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Sample records for isolates discrepancies preliminary

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility determined by the E test, Löwenstein-Jensen proportion, and DNA sequencing methods among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates discrepancies, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inês Moura Freixo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to streptomycin (SM, isoniazid (INH, and/or rifampin (RIF as determined by the conventional Löwenstein-Jensen proportion method (LJPM were compared with the E test, a minimum inhibitory concentration susceptibility method. Discrepant isolates were further evaluated by BACTEC and by DNA sequence analyses for mutations in genes most often associated with resistance to these drugs (rpsL, katG, inhA, and rpoB. Preliminary discordant E test results were seen in 75% of isolates resistant to SM and in 11% to INH. Discordance improved for these two drugs (63% for SM and none for INH when isolates were re-tested but worsened for RIF (30%. Despite good agreement between phenotypic results and sequencing analyses, wild type profiles were detected on resistant strains mainly for SM and INH. It should be aware that susceptible isolates according to molecular methods might contain other mechanisms of resistance. Although reproducibility of the LJPM susceptibility method has been established, variable E test results for some M. tuberculosis isolates poses questions regarding its reproducibility particularly the impact of E test performance which may vary among laboratories despite adherence to recommended protocols. Further studies must be done to enlarge the evaluated samples and looked possible mutations outside of the hot spot sequenced gene among discrepant strains.

  2. Preliminary biological screening of microbes isolated from cow dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary biological screening of microbes isolated from cow dung in Kampar. KC Teo, SM Teoh. Abstract. Five distinct morphologically and physiologically isolates were isolated from cow dung at Kampar, Perak, Malaysia and cultured on nutrient agar (NA) plates. Morphological studies including microscopic examination ...

  3. Does structural leg-length discrepancy affect postural control? Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliks, Małgorzata; Ostiak-Tomaszewska, Wioleta; Lisiński, Przemysław; Koczewski, Paweł

    2017-08-09

    Leg-length inequality results in an altered position of the spine and pelvis. Previous studies on the influence of leg asymmetry on postural control have been inconclusive. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of structural leg-length discrepancy (LLD) on the control of posture. We studied 38 individuals (19 patients with structural LLD, 19 healthy subjects). The examination included measurement of the length of the lower limbs and weight distribution as well as a static posturography. All statistical analyses were performed with Statistica software version 10.0. Non-parametrical Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn's post test and Spearman test were used. Differences between the groups and correlation between mean COP sway velocity and the value of LLD as well as the value of LLD and weight distribution were assumed as statistically significant at p  0.05). Meaningful differences in mean COP velocity in mediolateral direction between tandem stance with eyes open and closed were detected in both groups (in controls p = 0.000134, in patients both with the shorter leg in a front and rear position, p = 0.029, p = 0.026 respectively). There was a positive moderate correlation between the value of LLD and the value of mean COP velocity in normal standing in mediolateral direction with eyes open (r = 0.47) and closed (r = 0.54) and in anterioposterior plane with eyes closed (r = 0.05). The fact that there were no significant differences in posturography between the groups might indicate compensations to the altered posture and neuromuscular adaptations in patients with structural leg-length inequality. LLD causes an increased asymmetry of weight distribution. This study confirmed a fundamental role of the sight in postural control, especially in unstable conditions. The analysis of mean COP sway velocity may suggest a proportional deterioration of postural control with the increase of the value of leg-length asymmetry. Trial registry: Clinical

  4. Preliminary screening of bacterial isolates from mining wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino S.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing innovative biotechnology for obtaining new resources of high tech critical metals is strongly influenced by the need to reduce the potential risk of shortages, to support the development of industry at European level. To set up these new technologies is essential to isolate strains with high potential in bioleaching of ore, tailings and mine wastes and bioaccumulation of high tech critical metals. Microorganisms are capable of mediating metal and mineral bioprecipitation. In this paper are presented preliminary studies performed for the isolation of strains existing in mining residues containing high tech critical metals. Were used samples collected from various depths in an area of mining wastes containing high tech critical metals. The samples were fine grounded and the powder was washed with sterile saline water. Exact quantities of samples were dispersed in sterile saline water, shaken for a period of 60 minutes, diluted and plated in triplicate on selective agar. After several steps were isolated 3 strains of gram negative bacteria.

  5. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shasha; Han, Dongyi; Yuan, Yongyi; Wang, Guojian; Kang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xin; Yan, Xiaofei; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Min; Dai, Pu

    2011-09-30

    Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter) or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity). The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (isolated Mondini deformity) in a Chinese population. In total, 144 patients with sensorineural hearing loss were included and subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT. Among them, 28 patients with isolated Mondini dysplasia (MD group), 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct with Mondini dysplasia (EVA with MD group), 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct without Mondini dysplasia (EVA group), and 16 patients with other types of inner ear malformations (IEM group) were identified. The coding exons of SLC26A4 were analyzed in all subjects. DNA sequence analysis of SLC26A4 was performed in all 144 patients. In the different groups, the detection rate of the SLC26A4 mutation differed. In the isolated MD group, only one single allelic mutation in SLC26A4 was found in one patient (1/28, 3.6%). In the EVA with MD group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0%) and three patients (3/50, 6.0%), respectively. Also, in the EVA group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0%) and three patients (3/50, 6.0%), respectively. These percentages were identical to those in the EVA plus MD group. Only two patients carried monoallelic mutations of the SLC26A4 gene in the IEM group (2/16, 12.5%). There were significant differences in the frequency of SLC26A4 mutation among the groups (P0.5). Although mutations in the SLC26A4 gene were frequently found in Chinese EVA patients with and

  6. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xiaofei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity. The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (isolated Mondini deformity in a Chinese population. Methods In total, 144 patients with sensorineural hearing loss were included and subjected to high-resolution temporal bone CT. Among them, 28 patients with isolated Mondini dysplasia (MD group, 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct with Mondini dysplasia (EVA with MD group, 50 patients with enlarged vestibular aqueduct without Mondini dysplasia (EVA group, and 16 patients with other types of inner ear malformations (IEM group were identified. The coding exons of SLC26A4 were analyzed in all subjects. Results DNA sequence analysis of SLC26A4 was performed in all 144 patients. In the different groups, the detection rate of the SLC26A4 mutation differed. In the isolated MD group, only one single allelic mutation in SLC26A4 was found in one patient (1/28, 3.6%. In the EVA with MD group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0% and three patients (3/50, 6.0%, respectively. Also, in the EVA group, biallelic and monoallelic SLC26A4 mutations were identified in 46 patients (46/50, 92.0% and three patients (3/50, 6.0%, respectively. These percentages were identical to those in the EVA plus MD group. Only two patients carried monoallelic mutations of the SLC26A4 gene in the IEM group (2/16, 12.5%. There were significant differences in the frequency of SLC26A4 mutation among the groups (P SLC26A4 mutation in the isolated MD group was

  7. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D

    2006-01-01

    Isles ancestry. In the present study we used 122 new and 19 previously published hypervariable region I sequences of the mitochondrial control region to analyse the genetic diversity of the Faroese population and compare it with other populations in the North Atlantic region. The analyses suggested...... that the Faroese mtDNA pool has been affected by genetic drift, and is among the most homogenous and isolated in the North Atlantic region. This will have implications for attempts to locate genes for complex disorders. To obtain estimates of Scandinavian vs British Isles ancestry proportions, we applied...... a frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among...

  8. Preliminary biological screening of microbes isolated from cow dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... Susceptibilities of five isolates to 17 different types of antibiotics were evaluated using the ... All isolates produced protease, lipase and esterase lipase. Further ... Cow dung is excreted by bovine animal species which.

  9. The discrepancy between social isolation and loneliness as a clinically meaningful metric: findings from the Irish and English longitudinal studies of ageing (TILDA and ELSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, J E; Kenny, R A; Lawlor, B A; Steptoe, A; Kee, F

    2017-06-01

    Scant evidence is available on the discordance between loneliness and social isolation among older adults. We aimed to investigate this discordance and any health implications that it may have. Using nationally representative datasets from ageing cohorts in Ireland (TILDA) and England (ELSA), we created a metric of discordance between loneliness and social isolation, to which we refer as Social Asymmetry. This metric was the categorised difference between standardised scores on a scale of loneliness and a scale of social isolation, giving categories of: Concordantly Lonely and Isolated, Discordant: Robust to Loneliness, or Discordant: Susceptible to Loneliness. We used regression and multilevel modelling to identify potential relationships between Social Asymmetry and cognitive outcomes. Social Asymmetry predicted cognitive outcomes cross-sectionally and at a two-year follow-up, such that Discordant: Robust to Loneliness individuals were superior performers, but we failed to find evidence for Social Asymmetry as a predictor of cognitive trajectory over time. We present a new metric and preliminary evidence of a relationship with clinical outcomes. Further research validating this metric in different populations, and evaluating its relationship with other outcomes, is warranted. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Isolation and preliminary function analysis of a Na + /H + antiporter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A full-length cDNA Na+/H+ antiporter gene (MzNHX1) was isolated from Malus zumi according to the homologous Na+/H+ antiporter gene region in plants. Sequence analysis indicated that the cDNA was 2062 bp in length, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1629 bp, which encoded a predicted polypeptide of 542 ...

  11. Preliminary Study on Keratinase from Two Indonesian Isolates

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    S Rahayu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratinases (E.C.3.4.99.11 constitute a group of enzymes capable of disrupting the highly stable keratin structure consisting of disulphide, hydrogen, and hydrophobic bonds in the form of α-helices and β-sheets B. licheniformis MB-2 and Bacillus sp. MTS are two feather-degrading bacteria isolated from Tompaso crater at North Sulawesi and sulfuric land around Tangkuban Perahu in West Java. They were both capable of breaking down whole chicken feathers. In addition both isolates were capable of degrading other proteinous substrates rich in beta structure such as coccon, silk, human hair and fish scales. Result of fermentation experiment implied that addition of nitrogen sources (0.02% yeast extract and 0.02% tryptone to the basal medium increased keratinase production. Our experiments showed that keratinase production of Bacillus sp. MTS was higher and faster than that from B. licheniformis MB-2. Maximum extracellular keratinase activity of the enzyme derived from B. licheniformis was obtained during stationary phase at 72 h, while Bacillus sp. MTS was reached at 48 h. Disulfide reductase activity also detected in the extracellular fluid of Bacillus sp. MTS. The maximum condition for extracellular keratinase activity was 55oC and the enzyme showed two maximum pHs : pH 8.0 and pH 10. The zymogram analysis indicated sixth protein bands of 17, 25, 32, 53, 96 and 122 kD which were able to hydrolyze gelatin substrate in-situ. (Animal Production 12(1: 60-68 (2010Key Words : Bacillus, feather, keratinase, disulfide reductase

  12. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter

  13. Preliminary corrosion models for BWIP [Basalt Waste Isolation Project] canister materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fish, R.L.; Anantatmula, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Waste package development for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) requires the generation of materials degradation data under repository relevant conditions. These data are used to develop predictive models for the behavior of each component of waste package. The component models are exercised in performance analyses to optimize the waste package design. This document presents all repository relevant canister materials corrosion data that the BWIP and others have developed to date, describes the methodology used to develop preliminary corrosion models and provides the mathematical description of the models for both low carbon steel and Fe9Cr1Mo steel. Example environment/temperature history and model application calculations are presented to aid in understanding the models. The models are preliminary in nature and will be updated as additional corrosion data become available. 6 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Preliminary sensitivity analyses of corrosion models for BWIP [Basalt Waste Isolation Project] container materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anantatmula, R.P.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary sensitivity analysis was performed for the corrosion models developed for Basalt Waste Isolation Project container materials. The models describe corrosion behavior of the candidate container materials (low carbon steel and Fe9Cr1Mo), in various environments that are expected in the vicinity of the waste package, by separate equations. The present sensitivity analysis yields an uncertainty in total uniform corrosion on the basis of assumed uncertainties in the parameters comprising the corrosion equations. Based on the sample scenario and the preliminary corrosion models, the uncertainty in total uniform corrosion of low carbon steel and Fe9Cr1Mo for the 1000 yr containment period are 20% and 15%, respectively. For containment periods ≥ 1000 yr, the uncertainty in corrosion during the post-closure aqueous periods controls the uncertainty in total uniform corrosion for both low carbon steel and Fe9Cr1Mo. The key parameters controlling the corrosion behavior of candidate container materials are temperature, radiation, groundwater species, etc. Tests are planned in the Basalt Waste Isolation Project containment materials test program to determine in detail the sensitivity of corrosion to these parameters. We also plan to expand the sensitivity analysis to include sensitivity coefficients and other parameters in future studies. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs

  15. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume, Volume 2, contains the technical basis for the 1992 PA. Specifically, it describes the conceptual basis for consequence modeling and the PA methodology, including the selection of scenarios for analysis, the determination of scenario probabilities, and the estimation of scenario consequences using a Monte Carlo technique and a linked system of computational models. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume I contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the EPA's Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to the preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191B. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6

  16. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  17. Risk factors for isolated sleep paralysis in an African American sample: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Raffa, Susan D; White, Kamila S; Barlow, David H

    2008-12-01

    Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a temporary period of involuntary immobility that can occur at sleep onset or offset. It has previously been reported in association with both panic disorder (PD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study examined the association between ISP and several possible risk factors--anxiety sensitivity, trauma exposure, life stress, and paranormal beliefs--in a sample of African American participants with and without a history of ISP. Significant between-group differences were found for PD and PTSD diagnoses, anxiety sensitivity, life stress, and certain aspects of paranormal belief, with the ISP group being higher on all of these indices. No differences were found with regard to trauma exposure. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that PD, anxiety sensitivity, and life stress each contributed unique variance to ISP cognitive symptoms, whereas PTSD and paranormal beliefs did not. These results provide preliminary support for an association between ISP and anxiety sensitivity and corroborate previous reports of ISP's association with PD and life stress. The current trauma/PTSD findings are mixed, however, and warrant future research.

  18. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA's Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal

  19. Effect of alternative conceptual models in a preliminary performance assessment for the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Beyeler, W.; Garner, J.W.; Iuzzolino, H.J.; Marietta, M.G.; Rudeen, D.K.; Schreiber, J.D.; Swift, P.N.; Tierney, M.S.; Vaughn, P.

    1995-01-01

    The most appropriate conceptual model for performance assessment (PA) at the waste isolation pilot plant (WIPP) is believed to include gas generation resulting from corrosion and microbial action in the repository, and a dual-porosity (matrix and fracture porosity) representation for the solute transport in the Culebra dolomite member of the Rustler formation. Under these assumptions, complementary cummulative distribution functions (CCDFs) which summarize the radionuclide releases to the accessible environment, resulting from both cutting removal and groundwater transport, fall substantially below the release limits promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with the releases being dominated by cuttings removal. To provide additional views, the following alternative conceptual models were considered as part of a preliminary PA for the WIPP: no gas generation in the repository and a dual-porosity transport model in the Culebra; gas generation in the repository and a single-porosity (fracture porosity) transport model in the Culebra; no gas generation in the repository and a single-porosity transport model in the Culebra; gas generation in the repository and a dual-porosity transport model in the Culebra, without chemical retardation; gas generation in the repository, chemical retardation in the Culebra, and extremes of climatic variation. These variations relate to groundwater transport, so do not affect the releases resulting from cuttings removal. Several of these variations substantially increase the importance of releases resulting from groundwater transport relative to releases resulting from cuttings removal. However, the total amount of releases generally remained small, with the CCDFs which summarize the releases to the accessible environment falling below the EPA release limits

  20. A panorama of discrepancy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastav, Anand; Travaglini, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy theory concerns the problem of replacing a continuous object with a discrete sampling. Discrepancy theory is currently at a crossroads between number theory, combinatorics, Fourier analysis, algorithms and complexity, probability theory and numerical analysis. There are several excellent books on discrepancy theory but perhaps no one of them actually shows the present variety of points of view and applications covering the areas "Classical and Geometric Discrepancy Theory", "Combinatorial Discrepancy Theory" and "Applications and Constructions". Our book consists of several chapters, written by experts in the specific areas, and focused on the different aspects of the theory. The book should also be an invitation to researchers and students to find a quick way into the different methods and to motivate interdisciplinary research.

  1. Isolation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of l-amino-acid oxidase from Vipera ammodytes ammodytes venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, Dessislava; Kardas, Anna; Buck, Friedrich; Perbandt, Markus; Betzel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    A novel l-amino-acid oxidase was isolated from V. ammodytes ammodytes venom and crystallized. The solution conditions under which the protein sample was monodisperse were optimized using dynamic light scattering prior to crystallization. Preliminary diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution. l-Amino-acid oxidase from the venom of Vipera ammodytes ammodytes, the most venomous snake in Europe, was isolated and crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The solution conditions under which the protein sample was monodisperse were optimized using dynamic light scattering prior to crystallization. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 198.37, b = 96.38, c = 109.11 Å, β = 92.56°. Initial diffraction data were collected to 2.6 Å resolution. The calculated Matthews coefficient is approximately 2.6 Å 3 Da −1 assuming the presence of four molecules in the asymmetric unit

  2. Species distribution, virulence factors, and antimicrobial resistance of Acinetobacter spp. isolates from dogs and cats: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yui; Harada, Kazuki; Shimizu, Takae; Sato, Tomomi; Kajino, Akari; Usui, Masaru; Tamura, Yutaka; Tsuyuki, Yuzo; Miyamoto, Tadashi; Ohki, Asami; Watarai, Masahisa

    2018-05-12

    We investigated the prevalence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance among 67 Acinetobacter spp. isolates, consisting of 21 Acinetobacter baumannii and 46 non-baumannii Acinetobacter from companion animals. The PCR analysis showed that the most prevalent virulence gene was afa/draBC (29.9%), followed by papC (22.4%) and cvaC (20.9%). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed that resistance to gentamicin (14.9%) and ciprofloxacin (11.9%) was relatively prevalent. Five gentamicin- and/or ciprofloxacin-resistant A. baumannii strains were assigned to ST25, ST149, ST164, ST203, and ST1198. All ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates harbored point mutations in gyrA and/or parC. This is the first preliminary monitoring of animal-origin Acinetobacter spp. in Japan. © 2018 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. 235Cf anti ν discrepancy and the sulfur discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The cantankerous discrepancy among measured values of anti ν for 235 Cf appears at last to be nearing a final resolution. A recent review has summarized the progress that has been achieved through revaluation upward by 0.5% of two manganese bath values anti ν and the performance of a new liquid scintillator measurement. A new manganese bath measurement at INEL is in reasonably good agreement with previous manganese bath values of 235 Cf anti ν. It now appears that the manganese bath values could still be systematically low by as much as 0.4% because the BNL-325 thermal absorption cross section for sulfur may be as much as 10% low. There is a bona fide discrepancy between measurements of the sulfur cross section by pile oscillators and the values derived from transmission measurements. The resolution of this discrepancy is a prerequisite to the final resolution of the 235 Cf anti ν discrepancy. 22 references

  4. Preliminary study on swarming marine bacteria isolated from Pulau Tinggi's sponges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairi, Fareed; Idris, Hamidah; Zakaria, Nur Syuhana; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2015-09-01

    Marine sponges were known to produce novel bioactive compounds that have anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-cancer and anti-fungal activities. Most of the bioactive compounds were secreted from the bacteria that lives on the sponges. The bacterial communities also produced biofilm, toxin or biosurfactant that protect the sponges from disease or in-coming predator. In this study, twenty nine marine bacteria with swarming motility characteristic was isolated from 2 different sponge samples collected in Pulau Tinggi These isolates were grown and their genome were extracted for molecular identification using the 16S rRNA approach. Sequence comparison using BLASTn and multiple alignments using MEGA4 was performed to produce a phylogenetic tree. The phylogenetic tree revealed that 20 of the isolates were grouped under α-Proteobacteria that comprised of 19 isolates in the Vibrionaceae family and one belongs to Aeromonadaceae family. Furthermore, six isolates from Actinobacteria family and three isolates from Firmicutes were also detected. The swarming characteristic indicates the possible production of biosurfactant.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    OpenAIRE

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Viale, Silvia; Conti, Stefania; Fadda, Maria Elisabetta; Deplano, Maura; Melis, Maria Paola; Deiana, Monica; Cosentino, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. ...

  6. Preliminary studies on productivity of white Pleurotus eryngii isolates in protected cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luigi Rana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Four isolates of Pleurotus eryngii species-complex, originating from different basidiomata growing in a mountainous area of the Basilicata region (southern Italy and characterized by white pileus cuticle (Wh A, Wh B, Wh C, and Wh D were compared, in artificial cultivation conditions, to other isolates of the same mushroom with beige (Be 3, Be 5 or brown cap (Br 1, Br 2 originating from the same area of the former or selected among the commercial ones (Com 142 and Com 164 in order to evaluate their productivity and morphological features. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse belonging to the Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bari Aldo Moro, in autumn winter 2010-2011, using substrate bags well colonized by P. eryngii mycelium and kept at 4-6°C for 5 months. Wh A and Wh D and, less significantly, Wh C, Be 5 and Com 142, produced a fresh basidioma yield significantly higher than the five other tested isolates (Wh B, Be 3, Br 1, Br 2 and Com 164. Only Com 142 produced the basidiomata of medium and maximum size significantly heavier and with larger pileus diameter than other tested isolates. Com 142 also resulted significantly different, for the basidiomata number/substrate bag, from the white pileus cuticle isolates except for Wh B. All tested isolates concentrated almost all (90-95% of the sporophore yield in the first basidioma flush. No significant differences were found among all tested P. eryngii isolates in terms of yield earliness.

  7. Identification of listeria species isolated in Tunisia by Microarray based assay : results of a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hmaied, Fatma; Helel, Salma; Barkallah, Insaf; Leberre, V.; Francois, J.M.; Kechrid, A.

    2008-01-01

    Microarray-based assay is a new molecular approach for genetic screening and identification of microorganisms. We have developed a rapid microarray-based assay for the reliable detection and discrimination of Listeria spp. in food and clinical isolates from Tunisia. The method used in the present study is based on the PCR amplification of a virulence factor gene (iap gene). the PCR mixture contained cyanine Cy5labeled dCTP. Therefore, The PCR products were fluorescently labeled. The presence of multiple species-specific sequences within the iap gene enabled us to design different oligoprobes per species. The species-specific sequences of the iap gene used in this study were obtained from genBank and then aligned for phylogenetic analysis in order to identify and retrieve the sequences of homologues of the amplified iap gene analysed. 20 probes were used for detection and identification of 22 food isolates and clinical isolates of Listeria spp (L. monocytogenes, L. ivanovi), L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, and L. grayi). Each bacterial gene was identified by hybridization to oligoprobes specific for each Listeria species and immobilized on a glass surface. The microarray analysis showed that 5 clinical isolates and 2 food isolates were identified listeria monocytogenes. Concerning the remaining 15 food isolates; 13 were identified listeria innocua and 2 isolates could not be identified by microarray based assay. Further phylogenetic and molecular analysis are required to design more species-specific probes for the identification of Listeria spp. Microarray-based assay is a simple and rapid method used for Listeria species discrimination

  8. Isolation and Preliminary Screening of a Weissella confusa Strain from Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lvchen; Ni, Xueqin; Niu, Lili; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Qiang; Khalique, Abdul; Liu, Qian; Zeng, Yan; Shu, Gang; Pan, Kangcheng; Jing, Bo; Zeng, Dong

    2018-04-13

    Weissella confusa has recently received attention for its probiotic potential. Some W. confusa and Weissella cibaria strains isolated from fermented foods show favorable probiotic effects. However, the probiotic properties of W. confusa isolated from giant panda remain unreported to date. Thus, this study isolated a W. confusa strain from giant panda feces and then investigated its characteristics and probiotic properties. A lactic acid bacteria strain was isolated from giant panda fecal samples. The isolated strain was screened by in vitro probiotic property tests, including in vitro antimicrobial test, antioxidant test, surface hydrophobicity, and stress resistance. On the basis of biochemical identification and 16S rDNA sequencing, the W. confusa strain was identified as BSP201703. This Weissella confusa strain can survive at pH 2 and 0.3% (w/v) concentration of bile salt environment and inhibit common intestinal pathogens. It also possesses an in vitro antioxidant capacity, a high auto-aggregation ability, and a high surface hydrophobicity. BSP201703 might serve as a probiotic to giant pandas.

  9. Plasmids in Mycoplasma species isolated from goats and sheep and their preliminary typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Elmiro R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available One-hundred-five (105 clinical isolates of mycoplasma from caprine origin and one isolate from ovine were surveyed for plasmids, which were present in thirty-three (31% of them. These mycoplasmas originated from 13 herds. Ten of them were symptomatic for mycoplasmal disease (mastitis, polyarthritis, septicemia and three herds were asymptomatic, i.e., clinically normal. Twenty-eight isolates were Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides LC (large colony or caprine biotype, four were Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capricolum and one was Mycoplasma cottewii. The isolated plasmids were linearized by EcoRI, EcoRV, EcoRI and EcoRV or BamHI and EcoRV, and were of five sizes (1.1, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, and 1.9 Kbp. Based on restriction enzyme digestion and size of the linearized supercoiled extrachromosomal DNA, five plasmid types were recovered (p1II, p2III, p2V, p3I, and p4IV. The small size of these DNA elements probably exclude replicative forms of DNA virus, which are equal or larger than 8.0 Kbp.

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of some lactic Acid bacteria isolated from bee pollen: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhadj, Hani; Harzallah, Daoud; Bouamra, Dalila; Khennouf, Seddik; Dahamna, Saliha; Ghadbane, Mouloud

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, five hundred and sixty-seven isolates of lactic acid bacteria were recovered from raw bee pollen grains. All isolates were screened for their antagonistic activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria. Neutralized supernatants of 54 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cultures from 216 active isolates inhibited the growth of indicator bacteria. They were phenotypically characterized, based on the fermentation of 39 carbohydrates. Using the simple matching coefficient and unweighted pair group algorithm with arithmetic averages (UPGMA), seven clusters with other two members were defined at the 79% similarity level. The following species were characterized: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, and unidentified lactobacilli. Phenotypic characteristics of major and minor clusters were also identified. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of representative isolates from each cluster was performed, and ten strains were assigned to seven species: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus ingluviei, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Weissella cibaria. The molecular method used failed to determine the exact taxonomic status of BH0900 and AH3133.

  11. Characterisation and preliminary lipid-lowering evaluation of Lactobacillus isolated from a traditional Serbian dairy product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavišić, G; Ristić, S; Petrièević, S; Novaković Jovanović, J; Janać Petković, B; Strahinić, I; Piperski, V

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the potential probiotic properties of indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from Serbian homemade cheese. Seventeen LAB strains were isolated and characterised using standard protocols. One of the strains showed several probiotic properties: survival at low pH and in bile salts solution, antimicrobial activity, susceptibility to antibiotics and adhesion to hexodecane. DNA analysis identified the isolate as Lactobacillus casei, hereafter named L. casei 5s. The lipid lowering effect of L. casei 5s was evaluated in vivo using a hyperlipidemic rat model. Orally administered L. casei 5s significantly decreased the elevated total serum cholesterol and triglycerides, and attenuated macro vesicular steatosis in the liver. Moreover, L. casei 5s improved the intestinal microbial balance in favour of lactobacilli, while decreasing the number of Escherichia coli cells. The bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the surface of the intestinal mucosa and from the faecal samples of treated animals, indicating adhesiveness and colonisation ability. The results of an acute oral toxicity study in mice and the absence of translocation to other organs demonstrated the safety of the strain. In conclusion, L. casei 5s demonstrated promising probiotic potential and might be a good candidate for more detailed investigations.

  12. Isolated low follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Salama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: High levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males received a significant attention and exploration. Studies investigating the isolated deficiency of FSH in males are few, and its real prevalence is still unknown. Therefore, the objectives of the current study was to report the prevalence of isolated low FSH in infertile males and highlight their demographics and standard sperm parameters. Methods: Records of 3335 infertile men were retrospectively checked. Patients with isolated low FSH were retrieved. FSH levels were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of affected sperm parameter (s. Study variables were also arranged into 2 groups in relation to smoking history. A control group was included to document the changes in sperm morphology. Results: Isolated low FSH (1.146 ± 0.219 mIU/mL was found in 29 (0.87% patients. All patients showed at least one abnormal sperm parameter. The abnormal parameters were present in different combinations within the same patient but with no significant correlations with the FSH levels. The FSH levels got lower as the number of the affected sperm parameters increased although the decline was insignificant. The most frequent abnormal parameter presented was sperm morphology (86.2%. Anomalous sperm morphology was highly and significantly demonstrated in the head; specifically in acrosome. Abnormal sperm parameters were present in both smoking and nonsmoking groups but with no significant differences in between. Conclusions: Isolated low FSH among infertile males has a low prevalence. This may be associated with abnormality in semen parameters; particularly sperm morphology. These patients are suggested to be found as a primary entity. However, an additional work-up is highly recommended to validate this hypothesis.

  13. A preliminary social and economic assessment of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluett, C.; Bolton, P.; York, K.; Wood, M.; Radford, L.

    1981-07-01

    This report provides a preliminary assessment of the social and economic impacts that could be caused by the construction and operation of a nuclear waste repository on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. This assessment involved assembling a comprehensive data base for the local Tri-Cities impact area and the surrounding region, establishing a network of local and regional contacts, making preliminary judgments about potential social impacts caused by the proposed repository, and recommending further research. This report concludes that growth effects under the anticipated work force scenario are expected to be relatively minor. With a strong public involvement program on the part of the project developers, including an ongoing dialogue with local and regional planners, potential socio-economic impacts can be anticipated and managed effectively. Specific recommendations are made for filling gaps in the available data, exploring key issues in more detail, and improving the analysis of social impacts. The report was prepared by the Battelle-Human Affairs Research Center in 1980 and 1981

  14. Red Algae (Rhodophyta from the Coast of Madagascar: Preliminary Bioactivity Studies and Isolation of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Pascaline Rahelivao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several species of red algae (Rhodophyta from the coastal regions of Madagascar have been investigated for their natural products. The most abundant compound was cholesterol (5 in combination with a series of oxidized congeners. The brominated indoles 1–3 along with the sesquiterpene debilone (4 have been isolated from Laurencia complanata. For the first time, debilone (4 has been obtained from a marine plant. From the methanol extract of Calloseris sp., we have achieved the second isolation of the unusual A-ring contracted steroids (−-2-ethoxycarbonyl-2β-hydroxy-A-nor-cholest-5-en-4-one (9 and phorbasterone B (10. The crude extracts of Laurencia complanata exhibited antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Candida albicans.

  15. Red Algae (Rhodophyta) from the Coast of Madagascar: Preliminary Bioactivity Studies and Isolation of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahelivao, Marie Pascaline; Gruner, Margit; Andriamanantoanina, Hanta; Andriamihaja, Bakolinirina; Bauer, Ingmar; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-07

    Several species of red algae (Rhodophyta) from the coastal regions of Madagascar have been investigated for their natural products. The most abundant compound was cholesterol (5) in combination with a series of oxidized congeners. The brominated indoles 1-3 along with the sesquiterpene debilone (4) have been isolated from Laurencia complanata. For the first time, debilone (4) has been obtained from a marine plant. From the methanol extract of Calloseris sp., we have achieved the second isolation of the unusual A-ring contracted steroids (-)-2-ethoxycarbonyl-2β-hydroxy-A-nor-cholest-5-en-4-one (9) and phorbasterone B (10). The crude extracts of Laurencia complanata exhibited antimicrobial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Candida albicans.

