specifically, the V-shaped dimer of DsbP is inverted compared with EcDsbC and EcDsbG. In addition, the redox potential of DsbP (-161 mV) is more reducing than EcDsbC (-130 mV) and EcDsbG (-126 mV). Other catalytic properties of DsbP more closely resemble those of EcDsbG than EcDsbC. These catalytic differences are in part a consequence of the unusual active site motif of DsbP (CAVC); substitution to the EcDsbC-like (CGYC) motif converts the catalytic properties to those of EcDsbC. Structural comparison of the 12 independent subunit structures of DsbP that we determined revealed that conformational changes in the linker region contribute to mobility of the catalytic domain, providing mechanistic insight into DsbP function. In summary, our data reveal that the conserved plasmid-encoded DsbP protein is a bona fide disulfide isomerase and suggest that a dedicated oxidative folding enzyme is important for conjugative plasmid transfer.

  8. Continuous D-tagatose production by immobilized thermostable L-arabinose isomerase in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Se-Ah; Kim, Chang Sup; Kim, Hye-Jung; Baek, Dae Heoun; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2003-01-01

    D-Tagatose was continuously produced using thermostable L-arabinose isomerase immobilized in alginate with D-galactose solution in a packed-bed bioreactor. Bead size, L/D (length/diameter) of reactor, dilution rate, total loaded enzyme amount, and substrate concentration were found to be optimal at 0.8 mm, 520/7 mm, 0.375 h(-1), 5.65 units, and 300 g/L, respectively. Under these conditions, the bioreactor produced about 145 g/L tagatose with an average productivity of 54 g tagatose/L x h and an average conversion yield of 48% (w/w). Operational stability of the immobilized enzyme was demonstrated, with a tagatose production half-life of 24 days.

  9. Progranulin, a glycoprotein deficient in frontotemporal dementia, is a novel substrate of several protein disulfide isomerase family proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Almeida

    Full Text Available The reduced production or activity of the cysteine-rich glycoprotein progranulin is responsible for about 20% of cases of familial frontotemporal dementia. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern the level and secretion of progranulin. Here we show that progranulin is expressed in mouse cortical neurons and more prominently in mouse microglia in culture and is abundant in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER and Golgi. Using chemical crosslinking, immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry, we found that progranulin is bound to a network of ER Ca(2+-binding chaperones including BiP, calreticulin, GRP94, and four members of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI family. Loss of ERp57 inhibits progranulin secretion. Thus, progranulin is a novel substrate of several PDI family proteins and modulation of the ER chaperone network may be a therapeutic target for controlling progranulin secretion.

  10. Inhibition of d-xylose isomerase by polyols: atomic details by joint X-ray/neutron crystallography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalevsky, Andrey, E-mail: ayk@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, MS M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Hanson, B. Leif [University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Mason, Sax A. [Institut Laue–Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Forsyth, V. Trevor [Institut Laue–Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Keele University, Staffordshire (United Kingdom); Fisher, Zoe [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, MS M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Mustyakimov, Marat [Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, MS M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, MS 6475, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Blakeley, Matthew P. [Institut Laue–Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, 38042 Grenoble (France); Keen, David A. [Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Langan, Paul [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, MS 6475, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Los Alamos National Laboratory, PO Box 1663, MS M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-09-01

    A joint X-ray/neutron structure of d-xylose isomerase in complex with the inhibitor sorbitol was determined at room temperature at an acidic pH of 5.9. Protonation of the O5 O atom of the sugar was directly observed in the nuclear density maps. Under acidic conditions sorbitol gains a water-mediated interaction with the enzyme active site, which may explain the increased potency of the inhibitor at low pH. d-Xylose isomerase (XI) converts the aldo-sugars xylose and glucose to their keto analogs xylulose and fructose, but is strongly inhibited by the polyols xylitol and sorbitol, especially at acidic pH. In order to understand the atomic details of polyol binding to the XI active site, a 2.0 Å resolution room-temperature joint X-ray/neutron structure of XI in complex with Ni{sup 2+} cofactors and sorbitol inhibitor at pH 5.9 and a room-temperature X-ray structure of XI containing Mg{sup 2+} ions and xylitol at the physiological pH of 7.7 were obtained. The protonation of oxygen O5 of the inhibitor, which was found to be deprotonated and negatively charged in previous structures of XI complexed with linear glucose and xylulose, was directly observed. The Ni{sup 2+} ions occupying the catalytic metal site (M2) were found at two locations, while Mg{sup 2+} in M2 is very mobile and has a high B factor. Under acidic conditions sorbitol gains a water-mediated interaction that connects its O1 hydroxyl to Asp257. This contact is not found in structures at basic pH. The new interaction that is formed may improve the binding of the inhibitor, providing an explanation for the increased affinity of the polyols for XI at low pH.

  11. Online Resources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Online Resources. Journal of Genetics. Online Resources. Volume 97. 2018 | Online resources. Volume 96. 2017 | Online resources. Volume 95. 2016 | Online resources. Volume 94. 2015 | Online resources. Volume 93. 2014 | Online resources. Volume 92. 2013 | Online resources ...

  12. Interactive Electronic Decision Trees for the Integrated Primary Care Management of Febrile Children in Low Resource Settings - Review of existing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keitel, Kristina; D'Acremont, Valérie

    2018-04-20

    The lack of effective, integrated diagnostic tools pose a major challenge to the primary care management of febrile childhood illnesses. These limitations are especially evident in low-resource settings and are often inappropriately compensated by antimicrobial over-prescription. Interactive electronic decision trees (IEDTs) have the potential to close these gaps: guiding antibiotic use and better identifying serious disease. This narrative review summarizes existing IEDTs, to provide an overview of their degree of validation, as well as to identify gaps in current knowledge and prospects for future innovation. Structured literature review in PubMed and Embase complemented by google search and contact with developers. Six integrated IEDTs were identified: three (eIMCI, REC, and Bangladesh digital IMCI) based on Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI); four (SL eCCM, MEDSINC, e-iCCM, and D-Tree eCCM) on Integrated Community Case Management (iCCM); two (ALMANACH, MSFeCARE) with a modified IMCI content; and one (ePOCT) that integrates novel content with biomarker testing. The types of publications and evaluation studies varied greatly: the content and evidence-base was published for two (ALMANACH and ePOCT), ALMANACH and ePOCT were validated in efficacy studies. Other types of evaluations, such as compliance, acceptability were available for D-Tree eCCM, eIMCI, ALMANACH. Several evaluations are still ongoing. Future prospects include conducting effectiveness and impact studies using data gathered through larger studies to adapt the medical content to local epidemiology, improving the software and sensors, and Assessing factors that influence compliance and scale-up. IEDTs are valuable tools that have the potential to improve management of febrile children in primary care and increase the rational use of diagnostics and antimicrobials. Next steps in the evidence pathway should be larger effectiveness and impact studies (including cost analysis) and

  13. The acid-tolerant L-arabinose isomerase from the mesophilic Shewanella sp. ANA-3 is highly active at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background L-arabinose isomerases catalyse the isomerization of L-arabinose into L-ribulose at insight biological systems. At industrial scale of this enzyme is used for the bioconversion of D-galactose into D-tagatose which has many applications in pharmaceutical and agro-food industries. The isomerization reaction is thermodynamically equilibrated, and therefore the bioconversion rates is shifted towards tagatose when the temperature is increased. Moreover, to prevent secondary reactions it will be of interest to operate at low pH. The profitability of this D-tagatose production process is mainly related to the use of lactose as cheaper raw material. In many dairy products it will be interesting to produce D-tagatose during storage. This requires an efficient L-arabinose isomerase acting at low temperature and pH values. Results The gene encoding the L-arabinose isomerase from Shewanella sp. ANA-3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein has a tetrameric arrangement composed by four identical 55 kDa subunits. The biochemical characterization of this enzyme showed that it was distinguishable by its maximal activity at low temperatures comprised between 15-35°C. Interestingly, this biocatalyst preserves more than 85% of its activity in a broad range of temperatures from 4.0 to 45°C. Shewanella sp. ANA-3 L-arabinose isomerase was also optimally active at pH 5.5-6.5 and maintained over 80% of its activity at large pH values from 4.0 to 8.5. Furthermore, this enzyme exhibited a weak requirement for metallic ions for its activity evaluated at 0.6 mM Mn2+. Stability studies showed that this protein is highly stable mainly at low temperature and pH values. Remarkably, T268K mutation clearly enhances the enzyme stability at low pH values. Use of this L-arabinose isomerase for D-tagatose production allows the achievement of attractive bioconversion rates of 16% at 4°C and 34% at 35°C. Conclusions Here we reported the purification and the

  14. The acid-tolerant L-arabinose isomerase from the mesophilic Shewanella sp. ANA-3 is highly active at low temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhimi Moez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background L-arabinose isomerases catalyse the isomerization of L-arabinose into L-ribulose at insight biological systems. At industrial scale of this enzyme is used for the bioconversion of D-galactose into D-tagatose which has many applications in pharmaceutical and agro-food industries. The isomerization reaction is thermodynamically equilibrated, and therefore the bioconversion rates is shifted towards tagatose when the temperature is increased. Moreover, to prevent secondary reactions it will be of interest to operate at low pH. The profitability of this D-tagatose production process is mainly related to the use of lactose as cheaper raw material. In many dairy products it will be interesting to produce D-tagatose during storage. This requires an efficient L-arabinose isomerase acting at low temperature and pH values. Results The gene encoding the L-arabinose isomerase from Shewanella sp. ANA-3 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified protein has a tetrameric arrangement composed by four identical 55 kDa subunits. The biochemical characterization of this enzyme showed that it was distinguishable by its maximal activity at low temperatures comprised between 15-35°C. Interestingly, this biocatalyst preserves more than 85% of its activity in a broad range of temperatures from 4.0 to 45°C. Shewanella sp. ANA-3 L-arabinose isomerase was also optimally active at pH 5.5-6.5 and maintained over 80% of its activity at large pH values from 4.0 to 8.5. Furthermore, this enzyme exhibited a weak requirement for metallic ions for its activity evaluated at 0.6 mM Mn2+. Stability studies showed that this protein is highly stable mainly at low temperature and pH values. Remarkably, T268K mutation clearly enhances the enzyme stability at low pH values. Use of this L-arabinose isomerase for D-tagatose production allows the achievement of attractive bioconversion rates of 16% at 4°C and 34% at 35°C. Conclusions Here we

  15. Library resources on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Nancy L.

    1995-07-01

    Library resources are prevalent on the Internet. Library catalogs, electronic books, electronic periodicals, periodical indexes, reference sources, and U.S. Government documents are available by telnet, Gopher, World Wide Web, and FTP. Comparatively few copyrighted library resources are available freely on the Internet. Internet implementations of library resources can add useful features, such as full-text searching. There are discussion lists, Gophers, and World Wide Web pages to help users keep up with new resources and changes to existing ones. The future will bring more library resources, more types of library resources, and more integrated implementations of such resources to the Internet.

  16. Atypical protein disulfide isomerases (PDI: Comparison of the molecular and catalytic properties of poplar PDI-A and PDI-M with PDI-L1A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Selles

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerases are overwhelmingly multi-modular redox catalysts able to perform the formation, reduction or isomerisation of disulfide bonds. We present here the biochemical characterization of three different poplar PDI isoforms. PDI-A is characterized by a single catalytic Trx module, the so-called a domain, whereas PDI-L1a and PDI-M display an a-b-b'-a' and a°-a-b organisation respectively. Their activities have been tested in vitro using purified recombinant proteins and a series of model substrates as insulin, NADPH thioredoxin reductase, NADP malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH, peroxiredoxins or RNase A. We demonstrated that PDI-A exhibited none of the usually reported activities, although the cysteines of the WCKHC active site signature are able to form a disulfide with a redox midpoint potential of -170 mV at pH 7.0. The fact that it is able to bind a [Fe2S2] cluster upon Escherichia coli expression and anaerobic purification might indicate that it does not have a function in dithiol-disulfide exchange reactions. The two other proteins were able to catalyze oxidation or reduction reactions, PDI-L1a being more efficient in most cases, except that it was unable to activate the non-physiological substrate NADP-MDH, in contrast to PDI-M. To further evaluate the contribution of the catalytic domains of PDI-M, the dicysteinic motifs have been independently mutated in each a domain. The results indicated that the two a domains seem interconnected and that the a° module preferentially catalyzed oxidation reactions whereas the a module catalyzed reduction reactions, in line with the respective redox potentials of -170 mV and -190 mV at pH 7.0. Overall, these in vitro results illustrate that the number and position of a and b domains influence the redox properties and substrate recognition (both electron donors and acceptors of PDI which contributes to understand why this protein family expanded along evolution.

  17. Herpes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  18. Production of D-tagatose at high temperatures using immobilized Escherichia coli cells expressing L-arabinose isomerase from Thermotoga neapolitana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Young-Ho; Lee, Dong-Woo; Lee, Sang-Jae; Choe, Eun-Ah; Kim, Seong-Bo; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Cheigh, Chan-Ick; Pyun, Yu-Ryang

    2007-04-01

    Escherichia coli cells expressing L-arabinose isomerase from Thermotoga neapolitana (TNAI) were immobilized in calcium alginate beads. The resulting cell reactor (2.4 U, t (1/2) = 43 days at 70 degrees C) in a continuous recycling mode at 70 degrees C produced 49 and 38 g D-tagatose/l from 180 and 90 g D-galactose/l, respectively, within 12 h.

  19. Phospho-carboxyl-terminal domain binding and the role of a prolyl isomerase in pre-mRNA 3'-End formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D P; Phatnani, H P; Greenleaf, A L

    1999-10-29

    A phospho-carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) affinity column created with yeast CTD kinase I and the CTD of RNA polymerase II was used to identify Ess1/Pin1 as a phospho-CTD-binding protein. Ess1/Pin1 is a peptidyl prolyl isomerase involved in both mitotic regulation and pre-mRNA 3'-end formation. Like native Ess1, a GSTEss1 fusion protein associates specifically with the phosphorylated but not with the unphosphorylated CTD. Further, hyperphosphorylated RNA polymerase II appears to be the dominant Ess1 binding protein in total yeast extracts. We demonstrate that phospho-CTD binding is mediated by the small WW domain of Ess1 rather than the isomerase domain. These findings suggest a mechanism in which the WW domain binds the phosphorylated CTD of elongating RNA polymerase II and the isomerase domain reconfigures the CTD though isomerization of proline residues perhaps by a processive mechanism. This process may be linked to a variety of pre-mRNA maturation events that use the phosphorylated CTD, including the coupled processes of pre-mRNA 3'-end formation and transcription termination.

  20. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of l-rhamnose isomerase with a novel high thermostability from Bacillus halodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doan, Thi-Ngoc-Thanh; Prabhu, Ponnandy; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Ahn, Yeh-Jin; Natarajan, Sampath; Kang, Lin-Woo; Park, Geon Tae; Lim, Sang-Boem; Lee, Jung-Kul

    2010-01-01

    l-Rhamnose isomerase (l-RhI) from B. halodurans has been purified and crystallized. The crystals of l-RhI belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 83.2, b = 164.9, c = 92.0 Å, β = 116.0°, and diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution. l-Rhamnose isomerases catalyze isomerization between l-rhamnose (6-deoxy-l-mannose) and l-rhamnulose (6-deoxy-l-fructose), which is the first step in rhamnose catabolism. l-Rhamnose isomerase from Bacillus halodurans ATCC BAA-125 (BHRI) exhibits interesting characteristics such as high thermostability and selective substrate specificity. BHRI fused with an HHHHHH sequence was purified and crystallized in order to elucidate the molecular basis of its unique enzymatic properties. The crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 83.2, b = 164.9, c = 92.0 Å, β = 116.0°. Diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. According to a Matthews coefficient calculation, there are four monomers in the asymmetric unit with a V M of 3.0 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 59.3%. The initial structure of BHRI has been determined by the molecular-replacement method

  1. The basic tilted helix bundle domain of the prolyl isomerase FKBP25 is a novel double-stranded RNA binding module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, David; Bonnafous, Pierre; Edoo, Amiirah Bibi; Bourbigot, Sarah; Pesek-Jardim, Francy; Gudavicius, Geoff; Serpa, Jason J.; Petrotchenko, Evgeniy V.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Prolyl isomerases are defined by a catalytic domain that facilitates the cis–trans interconversion of proline residues. In most cases, additional domains in these enzymes add important biological function, including recruitment to a set of protein substrates. Here, we report that the N-terminal basic tilted helix bundle (BTHB) domain of the human prolyl isomerase FKBP25 confers specific binding to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This binding is selective over DNA as well as single-stranded oligonucleotides. We find that FKBP25 RNA-association is required for its nucleolar localization and for the vast majority of its protein interactions, including those with 60S pre-ribosome and early ribosome biogenesis factors. An independent mobility of the BTHB and FKBP catalytic domains supports a model by which the N-terminus of FKBP25 is anchored to regions of dsRNA, whereas the FKBP domain is free to interact with neighboring proteins. Apart from the identification of the BTHB as a new dsRNA-binding module, this domain adds to the growing list of auxiliary functions used by prolyl isomerases to define their primary cellular targets. PMID:29036638

  2. The Use of Quality Benchmarking in Assessing Web Resources for the Dermatology Virtual Branch Library of the National electronic Library for Health (NeLH)

    OpenAIRE

    Boulos, MN Kamel; Roudsari, AV; Gordon, C; Gray, JA Muir

    2001-01-01

    Background In 1998, the U.K. National Health Service Information for Health Strategy proposed the implementation of a National electronic Library for Health to provide clinicians, healthcare managers and planners, patients and the public with easy, round the clock access to high quality, up-to-date electronic information on health and healthcare. The Virtual Branch Libraries are among the most important components of the National electronic Library for Health . They aim at creating online kno...

  3. Analysis on Current Situation and Countermeasure of Domestic Electronic Commerce Logistics in the Internet Age——Based on Resource Dependence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiapeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the status of electric business logistics in the current Internet era in China, and combines the SWOT analysis with AHP to do the empirical analysis, then puts forward the countermeasure that the electric business logistics resource should be shared based on the resource dependence theory. Through the empirical analysis, it is found that the disadvantages and opportunities of the logistics status are important in the Internet era.The resource sharing strategy based on the resource dependence theory is more scientific. The rational use of Internet technology in electric business logistics industry can achieve “sharing”. It is of great significance for its balanced development, intelligent development and optimization and development.

  4. The use of phosphomannose isomerase selection system for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of tobacco and flax aimed for phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, Jitka; Sura-De Jong, Martina; Fišer, Jiří; Tupá, Kateřina; Vrbová, Miroslava; Griga, Miroslav; Macek, Tomáš; Žiarovská, Jana

    2017-05-04

    A plant selection system based on the phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker is often used to avoid selection using antibiotic resistance. Nevertheless, pmi gene is endogenous in several plant species and therefore difficult to use in such cases. Here we evaluated and compared Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of Linum usitatissimum breeding line AGT-952 (without endogenous pmi gene) and Nicotiana tabacum var. WSC-38 (with endogenous pmi gene). Transformation was evaluated for vectors bearing transgenes that have the potential to be involved in improved phytoremediation of contaminated environment. Tobacco regenerants selection resulted in 6.8% transformation efficiency when using a medium supplemented with 30 g/L mannose with stepwise decrease of the sucrose concentration. Similar transformation efficiency (5.3%) was achieved in transformation of flax. Relatively low selection efficiency was achieved (12.5% and 34.8%, respectively). The final detection of efficient pmi selection was conducted using PCR and the non-endogenous genes; pmi transgene for flax and todC2 transgene for tobacco plants.

  5. Role of protein disulfide isomerase and other thiol-reactive proteins in HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou Wu; Silver, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Cell-surface protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) has been proposed to promote disulfide bond rearrangements in HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) that accompany Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated the role of PDI in ways that have not been previously tested by downregulating PDI with siRNA and by overexpressing wild-type or variant forms of PDI in transiently and stably transfected cells. These manipulations, as well as treatment with anti-PDI antibodies, had only small effects on infection or cell fusion mediated by NL4-3 or AD8 strains of HIV-1. However, the cell-surface thiol-reactive reagent 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) had a much stronger inhibitory effect in our system, suggesting that cell-surface thiol-containing molecules other than PDI, acting alone or in concert, have a greater effect than PDI on HIV-1 Env-mediated fusion. We evaluated one such candidate, thioredoxin, a PDI family member reported to reduce a labile disulfide bond in CD4. We found that the ability of thioredoxin to reduce the disulfide bond in CD4 is enhanced in the presence of HIV-1 Env gp120 and that thioredoxin also reduces disulfide bonds in gp120 directly in the absence of CD4. We discuss the implications of these observations for identification of molecules involved in disulfide rearrangements in Env during fusion

  6. A novel potential biomarker for metabolic syndrome in Chinese adults: Circulating protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chu-Yen; Hung, Yi-Jen; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun; Lu, Chieh-Hua; Lin, Fu-Huang; Su, Sheng-Chiang; Lee, Chien-Hsing

    2017-01-01

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members are specific endoplasmic reticulum proteins that are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and obesity. However, the metabolic effects of PDIA4 remain unclear in humans. The aims of this study were to investigate the associations of serum PDIA4 with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Chinese adults. A total of 669 adults (399 men and 270 women) were recruited. Serum PDIA4 concentrations and biochemical variables were recorded. Insulin sensitivity and β-cell function were examined by homeostasis model assessment. MetS was defined based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asia Pacific. The participants with MetS had significantly higher serum PDIA4 levels than those without MetS (Pmetabolic syndrome were 67 and 72%, respectively, in male patients and 60 and 78%, respectively, in female patients. Finally, the result showed that PDIA4 had a significantly higher area under the curve compared with blood pressure to detect MetS using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Serum PDIA4 concentrations are closely associated to MetS and its components in Chinese adults.