  16. Isolation, preliminary characterization, and full-genome analyses of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Stefan; Mossbrugger, Ilona; Altantuul, Damdin; Battsetseg, Jigjav; Davaadorj, Rendoo; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Buyanjargal, Tsoodol; Otgonbaatar, Dashdavaa; Zöller, Lothar; Speck, Stephanie; Wölfel, Roman; Dobler, Gerhard; Essbauer, Sandra

    2012-12-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes one of the most important inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system, namely severe encephalitis in Europe and Asia. Since the 1980s tick-borne encephalitis is known in Mongolia with increasing numbers of human cases reported during the last years. So far, however, data on TBEV strains are still sparse. We herein report the isolation of a TBEV strain from Ixodes persulcatus ticks collected in Mongolia in 2010. Phylogenetic analysis of the E-gene classified this isolate as Siberian subtype of TBEV. The Mongolian TBEV strain showed differences in virus titers, plaque sizes, and growth properties in two human neuronal cell-lines. In addition, the 10,242 nucleotide long open-reading frame and the corresponding polyprotein sequence were revealed. The isolate grouped in the genetic subclade of the Siberian subtype. The strain Zausaev (AF527415) and Vasilchenko (AF069066) had 97 and 94 % identity on the nucleotide level. In summary, we herein describe first detailed data regarding TBEV from Mongolia. Further investigations of TBEV in Mongolia and adjacent areas are needed to understand the intricate dispersal of this virus.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of LipC12, a true lipase isolated through a metagenomics approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, V. P.; Glogauer, A.; Iulek, J.; Souza, E. M.; Pedrosa, F. O.; Krieger, N.

    2012-01-01

    The preliminary X-ray analysis of LipC12, the first lipase isolated through a metagenomics approach to be crystallized, is reported. LipC12, a true lipase from family I.1 of bacterial lipases which was previously isolated through a metagenomics approach, contains 293 amino acids. Among lipases of known three-dimensional structure, it has a sequence identity of 47% to the lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Recombinant N-terminally His 6 -tagged LipC12 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified in a homogenous form and crystallized in several conditions, with the best crystals being obtained using 2.0 M sodium formate and 0.1 M bis-tris propane pH 7.0. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.70 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 1 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 58.62, c = 192.60 Å

  18. Preliminary Evaluation of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Sardinian Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Barbara Pisano

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three Lactobacillus strains of dairy origin were evaluated for some functional properties relevant to their use as probiotics. A preliminary subtractive screening based on the abilities to inhibit the growth of microbial pathogens and hydrolyze conjugated bile salts was applied, and six strains were selected for further characterization including survival under gastrointestinal environmental conditions, adhesion to gut epithelial tissue, enzymatic activity, and some safety properties. All selected strains maintained elevated cell numbers under conditions simulating passage through the human gastrointestinal tract, well comparable to the values obtained for the probiotic strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells to various extents (from 3 to 20%. All strains exhibited high aminopeptidase, and absent or very low proteolytic and strong β-galactosidase activities; none was found to be haemolytic or to produce biogenic amines and all were susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Our results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains analyzed could be considered appropriate probiotic candidates, due to resistance to GIT simulated conditions, antimicrobial activity, adhesion to Caco-2 cell-line, and absence of undesirable properties. They could be used as adjunct cultures for contributing to the quality and health related functional properties of dairy products.

  19. An attempt to explain the uranium 238 resonance integral discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, H.; Grandotto, M.

    1978-01-01

    Studies on uranium 238 resonance integral discrepancy were carried out for light water reactor physics. It was shown that using recently published resonance parameters and substituting a multilevel formalism to the usual Breit and Wigner formula reduced the well known discrepancy between two values of the uranium 238 effective resonance integral: the value calculated with the nuclear data and the one deduced from critical experiments. Since the cross section computed with these assumptions agrees quite well with the Oak-Ridge transmission data, it was used to obtain the self-shielding effect and the capture rate in light water lattices. The multiplication factor calculated with this method is found very close to the experimental value. Preliminary results for a set of benchmarks relative to several types of thermal neutron reactors lead to very low discrepancies. The reactivity loss is only 130 x 10 -5 instead of 650 x 10 -5 in the case of the usual libraries and the single level formula

  20. Preliminary development of a live attenuated canine parvovirus vaccine from an isolate of British origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, A E

    1987-04-04

    Canine parvovirus isolated from a case of haemorrhagic enteritis in a breeding kennel in England was passaged and cloned in cultured feline and canine cells. No significant evidence of pathogenicity was found during six serial passages of the modified virus back through young dogs. The attenuated virus was excreted by inoculated animals and spread rapidly to uninoculated animals held in contact. When high titre attenuated virus was given to the six-week-old offspring of a seropositive dam a prompt seroconversion was observed. When the attenuated virus was used as an experimental vaccine in 108 pups in an infected breeding colony a highly significant improvement was obtained in the accumulated morbidity and mortality compared with a parallel group vaccinated with modified live feline panleucopenia virus.

  1. Higher frequency of isolated PMS2 loss in colorectal tumors in Colombian population: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamekh R

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Rania Shamekh,1 Mauro Cives,2 Jaime Mejia,3 Domenico Coppola,4 1Department of Pathology, University of South Florida, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Department of Pathology, Institutode Patologia Mejia Jimenez, Cali, Colombia; 4Department of Anatomic Pathology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA Abstract: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of death worldwide. It accounts for >9% of all cancers. One of the pathogenic factors of CRC is germline mutation, leading to alteration and inactivation in the mismatch repair (MMR genes. The aim of the study is to compare the frequency of alterations in MMR protein expression in Caucasian CRC patients with Colombian CRC patients. A total of 45 Colombians and 48 Caucasians with CRC were studied. The microsatellite instability status of tumors was determined in primary CRC by immunohistochemistry using the automated Ventana Ultra. The combined loss of MLH1 and PMS2 was the most common alteration in both Colombian (11%, five out of 45 and Caucasian (12%, six out of 48 CRC patients. Interestingly, the loss of PMS2 expression in the presence of intact MLH1 was the second most common alteration in Colombians (8%, four out of 45, which was never seen in the Caucasian cohort (P=0.05. The loss of MLH1 alone and the combined loss of MSH6 and PMS2 expression were only observed in one out of 45 (2% Colombians but not in Caucasians. The combined loss of MSH2 and MSH6 was not observed in any of the patients studied. The preliminary findings support a significant difference in alterations of MMR protein expression in Colombian CRC patients compared with Caucasian CRC patients. These findings are novel and warrant further studies in larger cohorts. Keywords: colon cancer, MSI, MMR, immunohistochemistry

  2. Discrepancy in abo blood grouping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.N.; Ahmed, Z.; Khan, T.A.

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies in blood typing is one of the major reasons in eliciting a transfusion reaction. These discrepancies can be avoided through detailed analysis for the blood typing. Here, we report a subgroup of blood group type-B in the ABO system. Donor's blood was analyzed by employing commercial antisera for blood grouping. The results of forward (known antisera) and reverse (known antigen) reaction were not complimentary. A detailed analysis using the standard protocols by American Association of Blood Banking revealed the blood type as a variant of blood group-B instead of blood group-O. This is suggestive of the fact that blood group typing should be performed with extreme care and any divergence, if identified, should be properly resolved to avoid transfusion reactions. Moreover, a major study to determine the blood group variants in Pakistani population is needed. (author)

  3. Computational implementation of a systems prioritization methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A preliminary example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Anderson, D.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). WIPP Performance Assessments Departments; Baker, B.L. [Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    A systems prioritization methodology (SPM) is under development to provide guidance to the US DOE on experimental programs and design modifications to be supported in the development of a successful licensing application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. The purpose of the SPM is to determine the probabilities that the implementation of different combinations of experimental programs and design modifications, referred to as activity sets, will lead to compliance. Appropriate tradeoffs between compliance probability, implementation cost and implementation time can then be made in the selection of the activity set to be supported in the development of a licensing application. Descriptions are given for the conceptual structure of the SPM and the manner in which this structure determines the computational implementation of an example SPM application. Due to the sophisticated structure of the SPM and the computational demands of many of its components, the overall computational structure must be organized carefully to provide the compliance probabilities for the large number of activity sets under consideration at an acceptable computational cost. Conceptually, the determination of each compliance probability is equivalent to a large numerical integration problem. 96 refs., 31 figs., 36 tabs.

  4. Computational implementation of a systems prioritization methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A preliminary example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.

    1996-04-01

    A systems prioritization methodology (SPM) is under development to provide guidance to the US DOE on experimental programs and design modifications to be supported in the development of a successful licensing application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. The purpose of the SPM is to determine the probabilities that the implementation of different combinations of experimental programs and design modifications, referred to as activity sets, will lead to compliance. Appropriate tradeoffs between compliance probability, implementation cost and implementation time can then be made in the selection of the activity set to be supported in the development of a licensing application. Descriptions are given for the conceptual structure of the SPM and the manner in which this structure determines the computational implementation of an example SPM application. Due to the sophisticated structure of the SPM and the computational demands of many of its components, the overall computational structure must be organized carefully to provide the compliance probabilities for the large number of activity sets under consideration at an acceptable computational cost. Conceptually, the determination of each compliance probability is equivalent to a large numerical integration problem. 96 refs., 31 figs., 36 tabs

  5. Does vitamin D deficiency predict early conversion of clinically isolated syndrome? A preliminary Egyptian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Hala A; Sayed, Sayed S; Daker, Lamiaa I; AbdelAziz, Hossam Eldin; Taha, Mohamed A

    2018-03-15

    It has been suggested that vitamin D influences the immunoregulation and subsequently affects the risk for conversion of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS). There is little information regarding the relationship between levels of vitamin D and CIS conversion to MS in Egyptian patients. It is to study contribution of vitamin D deficiency to conversion of CIS to clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) and correlation of vitamin D level to cognitive and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results. A longitudinal prospective case control study was conducted on 43 Egyptian patients diagnosed as CIS according to McDonald criteria (2010). Clinical presentation, brain MRI and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were evaluated at baseline and after one-year follow-up. The CIS patients that converted to MS showed significant lower vitamin D level (p < 0.001) than the non-convertors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the CIS patients with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D level (p < 0.001) are at higher risk for early conversion to MS. There was a significant positive correlation between the vitamin D level and PASAT (r = 0.36, p = 0.02). It was found that there was a significant negative correlation between vitamin D level and MRI T 2 load (r = -0.38, p = 0.01). The low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D may predict early conversion to clinically definite MS. Early vitamin D supplementation is recommended in patients with CIS.

  6. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA's Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions, the choice of parameters selected for sampling, and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect compliance with 40 CFR 191B are: drilling intensity, intrusion borehole permeability, halite and anhydrite permeabilities, radionuclide solubilities and distribution coefficients, fracture spacing in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, porosity of the Culebra, and spatial variability of Culebra transmissivity. Performance with respect to 40 CFR 191B is insensitive to uncertainty in other parameters; however, additional data are needed to confirm that reality lies within the assigned distributions

  7. An appraisal of the 1992 preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.L.; Chaturvedi, L.; Silva, M.K.; Weiner, R.; Neill, R.H.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the New Mexico Environmental Evaluation Group is to conduct an independent technical evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Project to ensure the protection of the public health and safety and the environment. The WIPP Project, located in southeastern New Mexico, is being constructed as a repository for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes generated by the national defense programs. The Environmental Evaluation Group (EEG) has reviewed the WIPP 1992 Performance Assessment (Sandia WIPP Performance Assessment Department, 1992). Although this performance assessment was released after the October 1992 passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (PL 102-579), the work preceded the Act. For individual and ground-water protection, calculations have been done for 1000 years post closure, whereas the US Environmental Protection Agency's Standards (40 CFR 191) issued in 1993 require calculations for 10,000 years. The 1992 Performance Assessment continues to assimilate improved understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site, and evolving conceptual models of natural barriers. Progress has been made towards assessing WIPP's compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's Standards (40 CFR 191). The 1992 Performance Assessment has addressed several items of major concern to EEG, outlined in the July 1992 review of the 1991 performance assessment (Neill et al., 1992). In particular, the authors are pleased that some key results in this performance assessment deal with sensitivity of the calculated complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDF) to alterative conceptual models proposed by EEG -- that flow in the Culebra be treated as single-porosity fracture-flow; with no sorption retardation unless substantiated by experimental data

  8. Isolation, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase crystallized with 2,2′-anhydrouridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, Vladimir I.; Lashkov, Alexander A.; Gabdoulkhakov, Azat G.; Pavlyuk, Bogdan Ph. [A. V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospect 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kachalova, Galina S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institutskaya Street 3, 142290 Pushchino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Betzel, Christian [Institute fur Biochemie und Lebensmittelchemie, University of Hamburg, c/o DESY, Building 22, Notkestrasse 85, 22604 Hamburg (Germany); Morgunova, Ekaterina Yu.; Zhukhlistova, Nadezhda E.; Mikhailov, Al’bert M., E-mail: amm@ns.crys.ras.ru [A. V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskiy Prospect 59, 119333 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-01

    S. typhimurium uridine phosphorylase has been isolated and crystallized in the presence of ligand. Uridine phosphorylase (UPh; EC 2.4.2.3) is a member of the pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase family of enzymes which catalyzes the phosphorolytic cleavage of the C—N glycoside bond of uridine, with the formation of ribose 1-phosphate and uracil. This enzyme has been shown to be important in the activation and catabolism of fluoropyrimidines. Modulation of its enzymatic activity may affect the therapeutic efficacy of chemotherapeutic agents. The structural investigation of the bacterial uridine phosphorylases, both unliganded and complexed with substrate/product analogues and inhibitors, may help in understanding the catalytic mechanism of the phosphorolytic cleavage of uridine. Salmonella typhimurium uridine phosphorylase has been crystallized with 2,2′-anhydrouridine. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.15 Å. Preliminary analysis of the diffraction data indicates that the crystal belongs to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.52, b = 123.98, c = 133.52 Å. The solvent content is 45.51%, assuming the presence of one hexamer molecule per asymmetric unit.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of probiotic potential of Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from Italian food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Barbara; Mancini, Simone; Fratini, Filippo; Pedonese, Francesca; Nuvoloni, Roberta; Bertelloni, Fabrizio; Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Cerri, Domenico

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate some probiotic properties of 42 wild Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from different Italian foods of animal origin. The strains were first screened for their antibiotic resistance profile (chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline), subsequently they were tested for their in vitro resistance to lysozyme (100 mg L⁻¹), low pH (3.0, 2.5 and 2.0) and bile salts (0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 %). Moreover, agglutination property was studied (adhesion to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells), as well as the presence of bsh and msa genes. The strains with the best characteristics were subjected to a further trial in order to evaluate their ability to survive to multiple stresses over time (lysozyme, low pH and bile salts) and the effect of these treatments on adhesion to yeast cells. All the strains were susceptible to chloramphenicol, erythromycin and gentamicin, while 6 strains were excluded from further evaluation because of their resistant phenotype against tetracycline. All the strains were able to grow in presence of lysozyme, as well as in MRS broth at pH 3.0. Only 4 strains showed a growth rate lower than 80 % when grown in MRS broth at pH 2.5, while a relevant growth rate decrease was observed after exposure to pH 2.0. Bile salts didn't affect the viability of the L. plantarum cells. Twenty-one strains out of 33 tested strains were able to adhere to S. cerevisiae cells. Presence of both bsh and msa genes was detected in 6 strains. The strains resistant to all the stresses, positive to agglutination with S. cerevisiae and showing bsh and msa genes were selected for further evaluation and subjected to different stress treatments over time. The assessment of growth rates showed that exposure to lysozyme significantly increased low pH resistance in L. plantarum. This increase ranged from 2.35 to 15.57 %. The consequential lysozyme and low pH exposures didn't affect the growth rate values after bile salts treatment

  10. Overnight shift work: factors contributing to diagnostic discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Tarek N; Loehfelm, Thomas; Khosa, Faisal; Rohatgi, Saurabh; Johnson, Jamlik-Omari

    2016-02-01

    The aims of the study are to identify factors contributing to preliminary interpretive discrepancies on overnight radiology resident shifts and apply this data in the context of known literature to draw parallels to attending overnight shift work schedules. Residents in one university-based training program provided preliminary interpretations of 18,488 overnight (11 pm–8 am) studies at a level 1 trauma center between July 1, 2013 and December 31, 2014. As part of their normal workflow and feedback, attendings scored the reports as major discrepancy, minor discrepancy, agree, and agree--good job. We retrospectively obtained the preliminary interpretation scores for each study. Total relative value units (RVUs) per shift were calculated as an indicator of overnight workload. The dataset was supplemented with information on trainee level, number of consecutive nights on night float, hour, modality, and per-shift RVU. The data were analyzed with proportional logistic regression and Fisher's exact test. There were 233 major discrepancies (1.26 %). Trainee level (senior vs. junior residents; 1.08 vs. 1.38 %; p performance. Increased workload affected more junior residents' performance, with R3 residents performing significantly worse on busier nights. Hour of the night was not significantly associated with performance, but there was a trend toward best performance at 2 am, with subsequent decreased accuracy throughout the remaining shift hours. Improved performance occurred after the first six night float shifts, presumably as residents acclimated to a night schedule. As overnight shift work schedules increase in popularity for residents and attendings, focused attention to factors impacting interpretative accuracy is warranted.

  11. The resolution of discrepancies among nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, R.

    1992-01-01

    Significant differences among input data occur in the evaluation of nuclear data because it is difficult to achieve experimental results with the accuracy required for some applications. Types of ''discrepancies'' are classified. The means are reviewed by which an evaluator may treat discrepancies in the process of evaluation. When all means fail that are based on how the discrepant data were obtained, the perplexed evaluator must sometimes combine discrepant data based just on the stated values and uncertainties; techniques for treating such challenges are compared. Some well-known data discrepancies are examined as examples

  12. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 1, Third comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This volume contains an overview of WIPP performance assessment and a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B).

  13. Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Robert B.; Keith, Patricia M.

    1981-01-01

    Examined the relationship between self-esteem discrepancies and depression in a long-term intimate relationship. Findings supported the hypothesis that depression is associated with discrepancies between married partners' self-appraisals, perceptions of spouse's appraisal, and spouse's actual appraisal. (Author/DB)

  14. Richness of endophytic fungi isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (Cactaceae) and preliminary screening for enzyme production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, J D P; Santos, M G S; Svedese, V M; Lima, D M M; Fernandes, M J S; Paiva, L M; Souza-Motta, C M

    2012-05-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. (forage cactus) is farmed with relative success in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian northeast for commercial purposes, particularly as forage and food. Endophytic microorganisms are those that can be isolated inside plant tissues and can be a new source to production of enzymes with different potentialities. The objective of this study was to describe the richness of endophytic fungi from O. ficus-indica and to detect the capacity of these species to produce extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Forty-four endophytic fungi species were isolated. Among them, the most commonly found were Cladosporium cladosporioides (20.43%) and C. sphaerospermum (15.99%). Acremonium terricola, Monodictys castaneae, Penicillium glandicola, Phoma tropica and Tetraploa aristata are being reported for the first time as endophytic fungi for Brazil. The majority of isolated fungi exhibited enzymatic potential. Aspergillus japonicus and P. glandicola presented pectinolytic activity. Xylaria sp. was the most important among the other 14 species with positive cellulase activity. All 24 isolates analysed were xylanase-positive. Protease was best produced by isolate PF103. The results indicate that there is a significant richness of endophytic fungi in O. ficus-indica, and that these isolates indicate promising potential for deployment in biotechnological processes involving production of pectinases, cellulases, xylanases and proteases.

  15. Isolation of methanotrophic bacteria from a london landfill: a preliminary study using molecular and stable isotopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriskantharajah, S.; Cutting, S.; Lowry, D.; Grassineau, N.; Nisbet, E.

    2003-04-01

    Methane emissions from landfills are an important source of European greenhouse emissions, and could be reduced by a biological management program that used methanotrophs in landfill cover soils. Topsoil samples taken from a London Landfill were incubated on Nitrate Mineral Salts medium in the presence of methane. The resulting colonies were probed for methanotrophic DNA using PCR amplification. DNA from methanotroph positive colonies was cloned and sequenced for identification. Isolates belonging to the genera Methylocaldum, Methylomonas and Methylosinus were detected. Phylogenetic analysis suggests the presence of possible new species. In addition dried samples of the isolates were analysed for their stable carbon isotope (δ 13C) composition. The results were δ 13C values of -27 per mil and -25 per mil for Methylomonas isolates, -35 per mil and -44 per mil for Methylosinus isolates, -58 per mil and -60 per mil for some of the Methylocaldum isolates and -35 per mil and -45 per mil for the others. This isotopic variation is reflected in a phylogenetic tree of the isolates. The differences shown in the δ 13C analysis could be due to differing biochemical properties, and if the technique is further developed, it may be used for rapid identification of bacteria useful in landfill management for reducing methane emissions. The results suggest that useful reductions in methane emissions could be achieved by a careful design of landfill cover to culture methanotrophs.

  16. A preliminary investigation of vertical crustal movements in the United Kingdom in the context of subsurface nuclear waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    Two types of change will influence the environment of a subsurface nuclear waste isolation facility: natural geological changes and changes caused by the construction of the waste repository and introduction of the waste. This report is concerned with vertical crustal movements, which are an expression of natural geological changes. Vertical crustal movements observed outside the United Kingdom are reviewed, and vertical movements in a test region of the UK investigated by comparison of geodetic levellings. The implications of vertical crustal movement to waste isolation facilities and some potentially valuable lines of research are discussed. (author)

  17. The isolation and preliminary characterization of native cyanobacterial and microalgal strains from lagoons contaminated with petroleum oil in Khark Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Noroozi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Algae has many applications in terms of ecology, biodiversity, agriculture, medicine, biotechnology, industry, etc. They are potent organisms in bio-active compound production, bioremediation and primary producer. Therefore, it is important to discover local strains with biotechnological and ecological applications. Materials and methods: Soil and water samples were collected from different sites of Khark Island (Persian Gulf. The samples were cultivated and purified using different techniques. Seven different antibiotics together with other physical methods used to purify the isolates. Results: Throughout the project 7 strains including 2 eukaryotic algae and 5 cyanobacteria have been isolated. Imipenem and cycloheximide were the best antibiotics for purification of cultures. Three of isolates were morphologically similar to Arthronema africanum, Pseudanabaena teremula, Anabaenopsis sp. However, they have some different characteristics which according to the present identification keys it is not possible to identify their identity (they have nominated Kh.C.d2, Kh.T.1 and Kh.T.2. Discussion and conclusion: According to the results, isolated strains were identified at the genus level based on morphology characters; therefore the complementary examinations such as molecular identification, ITS, 18s rRNA, 16s rRNA and sequencing can help to approve the strains identity. Upon approval of the new strains account for morphological traits are necessary for their easy identification. The Imipenem antibiotic is the best for eukaryotic algae purification and Cycloheximide is suitable for prokaryotic algae (cyanobacteria purification.

  18. Preliminary identification of scenarios that may affect the escape and transport of radionuclides from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Southeastern New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzowski, R V [Science Applications International Corporation, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1990-04-15

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is being evaluated as a location for the disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste. One of the criteria to be used to determine the suitability of the disposal system is compliance with the Containment Requirements established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. One step in determining compliance is to identify the combinations of events and processes (scenarios) defining possible future states of the disposal system that may affect the escape of radionuclides from the repository and transport to the accessible environment. A list of previously identified events and processes was adapted to a scenario-selection procedure that develops a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios through the use of a logic diagram. Four events resulted in the development of 16 scenarios. Preliminary analyses indicate that four scenarios result in no releases. Six scenarios consist of combinations of drilling into a room, drilling into a room and a brine reservoir, and emplacement of withdrawal wells downgradient from the repository. Six additional scenarios consist of these same six combinations with the addition of potash mining and the associated surface subsidence. The 12 retained scenarios will be screened based on consequence and/or probability of occurrence. During the course of performance assessment, additional data and information will be used to revise and update these preliminary scenarios where appropriate. (author)

  19. Preliminary identification of scenarios that may affect the escape and transport of radionuclides from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzowski, R.V.

    1990-04-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is being evaluated as a location for the disposal of defense-generated transuranic waste. One of the criteria to be used to determine the suitability of the disposal system is compliance with the Containment Requirements established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. One step in determining compliance is to identify the combinations of events and processes (scenarios) defining possible future states of the disposal system that may affect the escape of radionuclides from the repository and transport to the accessible environment. A list of previously identified events and processes was adapted to a scenario-selection procedure that develops a comprehensive set of mutually exclusive scenarios through the use of a logic diagram. Four events resulted in the development of 16 scenarios. Preliminary analyses indicate that four scenarios result in no releases. Six scenarios consist of combinations of drilling into a room, drilling into a room and a brine reservoir, and emplacement of withdrawal wells downgradient from the repository. Six additional scenarios consist of these same six combinations with the addition of potash mining and the associated surface subsidence. The 12 retained scenarios will be screened based on consequence and/or probability of occurrence. During the course of performance assessment, additional data and information will be used to revise and update these preliminary scenarios where appropriate. (author)

  20. Long-term gas and brine migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Preliminary sensitivity analyses for post-closure 40 CFR 268 (RCRA), May 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    This report describes preliminary probabilistic sensitivity analyses of long term gas and brine migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Because gas and brine are potential transport media for organic compounds and heavy metals, understanding two-phase flow in the repository and the surrounding Salado Formation is essential to evaluating long-term compliance with 40 CFR 268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act that states the conditions for disposal of specified hazardous wastes. Calculations described here are designed to provide guidance to the WIPP Project by identifying important parameters and helping to recognize processes not yet modeled that may affect compliance. Based on these analyses, performance is sensitive to shaft-seal permeabilities, parameters affecting gas generation, and the conceptual model used for the disturbed rock zone surrounding the excavation. Brine migration is less likely to affect compliance with 40 CFR 268.6 than gas migration. However, results are preliminary, and additional iterations of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses will be required to provide the confidence needed for a defensible compliance evaluation. Specifically, subsequent analyses will explicitly include effects of salt creep and, when conceptual and computational models are available, pressure-dependent fracturing of anhydrite marker beds

  1. Preliminary evaluation of the radioactive waste isolation potential of the alluvium-filled valleys of the Great Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, J.R.; Crowe, B.M.; Halleck, P.M.; Reed, A.W.

    1979-08-01

    The occurrences, geologic features, hydrology, and thermal, mechanical, and mineralogical properties of the alluvium-filled valleys are compared with those of other media within the Great Basin. Computer modeling of heat conduction indicates that heat generated by the radioactive waste can be dissipated through the alluvium in a manner that will not threaten the integrity of the repository, although waste emplacement densities will be lower than for other media available. This investigation has not revealed any failure mechanism by which one can rule out alluvium as a primary waste isolation medium. However, the alluvium appears to rank behind one or more other possible media in all properties examined except, perhaps, in sorption properties. It is therefore recommended that alluvium be considered as a secondary isolation medium unless primary sites in other rock types in the Great Basin are eliminated from consideration on grounds other than those considered here

  2. Reproductive isolation revealed in preliminary crossbreeding experiments using field collected Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from three ITS–2 defined groups

    OpenAIRE

    García, Mauricio; Menes, Marianela; Dorn, Patricia L.; Monroy, Carlota; Richards, Bethany; Panzera, Francisco; Bustamante, Dulce María

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata, a Chagas disease vector distributed in Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador, has been studied using genetic markers and four groups have been defined by ITS–2 sequences: 1A, 1B, 2 and 3. To gather evidence on the divergence and reproductive isolation among T. dimidiata ITS–2 groups, we carried out 15 crossbreeding experiments with field–collected sylvan and domestic T. dimidiata from Guatemala where three groups are found: 1A, 2 and 3. Reciprocal ...

  3. Discrepancy between snack choice intentions and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijzen, P.L.G.; Graaf, de C.; Dijksterhuis, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within

  4. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  5. Consequences of discrepancies on verified material balances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.; Hough, C.G.

    1983-01-01

    There exists a gap between the way item discrepancies that are found in an IAEA inspection are treated in practice and how they are treated in the IAEA Safeguards Technical Manual, Part F, Statistics. In the latter case, the existence of even a single item discrepancy is cause for rejection of the facility data. Probabilities of detection for given inspection plans are calculated based on this premise. In fact, although the existence of discrepancies may be so noted in inspection reports, they in no sense of the word lead to rejection of the facility data, i.e., to ''detection''. Clearly, however, discrepancies have an effect on the integrity of the material balance, and in fact, this effect may well be of dominant importance when compared to that of small measurement biases. This paper provides a quantitative evaluation of the effect of item discrepancies on the facility MUF. The G-circumflex statistic is introduced. It is analogous to the familiar D-circumflex statistic used to quantify the effects of small biases. Thus, just as (MUF-D-circumflex) is the facility MUF adjusted for the inspector's variables measurements, so is (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) the MUF adjusted for both the variables and attributes measurements, where it is the attributes inspection that detects item discrepancies. The distribution of (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) is approximated by a Pearson's distribution after finding the first four moments. Both the number of discrepancies and their size and sign distribution are treated as random variables. Assuming, then, that ''detection'' occurs when (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) differs significantly from zero, procedures for calculating effectiveness are derived. Some generic results on effectiveness are included. These results apply either to the case where (MUF-D-circumflex-G-circumflex) is treated as the single statistic, or to the two-step procedure in which the facility's data are first examined using (D-circumflex+G-circumflex) as

  6. Preliminary plan for disposal-system characterization and long-term performance evaluation of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Hunter, R.L.

    1989-04-01

    The US Department of Energy is planning to dispose of transuranic wastes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for evaluating the compliance of the WIPP with the Environmental Protection Agency's Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). This plan has been developed to present the issues that will be addressed before compliance can be evaluated. These issues examine the procedural nature of the Standard, and the technical requirements for further characterizing the behavior of the disposal system, including uncertainties, to support the compliance assessment. The plan briefly describes the activities that will be conducted prior to 1993 by Sandia to characterize the WIPP disposal system's behavior and predict its performance. 41 refs., 35 figs., 21 tabs

  7. Preliminary comparison with 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Rechard, R.P.; Anderson, D.R.; Swift, P.N.; Baker, B.L.; Bean, J.E. Jr.; McCurley, R.D.; Rudeen, D.K.; Beyeler, W.; Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V.; Schreiber, J.D.; Helton, J.C.; Vaughn, P.

    1990-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as the first mined geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Before disposing of waste at the WIPP, the DOE must evaluate compliance with the United states Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Standard, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191, US EPA, 1985). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating long-term performance against criteria in Subpart B of the Standard. ''Performance assessment'' as used in this report includes analyses for the Containment Requirements (section 191.13(a)) and the Individual Protection Requirements (section 191.15). Because proving predictions about future human actions or natural events is not possible, the EPA expects compliance to be determined on the basis of specified quantitative analyses and informed, qualitative judgment. The goal of the WIPP performance-assessment team at SNL is to provide as detailed and thorough a basis as practical for the quantitative aspects of that decision. This report summarizes SNL's late-1990 understanding of the WIPP Project's ability to evaluate compliance with Subpart B. 245 refs., 88 figs., 23 tabs

  8. Isolation, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of amaryllin, a plant pathogenesis-related protein from Amaryllis belladonna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sanjit; Singh, Nagendra; Sinha, Mau; Kaur, Punit; Srinivasan, A.; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, T. P.

    2009-01-01

    A novel 15 kDa antifungal protein amaryllin has been crystallized using 30% PEG 8000 as the precipitating agent. The crystals belong to orthorhombic space group I or I2 1 2 1 2 1 with cell dimensions, a = 48.6, b = 61.9 and c = 79.6–Å. A novel antifungal protein, amaryllin, has been isolated from the underground bulbs of Amaryllis belladonna, purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The protein was extracted using ammonium sulfate fractionation. The purified protein samples indicated a molecular weight of 15 kDa on SDS–PAGE. The protein showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium oxysporum. The N-terminal sequence of the first 15 amino-acid residues was determined using Edman degradation and did not show significant sequence identity to any known protein. The protein was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method with 30% PEG 8000 as precipitating agent. The crystals diffracted to 2.7 Å resolution and belonged to the orthorhombic space group I222 or I2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 48.6, b = 61.9, c = 79.6 Å. The complete sequence and structure determination of amaryllin are in progress

  9. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] panel entryway seal: Numerical simulation of seal composite interaction for preliminary design evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argueello, J.G.

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of a series of structural analyses performed to evaluate the structural interaction of the components of a potential two-component panel entryway seal configuration with each other and with the rock salt formation at the repository horizon of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. A two-dimensional axisymmetric geomechanical model is used to numerically simulate the interaction of the components of a 30.48 m (100 ft) long seal, consisting of concrete end caps and a crushed salt core, with each other and with the surrounding formation. Issues addressed in this report pertain to the consolidation of the crushed salt in terms of how much of the seal core reaches effective consolidation in the presence of the stiff concrete end caps since these could conceivably cause bridging (retardation of closure around the core) to occur. In addition, the stress field in the end caps is evaluated to determine if the concrete component maintains its integrity. The stresses induced in the surrounding formation are also evaluated to determine if the presence of the concrete component in the seal system results in a ''tightening'' of the formation around the seal. 20 refs., 43 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Preliminary comparison with 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Marietta, M.G.; Rechard, R.P.; Anderson, D.R. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Swift, P.N. (Tech. Reps., Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Baker, B.L. (Technadyne Engineering Consultants, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Bean, J.E. Jr.; McCurley, R.D.; Rudeen, D.K. (New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Beyeler, W.; Brinster, K.F.; Guzowski, R.V.; Sch

    1990-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is planned as the first mined geologic repository for transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by defense programs of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). Before disposing of waste at the WIPP, the DOE must evaluate compliance with the United states Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Standard, Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR Part 191, US EPA, 1985). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is evaluating long-term performance against criteria in Subpart B of the Standard. Performance assessment'' as used in this report includes analyses for the Containment Requirements ({section} 191.13(a)) and the Individual Protection Requirements ({section} 191.15). Because proving predictions about future human actions or natural events is not possible, the EPA expects compliance to be determined on the basis of specified quantitative analyses and informed, qualitative judgment. The goal of the WIPP performance-assessment team at SNL is to provide as detailed and thorough a basis as practical for the quantitative aspects of that decision. This report summarizes SNL's late-1990 understanding of the WIPP Project's ability to evaluate compliance with Subpart B. 245 refs., 88 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. Isolation and Preliminary Characterization of Proteinaceous Toxins with Insecticidal and Antibacterial Activities from Black Widow Spider (L. tredecimguttatus Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The eggs of black widow spider (L. tredecimguttatus have been demonstrated to be rich in toxic proteinaceous components. The study on such active components is of theoretical and practical importance. In the present work, using a combination of multiple biochemical and biological strategies, we isolated and characterized the proteinaceous components from the aqueous extract of the black widow spider eggs. After gel filtration of the egg extract, the resulting main protein and peptide peaks were further fractionated by ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Two proteinaceous components, named latroeggtoxin-III and latroeggtoxin-IV, respectively, were purified to homogeneity. Latroeggtoxin-III was demonstrated to have a molecular weight of about 36 kDa. Activity analysis indicated that latroeggtoxin-III exhibited neurotoxicity against cockroaches but had no obvious effect on mice, suggesting that it is an insect-specific toxin. Latroeggtoxin-IV, with a molecular weight of 3.6 kDa, was shown to be a broad-spectrum antibacterial peptide, showing inhibitory activity against all five species of bacteria tested, with the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, the implications of the proteinaceous toxins in egg protection and their potential applications were analyzed and discussed.

  12. Reproductive isolation revealed in preliminary crossbreeding experiments using field collected Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from three ITS-2 defined groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mauricio; Menes, Marianela; Dorn, Patricia L; Monroy, Carlota; Richards, Bethany; Panzera, Francisco; Bustamante, Dulce María

    2013-12-01

    Triatoma dimidiata, a Chagas disease vector distributed in Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador, has been studied using genetic markers and four groups have been defined by ITS-2 sequences: 1A, 1B, 2 and 3. To gather evidence on the divergence and reproductive isolation among T. dimidiata ITS-2 groups, we carried out 15 crossbreeding experiments with field-collected sylvan and domestic T. dimidiata from Guatemala where three groups are found: 1A, 2 and 3. Reciprocal crosses between individuals from groups 1A and 2, and a cross between group 2 individuals from different habitats, produced an average 129.78±42.29 eggs with hatching success ranging from 31.6 to 90.1%. The offspring of these crosses reached the adult stage, and crosses between F1 insects produced eggs. These results suggest that there are no pre- or post-zygotic reproductive barriers between groups 1A and 2, or within group 2. Crosses between group 3 females and males from groups 1A or 2 produced on average 85.67±30.26 eggs and none of them hatched. These results support the existence of pre-zygotic barriers between T. dimidiata group 3 and groups 1A and 2. The group 3 individuals were collected in sylvatic environments in Yaxha, Peten, Guatemala. Previously, distinct chromosomal characteristics (cytotype 3) were described in individuals from this population. Based on this evidence we suggest that this population is divergent at the species level from other T. dimidiata populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reproductive isolation revealed in preliminary crossbreeding experiments using field collected Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from three ITS–2 defined groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Mauricio; Menes, Marianela; Dorn, Patricia L.; Monroy, Carlota; Richards, Bethany; Panzera, Francisco; Bustamante, Dulce María

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata, a Chagas disease vector distributed in Mexico, Central America, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Ecuador, has been studied using genetic markers and four groups have been defined by ITS–2 sequences: 1A, 1B, 2 and 3. To gather evidence on the divergence and reproductive isolation among T. dimidiata ITS–2 groups, we carried out 15 crossbreeding experiments with field–collected sylvan and domestic T. dimidiata from Guatemala where three groups are found: 1A, 2 and 3. Reciprocal crosses between individuals from groups 1A and 2, and a cross between group 2 individuals from different habitats, produced an average 129.78±42.29 eggs with hatching success ranging from 31.6% to 90.1%. The offspring of these crosses reached the adult stage, and crosses between F1 insects produced eggs. These results suggest that there are no pre– or post– zygotic reproductive barriers between groups 1A and 2, or within group 2. Crosses between group 3 females and males from groups 1A or 2 produced on average 85.67±30.26 eggs and none of them hatched. These results support the existence of pre– zygotic barriers between T. dimidiata group 3 and groups 1A and 2. The group 3 individuals were collected in sylvatic environments in Yaxha, Peten, Guatemala. Previously, distinct chromosomal characteristics (cytotype 3) were described in individuals from this population. Based on this evidence we suggest that this population is divergent at the species level from other T. dimidiata populations. PMID:24041592

  14. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic study of isolated modules of the mouse coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troffer-Charlier, Nathalie; Cura, Vincent; Hassenboehler, Pierre; Moras, Dino; Cavarelli, Jean, E-mail: cava@igbmc.u-strasbg.fr [IGBMC (Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire), Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, Illkirch, F-67404 (France); INSERM, U596, Illkirch, F-67400 (France); CNRS, UMR7104, Illkirch, F-67400 (France); Université Louis Pasteur, Faculté des Sciences de la Vie, Strasbourg, F-67000 (France)

    2007-04-01

    Isolated modules of mouse coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 encompassing the protein arginine N-methyltransferase catalytic domain have been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. X-ray diffraction data have been collected and have enabled determination of the structures by multiple isomorphous replacement using anomalous scattering. Coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1) plays a crucial role in gene expression as a coactivator of several nuclear hormone receptors and also of non-nuclear receptor systems. Its recruitment by the transcriptional machinery induces protein methylation, leading to chromatin remodelling and gene activation. CARM1{sub 28–507} and two structural states of CARM1{sub 140–480} were expressed, purified and crystallized. Crystals of CARM1{sub 28–507} belong to space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 136.0, c = 125.3 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.5 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation and contain one monomer in the asymmetric unit. The structure of CARM1{sub 28–507} was solved by multiple isomorphous replacement and anomalous scattering methods. Crystals of apo CARM1{sub 140–480} belong to space group I222, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.6, b = 99.0, c = 207.4 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.7 Å resolution and contain two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Crystals of CARM1{sub 140–480} in complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine belong to space P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 74.6, b = 98.65, c = 206.08 Å; they diffract to beyond 2.6 Å resolution and contain four monomers in the asymmetric unit. The structures of apo and holo CARM1{sub 140–480} were solved by molecular-replacement techniques from the structure of CARM1{sub 28–507}.

  15. Scaling limits for the Lego discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameren, Andre van; Kleiss, Ronald

    1999-01-01

    For the Lego discrepancy with M bins, which is equivalent with a χ 2 -statistic with M bins, we present a procedure to calculate the moment generating function of the probability distribution perturbatively if M and N, the number of uniformly and randomly distributed data points, become large. Furthermore, we present a phase diagram for various limits of the probability distribution in terms of the standardized variable if M and N become infinite

  16. Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing Haemagglutinin from a Polish Avian H5N1 Isolate and Its Immunological Effect in Preliminary Animal Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka K. Szczepankowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are Gram-positive, nonpathogenic microorganisms that are gaining much interest as antigen producers for development of live vaccine vectors. Heterologous proteins of different origin have been successfully expressed in various LAB species, including Lactococcus lactis. Recombinant L. lactis strains have been shown to induce specific local and systemic immune responses against various antigens. Our study aimed at constructing a L. lactis strain expressing haemagglutinin of a Polish avian H5H1 influenza isolate and examining its effect on animals. Expression of the cloned H5 gene was achieved using the nisin-controlled gene expression system. Detection of the intracellular H5 antigen produced in L. lactis was performed by Western blot analysis and confirmed using mass spectrometry. The potential of L. lactis recombinant cells to induce an immune response was examined by setting up preliminary immunization trials on chickens and mice. Obtained sera were tested for specific antibodies by ELISA assays. The results of these studies are a promising step toward developing a vaccine against the bird flu using Lactococcus lactis cells as bioreactors for efficient antigen production and delivery to the mucosal surface.

  17. Recombinant Lactococcus lactis Expressing Haemagglutinin from a Polish Avian H5N1 Isolate and Its Immunological Effect in Preliminary Animal Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepankowska, Agnieszka K; Szatraj, Katarzyna; Sałański, Przemysław; Rózga, Agnieszka; Górecki, Roman K; Bardowski, Jacek K

    2017-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are Gram-positive, nonpathogenic microorganisms that are gaining much interest as antigen producers for development of live vaccine vectors. Heterologous proteins of different origin have been successfully expressed in various LAB species, including Lactococcus lactis . Recombinant L. lactis strains have been shown to induce specific local and systemic immune responses against various antigens. Our study aimed at constructing a L. lactis strain expressing haemagglutinin of a Polish avian H5H1 influenza isolate and examining its effect on animals. Expression of the cloned H5 gene was achieved using the nisin-controlled gene expression system. Detection of the intracellular H5 antigen produced in L. lactis was performed by Western blot analysis and confirmed using mass spectrometry. The potential of L. lactis recombinant cells to induce an immune response was examined by setting up preliminary immunization trials on chickens and mice. Obtained sera were tested for specific antibodies by ELISA assays. The results of these studies are a promising step toward developing a vaccine against the bird flu using Lactococcus lactis cells as bioreactors for efficient antigen production and delivery to the mucosal surface.

  18. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Vol. 1: Third comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-15

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This volume contains an overview of WIPP performance assessment and a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Detailed information about the technical basis for the preliminary comparison is contained in Volume 2. The reference data base and values for input parameters used in the modeling system are contained in Volume 3. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to 40 CFR 191B are contained in Volume 4. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 performance assessment is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 performance assessment are preliminary, and are not suitable for final comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Portions of the modeling system and the data base remain incomplete, and the level of confidence in the performance estimates is not sufficient for a defensible compliance evaluation. Results are, however, suitable for providing guidance to the WIPP Project. All results are conditional on the models and data used, and are presented for preliminary comparison to the Containment Requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B as mean complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) displaying estimated probabilistic releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Results compare three conceptual models for

  19. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Vol. 1: Third comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This volume contains an overview of WIPP performance assessment and a preliminary comparison with the long-term requirements of the Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Detailed information about the technical basis for the preliminary comparison is contained in Volume 2. The reference data base and values for input parameters used in the modeling system are contained in Volume 3. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses related to 40 CFR 191B are contained in Volume 4. Volume 5 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance. Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 performance assessment is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 performance assessment are preliminary, and are not suitable for final comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Portions of the modeling system and the data base remain incomplete, and the level of confidence in the performance estimates is not sufficient for a defensible compliance evaluation. Results are, however, suitable for providing guidance to the WIPP Project. All results are conditional on the models and data used, and are presented for preliminary comparison to the Containment Requirements of 40 CFR 191, Subpart B as mean complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) displaying estimated probabilistic releases of radionuclides to the accessible environment. Results compare three conceptual models for

  20. The mediation roles of discrepancy stress and self-esteem between masculine role discrepancy and mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Lau, Joseph T F; Wang, Zixin; Ma, Yee-Ling; Lau, Mason C M

    2018-08-01

    Masculine role discrepancy and discrepancy stress occur when men perceive that they fail to live up to the ideal manhood derived from societal prescriptions. The present study examined the associations between masculine role discrepancy and two emotional and mental health problems (social anxiety and depressive symptoms), and potential mediation effects through discrepancy stress and self-esteem in a male general population. Based on random population-based sampling, 2000 male residents in Hong Kong were interviewed. Levels of masculine role discrepancy, discrepancy stress, self-esteem, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms were assessed by using validated scales. Results of structural equation modeling analysis indicated that the proposed model fit the sample well. (χ 2 (118) = 832.34, p masculine role discrepancy, discrepancy stress, and emotional/mental health problems. We found that discrepancy stress significantly mediated the association between masculine role discrepancy and social anxiety, while self-esteem significantly mediated the associations between masculine role discrepancy and both social anxiety and depression. Study limitations mainly included the cross-sectional design and reliance on self-reported questionnaires. The associations between masculine discrepancy and social anxiety/depressive symptoms among men may be explained by the increase in discrepancy stress and decrease in self-esteem. The findings suggest needs and directions for future research for the relationship between masculine role discrepancy and men's mental health, mechanisms involved, and interventions for improvement. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Isolasi Dan Identifikasi Pseudomonas Dari Tanah Kebun Biologi Wamena Dan Uji Awal Sebagai Agen Biokontrol Fusarium*[the Isolation and Identification of Pseudomonas From the Wamena Biological Gardens Soil and Its Preliminary Test as Biocontrol Agent on Fusari

    OpenAIRE

    Latupapua, HJD; Nurhidayat, N

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas bacteria plays essential role in soil ecology such as decomposer and biological control. The bacteria were isolated on selective media and identified from five soil samples taken within area of Wamena Biological Gardens.There are six species Pseudomonas were indentified based on morphological characters and biochemical reaction.P. striata was found to be common in soil of the area.No pathogen Pseudomonas was indentified in all soil samples. Preliminary study on biological control ...

  2. Discrepancies in assessing undergraduates’ pragmatics learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ndayizeye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to reveal the level of implementation of authentic assessment in the pragmatics course at the English Education Department of a university. Discrepancy Evaluation Model (DEM was used. The instruments were questionnaire, documentation, and observation. The result of the research shows that respectively, the effectiveness of definition, installation, process, and production stages in logits are -0.06, -0.14, 0.45, and 0.02 on its aspect of the assessment methods’ effectiveness in uncovering students’ ability. Such values indicate that the level of implementation fell respectively into ‘very high’,’high’, ‘low’, and ‘very low’ categories.  The students’ success rate is in ‘very high’ category with the average score of 3.22. However, the overall implementation of the authentic assessment fell into a ‘low’ category with the average score of 0.06. Discrepancies leading to such a low implementation are the unavailability of the assessment scheme, that of scoring rubric, minimal (only 54.54% diversification of assessment methods, infrequency of the lecturer’s feedback on the students’ academic achievement, and the non-use of portfolio assessment.

  3. Analysis of F-16 radar discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riche, K. A.

    1982-12-01

    One hundred and eight aircraft were randomly selected from three USAF F-16 bases and examined. These aircraft included 63 single-seat F-16As and 45 two-seat F-16Bs and encompassed 8,525 sorties and 748 radar system write-ups. Programs supported by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) were run on the data. Of the 748 discrepancies, over one-third of them occurred within three sorties of each other and half within six sorties. Sixteen percent of all aircraft which had a discrepancy within three sorties had another write-up within the next three sorties. Designated repeat/recurring write-ups represented one-third of all the instances in which the write-up separation interval was three sorties or less. This is an indication that maintenance is unable to correct equipment failures as they occur, most likely because the false alarm rate is too high and maintenance is unable to duplicate the error conditions on the ground for correct error diagnosis.

  4. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 5, Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of gas and brine migration for undisturbed performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to migration of gas and brine from the undisturbed repository. Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Volume 1 contains an overview of WIPP PA and results of a preliminary comparison with 40 CFR 191, Subpart B. Volume 2 describes the technical basis for the performance assessment, including descriptions of the linked computational models used in the Monte Carlo analyses. Volume 3 contains the reference data base and values for input parameters used in consequence and probability modeling. Volume 4 contains uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Finally, guidance derived from the entire 1992 PA is presented in Volume 6. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect gas and brine migration from the undisturbed repository are: initial liquid saturation in the waste, anhydrite permeability, biodegradation-reaction stoichiometry, gas-generation rates for both corrosion and biodegradation under inundated conditions, and the permeability of the long-term shaft seal.

  5. Optimization and preliminary characterization of venom isolated from 3 medically important jellyfish: the box (Chironex fleckeri), Irukandji (Carukia barnesi), and blubber (Catostylus mosaicus) jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltshire, C J; Sutherland, S K; Fenner, P J; Young, A R

    2000-01-01

    To optimize venom extraction and to undertake preliminary biochemical studies of venom from the box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri), the Irukandji jellyfish (Carukia barnesi), and the blubber jellyfish (Catostylus mosaicus). Lyophilized crude venoms from box jellyfish tentacles and whole Irukandji jellyfish were prepared in water by homogenization, sonication, and rapid freeze thawing. A second technique, consisting of grinding samples with a glass mortar and pestle and using phosphate-buffered saline, was used to prepare crude venom from isolated nematocysts of the box jellyfish, the bells of Irukandji jellyfish, and the oral lobes of blubber jellyfish. Venoms were compared by use of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blot test. Toxicity of some venoms was determined by intravenous median lethal dose assay in mice. Different venom extraction techniques produced significantly different crude venoms for both box and Irukandji jellyfish. Irukandji and blubber venom SDS-PAGE protein profiles were established for the first time. Analysis of Western blot tests revealed that box jellyfish antivenin reacted specifically with the venom of each jellyfish. Toxicity was found in Irukandji jellyfish venom derived by use of the mortar-and-pestle method, but not in the lyophilized venom. Glass mortar-and-pestle grinding and use of an appropriate buffer was found to be a simple and suitable method for the preparation of venom from each jellyfish species studied. This study contributes to biochemical investigations of jellyfish venoms, particularly the venom of the Irukandji jellyfish, for which there are, to our knowledge, no published studies. It also highlights the importance of optimizing venom extraction as the first step toward understanding the complex biological effects of jellyfish venoms.

  6. Further Investigations of NIST Water Sphere Discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, B.L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on a family of water spheres at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) facilities. These measurements are important for criticality safety studies in that, frequently, difficulties have arisen in predicting the reactivity of individually subcritical components assembled in a critical array. It has been postulated that errors in the neutron leakage from individual elements in the array could be responsible for these problems. In these NIST measurements, an accurate determination of the leakage from a fission spectrum, modified by water scattering, is available. Previously, results for 3-, 4-, and 5-in. diam. water-filled spheres, both with and without cadmium covers over the fission chambers, were presented for four fissionable materials: 235 U, 238 U, 237 Np, and 239 Pu. Results were also given for ''dry'' systems, in which the water spheres were drained of water, with the results corresponding to essentially measurements of unmoderated 252 Cf spontaneous-fission neutrons. The calculated-to-experimental (C/E) values ranged from 0.94 to 1.01 for the dry systems and 0.93 to 1.05 for the wet systems, with experimental uncertainties ranging from 1.5 to 1.9%. These results indicated discrepancies that were clearly outside of the experimental uncertainties, and further investigation was suggested. This work updates the previous calculations with a comparison of the predicted C/E values with ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI transport cross sections. Variations in the predicted C/E values that arise from the use of ENDF/B-V, ENDF/B-VI, ENDL92, and LLLDOS for the response fission cross sections are also tabulated. The use of both a 45-group NIST fission spectrum and a continuous-energy fission spectrum for 252 Cf are evaluated. The use of the generalized-linear-least-squares (GLLSM) procedures to investigate the reported discrepancies in the water sphere results for 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, and 237 Np is reported herein. These studies

  7. Imaging with Kantorovich--Rubinstein Discrepancy

    KAUST Repository

    Lellmann, Jan

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. We propose the use of the Kantorovich-Rubinstein norm from optimal transport in imaging problems. In particular, we discuss a variational regularization model endowed with a Kantorovich- Rubinstein discrepancy term and total variation regularization in the context of image denoising and cartoon-texture decomposition. We point out connections of this approach to several other recently proposed methods such as total generalized variation and norms capturing oscillating patterns. We also show that the respective optimization problem can be turned into a convex-concave saddle point problem with simple constraints and hence can be solved by standard tools. Numerical examples exhibit interesting features and favorable performance for denoising and cartoon-texture decomposition.

  8. Discrepancy between Clambda and Csub(E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.C.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion factors Clambda and Csub(E) are used in relating ionization chamber readings (M) to absorbed dose in water for measurements made in phantoms irradiated with photons of quality lambda and electrons of mean energy - E respectively. New calculations of Clambda (Nahum, A.E., and Greening, J.R., 1976, Phys. Med. Biol., vol.21, 862) have yielded values which differ by up to 5% from those quoted by ICRU (ICRU, 1969, Report 14, ICRU Publications, P.O. Box 30165, Washington, DC 20014). Nahum and Greening have also pointed out that the recommended values of Clambda and Csub(E) for radiations of approximately the same primary electron energy should be the same, but differ by approximately 4%. Alternative explanations are offered for these discrepancies. If the ICRU values are corrected for the perturbation of the electron flux in the phantom by the introduction of a cavity, the ionization chamber, into the phantom, then the resulting values are in good agreement with those quoted by Nahum and Greening. The discrepancy between Clambda and Csub(E) is the result of inconsistent definitions. The ICRU definition of Csub(E) leads to a dose conversion factor which is dimensionally correct but is based on the assumption that the product M.Nsub(c), where Nsub(c) is the exposure calibration factor for the ionization chamber at the calibration quality, 2MV, can be identified as exposure, whereas this is only true at the calibration quality. More accurate definitions of Clambda and Csub(E) are therefore proposed. (U.K.)

  9. Cultural estrangement: the role of personal and societal value discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Mark M; Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R

    2006-01-01

    Study 1 examined whether cultural estrangement arises from discrepancies between personal and societal values (e.g., freedom) rather than from discrepancies in attitudes toward political (e.g., censorship) or mundane (e.g., pizza) objects. The relations between different types of value discrepancies, estrangement, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness also were examined. Results indicated that personal-societal discrepancies in values and political attitudes predicted estrangement, whereas mundane attitude discrepancies were not related to estrangement. As expected, value discrepancies were the most powerful predictor of estrangement. Value discrepancies were not related to subjective well-being but fulfilled a need for uniqueness. Study 2 replicated the relations between value discrepancies, subjective well-being, and need for uniqueness while showing that a self-report measure of participants' values and a peer-report measure of the participants' values yielded the same pattern of value discrepancies. Together, the studies reveal theoretical and empirical benefits of conceptualizing cultural estrangement in terms of value discrepancies.

  10. Computerized follow-up of discrepancies in image interpretation between emergency and radiology departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, E; Groleau, G; Reiner, B; Stair, T

    1998-08-01

    Radiographs are ordered and interpreted for immediate clinical decisions 24 hours a day by emergency physicians (EP's). The Joint Commission for Accreditation of Health Care Organizations requires that all these images be reviewed by radiologists and that there be some mechanism for quality improvement (QI) for discrepant readings. There must be a log of discrepancies and documentation of follow up activities, but this alone does not guarantee effective Q.I. Radiologists reviewing images from the previous day and night often must guess at the preliminary interpretation of the EP and whether follow up action is necessary. EP's may remain ignorant of the final reading and falsely assume the initial diagnosis and treatment were correct. Some hospitals use a paper system in which the EP writes a preliminary interpretation on the requisition slip, which will be available when the radiologist dictates the final reading. Some hospitals use a classification of discrepancies based on clinical import and urgency, and communicated to the EP on duty at the time of the official reading, but may not communicate discrepancies to the EP's who initial read the images. Our computerized radiology department and picture archiving and communications system have increased technologist and radiologist productivity, and decreased retakes and lost films. There are fewer face-to-face consultants of radiologists and clinicians, but more communication by telephone and electronic annotation of PACS images. We have integrated the QI process for emergency department (ED) images into the PACS, and gained advantages over the traditional discrepancy log. Requisitions including clinical indications are entered into the Hospital Information System and then appear on the PACS along with images on readings. The initial impression, time of review, and the initials of the EP are available to the radiologist dictating the official report. The radiologist decides if there is a discrepancy, and whether it

  11. Discrepancies in Parents' and Children's Reports of Child Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourigan, Shannon E.; Goodman, Kimberly L.; Southam-Gerow, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to regulate one's emotions effectively has been linked with many aspects of well-being. The current study examined discrepancies between mothers' and children's reports of child emotion regulation. This investigation examined patterns of discrepancies for key aspects of emotion regulation (i.e., inhibition and dysregulated expression)…

  12. Discrepancies between perceptions of real and ideal yoga teachers and their relationship to emotional well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Crystal L; Riley, Kristen E; Besedin, Elena Y; Stewart, V Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Although more individuals are adopting yoga into their lives, little research has examined practitioners' expectations and experiences of their yoga instructor's behavior. Discrepancies between real and ideal behaviors of yoga instructors may lead to unsatisfactory experiences and decrease the potential impact of yoga practice. This study investigated differences between yoga practitioners' real and ideal perceptions of their yoga teacher's behavior and the relationship between discrepant beliefs and students' symptoms of depression, anxiety,and stress. The Perceptions of Yoga Teacher Questionnaire (PYTQ), a recently developed survey of student attitudes regarding yoga teachers' behavior, was administered ina national online survey of yoga students and teachers. Greater discrepancy between real and idea yoga teacher behavior was anticipated to be positively associated with practitioners' symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Pearson correlations corrected for multiple comparisons revealed that yoga students and teachers are generally satisfied with their teacher's behaviors. Significant discrepancies between real and ideal teacher behavior were found for both groups. Higher discrepancy scores were associated with symptoms of stress and anxiety but not depression for students, but not for teachers. These preliminary findings provide insight into the relationship between expectancies and real yoga teacher behaviors and their links to student emotional adjustment.More research in this area is warranted.

  13. Discrepant Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Relationship Adjustment among Lesbian Women and their Relationship Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Lewis, Robin J.; Mason, Tyler B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women (N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner’s alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner’s physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners’ alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples. PMID:26478657

  14. Discrepant Alcohol Use, Intimate Partner Violence, and Relationship Adjustment among Lesbian Women and their Relationship Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Lewis, Robin J; Mason, Tyler B

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the association between relationship adjustment and discrepant alcohol use among lesbian women and their same-sex intimate partners after controlling for verbal and physical aggression. Lesbian women ( N = 819) who were members of online marketing research panels completed an online survey in which they reported both their own and same-sex intimate partner's alcohol use, their relationship adjustment, and their own and their partner's physical aggression and psychological aggression (i.e., verbal aggression and dominance/isolation). Partners' alcohol use was moderately correlated. Discrepancy in alcohol use was associated with poorer relationship adjustment after controlling for psychological aggression and physical aggression. Results are discussed in terms of the similarity and differences with previous literature primarily focused on heterosexual couples.

  15. Preliminary report for analysis of genome wide mutations from four ciprofloxacin resistant B. anthracis Sterne isolates generated by Illumina, 454 sequencing and microarrays for DHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, Crystal [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Vergez, Lisa [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinckley, Aubree [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thissen, James [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gardner, Shea [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McLoughlin, Kevin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jackson, Paul [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ellingson, Sally [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hauser, Loren [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brettin, Tom [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fofanov, Viacheslav [Eureka Genomics, Hercules, CA (United States); Koshinsky, Heather [Eureka Genomics, Hercules, CA (United States); Fofanov, Yuriy [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-06-21

    The objective of this project is to provide DHS a comprehensive evaluation of the current genomic technologies including genotyping, Taqman PCR, multiple locus variable tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing in the analysis of biothreat agents from complex environmental samples. As the result of a different DHS project, we have selected for and isolated a large number of ciprofloxacin resistant B. anthracis Sterne isolates. These isolates vary in the concentrations of ciprofloxacin that they can tolerate, suggesting multiple mutations in the samples. In collaboration with University of Houston, Eureka Genomics and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, we analyzed the ciprofloxacin resistant B. anthracis Sterne isolates by microarray hybridization, Illumina and Roche 454 sequencing to understand the error rates and sensitivity of the different methods. The report provides an assessment of the results and a complete set of all protocols used and all data generated along with information to interpret the protocols and data sets.

  16. STUDI PENDAHULUAN ENZIM KITINASE EXTRASELULER YANG DIHASILKAN OLEH ISOLAT BAKTERI ASAL MANADO 1 [Preliminary Study of Extracellular Chitinase Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Manado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Y. Purwani 1

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Chitinolytic bacteria were isolated from several exotic area in Manado Province. The most potential isolate, namely 13.26, was isolated from Tompaso. The isolate was cultured in the thermus medium containing colloidal chitin as a carbon source for 5 days at 55°C to produce chitinase. It was observed that chitinase was most active at 65��C and the optimum pH was 8 in boric acid-borax buffer. Ammonium sulfate (50% saturation precipitation of the protein increased the specific activity of the enzyme from 0.20 unit/mg protein (in culture supernatant to 0.28 unit/mg protein. The molecular weight as estimated by zymogram analysis was180 kDa

  17. Effect of EHR user interface changes on internal prescription discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchin, A; Sawarkar, A; Dementieva, Y A; Breydo, E; Ramelson, H

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether specific design interventions (changes in the user interface (UI)) of an electronic health record (EHR) medication module are associated with an increase or decrease in the incidence of contradictions between the structured and narrative components of electronic prescriptions (internal prescription discrepancies). We performed a retrospective analysis of 960,000 randomly selected electronic prescriptions generated in a single EHR between 01/2004 and 12/2011. Internal prescription discrepancies were identified using a validated natural language processing tool with recall of 76% and precision of 84%. A multivariable autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to evaluate the effect of five UI changes in the EHR medication module on incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Over the study period 175,725 (18.4%) prescriptions were found to have internal discrepancies. The highest rate of prescription discrepancies was observed in March 2006 (22.5%) and the lowest in March 2009 (15.0%). Addition of "as directed" option to the dropdown decreased prescription discrepancies by 195 / month (p = 0.0004). An non-interruptive alert that reminded providers to ensure that structured and narrative components did not contradict each other decreased prescription discrepancies by 145 / month (p = 0.03). Addition of a "Renew / Sign" button to the Medication module (a negative control) did not have an effect in prescription discrepancies. Several UI changes in the electronic medication module were effective in reducing the incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Further research is needed to identify interventions that can completely eliminate this type of prescription error and their effects on patient outcomes.

  18. Effect of EHR User Interface Changes on Internal Prescription Discrepancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawarkar, A.; Dementieva, Y.A.; Breydo, E.; Ramelson, H.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine whether specific design interventions (changes in the user interface (UI)) of an electronic health record (EHR) medication module are associated with an increase or decrease in the incidence of contradictions between the structured and narrative components of electronic prescriptions (internal prescription discrepancies). Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 960,000 randomly selected electronic prescriptions generated in a single EHR between 01/2004 and 12/2011. Internal prescription discrepancies were identified using a validated natural language processing tool with recall of 76% and precision of 84%. A multivariable autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was used to evaluate the effect of five UI changes in the EHR medication module on incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Results Over the study period 175,725 (18.4%) prescriptions were found to have internal discrepancies. The highest rate of prescription discrepancies was observed in March 2006 (22.5%) and the lowest in March 2009 (15.0%). Addition of „as directed“ option to the dropdown decreased prescription discrepancies by 195 / month (p = 0.0004). An non-interruptive alert that reminded providers to ensure that structured and narrative components did not contradict each other decreased prescription discrepancies by 145 / month (p = 0.03). Addition of a „Renew / Sign“ button to the Medication module (a negative control) did not have an effect in prescription discrepancies. Conclusions Several UI changes in the electronic medication module were effective in reducing the incidence of internal prescription discrepancies. Further research is needed to identify interventions that can completely eliminate this type of prescription error and their effects on patient outcomes. PMID:25298811

  19. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbesi, K.