  7. Thermostable L-arabinose isomerase from Bacillus stearothermophilus IAM 11001 for D-tagatose production: gene cloning, purification and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lifang; Mu, Wanmeng; Jiang, Bo

    2010-06-01

    D-Tagatose, as one of the rare sugars, has been found to be a natural and safe low-calorie sweetener in food products and is classified as a GRAS substance. L-Arabinose isomerase (L-AI, EC 5.3.1.4), catalysing the isomerisations of L-arabinose and D-galactose to L-ribulose and D-tagatose respectively, is considered to be the most promising enzyme for the production of D-tagatose. The araA gene encoding an L-AI from Bacillus stearothermophilus IAM 11001 was cloned, sequenced and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The gene is composed of 1491 bp nucleotides and codes for a protein of 496 amino acid residues. The recombinant L-AI was purified to electrophoretical homogeneity by affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme was optimally active at 65 degrees C and pH 7.5 and had an absolute requirement for the divalent metal ion Mn(2+) for both catalytic activity and thermostability. The enzyme was relatively active and stable at acidic pH of 6. The bioconversion yield of D-galactose to D-tagatose by the purified L-AI after 12 h at 65 degrees C reached 36%. The purified L-AI from B. stearothermophilus IAM 11001 was characterised and shown to be a good candidate for potential application in D-tagatose production. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Negative Regulation of the Stability and Tumor Suppressor Function of Fbw7 by the Pin1 Prolyl Isomerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sang-Hyun; Lau, Alan W.; Lee, Tae Ho; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Wei, Shuo; Huang, Pengyu; Shaik, Shavali; Lee, Daniel Yenhong; Finn, Greg; Balastik, Martin; Chen, Chun-Hau; Luo, Manli; Tron, Adriana E.; DeCaprio, James A.; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Wei, Wenyi; Lu, Kun Ping

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Fbw7 is the substrate recognition component of the SCF (Skp1-Cullin-F-box)-type E3 ligase complex and a well-characterized tumor suppressor that targets numerous oncoproteins for destruction. Genomic deletion or mutation of FBW7 has been frequently found in various types of human cancers, however, little is known about the upstream signaling pathway(s) governing Fbw7 stability and cellular functions. Here we report that Fbw7 protein destruction and tumor suppressor function are negatively regulated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. Pin1 interacts with Fbw7 in a phoshorylation-dependent manner and promotes Fbw7 self-ubiquitination and protein degradation by disrupting Fbw7 dimerization. Consequently, over-expressing Pin1 reduces Fbw7 abundance and suppresses Fbw7’s ability to inhibit proliferation and transformation. By contrast, depletion of Pin1 in cancer cells leads to elevated Fbw7 expression, which subsequently reduces Mcl-1 abundance, sensitizing cancer cells to Taxol. Thus, Pin1-mediated inhibition of Fbw7 contributes to oncogenesis and Pin1 may be a promising drug target for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:22608923

  9. Characterizing the interactions between prolyl isomerase pin1 and phosphatase inhibitor-2 in living cells with FRET and FCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuansheng; Wang, Lifu; Jyothikumar, Vinod; Brautigan, David L.; Periasamy, Ammasi

    2012-03-01

    Phosphatase inhibitor-2 (I2) was discovered as a regulator of protein Ser/Thr phosphatase-1 and is conserved from yeast to human. Binding between purified recombinant I2 from different species and the prolyl isomerase Pin1 has been demonstrated with pull-down assays, size exclusion chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite this, questions persist as to whether these proteins associate together in living cells. In this study, we prepared fluorescent protein (FP) fusions of I2 and Pin1 and employed both Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) imaging techniques to characterize their interactions in living cells. In both intensity-based and time-resolved FRET studies, we observed FRET uniformly across whole cells co-expressing I2-Cerulean and Pin1-Venus that was significantly higher than in negative controls expressing Cerulean FP (without fusing to I2) as the FRET donor and Pin1-Venus, showing a specific interaction between I2-Cerulean and Pin1-Venus in living cells. We also observed the co-diffusion of I2-Cerulean and Pin1-mCherry in Fluorescence Cross Correlation Spectroscopy (FCCS) measurements. We further showed that I2 itself as well as I2-Pin1 formed complexes in living cells (predicted from in vitro studies) via a quantitative FRET assay, and demonstrated from FCS measurements that both I2 and Pin1 (fused to Cerulean) are highly mobile in living cells.

  10. Calculation of vibrational shifts of nitrile probes in the active site of ketosteroid isomerase upon ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layfield, Joshua P; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-01-16

    The vibrational Stark effect provides insight into the roles of hydrogen bonding, electrostatics, and conformational motions in enzyme catalysis. In a recent application of this approach to the enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), thiocyanate probes were introduced in site-specific positions throughout the active site. This paper implements a quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) approach for calculating the vibrational shifts of nitrile (CN) probes in proteins. This methodology is shown to reproduce the experimentally measured vibrational shifts upon binding of the intermediate analogue equilinen to KSI for two different nitrile probe positions. Analysis of the molecular dynamics simulations provides atomistic insight into the roles that key residues play in determining the electrostatic environment and hydrogen-bonding interactions experienced by the nitrile probe. For the M116C-CN probe, equilinen binding reorients an active-site water molecule that is directly hydrogen-bonded to the nitrile probe, resulting in a more linear C≡N--H angle and increasing the CN frequency upon binding. For the F86C-CN probe, equilinen binding orients the Asp103 residue, decreasing the hydrogen-bonding distance between the Asp103 backbone and the nitrile probe and slightly increasing the CN frequency. This QM/MM methodology is applicable to a wide range of biological systems and has the potential to assist in the elucidation of the fundamental principles underlying enzyme catalysis.

  11. Structural and Genetic Studies Demonstrate Neurologic Dysfunction in Triosephosphate Isomerase Deficiency Is Associated with Impaired Synaptic Vesicle Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roland, Bartholomew P.; Zeccola, Alison M.; Larsen, Samantha B.; Amrich, Christopher G.; Talsma, Aaron D.; Stuchul, Kimberly A.; Heroux, Annie; Levitan, Edwin S.; VanDemark, Andrew P.; Palladino, Michael J.; Pallanck, Leo J.

    2016-03-31

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) deficiency is a poorly understood disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, cardiomyopathy, neurologic dysfunction, and early death. TPI deficiency is one of a group of diseases known as glycolytic enzymopathies, but is unique for its severe patient neuropathology and early mortality. The disease is caused by missense mutations and dysfunction in the glycolytic enzyme, TPI. Previous studies have detailed structural and catalytic changes elicited by disease-associated TPI substitutions, and samples of patient erythrocytes have yielded insight into patient hemolytic anemia; however, the neuropathophysiology of this disease remains a mystery. This study combines structural, biochemical, and genetic approaches to demonstrate that perturbations of the TPI dimer interface are sufficient to elicit TPI deficiency neuropathogenesis. The present study demonstrates that neurologic dysfunction resulting from TPI deficiency is characterized by synaptic vesicle dysfunction, and can be attenuated with catalytically inactive TPI. Collectively, our findings are the first to identify, to our knowledge, a functional synaptic defect in TPI deficiency derived from molecular changes in the TPI dimer interface.

  12. The Role of S-Nitrosylation and S-Glutathionylation of Protein Disulphide Isomerase in Protein Misfolding and Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Halloran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurodegenerative diseases involve the progressive loss of neurons, and a pathological hallmark is the presence of abnormal inclusions containing misfolded proteins. Although the precise molecular mechanisms triggering neurodegeneration remain unclear, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, elevated oxidative and nitrosative stress, and protein misfolding are important features in pathogenesis. Protein disulphide isomerase (PDI is the prototype of a family of molecular chaperones and foldases upregulated during ER stress that are increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. PDI catalyzes the rearrangement and formation of disulphide bonds, thus facilitating protein folding, and in neurodegeneration may act to ameliorate the burden of protein misfolding. However, an aberrant posttranslational modification of PDI, S-nitrosylation, inhibits its protective function in these conditions. S-nitrosylation is a redox-mediated modification that regulates protein function by covalent addition of nitric oxide- (NO- containing groups to cysteine residues. Here, we discuss the evidence for abnormal S-nitrosylation of PDI (SNO-PDI in neurodegeneration and how this may be linked to another aberrant modification of PDI, S-glutathionylation. Understanding the role of aberrant S-nitrosylation/S-glutathionylation of PDI in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases may provide insights into novel therapeutic interventions in the future.

  13. Effect of pharmaceutical potential endocrine disruptor compounds on protein disulfide isomerase reductase activity using di-eosin-oxidized-glutathione.

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    Danièle Klett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein Disulfide Isomerase (PDI in the endoplasmic reticulum of all cells catalyzes the rearrangement of disulfide bridges during folding of membrane and secreted proteins. As PDI is also known to bind various molecules including hormones such as estradiol and thyroxin, we considered the hypothesis that adverse effects of endocrine-disrupter compounds (EDC could be mediated through their interaction with PDI leading to defects in membrane or secreted proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Taking advantage of the recent description of the fluorescence self quenched substrate di-eosin-oxidized-glutathione (DiE-GSSG, we determined kinetically the effects of various potential pharmaceutical EDCs on the in-vitro reductase activity of bovine liver PDI by measuring the fluorescence of the reaction product (E-GSH. Our data show that estrogens (ethynylestradiol and bisphenol-A as well as indomethacin exert an inhibition whereas medroxyprogesteroneacetate and nortestosterone exert a potentiation of bovine PDI reductase activity. CONCLUSIONS: The present data indicate that the tested EDCs could not only affect endocrine target cells through nuclear receptors as previously shown, but could also affect these and all other cells by positively or negatively affecting PDI activity. The substrate DiE-GSSG has been demonstrated to be a convenient substrate to measure PDI reductase activity in the presence of various potential EDCs. It will certainly be usefull for the screening of potential effect of all kinds of chemicals on PDI reductase activity.

  14. The Expression of Millettia pinnata Chalcone Isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Salt-Sensitive Mutants Enhances Salt-Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiqu Huang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE. The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%–86%. Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa, whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1 showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata.

  15. The expression of Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae salt-sensitive mutants enhances salt-tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hu, Tangjin; Huang, Jianzi; Lu, Xiang; Huang, Baiqu; Zheng, Yizhi

    2013-04-24

    The present study demonstrates a new Millettia pinnata chalcone isomerase (MpCHI) whose transcription level in leaf was confirmed to be enhanced after being treated by seawater or NaCl (500 mM) via transcriptome sequencing and Real-Time Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (QRT-PCR) analyses. Its full length cDNA (666 bp) was obtained by 3'-end and 5'-end Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (RACE). The analysis via NCBI BLAST indicates that both aminoacid sequence and nucleotide sequence of the MpCHI clone share high homology with other leguminous CHIs (73%-86%). Evolutionarily, the phylogenic analysis further revealed that the MpCHI is a close relative of leguminous CHIs. The MpCHI protein consists of 221 aminoacid (23.64 KDa), whose peptide length, amino acid residues of substrate-binding site and reactive site are very similar to other leguminous CHIs reported previously. Two pYES2-MpCHI transformed salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants (Δnha1 and Δnhx1) showed improved salt-tolerance significantly compared to pYES2-vector transformed yeast mutants, suggesting the MpCHI or the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway could regulate the resistance to salt stress in M. pinnata.

  16. Site-Specific Measurement of Water Dynamics in the Substrate Pocket of Ketosteroid Isomerase Using Time-Resolved Vibrational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Santosh Kumar; Ji, Minbiao; Gaffney, Kelly J.; Boxer, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the reorganization capacity of water molecules at the active sites of enzymes and how this couples to the catalytic reaction. Here, we study the dynamics of water molecules at the active site of a highly proficient enzyme, Δ5-3-ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), during a light-activated mimic of its catalytic cycle. Photo-excitation of a nitrile containing photo-acid, coumarin183 (C183), mimics the change in charge density that occurs at the active site of KSI during the first step of the catalytic reaction. The nitrile of C183 is exposed to water when bound to the KSI active site, and we used time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy as a site-specific probe to study the solvation dynamics of water molecules in the vicinity of the nitrile. We observed that water molecules at the active site of KSI are highly rigid, during the light-activated catalytic cycle, compared to the solvation dynamics observed in bulk water. Based upon this result we hypothesize that rigid water dipoles at the active site might help in the maintenance of the pre-organized electrostatic environment required for efficient catalysis. The results also demonstrate the utility of nitrile probes in measuring the dynamics of local (H-bonded) water molecules in contrast to the commonly used fluorescence methods which measure the average behavior of primary and subsequent spheres of solvation. PMID:22931297

  17. Virtual screening and evaluation of Ketol-Acid Reducto-Isomerase (KARI as a putative drug target for Aspergillosis

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    Morya Vivek K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aspergillus is a leading causative agent for fungal morbidity and mortality in immuno-compromised patients. To identify a putative target to design or identify new antifungal drug, against Aspergillus is required. In our previous work, we have analyzed the various biochemical pathways, and we found Ketol Acid Reducto-Isomerase (KARI an enzyme involves in the amino acid biosynthesis, could be a better target. This enzyme was found to be unique by comparing to host proteome through BLASTp analysis. A homology based model of KARI was generated by Swiss model server. The generated model had been validated by PROCHECK and WHAT IF programs. The Zinc library was generated within the limitation of the Lipinski rule of five, for docking study. Based on the dock-score six molecules have been studied for ADME/TOX analysis and subjected for pharmacophore model generation. The Zinc ID of the potential inhibitors is ZINC00720614, ZINC01068126, ZINC0923, ZINC02090678, ZINC00663057 and ZINC02284065 and found to be pharmacologically active agonist and antagonist of KARI. This study is an attempt to Insilco evaluation of the KARI as a drug target and the screened inhibitors could help in the development of the better drug against Aspergillus.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the peptidylprolyl isomerase Par27 of Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlkönig, Alexandre; Hodak, Hélène; Clantin, Bernard; Sénéchal, Magalie; Bompard, Coralie; Jacob-Dubuisson, Françoise; Villeret, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Par27 from B. pertussis, the prototype of a new group of parvulins has been crystallized in two different crystal forms. Proteins with both peptidylprolyl isomerase (PPIase) and chaperone activities play a crucial role in protein folding in the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria. Few such proteins have been structurally characterized and to date only the crystal structure of SurA from Escherichia coli has been reported. Par27, the prototype of a new group of parvulins, has recently been identified. Par27 exhibits both chaperone and PPIase activities in vitro and is the first identified parvulin protein that forms dimers in solution. Par27 has been expressed in E. coli. The protein was purified using affinity and gel-filtration chromatographic techniques and crystallized in two different crystal forms. Form A, which belongs to space group P2 (unit-cell parameters a = 42.2, b = 142.8, c = 56.0 Å, β = 95.1°), diffracts to 2.8 Å resolution, while form B, which belongs to space group C222 (unit-cell parameters a = 54.6, b = 214.1, c = 57.8 Å), diffracts to 2.2 Å resolution. Preliminary diffraction data analysis agreed with the presence of one monomer in the asymmetric unit of the orthorhombic crystal form and two in the monoclinic form

  19. How Students Learn: Ways of Thinking about "Good Learning" in HE. EDNER (Formative Evaluation of the Distributed National Electronic Resource) Project. Issues Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester Metropolitan Univ. (England).

    This issues paper, one of a series of eight, is intended to distill formative evaluation questions on topics that are central to the development of the higher and further education information environment in the United Kingdom. The topic of this first issues paper is a conceptual framework that can help members of a project (information resource)…

  20. 大學圖書館電子資源之需求分析與行銷策略之研究 A Study of Demands Analysis and Marketing Strategy of Electronic Resources in University Library

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    Huang-Yu Liu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available 電子資源的出現,使得知識載體有了新的突破,提高了使用者的便利性與即時性。對於圖書館而言,如何使電子資源的使用效益達到最高,必須思考一套有效的行銷策略。電子資源行銷概念應以讀者為導向,尊重讀者的資訊需求,並利用各種宣傳技巧,行銷電子資源,使圖書館能提供更完善的服務。本研究之目的旨在探討讀者的使用需求及電子資源的推廣策略,以獲致最有效益的行銷方式。研究對象以開南大學日間部四學院(商學院、運輸觀光學院、資訊學院、人文社會學院)學生為樣本,佐以缺口分析模型為分析架構,藉以找出個案中讀者/學生對於電子資源使用的真實需求,並進而歸納出提供服務的大學圖書館在其推廣或行銷服務上可有的因應策略。The emergence of electronic resources has made new breakthrough in knowledge carriers because of their ease of use, instant availability, and the characteristic of no time and space constraints. For public libraries to achieve maximum efficiency in its electronic resources, it is necessary to seek the most effective marketing strategies. Therefore, the marketing concept of the electronic resources should be reader oriented, such as respecting and understanding library user’s information needs. Libraries also need to utilize various media and techniques to market the electronic resources, so that more comprehensive services and experiences can be provided to readers. The purpose of this study is to investigate library user’s needs and promotion strategies of electronic resources in order to identify the most effective ways of marketing. This study focuses on the students of the four colleges (College of Business, College of Tourism, College of Information, and College of Humanities and Social Science in Kainan University as subjects in the survey questionnaire. It uses the Gap Analysis

  1. TM0416, a Hyperthermophilic Promiscuous Nonphosphorylated Sugar Isomerase, Catalyzes Various C5 and C6 Epimerization Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Mi; Cao, Thinh-Phat; Choi, Jin Myung; Kim, Seong-Bo; Lee, Sang-Jae; Lee, Sung Haeng; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2017-05-15

    There is currently little information on nonphosphorylated sugar epimerases, which are of potential interest for producing rare sugars. We found a gene (the TM0416 gene) encoding a putative d-tagatose-3-epimerase-related protein from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima We overexpressed the TM0416 gene in Escherichia coli and purified the resulting recombinant protein for detailed characterization. Amino acid sequence alignment and a structural similarity search revealed that TM0416 is a putative nonphosphorylated sugar epimerase. The recombinant enzyme exhibited maximal C-3 epimerization of l-ribulose to l-xylulose at ∼80°C and pH 7 in the presence of 1 mM Mn 2+ In addition, this enzyme showed unusually high activity for the epimerization of d-tagatose to d-sorbose, with a conversion yield of 20% after 6 h at 80°C. Remarkably, the enzyme catalyzed the isomerization of d-erythrose or d-threose to d-erythrulose significantly, with conversion yields of 71% and 54.5%, respectively, after 6 h at 80°C at pH 7. To further investigate the substrate specificity of TM0416, we determined its crystal structures in complex with divalent metal ions and l-erythrulose at resolutions of 1.5 and 1.6 Å. Detailed inspection of the structural features and biochemical data clearly demonstrated that this metalloenzyme, with a freely accessible substrate-binding site and neighboring hydrophobic residues, exhibits different and promiscuous substrate preferences, compared with its mesophilic counterparts. Therefore, this study suggests that TM0416 can be functionally classified as a novel type of l-ribulose 3-epimerase (R3E) with d-erythrose isomerase activity. IMPORTANCE Rare sugars, which occur naturally in small amounts, have attracted considerable attention in the food and drug industries. However, there is little information on nonphosphorylated sugar epimerases, which might potentially be applied for the production of rare sugars. This study describes the

  2. Application of electronic learning tools for training of specialists in the field of information technologies for enterprises of mineral resources sector

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    Е. В. Катунцов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the advantages of using modern electronic learning tools in the training of specialists for the mineral and raw materials complex and considers the basic principles of organizing training using these tools. The experience of using electronic learning tools using foreign teaching materials and involving foreign professors is described. A special attention is given to the electronic learning environment of the Cisco Networking Academy – Cisco NetAcad. The experience of teaching at the Networking Academy of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University is described. Details are given to modern virtual environments for laboratory work, such as Cisco Packet Tracer, GNS3 and Emulated Virtual Environment. The experience of using electronic learning technologies at the University of Economics of Bratislava is considered. It actively cooperates with a number of universities of other countries, such as the University of International Business (Almaty, the Eurasian National University named after LN Gumilyov (Astana and the Institute of Social and Humanitarian Knowledge (Kazan.

  3. Purification and characterization of an L-arabinose isomerase from an isolated strain of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans producing D-tagatose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2005-11-04

    The araA gene, encoding l-arabinose isomerase (AI), from the thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermodenitrificans was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant AI was isolated with a final purity of about 97% and a final specific activity of 2.10 U/mg. The molecular mass of the purified AI was estimated to be about 230 kDa to be a tetramer composed of identical subunits. The AI exhibited maximum activity at 70 degrees C and pH 8.5 in the presence of Mn2+. The enzyme was stable at temperatures below 60 degrees C and within the pH range 7.5-8.0. d-Galactose and l-arabinose as substrate were isomerized with high activities. Ribitol was the strongest competitive inhibitor of AI with a Ki of 5.5mM. The apparent Km and Vmax for L-arabinose were 142 mM and 86 U/mg, respectively, whereas those for d-galactose were 408 mM and 6.9 U/mg, respectively. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) was 48 mM(-1)min(-1) for L-arabinose and 0.5mM(-1)min(-1) for D-galactose. Mn2+ was a competitive activator and increased the thermal stability of the AI. The D-tagatose yield produced by AI from d-galactose was 46% without the addition of Mn2+ and 48% with Mn2+ after 300 min at 65 degrees C.

  4. An operon encoding three glycolytic enzymes in Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase and triosephosphate isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branny, P; de la Torre, F; Garel, J R

    1998-04-01

    The structural genes gap, pgk and tpi encoding three glycolytic enzymes, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), respectively, have been cloned and sequenced from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus). The genes were isolated after screening genomic sublibraries with specific gap and pgk probes obtained by PCR amplification of chromosomal DNA with degenerate primers corresponding to amino acid sequences highly conserved in GAPDHs and PGKs. Nucleotide sequencing revealed that the three genes were organized in the order gap-pgk-tpi. The translation start codons of the three genes were identified by alignment of the N-terminal sequences. These genes predicted polypeptide chains of 338, 403 and 252 amino acids for GAPDH, PGK and TPI, respectively, and they were separated by 96 bp between gap and pgk, and by only 18 bp between pgk and tpi. The codon usage in gap, pgk, tpi and three other glycolytic genes from L. bulgaricus differed, noticeably from that in other chromosomal genes. The site of transcriptional initiation was located by primer extension, and a probable promoter was identified for the gap-pgk-tpi operon. Northern hybridization of total RNA with specific probes showed two transcripts, an mRNA of 1.4 kb corresponding to the gap gene, and a less abundant mRNA of 3.4 kb corresponding to the gap-pgk-tpi cluster. The absence of a visible terminator in the 3'-end of the shorter transcript and the location of this 3'-end inside the pgk gene indicated that this shorter transcript was produced by degradation of the longer one, rather than by an early termination of transcription after the gap gene.

  5. Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase A1 (Pin1) is a target for modification by lipid electrophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluise, Christopher D; Rose, Kristie; Boiani, Mariana; Reyzer, Michelle L; Manna, Joseph D; Tallman, Keri; Porter, Ned A; Marnett, Lawrence J

    2013-02-18

    Oxidation of membrane phospholipids is associated with inflammation, neurodegenerative disease, and cancer. Oxyradical damage to phospholipids results in the production of reactive aldehydes that adduct proteins and modulate their function. 4-Hydroxynonenal (HNE), a common product of oxidative damage to lipids, adducts proteins at exposed Cys, His, or Lys residues. Here, we demonstrate that peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase A1 (Pin1), an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the peptide bond of pSer/pThr-Pro moieties in signaling proteins from cis to trans, is highly susceptible to HNE modification. Incubation of purified Pin1 with HNE followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry resulted in detection of Michael adducts at the active site residues His-157 and Cys-113. Time and concentration dependencies indicate that Cys-113 is the primary site of HNE modification. Pin1 was adducted in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells treated with 8-alkynyl-HNE as judged by click chemistry conjugation with biotin followed by streptavidin-based pulldown and Western blotting with anti-Pin1 antibody. Furthermore, orbitrap MS data support the adduction of Cys-113 in the Pin1 active site upon HNE treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells. siRNA knockdown of Pin1 in MDA-MB-231 cells partially protected the cells from HNE-induced toxicity. Recent studies indicate that Pin1 is an important molecular target for the chemopreventive effects of green tea polyphenols. The present study establishes that it is also a target for electrophilic modification by products of lipid peroxidation.

  6. Comparison of the xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase and the xylose isomerase pathways for xylose fermentation by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Hahn-Hägerdal Bärbel

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two heterologous pathways have been used to construct recombinant xylose-fermenting Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains: i the xylose reductase (XR and xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH pathway and ii the xylose isomerase (XI pathway. In the present study, the Pichia stipitis XR-XDH pathway and the Piromyces XI pathway were compared in an isogenic strain background, using a laboratory host strain with genetic modifications known to improve xylose fermentation (overexpressed xylulokinase, overexpressed non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway and deletion of the aldose reductase gene GRE3. The two isogenic strains and the industrial xylose-fermenting strain TMB 3400 were studied regarding their xylose fermentation capacity in defined mineral medium and in undetoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate. Results In defined mineral medium, the xylose consumption rate, the specific ethanol productivity, and the final ethanol concentration were significantly higher in the XR- and XDH-carrying strain, whereas the highest ethanol yield was achieved with the strain carrying XI. While the laboratory strains only fermented a minor fraction of glucose in the undetoxified lignocellulose hydrolysate, the industrial strain TMB 3400 fermented nearly all the sugar available. Xylitol was formed by the XR-XDH-carrying strains only in mineral medium, whereas in lignocellulose hydrolysate no xylitol formation was detected. Conclusion Despite by-product formation, the XR-XDH xylose utilization pathway resulted in faster ethanol production than using the best presently reported XI pathway in the strain background investigated. The need for robust industrial yeast strains for fermentation of undetoxified spruce hydrolysates was also confirmed.

  7. Triose phosphate isomerase deficiency is caused by altered dimerization--not catalytic inactivity--of the mutant enzymes.

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    Markus Ralser

    Full Text Available Triosephosphate isomerase (TPI deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by various mutations in the gene encoding the key glycolytic enzyme TPI. A drastic decrease in TPI activity and an increased level of its substrate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, have been measured in unpurified cell extracts of affected individuals. These observations allowed concluding that the different mutations in the TPI alleles result in catalytically inactive enzymes. However, despite a high occurrence of TPI null alleles within several human populations, the frequency of this disorder is exceptionally rare. In order to address this apparent discrepancy, we generated a yeast model allowing us to perform comparative in vivo analyses of the enzymatic and functional properties of the different enzyme variants. We discovered that the majority of these variants exhibit no reduced catalytic activity per se. Instead, we observed, the dimerization behavior of TPI is influenced by the particular mutations investigated, and by the use of a potential alternative translation initiation site in the TPI gene. Additionally, we demonstrated that the overexpression of the most frequent TPI variant, Glu104Asp, which displays altered dimerization features, results in diminished endogenous TPI levels in mammalian cells. Thus, our results reveal that enzyme deregulation attributable to aberrant dimerization of TPI, rather than direct catalytic inactivation of the enzyme, underlies the pathogenesis of TPI deficiency. Finally, we discovered that yeast cells expressing a TPI variant exhibiting reduced catalytic activity are more resistant against oxidative stress caused by the thiol-oxidizing reagent diamide. This observed advantage might serve to explain the high allelic frequency of TPI null alleles detected among human populations.

  8. Phycourobilin in Trichromatic Phycocyanin from Oceanic Cyanobacteria Is Formed Post-translationally by a Phycoerythrobilin Lyase-Isomerase*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blot, Nicolas; Wu, Xian-Jun; Thomas, Jean-Claude; Zhang, Juan; Garczarek, Laurence; Böhm, Stephan; Tu, Jun-Ming; Zhou, Ming; Plöscher, Matthias; Eichacker, Lutz; Partensky, Frédéric; Scheer, Hugo; Zhao, Kai-Hong

    2009-01-01

    Most cyanobacteria harvest light with large antenna complexes called phycobilisomes. The diversity of their constituting phycobiliproteins contributes to optimize the photosynthetic capacity of these microorganisms. Phycobiliprotein biosynthesis, which involves several post-translational modifications including covalent attachment of the linear tetrapyrrole chromophores (phycobilins) to apoproteins, begins to be well understood. However, the biosynthetic pathway to the blue-green-absorbing phycourobilin (λmax ∼ 495 nm) remained unknown, although it is the major phycobilin of cyanobacteria living in oceanic areas where blue light penetrates deeply into the water column. We describe a unique trichromatic phycocyanin, R-PC V, extracted from phycobilisomes of Synechococcus sp. strain WH8102. It is evolutionarily remarkable as the only chromoprotein known so far that absorbs the whole wavelength range between 450 and 650 nm. R-PC V carries a phycourobilin chromophore on its α-subunit, and this can be considered an extreme case of adaptation to blue-green light. We also discovered the enzyme, RpcG, responsible for its biosynthesis. This monomeric enzyme catalyzes binding of the green-absorbing phycoerythrobilin at cysteine 84 with concomitant isomerization to phycourobilin. This reaction is analogous to formation of the orange-absorbing phycoviolobilin from the red-absorbing phycocyanobilin that is catalyzed by the lyase-isomerase PecE/F in some freshwater cyanobacteria. The fusion protein, RpcG, and the heterodimeric PecE/F are mutually interchangeable in a heterologous expression system in Escherichia coli. The novel R-PC V likely optimizes rod-core energy transfer in phycobilisomes and thereby adaptation of a major phytoplankton group to the blue-green light prevailing in oceanic waters. PMID:19182270

  9. Variation in the Subcellular Localization and Protein Folding Activity among Arabidopsis thaliana Homologs of Protein Disulfide Isomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christen Y. L. Yuen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs catalyze the formation, breakage, and rearrangement of disulfide bonds to properly fold nascent polypeptides within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Classical animal and yeast PDIs possess two catalytic thioredoxin-like domains (a, a′ and two non-catalytic domains (b, b′, in the order a-b-b′-a′. The model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, encodes 12 PDI-like proteins, six of which possess the classical PDI domain arrangement (AtPDI1 through AtPDI6. Three additional AtPDIs (AtPDI9, AtPDI10, AtPDI11 possess two thioredoxin domains, but without intervening b-b′ domains. C-terminal green fluorescent protein (GFP fusions to each of the nine dual-thioredoxin PDI homologs localized predominantly to the ER lumen when transiently expressed in protoplasts. Additionally, expression of AtPDI9:GFP-KDEL and AtPDI10: GFP-KDDL was associated with the formation of ER bodies. AtPDI9, AtPDI10, and AtPDI11 mediated the oxidative folding of alkaline phosphatase when heterologously expressed in the Escherichia coli protein folding mutant, dsbA−. However, only three classical AtPDIs (AtPDI2, AtPDI5, AtPDI6 functionally complemented dsbA−. Interestingly, chemical inducers of the ER unfolded protein response were previously shown to upregulate most of the AtPDIs that complemented dsbA−. The results indicate that Arabidopsis PDIs differ in their localization and protein folding activities to fulfill distinct molecular functions in the ER.

  10. Post-duplication charge evolution of phosphoglucose isomerases in teleost fishes through weak selection on many amino acid sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sato Yukuto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The partitioning of ancestral functions among duplicated genes by neutral evolution, or subfunctionalization, has been considered the primary process for the evolution of novel proteins (neofunctionalization. Nonetheless, how a subfunctionalized protein can evolve into a more adaptive protein is poorly understood, mainly due to the limitations of current analytical methods, which can detect only strong selection for amino acid substitutions involved in adaptive molecular evolution. In this study, we employed a comparative evolutionary approach to this question, focusing on differences in the structural properties of a protein, specifically the electric charge, encoded by fish-specific duplicated phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi genes. Results Full-length cDNA cloning, RT-PCR based gene expression analyses, and comparative sequence analyses showed that after subfunctionalization with respect to the expression organ of duplicate Pgi genes, the net electric charge of the PGI-1 protein expressed mainly in internal tissues became more negative, and that of PGI-2 expressed mainly in muscular tissues became more positive. The difference in net protein charge was attributable not to specific amino acid sites but to the sum of various amino acid sites located on the surface of the PGI molecule. Conclusion This finding suggests that the surface charge evolution of PGI proteins was not driven by strong selection on individual amino acid sites leading to permanent fixation of a particular residue, but rather was driven by weak selection on a large number of amino acid sites and consequently by steady directional and/or purifying selection on the overall structural properties of the protein, which is derived from many modifiable sites. The mode of molecular evolution presented here may be relevant to various cases of adaptive modification in proteins, such as hydrophobic properties, molecular size, and electric charge.

  11. A zebrafish model of congenital disorders of glycosylation with phosphomannose isomerase deficiency reveals an early opportunity for corrective mannose supplementation

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    Jaime Chu

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG have recessive mutations in genes required for protein N-glycosylation, resulting in multi-systemic disease. Despite the well-characterized biochemical consequences in these individuals, the underlying cellular defects that contribute to CDG are not well understood. Synthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO, which serves as the sugar donor for the N-glycosylation of secretory proteins, requires conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to mannose-6-phosphate via the phosphomannose isomerase (MPI enzyme. Individuals who are deficient in MPI present with bleeding, diarrhea, edema, gastrointestinal bleeding and liver fibrosis. MPI-CDG patients can be treated with oral mannose supplements, which is converted to mannose-6-phosphate through a minor complementary metabolic pathway, restoring protein glycosylation and ameliorating most symptoms, although liver disease continues to progress. Because Mpi deletion in mice causes early embryonic lethality and thus is difficult to study, we used zebrafish to establish a model of MPI-CDG. We used a morpholino to block mpi mRNA translation and established a concentration that consistently yielded 13% residual Mpi enzyme activity at 4 days post-fertilization (dpf, which is within the range of MPI activity detected in fibroblasts from MPI-CDG patients. Fluorophore-assisted carbohydrate electrophoresis detected decreased LLO and N-glycans in mpi morphants. These deficiencies resulted in 50% embryonic lethality by 4 dpf. Multi-systemic abnormalities, including small eyes, dysmorphic jaws, pericardial edema, a small liver and curled tails, occurred in 82% of the surviving larvae. Importantly, these phenotypes could be rescued with mannose supplementation. Thus, parallel processes in fish and humans contribute to the phenotypes caused by Mpi depletion. Interestingly, mannose was only effective if provided prior to 24 hpf. These data provide insight into treatment efficacy

  12. An operational utility assessment [electronic resource]: measuring the effectiveness of the Joint Concept Technology Demonstration (JCTD), Joint Forces Protection Advance Security System (JFPASS)

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark; Mayor, Jeffrey D.; Symmes, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Planning modern military operations requires an accurate intelligence assessment of potential threats, combined with a detailed assessment of the physical theater of operations. This information can then be combined with equipment and manpower resources to set up a logistically supportable operation that mitigates as much of the enemy threat as possible. Given such a daunting challenge, military planners often turn to intelligent software agents to support their...

  13. Positive Perceptions of Access to Online Library Resources Correlates with Quality and Quantity of Scholarly Publications among Finnish Academics. A Review of: Vakkari, Pertti. “Perceived Influence of the Use of Electronic Information Resources on Scholarly Work and Publication Productivity.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 59.4 (Feb. 15, 2008: 602-12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Marsalis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the relationship between academics’ use of library electronic resources and their opinions regarding how these resources have impacted their work, and to investigate the association between this perceived influence and publication productivity during the previous two years.Design – Two specific questions added to an annual online user-survey questionnaire; additional data mined from surveySetting – Twenty-two Finnish Universities served by FinELib, the Finnish Electronic Library.Subjects – Seven hundred and sixty seven academic staff and full-time doctoral students.Methods – A questionnaire was posted in April 2007 on FinELib’s homepage and advertised on each university library’s mainpage, and focused on respondents’ experience in the previous two years. Participants selected answers either from a list of category choices, or, when measuring perceptions, by rating agreement with statements along a four-point scale. Controlled variables measured were the respondents’ academic position, their discipline, membership in a research group, whether their literature use was discipline-specific or interdisciplinary, and their perception of the availability online of the relevant core literature. The independent variable measured was the scholars’ perception of the impact of the use of electronic library resources on their work. The dependent variable measured was the scholars’ self-reported publications in the two years preceding the survey.Main Results – Participants reported a positive impact on the efficiency of their work, most strongly in areas of ease of access, with lesser impacts in the range of materials available to them and the ease with which they can keep up-to-date in their field. To a lesser extent, the scholars perceived a positive impact on the quality of their work. Upon analysis, the study found that access to online library resources improved scholars’ work by the interconnected

  14. FabQ, a Dual-Function Dehydratase/Isomerase, Circumvents the Last Step of the Classical Fatty Acid Synthesis Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bi, Hongkai; Wang, Haihong; Cronan, John E.

    2013-01-01

    In the classical anaerobic pathway of unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, that of Escherichia coli, the double bond is introduced into the growing acyl chain by the FabA dehydratase/isomerase. Another dehydratase, FabZ, functions in the chain elongation cycle. In contrast, Aerococcus viridans has only a single FabA/FabZ homolog we designate FabQ. FabQ can not only replace the function of E. coli FabZ in vivo, but it also catalyzes the isomerization required for unsaturated fatty acid biosynt...

  15. Cloning of araA Gene Encoding L-Arabinose Isomerase from Marine Geobacillus stearothermophilus Isolated from Tanjung Api, Poso, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEWI FITRIANI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available L-arabinose isomerase is an enzyme converting D-galactose to D-tagatose. D-tagatose is a potential sweetener-sucrose substitute which has low calorie. This research was to clone and sequence araA gene from marine bacterial strain Geobacillus stearothermophilus isolated from Tanjung Api Poso Indonesia. The amplified araA gene consisted of 1494 bp nucleotides encoding 497 amino acids. DNA alignment analysis showed that the gene had high homology with that of G. stearothermophilus T6. The enzyme had optimum activity at high temperature and alkalin condition.

  16. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  17. Merge of terminological resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Lina; Braasch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    In our globalized world, the amount of cross-national communication increases rapidly, which also calls for easy access to multi-lingual high quality terminological resources. Sharing of terminology resources is currently becoming common practice, and efficient strategies for integration...... – or merging – of terminology resources are strongly needed. This paper discusses prerequisites for successful merging with the focus on identification of candidate duplicates of a subject domain found in the resources to be merged, and it describes automatic merging strategies to be applied to such duplicates...... in electronic terminology resources. Further, some perspectives of manual, supplementary assessment methods supporting the automatic procedures are sketched. Our considerations are primarily based on experience gained in the IATE and EuroTermBank projects, as merging was a much discussed issue in both projects....

  18. Renewable energy resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellabban, Omar S.; Abu-Rub, Haitham A.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Electric energy security is essential, yet the high cost and limited sources of fossil fuels, in addition to the need to reduce greenhouse gasses emission, have made renewable resources attractive in world energy-based economies. The potential for renewable energy resources is enormous because...... they can, in principle, exponentially exceed the world's energy demand; therefore, these types of resources will have a significant share in the future global energy portfolio, much of which is now concentrating on advancing their pool of renewable energy resources. Accordingly, this paper presents how...... renewable energy resources are currently being used, scientific developments to improve their use, their future prospects, and their deployment. Additionally, the paper represents the impact of power electronics and smart grid technologies that can enable the proportionate share of renewable energy...

  19. Functional and structural studies of the disulfide isomerase DsbC from the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa reveals a redox-dependent oligomeric modulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Clelton A; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Trivella, Daniela B B; Beloti, Lilian L; Schneider, Dilaine R S; Saraiva, Antonio M; Crucello, Aline; Azzoni, Adriano R; Souza, Alessandra A; Aparicio, Ricardo; Souza, Anete P

    2012-10-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a Gram-negative bacterium that grows as a biofilm inside the xylem vessels of susceptible plants and causes several economically relevant crop diseases. In the present study, we report the functional and low-resolution structural characterization of the X. fastidiosa disulfide isomerase DsbC (XfDsbC). DsbC is part of the disulfide bond reduction/isomerization pathway in the bacterial periplasm and plays an important role in oxidative protein folding. In the present study, we demonstrate the presence of XfDsbC during different stages of X. fastidiosa biofilm development. XfDsbC was not detected during X. fastidiosa planktonic growth; however, after administering a sublethal copper shock, we observed an overexpression of XfDsbC that also occurred during planktonic growth. These results suggest that X. fastidiosa can use XfDsbC in vivo under oxidative stress conditions similar to those induced by copper. In addition, using dynamic light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering, we observed that the oligomeric state of XfDsbC in vitro may be dependent on the redox environment. Under reducing conditions, XfDsbC is present as a dimer, whereas a putative tetrameric form was observed under nonreducing conditions. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the overexpression of XfDsbC during biofilm formation and provide the first structural model of a bacterial disulfide isomerase in solution. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  20. PDILT, a divergent testis-specific protein disulfide isomerase with a non-classical SXXC motif that engages in disulfide-dependent interactions in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lith, Marcel; Hartigan, Nichola; Hatch, Jennifer; Benham, Adam M

    2005-01-14

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the archetypal enzyme involved in the formation and reshuffling of disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). PDI achieves its redox function through two highly conserved thioredoxin domains, and PDI can also operate as an ER chaperone. The substrate specificities and the exact functions of most other PDI family proteins remain important unsolved questions in biology. Here, we characterize a new and striking member of the PDI family, which we have named protein disulfide isomerase-like protein of the testis (PDILT). PDILT is the first eukaryotic SXXC protein to be characterized in the ER. Our experiments have unveiled a novel, glycosylated PDI-like protein whose tissue-specific expression and unusual motifs have implications for the evolution, catalytic function, and substrate selection of thioredoxin family proteins. We show that PDILT is an ER resident glycoprotein that liaises with partner proteins in disulfide-dependent complexes within the testis. PDILT interacts with the oxidoreductase Ero1alpha, demonstrating that the N-terminal cysteine of the CXXC sequence is not required for binding of PDI family proteins to ER oxidoreductases. The expression of PDILT, in addition to PDI in the testis, suggests that PDILT performs a specialized chaperone function in testicular cells. PDILT is an unusual PDI relative that highlights the adaptability of chaperone and redox function in enzymes of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  1. Coexpression of β-D-galactosidase and L-arabinose isomerase in the production of D-tagatose: a functional sweetener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yijing; Xu, Zheng; Li, Sha; Liu, Xiaoliu; Xu, Lu; Feng, Xiaohai; Xu, Hong

    2014-03-19

    The functional sweetener, d-tagatose, is commonly transformed from galactose by l-arabinose isomerase. To make use of a much cheaper starting material, lactose, hydrolization, and isomerization are required to take place collaboratively. Therefore, a single-step method involving β-d-galactosidase was explored for d-tagatose production. The two vital genes, β-d-galactosidase gene (lacZ) and l-arabinose isomerase mutant gene (araA') were extracted separately from Escherichia coli strains and incorporated into E. coli simultaneously. This gave us E. coli-ZY, a recombinant producing strain capable of coexpressing the two key enzymes. The resulted cells exhibited maximum d-tagatose producing activity at 34 °C and pH 6.5 and in the presence of borate, 10 mM Fe(2+), and 1 mM Mn(2+). Further monitoring showed that the recombinant cells could hydrolyze more than 95% lactose and convert 43% d-galactose into d-tagatose. This research has verified the feasibility of single-step d-tagatose fermentation, thereby laying down the foundation for industrial usage of lactose.

  2. Cloning, expression and characterization of L-arabinose isomerase from Thermotoga neapolitana: bioconversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose using the enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Chan; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Lee, Han-Seung; Lee, Dong-Woo; Choe, Eun-Ah; Pyun, Yu-Ryang

    2002-06-18

    Gene araA encoding an L-arabinose isomerase (AraA) from the hyperthermophile, Thermotoga neapolitana 5068 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene encoded a polypeptide of 496 residues with a calculated molecular mass of 56677 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence has 94.8% identical amino acids compared with the residues in a putative L-arabinose isomerase of Thermotoga maritima. The recombinant enzyme expressed in E. coli was purified to homogeneity by heat treatment, ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The thermophilic enzyme had a maximum activity of L-arabinose isomerization and D-galactose isomerization at 85 degrees C, and required divalent cations such as Co(2+) and Mn(2+) for its activity and thermostability. The apparent K(m) values of the enzyme for L-arabinose and D-galactose were 116 mM (v(max), 119 micromol min(-1) mg(-1)) and 250 mM (v(max), 14.3 micromol min(-1) mg(-1)), respectively, that were determined in the presence of both 1 mM Co(2+) and 1 mM Mn(2+). A 68% conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose was obtained using the recombinant enzyme at the isomerization temperature of 80 degrees C.

  3. Ser46 phosphorylation and prolyl-isomerase Pin1-mediated isomerization of p53 are key events in p53-dependent apoptosis induced by mutant huntingtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Alice; Mantovani, Fiamma; Comel, Anna; Agostoni, Elena; Gustincich, Stefano; Persichetti, Francesca; Del Sal, Giannino

    2011-11-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the gene coding for huntingtin protein. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which mutant huntingtin (mHtt) may trigger striatal neurodegeneration, including mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis. Furthermore, mHtt induces DNA damage and activates a stress response. In this context, p53 plays a crucial role in mediating mHtt toxic effects. Here we have dissected the pathway of p53 activation by mHtt in human neuronal cells and in HD mice, with the aim of highlighting critical nodes that may be pharmacologically manipulated for therapeutic intervention. We demonstrate that expression of mHtt causes increased phosphorylation of p53 on Ser46, leading to its interaction with phosphorylation-dependent prolyl isomerase Pin1 and consequent dissociation from the apoptosis inhibitor iASPP, thereby inducing the expression of apoptotic target genes. Inhibition of Ser46 phosphorylation by targeting homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2), PKCδ, or ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase, as well as inhibition of the prolyl isomerase Pin1, prevents mHtt-dependent apoptosis of neuronal cells. These results provide a rationale for the use of small-molecule inhibitors of stress-responsive protein kinases and Pin1 as a potential therapeutic strategy for HD treatment.