    1993-01-01

    My dissertation research investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure (Chapter II) confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressurization measurement at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: that soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements (0.1-0.5 m) does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability. In Chapter III, I describe the development of a dual-probe dynamic pressure technique to measure soil permeability to air (and anisotropy of permeability) at various length scales. Preliminary field tests of the apparatus indicated that soil permeability was indeed scale dependent

  20. The preliminary assessment and isolation of entomopathogenic fungi to be used in biological control with twospotted spider mite [Tetranychus urticae (acari, tetranychidae)] from East Anatolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Örtücü, Serkan; Algur, Ömer Faruk

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to isolation entomopathogenic fungi for possible use in biocontrol of two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch. and to determine their pathogenicity. For this purpose, plant leaves infected with T. urticae were collected from Erzurum, Kars and Ardahan. At laboratory, the internal and external mycoflora of T.urticae individuals on plant leaves were determined. As a result of isolation, twenty-five different fungi species belonging to the genera Acremonium, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Beauveria, Cladosporium, Gliocladium, Humicola, Penicillium, Trichoderma, Isaria, Ulocladium and Verticillium were obtained. Pathogenicity of this forty-five isolate belonging to twenty-five species were evaluated. As a test organism, T. urticae was used and suspensions (1 × 108conidia ml-1) were prepared in Tween 80. 2ml suspension of a single dose was sprayed onto down side of bean leaf discs using hand sprayer. Mortality was recorded daily for 7 days. A total of twelve isolates belonging to three species were determined to be pathogen against T.urticae. According to scale used: AT020 Isaria farinosa and AT025 Cladosporium cladosporioides were determined as least pathogen, AT037 and AT101 Beauveria bassiana, and AT019 and AT026 C. cladosporioides, and AT035 and AT036 I. farinosa as moderate pathogen, AT007, AT021, AT034 and AT076 B. bassiana as highly pathogen. The other thirty-three isolates found that not pathogenic against T.urticae.

  1. Prevalence of Gender Discrepancy in Internet Use in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    essence, the research sought to determine the prevalence of gender discrepancies in .... that the proportion of women Internet users in developing countries is much smaller than that of ..... equality: a contradiction in terminis? Computers in ...

  2. Error and discrepancy in radiology: inevitable or avoidable?

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, Adrian P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Errors and discrepancies in radiology practice are uncomfortably common, with an estimated day-to-day rate of 3?5% of studies reported, and much higher rates reported in many targeted studies. Nonetheless, the meaning of the terms ?error? and ?discrepancy? and the relationship to medical negligence are frequently misunderstood. This review outlines the incidence of such events, the ways they can be categorized to aid understanding, and potential contributing factors, both human- and ...

  3. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton’s ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. Aim: To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in a...

  4. The INDC/NEANDC joint discrepancy file 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, B.H.; Kocherov, N.P.

    1990-06-01

    The International Nuclear Data Committee (INDC) and the Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Data Committee (NEANDC) maintain a close interest in nuclear data which exhibit discrepancies and, by making known the details of the disagreements, encouragement is given to the undertaking of new measurements as a means of eliminating the ambiguities. The previous discrepancy file was published by NEANDC and INDC in 1984. This document contains 10 papers and a separate abstract was prepared for each of them. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Purification, isolation, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of the BTB domain of the centrosomal protein 190 from Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, K. M.; Nikolaeva, A. Yu.; Kachalova, G. S.; Bonchuk, A. N.; Popov, V. O.

    2017-11-01

    The spatial organization of the genome is controlled by a special class of architectural proteins, including proteins containing BTB domains that are able to dimerize or multimerize. The centrosomal protein 190 is one of such architectural proteins. The purification, crystallization, and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of the BTB domain of the centrosomal protein 190 are reported. The crystallization conditions were found by the vapor-diffusion technique. The crystals diffracted to 1.5 Å resolution and belonged to sp. gr. P3221. The structure was solved by the molecular replacement method. The structure refinement is currently underway.

  6. Learning about physical parameters: the importance of model discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynjarsdóttir, Jenný; O'Hagan, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Science-based simulation models are widely used to predict the behavior of complex physical systems. It is also common to use observations of the physical system to solve the inverse problem, that is, to learn about the values of parameters within the model, a process which is often called calibration. The main goal of calibration is usually to improve the predictive performance of the simulator but the values of the parameters in the model may also be of intrinsic scientific interest in their own right. In order to make appropriate use of observations of the physical system it is important to recognize model discrepancy, the difference between reality and the simulator output. We illustrate through a simple example that an analysis that does not account for model discrepancy may lead to biased and over-confident parameter estimates and predictions. The challenge with incorporating model discrepancy in statistical inverse problems is being confounded with calibration parameters, which will only be resolved with meaningful priors. For our simple example, we model the model-discrepancy via a Gaussian process and demonstrate that through accounting for model discrepancy our prediction within the range of data is correct. However, only with realistic priors on the model discrepancy do we uncover the true parameter values. Through theoretical arguments we show that these findings are typical of the general problem of learning about physical parameters and the underlying physical system using science-based mechanistic models. (paper)

  7. Discrepancy detection in the retrieval-enhanced suggestibility paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Brendon Jerome; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2018-04-01

    Retrieval-enhanced suggestibility (RES) refers to the finding that immediately recalling the details of a witnessed event can increase susceptibility to later misinformation. In three experiments, we sought to gain a deeper understanding of the role that retrieval plays in the RES paradigm. Consistent with past research, initial testing did increase susceptibility to misinformation - but only for those who failed to detect discrepancies between the original event and the post-event misinformation. In all three experiments, subjects who retrospectively detected discrepancies in the post-event narratives were more resistant to misinformation than those who did not. In Experiments 2 and 3, having subjects concurrently assess the consistency of the misinformation narratives negated the RES effect. Interestingly, in Experiments 2 and 3, subjects who had retrieval practice and detected discrepancies were more likely to endorse misinformation than control subjects who detected discrepancies. These results call attention to limiting conditions of the RES effect and highlight the complex relationship between retrieval practice, discrepancy detection, and misinformation endorsement.

  8. A preliminary investigation of vertical crustal movements in the United Kingdom in the context of subsurface nuclear waste isolation for the Department of the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-03-01

    The report falls under the headings: vertical crustal movements - a manifestation of intraplate geological processes (reports of vertical crustal movements observed by geodetic levelling in intraplate environments; vertical crustal movements and the geological record; possible causes of vertical crustal movements); an investigation of recent crustal movements in a test area of the United Kingdom by comparison of geodetic levelling records; vertical crustal movements and the isolation of nuclear waste in intraplate geological systems (conventional methods of site appraisal - a perspective of geological hazard assessment; the role of vertical crustal movements as a tool for rationalisation of hazard assessment, site selection and the assessment of future geological change); research options. (U.K.)

  9. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit motivation and unhealthy eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Oertig, Daniela; Brandstätter, Veronika; Allemand, Mathias

    2010-08-01

    Many people change their eating behavior as a consequence of stress. One source of stress is intrapersonal psychological conflict as caused by discrepancies between implicit and explicit motives. In the present research, we examined whether eating behavior is related to this form of stress. Study 1 (N=53), a quasi-experimental study in the lab, showed that the interaction between the implicit achievement motive disposition and explicit commitment toward an achievement task significantly predicts the number of snacks consumed in a consecutive taste test. In cross-sectional Study 2 (N=100), with a sample of middle-aged women, overall motive discrepancy was significantly related to diverse indices of unsettled eating. Regression analyses revealed interaction effects specifically for power and achievement motivation and not for affiliation. Emotional distress further partially mediated the relationship between the overall motive discrepancy and eating behavior.

  10. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation of CYP1A inducing components in coal tar fraction (F3) of Alaska north slope crude oil : a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanabhavan, G.; Brown, R.S. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Khan, C.W.; Hodson, P.V. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2004-07-01

    Recent concerns regarding the effects of weathered crude oil on the early life stage of aquatic organisms are related to reports that blue sac disease (BSD) has been linked to larval fish exposed to crude oil. Studies have shown that a relationship exists between the induction of CYP1A enzymes and the occurrence of BSD in fish species. However, the mechanism of BSD is not fully understood. This study contributed to the Toxicity Identification and Evaluation (TIE) approach by isolating the CYP1A enzyme. An improved separation and analysis method for characterizing crude oil was also developed. Earlier studies revealed that the highest CYP1A activity occurred in the coal tar fraction of crude oil, which is rich in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and which contains many classes of compounds such as waxes, asphaltenes and resins. The TIE method included separation of these compound classes as well as a detailed characterization of the PAH classes. A solvent extraction method was also developed to fractionate the coal tar fraction into compound classes with particular emphasis on isolating PAH components. The study showed that fractions rich in PAH were responsible for a significant CYP1A induction in juvenile trout, but fractions poor in PAH did not. The solid phase extraction method offered better PAH fractions for further analysis by liquid chromatography.

  12. A Preliminary Study for Safety Shutter design to Protect Streaming of Residual Radiation Passing through Beamline in Pre-Separator Room of ISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Kim, Do Hyun; Kim, Song Hyun; Shin, Chang Ho; Nam, Shin Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    RAON is a heavy ion accelerator under construction by the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) in Korea. As one part of the RAON accelerator, ISOL is a facility to generate and separate rare isotopes for various experiments. In ISOL facility, isotopes generated from the reaction between 70 MeV proton beam and UC{sub 2} target are transferred to pre-separator room. Almost all isotopes accumulated in slit of pre-separator except specific isobars, which are set for experiments. Residual radiations are generated from accumulated isotopes because these isotopes are unstable. Streaming of residual radiation by the beamline is weak point for radiation shielding design. In this study, safety shutter was designed. Residual radiation generated from accumulated isotopes at slit of pre-separator was estimated using following conditions: (1) the isotopes generated by proton-target reactions are accumulated at slit with 10 % accumulation rate; (2) it was assumed that the radioactive isotopes are uniformly distributed in the cylindrical slit which have 1 cm height and 15 diameter. To design optimized safety shutter, following steps were performed: (1) thickness and diameter of the bulk shield material were evaluated to optimize safety shutter material; (2) additional shielding structure was proposed using dose contribution of each additional shielding wall.

  13. Resolving taxonmic discrepancies: Role of Electronic Catalogues of Known Organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas Chavan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a disparity in availability of nomenclature change literature to the taxonomists of the developing world and availability of taxonomic papers published by developing world scientists to their counterparts in developed part of the globe. This has resulted in several discrepancies in the naming of organisms. Development of electronic catalogues of names of known organisms would help in pointing out these issues. We have attempted to highlight a few of such discrepancies found while developing IndFauna, an electronic catalogue of known Indian fauna and comparing it with existing global and regional databases.Full Text: PDF

  14. Preliminary study on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern related to the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serratore, Patrizia; Zavatta, Emanuele; Fiocchi, Eleonora; Serafini, Emanuele; Serraino, Andrea; Giacometti, Federica; Bignami, Giorgia

    2017-10-20

    V. vulnificus is a Gram-negative bacterium, commonly found in estuarine and coastal habitats, that can infect humans through seafood consumption or wound exposure. This study represents the first attempt to correlate the genotype of Vibrio vulnificus strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area, with their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. On the whole, 40 V. vulnificus strains, isolated from shellfish (n=20), different coastal water bodies (n=19), and the blood of a Carretta carretta turtle (n=1), were utilized. All strains were positive for the species-specific genes vvh A and hsp , with high variability for other markers: 55% (22 out of 40) resulted of the environmental (E) genotype ( vcg E, 16S rRNA type A, CPS2 or CPS0), 10% (4 out of 40) of the clinical (C) genotype ( vcg C, 16S rRNA type B, CPS1), and 35% (14 out of 40) of the mixed (M) genotype, possessing both E and C markers. The antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed by the diffusion method on agar, according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), utilizing the following commercial disks (Oxoid): ampicillin (AMP), ampicillin- sulbactam (SAM), piperacillin (PRL), cefazolin (KZ), cefotaxime(CTX), ceftazidime (CAZ), imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), amikacin (AK), gentamicin(CN), tetracycline(TE), ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LEV), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and chloramphenicol (C). 75% of the strains, (n=30) including all C strains, was sensitive to all the tested antibiotics, whereas E strains showed intermediate sensitivity to AK (2 strains), CIP and CAZ (1 strain), TE (1 strain) and resistance to KZ (1 strain), and 4 M strains showed I to AK.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray structural studies of hemoglobin A2 and hemoglobin E, isolated from the blood samples of β-thalassemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, Jhimli; Sen, Udayaditya; Choudhury, Debi; Datta, Poppy; Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Chakrabarty, Amit; Dattagupta, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    Hemoglobin A 2 (α 2 δ 2 ), a minor (2-3%) component of circulating red blood cells, acts as an anti-sickling agent and its elevated concentration in β-thalassemia is a useful clinical diagnostic. In β-thalassemia major, where there is a failure of β-chain production, HbA 2 acts as the predominant oxygen deliverer. Hemoglobin E, is another common abnormal hemoglobin, caused by splice site mutation in exon 1 of β globin gene, when combines with β-thalassemia, causes severe microcytic anemia. The purification, crystallization, and preliminary structural studies of HbA 2 and HbE are reported here. HbA 2 and HbE are purified by cation exchange column chromatography in presence of KCN from the blood samples of individuals suffering from β-thalassemia minor and Eβ-thalassemia. X-ray diffraction data of HbA 2 and HbE were collected upto 2.1 and 1.73 A, respectively. HbA 2 crystallized in space group P2 1 with unit cell parameters a=54.33 A, b=83.73 A, c=62.87 A, and β=99.80 degree sign whereas HbE crystallized in space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with unit cell parameters a=60.89 A, b=95.81 A, and c=99.08 A. Asymmetric unit in each case contains one Hb tetramer in R 2 state

  16. Preliminary assessment of terrestrial microalgae isolated from lichens as testing species for environmental monitoring: lichen phycobionts present high sensitivity to environmental micropollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; Moreno, H; Barreno, E; Catalá, M

    2014-01-01

    Bioassays constitute a tool for pollution analysis providing a holistic approach and high-quality indication of the toxicity. Microbioassays allow evaluating the toxicity of many samples, implying lower costs and enabling routine monitoring and pollution control. But tests conducted so far are limited to the use of a small number of taxa. Lichens are excellent bioindicators of pollution with great ecological significance. Studies show that the phycobiont is more sensitive to pollutants than the mycobiont. Phycobiont have features such as adaptation to anhydrobiosis and relatively rapid growth in vitro, making them suitable for microbioassays. Our aim is to determine the sensitivity of phycobionts to the pharmaceutical micropollutants carbamazepine and diclofenac as a preliminary step for the development of a toxicity microbioassay based on phycobionts. Optical dispersion and chlorophyll autofluorescence were used as endpoints of toxicity on two algal species showing that suspensions present cyclic and taxon specific patterns of aggregation. Trebouxia TR9 suspensions present a very high grade of aggregation while Asterochloris erici cells do not. Both micropollutants alter optical properties of the suspensions of both species. No significant alteration of chlorophyll autofluorescence by carbamazepine is observed. A. erici chlorophyll autofluorescence is extremely sensitive to diclofenac but the effect is not dependent on the drug concentration or on the time of exposure. Differently, TR9 only shows punctual chlorophyll alterations. Fluctuations in optical dispersion may indicate changes in the population structure of the species, including reproductive strategy. A. erici seems more sensitive to micropollutants, is better characterized and is available from commercial collections. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Technological Implementation of Renewable Energy in Rural-Isolated Areas and Small-Medium Islands in Indonesia: Problem Mapping And Preliminary Surveys of Total People Participation in a Local Wind Pump Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufik, Ahmad

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses a formulation of problem mapping and preliminary surveys of total people participation in a local wind pump (LWP) water supply in term of technological implementation of renewable energy (RE) in rural-isolated areas and small-medium islands in Indonesia. The formulation was constructed in order to enhance and to promote the local product of RE across Indonesia. It was also addressed to accommodate local potencies, barriers and opportunities into a priority map. Moreover, it was designed into five aspects such as (1) local technology of the RE: a case of pilot project of the LWP; (2) environmental-cultural aspects related to global issues of energy-renewable energy; (3) potencies and barriers corresponding to local, national, regional and international contents; (4) education and training and (5) gender participation. To focus the formulation, serial preliminary surveys were conducted in five major areas, namely: (1) survey on support and barrier factors of the aspects; (2) strategic planning model, a concept A-B-G which stands for Academician-Business people-Government; (3) survey on background based knowledge on energy conservation; (4) survey on gender participation in energy conservation and (5) survey on local stakeholder involvement. Throughout the surveys, it has been notified that the concept needs to be developed to any level of its component since its elements were identified in tolerance values such as high potency value of the LWP development (95%); a strong potency of rural area application (88%); a medium background of energy, energy conservation (EC) identified in a range of 56%-72%, sufficient support from local stakeholders and gender participation.

  18. Comparative processes in personal and group judgments : Resolving the discrepancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postmes, T; Branscombe, NR; Spears, R; Young, H

    The judgment mechanisms underlying personal- and group-level ratings of discrimination and privilege were investigated in high- and lour-status groups. PI consistent personal-group discrepancy is found for discrimination and privilege: but is not due to personal differentiation from the group.

  19. Prevalence of Gender Discrepancy in Internet Use in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One important agent of empowerment is information, provided with dispatch through the Internet. In essence, the research sought to determine the prevalence of gender discrepancies in Internet use with a view to indicating its implication to women empowerment. In the survey, cluster and proportionate sampling techniques ...

  20. Outcome discrepancies and selective reporting: impacting the leading journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Padhraig S; Koletsi, Despina; Dwan, Kerry; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Selective outcome reporting of either interesting or positive research findings is problematic, running the risk of poorly-informed treatment decisions. We aimed to assess the extent of outcome and other discrepancies and possible selective reporting between registry entries and published reports among leading medical journals. Randomized controlled trials published over a 6-month period from July to December 31st, 2013, were identified in five high impact medical journals: The Lancet, British Medical Journal, New England Journal of Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine and Journal of American Medical Association were obtained. Discrepancies between published studies and registry entries were identified and related to factors including registration timing, source of funding and presence of statistically significant results. Over the 6-month period, 137 RCTs were found. Of these, 18% (n = 25) had discrepancies related to primary outcomes with the primary outcome changed in 15% (n = 20). Moreover, differences relating to non-primary outcomes were found in 64% (n = 87) with both omission of pre-specified non-primary outcomes (39%) and introduction of new non-primary outcomes (44%) common. No relationship between primary or non-primary outcome change and registration timing (prospective or retrospective; P = 0.11), source of funding (P = 0.92) and presence of statistically significant results (P = 0.92) was found. Discrepancies between registry entries and published articles for primary and non-primary outcomes were common among trials published in leading medical journals. Novel approaches are required to address this problem.

  1. Discrepancies between Parents' and Children's Attitudes toward TV Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-01-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine…

  2. Discrepancies between cognition and decision making in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bennett, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims There is increasing clinical and legal interest in discrepancies between decision-making ability and cognition in old age, a stage of life when decisions have major ramifications. We investigated the frequency and correlates of such discrepancies in non-demented older adults participating in a large community-based cohort study of aging, the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Methods Participants [n = 689, mean age 81.8 (SD 7.6), mean education 15.2 (SD 3.1), 76.8 % female and 93.3 % white] completed a measure of financial and healthcare decision making (DM) and a battery of 19 neuropsychological tests from which a composite measure of global cognition (COG) was derived. Results Results indicated that 23.9 % of the sample showed a significant discrepancy between DM and COG abilities. Of these, 12.9 % showed DM COG. Logistic regression models showed older age, being non-white, greater temporal discounting, and greater risk aversion were associated with higher odds of being in the DM COG group. Education, income, depressive symptoms, and impulsivity were not associated with a discrepancy. Only demographic associations (age, sex, and race) remained significant in a fully adjusted model with terms included for all factors. Conclusion These results support the consideration of decision making and cognition as potentially separate constructs. PMID:25995167

  3. Error and discrepancy in radiology: inevitable or avoidable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Adrian P

    2017-02-01

    Errors and discrepancies in radiology practice are uncomfortably common, with an estimated day-to-day rate of 3-5% of studies reported, and much higher rates reported in many targeted studies. Nonetheless, the meaning of the terms "error" and "discrepancy" and the relationship to medical negligence are frequently misunderstood. This review outlines the incidence of such events, the ways they can be categorized to aid understanding, and potential contributing factors, both human- and system-based. Possible strategies to minimise error are considered, along with the means of dealing with perceived underperformance when it is identified. The inevitability of imperfection is explained, while the importance of striving to minimise such imperfection is emphasised. • Discrepancies between radiology reports and subsequent patient outcomes are not inevitably errors. • Radiologist reporting performance cannot be perfect, and some errors are inevitable. • Error or discrepancy in radiology reporting does not equate negligence. • Radiologist errors occur for many reasons, both human- and system-derived. • Strategies exist to minimise error causes and to learn from errors made.

  4. The Cepheid mass discrepancy and pulsation-driven mass loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neilson, H.R.; Cantiello, M.; Langer, N.

    2011-01-01

    Context. A longstanding challenge for understanding classical Cepheids is the Cepheid mass discrepancy, where theoretical mass estimates using stellar evolution and stellar pulsation calculations have been found to differ by approximately 10−20%. Aims. We study the role of pulsation-driven mass loss

  5. Man enough? Masculine discrepancy stress and intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2014-10-01

    Research on gender roles suggests that men who strongly adhere to traditional masculine gender norms are at increased risk for the perpetration of violent and abusive acts toward their female intimate partners. Yet, gender norms alone fail to provide a comprehensive explanation of the multifaceted construct of intimate partner violence (IPV) and there is theoretical reason to suspect that men who fail to conform to masculine roles may equally be at risk for IPV. In the present study, we assessed effect of masculine discrepancy stress , a form of distress arising from perceived failure to conform to socially-prescribed masculine gender role norms, on IPV. Six-hundred men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, masculine gender role norms, and history of IPV. Results indicated that masculine discrepancy stress significantly predicted men's historical perpetration of IPV independent of other masculinity related variables. Findings are discussed in terms of potential distress engendered by masculine socialization as well as putative implications of gender role discrepancy stress for understanding and intervening in partner violence perpetrated by men.

  6. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takács, Károly; Flache, Andreas; Maes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or

  7. Man enough? Masculine discrepancy stress and intimate partner violence☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Berke, Danielle S.; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2018-01-01

    Research on gender roles suggests that men who strongly adhere to traditional masculine gender norms are at increased risk for the perpetration of violent and abusive acts toward their female intimate partners. Yet, gender norms alone fail to provide a comprehensive explanation of the multifaceted construct of intimate partner violence (IPV) and there is theoretical reason to suspect that men who fail to conform to masculine roles may equally be at risk for IPV. In the present study, we assessed effect of masculine discrepancy stress, a form of distress arising from perceived failure to conform to socially-prescribed masculine gender role norms, on IPV. Six-hundred men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, masculine gender role norms, and history of IPV. Results indicated that masculine discrepancy stress significantly predicted men’s historical perpetration of IPV independent of other masculinity related variables. Findings are discussed in terms of potential distress engendered by masculine socialization as well as putative implications of gender role discrepancy stress for understanding and intervening in partner violence perpetrated by men. PMID:29593368

  8. Gender Discrepancies and Victimization of Students with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Cynthia G.; Rose, Chad A.; Ellis, Stephanie K.

    2016-01-01

    Students with disabilities have been recognized as disproportionately involved within the bullying dynamic. However, few studies have examined the interaction between disability status, gender, and grade level. The current study explored the gender discrepancies among students with and without disabilities in middle and high school on bullying,…

  9. Binarity and the Abundance Discrepancy Problem in Planetary Nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; García-Rojas, Jorge; Jones, David; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2015-04-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines and collisionally excited lines is a major unresolved problem in nebular astrophysics. Here, we show that the largest abundance discrepancies are reached in planetary nebulae with close binary central stars. We illustrate this using deep spectroscopy of three nebulae with a post common-envelope (CE) binary star. Abell 46 and Ou 5 have O2+/H+ abundance discrepancy factors larger than 50, and as high as 300 in the inner regions of Abell 46. Abell 63 has a smaller discrepancy factor around 10, which is still above the typical values in ionized nebulae. Our spectroscopic analysis supports previous conclusions that, in addition to “standard” hot ({{T}e} ˜ 104 K) gas, there exists a colder ({{T}e} ˜ 103 K), ionized component that is highly enriched in heavy elements. These nebulae have low ionized masses, between 10-3 and 10-1 M⊙ depending on the adopted electron densities and temperatures. Since the much more massive red giant envelope is expected to be entirely ejected in the CE phase, the currently observed nebulae would be produced much later, during post-CE mass loss episodes when the envelope has already dispersed. These observations add constraints to the abundance discrepancy problem. We revise possible explanations. Some explanations are naturally linked to binarity such as, for instance, high-metallicity nova ejecta, but it is difficult at this stage to depict an evolutionary scenario consistent with all of the observed properties. We also introduce the hypothesis that these nebulae are the result of tidal destruction, accretion, and ejection of Jupiter-like planets.

  10. Preliminary geohydrologic conceptual model of the Los Medanos region near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for the purpose of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinster, K.F.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes a geohydrologic conceptual model of the northern Delaware Basin to be used in modeling three-dimensional, regional ground-water flow for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in the Los Medanos region near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Geochemical and hydrological evidence indicates that flow is transient in the Rustler Formation and the Capitan aquifer in response to changing geologic, hydrologic, and climatic conditions. Before the Pleistocene, ground-water flow in the Rustler Formation was generally eastward, but uneven tilting of the Delaware Basin lowered the regional base level and formed fractures in the evaporitic sequence of rocks approximately parallel to the basin axis. Dissolution along the fractures, coupled with erosion, formed Nash Draw. Also, the drop in base level resulted in an increase in the carrying power of the Pecos River, which began incising the Capitan/aquifer near Carlsbad, New Mexico. Erosion and downcutting released hydraulic pressure that caused a reversal in Rustler ground-water flow direction near the WIPP. Flow in the Rustler west of the WIPP is toward Nash Draw and eventually toward Malaga Bend; flow south of the WIPP is toward Malaga Bend. 126 refs., 70 figs., 18 tabs

  11. Analysis of the bacterial diversity existing on animal hide and wool: development of a preliminary PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprint database for identifying isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Yanming; Deng, Mingjun; Wu, Zhenxing; Zhu, Laihua; Duan, Qing; Xu, Biao; Liang, Chengzhu; Yue, Zhiqin; Xiao, Xizhi

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-one bacterial strains were isolated from imported cattle hide and rabbit wool using two types of media, nutrient broth, and nutrient broth with serum. The bacteria identified were Brevibacillus laterosporus, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Peptococcus niger, Bacillus circulans, Raoultella ornithinolytica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thermobacillus, Bacillus choshinensis, Bacillus sphaericus, Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Mycobacteria, Moraxella, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Ralstonia pickettii, Staphylococcus chromogenes, Comamonas testosteroni, and Cupriavidus pauculus. The 16s rDNA gene of each bacterium was amplified using the universal primers 27f and 1492r. The amplicons were digested with AvaI, BamHI, BgII, DraI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HindIII, HinfI, HpaI, PstI, SmaI, TaqII, XbaI, XmaI, AluI, XhoI, and PvuI individually. A specific fingerprint from the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method based on 16s rDNA was obtained for each bacterium. The results showed that the method developed was useful not only for bacterial identification but also for the etiological investigation of pathogens in imported animal hair and wool.

  12. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 4: Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses for 40 CFR 191, Subpart B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with applicable long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for a final compliance evaluation. This volume of the 1992 PA contains results of uncertainty and sensitivity analyses with respect to the EPA`s Environmental Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). Additional information about the 1992 PA is provided in other volumes. Results of the 1992 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses indicate that, conditional on the modeling assumptions, the choice of parameters selected for sampling, and the assigned parameter-value distributions, the most important parameters for which uncertainty has the potential to affect compliance with 40 CFR 191B are: drilling intensity, intrusion borehole permeability, halite and anhydrite permeabilities, radionuclide solubilities and distribution coefficients, fracture spacing in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation, porosity of the Culebra, and spatial variability of Culebra transmissivity. Performance with respect to 40 CFR 191B is insensitive to uncertainty in other parameters; however, additional data are needed to confirm that reality lies within the assigned distributions.

  13. Caracterização preliminar de amostras do vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV isoladas no Brasil Preliminary characterization of brazilian isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Botton

    1998-04-01

    ção contra o vírus.This article reports the preliminary characterization of 19 Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV isolates, regarding the biological, antigenic and molecular properties. Eleven viruses were isolated from bovine fetuses, six were obtained from blood of animals from herds with reproductive problems, and two were isolated from clinical cases of gastroenteric disease. The clinical cases affected young animals and were characterized by diarrhea, oronasal and digestive erosions and ulceration, and occasional digestive bleeding and vulvar petechial hemorrhage. Sixteen isolates (84.2%, including those obtained from fetuses and clinical cases, were of the non-cytopathic (ncp biotype. Replication of three isolates (15.8% in tissue culture was characterized by appearance of cellular vacuolation and progressive destruction of the monolayers. Analysis of these isolates after cloning revealed a mixed population of cytopathic (cp and non-cytopathic viruses. Analysis of viral polypeptides by SDS-PAGE followed by "Western immunoblot" revealed the production of the non-structural protein NS3/p80 in cells infected with the cp viruses. In contrast, generation of NS3/p80 was not observed in cells infected with the ncp isolates, which only expressed the precursor polypeptide NS23/p125. Analysis of reactivity with a panel of 15 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs revealed a marked antigenic variability among the isolates, mainly in the envelope glycoprotein E2/gp53. Although one MAb to this glycoprotein recognized 18 isolates (94.7%, the other nine E2/gp53 MAbs recognized zero to 57.9% of the isolates. The marked antigenic diversity observed among the brazilian BVDV isolates may have important implications on diagnosis and immunization strategies.

  14. Discrepancy and Disliking Do Not Induce Negative Opinion Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flache, Andreas; Mäs, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Both classical social psychological theories and recent formal models of opinion differentiation and bi-polarization assign a prominent role to negative social influence. Negative influence is defined as shifts away from the opinion of others and hypothesized to be induced by discrepancy with or disliking of the source of influence. There is strong empirical support for the presence of positive social influence (a shift towards the opinion of others), but evidence that large opinion differences or disliking could trigger negative shifts is mixed. We examine positive and negative influence with controlled exposure to opinions of other individuals in one experiment and with opinion exchange in another study. Results confirm that similarities induce attraction, but results do not support that discrepancy or disliking entails negative influence. Instead, our findings suggest a robust positive linear relationship between opinion distance and opinion shifts. PMID:27333160

  15. Numerical discrepancy between serial and MPI parallel computations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Bong Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of 1D Burgers equation and 2D sloshing problem were carried out to study numerical discrepancy between serial and parallel computations. The numerical domain was decomposed into 2 and 4 subdomains for parallel computations with message passing interface. The numerical solution of Burgers equation disclosed that fully explicit boundary conditions used on subdomains of parallel computation was responsible for the numerical discrepancy of transient solution between serial and parallel computations. Two dimensional sloshing problems in a rectangular domain were solved using OpenFOAM. After a lapse of initial transient time sloshing patterns of water were significantly different in serial and parallel computations although the same numerical conditions were given. Based on the histograms of pressure measured at two points near the wall the statistical characteristics of numerical solution was not affected by the number of subdomains as much as the transient solution was dependent on the number of subdomains.

  16. Preliminary comparison with 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1991. Vol. 4: Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J C [Arizona State University, Department of Mathematics, Tempe, AZ (United States); Garner, J W [Applied Physics Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rechard, R P; Rudeen, D K [New Mexico Engineering Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, P N [Tech Reps Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1992-04-15

    The most appropriate conceptual model for performance assessment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is believed to include gas generation due to corrosion and microbial action in the repository and a dual-porosity (matrix and fracture porosity) representation for solute transport in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Under these assumptions, complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) summarizing radionuclide releases to the accessible environment due to both cuttings removal and groundwater transport fall substantially below the release limits promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This is the case even when the current estimates of the uncertainty in analysis inputs are incorporated into the performance assessment. The best-estimate performance-assessment results are dominated by cuttings removal. The releases to the accessible environment due to groundwater transport make very small contributions to the total release. The variability in the distribution of CCDFs that must be considered in comparisons with the EPA release limits is dominated by the variable LAMBDA (rate constant in Poisson model for drilling intrusions). The variability in releases to the accessible environment due to individual drilling intrusions is dominated by DBDIAM (drill bit diameter). Most of the imprecisely known variables considered in the 1991 WIPP performance assessment relate to radionuclide releases to the accessible environment due to groundwater transport. For a single borehole (i.e., an E2-type scenario), whether or not a release from the repository to the Culebra even occurs is controlled by the variable SALPERM (Salado permeability), with no releases for small values (i.e., < 5 x 10{sup -21} m{sup 2}) of this variable. When SALPERM is small, the repository never fills with brine and so there is no flow up an intruding borehole that can transport radionuclides to the Culebra. Further, releases that do reach the Culebra for

  17. Preliminary comparison with 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1991. Vol. 4: Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Garner, J.W.; Rechard, R.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Swift, P.N.

    1992-04-01

    The most appropriate conceptual model for performance assessment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is believed to include gas generation due to corrosion and microbial action in the repository and a dual-porosity (matrix and fracture porosity) representation for solute transport in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Under these assumptions, complementary cumulative distribution functions (CCDFs) summarizing radionuclide releases to the accessible environment due to both cuttings removal and groundwater transport fall substantially below the release limits promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This is the case even when the current estimates of the uncertainty in analysis inputs are incorporated into the performance assessment. The best-estimate performance-assessment results are dominated by cuttings removal. The releases to the accessible environment due to groundwater transport make very small contributions to the total release. The variability in the distribution of CCDFs that must be considered in comparisons with the EPA release limits is dominated by the variable LAMBDA (rate constant in Poisson model for drilling intrusions). The variability in releases to the accessible environment due to individual drilling intrusions is dominated by DBDIAM (drill bit diameter). Most of the imprecisely known variables considered in the 1991 WIPP performance assessment relate to radionuclide releases to the accessible environment due to groundwater transport. For a single borehole (i.e., an E2-type scenario), whether or not a release from the repository to the Culebra even occurs is controlled by the variable SALPERM (Salado permeability), with no releases for small values (i.e., -21 m 2 ) of this variable. When SALPERM is small, the repository never fills with brine and so there is no flow up an intruding borehole that can transport radionuclides to the Culebra. Further, releases that do reach the Culebra for larger values of

  18. Discrepancies in Communication Versus Documentation of Weight-Management Benchmarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy B. Turer MD, MHS

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To examine gaps in communication versus documentation of weight-management clinical practices, communication was recorded during primary care visits with 6- to 12-year-old overweight/obese Latino children. Communication/documentation content was coded by 3 reviewers using communication transcripts and health-record documentation. Discrepancies in communication/documentation content codes were resolved through consensus. Bivariate/multivariable analyses examined factors associated with discrepancies in benchmark communication/documentation. Benchmarks were neither communicated nor documented in up to 42% of visits, and communicated but not documented or documented but not communicated in up to 20% of visits. Lowest benchmark performance rates were for laboratory studies (35% and nutrition/weight-management referrals (42%. In multivariable analysis, overweight (vs obesity was associated with 1.6 more discrepancies in communication versus documentation (P = .03. Many weight-management benchmarks are not met, not documented, or performed without being communicated. Enhanced communication with families and documentation in health records may promote lifestyle changes in overweight children and higher quality care for overweight children in primary care.

  19. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasija, Narender; Bala, Madhu; Goyal, Virender

    2014-05-01

    Regards and Tribute: Late Dr Narender Hasija was a mentor and visionary in the light of knowledge and experience. We pay our regards with deepest gratitude to the departed soul to rest in peace. Bolton's ratios help in estimating overbite, overjet relationships, the effects of contemplated extractions on posterior occlusion, incisor relationships and identification of occlusal misfit produced by tooth size discrepancies. To determine any difference in tooth size discrepancy in anterior as well as overall ratio in different malocclusions and comparison with Bolton's study. After measuring the teeth on all 100 patients, Bolton's analysis was performed. Results were compared with Bolton's means and standard deviations. The results were also subjected to statistical analysis. Results show that the mean and standard deviations of ideal occlusion cases are comparable with those Bolton but, when the mean and standard deviation of malocclusion groups are compared with those of Bolton, the values of standard deviation are higher, though the mean is comparable. How to cite this article: Hasija N, Bala M, Goyal V. Estimation of Tooth Size Discrepancies among Different Malocclusion Groups. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(2):82-85.

  20. Salary discrepancies between practicing male and female physician assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplan, Bettie; Essary, Alison C; Virden, Thomas B; Cawley, James; Stoehr, James D

    2012-01-01

    Salary discrepancies between male and female physicians are well documented; however, gender-based salary differences among clinically practicing physician assistants (PAs) have not been studied since 1992 (Willis, 1992). Therefore, the objectives of the current study are to evaluate the presence of salary discrepancies between clinically practicing male and female PAs and to analyze the effect of gender on income and practice characteristics. Using data from the 2009 American Academy of Physician Assistants' (AAPA) Annual Census Survey, we evaluated the salaries of PAs across multiple specialties. Differences between men and women were compared for practice characteristics (specialty, experience, etc) and salary (total pay, base pay, on-call pay, etc) in orthopedic surgery, emergency medicine, and family practice. Men reported working more years as a PA in their current specialty, working more hours per month on-call, providing more direct care to patients, and more funding available from their employers for professional development (p pay, overtime pay, administrative pay, on-call pay, and incentive pay based on productivity and performance (p pay (p = .001) in orthopedic surgery, higher total income (p = .011) and base pay (p = .005) in emergency medicine, and higher base pay in family practice (p discrepancies remain between employed male and female PAs regardless of specialty, experience, or other practice characteristics. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Discrepancies in Adolescents’ and their Mothers’ Perceptions of the Family and Adolescent Anxiety Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley; De Los Reyes, Andres

    2014-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective This study examines relations between adolescents’ and their mothers’ perceptions of the family and adolescent anxiety symptomatology. Design Surveys were administered to 145 15- to 18-year-old adolescents and their mothers. Results Adolescents viewed the family more negatively than did their mothers. In addition, adolescent girls’ perceptions of the family (satisfaction and communication) negatively predicted later adolescent anxiety symptomatology. Significant interactions between adolescent and mother reports of family satisfaction and communication also were found for girls, but not for boys. For girls, discrepant family perceptions with their mothers appeared to protect them from anxiety if their mothers had negative perceptions of the family. Conclusions Understanding the similarities and differences among family members’ perspectives yields useful predictive information that cannot be obtained from studying these perspectives in isolation from one another. PMID:24634608

  2. An ABO blood grouping discrepancy: Probable B(A) phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashish; Gupta, Anubhav; Malhotra, Sheetal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram

    2017-06-01

    In B(A) phenotype, an autosomal dominant phenotype, there is a weak A expression on group B RBCs. We herein report a case of a probable B(A) phenotype in a first time 20-year old male donor. The cell and serum grouping were done using tube technique and also with blood grouping gel card (Diaclone, ABD cards for donors, BioRad, Switzerland). The antisera used were commercial monoclonal IgM type. To check for the weak subgroup of A, cold adsorption and heat elution was performed. The cell grouping was A weak B RhD positive while the serum grouping was B. There was no agglutination with O cells and the autologous control was also negative. It was a group II ABO discrepancy with or without group IV discrepancy. Results for both the eluate and last wash were negative. Hence, the possibility of weak subgroup of A was unlikely. Blood grouping gel card also showed a negative reaction in the anti-A column. One lot of anti-A was showing 'weak +' agglutination while the other lot was showing 'negative' reaction with the donor RBCs by tube technique. There was no agglutination observed with anti-A1 lectin. Our case highlights the serological characteristics of a B(A) phenotype. This case emphasizes the vital role of cell and serum grouping in detecting such discrepancies especially in donors which can lead to mislabeling of the blood unit and may be a potential risk for the transfusion recipient if not resolved appropriately. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary characterization of Rhizobium strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... residues for animal feed and helps to maintain soil fertility through .... A loopful of agar slopes of the strains assayed for vitamin production was ... B12 Assay Medium, amended with 2 mmol l-1 Ca-pantothenate, biotin and ...

  4. ON range searching in the group model and combinatorial discrepancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we establish an intimate connection between dynamic range searching in the group model and combinatorial discrepancy. Our result states that, for a broad class of range searching data structures (including all known upper bounds), it must hold that $t_u t_q=\\Omega(\\mbox{disc}^2......)$, where $t_u$ is the worst case update time, $t_q$ is the worst case query time, and disc is the combinatorial discrepancy of the range searching problem in question. This relation immediately implies a whole range of exceptionally high and near-tight lower bounds for all of the basic range searching...... problems. We list a few of them in the following: (1) For $d$-dimensional halfspace range searching, we get a lower bound of $t_u t_q=\\Omega(n^{1-1/d})$. This comes within an lg lg $n$ factor of the best known upper bound. (2) For orthogonal range searching, we get a lower bound of $t_u t...

  5. Discrepancy between body surface area and body composition in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobäus, Nicole; Küpferling, Susanne; Lorenz, Marie-Luise; Norman, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of cytostatic dose is typically based on body surface area (BSA) regardless of body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the discrepancy between BSA and low fat-free mass (FFM) by investigating the prevalence of low FFM with regard to BSA in 630 cancer patients. First, BSA was calculated according to DuBois and DuBois. Patients were divided into 6 categories with respect to their BSA. Each BSA category was further divided into 3 groups according to FFM: low (FFM), normal (-0.99 and 0.99 SD of mean FFM) or high (>1 SD of mean FFM), which was derived through bioelectric impedance analysis. FFM was reduced in 15.7% of patients, 69% had normal and 15.2% had high FFM. In patients with low FFM (i.e., more than-1 SD lower than the mean FFM within their BSA group), body mass index and fatigue were higher whereas functional status was reduced. Moreover, in the subcohort of patients receiving chemotherapy, absolute FFM [Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.970, P = 0.026] as well as the allocation to the low FFM group (HR = 1.644, P = 0.025) emerged as predictors of increased 1-yr mortality. In conclusion, there was a large discrepancy between FFM and BSA. Particularly women were affected by low FFM.

  6. A probable stellar solution to the cosmological lithium discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, A J; Grundahl, F; Richard, O; Barklem, P S; Mashonkina, L; Collet, R; Piskunov, N; Gustafsson, B

    2006-08-10

    The measurement of the cosmic microwave background has strongly constrained the cosmological parameters of the Universe. When the measured density of baryons (ordinary matter) is combined with standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, the amounts of hydrogen, helium and lithium produced shortly after the Big Bang can be predicted with unprecedented precision. The predicted primordial lithium abundance is a factor of two to three higher than the value measured in the atmospheres of old stars. With estimated errors of 10 to 25%, this cosmological lithium discrepancy seriously challenges our understanding of stellar physics, Big Bang nucleosynthesis or both. Certain modifications to nucleosynthesis have been proposed, but found experimentally not to be viable. Diffusion theory, however, predicts atmospheric abundances of stars to vary with time, which offers a possible explanation of the discrepancy. Here we report spectroscopic observations of stars in the metal-poor globular cluster NGC 6397 that reveal trends of atmospheric abundance with evolutionary stage for various elements. These element-specific trends are reproduced by stellar-evolution models with diffusion and turbulent mixing. We thus conclude that diffusion is predominantly responsible for the low apparent stellar lithium abundance in the atmospheres of old stars by transporting the lithium deep into the star.

  7. The attitude-behavior discrepancy in medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fei; Li, Dongdong; Cao, Rong; Zeng, Juli; Guan, Hao

    2014-12-01

    In medical practice, the dissatisfaction of patients about medical decisions made by doctors is often regarded as the fuse of doctor-patient conflict. However, a few studies have looked at why there are such dissatisfactions. This experimental study aimed to explore the discrepancy between attitude and behavior within medical situations and its interaction with framing description. A total of 450 clinical undergraduates were randomly assigned to six groups and investigated using the classic medical decision making problem, which was described either in a positive or a negative frame (2) × decision making behavior\\attitude to risky plan\\attitude to conservative plan (3). A discrepancy between attitude and behavior did exist in medical situations. Regarding medical dilemmas, if the mortality rate was described, subjects had a significant tendency to choose a conservative plan (t = 3.55, P 0.05). However, regardless of the plan chosen by the doctor, the subjects had a significant opposing attitude (P Framing description had a significant impact on both decision making behavior and attitude (t behavior = -3.24, P framing of a description has an impact on medical decision-making.

  8. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: Associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kay, Daniel B.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement rep...

  9. Children's Recall and Recognition of Sex Role Stereotyped and Discrepant Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanier-Street, Mary L.; Kropp, Jerri Jaudon

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the influence of differing levels of sex role stereotyped and discrepant information on immediate and delayed memory. Compared kindergarten and second-grade children's recall and recognition of stereotyped, moderately discrepant, and highly discrepant pictures. Results suggested significantly better recall of highly discrepant…

  10. Low-discrepancy point sets in transport codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warnock, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    A drawback to Monte Carlo methods of computation is its rate of convergence. There are methods of sampling that have a better error estimate than those using random numbers. This paper gives the result of some preliminary experiments with these sampling methods on two neutron transport problems.

  11. Management of bimaxillary transverse discrepancy with vertical excess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh C Chaudhary

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old boy reported with a complaint of severe irregularity of lower teeth and forwardly placed upper teeth. History revealed snoring as an occasional complaint. The case was diagnosed as mild class II skeletally with increased lower anterior face height, bimaxillary transverse discrepancy leading to severe crowding in the lower arch, V-shaped upper arch with increased overjet and deep bite. Three phase treatment was planned. In the first phase, bimaxillary expansion with mid-symphyseal distraction osteogenesis and rapid maxillary expansion was carried out. After this phase of treatment, the episodes of snoring vanished. The second phase was 1 year of orthodontics to produce symmetric well-aligned arches in good function and aesthetics. Third, the treatment concluded with reduction-advancement genioplasty for correction of vertical excess and surgical camouflage.

  12. Discrepancies between parents' and children's attitudes toward TV advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2009-06-01

    The authors conducted a study with 500 parent-child dyads. The sample comprised 254 boys and 246 girls. The children were grouped into 5 age groups (1 group for each age from 7 to 11 years), with each group comprising 100 children. The survey regards discrepancies between children and their parents on attitudes toward TV advertising to determine how TV commercials affect children's developmental stages and, particularly, their credence, behavioral intentions, and TV enjoyment. Regarding enjoyment and purchase dimensions, the group of 7-year-old children claimed that they enjoyed and are influenced in their consumer attitude more than did the groups of 8-11-year-old children. Credence decreased significantly with age. This study showed that parents tended to undervalue TV advertising's influence on their children. Parents' conformity was a significant predictor of children's attitude toward TV advertising. Results indicated that a high level of parental conformity was linked to the number of brands children claimed to possess.

  13. Some Properties of a Measure of Information Discrepancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Shun-lan; FANG Wei-wu

    2002-01-01

    Based on a group of axioms, a measure of information discrepancyamong multiple information sources has been introduced in [7,8, 10] and it possesses some peculiar properties compared with other measures of information discrepancy, so it can be used in some areas, where the traditional measures are not valid or not efficient, for example, in the study of DNA sequence comparison, prediction of protein structure class, evidence analysis, questionnaire analysis, and so on. In this paper, using the optimization techniques,we prove that it is a distance function and show that it is also an approximation of x2 function. These two properties will stimulate further applications of the measure to information processing and system analysis.

  14. OSTEOPATHIC APPROACH: LEG LENGTH DISCREPANCY AND LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner AYDIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Leg length discrepancy (LLD is a biomechanical impediment, which is a potential factor in affecting musculoskeletal disorders in the rest of life, such as scoliosis, osteoarthritis and muscle tightness, or even tenderness in lumbar and pelvic area. Athletes who have developed LLD have symptoms in gait, running, standing posture. Skeletal regions related to the disorder are the lumbar spine, ilium, hip joint, greater trochanter and knee, or even ankle and plantar region. Muscles involved in these areas are numeous. In osteopathic management, the manual practitioner can use a lot of basic techniques to handle these dysfunctions. To cope with musculoskeletal problems, osteopathic manipulation techniques would be an ideal modality to alleviate the LLD syndrome. An overview of the mentioned topics of concern will be discussed in the review.

  15. Linking Cognition to Cognitive Dissonance through Scientific Discrepant Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen G. Rauch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this workshop and paper is to provide a conceptual framework that will develop skills in the areas of observation, cognition/meta-cognition with emphasis on critical thinking, decision making and problem solving. Simultaneously, this endeavour is designed to stimulate one‟s curiosity and thereby provide motivation to learn. These are accomplished through the learning style methodology with emphasis on interactive instructional resources addressing a multi-modality approach to teaching and learning. It will be shown that discrepant events impact thinking with respect to problem solving. The aforementioned is demonstrated with the use of gravity, molecular structure and optical illusions. The workshop presenters will show how cognitive dissonance, precipitated within each of these constituents, fosters curiosity and therefore provides an ideal motivational component for exploration.

  16. Unresolved resonance self shielding calculation: causes and importance of discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.; Tellier, H.

    1986-09-01

    To compute the self shielding coefficient, it is necessary to know the point-wise cross-sections. In the unresolved resonance region, we do not know the parameters of each level but only the average parameters. Therefore we simulate the point-wise cross-section by random sampling of the energy levels and resonance parameters with respect to the Wigner law and the X 2 distributions, and by computing the cross-section in the same way as in the resolved regions. The result of this statistical calculation obviously depends on the initial parameters but also on the method of sampling, on the formalism which is used to compute the cross-section or on the weighting neutron flux. In this paper, we will survey the main phenomena which can induce discrepancies in self shielding computations. Results are given for typical dilutions which occur in nuclear reactors. 8 refs

  17. Unresolved resonance self shielding calculation: causes and importance of discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribon, P.; Tellier, H.

    1986-01-01

    To compute the self shielding coefficient, it is necessary to know the point-wise cross-sections. In the unresolved resonance region, the parameters of each level are not known; only the average parameters. Therefore the authors simulate the point-wise cross-section by random sampling of the energy levels and resonance parameters with respect to the Wigner law and the x 2 distributions, and by computing the cross-section in the same way as in the resolved regions. The result of this statistical calculation obviously depends on the initial parameters but also on the method of sampling, on the formalism which is used to compute the cross-section or on the weighting neutron flux. In this paper, the authors survey the main phenomena which can induce discrepancies in self shielding computations. Results are given for typical dilutions which occur in nuclear reactors

  18. Radiological social risk perception: something more than experts/ public discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades Lopez, Ana; Gonzalez Reyes, Felisa

    1998-01-01

    One of the most important concerns of the postindustrial societies lies on the specification and quantification of risk, the Risk Assesment. However, the efforts and resources devoted to such goal have not avoided a growing worry about both the environmental conditions and the situations that potentially threaten it, generating an intense social debate about risks. In this framework, discrepancies between experts and public evaluations risks leaded to the study of social Risk perception. Several theoretical scopes have tried to characterize the phenomenon. A worthy conclusion of the empirical studies carried out on this issue is that all of them, experts and public, are influence by some factors which, in turns, affect their risk perception,. Specially striking is the fact that perception of risk among experts is also modulated by qualitative, personal and social factors. Social Risk Perception, through the process of Communication and Social Participation, has been configurated as a critical tool for both risk prevention and management

  19. Phase change in uranium: Discrepancy between experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akella, J.

    1996-01-01

    Using a diamond-anvil cell (DAC) phase transformation and room temperature Equation of State (EOS) for some actinides and lanthanides were studied to multimegabar (megabar = 100 GPa) pressures. Experimental data are compared with the theoretically predicted crystal structural changes and the pressure-volume relationships. There is a general agreement between theory and experiment for the structural changes in the lighter actinides, however in detail there are some discrepancies still. A generalized trend for the phase transformations in the lanthanides can be seen, which again has broad agreement with theory. We conclude that an accurate and robust theoretical base for predicting the phase transformations in the f-electron metals can be developed by incorporating the DAC data

  20. [Conservative treatment of upper anterior dental discrepancy during orthodontic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, G; Verzì, P; Pappalardo, S

    1999-06-01

    The orthodontic therapeutic sequence used in cases with dento-dental discrepancy for reduced mesiodistal size and congenital absent lateral upper incisors, is described. The importance of correct conoid tooth replacement in the programmed space between the other teeth and its restorative treatment in order to obtain the best biomechanical control is stressed. The contemporaneous presence of the form and volume anomaly of the 12th and the missing 22nd due to agenesia demanded an interdisciplinary approach. For the restoration of the conoid tooth the authors used a microhybrid composite for the alloy properties with the grain size of the inorganic particles. In fact this type of composite responds well to mechanical stress and has a high shining capacity and good aesthetical rendering. Meanwhile the temporary dental prothesis solution of the 22nd in this case has suggested the application of the artificial element on the superior Hawley holding plaque.

  1. Quasirandom geometric networks from low-discrepancy sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Ernesto

    2017-08-01

    We define quasirandom geometric networks using low-discrepancy sequences, such as Halton, Sobol, and Niederreiter. The networks are built in d dimensions by considering the d -tuples of digits generated by these sequences as the coordinates of the vertices of the networks in a d -dimensional Id unit hypercube. Then, two vertices are connected by an edge if they are at a distance smaller than a connection radius. We investigate computationally 11 network-theoretic properties of two-dimensional quasirandom networks and compare them with analogous random geometric networks. We also study their degree distribution and their spectral density distributions. We conclude from this intensive computational study that in terms of the uniformity of the distribution of the vertices in the unit square, the quasirandom networks look more random than the random geometric networks. We include an analysis of potential strategies for generating higher-dimensional quasirandom networks, where it is know that some of the low-discrepancy sequences are highly correlated. In this respect, we conclude that up to dimension 20, the use of scrambling, skipping and leaping strategies generate quasirandom networks with the desired properties of uniformity. Finally, we consider a diffusive process taking place on the nodes and edges of the quasirandom and random geometric graphs. We show that the diffusion time is shorter in the quasirandom graphs as a consequence of their larger structural homogeneity. In the random geometric graphs the diffusion produces clusters of concentration that make the process more slow. Such clusters are a direct consequence of the heterogeneous and irregular distribution of the nodes in the unit square in which the generation of random geometric graphs is based on.

  2. Comparison of seismic isolation concepts for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiojiri, H.; Mazda, T.; Kasai, H.; Kanda, J.N.; Kubo, T.; Madokoro, M.; Shimomura, T.; Nojima, O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper seeks to verify the reliability and effectiveness of seismic isolation for FBR. Some results of the preliminary study of the program are described. Seismic isolation concepts and corresponding seismic isolation devices were selected. Three kinds of seismically-isolated FBR plant concepts were developed by applying promising seismic isolation concepts to the non-isolated FBR plant, and by developing plant component layout plans and building structural designs. Each plant was subjected to seismic response analysis and reduction in the amount of material of components and buildings were estimated for each seismic isolation concepts. Research and development items were evaluated

  3. Subjective-objective sleep discrepancy among older adults: associations with insomnia diagnosis and insomnia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica; Monk, Timothy H

    2015-02-01

    Discrepancy between subjective and objective measures of sleep is associated with insomnia and increasing age. Cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia improves sleep quality and decreases subjective-objective sleep discrepancy. This study describes differences between older adults with insomnia and controls in sleep discrepancy, and tests the hypothesis that reduced sleep discrepancy following cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia correlates with the magnitude of symptom improvement reported by older adults with insomnia. Participants were 63 adults >60 years of age with insomnia, and 51 controls. At baseline, participants completed sleep diaries for 7 days while wearing wrist actigraphs. After receiving cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia, insomnia patients repeated this sleep assessment. Sleep discrepancy variables were calculated by subtracting actigraphic sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset from respective self-reported estimates, pre- and post-treatment. Mean level and night-to-night variability in sleep discrepancy were investigated. Baseline sleep discrepancies were compared between groups. Pre-post-treatment changes in Insomnia Severity Index score and sleep discrepancy variables were investigated within older adults with insomnia. Sleep discrepancy was significantly greater and more variable across nights in older adults with insomnia than controls, P ≤ 0.001 for all. Treatment with cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia was associated with significant reduction in the Insomnia Severity Index score that correlated with changes in mean level and night-to-night variability in wake after sleep onset discrepancy, P insomnia. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Functional leg length discrepancy between theories and reliable instrumental assessment: a study about newly invented NPoS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Asmaa; Abundo, Paolo; Basile, Luisanna; Albensi, Caterina; Marasco, Morena; Bellizzi, Letizia; Galasso, Franco; Foti, Calogero

    2017-01-01

    In spite the instinct social&financial impact of Leg Length Discrepancy (LLD), controversial and conflicting results still exist regarding a reliable assessment/correction method. For proper management it's essential to discriminate between anatomical&functional Leg Length Discrepancy (FLLD). With the newly invented NPoS (New Postural Solution), under the umbrella of the collaboration of PRM Department, Tor Vergata University with Baro Postural Instruments srl, positive results were observed in both measuring& compensating the hemi-pelvic antero-medial rotation in FLLD through personalized bilateral heel raise using two NPoS components: Foot Image System (FIS) and Postural Optimizer System (POS). This led our research interest to test the validity of NPoS as a preliminary step before evaluating its implementations in postural disorders. After clinical evaluation, 4 subjects with FLLD have been assessed by NPoS. Over a period of 2 months, every subject was evaluated 12 times by two different operators, 48 measurements in total, results have been verified in correlation to BTS GaitLab results. Intra-Operator&inter-operator variability analysis showed statistically insignificant differences, while inter-method variability between NPoS and BTS parameters expressed a linear correlation. Results suggest a significant validity of NPoS in assessment&correction of FLLD, with high degree of reproducibility with minimal operator dependency. This can be considered a base for promising clinical implications of NPoS as a reliable cost effective postural assessment/corrective tool. V.

  5. Optimization of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) RNA isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-16

    Jan 16, 2012 ... isolation method for real-time quantitative PCR and microarray ... disease genes to experimental evolution and systems biology (Landry et al., .... scanning, and preliminary analyses with GeneChip Operating. Software 1.4 ...

  6. Accuracy of digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragstrem, Kristina; Galang-Boquiren, Maria Therese S; Obrez, Ales; Costa Viana, Maria Grace; Grubb, John E; Kusnoto, Budi

    2015-07-01

    A digital analysis that is shown to be accurate will ease the demonstration of initial case complexity. To date, no literature exists on the accuracy of the digital American Board of Orthodontics Discrepancy Index (DI) calculations when applied to pretreatment digital models. Plaster models were obtained from 45 previous patients with varying degrees of malocclusion. Total DI scores and the target disorders were computed manually with a periodontal probe on the original plaster casts (gold standard) and digitally using Ortho Insight 3D (Motion View Software, Hixson, Tenn) and OrthoCAD (Cadent, Carlstadt, NJ). Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were assessed for 15 subjects using the Spearman rho correlation test. Accuracies of the DI scores and target disorders were assessed for all 45 subjects using Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. Intrarater and interrater reliabilities were high for total DI scores and most target disorders (r > 0.8). No significant difference was found between total DI score when measured with OrthoCAD compared with manual calculations. The total DI scores calculated by Ortho Insight 3D were found to be significantly greater than those by manual calculation by 2.71 points. The findings indicate that a DI calculated by Ortho Insight 3D may lead the clinician to overestimate case complexity. OrthoCAD's DI module was demonstrated to be a clinically acceptable alternative to manual calculation of the total scores. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A statistical investigation of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmond, Harry

    2017-02-01

    We use the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (the correlation between the ratio of total-to-visible mass and acceleration in galaxies; MDAR) to test the galaxy-halo connection. We analyse the MDAR using a set of 16 statistics that quantify its four most important features: shape, scatter, the presence of a `characteristic acceleration scale', and the correlation of its residuals with other galaxy properties. We construct an empirical framework for the galaxy-halo connection in LCDM to generate predictions for these statistics, starting with conventional correlations (halo abundance matching; AM) and introducing more where required. Comparing to the SPARC data, we find that: (1) the approximate shape of the MDAR is readily reproduced by AM, and there is no evidence that the acceleration at which dark matter becomes negligible has less spread in the data than in AM mocks; (2) even under conservative assumptions, AM significantly overpredicts the scatter in the relation and its normalization at low acceleration, and furthermore positions dark matter too close to galaxies' centres on average; (3) the MDAR affords 2σ evidence for an anticorrelation of galaxy size and Hubble type with halo mass or concentration at fixed stellar mass. Our analysis lays the groundwork for a bottom-up determination of the galaxy-halo connection from relations such as the MDAR, provides concrete statistical tests for specific galaxy formation models, and brings into sharper focus the relative evidence accorded by galaxy kinematics to LCDM and modified gravity alternatives.

  8. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deokjae; Hahn, Kyu S; Yook, Soon-Hyung; Park, Juyong

    2015-01-01

    Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  9. Discrepancies between judgment and choice of action in moral dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eTassy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyone has experienced the potential discrepancy between what one judges as morally acceptable and what one actually does when a choice between alternative behaviors is to be made. The present study explores empirically whether judgment and choice of action differ when people make decisions on dilemmas involving moral issues. 240 participants evaluated 24 moral and non-moral dilemmas either by judging (Is it acceptable to… or reporting the choice of action they would make (Would you do…. We also investigated the influence of varying the number of people benefiting from the decision and the closeness of relationship of the decision maker with the potential victim on these two types of decision. Variations in the number of beneficiaries from the decision did not influence judgment nor choice of action. By contrast, closeness of relationship with the victim had a greater influence on the choice of action than on judgment. This differentiation between evaluative judgments and choices of action argues in favor of each of them being supported by (at least partially different psychological processes.

  10. TLD DRD dose discrepancy: role of beta radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munish Kumar; Pradhan, S.M.; Bihari, R.R.; Bakshi, A.K.; Chougaonkar, M.P.; Babu, D.A.R.; Gupta, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Ionization chamber based direct reading/pocket dosimeters (DRDs), are used along with the legal dosimeters (thermoluminescent dosimeters-TLDs) for day to day monitoring and control of radiation doses received by radiation workers. The DRDs are routinely used along with the passive dosimeters (TLDs) in nuclear industry at different radiation installations where radiation levels could vary significantly and the possibility of receiving doses beyond investigation levels by radiation workers is not ruled out. Recently, recommendations for dealing with discrepancies between personal dosimeter systems used in parallel were issued by ISO. The present study was performed to measure the response of ionization chamber based pocket dosimeters to various beta sources having energy (E max ) ranging from 0.224 MeV-3.54 MeV. It is expected that the above study will be useful in resolving the disparity between TLD and DRD doses at those radiation installations where radiation workers are likely to be exposed simultaneously from photons and beta particles

  11. Quantifying discrepancies in opinion spectra from online and offline networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokjae Lee

    Full Text Available Online social media such as Twitter are widely used for mining public opinions and sentiments on various issues and topics. The sheer volume of the data generated and the eager adoption by the online-savvy public are helping to raise the profile of online media as a convenient source of news and public opinions on social and political issues as well. Due to the uncontrollable biases in the population who heavily use the media, however, it is often difficult to measure how accurately the online sphere reflects the offline world at large, undermining the usefulness of online media. One way of identifying and overcoming the online-offline discrepancies is to apply a common analytical and modeling framework to comparable data sets from online and offline sources and cross-analyzing the patterns found therein. In this paper we study the political spectra constructed from Twitter and from legislators' voting records as an example to demonstrate the potential limits of online media as the source for accurate public opinion mining, and how to overcome the limits by using offline data simultaneously.