  4. Bioconversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose: continuous packed bed reaction with an immobilized thermostable L-arabinose isomerase and efficient purification by selective microbial degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Min; Chen, Min; Liu, Xinying; Zhai, Yafei; Liu, Xian-wei; Zhang, Houcheng; Xiao, Min; Wang, Peng

    2012-02-01

    The continuous enzymatic conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose with an immobilized thermostable L-arabinose isomerase in packed-bed reactor and a novel method for D-tagatose purification were studied. L-arabinose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacter mathranii (TMAI) was recombinantly overexpressed and immobilized in calcium alginate. The effects of pH and temperature on D-tagatose production reaction catalyzed by free and immobilized TMAI were investigated. The optimal condition for free enzyme was pH 8.0, 60°C, 5 mM MnCl(2). However, that for immobilized enzyme was pH 7.5, 75°C, 5 mM MnCl(2). In addition, the catalytic activity of immobilized enzyme at high temperature and low pH was significantly improved compared with free enzyme. The optimum reaction yield with immobilized TMAI increased by four percentage points to 43.9% compared with that of free TMAI. The highest productivity of 10 g/L h was achieved with the yield of 23.3%. Continuous production was performed at 70°C; after 168 h, the reaction yield was still above 30%. The resultant syrup was then incubated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae L1 cells. The selective degradation of D-galactose was achieved, obtaining D-tagatose with the purity above 95%. The established production and separation methods further potentiate the industrial production of D-tagatose via bioconversion and biopurification processes.

  5. Whole cell immobilization of refractory glucose isomerase using tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine as crosslinker for preparation of high fructose corn syrup at elevated temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dong-Xu; Wang, Teng; Liu, Zi-Jian; Jin, Li-Qun; Li, Jia-Jia; Liao, Cheng-Jun; Chen, De-Shui; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2018-04-04

    Glucose isomerase (GI) responsible for catalyzing the isomerization from d-glucose to d-fructose, was an important enzyme for producing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). In a quest to prepare HFCS at elevated temperature and facilitate enzymatic recovery, an effective procedure for whole cell immobilization of refractory Thermus oshimai glucose isomerase (ToGI) onto Celite 545 using tris(hydroxymethyl)phosphine (THP) as crosslinker was established. The immobilized biocatalyst showed an activity of approximate 127.3 U/(g·immobilized product) via optimization in terms of cells loading, crosslinker concentration and crosslinking time. The pH optimum of the immobilized biocatalyst was displaced from pH 8.0 of native enzyme to neutral pH 7.0. Compared with conventional glutaraldehyde (GLU)-immobilized cells, it possessed the enhanced thermostability with 70.1% residual activity retaining after incubation at 90°C for 72 h. Moreover, the THP-immobilized biocatalyst exhibited superior operational stability, in which it retained 85.8% of initial activity after 15 batches of bioconversion at 85°C. This study paved a way for reducing catalysis cost for upscale preparation of HFCS with higher d-fructose concentration. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of an L-arabinose isomerase from Bacillus coagulans NL01 and its application for D-tagatose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Wending; Wang, Lu; Zang, Ying; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2016-06-30

    L-arabinose isomerase (AI) is a crucial catalyst for the biotransformation of D-galactose to D-tagatose. In previous reports, AIs from thermophilic bacterial strains had been wildly researched, but the browning reaction and by-products formed at high temperatures restricted their applications. By contrast, AIs from mesophilic Bacillus strains have some different features including lower optimal temperatures and lower requirements of metallic cofactors. These characters will be beneficial to the development of a more energy-efficient and safer production process. However, the relevant data about the kinetics and reaction properties of Bacillus AIs in D-tagatose production are still insufficient. Thus, in order to support further applications of these AIs, a comprehensive characterization of a Bacillus AI is needed. The coding gene (1422 bp) of Bacillus coagulans NL01 AI (BCAI) was cloned and overexpressed in the Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) strain. The enzymatic property test showed that the optimal temperature and pH of BCAI were 60 °C and 7.5 respectively. The raw purified BCAI originally showed high activity in absence of outsourcing metallic ions and its thermostability did not change in a low concentration (0.5 mM) of Mn(2+) at temperatures from 70 °C to 90 °C. Besides these, the catalytic efficiencies (k cat/K m) for L-arabinose and D-galactose were 8.7 mM(-1) min(-1) and 1.0 mM(-1) min(-1) respectively. Under optimal conditions, the recombinant E. coli cell containing BCAI could convert 150 g L(-1) and 250 g L(-1) D-galactose to D-tagatose with attractive conversion rates of 32 % (32 h) and 27 % (48 h). In this study, a novel AI from B. coagulans NL01was cloned, purified and characterized. Compared with other reported AIs, this AI could retain high proportions of activity at a broader range of temperatures and was less dependent on metallic cofactors such as Mn(2+). Its substrate specificity was understood deeply by carrying out molecular

  7. Bacterial xylose isomerases from the mammal gut Bacteroidetes cluster function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for effective xylose fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bingyin; Huang, Shuangcheng; Liu, Tingting; Geng, Anli

    2015-05-17

    Xylose isomerase (XI) catalyzes the conversion of xylose to xylulose, which is the key step for anaerobic ethanolic fermentation of xylose. Very few bacterial XIs can function actively in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we illustrate a group of XIs that would function for xylose fermentation in S. cerevisiae through phylogenetic analysis, recombinant yeast strain construction, and xylose fermentation. Phylogenetic analysis of deposited XI sequences showed that XI evolutionary relationship was highly consistent with the bacterial taxonomic orders and quite a few functional XIs in S. cerevisiae were clustered with XIs from mammal gut Bacteroidetes group. An XI from Bacteroides valgutus in this cluster was actively expressed in S. cerevisiae with an activity comparable to the fungal XI from Piromyces sp. Two XI genes were isolated from the environmental metagenome and they were clustered with XIs from environmental Bacteroidetes group. These two XIs could not be expressed in yeast with activity. With the XI from B. valgutus expressed in S. cerevisiae, background yeast strains were optimized by pentose metabolizing pathway enhancement and adaptive evolution in xylose medium. Afterwards, more XIs from the mammal gut Bacteroidetes group, including those from B. vulgatus, Tannerella sp. 6_1_58FAA_CT1, Paraprevotella xylaniphila and Alistipes sp. HGB5, were individually transformed into S. cerevisiae. The known functional XI from Orpinomyces sp. ukk1, a mammal gut fungus, was used as the control. All the resulting recombinant yeast strains were able to ferment xylose. The respiration-deficient strains harboring B. vulgatus and Alistipes sp. HGB5 XI genes respectively obtained specific xylose consumption rate of 0.662 and 0.704 g xylose gcdw(-1) h(-1), and ethanol specific productivity of 0.277 and 0.283 g ethanol gcdw(-1) h(-1), much comparable to those obtained by the control strain carrying Orpinomyces sp. ukk1 XI gene. This study demonstrated that XIs clustered in the

  8. Overexpression of an isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase gene to enhance trans-polyisoprene production in Eucommia ulmoides Oliver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ren

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural rubber produced by plants, known as polyisoprene, is the most widely used isoprenoid polymer. Plant polyisoprenes can be classified into two types; cis-polyisoprene and trans-polyisoprene, depending on the type of polymerization of the isoprene unit. More than 2000 species of higher plants produce latex consisting of cis-polyisoprene. Hevea brasiliensis (rubber tree produces cis-polyisoprene, and is the key source of commercial rubber. In contrast, relatively few plant species produce trans-polyisoprene. Currently, trans-polyisoprene is mainly produced synthetically, and no plant species is used for its commercial production. Results To develop a plant-based system suitable for large-scale production of trans-polyisoprene, we selected a trans-polyisoprene-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver, as the target for genetic transformation. A full-length cDNA (designated as EuIPI, Accession No. AB041629 encoding isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (IPI was isolated from E. ulmoides. EuIPI consisted of 1028 bp with a 675-bp open reading frame encoding a protein with 224 amino acid residues. EuIPI shared high identity with other plant IPIs, and the recombinant protein expressed in Escherichia coli showed IPI enzymatic activity in vitro. EuIPI was introduced into E. ulmoides via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic lines of E. ulmoides overexpressing EuIPI showed increased EuIPI expression (up to 19-fold that of the wild-type and a 3- to 4-fold increase in the total content of trans-polyisoprenes, compared with the wild-type (non-transgenic root line control. Conclusions Increasing the expression level of EuIPI by overexpression increased accumulation of trans-polyisoprenes in transgenic E. ulmoides. IPI catalyzes the conversion of isopentenyl diphosphate to its highly electrophilic isomer, dimethylallyl diphosphate, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of all isoprenoids, including polyisoprene. Our

  9. Molecular association of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and pyruvate kinase M2 with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Mahua R.; Bag, Arup K.; Saha, Shekhar; Ghosh, Alok; Dey, Sumit K.; Das, Provas; Mandal, Chitra; Ray, Subhankar; Chakrabarti, Saikat; Ray, Manju; Jana, Siddhartha S.

    2016-01-01

    For a long time cancer cells are known for increased uptake of glucose and its metabolization through glycolysis. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key regulatory enzyme of this pathway and can produce ATP through oxidative level of phosphorylation. Previously, we reported that GAPDH purified from a variety of malignant tissues, but not from normal tissues, was strongly inactivated by a normal metabolite, methylglyoxal (MG). Molecular mechanism behind MG mediated GAPDH inhibition in cancer cells is not well understood. GAPDH was purified from Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells based on its enzymatic activity. GAPDH associated proteins in EAC cells and 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) induced mouse tumor tissue were detected by mass spectrometry analysis and immunoprecipitation (IP) experiment, respectively. Interacting domains of GAPDH and its associated proteins were assessed by in silico molecular docking analysis. Mechanism of MG mediated GAPDH inactivation in cancer cells was evaluated by measuring enzyme activity, Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, IP and mass spectrometry analyses. Here, we report that GAPDH is associated with glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells and also in 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) induced mouse tumor tissue. Molecular docking analyses suggest C-terminal domain preference for the interaction between GAPDH and GPI. However, both C and N termini of PKM2 might be interacting with the C terminal domain of GAPDH. Expression of both PKM2 and GPI is increased in 3MC induced tumor compared with the normal tissue. In presence of 1 mM MG, association of GAPDH with PKM2 or GPI is not perturbed, but the enzymatic activity of GAPDH is reduced to 26.8 ± 5 % in 3MC induced tumor and 57.8 ± 2.3 % in EAC cells. Treatment of MG to purified GAPDH complex leads to glycation at R399 residue of PKM2 only, and changes the secondary structure of the protein complex. PKM2

  10. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  11. Real-world health outcomes in adults with moderate-to-severe psoriasis in the United States: a population study using electronic health records to examine patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, medication use, and healthcare resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, April W; Foster, Shonda A; Comer, Brian S; Lin, Chen-Yen; Malatestinic, William; Burge, Russel; Goldblum, Orin

    2018-06-28

    Little is known regarding real-world health outcomes data among US psoriasis patients, but electronic health records (EHR) that collect structured data at point-of-care may provide opportunities to investigate real-world health outcomes among psoriasis patients. Our objective was to investigate patient-perceived treatment effectiveness, patterns of medication use (duration, switching, and/or discontinuation), healthcare resource utilization, and medication costs using real-world data from psoriasis patients. Data for adults (≥18-years) with a dermatology provider-given diagnosis of psoriasis from 9/2014-9/2015 were obtained from dermatology practices using a widely used US dermatology-specific EHR containing over 500,000 psoriasis patients. Disease severity was captured by static physician's global assessment and body surface area. Patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was assessed by a pre-defined question. Treatment switching and duration were documented. Reasons for discontinuations were assessed using pre-defined selections. Healthcare resource utilization was defined by visit frequency and complexity. From 82,621 patients with psoriasis during the study period, patient-perceived treatment effectiveness was investigated in 2200 patients. The proportion of patients reporting "strongly agree" when asked if their treatment was effective was highest for biologics (73%) and those reporting treatment adherence (55%). In 16,000 patients who received oral systemics and 21,087 patients who received biologics, median treatment duration was longer for those who received biologics (160 vs. 113 days, respectively). Treatment switching was less frequent among patients on systemic monotherapies compared to those on combination therapies. The most common reason for discontinuing biologics was loss of efficacy; the most common reason for discontinuing orals was side effects. In 28,754 patients, higher disease severity was associated with increased healthcare resource

  12. Water Resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abira, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Water is essential for life and ecological sustenance; its availability is essential component of national welfare and productivity.The country's socio-economic activities are largely dependent on the natural endowment of water resources. Kenya's water resources comprises of surface waters (rivers, lakes and wetlands) and ground water. Surface water forms 86% of total water resources while the rest is ground water Geological, topographical and climatic factors influence the natural availability and distribution of water with the rainfall distribution having the major influence. Water resources in Kenya are continuously under threat of depletion and quality degradation owing to rising population, industrialization, changing land use and settlement activities as well as natural changes. However, the anticipated climate change is likely to exacerbate the situation resulting in increased conflict over water use rights in particular, and, natural resource utilisation in general. The impacts of climate change on the water resources would lead to other impacts on environmental and socio-economic systems

  13. Synthesis and modifications of heterocyclic derivatives of D-arabinose: potential inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Renato Marcio Ribeiro; Prado, Maria Auxiliadora Fontes; Alves, Ricardo Jose

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of -5-(D-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)tetrazole and -2-(d-arabino-1,2,3,4-tetra-acetoxybutyl)-5-methyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole from d-arabinose is described. Attempts at removing the protecting groups of the oxadiazole derivative were unsuccessful, leading to products resulting from the opening of the oxadiazole ring. The unprotected tetrazole derivative was selectively phosphorylated at the primary hydroxyl group with diethyl phosphoryl chloride. The resulting 5-[d-arabino-4-(diethylphosphoryloxy)-1,2,3-trihydroxybutyl]tetrazole is a protected form of a potential inhibitor of the enzymes glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and glucosamine synthase. (author)

  14. Distinguishing two types of gray mullet, Mugil cephalus L. (Mugiliformes: Mugilidae), by using glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI) allozymes with special reference to enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C S; Weng, C F; Lee, S C

    2001-06-01

    The resident and migratory types of gray mullet, Mugil cephalus, on the coast of Taiwan can not be separated morphologically. Allozyme analysis was applied to estimate genetic variation between the two types of gray mullet and to test whether they belong to different populations. After starch gel electrophoresis, different allelic frequency spectra of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase-A (GPI-A) between stocks was observed. The resident stock contained Gpi-A(135) and Gpi-A(100), whereas the migratory type contained Gpi-A(100) only. In addition, GPI activities of locus A showed two distinct profiles between the two alleles. The results broadly revealed that Gpi-A allelic frequency was not regulated by temperature changes even after 6 months of thermal acclimation. This suggests that natural selection may play a role in shaping the allelic frequency change during the migratory journey. These findings suggest that the Gpi-A allelic difference can be used for population discrimination.

  15. Peptidyl prolyl isomerase Pin1-inhibitory activity of D-glutamic and D-aspartic acid derivatives bearing a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Hidehiko; Seike, Suguru; Sugimoto, Masatoshi; Ieda, Naoya; Kawaguchi, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Pin1 is a peptidyl prolyl isomerase that specifically catalyzes cis-trans isomerization of phosphorylated Thr/Ser-Pro peptide bonds in substrate proteins and peptides. Pin1 is involved in many important cellular processes, including cancer progression, so it is a potential target of cancer therapy. We designed and synthesized a novel series of Pin1 inhibitors based on a glutamic acid or aspartic acid scaffold bearing an aromatic moiety to provide a hydrophobic surface and a cyclic aliphatic amine moiety with affinity for the proline-binding site of Pin1. Glutamic acid derivatives bearing cycloalkylamino and phenylthiazole groups showed potent Pin1-inhibitory activity comparable with that of known inhibitor VER-1. The results indicate that steric interaction of the cyclic alkyl amine moiety with binding site residues plays a key role in enhancing Pin1-inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Active site mutations in yeast protein disulfide isomerase cause dithiothreitol sensitivity and a reduced rate of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Tachibana, C; Winther, Jakob R.

    1997-01-01

    Aspects of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) function have been studied in yeast in vivo. PDI contains two thioredoxin-like domains, a and a', each of which contains an active-site CXXC motif. The relative importance of the two domains was analyzed by rendering each one inactive by mutation to SGAS....... Such mutations had no significant effect on growth. The domains however, were not equivalent since the rate of folding of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) in vivo was reduced by inactivation of the a domain but not the a' domain. To investigate the relevance of PDI redox potential, the G and H positions of each CGHC......-deleted strains overexpressing the yeast PDI homologue EUG1 are viable. Exchanging the wild-type Eug1p C(L/I)HS active site sequences for C(L/I)HC increased the growth rate significantly, however, further highlighting the importance of the oxidizing function for optimal growth....

  17. Structural insights into conserved L-arabinose metabolic enzymes reveal the substrate binding site of a thermophilic L-arabinose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Jik; Lee, Sang-Jae; Kim, Seong-Bo; Lee, Sang Jun; Lee, Sung Haeng; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2014-03-18

    Structural genomics demonstrates that despite low levels of structural similarity of proteins comprising a metabolic pathway, their substrate binding regions are likely to be conserved. Herein based on the 3D-structures of the α/β-fold proteins involved in the ara operon, we attempted to predict the substrate binding residues of thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus L-arabinose isomerase (GSAI) with no 3D-structure available. Comparison of the structures of L-arabinose catabolic enzymes revealed a conserved feature to form the substrate-binding modules, which can be extended to predict the substrate binding site of GSAI (i.e., D195, E261 and E333). Moreover, these data implicated that proteins in the l-arabinose metabolic pathway might retain their substrate binding niches as the modular structure through conserved molecular evolution even with totally different structural scaffolds. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A high-throughput screen for inhibitors of the prolyl isomerase, Pin1, identifies a seaweed polyphenol that reduces adipose cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Tadashi; Hidaka, Masafumi; Ikuji, Hiroko; Yoshizawa, Ibuki; Toyohara, Haruhiko; Okuda, Toru; Uchida, Chiyoko; Asano, Tomoichiro; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari; Uchida, Takafumi

    2014-01-01

    The peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 enhances the uptake of triglycerides and the differentiation of fibroblasts into adipose cells in response to insulin stimulation. Pin1 downregulation could be a potential approach to prevent and treat obesity-related disorders. In order to identify an inhibitor of Pin1 that exhibited minimal cytotoxicity, we established a high-throughput screen for Pin1 inhibitors and used this method to identify an inhibitor from 1,056 crude fractions of two natural product libraries. The candidate, a phlorotannin called 974-B, was isolated from the seaweed, Ecklonia kurome. 974-B inhibited the differentiation of mouse embryonic fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 cells into adipose cells without inducing cytotoxicity. We discovered the Pin1 inhibitor, 974-B, from the seaweed, E. kurome, and showed that it blocks the differentiation of fibroblasts into adipose cells, suggesting that 974-B could be a lead drug candidate for obesity-related disorders.

  19. Characterization of a thermostable recombinant l-rhamnose isomerase from Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis OB47 and its application for the production of l-fructose and l-rhamnulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ziwei; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Wenli; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Mu, Wanmeng

    2018-04-01

    l-Hexoses are rare sugars that are important components and precursors in the synthesis of biological compounds and pharmaceutical drugs. l-Rhamnose isomerase (L-RI, EC 5.3.1.14) is an aldose-ketose isomerase that plays a significant role in the production of l-sugars. In this study, a thermostable, l-sugar-producing L-RI from the hyperthermophile Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis OB47 was characterized. The recombinant L-RI displayed maximal activity at pH 8.0 and 85 °C and was significantly activated by Co 2+ . It exhibited a relatively high thermostability, with measured half-lives of 24.75, 11.55, 4.15 and 3.30 h in the presence of Co 2+ at 70, 75, 80 and 85 °C, respectively. Specific activities of 277.6, 57.9, 13.7 and 9.6 U mg -1 were measured when l-rhamnose, l-mannose, d-allose and l-fructose were used as substrates, respectively. l-Rhamnulose was produced with conversion ratios of 44.0% and 38.6% from 25 and 50 g L -1 l-rhamnose, respectively. l-Fructose was also efficiently produced by the L-RI, with conversion ratios of 67.0% and 58.4% from 25 and 50 g L -1 l-mannose, respectively. The recombinant L-RI could effectively catalyze the formation of l-rhamnulose and l-fructose, suggesting that it was a promising candidate for industrial production of l-rhamnulose and l-fructose. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Discovery of ebselen as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI by high-throughput screening of existing drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Eltahan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium parvum is a water-borne and food-borne apicomplexan pathogen. It is one of the top four diarrheal-causing pathogens in children under the age of five in developing countries, and an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Unlike other apicomplexans, C. parvum lacks Kreb's cycle and cytochrome-based respiration, thus relying mainly on glycolysis to produce ATP. In this study, we characterized the primary biochemical features of the C. parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI and determined its Michaelis constant towards fructose-6-phosphate (Km = 0.309 mM, Vmax = 31.72 nmol/μg/min. We also discovered that ebselen, an organoselenium drug, was a selective inhibitor of CpGPI by high-throughput screening of 1200 known drugs. Ebselen acted on CpGPI as an allosteric noncompetitive inhibitor (IC50 = 8.33 μM; Ki = 36.33 μM, while complete inhibition of CpGPI activity was not achieved. Ebselen could also inhibit the growth of C. parvum in vitro (EC50 = 165 μM at concentrations nontoxic to host cells, albeit with a relatively small in vitro safety window of 4.2 (cytotoxicity TC50 on HCT-8 cells = 700 μM. Additionally, ebselen might also target other enzymes in the parasite, leading to the parasite growth reduction. Therefore, although ebselen is useful in studying the inhibition of CpGPI enzyme activity, further proof is needed to chemically and/or genetically validate CpGPI as a drug target. Keywords: Apicomplexan, Cryptosporidium parvum, Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (GPI, Ebselen

  1. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  2. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangloff, A.