  12. Relationship between self-discrepancy and worries about penis size in men with body dysmorphic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Bramley, Sally; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2016-06-01

    We explored self-discrepancy in men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) concerned about penis size, men without BDD but anxious about penis size, and controls. Men with BDD (n=26) were compared to those with small penis anxiety (SPA; n=31) and controls (n=33), objectively (by measuring) and investigating self-discrepancy: actual size, ideal size, and size they felt they should be according to self and other. Most men under-estimated their penis size, with the BDD group showing the greatest discrepancy between perceived and ideal size. The SPA group showed a larger discrepancy than controls. This was replicated for the perceptions of others, suggesting the BDD group internalised the belief that they should have a larger penis size. There was a significant correlation between symptoms of BDD and this discrepancy. This self-actual and self-ideal/self-should discrepancy and the role of comparing could be targeted in therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Self-Discrepancy and Eating Disorder Symptoms Across Eating Disorder Diagnostic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Tyler B; Lavender, Jason M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Strauman, Timothy J; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Le Grange, Daniel; Klein, Marjorie H; Smith, Tracey L; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-11-01

    This study examined self-discrepancy, a construct of theoretical relevance to eating disorder (ED) psychopathology, across different types of EDs. Individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN; n = 112), bulimia nervosa (BN; n = 72), and binge eating disorder (BED; n = 199) completed semi-structured interviews assessing specific types of self-discrepancies. Results revealed that actual:ideal (A:I) discrepancy was positively associated with AN, actual:ought (A:O) discrepancy was positively associated with BN and BED, and self-discrepancies did not differentiate BN from BED. Across diagnoses, A:O discrepancy was positively associated with severity of purging, binge eating, and global ED psychopathology. Further, there were significant interactions between diagnosis and A:O discrepancy for global ED psychopathology and between diagnosis and A:I discrepancy for binge eating and driven exercise. These results support the importance of self-discrepancy as a potential causal and maintenance variable in EDs that differentiates among different types of EDs and symptom severity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Discrepancies between descriptions and illustrations of colours in Congo red-stained amyloid, and explanation of discrepant colours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Alexander J; Owen-Casey, Mared P

    2010-09-01

    Congo red-stained sections of amyloid may show various colours between crossed polariser and analyser. The aims were to see how papers described the colours, to compare descriptions with illustrations, and to explain the colours. In 160 papers on Congo red-stained amyloid, the commonest descriptions were 'green birefringence' and 'apple-green birefringence'. In 191 figures in 82 papers, 59 (31%) showed a pure green colour, 62 (32%) showed green and yellow or blue and yellow, 38 (20%) showed green and a colour other than yellow, mostly red, and 32 (17%) showed other colours. Discrepancies between colours reported and illustrated were noted in 127 figures (66%). Most (77) were between green alone in descriptions and green and another colour in figures, and 30 were between green in descriptions and no green at all in figures. Pure green can be seen in ideal conditions, but more often there are green and yellow, explained by strain birefringence, and green and red or other combinations, explained by uncrossing of polariser and analyser. These other anomalous colours are just as characteristic of amyloid as the pure green colour. Many papers on Congo red-stained amyloid appear to describe what is expected theoretically rather than what is actually seen.

  15. Identification of medication discrepancies during hospital admission in Jordan: Prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Salameh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Medication errors are considered among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Among these errors are discrepancies identified during transfer of patients from one care unit to another, from one physician care to another, or upon patient discharge. Thus, the aims of this study were to identify the prevalence and types of medication discrepancies at the time of hospital admission to a tertiary care teaching hospital in Jordan and to identify risk factors affecting the occurrence of these discrepancies. Methods: A three months prospective observational study was conducted at the department of internal medicine at Jordan university hospital. During the study period, 200 patients were selected using convenience sampling, and a pre-prepared data collection form was used for data collection. Later, a comparison between the pre-admission and admission medication was conducted to identify any possible discrepancies, and all of these discrepancies were discussed with the responsible resident to classify them into intentional (documentation errors or unintentional. Linear regression analysis was performed to assess risk factors associated with the occurrence of unintentional discrepancies. Results: A total of 412 medication discrepancies were identified at the time of hospital admission. Among them, 144 (35% were identified as unintentional while the remaining 268 (65% were identified as intentional discrepancies. Ninety-four patients (47% were found to have at least one unintentional discrepancy and 92 patients (46% had at least one documentation error. Among the unintentional discrepancies, 97 (67% were found to be associated with a potential harm/deterioration to the patients. Increasing patients’ age (beta = 0.195, p-value = .013 and being treated by female residents (beta = 0.139, p-value = .045 were significantly associated with higher number of discrepancies. Conclusion: The prevalence of

  16. Masculine discrepancy stress, substance use, assault and injury in a survey of US men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Berke, Danielle S; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-10-01

    To understand and ultimately prevent injury and behavioural health outcomes associated with masculinity, we assessed the influence of masculine discrepancy stress (stress that occurs when men perceive themselves as falling short of the traditional gender norms) on the propensity to engage in stereotypically masculine behaviours (eg, substance use, risk taking and violence) as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Six-hundred men from the USA were recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) online data collection site to complete surveys assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy and consequent discrepancy stress, substance use/abuse, driving while intoxicated (DWI) and violent assaults. Negative binomial regression analyses indicated significant interactive effects wherein men high on gender role discrepancy and attendant discrepancy stress reported significantly more assaults with a weapon (B=1.01; SE=0.63; IRR=2.74; p=0.05) and assaults causing injury (B=1.01; SE=0.51; IRR=2.74; p<0.05). There was no association of discrepancy stress to substance abuse, but there was a protective effect of gender role discrepancy for DWI among men low on discrepancy stress (B=-1.19, SE=0.48; IRR=0.30; p=0.01). These findings suggest that gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress, in particular, represent important injury risk factors and that prevention of discrepancy stress may prevent acts of violence with the greatest consequences and costs to the victim, offender and society. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Discrepâncias na imagem corporal e na dieta de obesos Self-discrepancy in body image and diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Kanno

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo avaliou a discrepância entre a imagem real e a imagem ideal de indivíduos obesos e procurou relacionar possíveis alterações no comportamento alimentar na busca desse corpo ideal. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi composta por 25 sujeitos, sendo 76% do sexo feminino e idade média de 39,24 (desviopadrão=5,01 anos. Dois instrumentos foram utilizados: a Escala de Aparência Física, cuja análise fatorial extraiu um único fator "Aparência Física" com precisão de α=0,74 para mulheres e α=0,73 para homens e o Questionário de Prioridade Alimentar elaborado para agrupar itens nas categorias que compõem a Pirâmide Alimentar. Foram realizados testes t pareados para comparar diferenças entre as imagens real e ideal e para comparar os comportamentos alimentares real e ideal. RESULTADOS: Os resultados apresentaram diferenças entre as imagens ideal e real, sendo a primeira representada de forma mais positiva que a última. Com relação ao comportamento alimentar, os resultados demonstraram diminuição no consumo de carnes e café preto e aumento no consumo de frutas e vegetais para atingir o corpo ideal. Porém, a amostra não mudaria os seus hábitos em relação ao consumo de cereais, laticínios, óleos e gorduras, doces e refrigerantes. CONCLUSÃO: Embora os resultados apresentem diferenças na percepção da imagem corporal, a amostra não mudaria os seus hábitos em relação às categorias do topo da pirâmide alimentar.OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the discrepancy between actual and ideal body images of obese individuals and listed changes in the dietary behaviors used to achieve this ideal body image. METHODS: The sample was composed of 25 obese individuals with a mean age of 39.24 years (standard deviation=5.01 where 76% were females. Two instruments were used for this end: the Physical Appearance Scale whose factorial analysis extracted a single factor "Physical Appearance" with an accuracy of α=0.74 for women and

  18. Preliminary topical report on comparison reactor disassembly calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.P.

    1975-11-01

    Preliminary results of comparison disassembly calculations for a representative LMFBR model (2100-l voided core) and arbitrary accident conditions are described. The analytical methods employed were the computer programs: FX2-POOL, PAD, and VENUS-II. The calculated fission energy depositions are in good agreement, as are measures of the destructive potential of the excursions, kinetic energy, and work. However, in some cases the resulting fuel temperatures are substantially divergent. Differences in the fission energy deposition appear to be attributable to residual inconsistencies in specifying the comparison cases. In contrast, temperature discrepancies probably stem from basic differences in the energy partition models inherent in the codes. Although explanations of the discrepancies are being pursued, the preliminary results indicate that all three computational methods provide a consistent, global characterization of the contrived disassembly accident

  19. 12 CFR 717.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies... applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief—(1...

  20. 12 CFR 41.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting agency... request the consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable...

  1. 16 CFR 641.1 - Duties of users of consumer reports regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duties of users of consumer reports... CREDIT REPORTING ACT DUTIES OF USERS OF CONSUMER REPORTS REGARDING ADDRESS DISCREPANCIES § 641.1 Duties of users of consumer reports regarding address discrepancies. (a) Scope. This section applies to...

  2. 12 CFR 571.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address Discrepancies and Records Disposal... consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer reporting agency... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief—(1...

  3. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  4. Discrepancies Confer Vulnerability to Depressive Symptoms: A Three-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Simon B.; Mackinnon, Sean P.; Macneil, Matthew A.; Fitzpatrick, Skye

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies (i.e., a subjective sense of falling short of one's own standards) are a key part of the perfectionism construct. Theory suggests discrepancies confer vulnerability to depressive symptoms. Since most research in this area is cross-sectional, longitudinal research is needed to disentangle directionality of relationships and to permit…

  5. 19 CFR 125.34 - Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Countersigning of documents and notation of bad... and Receipt § 125.34 Countersigning of documents and notation of bad order or discrepancy. When a... and shall note thereon any bad order or discrepancy. When available, the importing carrier's tally...

  6. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing problems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, F.H.; Koot, H.M.; Creemers, H.E.; van Lier, P.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development

  7. Discrepancies between sources providing the medication histories of acutely hospitalised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karkov, Louise Lindved; Schytte-Hansen, Simon; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2010-01-01

    practitioner (GP) and the in-home care provider. A discrepancy was defined as any disagreement or omission of information between the four sources concerning name, form, strength and dose for each drug with which the patient was being treated. Main outcome measure The number of discrepancies between the data...

  8. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H.; Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S.

    2010-01-01

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  9. Computing half-plane and strip discrepancy of planar point sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, de M.

    1996-01-01

    We present efficient algorithms for two problems concerning the discrepancy of a set S of n points in the unit square in the plane. First, we describe an algorithm for maintaining the half-plane discrepancy of S under insertions and deletions of points. The algorithm runs in O(nlogn) worst-case time

  10. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwis, F.H.; Koot, J.M.; Creemers, D.H.M.; Lier, P.A.C. van

    2015-01-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development

  11. Does Hot Water Freeze Faster Than Cold? Or Why Mpemba's Ice Cream Is a Discrepant Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Bill

    1993-01-01

    A discrepant event is a happening contrary to our current beliefs. Discrepant events are said to be useful in clarifying concepts. This is one of the interesting features of current theories of constructivism. The story of Mpemba's ice cream is quite well known, but it is the educational aspects of the experiment that are of interest in this…

  12. Can the Media Affect Us? Social Comparison, Self-Discrepancy, and the Thin Ideal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessenoff, Gayle R.

    2006-01-01

    The current study explored body image self-discrepancy as moderator and social comparison as mediator in the effects on women from thin-ideal images in the media. Female undergraduates (N = 112) with high and low body image self-discrepancy were exposed to advertisements either with thin women (thin ideal) or without thin women…

  13. Predicting Receptive-Expressive Vocabulary Discrepancies in Preschool Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Jena; Yoder, Paul; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Watson, Linda R

    2018-05-15

    Correlates of receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies may provide insights into why language development in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deviates from typical language development and ultimately improve intervention outcomes. We indexed receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancies of 65 initially preverbal children with ASD (20-48 months) to a comparison sample from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Wordbank (Frank, Braginsky, Yurovsky, & Marchman, 2017) to quantify typicality. We then tested whether attention toward a speaker and oral motor performance predict typicality of the discrepancy 8 months later. Attention toward a speaker correlated positively with receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Imitative and nonimitative oral motor performance were not significant predictors of vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Secondary analyses indicated that midpoint receptive vocabulary size mediated the association between initial attention toward a speaker and end point receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy typicality. Findings support the hypothesis that variation in attention toward a speaker might partially explain receptive-expressive vocabulary size discrepancy magnitude in children with ASD. Results are consistent with an input-processing deficit explanation of language impairment in this clinical population. Future studies should test whether attention toward a speaker is malleable and causally related to receptive-expressive discrepancies in children with ASD.

  14. In vitro analysis of the marginal adaptation and discrepancy of stainless steel crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, Riaan; Medhat, Rasha; Mohamed, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The purpose of the study was to assess the marginal adaptation and discrepancy of SSC’s. Differences in adaptation and discrepancy between the four surfaces (mesial, lingual, distal, and buccal) were evaluated. Methods: The placement of stainless steel crowns were completed on a phantom head in accordance with the clinical technique. The ideal tooth preparation was made and this ‘master tooth’ duplicated to achieve a sample size of 15. The stainless steel crowns were placed, trimmed, and cemented as per the clinical technique. The cemented stainless crowns were analyzed under 100× stereomicroscope magnification. The marginal adaptation and discrepancy of each specimen was measured every 2 µm. Results: All the specimens showed marginal adaptation and discrepancy. The lingual margin had a significantly better adaptation (p steel crown adaptation and discrepancy is an essential clinical step. PMID:29536024

  15. Discrepancy-based and anticipated emotions in behavioral self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christina M; McConnell, Allen R

    2011-10-01

    Discrepancies between one's current and desired states evoke negative emotions, which presumably guide self-regulation. In the current work we evaluated the function of discrepancy-based emotions in behavioral self-regulation. Contrary to classic theories of self-regulation, discrepancy-based emotions did not predict the degree to which people engaged in self-regulatory behavior. Instead, expectations about how future self-discrepancies would make one feel (i.e., anticipated emotions) predicted self-regulation. However, anticipated emotions were influenced by previous discrepancy-based emotional experiences, suggesting that the latter do not directly motivate self-regulation but rather guide expectations. These findings are consistent with the perspective that emotions do not necessarily direct immediate behavior, but rather have an indirect effect by guiding expectations, which in turn predict goal-directed action.

  16. What Influences Mental Illness? Discrepancies Between Medical Education and Conception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Hy Einstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students’ and psychiatry residents’ conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. Methods: The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant’s formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results: Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. Conclusions: If these notions are therefore part of students’ and residents’ conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.

  17. What Influences Mental Illness? Discrepancies Between Medical Education and Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Evan Hy; Klepacz, Lidia

    2017-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the differences between what was taught during a formal medical education and medical students' and psychiatry residents' conceptions of notions regarding the causes and determinants of mental illness. The authors surveyed 74 medical students and 11 residents via convenience sampling. The survey contained 18 statements which were rated twice based on truthfulness in terms of a participant's formal education and conception, respectively. Descriptive statistics and a Wilcoxon signed rank test determined differences between education and conception. Results showed that students were less likely to perceive a neurotransmitter imbalance to cause mental illness, as opposed to what was emphasized during a formal medical education. Students and residents also understood the importance of factors such as systemic racism and socioeconomic status in the development of mental illness, which were factors that did not receive heavy emphasis during medical education. Furthermore, students and residents believed that not only did mental illnesses have nonuniform pathologies, but that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders also had the propensity to sometimes arbitrarily categorize individuals with potentially negative consequences. If these notions are therefore part of students' and residents' conceptions, as well as documented in the literature, then it seems appropriate for medical education to be further developed to emphasize these ideas.

  18. Preliminary Opto-Mechanical Design for the X2000 Transceiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, H.; Page, N. A.

    2000-01-01

    Preliminary optical design and mechanical conceptual design for a 30 cm aperture transceiver are described. A common aperture is used for both transmit and receive. Special attention was given to off-axis and scattered light rejection and isolation of the receive channel from the transmit channel. Requirements, details of the design and preliminary performance analysis of the transceiver are provided.

  19. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  20. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  1. Impact of Computerized Order Entry to Pharmacy Interface on Order-Infusion Pump Discrepancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Russell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The ability of safety technologies to decrease errors, harm, and risk to patients has yet to be demonstrated consistently. Objective. To compare discrepancies between medication and intravenous fluid (IVF orders and bedside infusion pump settings within a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU before and after implementation of an interface between computerized physician order entry (CPOE and pharmacy systems. Methods. Within a 72-bed PICU, medication and IVF orders in the CPOE system and bedside infusion pump settings were collected. Rates of discrepancy were calculated and categorized by type. Results were compared to a study conducted prior to interface implementation. Expansion of PICU also occurred between study periods. Results. Of 455 observations, discrepancy rate decreased for IVF (p=0.01 compared to previous study. Overall discrepancy rate for medications was unchanged; however, medications infusing without an order decreased (p<0.01, and orders without corresponding infusion increased (p<0.05. Conclusions. Following implementation of an interface between CPOE and pharmacy systems, fewer discrepancies between IVF orders and infusion pump settings were observed. Discrepancies for medications did not change, and some types of discrepancies increased. In addition to interface implementation, changes in healthcare delivery and workflow related to ICU expansion contributed to observed changes.

  2. Comparison of clinical causes of deth with autopsy diagnosis using discrepancy classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullah, K.; Alamgir, W.

    2006-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of patients care. The clinical and necropsy findings of all the cases, who died in hospital and had undergone autopsy examination at CMH, Kharian, from January 2001 to December 2003, were retrieved from record of clinical case sheet data and autopsy record of the hospital. The two were analyzed and compared according to the discrepancy classification. The exclusion and inclusion criteria, the international classification of disease (ICD) to code deaths, the global burden of disease (GBD) system to classify and group diseases, and the Goldman discrepancy classification to compare clinical and autopsy diagnosis and classify the discrepancies, were used as described. The death rate varied from 0.94% to 1.29% and autopsy rate from 4.69% to 10.10% annually between January 2001 and December 2003. The number of cases classified according to GBD system was 3 (5%) in Group 1, 26 (43.33 %) in Group 2 and 31 (51.66 %) in Group 3. The discrepancy classes included 9 (15 %) class I major discrepancies and 3 (5 %) class II major discrepancies. Non-discrepant diagnosis was seen in 37 cases (61.66 %) and 11 cases (18.32 %) were non classifiable. (author)

  3. Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Transformational Leadership: Relationship with Organizational Culture in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Farahnak, Lauren R; Sklar, Marisa; Horowitz, Jonathan

    2017-07-01

    The role of leadership in the management and delivery of health and allied health services is often discussed but lacks empirical research. Discrepancies are often found between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader. To our knowledge no research has examined leader-follower discrepancies and their association with organizational culture in mental health clinics. The current study examines congruence, discrepancy, and directionality of discrepancy in relation to organizational culture in 38 mental health teams (N = 276). Supervisors and providers completed surveys including ratings of the supervisor transformational leadership and organizational culture. Polynomial regression and response surface analysis models were computed examining the associations of leadership discrepancy and defensive organizational culture and its subscales. Discrepancies between supervisor and provider reports of transformational leadership were associated with a more negative organizational culture. Culture suffered more where supervisors rated themselves more positively than providers, in contrast to supervisors rating themselves lower than the provider ratings of the supervisor. Leadership and leader discrepancy should be a consideration in improving organizational culture and for strategic initiatives such as quality of care and the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practice.

  4. En Route to Depression: Self-Esteem Discrepancies and Habitual Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Wendy J; Hine, Donald W

    2016-02-01

    Dual-process models of cognitive vulnerability to depression suggest that some individuals possess discrepant implicit and explicit self-views, such as high explicit and low implicit self-esteem (fragile self-esteem) or low explicit and high implicit self-esteem (damaged self-esteem). This study investigated whether individuals with discrepant self-esteem may employ depressive rumination in an effort to reduce discrepancy-related dissonance, and whether the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and future depressive symptoms varies as a function of rumination tendencies. Hierarchical regressions examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was associated with rumination in an Australian undergraduate sample at Time 1 (N = 306; M(age) = 29.9), and whether rumination tendencies moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms assessed 3 months later (n = 160). Damaged self-esteem was associated with rumination at Time 1. As hypothesized, rumination moderated the relationship between self-esteem discrepancy and depressive symptoms at Time 2, where fragile self-esteem and high rumination tendencies at Time 1 predicted the highest levels of subsequent dysphoria. Results are consistent with dual-process propositions that (a) explicit self-regulation strategies may be triggered when explicit and implicit self-beliefs are incongruent, and (b) rumination may increase the likelihood of depression by expending cognitive resources and/or amplifying negative implicit biases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mother-son discrepant reporting on parenting practices: The contribution of temperament and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Yuri; Latzman, Robert D

    2017-06-01

    Despite low to moderate convergent correlations, assessment of youth typically relies on multiple informants for information across a range of psychosocial domains including parenting practices. Although parent-youth informant discrepancies have been found to predict adverse youth outcomes, few studies have examined contributing factors to the explanation of informant disagreements on parenting practices. The current study represents the first investigation to concurrently examine the role of mother and son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression as pathways to informant discrepancies on parenting practices. Within a community sample of 174 mother-son dyads, results suggest that whereas mother's self-reported temperament evidenced no direct effects on discrepancies, the association between the product term of mother's negative and positive temperament and discrepancies on positive parenting was fully mediated by mother's depression (a mediated moderation). In contrast, son's self-reported temperament evidenced both direct and indirect effects, partially mediated by depression, on rating discrepancies for positive parenting. All told, both son's self-reported affective dimensions of temperament and depression contributed to the explanation of discrepant reporting on parenting practices; only mother's self-reported depression, but not temperament, uniquely contributed. Results highlight the importance of considering both parent and youth's report in the investigation of informant discrepancies on parenting practices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Discrepancies Between Classic and Digital Epidemiology in Searching for the Mayaro Virus: Preliminary Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adawi, Mohammad; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Watad, Abdulla; Sharif, Kassem; Amital, Howard; Mahroum, Naim

    2017-12-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV), first discovered in Trinidad in 1954, is spread by the Haemagogus mosquito. Small outbreaks have been described in the past in the Amazon jungles of Brazil and other parts of South America. Recently, a case was reported in rural Haiti. Given the emerging importance of MAYV, we aimed to explore the feasibility of exploiting a Web-based tool for monitoring and tracking MAYV cases. Google Trends is an online tracking system. A Google-based approach is particularly useful to monitor especially infectious diseases epidemics. We searched Google Trends from its inception (from January 2004 through to May 2017) for MAYV-related Web searches worldwide. We noted a burst in search volumes in the period from July 2016 (relative search volume [RSV]=13%) to December 2016 (RSV=18%), with a peak in September 2016 (RSV=100%). Before this burst, the average search activity related to MAYV was very low (median 1%). MAYV-related queries were concentrated in the Caribbean. Scientific interest from the research community and media coverage affected digital seeking behavior. MAYV has always circulated in South America. Its recent appearance in the Caribbean has been a source of concern, which resulted in a burst of Internet queries. While Google Trends cannot be used to perform real-time epidemiological surveillance of MAYV, it can be exploited to capture the public's reaction to outbreaks. Public health workers should be aware of this, in that information and communication technologies could be used to communicate with users, reassure them about their concerns, and to empower them in making decisions affecting their health. ©Mohammad Adawi, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Kassem Sharif, Howard Amital, Naim Mahroum. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 01.12.2017.

  7. National cultural values and the evolution of process and outcome discrepancies in international strategic alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nti, Kofi O

    2004-01-01

    The article assesses the role played by national cultural values in shaping the evolution of international strategic alliances. The authors build on a systems dynamic model of alliance evolution in which the developmental path of an alliance depends on how the partners manage process and outcome...... discrepancies that may emerge during the course of an alliance. They argue that national culture affects alliance evolution by influencing partners sensitivity to discrepancy detection , shaping the nature of attributions they make, and by affecting the partners reactions to discrepancies. They focus...

  8. Impacto da discrepância de desejo sexual e relacional masculina

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Tiago José da Costa

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado integrado em Psicologia O desejo sexual é descrito como um dos fatores que mais contribui para a satisfação sexual e relacional. Num casal os níveis de desejo podem estar mais, ou menos, sincronizados, ou pode acontecer uma situação de discrepância. A discrepância de desejo existente pode ser suficiente para potenciar um problema, nomeadamente ao nível da satisfação sexual e relacional. Este estudo teve como objetivo perceber se a discrepância de desejo ...

  9. L_p- and S_{p,q}^rB-discrepancy of (order 2) digital nets

    OpenAIRE

    Markhasin, Lev

    2014-01-01

    Dick proved that all order $2$ digital nets satisfy optimal upper bounds of the $L_2$-discrepancy. We give an alternative proof for this fact using Haar bases. Furthermore, we prove that all digital nets satisfy optimal upper bounds of the $S_{p,q}^r B$-discrepancy for a certain parameter range and enlarge that range for order $2$ digitals nets. $L_p$-, $S_{p,q}^r F$- and $S_p^r H$-discrepancy is considered as well.

  10. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  11. Measurements in Los Alamos benchmark criticals and the central reactivity discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, W.G.; Hansen, G.E.; Koelling, J.J.; McLaughlin, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements in seven Los Alamos fast critical facilities are described; all are related to elucidating the causes of the central reactivity discrepancy in fast reactors. Specific capabilities of these specialized assemblies permit measurements well-above delayed critical and these confirm the validity of the delayed neutron data used for calibration; there is therefore no reactivity-scale error. Reactivity measurements in these homogeneous assemblies exhibit no discrepancy. It is concluded that nuclear data should not be adjusted to eliminate the discrepancy found in other, heterogeneous assemblies

  12. Increased error rates in preliminary reports issued by radiology residents working more than 10 consecutive hours overnight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruutiainen, Alexander T; Durand, Daniel J; Scanlon, Mary H; Itri, Jason N

    2013-03-01

    To determine if the rate of major discrepancies between resident preliminary reports and faculty final reports increases during the final hours of consecutive 12-hour overnight call shifts. Institutional review board exemption status was obtained for this study. All overnight radiology reports interpreted by residents on-call between January 2010 and June 2010 were reviewed by board-certified faculty and categorized as major discrepancies if they contained a change in interpretation with the potential to impact patient management or outcome. Initial determination of a major discrepancy was at the discretion of individual faculty radiologists based on this general definition. Studies categorized as major discrepancies were secondarily reviewed by the residency program director (M.H.S.) to ensure consistent application of the major discrepancy designation. Multiple variables associated with each report were collected and analyzed, including the time of preliminary interpretation, time into shift study was interpreted, volume of studies interpreted during each shift, day of the week, patient location (inpatient or emergency department), block of shift (2-hour blocks for 12-hour shifts), imaging modality, patient age and gender, resident identification, and faculty identification. Univariate risk factor analysis was performed to determine the optimal data format of each variable (ie, continuous versus categorical). A multivariate logistic regression model was then constructed to account for confounding between variables and identify independent risk factors for major discrepancies. We analyzed 8062 preliminary resident reports with 79 major discrepancies (1.0%). There was a statistically significant increase in major discrepancy rate during the final 2 hours of consecutive 12-hour call shifts. Multivariate analysis confirmed that interpretation during the last 2 hours of 12-hour call shifts (odds ratio (OR) 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-3.21), cross

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of ST1022, a putative member of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators isolated from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Noboru; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri, E-mail: tskvel@spring8.or.jp; Matsunaga, Emiko; Shinkai, Akeo [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Kuramitsu, Seiki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Tayonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yokoyama, Shigeyuki, E-mail: tskvel@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Genomic Sciences Center, Yokohama Institute, RIKEN, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Department of Biophysics and Biochemistry, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2007-11-01

    A putative member of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators, ST1022 from S. tokodaii strain 7, has been purified and crystallized in the absence and presence of the effector l-glutamine. A molecular-replacement solution was found using the FL11 transcriptional regulator from Pyrococcus sp. OT3 as a model and structural refinement is under way. The Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators, also known as feast/famine transcriptional regulators, are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea. This family of proteins are likely to be involved in cellular metabolism, with exogenous amino acids functioning as effectors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ST1022, a member of the Lrp/AsnC family of proteins, is reported with and without exogenous glutamine as the effector molecule. The crystals of native ST1022 and of the putative complex belong to the tetragonal space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.771, c = 73.297 Å and a = b = 103.846, c = 73.992 Å, respectively. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data analysis and molecular-replacement solution revealed the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of ST1022, a putative member of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators isolated from Sulfolobus tokodaii strain 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Noboru; Kumarevel, Thirumananseri; Matsunaga, Emiko; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-01-01

    A putative member of the Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators, ST1022 from S. tokodaii strain 7, has been purified and crystallized in the absence and presence of the effector l-glutamine. A molecular-replacement solution was found using the FL11 transcriptional regulator from Pyrococcus sp. OT3 as a model and structural refinement is under way. The Lrp/AsnC family of transcriptional regulators, also known as feast/famine transcriptional regulators, are widely distributed among bacteria and archaea. This family of proteins are likely to be involved in cellular metabolism, with exogenous amino acids functioning as effectors. Here, the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of ST1022, a member of the Lrp/AsnC family of proteins, is reported with and without exogenous glutamine as the effector molecule. The crystals of native ST1022 and of the putative complex belong to the tetragonal space group I422, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 103.771, c = 73.297 Å and a = b = 103.846, c = 73.992 Å, respectively. Preliminary X-ray diffraction data analysis and molecular-replacement solution revealed the presence of one monomer per asymmetric unit

  15. Comments on the discrepancies found in running NJOY and LINEAR - RECENT - GROUPIE for some actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corcuera, R.P.; Moraes, M. de.

    1986-08-01

    Some discrepancies encountered between the two processing codes NJOY and RECENT-GROUPIE were analysed. It was found that they are due to different interpretation of inadequate representation of the evaluated date. (author) [pt

  16. Imaging the elusive H-poor gas in planetary nebulae with large abundance discrepancy factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rojas, Jorge; Corradi, Romano L. M.; Boffin, Henri M. J.; Monteiro, Hektor; Jones, David; Wesson, Roger; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Rodríguez-Gil, Pablo

    2017-10-01

    The discrepancy between abundances computed using optical recombination lines (ORLs) and collisionally excited lines (CELs) is a major, unresolved problem with significant implications for the determination of chemical abundances throughout the Universe. In planetary nebulae (PNe), the most common explanation for the discrepancy is that two different gas phases coexist: a hot component with standard metallicity, and a much colder plasma enhanced in heavy elements. This dual nature is not predicted by mass loss theories, and direct observational support for it is still weak. In this work, we present our recent findings that demonstrate that the largest abundance discrepancies are associated with close binary central stars. OSIRIS-GTC tunable filter imaging of the faint O ii ORLs and MUSE-VLT deep 2D spectrophotometry confirm that O ii ORL emission is more centrally concentrated than that of [Oiii] CELs and, therefore, that the abundance discrepancy may be closely linked to binary evolution.

  17. Interpretation of images and discrepancy between osteoarthritic findings and symptomatology in temporomandibular joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Sano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancy between osteoarthritic findings on images and symptomatology can sometimes be problematic in clinical work. In this article, we focus on osteoarthritis and related entities on images, and especially on MR images.

  18. An atlas-based multimodal registration method for 2D images with discrepancy structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenchao; Chen, Houjin; Peng, Yahui; Li, Yanfeng; Li, Jupeng

    2018-06-04

    An atlas-based multimodal registration method for 2-dimension images with discrepancy structures was proposed in this paper. Atlas was utilized for complementing the discrepancy structure information in multimodal medical images. The scheme includes three steps: floating image to atlas registration, atlas to reference image registration, and field-based deformation. To evaluate the performance, a frame model, a brain model, and clinical images were employed in registration experiments. We measured the registration performance by the squared sum of intensity differences. Results indicate that this method is robust and performs better than the direct registration for multimodal images with discrepancy structures. We conclude that the proposed method is suitable for multimodal images with discrepancy structures. Graphical Abstract An Atlas-based multimodal registration method schematic diagram.