    1978-01-01

    It is first indicated how to evaluate the mining resources as a function of the cost of production and the degree of certainty in the knowledge of the deposit. A table is given of the world resources (at the beginning 1977) and resources and reserves are compared. There is a concordance between requirements and possible production until 1990. The case of France is examined: known reserves, present and future prospection, present production (In 1978 2200 T of U metal will be produced from 3 French processing plants), production coming from Cogema. A total production of 2000 T in 1980 and 10.000 in 1985 is expected [fr

  3. A method for the production of D-tagatose using a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain secreting β-D-galactosidase from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus and a recombinant L-arabinose isomerase from Arthrobacter sp. 22c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanarska, Marta; Kur, Józef

    2012-08-23

    D-Tagatose is a natural monosaccharide which can be used as a low-calorie sugar substitute in food, beverages and pharmaceutical products. It is also currently being tested as an anti-diabetic and obesity control drug. D-Tagatose is a rare sugar, but it can be manufactured by the chemical or enzymatic isomerization of D-galactose obtained by a β-D-galactosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of milk sugar lactose and the separation of D-glucose and D-galactose. L-Arabinose isomerases catalyze in vitro the conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose and are the most promising enzymes for the large-scale production of D-tagatose. In this study, the araA gene from psychrotolerant Antarctic bacterium Arthrobacter sp. 22c was isolated, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The active form of recombinant Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase consists of six subunits with a combined molecular weight of approximately 335 kDa. The maximum activity of this enzyme towards D-galactose was determined as occurring at 52°C; however, it exhibited over 60% of maximum activity at 30°C. The recombinant Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase was optimally active at a broad pH range of 5 to 9. This enzyme is not dependent on divalent metal ions, since it was only marginally activated by Mg2+, Mn2+ or Ca2+ and slightly inhibited by Co2+ or Ni2+. The bioconversion yield of D-galactose to D-tagatose by the purified L-arabinose isomerase reached 30% after 36 h at 50°C. In this study, a recombinant Pichia pastoris yeast strain secreting β-D-galactosidase Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus was also constructed. During cultivation of this strain in a whey permeate, lactose was hydrolyzed and D-glucose was metabolized, whereas D-galactose was accumulated in the medium. Moreover, cultivation of the P. pastoris strain secreting β-D-galactosidase in a whey permeate supplemented with Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase resulted in a 90% yield of lactose hydrolysis, the complete utilization

  4. A method for the production of D-tagatose using a recombinant Pichia pastoris strain secreting β-D-galactosidase from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus and a recombinant L-arabinose isomerase from Arthrobacter sp. 22c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanarska Marta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background D-Tagatose is a natural monosaccharide which can be used as a low-calorie sugar substitute in food, beverages and pharmaceutical products. It is also currently being tested as an anti-diabetic and obesity control drug. D-Tagatose is a rare sugar, but it can be manufactured by the chemical or enzymatic isomerization of D-galactose obtained by a β-D-galactosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis of milk sugar lactose and the separation of D-glucose and D-galactose. L-Arabinose isomerases catalyze in vitro the conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose and are the most promising enzymes for the large-scale production of D-tagatose. Results In this study, the araA gene from psychrotolerant Antarctic bacterium Arthrobacter sp. 22c was isolated, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The active form of recombinant Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase consists of six subunits with a combined molecular weight of approximately 335 kDa. The maximum activity of this enzyme towards D-galactose was determined as occurring at 52°C; however, it exhibited over 60% of maximum activity at 30°C. The recombinant Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase was optimally active at a broad pH range of 5 to 9. This enzyme is not dependent on divalent metal ions, since it was only marginally activated by Mg2+, Mn2+ or Ca2+ and slightly inhibited by Co2+ or Ni2+. The bioconversion yield of D-galactose to D-tagatose by the purified L-arabinose isomerase reached 30% after 36 h at 50°C. In this study, a recombinant Pichia pastoris yeast strain secreting β-D-galactosidase Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus was also constructed. During cultivation of this strain in a whey permeate, lactose was hydrolyzed and D-glucose was metabolized, whereas D-galactose was accumulated in the medium. Moreover, cultivation of the P. pastoris strain secreting β-D-galactosidase in a whey permeate supplemented with Arthrobacter sp. 22c L-arabinose isomerase resulted in a 90% yield

  5. Seaweed resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukhe, G.V.; Dhargalkar, V.K.; Untawale, A.G.

    The chapter summarizes our present knowledge of the seaweed resources of the Indian Ocean region with regard to the phytogeographical distribution, composition, biomass, utilization, cultivation, conservation and management. The voluminous data...

  6. Arthritis - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - arthritis ... The following organizations provide more information on arthritis : American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons -- orthoinfo.aaos.org/menus/arthritis.cfm Arthritis Foundation -- www.arthritis.org Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www. ...

  7. Mineral resources

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A.B.

    (placers), biogenous (ooze, limestone) or chemogenous (phosphorites and polymetallic nodules) type. In recent years, hydrothermal deposits, cobalt crust and methane gas hydrates are considered as frontier resources. Their distribution depends upon proximity...

  8. Depression - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - depression ... Depression is a medical condition. If you think you may be depressed, see a health care provider. ... following organizations are good sources of information on depression : American Psychological Association -- www.apa.org/topics/depression/ ...

  9. Hemophilia - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - hemophilia ... The following organizations provide further information on hemophilia : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/hemophilia/index.html National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute -- www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ ...

  10. Diabetes - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - diabetes ... The following sites provide further information on diabetes: American Diabetes Association -- www.diabetes.org Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International -- www.jdrf.org National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion -- ...

  11. Forest Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Forest biomass is an abundant biomass feedstock that complements the conventional forest use of wood for paper and wood materials. It may be utilized for bioenergy production, such as heat and electricity, as well as for biofuels and a variety of bioproducts, such as industrial chemicals, textiles, and other renewable materials. The resources within the 2016 Billion-Ton Report include primary forest resources, which are taken directly from timberland-only forests, removed from the land, and taken to the roadside.

  12. Participation of Low Molecular Weight Electron Carriers in Oxidative Protein Folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Mandl

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative protein folding is mediated by a proteinaceous electron relay system, in which the concerted action of protein disulfide isomerase and Ero1 delivers the electrons from thiol groups to the final acceptor. Oxygen appears to be the final oxidant in aerobic living organisms, although the existence of alternative electron acceptors, e.g. fumarate or nitrate, cannot be excluded. Whilst the protein components of the system are well-known, less attention has been turned to the role of low molecular weight electron carriers in the process. The function of ascorbate, tocopherol and vitamin K has been raised recently. In vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that these redox-active compounds can contribute to the functioning of oxidative folding. This review focuses on the participation of small molecular weight redox compounds in oxidative protein folding.

  13. Teaching Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physics?" Poster Pamphlets/Books/SPIN-UP Resources Making and Sustaining Changes in Undergraduate AAPT.org - American Association of Physics Teachers Skip to content Skip to navigation Skip to local navigation AAPT - American Association of Physics Teachers Go Sign In / Online Services Join

  14. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    constitute endorsement of the product and is given only for information. ..... point where they could significantly impact an organization's financial viability. This alternative ... putting in place internal systems and processes that enable the resource .... control over the incorporation of non-profit organizations. ..... Accounting.

  15. Resource Mobilization

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Annex 1: The Scoping Study on Donor Funding for. Development Research in ... publication of the Resource Mobilization: A Practical Guide for Research .... applied the concept or technique, which validates the practical application of ... some other staff member would write up a grant application addressed to one, two, or a ...

  16. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 is highly expressed in Her2-positive breast cancer and regulates erbB2 protein stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Kun

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Overexpression of HER-2/Neu occurs in about 25–30% of breast cancer patients and is indicative of poor prognosis. While Her2/Neu overexpression is primarily a result of erbB2 amplification, it has recently been recognized that erbB2 levels are also regulated on the protein level. However, factors that regulate Her2/Neu protein stability are less well understood. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 catalyzes the isomerization of specific pSer/Thr-Pro motifs that have been phosphorylated in response to mitogenic signaling. We have previously reported that Pin1-catalyzed post-phosphorylational modification of signal transduction modulates the oncogenic pathways downstream from c-neu. The goal of this study was to examine the expression of prolyl isomerase Pin1 in human Her2+ breast cancer, and to study if Pin1 affects the expression of Her2/Neu itself. Methods Immunohistochemistry for Her2 and Pin1 were performed on two hundred twenty-three human breast cancers, with 59% of the specimen from primary cancers and 41% from metastatic sites. Pin1 inhibition was achieved using siRNA in Her2+ breast cancer cell lines, and its effects were studied using cell viability assays, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. Results Sixty-four samples (28.7% stained positive for Her2 (IHC 3+, and 54% (122/223 of all breast cancers stained positive for Pin1. Of the Her2-positive cancers 40 (62.5% were also Pin1-positive, based on strong nuclear or nuclear and cytoplasmic staining. Inhibition of Pin1 via RNAi resulted in significant suppression of Her2-positive tumor cell growth in BT474, SKBR3 and AU565 cells. Pin1 inhibition greatly increased the sensitivity of Her2-positive breast cancer cells to the mTOR inhibitor Rapamycin, while it did not increase their sensitivity to Trastuzumab, suggesting that Pin1 might act on Her2 signaling. We found that Pin1 interacted with the protein complex that contains ubiquitinated erbB2 and that Pin1 inhibition accelerated erbB2

  17. Chemical dependence - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use - resources, Drug abuse - resources; Resources - chemical dependence ... are a good resource for information on drug dependence: National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence -- ncadd. ...

  18. Algae Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    Algae are highly efficient at producing biomass, and they can be found all over the planet. Many use sunlight and nutrients to create biomass, which contain key components—including lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates— that can be converted and upgraded to a variety of biofuels and products. A functional algal biofuels production system requires resources such as suitable land and climate, sustainable management of water resources, a supplemental carbon dioxide (CO2) supply, and other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus). Algae can be an attractive feedstock for many locations in the United States because their diversity allows for highpotential biomass yields in a variety of climates and environments. Depending on the strain, algae can grow by using fresh, saline, or brackish water from surface water sources, groundwater, or seawater. Additionally, they can grow in water from second-use sources such as treated industrial wastewater; municipal, agricultural, or aquaculture wastewater; or produced water generated from oil and gas drilling operations.

  19. Uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This is a press release issued by the OECD on 9th March 1976. It is stated that the steep increases in demand for uranium foreseen in and beyond the 1980's, with doubling times of the order of six to seven years, will inevitably create formidable problems for the industry. Further substantial efforts will be needed in prospecting for new uranium reserves. Information is given in tabular or graphical form on the following: reasonably assured resources, country by country; uranium production capacities, country by country; world nuclear power growth; world annual uranium requirements; world annual separative requirements; world annual light water reactor fuel reprocessing requirements; distribution of reactor types (LWR, SGHWR, AGR, HWR, HJR, GG, FBR); and world fuel cycle capital requirements. The information is based on the latest report on Uranium Resources Production and Demand, jointly issued by the OECD's Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency. (U.K.)

  20. Water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on water resources describes how climate change will affect the supply of water in Canada. Water is one of Canada's greatest resources, which contributes about $7.5 to 23 billion per year to the Canadian economy. The decisions taken to adapt to climate change within the water resources sector will have profound implications in many other areas such as agriculture, human health, transportation and industry. The water related problems include water quality issues that relate to water shortages from droughts, or excesses from floods. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change forecasts an increase in global average surface air temperatures of 1.4 to 5.8 degrees C by 2100. Such a change would impact the hydrological cycle, affecting runoff, evaporation patterns, and the amount of water stored in glaciers, lakes, wetlands and groundwater. The uncertainty as to the magnitude of these changes is due to the difficulty that climate models have in projecting future changes in regional precipitation patterns and extreme events. This chapter presents potential impacts of climate change on water resources in the Yukon, British Columbia, the Prairies, the Great Lakes basin, the Atlantic provinces, and the Arctic and Subarctic. The associated concerns for each region were highlighted. Adaptation research has focused on the impacts of supply and demand, and on options to adapt to these impacts. 60 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Resource Abundance and Resource Dependence in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, K.; Magnus, J.R.; Wang, W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reconsiders the ‘curse of resources’ hypothesis for the case of China, and distinguishes between resource abundance, resource rents, and resource dependence. Resource abundance and resource rents are shown to be approximately equivalent, and their association with resource dependence

  2. Internet and Electronic Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    centers to form consortia and share electronic information sources. Although traditional resource sharing arrangements encouraged competition rather...outside world, through public relations and through marketing information products or services, to its own competitive advantage (Davenport 1997: 193-217... electronic information sources are a challenge for electronic information managers. Libraries and information centers are no longer “the only game in town

  3. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  4. Autoimmune gastro-pancreatitis with anti-protein disulfide isomerase-associated 2 autoantibody in Aire-deficient BALB/cAnN mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Kurisaki

    Full Text Available Although the autoimmune regulator (Aire knockout (KO mouse model has been reported to present various organ-specific autoimmune diseases depending on genetic background, autoimmune pancreatitis in mice of BALB/c background has not yet been reported. Here, we report that Aire KO mice with BALB/cAnN background showed significant lymphoid cell infiltration in the pancreas and stomach. To examine whether the phenotype in the pancreas and stomach is due to autoimmune reaction associated with autoantibody production, indirect immunofluorescence staining followed by Western blot analysis was performed. Consequently, the autoantibody against pancreas and stomach was detected in the sera of Aire KO mice, and the target antigen of the autoantibody was identified as protein disulfide isomerase-associated 2 (Pdia2, which was reported to be expressed preferentially in the pancreas and stomach. Thus, Aire KO mice of BALB/cAnN background can serve as a useful animal model for autoimmune gastro-pancreatitis with anti-Pdia2 autoantibody production.

  5. Autoimmune gastro-pancreatitis with anti-protein disulfide isomerase-associated 2 autoantibody in Aire-deficient BALB/cAnN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurisaki, Hironori; Nagao, Yukihiro; Nagafuchi, Seiho; Mitsuyama, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Although the autoimmune regulator (Aire) knockout (KO) mouse model has been reported to present various organ-specific autoimmune diseases depending on genetic background, autoimmune pancreatitis in mice of BALB/c background has not yet been reported. Here, we report that Aire KO mice with BALB/cAnN background showed significant lymphoid cell infiltration in the pancreas and stomach. To examine whether the phenotype in the pancreas and stomach is due to autoimmune reaction associated with autoantibody production, indirect immunofluorescence staining followed by Western blot analysis was performed. Consequently, the autoantibody against pancreas and stomach was detected in the sera of Aire KO mice, and the target antigen of the autoantibody was identified as protein disulfide isomerase-associated 2 (Pdia2), which was reported to be expressed preferentially in the pancreas and stomach. Thus, Aire KO mice of BALB/cAnN background can serve as a useful animal model for autoimmune gastro-pancreatitis with anti-Pdia2 autoantibody production.

  6. Production of L-allose and D-talose from L-psicose and D-tagatose by L-ribose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terami, Yuji; Uechi, Keiko; Nomura, Saki; Okamoto, Naoki; Morimoto, Kenji; Takata, Goro

    2015-01-01

    L-ribose isomerase (L-RI) from Cellulomonas parahominis MB426 can convert L-psicose and D-tagatose to L-allose and D-talose, respectively. Partially purified recombinant L-RI from Escherichia coli JM109 was immobilized on DIAION HPA25L resin and then utilized to produce L-allose and D-talose. Conversion reaction was performed with the reaction mixture containing 10% L-psicose or D-tagatose and immobilized L-RI at 40 °C. At equilibrium state, the yield of L-allose and D-talose was 35.0% and 13.0%, respectively. Immobilized enzyme could convert L-psicose to L-allose without remarkable decrease in the enzyme activity over 7 times use and D-tagatose to D-talose over 37 times use. After separation and concentration, the mixture solution of L-allose and D-talose was concentrated up to 70% and crystallized by keeping at 4 °C. L-Allose and d-talose crystals were collected from the syrup by filtration. The final yield was 23.0% L-allose and 7.30% D-talose that were obtained from L-psicose and D-tagatose, respectively.

  7. A feasible enzymatic process for D-tagatose production by an immobilized thermostable L-arabinose isomerase in a packed-bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jung; Ryu, Se-Ah; Kim, Pil; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2003-01-01

    To develop a feasible enzymatic process for d-tagatose production, a thermostable l-arabinose isomerase, Gali152, was immobilized in alginate, and the galactose isomerization reaction conditions were optimized. The pH and temperature for the maximal galactose isomerization reaction were pH 8.0 and 65 degrees C in the immobilized enzyme system and pH 7.5 and 60 degrees C in the free enzyme system. The presence of manganese ion enhanced galactose isomerization to tagatose in both the free and immobilized enzyme systems. The immobilized enzyme was more stable than the free enzyme at the same pH and temperature. Under stable conditions of pH 8.0 and 60 degrees C, the immobilized enzyme produced 58 g/L of tagatose from 100 g/L galactose in 90 h by batch reaction, whereas the free enzyme produced 37 g/L tagatose due to its lower stability. A packed-bed bioreactor with immobilized Gali152 in alginate beads produced 50 g/L tagatose from 100 g/L galactose in 168 h, with a productivity of 13.3 (g of tagatose)/(L-reactor.h) in continuous mode. The bioreactor produced 230 g/L tagatose from 500 g/L galactose in continuous recycling mode, with a productivity of 9.6 g/(L.h) and a conversion yield of 46%.

  8. [Screening of food-grade microorganisms for biotransformation of D-tagatose and cloning and expression of L-arabinose isomerase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Yan; Zhu, Yueming; Guan, Yuping; Zhang, Tongcun; Izumori, Ken; Sun, Yuanxia

    2012-05-01

    L-Arabinose isomerase (L-AI) is an intracellular enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-galactose and D-tagatose. Given the widespread use of D-tagatose in the food industry, food-grade microorganisms and the derivation of L-AI for the production of D-tagatose is gaining increased attention. In the current study, food-grade strains from different foods that can convert D-galactose to D-tagatose were screened. According to physiological, biochemical, and 16S rDNA gene analyses, the selected strain was found to share 99% identity with Pediococcus pentosaceus, and was named as Pediococcus pentosaceus PC-5. The araA gene encoding L-AI from Pediococcus pentosaceus PC-5 was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli BL21. The yield of D-tagatose using D-galactose as the substrate catalyzed by the crude enzyme in the presence of Mn2+ was found to be 33% at 40 degrees C.

  9. Enzymatic conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose: cloning, overexpression and characterization of L-arabinose isomerase from Pediococcus pentosaceus PC-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Yan; Zhu, Yueming; Zhang, Lili; Kang, Zhenkui; Izumori, Ken; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-01-01

    The gene encoding L-arabinose isomerase from food-grade strain Pediococcus pentosaceus PC-5 was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and characterized. It was optimally active at 50 °C and pH 6.0. Furthermore, this enzyme exhibited a weak requirement for metallic ions for its maximal activity evaluated at 0.6 mM Mn(2+) or 0.8 mM Co(2+). Interestingly, this enzyme was distinguished from other L-AIs, it could not use L-arabinose as its substrate. In addition, a three-dimensional structure of L-AI was built by homology modeling and L-arabinose and D-galactose were docked into the active site pocket of PPAI model to explain the interaction between L-AI and its substrate. The purified P. pentosaceus PC-5 L-AI converted D-galactose into D-tagatose with a high conversion rate of 52% after 24 h at 50 °C, suggesting its excellent potential in D-tagatose production. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. D-Tagatose production in the presence of borate by resting Lactococcus lactis cells harboring Bifidobacterium longum L-arabinose isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Noora; Salonen, Kalle; Leisola, Matti; Nyyssölä, Antti

    2013-04-01

    Bifidobacterium longum NRRL B-41409 L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI) was overexpressed in Lactococcus lactis using a phosphate depletion inducible expression system. The resting L. lactis cells harboring the B. longum L-AI were used for production of D-tagatose from D-galactose in the presence of borate buffer. Multivariable analysis suggested that high pH, temperature and borate concentration favoured the conversion of D-galactose to D-tagatose. Almost quantitative conversion (92 %) was achieved at 20 g L⁻¹ substrate and at 37.5 °C after 5 days. The D-tagatose production rate of 185 g L⁻¹ day ⁻¹ was obtained at 300 g L⁻¹ galactose, at 1.15 M borate, and at 41 °C during 10 days when the production medium was changed every 24 h. There was no significant loss in productivity during ten sequential 24 h batches. The initial D-tagatose production rate was 290 g L⁻¹ day⁻¹ under these conditions.

  11. The acid tolerant L-arabinose isomerase from the food grade Lactobacillus sakei 23K is an attractive D-tagatose producer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhimi, Moez; Ilhammami, Rimeh; Bajic, Goran; Boudebbouze, Samira; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Haser, Richard; Aghajari, Nushin

    2010-12-01

    The araA gene encoding an L-arabinose isomerase (L-AI) from the psychrotrophic and food grade Lactobacillus sakei 23K was cloned, sequenced and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme has an apparent molecular weight of nearly 220 kDa, suggesting it is a tetramer of four 54 kDa monomers. The enzyme is distinguishable from previously reported L-AIs by its high activity and stability at temperatures from 4 to 40 degrees C, and pH from 3 to 8, and by its low metal requirement of only 0.8 mM Mn(2+) and 0.8 mM Mg(2+) for its maximal activity and thermostability. Enzyme kinetic studies showed that this enzyme displays a high catalytic efficiency allowing D-galactose bioconversion rates of 20% and 36% at 10 and 45 degrees C, respectively, which are useful for commercial production of D-tagatose. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Crystal Structure of Mn2+-bound Escherichia coli L-arabinose Isomerase (ECAI) and Implications in Protein Catalytic Mechanism and Thermo-Stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W.; Manjasetty, B.; Chance, M.

    2007-01-01

    The functional properties of proteins depend on their three-dimensional shapes. Protein structures can be determined by X-ray crystallography as a tool. The three-dimensional structure of the apo form of the Escherichia coli L-arabinose isomerase (ECAI) has recently been determined. ECAI is responsible for the initial stage of L-arabinose catabolism, converting arabinose into ribulose in vivo. This enzyme also plays a crucial role in catalyzing the conversion of galactose into tagatose (low calorie natural sugar) in vitro. ECAI utilizes Mn 2+ for its catalytic activity. Crystals of the ECAI + Mn 2+ complex helps to investigate the catalytic properties of the enzyme. Therefore, crystals of ECAI + Mn 2+ complex were grown using hanging drop vapor diffusion method at room temperature. Diffraction data were collected at X4C beamline, National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory. The structure was solved by the molecular replacement technique and has been refined to Rwork of 0.23 at 2.8 (angstrom) resolution using X3A beamline computational facility. The structure was deposited to Protein Data Bank (PDB ID 2HXG). Mn 2+ ion was localized to the previously identified putative active site with octahedral coordination. Comparison of apo and holo form of ECAI structures permits the identification of structural features that are of importance to the intrinsic activity and heat stability of AI

  13. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 acts synergistically with CDK2 to regulate the basal activity of estrogen receptor α in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Lucchetti

    Full Text Available In hormone receptor-positive breast cancers, most tumors in the early stages of development depend on the activity of the estrogen receptor and its ligand, estradiol. Anti-estrogens, such as tamoxifen, have been used as the first line of therapy for over three decades due to the fact that they elicit cell cycle arrest. Unfortunately, after an initial period, most cells become resistant to hormonal therapy. Peptidylprolyl isomerase 1 (Pin1, a protein overexpressed in many tumor types including breast, has been demonstrated to modulate ERalpha activity and is involved in resistance to hormonal therapy. Here we show a new mechanism through which CDK2 drives an ERalpha-Pin1 interaction under hormone- and growth factor-free conditions. The PI3K/AKT pathway is necessary to activate CDK2, which phosphorylates ERalphaSer294, and mediates the binding between Pin1 and ERalpha. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that ERalphaSer294 is essential for Pin1-ERalpha interaction and modulates ERalpha phosphorylation on Ser118 and Ser167, dimerization and activity. These results open up new drug treatment opportunities for breast cancer patients who are resistant to anti-estrogen therapy.

  14. Ethylene Responses in Rice Roots and Coleoptiles Are Differentially Regulated by a Carotenoid Isomerase-Mediated Abscisic Acid Pathway[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Cui-Cui; Ma, Biao; Collinge, Derek Phillip; Pogson, Barry James; He, Si-Jie; Xiong, Qing; Duan, Kai-Xuan; Chen, Hui; Yang, Chao; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Yi-Qin; Zhang, Wan-Ke; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Sun, Xiao-Hong; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jin-Fang; Lu, Tie-Gang; Chen, Shou-Yi; Zhang, Jin-Song

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) act synergistically or antagonistically to regulate plant growth and development. ABA is derived from the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway. Here, we analyzed the interplay among ethylene, carotenoid biogenesis, and ABA in rice (Oryza sativa) using the rice ethylene response mutant mhz5, which displays a reduced ethylene response in roots but an enhanced ethylene response in coleoptiles. We found that MHZ5 encodes a carotenoid isomerase and that the mutation in mhz5 blocks carotenoid biosynthesis, reduces ABA accumulation, and promotes ethylene production in etiolated seedlings. ABA can largely rescue the ethylene response of the mhz5 mutant. Ethylene induces MHZ5 expression, the production of neoxanthin, an ABA biosynthesis precursor, and ABA accumulation in roots. MHZ5 overexpression results in enhanced ethylene sensitivity in roots and reduced ethylene sensitivity in coleoptiles. Mutation or overexpression of MHZ5 also alters the expression of ethylene-responsive genes. Genetic studies revealed that the MHZ5-mediated ABA pathway acts downstream of ethylene signaling to inhibit root growth. The MHZ5-mediated ABA pathway likely acts upstream but negatively regulates ethylene signaling to control coleoptile growth. Our study reveals novel interactions among ethylene, carotenogenesis, and ABA and provides insight into improvements in agronomic traits and adaptive growth through the manipulation of these pathways in rice. PMID:25841037

  15. Protein disulfide isomerase-like protein 1-1 controls endosperm development through regulation of the amount and composition of seed proteins in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon Jeong Kim

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI is a chaperone protein involved in oxidative protein folding by acting as a catalyst and assisting folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. A genome database search showed that rice contains 19 PDI-like genes. However, their functions are not clearly identified. This paper shows possible functions of rice PDI-like protein 1-1 (PDIL1-1 during seed development. Seeds of the T-DNA insertion PDIL1-1 mutant, PDIL1-1Δ, identified by genomic DNA PCR and western blot analysis, display a chalky phenotype and a thick aleurone layer. Protein content per seed was significantly lower and free sugar content higher in PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds than in the wild type. Proteomic analysis of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds showed that PDIL1-1 is post-translationally regulated, and its loss causes accumulation of many types of seed proteins including glucose/starch metabolism- and ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging-related proteins. In addition, PDIL1-1 strongly interacts with the cysteine protease OsCP1. Our data indicate that the opaque phenotype of PDIL1-1Δ mutant seeds results from production of irregular starch granules and protein body through loss of regulatory activity for various proteins involved in the synthesis of seed components.

  16. Novel Roles of the Non-catalytic Elements of Yeast Protein-disulfide Isomerase in Its Interplay with Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yingbo; Zhang, Lihui; Yu, Jiaojiao; Wang, Chih-chen; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The formation of disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells is catalyzed by the sulfhydryl oxidase, ER oxidoreductin 1 (Ero1), and protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI). PDI is oxidized by Ero1 to continuously introduce disulfides into substrates, and feedback regulates Ero1 activity by manipulating the regulatory disulfides of Ero1. In this study we find that yeast Ero1p is enzymatically active even with its regulatory disulfides intact, and further activation of Ero1p by reduction of the regulatory disulfides requires the reduction of non-catalytic Cys90-Cys97 disulfide in Pdi1p. The principal client-binding site in the Pdi1p b′ domain is necessary not only for the functional Ero1p-Pdi1p disulfide relay but also for the activation of Ero1p. We also demonstrate by complementary activation assays that the regulatory disulfides in Ero1p are much more stable than those in human Ero1α. These new findings on yeast Ero1p-Pdi1p interplay reveal significant differences from our previously identified mode of human Ero1α-PDI interplay and provide insights into the evolution of the eukaryotic oxidative protein folding pathway. PMID:26846856

  17. Rational Design of Bacillus coagulans NL01 l-Arabinose Isomerase and Use of Its F279I Variant in d-Tagatose Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaojuan; Mei, Wending; Xia, Meijuan; He, Qin; Ouyang, Jia

    2017-06-14

    d-Tagatose is a prospective functional sweetener that can be produced by l-arabinose isomerase (AI) from d-galactose. To improve the activity of AI toward d-galactose, the AI of Bacillus coagulans was rationally designed on the basis of molecular modeling and docking. After alanine scanning and site-saturation mutagenesis, variant F279I that exhibited improved activity toward d-galactose was obtained. The optimal temperature and pH of F279I were determined to be 50 °C and 8.0, respectively. This variant possessed 1.4-fold catalytic efficiency compared with the wild-type (WT) enzyme. The recombinant Escherichia coli overexpressing F279I also showed obvious advantages over the WT in biotransformation. Under optimal conditions, 67.5 and 88.4 g L -1 d-tagatose could be produced from 150 and 250 g L -1 d-galactose, respectively, in 15 h. The biocatalyst constructed in this study presents a promising alternative for large-scale d-tagatose production.

  18. Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein is a substrate for the peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity of cyclophilins A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoulle, Xavier; Badillo, Aurélie; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Verdegem, Dries; Landrieu, Isabelle; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Penin, François; Lippens, Guy

    2009-05-15

    We report here a biochemical and structural characterization of domain 2 of the nonstructural 5A protein (NS5A) from the JFH1 Hepatitis C virus strain and its interactions with cyclophilins A and B (CypA and CypB). Gel filtration chromatography, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and finally NMR spectroscopy all indicate the natively unfolded nature of this NS5A-D2 domain. Because mutations in this domain have been linked to cyclosporin A resistance, we used NMR spectroscopy to investigate potential interactions between NS5A-D2 and cellular CypA and CypB. We observed a direct molecular interaction between NS5A-D2 and both cyclophilins. The interaction surface on the cyclophilins corresponds to their active site, whereas on NS5A-D2, it proved to be distributed over the many proline residues of the domain. NMR heteronuclear exchange spectroscopy yielded direct evidence that many proline residues in NS5A-D2 form a valid substrate for the enzymatic peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity of CypA and CypB.

  19. Characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta5-Delta4-isomerase expressed in the adrenal gland and gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, Francine; Sanchez, Rocio; Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Labrie, Yvan; Laudet, Vincent; Simard, Jacques

    2005-11-01

    The guinea pig adrenal gland, analogous to the human, possesses the capacity to synthesize C(19) steroids. In order to further understand the control of guinea pig adrenal steroidogenesis we undertook the characterization of the guinea pig 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4)-isomerase (3beta-HSD) expressed in the adrenal gland. A cDNA clone encoding guinea pig 3beta-HSD isolated from a guinea pig adrenal library is predicted to encode a protein of 373 amino acid residues and 41,475Da. Ribonuclease protection assay suggests that this cDNA corresponds to the predominant, if not the sole, mRNA species detectable in total RNA from the guinea pig adrenal gland, ovary and testis. The guinea pig 3beta-HSD shows a similar affinity for both pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone, and in addition, a 17beta-HSD type II-like activity was also observed. A phylogenetical analysis of the 3beta-HSD gene family demonstrates that the guinea pig is in a parallel branch to the myomorpha group supporting the hypothesis that the guinea pig lineage has branched off after the divergence among primates, artiodactyls and rodents, suggesting the paraphyly of the order rodentia.

  20. Analysis of the relationship between Chalcone Isomerase gene expression level and rutin production in Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najid, Najihah Mohd; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Zainal, Zamri

    2016-11-01

    Ficus deltoidea (moraceae) is a herbal plant with medicinal values. Previous studies reported that the F. deltoidea contains a high level of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids. A cDNA encodes for chalcone isomerase was identified from F. deltoidea, designated as FdCHI, which involved in the isomerization of naringenin chalcone to naringenin. Naringenin is a key branch point for the synthesis of rutin, which is believed involved in defense mechanism in the plant. Therefore, we hypothesized that there might be a direct relationship between FdCHI expression level and rutin production in leaves of F. deltoidea var. deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia (FDA). Our result showed that expression level of FdCHI in leaves FDD was greater than FDA. Analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed that rutin was only detected in FDA leaves. Based on the results between FdCHI expression and rutin production, this study concluded that there is no relationship between FdCHI expression and rutin production in leaves of FDA and FDD.

  1. Co-expression of D-glucose isomerase and D-psicose 3-epimerase: development of an efficient one-step production of D-psicose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Yan; Zhu, Yueming; Zeng, Yan; Izumori, Ken; Sun, Yuanxia; Ma, Yanhe

    2014-10-01

    D-Psicose has been attracting attention in recent years because of its alimentary activities and is used as an ingredient in a range of foods and dietary supplements. To develop a one-step enzymatic process of D-psicose production, thermoactive D-glucose isomerase and the D-psicose 3-epimerase obtained from Bacillus sp. and Ruminococcus sp., respectively, were successfully co-expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 strain. The substrate of one-step enzymatic process was D-glucose. The co-expression system exhibited maximum activity at 65 °C and pH 7.0. Mg(2+) could enhance the output of D-psicose by 2.32 fold to 1.6 g/L from 10 g/L of D-glucose. When using high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as substrate, 135 g/L D-psicose was produced under optimum conditions. The mass ratio of D-glucose, D-fructose, and D-psicose was almost 3.0:2.7:1.0, when the reaction reached equilibrium after an 8h incubation time. This co-expression system approaching to produce D-psicose has potential application in food and beverage products, especially softdrinks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improvement and characterization of a hyperthermophilic glucose isomerase from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus and its application in production of high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Jian-Feng; Jin, Li-Qun; Jia, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Hai-Yan; Xu, Jian-Miao; Liao, Cheng-Jun; Cheng, Xin-Ping; Mao, Bao-Xing; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2015-08-01

    High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is an alternative of liquid sweetener to sucrose that is isomerized by commercial glucose isomerase (GI). One-step production of 55 % HFCS by thermostable GI has been drawn more and more attentions. In this study, a new hyperthermophilic GI from Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus CCSD1 (TEGI) was identified by genome mining, and then a 1317 bp fragment encoding the TEGI was synthesized and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). To improve the activity of TEGI, two amino acid residues, Trp139 and Val186, around the active site and substrate-binding pocket based on the structural analysis and molecular docking were selected for site-directed mutagenesis. The specific activity of mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T was 2.3-fold and the value of k cat/K m was 1.86-fold as compared to the wild type TEGI, respectively. Thermostability of mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T at 90 °C for 24 h showed 1.21-fold extension than that of wild type TEGI. During the isomerization of glucose to fructose, the yield of fructose could maintain above 55.4 % by mutant TEGI-W139F/V186T as compared to 53.8 % by wild type TEGI at 90 °C. This study paved foundation for the production of 55 % HFCS using the thermostable TEGI.

  3. Properties of a novel thermostable glucose isomerase mined from Thermus oshimai and its application to preparation of high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-04-01

    Glucose isomerase (GI) is used in vitro to convert d-glucose to d-fructose, which is capable of commercial producing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). To manufacture HFCS at elevated temperature and reduce the cost of enriching syrups, novel refractory GIs from Thermoanaerobacterium xylanolyticum (TxGI), Thermus oshimai (ToGI), Geobacillus thermocatenulatus (GtGI) and Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus (TsGI) were screened via genome mining approach. The enzymatic characteristics research showed that ToGI had higher catalytic efficiency and superior thermostability toward d-glucose among the screened GIs. Its optimum temperature reached 95°C and could retain more than 80% of initial activity in the presence of 20mM Mn 2+ at 85°C for 48h. The K m and k cat /K m values for ToGI were 81.46mM and 21.77min -1 mM -1 , respectively. Furthermore, the maximum conversion yield of 400g/L d-glucose to d-fructose at 85°C was 52.16%. Considering its excellent high thermostability and ameliorable application performance, ToGI might be promising for realization of future industrial production of HFCS at elevated temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance of Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Triose Phosphate Isomerase Genes in the Analysis of Genotypic Variability of Isolates of Giardia duodenalis from Livestocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Natália M. N.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Scalia, Luana A. M.; Kalapothakis, Evanguedes; Pena, Isabella F.; Vieira, Carlos U.; Faria, Elaine S. M.; Cunha, Maria J.; Couto, Talles R.; Cury, Márcia Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a small intestinal protozoan parasite of several terrestrial vertebrates. This work aims to assess the genotypic variability of Giardia duodenalis isolates from cattle, sheep and pigs in the Southeast of Brazil, by comparing the standard characterization between glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) primers. Fecal samples from the three groups of animals were analyzed using the zinc sulphate centrifugal flotation technique. Out of 59 positive samples, 30 were from cattle, 26 from sheep and 3 from pigs. Cyst pellets were stored and submitted to PCR and nested-PCR reactions with gdh and tpi primers. Fragment amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed in 25 (42.4%) and 36 (61.0%) samples, respectively. Regarding the sequencing, 24 sequences were obtained with gdh and 20 with tpi. For both genes, there was a prevalence of E specific species assemblage, although some isolates have been identified as A and B, by the tpi sequencing. This has also shown a larger number of heterogeneous sequences, which have been attribute to mixed infections between assemblages B and E. The largest variability of inter-assemblage associated to the frequency of heterogeneity provided by tpi sequencing reinforces the polymorphic nature of this gene and makes it an excellent target for studies on molecular epidemiology. PMID:24308010

  5. Uranium resource processing. Secondary resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Singh, H.

    2003-01-01

    This book concentrates on the processing of secondary sources for recovering uranium, a field which has gained in importance in recent years as it is environmental-friendly and economically in tune with the philosophy of sustainable development. Special mention is made of rock phosphate, copper and gold tailings, uranium scrap materials (both natural and enriched) and sea water. This volume includes related area of ore mineralogy, resource classification, processing principles involved in solubilization followed by separation and safety aspects

  6. Energy resources

    CERN Document Server

    Simon, Andrew L

    1975-01-01

    Energy Resources mainly focuses on energy, including its definition, historical perspective, sources, utilization, and conservation. This text first explains what energy is and what its uses are. This book then explains coal, oil, and natural gas, which are some of the common energy sources used by various industries. Other energy sources such as wind, solar, geothermal, water, and nuclear energy sources are also tackled. This text also looks into fusion energy and techniques of energy conversion. This book concludes by explaining the energy allocation and utilization crisis. This publ

  7. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  8. Mineral resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that to prevent the concentration of control over federal oil and gas resources in a few companies or individuals, Congress has limited the number of acres of oil and gas leases that one party may control in a single state. An exception to this limitation involves lease acreage within the boundaries of development contracts. These contracts permit oil and gas lease operators and pipeline companies to contract with enough lessees to economically justify large-scale drilling operations for the production and transportation of oil and gas, subject to approval by the Secretary of the Interior, who must find that such contracts are in the public interest. Since 1986 Interior has entered into or approved 10 contracts with 12 lease operators for exploration of largely unleased federal lands-ranging from about 180,000 to 3.5 million acres in four western states-and has designated them as developmental contracts. GAO believes that the 10 contracts do not satisfy the legal requirements for development contracts because they are for oil and gas exploration on largely unleased federal lands, rather than for developing existing leases. By designating the 10 contracts as development contracts, Interior has enabled nine of the 12 contract parties to accumulate lease acreage that vastly exceeds the statutory acreage limitation. All nine of the contract parties were major or large independent oil companies. As a result, other parties who wish to participate in developing federal oil and gas resources within the four states may be adversely affected because the parties to Interior's contracts have been able to compete for and obtain lease acreage beyond the statutory acreage limitation. Although Interior believes that the Secretary has the discretion under law to use development contracts in the current manner, in April 1989 it ceased issuing these contracts pending completion of GAO's review

  9. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  10. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Social Studies Online Resources. Media Corner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jeri, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that three types of social studies activities are found on the information highway: (1) electronic mail; (2) information; and (3) conferencing. Describes examples of each. Discusses commercial services and resource materials and provides references to online services. (CFR)

  12. Prokaryotic soluble overexpression and purification of bioactive human growth hormone by fusion to thioredoxin, maltose binding protein, and protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Tan Nguyen

    Full Text Available Human growth hormone (hGH is synthesized by somatotroph cells of the anterior pituitary gland and induces cell proliferation and growth. This protein has been approved for the treatment of various conditions, including hGH deficiency, chronic renal failure, and Turner syndrome. Efficient production of hGH in Escherichia coli (E. coli has proven difficult because the E. coli-expressed hormone tends to aggregate and form inclusion bodies, resulting in poor solubility. In this study, seven N-terminal fusion partners, hexahistidine (His6, thioredoxin (Trx, glutathione S-transferase (GST, maltose-binding protein (MBP, N-utilization substance protein A (NusA, protein disulfide bond isomerase (PDI, and the b'a' domain of PDI (PDIb'a', were tested for soluble overexpression of codon-optimized hGH in E. coli. We found that MBP and hPDI tags significantly increased the solubility of the hormone. In addition, lowering the expression temperature to 18°C also dramatically increased the solubility of all the fusion proteins. We purified hGH from MBP-, PDIb'a'-, or Trx-tagged hGH expressed at 18°C in E. coli using simple chromatographic techniques and compared the final purity, yield, and activity of hGH to assess the impact of each partner protein. Purified hGH was highly pure on silver-stained gel and contained very low levels of endotoxin. On average, ∼37 mg, ∼12 mg, and ∼7 mg of hGH were obtained from 500 mL-cell cultures of Trx-hGH, MBP-hGH, and PDIb'a'-hGH, respectively. Subsequently, hGH was analyzed using mass spectroscopy to confirm the presence of two intra-molecular disulfide bonds. The bioactivity of purified hGHs was demonstrated using Nb2-11 cell.

  13. Spectroscopic investigation of new water soluble Mn(II)(2) and Mg(II)(2) complexes for the substrate binding models of xylose/glucose isomerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Ayan; Bera, Manindranath

    2014-01-30

    In methanol, the reaction of stoichiometric amounts of Mn(OAc)(2)·4H(2)O and the ligand H(3)hpnbpda [H(3)hpnbpda=N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid] in the presence of NaOH, afforded a new water soluble dinuclear manganese(II) complex, [Mn2(hpnbpda)(μ-OAc)] (1). Similarly, the reaction of Mg(OAc)(2)·4H(2)O and the ligand H3hpnbpda in the presence of NaOH, in methanol, yielded a new water soluble dinuclear magnesium(II) complex, [Mg2(hpnbpda)(μ-OAc)(H2O)2] (2). DFT calculations have been performed for the structural optimization of complexes 1 and 2. The DFT optimized structure of complex 1 shows that two manganese(II) centers are in a distorted square pyramidal geometry, whereas the DFT optimized structure of complex 2 reveals that two magnesium(II) centers adopt a six-coordinate distorted octahedral geometry. To understand the mode of substrate binding and the mechanistic details of the active site metals in xylose/glucose isomerases (XGI), we have investigated the binding interactions of biologically important monosaccharides d-glucose and d-xylose with complexes 1 and 2, in aqueous alkaline solution by a combined approach of FTIR, UV-vis, fluorescence, and (13)C NMR spectroscopic techniques. Fluorescence spectra show the binding-induced gradual decrease in emission of complexes 1 and 2 accompanied by a significant blue shift upon increasing the concentration of sugar substrates. The binding modes of d-glucose and d-xylose with complex 2 are indicated by their characteristic coordination induced shift (CIS) values in (13)C NMR spectra for C1 and C2 carbon atoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells

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    Kathrin Mutze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The alveolar epithelium represents a major site of tissue destruction during lung injury. It consists of alveolar epithelial type I (ATI and type II (ATII cells. ATII cells are capable of self-renewal and exert progenitor function for ATI cells upon alveolar epithelial injury. Cell differentiation pathways enabling this plasticity and allowing for proper repair, however, are poorly understood. Here, we applied proteomics, expression analysis and functional studies in primary murine ATII cells to identify proteins and molecular mechanisms involved in alveolar epithelial plasticity. Mass spectrometry of cultured ATII cells revealed a reduction of carbonyl reductase 2 (CBR2 and an increase in enolase 1 (ENO1 and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3 protein expression during ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation. This was accompanied by increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as analyzed by qRT-PCR and immunoblotting. Notably, ENO1 and PDIA3, along with T1α (podoplanin; an ATI cell marker, exhibited decreased protein expression upon pharmacological and molecular Wnt/β-catenin inhibition in cultured ATII cells, whereas CBR2 levels were stabilized. Moreover, we analyzed primary ATII cells from mice with bleomycin-induced lung injury, a model exhibiting activated Wnt/β-catenin signaling in vivo. We observed reduced CBR2 significantly correlating with surfactant protein C (SFTPC, whereas ENO1 and PDIA3 along with T1α were increased in injured ATII cells. Finally, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ENO1, as well as PDIA3, in primary ATII cells led to reduced T1α expression, indicating diminished cell trans-differentiation. Our data thus identified proteins involved in ATII-to-ATI cell trans-differentiation and suggest a Wnt/β-catenin-driven functional role of ENO1 and PDIA3 in alveolar epithelial cell plasticity in lung injury and repair.