  19. Body self-discrepancies and women's social physique anxiety: the moderating role of the feared body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Tim; Steer, Rebecca

    2011-05-01

    We explored ideal, ought, and feared body image self-discrepancies as predictors of social physique anxiety within Carver, Lawrence, and Scheier's and Woodman and Hemmings' interaction frameworks. One hundred women completed actual, ideal, ought, and feared body self-discrepancy visual analogue scales, the Social Physique Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Moderated hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the relationship between ought body fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was moderated by proximity to the feared fat self. Specifically, the positive relationship between ought fat discrepancies and social physique anxiety was stronger when women were far from their feared body self. The results highlight the importance of considering the feared self in order to more fully understand the relationship between body image and social physique anxiety. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  20. . Interparental violence; similarities and discrepancies between narratives of mothers and their children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooij, F.B.; van der Schuur, W.; Mak, J.; Steketee, M.; Pels, T.V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies and intervention programs on interparental violence have relied largely on reports either solely from parents or solely from children. Nevertheless, the literature and the theoretical background provide indications of the existence of discrepancies between the narratives of parents

  1. Processing Discrepancy Reports Against Foreign Military Sales Shipments (Supplementation is Permitted at all Levels)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tucker, Gary

    1991-01-01

    ...) shipments are processed. It provides for the basic documents required to support adjustment of property and financial inventory accounting records, notification to shippers of the type of discrepancies, required corrective...

  2. Comparison of clinical causes of death with autopsy diagnosis using discrepency classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Khalil; Alamgir, Wasim

    2006-12-01

    To determine the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of patients care. An observational study. Departments of Pathology and Medicine, Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian, a tertiary care hospital, from January 2001 to December 2003. The clinical and necropsy findings of all the cases, who died in hospital and had undergone autopsy examination at CMH, Kharian, from January 2001 to December 2003, were retrieved from record of clinical case sheet data and autopsy record of the hospital. The two were analyzed and compared according to the discrepancy classification. The exclusion and inclusion criteria, the international classification of disease (ICD) to code deaths, the global burden of disease (GBD) system to classify and group diseases, and the Goldman discrepancy classification to compare clinical and autopsy diagnosis and classify the discrepancies, were used as described. The death rate varied from 0.94% to 1.29% and autopsy rate from 4.69% to 10.10% annually between January 2001 and December 2003. The number of cases classified according to GBD system was 3 (5%) in Group 1, 26 (43.33 %) in Group 2 and 31 (51.66 %) in Group 3. The discrepancy classes included 9 (15 %) class I major discrepancies and 3 (5 %) class II major discrepancies. Non-discrepant diagnosis was seen in 37 cases (61.66 %) and 11 cases (18.32 %) were non-classifiable. This study showed the usefulness of autopsy findings in the quality improvement of the diagnosis and management of the disease by showing only a minority of cases with discrepant diagnosis of the cause of death.

  3. Informant Discrepancies in Assessing Child Dysfunction Relate to Dysfunction Within Mother-Child Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Kazdin, Alan E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined whether mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems relate to dysfunctional interactions between mother and child and stress in the mother. Participants included 239 children (6–16 years old; 58 girls, 181 boys) referred for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior, and their mothers. Mother-child discrepancies in perceived child behavior problems were related to mother-child conflict. Moreover, maternal stress mediated this relationship. The findings sug...

  4. Body Image, Self-Esteem, Media, Disordered Eating and Actual Ideal Weight Discrepancy: Findings in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Argyrides

    2017-02-01

    discrepancy. No differences were found concerning age, socioeconomic status and place of upbringing and residence. The results of this study offer important additional information to the body image and disordered eating literature regarding a construct (actual ideal weight discrepancy never examined before in Cyprus. This information could be used by Cypriot and European mental health professionals when working with children and teenagers who are at risk for or exhibit symptoms related to eating disorders and in developing prevention interventions.

  5. Discrepancies in the half-lives of 90Sr, 137Cs and 252Cf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.; Mac Mahon, T.D.

    1990-01-01

    Recent reports have pointed out that significant discrepancies exist in published half-life data for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 252 Cr, amongst others. These discrepancies make the estimation of evaluated half-lives for these isotopes difficult and contentious. This paper reviews the current situation, takes into account recently available data and attempts to derive recommended half-lives and associated uncertainties for the three isotopes. 37 refs, 3 tabs

  6. Patterns and Predictors of Mother-Adolescent Discrepancies across Family Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rote, Wendy M; Smetana, Judith G

    2016-10-01

    Parent-child discrepancies pervade the family literature; they appear in reports of relationship dynamics (e.g., conflict; Laursen et al. 1998), parent and child behaviors (e.g., monitoring; De Los Reyes et al. 2010), and individual family members' beliefs (e.g., parental legitimate authority; Smetana 2011). Discrepancies are developmentally normative (Steinberg 2001) but also may be indicators of relationship and adjustment problems for teens (Ohannessian 2012). Because of this variation, it is important to consider the extent to which parent-child discrepancies are a function of both the dyad and the family construct considered. The present study contributed to our understanding of informant discrepancies in family relationships by considering the patterning, consistency, and correlates of mother-adolescent discrepancies across three family constructs that vary in their objectivity. Using person-centered analyses, discrepancies in adolescents' and mothers' ratings of parents' right to know about teens' activities, mothers' knowledge of them, and positive mother-adolescents relationships were examined in 167 middle class, primarily European American mother-adolescent dyads (M teen age = 15.68 years, SD = .64, 53 % female). Each construct was best described by three profiles, one where adolescents' standardized ratings were consistently higher than mothers', one showing the reverse, and one revealing little disagreement. Adolescent-reported problem behavior (but not depression), behavioral and psychological control, and mothers' wellbeing significantly predicted profile membership. Most dyads maintained consistent membership in a discrepancy profile across at least two family constructs. Results contribute to understanding the different sources of discrepancies in views of the family.

  7. The efficacy of a modified general hip technique in the treatment of leg length discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    M.Dip.Tech. Functional leg length discrepancies, as distinct from anatomical discrepancies, are often associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction. This may result in back pain and discomfort. Chiropractors usually treat this condition using a side posture sacroiliac adjustment, but in some cases, an adjustment may not be indicated. This study aims to determine whether a Modified General Hip technique would be an acceptable alternative treatment. For this study, 30 patients who suffered fr...

  8. Parental and Peer Factors Associated with Body Image Discrepancy among Fifth-Grade Boys and Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzel, Kathryn; Elliott, Marc N.; Dittus, Patricia J.; Kanouse, David E.; Wallander, Jan L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Franzini, Luisa; Taylor, Wendell C.; Qureshi, Tariq; Franklin, Frank A.; Schuster, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Many young adolescents are dissatisfied with their body due to a discrepancy between their ideal and actual body size, which can lead to weight cycling, eating disorders, depression, and obesity. The current study examined the associations of parental and peer factors with fifth-graders’ body image discrepancy, physical self-worth as a mediator between parental and peer factors and body image discrepancy, and how these associations vary by child’s sex. Body image discrepancy was defined as the difference between young adolescents’ self-perceived body size and the size they believe a person their age should be. Data for this study came from Healthy Passages, which surveyed 5,147 fifth graders (51 % females; 34 % African American, 35 % Latino, 24 % White, and 6 % other) and their primary caregivers from the United States. Path analyses were conducted separately for boys and girls. The findings for boys suggest father nurturance and getting along with peers are related negatively to body image discrepancy; however, for girls, fear of negative evaluation by peers is related positively to body image discrepancy. For both boys and girls, getting along with peers and fear of negative evaluation by peers are related directly to physical self-worth. In addition, mother nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for girls, and father nurturance is related positively to physical self-worth for boys. In turn, physical self-worth, for both boys and girls, is related negatively to body image discrepancy. The findings highlight the potential of parental and peer factors to reduce fifth graders’ body image discrepancy. PMID:23334988

  9. Computerized follow-up of discrepancies in image interpretation between emergency and radiology departments

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Eliot; Groleau, Georgina; Reiner, Bruce; Stair, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Radiographs are ordered and interpreted for immediate clinical decisions 24 hours a day by emergency physicians (EP’s). The Joint Commission for Accreditation of Health Care Organizations requires that all these images be reviewed by radiologists and that there be some mechanism for quality improvement (QI) for discrepant readings. There must be a log of discrepancies and documentation of follow up activities, but this alone does not guarantee effective Q.I. Radiologists reviewing images from...

  10. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  11. Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Emotion-Regulation Difficulties, and Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S; Reidy, Dennis E; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-05-24

    Research suggests that masculine socialization processes contribute to the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) by men. Although this research has traditionally focused on men who strongly adhere to traditional gender norms, men who negatively evaluate themselves as falling short of these norms (a construct termed masculine discrepancy stress) have proven to be at increased risk of IPV perpetration. Likewise, men experiencing problems with emotion regulation, a multidimensional construct reflecting difficulties in effectively experiencing and responding to emotional states, are also at risk of IPV perpetration. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that the link between discrepancy stress and IPV perpetration is mediated via difficulties in emotion regulation. Three hundred fifty-seven men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, emotion-regulation difficulties, and history of IPV perpetration. Results indicated that discrepancy-stressed men's use of physical IPV was fully mediated by emotion-regulation difficulties. In addition, emotion-regulation difficulties partially mediated the association between discrepancy stress and sexual IPV. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of emotion-focused interventions for modifying men's experience and expression of discrepancy stress and reducing perpetration of IPV. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Cost and quality implications of discrepancies between admitting and discharge diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, Robert; Johnson, Tricia; Kane, Jason; Ackerman, Mariel; Odwazny, Richard; Bardhan, Jaydeep

    2012-01-01

    Presenting and discharge diagnoses of hospitalized patients may differ as a result of patient complexity, diagnostic dilemmas, or errors in clinical judgment at the time of primary assessment. When diagnoses at admission and discharge are not in agreement, this discrepancy may indicate more complex processes of care and resultant costs. It is unclear whether surrogate measures reflecting quality of care are impacted by discrepant diagnoses. To assess whether an association exists between admitting and discharge International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes and other quality markers including hospital length of stay, total cost of care, and 30-day readmission rate. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of general internal medicine patients aged 18 years and older. Diagnosis discrepancy was defined as a difference between the 3-digit ICD-9 diagnosis code at admission and the principal 3-digit ICD-9 diagnosis code at discharge. Sixty-eight percent of patients had a diagnosis discrepancy. Diagnosis discrepancy was associated with a 0.41-day increase in length of stay (P < .001), $663 increase in direct costs (P < .001), and a 1.55 times greater odds of readmission within 30 days (P < .001). Diagnosis discrepancy was associated with hospital quality outcome measures. This finding likely reflects variations in patients' diagnostic complexity.

  13. Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Emotion-Regulation Difficulties, and Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S.; Reidy, Dennis E.; Gentile, Brittany; Zeichner, Amos

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that masculine socialization processes contribute to the perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) by men. Although this research has traditionally focused on men who strongly adhere to traditional gender norms, men who negatively evaluate themselves as falling short of these norms (a construct termed masculine discrepancy stress) have proven to be at increased risk of IPV perpetration. Likewise, men experiencing problems with emotion regulation, a multidimensional construct reflecting difficulties in effectively experiencing and responding to emotional states, are also at risk of IPV perpetration. In the present research, we tested the hypothesis that the link between discrepancy stress and IPV perpetration is mediated via difficulties in emotion regulation. Three hundred fifty-seven men completed online surveys assessing their experience of discrepancy stress, emotion-regulation difficulties, and history of IPV perpetration. Results indicated that discrepancy-stressed men's use of physical IPV was fully mediated by emotion-regulation difficulties. In addition, emotion-regulation difficulties partially mediated the association between discrepancy stress and sexual IPV. Findings are discussed in terms of the potential utility of emotion-focused interventions for modifying men's experience and expression of discrepancy stress and reducing perpetration of IPV. PMID:27226013

  14. Parent-Adolescent Discrepancies in Perceived Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Developmental Outcomes in Poor Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Janet T Y; Shek, Daniel T L

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relationships between parent-adolescent discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics (indexed by parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and parental control) and adolescent developmental outcomes (indexed by achievement motivation and psychological competence) in poor families in Hong Kong. A sample of 275 intact families having at least one child aged 11-16 experiencing economic disadvantage were invited to participate in the study. Fathers and mothers completed the Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale, and adolescents completed the Social-Oriented Achievement Motivation Scale and Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale in addition to paternal and maternal Parenting Style Scale and Chinese Parental Control Scale. Results indicated that parents and adolescents had different perceptions of parental responsiveness, parental demandingness, and paternal control, with adolescents generally perceived lower levels of parenting behaviors than did their parents. While father-adolescent discrepancy in perceived paternal responsiveness and mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceived maternal control negatively predicted adolescent achievement motivation, mother-adolescent discrepancy in perceptions of maternal responsiveness negatively predicted psychological competence in adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present findings provided support that parent-child discrepancies in perceived parenting characteristics have negative impacts on the developmental outcomes of adolescents experiencing economic disadvantage. The present study addresses parent-child discrepancies in perceived parental behaviors as "legitimate" constructs, and explores their links with adolescent psychosocial development, which sheds light for researchers and clinical practitioners in helping the Chinese families experiencing economic disadvantage.

  15. Body Image Self-Discrepancy and Depressive Symptoms Among Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon-Krakus, Shauna; Sabiston, Catherine M; Brunet, Jennifer; Castonguay, Andree L; Maximova, Katerina; Henderson, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether body image self-discrepancy was a correlate of depressive symptoms among 556 early adolescents (45% girls; M age  = 11.65, SD = .94 years). Participants completed self-report measures of their self-perceived actual and ideal body shapes and depressive symptoms. Sex-stratified polynomial regressions were used to examine the associations between depressive symptoms and (1) agreement (i.e., similar actual and ideal body shapes); (2) discrepancy (i.e., different actual and ideal body shapes); (3) direction of discrepancy (i.e., actual > ideal or actual self-perceptions are). For both sexes, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the direction of the discrepancy was such that participants perceived their actual body was larger than their ideal body. Furthermore, depressive symptoms were more frequent when the degree of the discrepancy between actual and ideal body shape perceptions was larger. Based on these findings, body image self-discrepancy may be a risk factor for depressive symptoms among early adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3 of 3: Appendices C, D, E, and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by TerraTek, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This volume also documents the brine recipe used by RE/SPEC, Inc., the parameter package submitted to Performance Assessment based on all the data, and a memo on the mixed Brooks and Corey two-phase characteristic curves.

  17. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3 of 3: Appendices C, D, E, and F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    This volume contains the mineralogy, porosity, and permeability results from the Marker Bed 139 anhydrite specimens evaluated by TerraTek, Inc. for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This volume also documents the brine recipe used by RE/SPEC, Inc., the parameter package submitted to Performance Assessment based on all the data, and a memo on the mixed Brooks and Corey two-phase characteristic curves

  18. Quality charter. Instrumentation of solar and wind powered electricity generating systems in isolated sites. A preliminary functional analysis; Charte de qualite. Instrumentation des systemes de production d`electricite en sites isoles a base d`energie photovoltaique et eolienne. Premiere analyse fonctionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, A.; Mauras, P.; Jacquin, P.

    1996-10-01

    This document is intended to become one of the Quality Charter documents. It presents the functions which must be provided by the instrumentation systems designed for use in solar and wind powered electricity generating systems in isolated designed for use in solar and wind powered electricity generating systems in isolated sites and should be viewed in close conjunction with the `Typology` and `Energy Management` documents covering the same systems of electricity generation in isolated sites; Together, these documents provide the definition of a range of eight energy management systems and four instrumentation systems specially adapted to the different types of facilities and requirements. (authors)

  19. Assessing Social Isolation: Pilot Testing Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Herbers, Stephanie; Talisman, Samuel; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation is a significant public health problem among many older adults; however, most of the empirical knowledge about isolation derives from community-based samples. There has been less attention given to isolation in senior housing communities. The objectives of this pilot study were to test two methods to identify socially isolated residents in low-income senior housing and compare findings about the extent of isolation from these two methods. The first method, self-report by residents, included 47 out of 135 residents who completed in-person interviews. To determine self-report isolation, residents completed the Lubben Social Network Scale 6 (LSNS-6). The second method involved a staff member who reported the extent of isolation on all 135 residents via an online survey. Results indicated that 26% of residents who were interviewed were deemed socially isolated by the LSNS-6. Staff members rated 12% of residents as having some or a lot of isolation. In comparing the two methods, staff members rated 2% of interviewed residents as having a lot of isolation. The combination of self-report and staff report could be more informative than just self-report alone, particularly when participation rates are low. However, researchers should be aware of the potential discrepancy between these two methods.

  20. Seismic isolation in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, R.I.; Robinson, W.H.; McVerry, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Bridges, buildings, and industrial equipment can be given increased protection from earthquake damage by limiting the earthquake attack through seismic isolation. A broad summary of the seismic responses of base-isolated structures is of considerable assistance for their preliminary design. Seismic isolation as already used in New Zealand consists of a flexible base or support combined with some form of energy-dissipating device, usually involving the hysteretic working of steel or lead. This paper presents examples of the New Zealand experience, where seismic isolation has been used for 42 bridges, 3 buildings, a tall chimney, and high-voltage capacitor banks. Additional seismic response factors, which may be important for nuclear power plants, are also discussed briefly

  1. From sweeping to the caress: similarities and discrepancies between human and non-human primates' pleasant touch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Clara Grandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Affective touch plays a key role in affiliative behavior, offering a mechanism for the formation and maintenance of social bonds among conspecifics, both in humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it has been speculated that the CT fiber system is a specific coding channel for affiliative touch that occurs during skin-to-skin interactions with conspecifics. In humans, this touch is commonly referred to as the caress, and its correlation with the CT fiber system has been widely demonstrated. It has been hypothesized that the sweeping touch that occurs during grooming in non-human primates may modulate the CT fibers, with recent preliminary studies on rhesus monkeys supporting this hypothesis. The present mini-review proposes a comparison between the pleasant touch, caress and sweeping of humans and non-human primates, respectively. The currently available data was therefore reviewed regarding i the correlation between pleasant touch and CT fibers both in humans and non-human primates, ii the autonomic effects, iii the encoding at the central nervous system, iv the development from early life to adulthood, and v the potential applications of pleasant touch in the daily lives of both humans and non-human primates. Moreover, by considering both the similarities and discrepancies between the human caress and non-human primate sweeping, a possible evolutionary mechanism can be proposed that has developed from sweeping as a utilitarian action with affiliative meaning among monkeys, to the caress as a purely affective gesture associated with humans.

  2. Work-family conflict and self-discrepant time allocation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Patricia C; Glomb, Theresa M; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty; Leroy, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the relationships between work-to-family conflict, time allocation across work activities, and the outcomes of work satisfaction, well-being, and salary in the context of self-regulation and self-discrepancy theories. We posit work-to-family conflict is associated with self-discrepant time allocation such that employees with higher levels of work-to-family conflict are likely to allocate less time than preferred to work activities that require greater self-regulatory resources (e.g., tasks that are complex, or those with longer term goals that delay rewards and closure) and allocate more time than preferred to activities that demand fewer self-regulatory resources or are replenishing (e.g., those that provide closure or are prosocial). We suggest this self-discrepant time allocation (actual vs. preferred time allocation) is one mechanism by which work-to-family conflict leads to negative employee consequences (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005). Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology, we find that discrepancies between actual and preferred time allocations to work activities negatively relate to work satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical well-being. Self-discrepant time allocation mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and work satisfaction and well-being, while actual time allocation (rather than the discrepancy) mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and salary. We find that women are more likely than men to report self-discrepant time allocations as work-to-family conflict increases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Discrepancies in autobiographical memories— implications for the assessment of asylum seekers: repeated interviews study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Jane; Scragg, Peter; Turner, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the consistency of autobiographical memory of people seeking asylum, in light of the assumption that discrepancies in asylum seekers' accounts of persecution mean that they are fabricating their stories. Design Repeated interviews. Setting England, 1999 and 2000. Participants Community sample of 27 Kosovan and 12 Bosnian refugees. Main outcome measures Discrepancies in repeated descriptions of one traumatic and one non-traumatic event, including specific details, rated as central or peripheral to the event. Self report measures of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results Discrepancies between an individual's accounts were common. For participants with high levels of post-traumatic stress, the number of discrepancies increased with length of time between interviews. More discrepancies occurred in details peripheral to the account than in details that were central to the account. Conclusion The assumption that inconsistency of recall means that accounts have poor credibility is questionable. Discrepancies are likely to occur in repeated interviews. For refugees showing symptoms of high levels of post-traumatic stress, the length of the application process may also affect the number of discrepancies. Recall of details rated by the interviewee as peripheral to the account is more likely to be inconsistent than recall of details that are central to the account. Thus, such inconsistencies should not be relied on as indicating a lack of credibility. What is already known on this topicDiscrepancies between accounts of an event are often used to judge the credibility of asylum seekersWhat this study addsDiscrepancies arise between two accounts of the same event even when there is no reason for fabricationRefugees with high levels of post-traumatic stress are more likely to give inconsistent accounts if they have a long time to wait between interviewsInterviewees are more likely to be inconsistent in details that they rate as peripheral

  4. Masculine discrepancy stress, teen dating violence, and sexual violence perpetration among adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Cortina, Kai S; Kernsmith, Roger M; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2015-06-01

    Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and men fail to live up to the traditional gender norms set by society. Failure to live up to these gender role expectations may precipitate this experience of psychological distress in some males which, in turn, may increase the risk to engage in physically and sexually violent behaviors as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Five-hundred eighty-nine adolescent males from schools in Wayne County, Michigan completed a survey assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, the experience of discrepancy stress, and history of physical and sexual dating violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated boys who endorsed gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress were generally at greater risk to engage in acts of sexual violence but not necessarily physical violence. Boys who experience stress about being perceived as "sub-masculine" may be more likely to engage in sexual violence as a means of demonstrating their masculinity to self and/or others and thwarting potential "threats" to their masculinity by dating partners. Efforts to prevent sexual violence perpetration among male adolescents should perhaps consider the influence of gender socialization in this population and include efforts to reduce distress about masculine socialization in primary prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Discrepancies Between Clinical Diagnoses and Autopsy Findings in Critically Ill Children: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, Ana P C P; Bachette, Letícia G; Carmona, Fabio; Manso, Paulo H; Vicente, Walter V A; Ramalho, Fernando S

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the discrepancies between clinical and autopsy diagnoses in patients who died in the pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) of a tertiary care university hospital. A prospective study of all consecutive autopsies discussed at monthly mortality conferences over 5 years. Discrepancies between premortem and autopsy diagnoses were classified according to modified Goldman et al criteria. From January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015, a total of 2,679 children were admitted to the two PICUs of our hospital; 257 (9.6%) died, 150 (58.4%) underwent autopsy, and 123 were included. Complete concordance between clinical and postmortem diagnoses was observed in 86 (69.9%) patients; 20 (16.3%) had a class I discrepancy, and eight (6.5%) had a class II discrepancy. Comparing 2011 and 2015, the rate of major discrepancies decreased from 31.6% to 15%. Our results emphasize the importance of autopsy to clarify the cause of death and its potential contribution to improvement of team performance and quality of care. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT can predict clinical outcome in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Mina; Kim, Kyung-eun; Lee, Seung-Koo; Shin, Na-Young; Lim, Soo Mee; Song, Dongbeom; Heo, Ji Hoe; Kim, Jin Woo; Oh, Se Won

    2016-01-01

    The thrombus length may be overestimated on early arterial computed tomography angiography (CTA) depending on the collateral status. We evaluated the value of a grading system based on the thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT in outcome prediction. Forty-eight acute ischemic stroke patients with M1 occlusion were included. Dual-phase CT protocol encompassed non-contrast enhanced CT, CTA with a bolus tracking technique, and delayed contrast enhanced CT (CECT) performed 40s after contrast injection. The thrombus length discrepancy between CTA and CECT was graded by using a three-point scale: G0 = no difference; G1 = no difference in thrombus length, but in attenuation distal to thrombus; G2 = difference in thrombus length. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to define independent predictors of poor clinical outcome at 3 months. The thrombus discrepancy grade showed significant linear relationships with both the collateral status (P = 0.008) and the presence of antegrade flow on DSA (P = 0.010) with good interobserver agreement (κ = 0.868). In a multivariate model, the presence of thrombus length discrepancy (G2) was an independent predictor of poor clinical outcome [odds ratio = 11.474 (1.350-97.547); P =0.025]. The presence of thrombus length discrepancy on dual-phase CT may be a useful predictor of unfavourable clinical outcome in acute M1 occlusion patients. (orig.)

  7. Exploring disadvantageous inequality aversion in children: How cost and discrepancy influence decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda eWilliams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examined disadvantageous inequality aversion in 4- and 6-year-old children. Using the resource allocation paradigm, we explored how inequality aversion was influenced by whether a cost was associated with the equitable choice. We also investigated whether preferences for equality differed depending on whether the inequitable choice presented a small or large discrepancy between the payoff of the participant and their partner. The results demonstrated that cost plays a large role in decision-making, as children preferred equality more when there was no cost associated with it compared to when there was a cost. Interestingly, the effect of cost also affected discrepancy, with children more likely to choose equality when the discrepancy was large as opposed to small, in cost trials but not in no cost trials. Finally, the effect of discrepancy also interacted with age, with older children being more sensitive to the discrepancy between themselves and their partner Together, these results suggest that children’s behaviour is not indiscriminately guided by a generalized aversion to inequality or established fairness norms. Alternate motives for inequality aversion are discussed.

  8. Procedure for statistical analysis of one-parameter discrepant experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badikov, Sergey A.; Chechev, Valery P.

    2012-01-01

    A new, Mandel–Paule-type procedure for statistical processing of one-parameter discrepant experimental data is described. The procedure enables one to estimate a contribution of unrecognized experimental errors into the total experimental uncertainty as well as to include it in analysis. A definition of discrepant experimental data for an arbitrary number of measurements is introduced as an accompanying result. In the case of negligible unrecognized experimental errors, the procedure simply reduces to the calculation of the weighted average and its internal uncertainty. The procedure was applied to the statistical analysis of half-life experimental data; Mean half-lives for 20 actinides were calculated and results were compared to the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. On the whole, the calculated half-lives are consistent with the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations. However, the uncertainties calculated in this work essentially exceed the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations for discrepant experimental data. This effect can be explained by adequately taking into account unrecognized experimental errors. - Highlights: ► A new statistical procedure for processing one-parametric discrepant experimental data has been presented. ► Procedure estimates a contribution of unrecognized errors in the total experimental uncertainty. ► Procedure was applied for processing half-life discrepant experimental data. ► Results of the calculations are compared to the ENSDF and DDEP evaluations.

  9. Interdisciplinary Discrepancies Between Parenteral Nutrition Macronutrient Prescribing and Recommendations: Is Body Mass Index a Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Katie L; Kandiah, Jay; Walroth, Todd A

    2017-07-01

    Formal nutrition training in medical schools and residencies is lacking and needed. Registered dietitians (RDs) are formally trained in nutrition support and considered experts in the nutrition field. Our purpose was to examine prescribing and recommending discrepancies of parenteral nutrition macronutrients between medical residents (MRs) and RDs and compare results with the ASPEN clinical care guidelines. We also looked at discrepancies among obese patients, due to their increased risk of mortality. The primary end point of this retrospective review was discrepancies in nonprotein calories (NPCs) and grams of protein (PRO) between MRs and RDs. The secondary end point was discrepancies in NPCs and PRO between MRs and RDs among patients stratified by body mass index category. MRs prescribed 300 NPCs more versus RDs ( P < .001). When compared with RDs, MRs prescribed fewer NPCs for underweight patients and more for obese patients ( P < .001). The same analysis found that the PRO discrepancies significantly varied by body mass index classification as well ( P = .022). When these results were compared with the ASPEN clinical care guidelines, RDs adhered closer to the guidelines than did MRs in terms of permissive underfeeding of obese patients. It is widely accepted that MRs are in need of increased formal training, and the results of our study confirm this need and suggest a short-term solution of increasing order-writing privileges for the RD. RDs with this privilege may adhere more closely to clinical care guidelines and therefore increase patient safety.

  10. Extremely discrepant mutation spectrum of SLC26A4 between Chinese patients with isolated Mondini deformity and enlarged vestibular aqueduct

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shasha; Han, Dongyi; Yuan, Yongyi; Wang, Guojian; Kang, Dongyang; Zhang, Xin; Yan, Xiaofei; Meng, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Min; Dai, Pu

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mutations in SLC26A4 cause Pendred syndrome (hearing loss with goiter) or DFNB4 (non-syndromic hearing loss with inner ear malformation, such as enlarged vestibular aqueduct or Mondini deformity). The relationship between mutations in SLC26A4 and Mondini deformity without enlarged vestibular aqueduct has not been studied in any Chinese deaf population. The purpose of this study was to assess whether mutations in the SLC26A4 gene cause Mondini deformity without an enlarged ...

  11. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas Damm; TH, Jørgensen; Børglum, Anders

    2006-01-01

    The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are inhabited by a small population, whose origin is thought to date back to the Viking Age. Historical, archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the present population of the Faroe Islands may have a mixture of Scandinavian and British...... a frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among...

  12. Shared temporoparietal dysfunction in dyslexia and typical readers with discrepantly high IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Roeland; Gabrieli, John D E; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2016-12-01

    It is currently believed that reading disability (RD) should be defined by reading level without regard to broader aptitude (IQ). There is debate, however, about how to classify individuals who read in the typical range but less well than would be expected by their higher IQ. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 49 children to examine whether those with typical, but discrepantly low reading ability relative to IQ, show dyslexia-like activation patterns during reading. Children who were typical readers with high-IQ discrepancy showed reduced activation in left temporoparietal neocortex relative to two control groups of typical readers without IQ discrepancy. This pattern was consistent and spatially overlapping with results in children with RD compared to typically reading children. The results suggest a shared neurological atypicality in regions associated with phonological processing between children with dyslexia and children with typical reading ability that is substantially below their IQ.

  13. Discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall: The past as seen by Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Antoine, Pascal

    2017-03-01

    This paper investigated whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may demonstrate a discrepancy between subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall. To this end, 31 AD patients and 35 controls were asked to retrieve three autobiographical memories. For each memory, participants were asked to rate its subjective characteristics (e.g., reliving, travel in time, visual imagery…). Besides this subjective assessment, we analyzed recall objectively with regard to specificity. Results showed poorer subjective autobiographical reliving and objective recall in AD patients than in controls. A discrepancy (i.e., higher level of subjective reliving than of objective recall) was observed in AD but not in control participants. Despite a compromise in their objective recall, AD patients seemed to attribute a high value to their subjective autobiographical experience. This discrepancy can be attributed to a potential genuine consciousness experience in which mild AD patients can, to some extent, experience some subjective features of the past. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Self-esteem discrepancies and identity-expressive consumption: Evidence from Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunca, Burak

    2018-02-01

    Prior research established that simultaneously holding discrepant explicit (deliberate, controlled) and implicit (automatic, uncontrolled) self-esteem gives rise to self-enhancing behaviours. Given that individuals tend to enhance their self-concepts with brands that are associated with positive identities, this study examined whether self-esteem discrepancy was related to the extent to which individuals developed connections with brands that are associated with their in-groups. Findings from an adolescent sample (ages 16-18) indicated that adolescents with larger discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem were more likely to construct their self-concepts using in-group-linked brands. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  15. Using Emotionally Focused Therapy to Treat Sexual Desire Discrepancy in Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Abby; Woolley, Scott R

    2017-11-17

    Couples in committed relationships encounter a multitude of issues. According to Metz and McCarthy (2010), when couples report high sexual satisfaction, it accounts for 15% to 20% of their overall relationship satisfaction. However, when couples report low sexual satisfaction, it contributes 50% to 70% of their overall satisfaction with their partner. Issues of sexual desire, currently referred to as sexual desire discrepancy, are among the most difficult to treat. Although there are many factors contributing to the issue of sexual desire discrepancy, current literature highlights the importance of emotional intimacy as an outcome and predictor of increased sexual desire. Given the complex nature of sexual desire, clinicians often lack the understanding and treatment options that are systemic. By viewing sexual desire discrepancy as a relational problem that can be treated using emotionally focused therapy, clinicians are better equipped to work with emotional and sexual factors that impact desire and couple distress.