  15. TAL effectors target the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II (CTD by inhibiting the prolyl-isomerase activity of a CTD-associated cyclophilin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane Noronha Domingues

    Full Text Available Transcriptional activator-like (TAL effectors of plant pathogenic bacteria function as transcription factors in plant cells. However, how TAL effectors control transcription in the host is presently unknown. Previously, we showed that TAL effectors of the citrus canker pathogen Xanthomonas citri, named PthAs, targeted the citrus protein complex comprising the thioredoxin CsTdx, ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes CsUev/Ubc13 and cyclophilin CsCyp. Here we show that CsCyp complements the function of Cpr1 and Ess1, two yeast cyclophilins that regulate transcription by the isomerization of proline residues of the regulatory C-terminal domain (CTD of RNA polymerase II. We also demonstrate that CsCyp, CsTdx, CsUev and four PthA variants interact with the citrus CTD and that CsCyp co-immunoprecipitate with the CTD in citrus cell extracts and with PthA2 transiently expressed in sweet orange epicotyls. The interactions of CsCyp with the CTD and PthA2 were inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA, a cyclophilin inhibitor. Moreover, we present evidence that PthA2 inhibits the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase activity of CsCyp in a similar fashion as CsA, and that silencing of CsCyp, as well as treatments with CsA, enhance canker lesions in X. citri-infected leaves. Given that CsCyp appears to function as a negative regulator of cell growth and that Ess1 negatively regulates transcription elongation in yeast, we propose that PthAs activate host transcription by inhibiting the PPIase activity of CsCyp on the CTD.

  16. Structural analysis of substrate recognition by glucose isomerase in Mn2+ binding mode at M2 site in S. rubiginosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Ji-Eun; Hwang, Kwang Yeon; Nam, Ki Hyun

    2018-06-16

    Glucose isomerase (GI) catalyzes the reversible enzymatic isomerization of d-glucose and d-xylose to d-fructose and d-xylulose, respectively. This is one of the most important enzymes in the production of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and biofuel. We recently determined the crystal structure of GI from S. rubiginosus (SruGI) complexed with a xylitol inhibitor in one metal binding mode. Although we assessed inhibitor binding at the M1 site, the metal binding at the M2 site and the substrate recognition mechanism for SruGI remains the unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the two metal binding modes of SruGI and its complex with glucose. This study provides a snapshot of metal binding at the SruGI M2 site in the presence of Mn 2+ , but not in the presence of Mg 2+ . Metal binding at the M2 site elicits a configuration change at the M1 site. Glucose molecule can only bind to the M1 site in presence of Mn 2+ at the M2 site. Glucose and Mn 2+ at the M2 site were bridged by water molecules using a hydrogen bonding network. The metal binding geometry of the M2 site indicates a distorted octahedral coordination with an angle of 55-110°, whereas the M1 site has a relatively stable octahedral coordination with an angle of 85-95°. We suggest a two-step sequential process for SruGI substrate recognition, in Mn 2+ binding mode, at the M2 site. Our results provide a better understanding of the molecular role of the M2 site in GI substrate recognition. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Proline substitutions in a Mip-like peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase severely affect its structure, stability, shape and activity

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    Soumitra Polley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available FKBP22, an Escherichia coli-specific peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, shows substantial homology with the Mip-like virulence factors. Mip-like proteins are homodimeric and possess a V-shaped conformation. Their N-terminal domains form dimers, whereas their C-terminal domains bind protein/peptide substrates and distinct inhibitors such as rapamycin and FK506. Interestingly, the two domains of the Mip-like proteins are separated by a lengthy, protease-susceptible α-helix. To delineate the structural requirement of this domain-connecting region in Mip-like proteins, we have investigated a recombinant FKBP22 (rFKBP22 and its three point mutants I65P, V72P and A82P using different probes. Each mutant harbors a Pro substitution mutation at a distinct location in the hinge region. We report that the three mutants are not only different from each other but also different from rFKBP22 in structure and activity. Unlike rFKBP22, the three mutants were unfolded by a non-two state mechanism in the presence of urea. In addition, the stabilities of the mutants, particularly I65P and V72P, differed considerably from that of rFKBP22. Conversely, the rapamycin binding affinity of no mutant was different from that of rFKBP22. Of the mutants, I65P showed the highest levels of structural/functional loss and dissociated partly in solution. Our computational study indicated a severe collapse of the V-shape in I65P due to the anomalous movement of its C-terminal domains. The α-helical nature of the domain-connecting region is, therefore, critical for the Mip-like proteins.

  18. Inhibition of the functional interplay between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreduclin-1α (Ero1α) and protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) by the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Kadokura, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Shoko; Yutani, Katsuhide; Kanemura, Shingo; Hikima, Takaaki; Hidaka, Yuji; Ito, Len; Shiba, Kohei; Masui, Shoji; Imai, Daiki; Imaoka, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Inaba, Kenji

    2014-09-26

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that may have adverse effects on human health. We recently isolated protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a BPA-binding protein from rat brain homogenates and found that BPA markedly inhibited PDI activity. To elucidate mechanisms of this inhibition, detailed structural, biophysical, and functional analyses of PDI were performed in the presence of BPA. BPA binding to PDI induced significant rearrangement of the N-terminal thioredoxin domain of PDI, resulting in more compact overall structure. This conformational change led to closure of the substrate-binding pocket in b' domain, preventing PDI from binding to unfolded proteins. The b' domain also plays an essential role in the interplay between PDI and ER oxidoreduclin 1α (Ero1α), a flavoenzyme responsible for reoxidation of PDI. We show that BPA inhibited Ero1α-catalyzed PDI oxidation presumably by inhibiting the interaction between the b' domain of PDI and Ero1α; the phenol groups of BPA probably compete with a highly conserved tryptophan residue, located in the protruding β-hairpin of Ero1α, for binding to PDI. Consistently, BPA slowed down the reoxidation of PDI and caused the reduction of PDI in HeLa cells, indicating that BPA has a great impact on the redox homeostasis of PDI within cells. However, BPA had no effect on the interaction between PDI and peroxiredoxin-4 (Prx4), another PDI family oxidase, suggesting that the interaction between Prx4 and PDI is different from that of Ero1α and PDI. These results indicate that BPA, a widely distributed and potentially harmful chemical, inhibits Ero1-PDI-mediated disulfide bond formation. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Inhibition of the Functional Interplay between Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Oxidoreduclin-1α (Ero1α) and Protein-disulfide Isomerase (PDI) by the Endocrine Disruptor Bisphenol A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Kadokura, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Shoko; Yutani, Katsuhide; Kanemura, Shingo; Hikima, Takaaki; Hidaka, Yuji; Ito, Len; Shiba, Kohei; Masui, Shoji; Imai, Daiki; Imaoka, Susumu; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Inaba, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that may have adverse effects on human health. We recently isolated protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a BPA-binding protein from rat brain homogenates and found that BPA markedly inhibited PDI activity. To elucidate mechanisms of this inhibition, detailed structural, biophysical, and functional analyses of PDI were performed in the presence of BPA. BPA binding to PDI induced significant rearrangement of the N-terminal thioredoxin domain of PDI, resulting in more compact overall structure. This conformational change led to closure of the substrate-binding pocket in b′ domain, preventing PDI from binding to unfolded proteins. The b′ domain also plays an essential role in the interplay between PDI and ER oxidoreduclin 1α (Ero1α), a flavoenzyme responsible for reoxidation of PDI. We show that BPA inhibited Ero1α-catalyzed PDI oxidation presumably by inhibiting the interaction between the b′ domain of PDI and Ero1α; the phenol groups of BPA probably compete with a highly conserved tryptophan residue, located in the protruding β-hairpin of Ero1α, for binding to PDI. Consistently, BPA slowed down the reoxidation of PDI and caused the reduction of PDI in HeLa cells, indicating that BPA has a great impact on the redox homeostasis of PDI within cells. However, BPA had no effect on the interaction between PDI and peroxiredoxin-4 (Prx4), another PDI family oxidase, suggesting that the interaction between Prx4 and PDI is different from that of Ero1α and PDI. These results indicate that BPA, a widely distributed and potentially harmful chemical, inhibits Ero1-PDI-mediated disulfide bond formation. PMID:25122773

  20. Modulation of neutrophil superoxide generation by inhibitors of protein kinase C, calmodulin, diacylglycerol and myosin light chain kinases, and peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrand, H; Eriksson, T; Hallberg, A; Johansson, B; Karabelas, K; Michelsen, P; Nybom, A

    1992-12-01

    To assess the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the respiratory burst of adherent human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), reduction of ferricytochrome C by cells triggered with a phorbol ester (PMA), ionophore A23187, serum-treated zymosan (STZ) or three lipid derivatives, 3-decanoyl-sn-glycerol (G-3-OCOC9), (R,R)-1,4-diethyl-2-O-decyl-L-tartrate (Tt-2-OC10) and 3-decyloxy-5-hydroxymethylphenol (DHP) was examined in a microtiter plate procedure in the presence of inhibitors of PKC and, for comparison, inhibitors of calmodulin, diacylglycerol and myosin light chain kinases and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of fujiphilin. 1) Of the protein kinase inhibitors examined, Ro 31-7549 and staurosporine reduced responses to all stimuli except possibly STZ; in contrast, K252a and the myosin light chain kinase inhibitors ML-7 and ML-9 blocked responses to A23187 and STZ better than those triggered by PMA. H-7 reduced responses to A23187, DHP and G-3-OCOC9, and calphostin, palmitoyl carnitine, sphingosine and the multifunctional drugs TMB-8 and W-7 reduced A23187; they also, when examined, reduced decane derivative-induced O2- production more effectively than PMA- and STZ-triggered responses. Polymyxin B, 4 alpha-PMA and retinal displayed no inhibitory capacity. 2) Of the selective calmodulin antagonists, CGS 9343B, Ro 22-4839 and calmidazolium did not inhibit the oxidative response irrespective of the stimulus used, whereas metofenazate reduced those evoked by A23187, DHP, G-3-OCOC9 and STZ.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The Glycolytic Enzyme Triosephosphate Isomerase of Trichomonas vaginalis Is a Surface-Associated Protein Induced by Glucose That Functions as a Laminin- and Fibronectin-Binding Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Ozuna, Jesús F T; Hernández-García, Mar S; Brieba, Luis G; Benítez-Cardoza, Claudia G; Ortega-López, Jaime; González-Robles, Arturo; Arroyo, Rossana

    2016-10-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase of Trichomonas vaginalis (TvTIM) is a 27-kDa cytoplasmic protein encoded by two genes, tvtim1 and tvtim2, that participates in glucose metabolism. TvTIM is also localized to the parasite surface. Thus, the goal of this study was to identify the novel functions of the surface-associated TvTIM in T. vaginalis and to assess the effect of glucose as an environmental factor that regulates its expression and localization. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that the tvtim genes were differentially expressed in response to glucose concentration. tvtim1 was overexpressed under glucose-restricted (GR) conditions, whereas tvtim2 was overexpressed under glucose-rich, or high-glucose (HG), conditions. Western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays also showed that glucose positively affected the amount and surface localization of TvTIM in T. vaginalis Affinity ligand assays demonstrated that the recombinant TvTIM1 and TvTIM2 proteins bound to laminin (Lm) and fibronectin (Fn) but not to plasminogen. Moreover, higher levels of adherence to Lm and Fn were detected in parasites grown under HG conditions than in those grown under GR conditions. Furthermore, pretreatment of trichomonads with an anti-TvTIMr polyclonal antibody or pretreatment of Lm- or Fn-coated wells with both recombinant proteins (TvTIM1r and TvTIM2r) specifically reduced the binding of live parasites to Lm and Fn in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, T. vaginalis was exposed to different glucose concentrations during vaginal infection of women with trichomoniasis. Our data indicate that TvTIM is a surface-associated protein under HG conditions that mediates specific binding to Lm and Fn as a novel virulence factor of T. vaginalis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Structure, expression profile and phylogenetic inference of chalcone isomerase-like genes from the narrow-leafed lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L. genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucja ePrzysiecka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lupins, like other legumes, have a unique biosynthesis scheme of 5-deoxy-type flavonoids and isoflavonoids. A key enzyme in this pathway is chalcone isomerase (CHI, a member of CHI-fold protein family, encompassing subfamilies of CHI1, CHI2, CHI-like (CHIL, and fatty acid-binding (FAP proteins. Here, two Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin CHILs, LangCHIL1 and LangCHIL2, were identified and characterized using DNA fingerprinting, cytogenetic and linkage mapping, sequencing and expression profiling. Clones carrying CHIL sequences were assembled into two contigs. Full gene sequences were obtained from these contigs, and mapped in two L. angustifolius linkage groups by gene-specific markers. Bacterial artificial chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization approach confirmed the localization of two LangCHIL genes in distinct chromosomes. The expression profiles of both LangCHIL isoforms were very similar. The highest level of transcription was in the roots of the third week of plant growth; thereafter, expression declined. The expression of both LangCHIL genes in leaves and stems was similar and low. Comparative mapping to reference legume genome sequences revealed strong syntenic links; however, LangCHIL2 contig had a much more conserved structure than LangCHIL1. LangCHIL2 is assumed to be an ancestor gene, whereas LangCHIL1 probably appeared as a result of duplication. As both copies are transcriptionally active, questions arise concerning their hypothetical functional divergence. Screening of the narrow-leafed lupin genome and transcriptome with CHI-fold protein sequences, followed by Bayesian inference of phylogeny and cross-genera synteny survey, identified representatives of all but one (CHI1 main subfamilies. They are as follows: two copies of CHI2, FAPa2 and CHIL, and single copies of FAPb and FAPa1. Duplicated genes are remnants of whole genome duplication which is assumed to have occurred after the divergence of Lupinus, Arachis

  3. Discovery of ebselen as an inhibitor of Cryptosporidium parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) by high-throughput screening of existing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltahan, Rana; Guo, Fengguang; Zhang, Haili; Xiang, Lixin; Zhu, Guan

    2018-04-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a water-borne and food-borne apicomplexan pathogen. It is one of the top four diarrheal-causing pathogens in children under the age of five in developing countries, and an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Unlike other apicomplexans, C. parvum lacks Kreb's cycle and cytochrome-based respiration, thus relying mainly on glycolysis to produce ATP. In this study, we characterized the primary biochemical features of the C. parvum glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (CpGPI) and determined its Michaelis constant towards fructose-6-phosphate (K m  = 0.309 mM, V max  = 31.72 nmol/μg/min). We also discovered that ebselen, an organoselenium drug, was a selective inhibitor of CpGPI by high-throughput screening of 1200 known drugs. Ebselen acted on CpGPI as an allosteric noncompetitive inhibitor (IC 50  = 8.33 μM; K i  = 36.33 μM), while complete inhibition of CpGPI activity was not achieved. Ebselen could also inhibit the growth of C. parvum in vitro (EC 50  = 165 μM) at concentrations nontoxic to host cells, albeit with a relatively small in vitro safety window of 4.2 (cytotoxicity TC 50 on HCT-8 cells = 700 μM). Additionally, ebselen might also target other enzymes in the parasite, leading to the parasite growth reduction. Therefore, although ebselen is useful in studying the inhibition of CpGPI enzyme activity, further proof is needed to chemically and/or genetically validate CpGPI as a drug target. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable resource discovery in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Whetzel, Patricia L; Anderson, Kent; Borromeo, Charles D; Dinov, Ivo D; Gabriel, Davera; Kirschner, Beth; Mirel, Barbara; Morris, Tim; Noy, Natasha; Nyulas, Csongor; Rubenson, David; Saxman, Paul R; Singh, Harpreet; Whelan, Nancy; Wright, Zach; Athey, Brian D; Becich, Michael J; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Musen, Mark A; Smith, Kevin A; Tarantal, Alice F; Rubin, Daniel L; Lyster, Peter

    2011-02-01

    The biomedical research community relies on a diverse set of resources, both within their own institutions and at other research centers. In addition, an increasing number of shared electronic resources have been developed. Without effective means to locate and query these resources, it is challenging, if not impossible, for investigators to be aware of the myriad resources available, or to effectively perform resource discovery when the need arises. In this paper, we describe the development and use of the Biomedical Resource Ontology (BRO) to enable semantic annotation and discovery of biomedical resources. We also describe the Resource Discovery System (RDS) which is a federated, inter-institutional pilot project that uses the BRO to facilitate resource discovery on the Internet. Through the RDS framework and its associated Biositemaps infrastructure, the BRO facilitates semantic search and discovery of biomedical resources, breaking down barriers and streamlining scientific research that will improve human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  6. Information resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Milton; Franson, J. Christian; Friend, Milton; Gibbs, Samantha E.J.; Wild, Margaret A.

    2015-10-19

    During recent decades, natural resources agency personnel and others involved with the management and stewardship of wildlife have experienced an increasing need to access information and obtain technical assistance for addressing a diverse array of wildlife disease issues. This Chapter provides a broad overview of selected sources for obtaining supplemental information and technical assistance for addressing wildlife disease issues in North America. Specifically, examples of existing major wildlife disease programs focusing on free-ranging wildlife populations are highlighted; training opportunities for enhancing within-agency wildlife disease response are identified; a selected reading list of wildlife disease references is provided; and selected Web sites providing timely information on wildlife disease are highlighted. No attempt is made to detail all the North American programs and capabilities that address disease in free-ranging wildlife populations. Instead, this Chapter is focused on enhancing awareness of the types of capabilities that exist as potential sources for assistance and collaboration between wildlife conservation agency personnel and others in addressing wildlife disease issues.

  7. GENDER ANALYSIS OF ELECTRONIC INFORMATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of internet Search engines such as google, yahoo and other free internet resources was found ... empirical studies are undertaken to examine the influence of gender ... H3: Perceived ease of use is positively related to the use of electronic.

  8. Oscillator clustering in a resource distribution chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Mosekilde, Erik

    2005-01-01

    separate the inherent dynamics of the individual oscillator from the properties of the coupling network. Illustrated by examples from microbiological population dynamics, renal physiology, and electronic oscillator theory, we show how competition for primary resources in a resource distribution chain leads...

  9. Shaping the Electronic Library--The UW-Madison Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Charles W., Ed.; Frazier, Ken; Pope, Nolan F.; Gorman, Peter C.; Dentinger, Sue; Boston, Jeanne; Phillips, Hugh; Daggett, Steven C.; Lundquist, Mitch; McClung, Mark; Riley, Curran; Allan, Craig; Waugh, David

    1998-01-01

    This special theme section describes the University of Wisconsin-Madison's experience building its Electronic Library. Highlights include integrating resources and services; the administrative framework; the public electronic library, including electronic publishing capability and access to World Wide Web-based and other electronic resources;…

  10. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  11. 研究/電子資源使用統計標準與規範之探討/陳雪華;許嘉珍;朱雅琦 | Study of the Electronic Resources Usage Statistics Standards and Guidelines/ Hsueh-Hua Chen;Chia-Chen Hsu;Ya-Chi Chu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳雪華、許嘉珍、朱雅琦

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available

    近年來,由於資訊科技的進步,圖書館中的電子資源數量快速增加,所佔預算金額比例也大幅增長。圖書館希望能夠透過評鑑電子資源的使用,以便能夠在電 子資源館藏發展等方面做出正確的決策。由於體認到電子資源使用統計之重要性,圖書館界與相關組織紛紛發展或修訂圖書館統計標準,增列電子資源使用統計的項 目以充分反映圖書館電子資源使用之狀況。本文主要採用文獻分析法以及內容分析法,收集探討並比較近軍來國內外電子資源使用統計之相關規範及標準,包含 ISO 2789、 ICOLC Guidelines、州ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrlcs、E-Measures Project、以及Project COUNTER等。

    Recently, due to the advances of information technology, electronic resources are gradually replacing print resources as the largest consumer of library acquisition budgets. Logically, libraries want to evaluate the usage of electronic resources and incorporate the results into their decision making regarding electronic resource acquisition. Over these years, there is a general awareness among libraries to develop statistics standards and guidelines for library electronic resources usage. In this paper, literature review and content analysis methods are used to compare several library statistics standards, including: ISO 2789 、ICOLC Guidelines、ANSI/NISO Z39.7、CNS13151、ARL E-Metrics、E-Measures Project、and Project COUNTER etc.

    頁次:89-102

  12. Enzymatic characterization and gene identification of aconitate isomerase, an enzyme involved in assimilation of trans-aconitic acid, from Pseudomonas sp. WU-0701.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhara, Kahori; Yonehara, Hiromi; Hattori, Takasumi; Kobayashi, Keiichi; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2015-11-01

    trans-Aconitic acid is an unsaturated organic acid that is present in some plants such as soybean and wheat; however, it remains unclear how trans-aconitic acid is degraded and/or assimilated by living cells in nature. From soil, we isolated Pseudomonas sp. WU-0701 assimilating trans-aconitic acid as a sole carbon source. In the cell-free extract of Pseudomonas sp. WU-0701, aconitate isomerase (AI; EC 5.3.3.7) activity was detected. Therefore, it seems likely that strain Pseudomonas sp. WU-0701 converts trans-aconitic acid to cis-aconitic acid with AI, and assimilates this via the tricarboxylic acid cycle. For the characterization of AI from Pseudomonas sp. WU-0701, we performed purification, determination of enzymatic properties and gene identification of AI. The molecular mass of AI purified from cell-free extract was estimated to be ~ 25 kDa by both SDS/PAGE and gel filtration analyses, indicating that AI is a monomeric enzyme. The optimal pH and temperature of purified AI for the reaction were 6.0 °C and 37 °C, respectively. The gene ais encoding AI was cloned on the basis of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the protein, and Southern blot analysis revealed that only one copy of ais is located on the bacterial genome. The gene ais contains an ORF of 786 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 262 amino acids, including the N-terminal 22 amino acids as a putative periplasm-targeting signal peptide. It is noteworthy that the amino acid sequence of AI shows 90% and 74% identity with molybdenum ABC transporter substrate-binding proteins of Pseudomonas psychrotolerans and Xanthomonas albilineans, respectively. This is the first report on purification to homogeneity, characterization and gene identification of AI. The nucleotide sequence of ais described in this article is available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank nucleotide sequence databases under the Accession No. LC010980. © 2015 FEBS.

  13. Structural modeling and docking studies of ribose 5-phosphate isomerase from Leishmania major and Homo sapiens: a comparative analysis for Leishmaniasis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriles, Priscila V S Z; Baptista, Luiz Phillippe R; Guedes, Isabella A; Guimarães, Ana Carolina R; Custódio, Fabio L; Alves-Ferreira, Marcelo; Dardenne, Laurent E

    2015-02-01

    Leishmaniases are caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and are considered the second-highest cause of death worldwide by parasitic infection. The drugs available for treatment in humans are becoming ineffective mainly due to parasite resistance; therefore, it is extremely important to develop a new chemotherapy against these parasites. A crucial aspect of drug design development is the identification and characterization of novel molecular targets. In this work, through an in silico comparative analysis between the genomes of Leishmania major and Homo sapiens, the enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (R5PI) was indicated as a promising molecular target. R5PI is an important enzyme that acts in the pentose phosphate pathway and catalyzes the interconversion of d-ribose-5-phosphate (R5P) and d-ribulose-5-phosphate (5RP). R5PI activity is found in two analogous groups of enzymes called RpiA (found in H. sapiens) and RpiB (found in L. major). Here, we present the first report of the three-dimensional (3D) structures and active sites of RpiB from L. major (LmRpiB) and RpiA from H. sapiens (HsRpiA). Three-dimensional models were constructed by applying a hybrid methodology that combines comparative and ab initio modeling techniques, and the active site was characterized based on docking studies of the substrates R5P (furanose and ring-opened forms) and 5RP. Our comparative analyses show that these proteins are structural analogs and that distinct residues participate in the interconversion of R5P and 5RP. We propose two distinct reaction mechanisms for the reversible isomerization of R5P to 5RP, which is catalyzed by LmRpiB and HsRpiA. We expect that the present results will be important in guiding future molecular modeling studies to develop new drugs that are specially designed to inhibit the parasitic form of the enzyme without significant effects on the human analog. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of disruption of phosphoglucose isomerase gene on carbon utilisation and cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei Rut-C30

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Cellulase and hemicellulase genes in the fungus Trichoderma reesei are repressed by glucose and induced by lactose. Regulation of the cellulase genes is mediated by the repressor CRE1 and the activator XYR1. T. reesei strain Rut-C30 is a hypercellulolytic mutant, obtained from the natural strain QM6a, that has a truncated version of the catabolite repressor gene, cre1. It has been previously shown that bacterial mutants lacking phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) produce more nucleotide precursors and amino acids. PGI catalyzes the second step of glycolysis, the formation of fructose-6-P from glucose-6-P. Results We deleted the gene pgi1, encoding PGI, in the T. reesei strain Rut-C30 and we introduced the cre1 gene in a Δpgi1 mutant. Both Δpgi1 and cre1+Δpgi1 mutants showed a pellet-like and growth as well as morphological alterations compared with Rut-C30. None of the mutants grew in media with fructose, galactose, xylose, glycerol or lactose but they grew in media with glucose, with fructose and glucose, with galactose and fructose or with lactose and fructose. No growth was observed in media with xylose and glucose. On glucose, Δpgi1 and cre1+Δpgi1 mutants showed higher cellulase activity than Rut-C30 and QM6a, respectively. But in media with lactose, none of the mutants improved the production of the reference strains. The increase in the activity did not correlate with the expression of mRNA of the xylanase regulator gene, xyr1. Δpgi1 mutants were also affected in the extracellular β-galactosidase activity. Levels of mRNA of the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase did not increase in Δpgi1 during growth on glucose. Conclusions The ability to grow in media with glucose as the sole carbon source indicated that Trichoderma Δpgi1 mutants were able to use the pentose phosphate pathway. But, they did not increase the expression of gpdh. Morphological characteristics were the result of the pgi1 deletion. Deletion of pgi1 in Rut-C30 increased cellulase

  15. An Intracellular Peptidyl-Prolyl cis/trans Isomerase Is Required for Folding and Activity of the Staphylococcus aureus Secreted Virulence Factor Nuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemels, Richard E; Cech, Stephanie M; Meyer, Nikki M; Burke, Caleb A; Weiss, Andy; Parks, Anastacia R; Shaw, Lindsey N; Carroll, Ronan K

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human pathogen that relies on a large repertoire of secreted and cell wall-associated proteins for pathogenesis. Consequently, the ability of the organism to cause disease is absolutely dependent on its ability to synthesize and successfully secrete these proteins. In this study, we investigate the role of peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) on the activity of the S. aureus secreted virulence factor nuclease (Nuc). We identify a staphylococcal cyclophilin-type PPIase (PpiB) that is required for optimal activity of Nuc. Disruption of ppiB results in decreased nuclease activity in culture supernatants; however, the levels of Nuc protein are not altered, suggesting that the decrease in activity results from misfolding of Nuc in the absence of PpiB. We go on to demonstrate that PpiB exhibits PPIase activity in vitro, is localized to the bacterial cytosol, and directly interacts with Nuc in vitro to accelerate the rate of Nuc refolding. Finally, we demonstrate an additional role for PpiB in S. aureus hemolysis and demonstrate that the S. aureus parvulin-type PPIase PrsA also plays a role in the activity of secreted virulence factors. The deletion of prsA leads to a decrease in secreted protease and phospholipase activity, similar to that observed in other Gram-positive pathogens. Together, these results demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, that PPIases play an important role in the secretion of virulence factors in S. aureus IMPORTANCE: Staphylococcus aureus is a highly dangerous bacterial pathogen capable of causing a variety of infections throughout the human body. The ability of S. aureus to cause disease is largely due to an extensive repertoire of secreted and cell wall-associated proteins, including adhesins, toxins, exoenzymes, and superantigens. These virulence factors, once produced, are typically transported across the cell membrane by the secretory (Sec) system in a denatured state. Consequently

  16. Insights into the evolution of enzyme substrate promiscuity after the discovery of (βα)₈ isomerase evolutionary intermediates from a diverse metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda-García, Lianet; Juárez-Vázquez, Ana L; Ávila-Arcos, María C; Verduzco-Castro, Ernesto A; Montero-Morán, Gabriela; Gaytán, Paul; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Barona-Gómez, Francisco

    2015-06-10

    Current sequence-based approaches to identify enzyme functional shifts, such as enzyme promiscuity, have proven to be highly dependent on a priori functional knowledge, hampering our ability to reconstruct evolutionary history behind these mechanisms. Hidden Markov Model (HMM) profiles, broadly used to classify enzyme families, can be useful to distinguish between closely related enzyme families with different specificities. The (βα)8-isomerase HisA/PriA enzyme family, involved in L-histidine (HisA, mono-substrate) biosynthesis in most bacteria and plants, but also in L-tryptophan (HisA/TrpF or PriA, dual-substrate) biosynthesis in most Actinobacteria, has been used as model system to explore evolutionary hypotheses and therefore has a considerable amount of evolutionary, functional and structural knowledge available. We searched for functional evolutionary intermediates between the HisA and PriA enzyme families in order to understand the functional divergence between these families. We constructed a HMM profile that correctly classifies sequences of unknown function into the HisA and PriA enzyme sub-families. Using this HMM profile, we mined a large metagenome to identify plausible evolutionary intermediate sequences between HisA and PriA. These sequences were used to perform phylogenetic reconstructions and to identify functionally conserved amino acids. Biochemical characterization of one selected enzyme (CAM1) with a mutation within the functionally essential N-terminus phosphate-binding site, namely, an alanine instead of a glycine in HisA or a serine in PriA, showed that this evolutionary intermediate has dual-substrate specificity. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis of this alanine residue, either backwards into a glycine or forward into a serine, revealed the robustness of this enzyme. None of these mutations, presumably upon functionally essential amino acids, significantly abolished its enzyme activities. A truncated version of this enzyme (CAM2

  17. Autophagy regulated by prolyl isomerase Pin1 and phospho-Ser-GSK3αβ involved in protection of oral squamous cell carcinoma against cadmium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Keum-Young [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Sang-Gun [Department of Pathology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seon-Hee, E-mail: seonh@chosun.ac.kr [Department of Premedicine, School of Medicine, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, 309 Pilmundaero, Dong-gu, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-23

    Prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays an important role in cell proliferation and is overexpressed in many human tumors. However, its role in autophagy induction remains undefined. Here we show that Pin1 regulates cell survival via autophagy in cadmium (Cd)-exposed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC exposure to Cd induced autophagy, as demonstrated by the formation of green fluorescent punctae in transfected cells expressing GFP-conjugated microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and by LC3 flux in the presence of autophagy inhibitors. Suppression of Atg5 enhanced Cd-induced apoptosis, indicating that autophagy is involved in cell protection. In dose–response experiments, cleavage of procaspase-3, PARP-1, and LC3-II was induced by Cd with an IC{sub 50} of 45 μM. Expression of Pin1 was decreased at or above the Cd IC{sub 50} value and was inversely correlated with the level of phospho(p)-Ser-GSK3αβ. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Pin1 suppressed Cd-induced autophagy, but increased p-Akt-mediated p-Ser-GSK3αβ; this was reversed by overexpression of Pin1. However, suppression of GSK3αβ inhibited Cd-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis, which could be reversed by overexpression of GSK3β. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 blocked p-Akt-mediated increases in p-Ser-GSK3αβ and autophagy and induced apoptosis. Therefore, p-Ser-GSK3αβ can directly regulate Cd-induced autophagy, although its function is suppressed by Pin1. Collectively, the present results indicate that targeting Pin1 and GSK3αβ at the same time could be an effective therapeutic tool for Cd-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Pin1 regulated autophagy to protect cells from cadmium toxicity. • Pin1 suppression inhibited cadmium-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis. • Pin1 inhibited the function of p-Ser-GSK3αβ in autophagy regulation. • p-Ser-GSK3αβ regulated autophagy independently of Pin1.

  18. Autophagy regulated by prolyl isomerase Pin1 and phospho-Ser-GSK3αβ involved in protection of oral squamous cell carcinoma against cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Keum-Young; Ahn, Sang-Gun; Oh, Seon-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays an important role in cell proliferation and is overexpressed in many human tumors. However, its role in autophagy induction remains undefined. Here we show that Pin1 regulates cell survival via autophagy in cadmium (Cd)-exposed oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). OSCC exposure to Cd induced autophagy, as demonstrated by the formation of green fluorescent punctae in transfected cells expressing GFP-conjugated microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) and by LC3 flux in the presence of autophagy inhibitors. Suppression of Atg5 enhanced Cd-induced apoptosis, indicating that autophagy is involved in cell protection. In dose–response experiments, cleavage of procaspase-3, PARP-1, and LC3-II was induced by Cd with an IC_5_0 of 45 μM. Expression of Pin1 was decreased at or above the Cd IC_5_0 value and was inversely correlated with the level of phospho(p)-Ser-GSK3αβ. Genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of Pin1 suppressed Cd-induced autophagy, but increased p-Akt-mediated p-Ser-GSK3αβ; this was reversed by overexpression of Pin1. However, suppression of GSK3αβ inhibited Cd-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis, which could be reversed by overexpression of GSK3β. The PI3K inhibitor Ly294002 blocked p-Akt-mediated increases in p-Ser-GSK3αβ and autophagy and induced apoptosis. Therefore, p-Ser-GSK3αβ can directly regulate Cd-induced autophagy, although its function is suppressed by Pin1. Collectively, the present results indicate that targeting Pin1 and GSK3αβ at the same time could be an effective therapeutic tool for Cd-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Pin1 regulated autophagy to protect cells from cadmium toxicity. • Pin1 suppression inhibited cadmium-induced autophagy and induced apoptosis. • Pin1 inhibited the function of p-Ser-GSK3αβ in autophagy regulation. • p-Ser-GSK3αβ regulated autophagy independently of Pin1.

  19. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  20. World resources: engineering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The proceedings include 10 papers that contribute to population environment; fossil fuel resources and energy conservation; nuclear and solar power; production of ores and manufacture and use of metallic resources; resources of manufactured and natural nonmetallic materials; water as a reusable resource; and timber as a replaceable resource.

  1. Ribose catabolism of Escherichia coli: characterization of the rpiB gene encoding ribose phosphate isomerase B and of the rpiR gene, which is involved in regulation of rpiB expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim I.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1996-01-01

    . The rpiB gene resided on a 4.6-kbp HindIII-EcoRV DNA fragment from phage lambda 10H5 (642) of the Kohara gene library and mapped at 92.85 min. Consistent with this map position, the cloned DNA fragment contained two divergent open reading frames of 149 and 296 codons, encoding ribose phosphate isomerase B...

  2. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  3. Innovations in electronic services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Wach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Summarry Existence in electronic business has become increasingly difficult. High competition and considerable financial resources needed to enter electronic market are the problems of most micro and small sized enterprises, starting or developing their business. Nevertheless, there is a market niche for them, which can ensure success and grant partial financing of the business. This niche are small web projects, providing the customer with personalized service, hitting his tastes and meeting immediate needs. A projects that large websites are unable to perform. Financial sourcing of those projects comes from EU subsidies, in the framework of the Działanie 8.1. PO IG, 2007-2013.

  4. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  5. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces

  6. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  7. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  8. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  9. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  10. Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  11. Building the electronic industry's roadmaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, William R.

    1995-02-01

    JTEC panelists found a strong consistency among the electronics firms they visited: all the firms had clear visions or roadmaps for their research and development activities and had committed resources to ensure that they achieve targeted results. The overarching vision driving Japan's electronics industry is that of achieving market success through developing appealing, high-quality, low-cost consumer goods - ahead of the competition. Specifics of the vision include improving performance, quality, and portability of consumer electronics products. Such visions help Japanese companies define in detail the roadmaps they will follow to develop new and improved electronic packaging technologies.

  12. Electronic Recruitment at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The Human Resources Department switches to electronic recruitment. From now on whenever you are involved in a recruitment action you will receive an e-mail giving you access to a Web folder. Inside you will find a shortlist of applications drawn up by the Human Resources Department. This will allow you to consult the folder, at the same time as everyone else involved in the recruitment process, for the vacancy you are interested in. This new electronic recruitment system, known as e-RT, will be introduced in a presentation given at 10 a.m. on 11 February in the Main Auditorium. Implemented by AIS (Administrative Information Services) and the Human Resources Department, e-RT will cover vacancies open in all of CERN's recruitment programmes. The electronic application system was initially made available to technical students in July 2003. By December it was extended to summer students, fellows, associates and Local Staff. Geraldine Ballet from the Recruitment Service prefers e-RT to mountains of paper! The Hu...

  13. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  14. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  15. Network resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    The invention provides real time dynamic resource management to improve end-to-end QoS by mobile devices regularly updating a resource availability server (RAS) with resource update information. Examples of resource update information are device battery status, available memory, session bandwidth,

  16. The Global Resource Nexus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de; Duijne, F. van; Jong, S. de; Jones, J.; Luit, E. van; Bekkers, F.F.; Auping, W.

    2014-01-01

    Supply and demand of resources are connected in a complex way. This interconnectivity has been framed as the global resource nexus and can conceivebly include all types of resources. This study focus on the nexus of five essential natural resources: land, food, energy, water and minerals. Together

  17. Knowledge and Natural Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Justinussen, Jens Christian Svabo

    2016-01-01

    Arctic economies are generally natural resource based economies, whether they are indigenous economies largely dependent on living on the land or industrialized economies depending on marine resources, mineral resources or fossil or renewable energy resources. However, the central role of knowledge...

  18. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  19. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  20. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  1. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  2. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  3. Australian uranium resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Miezitis, Y.; McKay, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Australia's uranium resources amount to 29% of the WOCA countries (world outside centrally-planned-economies areas) low-cost Reasonably Assured Resources and 28% of the WOCA countries low-cost Estimated Additional Resources. As at 1 January 1986, the Bureau of Mineral Resources estimated Australia's uranium resources as: (1) Cost range to US$80/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 465 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 256 000 t U; (2) Cost range US$80-130/kg U -Reasonably Assured Resources, 56 000 t U; Estimated Additional Resources, 127 000 t U. Most resources are contained in Proterozoic unconformity-related deposits in the Alligator Rivers uranium field in the Northern Territory (Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek deposits) and the Proterozoic stratabound deposit at Olympic Dam on the Stuart Shelf in South Australia

  4. Novel 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene isomerases from plastidic oil bodies in Dunaliella bardawil catalyze the conversion of all-trans to 9-cis β-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidi, Lital; Pick, Uri

    2017-06-01

    We identified and demonstrated the function of 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene isomerases in plastidic globules of Dunaliella bardawil, the species accumulating the highest levels of 9-cis β-carotene that is essential for humans. The halotolerant alga Dunaliella bardawil is unique in that it accumulates under light stress high levels of β-carotene in plastidic lipid globules. The pigment is composed of two major isomers: all-trans β-carotene, the common natural form of this pigment, and 9-cis β-carotene. The biosynthetic pathway of β-carotene is known, but it is not clear how the 9-cis isomer is formed. We identified in plastidic lipid globules that were isolated from D. bardawil two proteins with high sequence homology to the D27 protein-a 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene isomerase from rice (Alder et al. Science 335:1348-1351, 2012). The proteins are enriched in the oil globules by 6- to 17-fold compared to chloroplast proteins. The expression of the corresponding genes, 9-cis-βC-iso1 and 9-cis-βC-iso2, is enhanced under light stress. The synthetic proteins catalyze in vitro conversion of all-trans to 9-cis β-carotene. Expression of the 9-cis-βC-iso1 or of 9-cis-βC-iso2 genes in an E. coli mutant line that harbors β-carotene biosynthesis genes enhanced the conversion of all-trans into 9-cis β-carotene. These results suggest that 9-cis-βC-ISO1 and 9-cis-βC-ISO2 proteins are responsible for the formation of 9-cis β-carotene in D. bardawil under stress conditions.

  5. Receptor type I and type II binding regions and the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase site of cyclophilin B are required for enhancement of T-lymphocyte adhesion to fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Mathieu; Allain, Fabrice; Slomianny, Marie-Christine; Durieux, Sandrine; Vanpouille, Christophe; Haendler, Bernard; Spik, Geneviève

    2002-04-23

    Cyclophilin B (CyPB), a cyclosporin A (CsA) binding protein, interacts with two types of binding sites at the surface of T-lymphocytes. The type I sites correspond to functional receptors involved in endocytosis and the type II sites to sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Mutational analysis of CyPB has revealed that W128, which is part of the CsA-binding pocket, is implicated in the binding to the functional type I receptors and that two amino acid clusters located in the N-terminus ensure the binding to GAGs. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity of CyPB is not required for receptor binding. We have recently demonstrated that CyPB enhances adhesion of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes to fibronectin, a component of the extracellular matrix. We intended to identify additional amino acids involved in the binding of CyPB to its functional type I receptor and to determine regions responsible for the stimulation of peripheral blood T-lymphocyte adhesion. We determined that residues R76, G77, K132, D155, and D158 of the calcineurin (CN) interacting region were implicated in the recognition of type I receptor but not of GAGs. We also found that two different changes in the N-terminal extension that abated binding to GAGs prevented adhesion of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes to coated CyPB, whereas abbrogation of the PPIase activity had no effect. On the other hand, the adhesion of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes to coated fibronectin was not stimulated by CyPB mutants devoid of either type I receptor or GAGs binding activity or by mutants of the PPIase site. Altogether, the results demonstrate that different regions of CyPB are involved in peripheral blood T-lymphocyte activation and imply a novel important physiological function for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity.

  6. Human Resource Development in Hybrid Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Prakasan, E. R.; Swarna, T.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the human resources and development implications in hybrid libraries. Due to technological changes in libraries, which is a result of the proliferation of electronic resources, there has been a shift in workloads and workflow, requiring staff with different skills and educational backgrounds. Training of staff at all levels in information technology is the key to manage change, alleviate anxiety in the workplace and assure quality service in the libraries. Staff developmen...

  7. Students developing resources for students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michael; Evans, Darrell

    2012-06-01

    The development of new technologies has provided medical education with the ability to enhance the student learning experience and meet the needs of changing curricula. Students quickly adapt to using multimedia learning resources, but these need to be well designed, learner-centred and interactive for students to become significantly engaged. One way to ensure that students become committed users and that resources become distinct elements of the learning cycle is to involve students in resource design and production. Such an approach enables resources to accommodate student needs and preferences, but also provides opportunities for them to develop their own teaching and training skills. The aim of the medical student research project was to design and produce an electronic resource that was focused on a particular anatomical region. The views of other medical students were used to decide what features were suitable for inclusion and the resulting package contained basic principles and clinical relevance, and used a variety of approaches such as images of cadaveric material, living anatomy movies and quizzes. The completed package was assessed using a survey matrix and found to compare well with commercially available products. Given the ever-diversifying arena of multimedia instruction and the ability of students to be fully conversant with technology, this project demonstrates that students are ideal participants and creators of multimedia resources. It is hoped that such an approach will help to further develop the skill base of students, but will also provide an avenue of developing packages that are student user friendly, and that are focused towards particular curricula requirements. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  8. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  9. Advanced Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics

  10. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  11. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  12. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  13. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  14. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  15. Electronic Publishing Approaches to Curriculum: Videotex, Teletext and Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumente, Jerome

    1986-01-01

    Describes the Journalism Resources Institute (JRI) of Rutgers University in terms of its administrative organization, computer resources, computer facilities use, involvement in electronic publishing, use of the Dow Jones News/Retrieval Database, curricular options, and professional continuing education. (AYC)

  16. When resources get sparse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graungaard, Anette Hauskov; Andersen, John Sahl; Skov, Liselotte

    2011-01-01

    resources through positive cognitive reappraisals of their circumstances, the consequences of those circumstances and their coping possibilities. Nine main coping strategies were identified constituting transformative pathways in resource-creation. A theory of resource-creation is proposed as an addition...... coped with parenting a disabled child and how they maintained their energy and personal resources. We explored parents' experiences, coping and resources over a two-year period after their child was diagnosed with a severely disabling condition using a qualitative, longitudinal approach. Findings were...... to the current understanding of coping and the role of positive emotions. Coping and resources were found to be closely interrelated and portals of intervention are discussed....

  17. The electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio

    1991-01-01

    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

  18. Sustainable polymers from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqing; Romain, Charles; Williams, Charlotte K

    2016-12-14

    Renewable resources are used increasingly in the production of polymers. In particular, monomers such as carbon dioxide, terpenes, vegetable oils and carbohydrates can be used as feedstocks for the manufacture of a variety of sustainable materials and products, including elastomers, plastics, hydrogels, flexible electronics, resins, engineering polymers and composites. Efficient catalysis is required to produce monomers, to facilitate selective polymerizations and to enable recycling or upcycling of waste materials. There are opportunities to use such sustainable polymers in both high-value areas and in basic applications such as packaging. Life-cycle assessment can be used to quantify the environmental benefits of sustainable polymers.

  19. Solar Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.; George, R.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D.; Heimiller, D.

    2008-02-01

    This report covers the solar resource assessment aspects of the Renewable Systems Interconnection study. The status of solar resource assessment in the United States is described, and summaries of the availability of modeled data sets are provided.

  20. Hydrography - Water Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Resource is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Use Planning Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Resources that are included are:...