  16. Culture-Led Discrepancies and Negotiating Conflicts in Strategic Outsourcing Alliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens; Kumar, Rajesh; Worm, Verner

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing and alliance collaboration have become prominent features of the global economy. Empirical studies demonstrate that outsourcing alliances are often not as successful as their initiators expect them to be. National cultural differences are frequently viewed as a crucial factor when...... such alliances fail. While empirical studies are abundant, theoretical frameworks that explicate the role of national cultural differences in shaping the dynamics of outsourcing alliances are rare. This article builds on Kumar and Nti's (1998) discrepancy model to specify how culture affects the dynamics...... of outsourcing alliances. We suggest that national cultural differences give rise to process and outcome discrepancies in outsourcing alliances. Notably, outsourcing alliances evolve through three stages–formation, operation and outcome–with discrepancies arising in each of these stages (Das & Teng, 2002). We...

  17. An attempt to explain the uranium 238 effective capture integral discrepancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Henry; Grandotto-Biettoli, Marc; Vanuxeem, Jacqueline

    1979-02-01

    Up to now, there was a discrepancy between the computed value and the measured value of the uranium 238 effective capture integral. The former has been always greater than the latter. For this reason, the reactor physicists have used an adjustment of the computed value. Nowadays the accuracy of the cross sections knowledge is increased and the reactors computation codes are almost exact. Such an adjustment is no more justified. Recently several new measurements of the resonance parameters were carried out and the use of a multilevel formalism was suggested to compute the uranium 238 cross sections. It is shown in this work that the simultaneous use of recent parameters and Reich and Moore formalism explain the discrepancy. For the thermal neutron reactors, two thirds of this discrepancy are explained by the neutron data and the last third by the multilevel formalism [fr

  18. A STUDY OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN FEDERAL AND STATE MEASUREMENTS OF ON-HIGHWAY FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, HL

    2003-08-11

    Annual highway fuel taxes are collected by the Treasury Department and placed in the Highway Trust Fund (HTF). There is, however, no direct connection between the taxes collected by the Treasury Department and the gallons of on-highway fuel use, which can lead to a discrepancy between these totals. This study was conducted to determine how much of a discrepancy exists between the total fuel usages estimated based on highway revenue funds as reported by the Treasury Department and the total fuel usages used in the apportionment of the HTF to the States. The analysis was conducted using data from Highway Statistics Tables MF-27 and FE-9 for the years 1991-2001. It was found that the overall discrepancy is relatively small, mostly within 5% difference. The amount of the discrepancy varies from year to year and varies among the three fuel types (gasoline, gasohol, special fuels). Several potential explanations for these discrepancies were identified, including issues on data, tax measurement, gallon measurement, HTF receipts, and timing. Data anomalies caused by outside forces, such as deferment of tax payments from one fiscal year to the next, can skew fuel tax data. Fuel tax evasion can lead to differences between actual fuel use and fuel taxes collected. Furthermore, differences in data collection and reporting among States can impact fuel use data. Refunds, credits, and transfers from the HTF can impact the total fuel tax receipt data. Timing issues, such as calendar year vs. fiscal year, can also cause some discrepancy between the two data sources.

  19. Cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy in ceramic laminate veneering materials: A SEM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Ranganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Marginal discrepancy influenced by the choice of processing material used for the ceramic laminate veneers needs to be explored further for better clinical application. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the amount of cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy associated with different ceramic laminate veneering materials. Settings and Design: This was an experimental, single-blinded, in vitro trial. Subjects and Methods: Ten central incisors were prepared for laminate veneers with 2 mm uniform reduction and heavy chamfer finish line. Ceramic laminate veneers fabricated over the prepared teeth using four different processing materials were categorized into four groups as Group I - aluminous porcelain veneers, Group II - lithium disilicate ceramic veneers, Group III - lithium disilicate-leucite-based veneers, Group IV - zirconia-based ceramic veneers. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy was measured using a scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honest significant difference (HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy for four groups was Group I - 114.6 ± 4.3 μm, 132.5 ± 6.5 μm, Group II - 86.1 ± 6.3 μm, 105.4 ± 5.3 μm, Group III - 71.4 ± 4.4 μm, 91.3 ± 4.7 μm, and Group IV - 123.1 ± 4.1 μm, 142.0 ± 5.4 μm. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests observed a statistically significant difference between the four test specimens with regard to cervical marginal discrepancy. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy scored F = 243.408, P < 0.001 and F = 180.844, P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded veneers fabricated using leucite reinforced lithium disilicate exhibited the least marginal discrepancy followed by lithium disilicate ceramic, aluminous porcelain, and zirconia-based ceramics. The marginal discrepancy was more in the incisal region than in the cervical region in all the groups.

  20. Preliminary safety assessment of the WIPP facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestri, R.J.; Torres, B.W.; Pahwa, S.B.; Brannen, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper summarizes the efforts to perform a safety assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility being proposed for southeastern New Mexico. This preliminary safety assessment is limited to a consequence assessment in terms of the dose to a maximally exposed individual as a result of introducing the radionuclides into the biosphere. The extremely low doses to the organs as a result of the liquid breach scenarios are contrasted with the background radiation

  1. When do self-discrepancies predict negative emotions? Exploring formal operational thought and abstract reasoning skills as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Erin N; Holmberg, Nicole J; Lovejoy, M Christine; Pittman, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in higher-order cognitive abilities may be an important piece to understanding how and when self-discrepancies lead to negative emotions. In the current study, three measures of reasoning abilities were considered as potential moderators of the relationship between self-discrepancies and depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants (N = 162) completed measures assessing self-discrepancies, depression and anxiety symptoms, and were administered measures examining formal operational thought, and verbal and non-verbal abstract reasoning skills. Both formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning were significant moderators of the relationship between actual:ideal discrepancies and depressive symptoms. Discrepancies predicted depressive symptoms for individuals with higher levels of formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning skills, but not for those with lower levels. The discussion focuses on the need to consider advanced reasoning skills when examining self-discrepancies.

  2. Cross-modal discrepancies in coarticulation and the integration of speech information: the McGurk effect with mismatched vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K P; Gerdeman, A

    1995-12-01

    Two experiments examined the impact of a discrepancy in vowel quality between the auditory and visual modalities on the perception of a syllable-initial consonant. One experiment examined the effect of such a discrepancy on the McGurk effect by cross-dubbing auditory /bi/ tokens onto visual /ga/ articulations (and vice versa). A discrepancy in vowel category significantly reduced the magnitude of the McGurk effect and changed the pattern of responses. A 2nd experiment investigated the effect of such a discrepancy on the speeded classification of the initial consonant. Mean reaction times to classify the tokens increased when the vowel information was discrepant between the 2 modalities but not when the vowel information was consistent. These experiments indicate that the perceptual system is sensitive to cross-modal discrepancies in the coarticulatory information between a consonant and its following vowel during phonetic perception.

  3. Discrepancies in Parent and Teacher Ratings of Low-Income Preschooler's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Miriam; Poulakos, Anthoula; Upshur, Carole; Wenz-Gross, Melodie

    2016-01-01

    Parent-teacher rating discrepancies in rating of children's social skills were examined in a low-income, ethnically diverse preschool sample, using the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales [Gresham, F. J. & Elliott, S. N. (2008). "Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales." Minneapolis, MN: Pearson Assessments].…

  4. When Discrepant Events Change the Plans: An Unexpected Investigation of Physical Properties and Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren; Seifried, Joyce; Farnum, Kerry; D'Armiento, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Discrepant events are often used by science educators to incite interest and excitement in learners, yet sometimes their results are farther-reaching. The following article describes how one such event--dissolving packing peanuts in acetone--led to a change in the course of a college-level elementary science teaching methods class and to the…

  5. Discrepancy in Motivation for Weight Loss and Exercise in Rural Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2017-11-01

    We explored the extent to which discrepancy between motivation for weight loss and exercise is related to obesity among rural patients with chronic disease, and identified the psychosocial correlates of this discrepancy. 497 patients with diabetes and/or hypertension were recruited from a network of Federally Qualified Health Centers in the rural South and completed a battery of assessments. Most persons in the sample (83.1%) were overweight and 65.0% were obese. For motivation for change, 70.8% reported being in the Action stage or higher for weight loss, whereas only 24.9% reported being in the Action stage or higher for motivation for exercise. When controlling for age, education level, income, sex, and race/ethnicity, individuals who were motivated for weight loss but not exercise were twice as likely to be obese (p = .005). Race and sex were significantly associated with this discrepancy, with African-American patients 1.7 times as likely (p = .05) and women 2.3 times as likely to be discrepant (p = .001). Findings underscore the importance of focusing not simply on weight loss among rural patients with chronic disease, but rather to incorporate specific activities designed to build simultaneous motivation for engaging in exercise.

  6. 12 CFR 334.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding Address... section applies to a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief. (1...

  7. 12 CFR 222.82 - Duties of users regarding address discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM FAIR CREDIT REPORTING (REGULATION V) Duties of Users of Consumer Reports Regarding... a user of consumer reports (user) that receives a notice of address discrepancy from a consumer... consumer report and the address(es) in the agency's file for the consumer. (c) Reasonable belief—(1...

  8. Informant Discrepancies in the Assessment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerley, Stephanie; Jaquiery, Ben; Hatch, Burt; Healey, Matthew; Wheeler, Benjamin J.; Healey, Dione

    2018-01-01

    An attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis requires symptoms to be present across two or more settings, thus requiring information from multiple informants. Research consistently shows low to moderate agreement between parents and teachers; however, the mechanisms underlying these discrepancies remain unclear. This study examined…

  9. The Impact of Discrepant Verbal-Nonverbal Messages in the Teacher-Student Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Noting that teachers' nonverbal behaviors are frequently inconsistent with their verbal messages, a situation that detracts from student learning, this paper offers an activity for focusing prospective teachers' attentions on the frequency and impact of discrepant verbal-nonverbal messages occurring in the classroom. The step-by-step process is…

  10. Linking Informant Discrepancies to Observed Variations in Young Children's Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Henry, David B.; Tolan, Patrick H.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.

    2009-01-01

    Prior work has not tested the basic theoretical notion that informant discrepancies in reports of children's behavior exist, in part, because different informants observe children's behavior in different settings. We examined patterns of observed preschool disruptive behavior across varying social contexts in the laboratory and whether they…

  11. Development and Factor Structure of the Helping Professional Wellness Discrepancy Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Ashley J.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2018-01-01

    The authors present the development of the Helping Professional Wellness Discrepancy Scale (HPWDS). The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) present a rationale for the HPWDS; (b) review statistical analyses procedures used to develop the HPWDS; and (c) offer implications for counselors, other helping professionals, and future research.

  12. Discrepancy between Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes and NS4-Based Serotypes: Association with Their Subgenomic Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Nwe Win

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of hepatitis C virus (HCV genotypes plays an important role in the direct-acting agent era. Discrepancies between HCV genotyping and serotyping assays are occasionally observed. Eighteen samples with discrepant results between genotyping and serotyping methods were analyzed. HCV serotyping and genotyping were based on the HCV nonstructural 4 (NS4 region and 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR, respectively. HCV core and NS4 regions were chosen to be sequenced and were compared with the genotyping and serotyping results. Deep sequencing was also performed for the corresponding HCV NS4 regions. Seventeen out of 18 discrepant samples could be sequenced by the Sanger method. Both HCV core and NS4 sequences were concordant with that of genotyping in the 5′-UTR in all 17 samples. In cloning analysis of the HCV NS4 region, there were several amino acid variations, but each sequence was much closer to the peptide with the same genotype. Deep sequencing revealed that minor clones with different subgenotypes existed in two of the 17 samples. Genotyping by genome amplification showed high consistency, while several false reactions were detected by serotyping. The deep sequencing method also provides accurate genotyping results and may be useful for analyzing discrepant cases. HCV genotyping should be correctly determined before antiviral treatment.

  13. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement of the Lipschitz ...

  14. Postmortem CT versus forensic autopsy: frequent discrepancies of tracheobronchial content findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Jackowski, Christian; Schwendener, Nicole; Brencicova, Eva; Schuster, Frederick; Lombardo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In their daily forensic casework, the authors experienced discrepancies of tracheobronchial content findings between postmortem computed tomography (PMCT) and autopsy to an extent previously unnoticed in the literature. The goal of this study was to evaluate such discrepancies in routine forensic cases. A total of 327 cases that underwent PMCT prior to routine forensic autopsy were retrospectively evaluated for tracheal and bronchial contents according to PMCT and autopsy findings. Hounsfield unit (HU) values of tracheobronchial contents, causes of death, and presence of pulmonary edema were assessed in mismatching and matching cases. Comparing contents in PMCT and autopsy in each of the separately evaluated compartments of the respiratory tract low positive predictive values were assessed (trachea, 38.2%; main bronchi, 40%; peripheral bronchi, 69.1%) indicating high discrepancy rates. The majority of tracheobronchial contents were viscous stomach contents in matching cases and low radiodensity materials (i.e., HU autopsy occur in a considerable number of cases. Discrepancies may be explained by the runoff of contents via nose and mouth during external examination and the flow back of tracheal and main bronchial contents into the lungs caused by upright movement of the respiratory tract at autopsy.

  15. Discrepancies between patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive behavior in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snippe, Evelien; Maters, Gemma A; Wempe, Johan B; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Sanderman, Robbert

    2012-06-01

    The literature on chronic diseases indicates that partner support, as perceived by patients, contributes to well-being of patients in either a positive or a negative way. Previous studies indicated that patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive partner behavior are only moderately related. Our aim was (1) to investigate whether discrepancies between patients' and partners' perceptions of two types of unsupportive partner behavior-overprotection and protective buffering-were associated with the level of distress reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and (2) to evaluate whether the direction of the differences between patients' and partners' perceptions was associated with distress (i.e., whether patient distress was associated with greater patient or greater partner reports of unsupportive partner behavior). A cross-sectional study was performed using the data of a sample of 68 COPD patients and their spouses. Distress was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25. Patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive partner behavior were assessed with a questionnaire measuring overprotection and protective buffering. Distress was independently associated with patients' perceptions of protective buffering and discrepancies in spouses' perceptions of overprotection. Regarding the direction of the discrepancy, we found that greater partner reports of overprotection as compared with patient reports were related to more distress in COPD patients. Our study showed that patients' distress was associated not only with patients' perceptions, but also with discrepancies between patients' and partners' perceptions of unsupportive partner behavior. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. What Is Asthma Control? Discrepancies between Parents' Perceptions and Official Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, Ann; Aligne, C. Andrew; Schlabach, Mary Beth

    2006-01-01

    National guidelines define asthma control as the prevention of asthma symptoms rather than the treatment of asthma exacerbations. We hypothesized that we would find a discrepancy between what parents consider adequate control compared to what health care professionals mean by "control." Data from a telephone survey conducted for the…

  17. The role of ambiguity and discrepancy in the early phases of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu; Tollestrup, Christian H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Innovation literature mainly focuses on eliminating ambiguity and discrepancy from the early phases of innovation. This study questions this implicit assumption, as it may provide an oversimplified view on, how to attain proficiency. Instead of narrowly focusing on reducing ambiguity and discrepa...

  18. Evaluation of discrepancies between thermoluminescent dosimeter and direct-reading dosimeter results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.R.

    1993-07-01

    Currently at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the responses of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and direct-reading dosimeters (DRDs) are not officially compared or the discrepancies investigated. However, both may soon be required due to the new US Department of Energy (DOE) Radiological Control Manual. In the past, unofficial comparisons of the two dosimeters have led to discrepancies of up to 200%. This work was conducted to determine the reasons behind such discrepancies. For tests conducted with the TLDs, the reported dose was most often lower than the delivered dose, while DRDs most often responded higher than the delivered dose. Trends were identified in personnel DRD readings, and ft was concluded that more training and more control of the DRDs could improve their response. TLD responses have already begun to be improved; a new background subtraction method was implemented in April 1993, and a new dose algorithm is being considered. It was concluded that the DOE Radiological Control Manual requirements are reasonable for identifying discrepancies between dosimeter types, and more stringent administrative limits might even be considered

  19. Social self-discrepancies from own and other standpoints and collective self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizman, Aharon; Yinon, Yoel

    2004-04-01

    On the basis of an extension of Self-Discrepancy Theory (SDT) to the social aspect of the self (A. Bizman, Y. Yinon, & S. Krotman, 2001), the authors examined the relationships between social self-discrepancies from own and other standpoints and collective self-esteem. The authors assessed perceptions of actual, ideal, and ought attributes of Israelis from own and other standpoints; perceived importance of others' evaluation of Israel; and the Collective Self-Esteem Scale (CSES) among 114 Israelis. The results revealed that the association of the discrepancy between actual Israelis and ideal Israelis from the other standpoint with the public Collective Self-Esteem (CSE) subscale was negative among participants with high perceived importance and positive among those with low perceived importance. In addition, the discrepancy between actual and ideal Israelis from the own standpoint was related to the private, public, and membership CSE subscales. Overall, the findings suggest that the SDT distinction between the own and other standpoints on the self is applicable to the social self.

  20. Explaining the discrepancy between intentions and actions: the case of hypothetical bias in contingent valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Franklin Carvajal

    2004-01-01

    An experiment was designed to account for intention-behavior discrepancies by applying the theory of planned behavior to contingent valuation. College students (N = 160) voted in hypothetical and real payment referenda to contribute $8 to a scholarship fund. Overestimates of willingness to pay in the hypothetical referendum could not be attributed to moderately...

  1. Loaded dice in Monte Carlo : importance sampling in phase space integration and probability distributions for discrepancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameren, Andreas Ferdinand Willem van

    2001-01-01

    Discrepancies play an important role in the study of uniformity properties of point sets. Their probability distributions are a help in the analysis of the efficiency of the Quasi Monte Carlo method of numerical integration, which uses point sets that are distributed more uniformly than sets of

  2. Morozov-type discrepancy principle for nonlinear ill-posed problems ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... For proving the existence of a regularization parameter under a Morozov-type discrepancy principle for Tikhonov regularization of nonlinear ill-posed problems, it is required to impose additional nonlinearity assumptions on the forward operator. Lipschitz continuity of the Freéchet derivative and requirement ...

  3. Understanding Discrepancy in Perceptions of Values: Individuals with Mild to Moderate Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamy, Allison M.; Kim, Kyungmin; Zarit, Steven H.; Whitlatch, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: We explore discrepancies in perceptions of values and care preferences between individuals with dementia (IWDs) and their family caregivers. Design and Methods: We interviewed 266 dyads consisting of an individual with mild to moderate dementia and his or her family caregiver to determine IWDs' beliefs for 5 values related to…

  4. Dietary restraint, life satisfaction and self-discrepancy by gender in university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Schnettler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize dieting and non-dieting university students by gender, based on their satisfaction with life and their food-related life, self-discrepancy, food behavior and health-related aspects. A non-probabilistic sample of 305 students from five Chilean state universities responded a questionnaire that included the Revised Restraint Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale, the Health-related Quality of Life Index, the Nutrition Interest Scale and the Self-Discrepancy Index. Socio-demographic characteristics, food behavior, and approximate weight and height were also enquired. Chronic dieters and non-dieters were distinguished according to the median score of the Revised Restraint Scale. 51.1% of women and 55.5% of men classified as chronic dieters, sharing characteristics such as nutrition concern, mental health problems, higher body mass index, and physical and economic self-discrepancy. Women dieters reported lower life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life, more health problems and health-related restriction of food, while men dieters showed higher social and emotional self-discrepancy.

  5. Consonant Differentiation Mediates the Discrepancy between Non-verbal and Verbal Abilities in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, A. P.; Yoder, P. J.; Stone, W. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) demonstrate verbal communication disorders reflected in lower verbal than non-verbal abilities. The present study examined the extent to which this discrepancy is associated with atypical speech sound differentiation. Methods: Differences in the amplitude of auditory event-related…

  6. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations.

  7. A Preliminary Study: Human Fibroid Stro-1+/CD44+ Stem Cells Isolated From Uterine Fibroids Demonstrate Decreased DNA Repair and Genomic Integrity Compared to Adjacent Myometrial Stro-1+/CD44+ Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusinski Fernung, Lauren E; Al-Hendy, Ayman; Yang, Qiwei

    2018-01-01

    Although uterine fibroids (UFs) continue to place a major burden on female reproductive health, the mechanisms behind their origin remain undetermined. Normal myometrial stem cells may be transformed into tumor-initiating stem cells, causing UFs, due to unknown causes of somatic mutations in MED12, found in up to 85% of sporadically formed UFs. It is well established in other tumor types that defective DNA repair increases the risk of such tumorigenic somatic mutations, mechanisms not yet studied in UFs. To examine the putative cause(s) of this stem cell transformation, we analyzed DNA repair within stem cells from human UFs compared to those from adjacent myometrium to determine whether DNA repair in fibroid stem cells is compromised. Human fibroid (F) and adjacent myometrial (Myo) stem cells were isolated from fresh tissues, and gene expression relating to DNA repair was analyzed. Fibroid stem cells differentially expressed DNA repair genes related to DNA double- (DSBs) and single-strand breaks. DNA damage was measured using alkaline comet assay. Additionally, DNA DSBs were induced in these stem cells and DNA DSB repair evaluated (1) by determining changes in phosphorylation of DNA DSB-related proteins and (2) by determining differences in γ-H2AX foci formation and relative DNA repair protein RAD50 expression. Overall, F stem cells demonstrated increased DNA damage and altered DNA repair gene expression and signaling, suggesting that human F stem cells demonstrate impaired DNA repair. Compromised F stem cell DNA repair may contribute to further mutagenesis and, consequently, further growth and propagation of UF tumors.

  8. Porosity, single-phase permeability, and capillary pressure data from preliminary laboratory experiments on selected samples from Marker Bed 139 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 1 of 3: Main report, appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Christian-Frear, T.

    1997-08-01

    Three groups of core samples from Marker Bed 139 of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) were analyzed to provide data to support the development of numerical models used to predict the long-term hydrologic and structural response of the WIPP repository. These laboratory experiments, part of the FY93 Experimental Scoping Activities of the Salado Two-Phase Flow Laboratory Program, were designed to (1) generate WIPP-specific porosity and single-phase permeability data, (2) provide information needed to design and implement planned tests to measure two-phase flow properties, including threshold pressure, capillary pressure, and relative permeability, and (3) evaluate the suitability of using analog correlations for the Salado Formation to assess the long-term performance of the WIPP. This report contains a description of the boreholes core samples, the core preparation techniques used, sample sizes, testing procedures, test conditions, and results of porosity and single-phase permeability tests performed at three laboratories: TerraTek, Inc. (Salt Lake City, UT), RE/SPEC, Inc. (Rapid City, SD), and Core Laboratories-Special Core Analysis Laboratory (Carrollton, TX) for Rock Physics Associates. In addition, this report contains the only WIPP-specific two-phase-flow capillary-pressure data for twelve core samples. The WIPP-specific data generated in this laboratory study and in WIPP field-test programs and information from suitable analogs will form the basis for specification of single- and two-phase flow parameters for anhydrite markers beds for WIPP performance assessment calculations

  9. Discrepancies between self and observer ratings of depression. The relationship to demographic, clinical and personality variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, M W; Larsen, D K; Cox, B J

    2000-10-01

    The observer-rated Hamilton depression scale (HamD) and the self-report Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) are among the most commonly used rating scales for depression, and both have well demonstrated reliability and validity. However, many depressed subjects have discrepant scores on these two assessment methods. The present study evaluated the ability of demographic, clinical and personality factors to account for the discrepancies observed between BDI and HamD ratings. The study group consisted of 94 SCID-diagnosed outpatients with a current major depressive disorder. Subjects were rated with the 21-item HamD and completed the BDI and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Younger age, higher educational attainment, and depressive subtype (atypical, non-melancholic) were predictive of higher BDI scores relative to HamD observer ratings. In addition, high neuroticism, low extraversion and low agreeableness were associated with higher endorsement of depressive symptoms on the BDI relative to the HamD. In general, these predictive variables showed a greater ability to explain discrepancies between self and observer ratings of psychological symptoms of depression compared to somatic symptoms of depression. The study does not determine which aspects of neuroticism and extraversion contribute to the observed BDI/HamD discrepancies. Depression ratings obtained with the BDI and HamD are frequently discordant and a number of patient characteristics robustly predict the discrepancy between these two rating methods. The value of multi-modal assessment in the conduct of research on depressive disorders is re-affirmed.

  10. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieg, Madeleine; Goetz, Thomas; Wolter, Ilka; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary) math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait vs. state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain) was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (N within = 6207). As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students' self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts). Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  11. Impact of aldosterone-producing cell clusters on diagnostic discrepancies in primary aldosteronism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kometani, Mitsuhiro; Yoneda, Takashi; Aono, Daisuke; Karashima, Shigehiro; Demura, Masashi; Nishimoto, Koshiro; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Takeda, Yoshiyu

    2018-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation is recommended in adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for primary aldosteronism (PA) to improve the AVS success rate. However, this method can confound the subtype diagnosis. Gene mutations or pathological characteristics may be related to lateralization by AVS. This study aimed to compare the rate of diagnostic discrepancy by AVS pre- versus post-ACTH stimulation and to investigate the relationship between this discrepancy and findings from immunohistochemical and genetic analyses of PA. We evaluated 195 cases of AVS performed in 2011–2017. All surgical specimens were analyzed genetically and immunohistochemically. Based on the criteria, AVS was successful in 158 patients both pre- and post-ACTH; of these patients, 75 showed diagnostic discrepancies between pre- and post-ACTH. Thus, 19 patients underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, of whom 16 had an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) that was positive for CYP11B2 immunostaining. Of them, 10 patients had discordant lateralization between pre- and post-ACTH. In the genetic analysis, the rate of somatic mutations was not significantly different between APA patients with versus without a diagnostic discrepancy. In the immunohistochemical analysis, CYP11B2 levels and the frequency of aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) in APAs were almost identical between patients with versus without a diagnostic discrepancy. However, both the number and summed area of APCCs in APAs were significantly smaller in patients with concordant results than in those whose diagnosis changed to bilateral PA post-ACTH stimulation. In conclusion, lateralization by AVS was affected by APCCs in the adjacent gland, but not by APA-related factors such as somatic gene mutations. PMID:29899838

  12. Gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicts girls' and boys' trait-state discrepancy in math anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine eBieg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is associated with anxiety for many students; an emotion linked to lower well-being and poorer learning outcomes. While findings typically show females to report higher trait math anxiety than males, no gender differences have to date been found in state (i.e., momentary math anxiety. The present diary study aimed to replicate previous findings in investigating whether levels of academic self-concept was related to this discrepancy in trait versus state anxiety measures. Additionally, mathematics-related gender stereotype endorsement (mathematics is a male domain was investigated as an additional predictor of the trait-state discrepancy. The sample included 755 German 9th and 10th graders who completed self-report measures of trait math anxiety, math self-concept, and gender stereotype endorsement, in addition to state measures of anxiety after math classes by use of a standardized diary for 2-3 weeks (Nwithin = 6207. As expected, females reported higher trait math anxiety but no gender differences were found for state math anxiety. Also in line with our assumptions, multilevel analyses showed the discrepancy between trait and state anxiety to be negatively related to students’ self-concept (i.e., a lower discrepancy for students with higher self-concepts. Furthermore, gender stereotype endorsement differentially predicted the trait-state discrepancy: When controlling for self-concept in mathematics, females who endorsed the gender stereotype of math being a male domain more strongly overestimated their trait math anxiety as compared to their state anxiety whereas this effect was not significant for males. The present findings suggest that gender stereotype endorsement plays an important role in explaining gender differences in math anxiety above and beyond academic self-concept. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.

  13. Masculine Discrepancy Stress, Teen Dating Violence, and Sexual Violence Perpetration Among Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Cortina, Kai S.; Kernsmith, Roger M.; Kernsmith, Poco D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and men fail to live up to the traditional gender norms set by society. Failure to live up to these gender role expectations may precipitate this experience of psychological distress in some males which, in turn, may increase the risk to engage in physically and sexually violent behaviors as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Methods Five-hundred eighty-nine adolescent males from schools in Wayne County, Michigan completed a survey assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, the experience of discrepancy stress, and history of physical and sexual dating violence. Results Logistic regression analyses indicated boys who endorsed gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress were generally at greater risk to engage in acts of sexual violence but not necessarily physical violence. Conclusions Boys who experience stress about being perceived as “sub-masculine” may be more likely to engage in sexual violence as a means of demonstrating their masculinity to self and/or others and thwarting potential “threats” to their masculinity by dating partners. Efforts to prevent sexual violence perpetration among male adolescents should perhaps consider the influence of gender socialization in this population and include efforts to reduce distress about masculine socialization in primary prevention strategies. PMID:26003576

  14. Reasons for discrepancy between incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries: Epilepsia's survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathern, Gary W; Beninsig, Laurie; Nehlig, Astrid

    2015-02-01

    From July to August 2014, Epilepsia conducted an online survey seeking opinions that explained the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income countries. Data on cumulative incidence suggest a higher rate of active epilepsy than reported in lifetime prevalence surveys. This study reports the findings of that poll addressing the proposal in our Controversy in Epilepsy series that it could be from increased death rates. The survey consisted of a question addressing possible reasons to explain the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy. Another four questions addressed demographic information. There were 34 responders who completed the survey. Half (50%) of the responders felt that the discrepancy between cumulative incidence and lifetime prevalence was due to lack of uniform definitions and misclassification of patients in study design, 23.5% said the discrepancy was due to a higher mortality from diseases and conditions such as trauma and infections associated with epilepsy, 23.5% indicated that the stigma of epilepsy prevented people from acknowledging their disease in prevalence surveys, and 2.9% felt it was from poor access to qualified medical personal and utilization of medical treatments that increased death rates directly related to epilepsy. Within the limitations of sample size, the results of this survey support that the discrepancy between the incidence and prevalence of epilepsy in lower income regions of the world is due to problems in acquiring the data and stigma rather than higher mortality from diseases associated with epilepsy and repeated seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Self-discrepancies in work-related upper extremity pain: relation to emotions and flexible-goal adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Mariëlle E; Kindermans, Hanne P; Morley, Stephen J; Roelofs, Jeffrey; Verbunt, Jeanine; Vlaeyen, Johan W

    2010-08-01

    Recurrent pain not only has an impact on disability, but on the long term it may become a threat to one's sense of self. This paper presents a cross-sectional study of patients with work-related upper extremity pain and focuses on: (1) the role of self-discrepancies in this group, (2) the associations between self-discrepancies, pain, emotions and (3) the interaction between self-discrepancies and flexible-goal adjustment. Eighty-nine participants completed standardized self-report measures of pain intensity, pain duration, anxiety, depression and flexible-goal adjustment. A Selves Questionnaire was used to generate self-discrepancies. A series of hierarchical regression analyses showed relationships between actual-ought other, actual-ought self, actual-feared self-discrepancies and depression as well as a significant association between actual-ought other self-discrepancy and anxiety. Furthermore, significant interactions were found between actual-ought other self-discrepancies and flexibility, indicating that less flexible participants with large self-discrepancies score higher on depression. This study showed that self-discrepancies are related to negative emotions and that flexible-goal adjustment served as a moderator in this relationship. The view of self in pain and flexible-goal adjustment should be considered as important variables in the process of chronic pain. Copyright (c) 2009 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodegradation of norfloxacin by Penicillium frequentans isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One norfloxacin-degrading fungi was isolated from soil contaminated by norfloxacin and preliminary identified as Penicillium frequentans. Indoor simulative degradation experiments were carried out to investigate the biodegradation kinetics of norfloxacin with or without NFX3 in soil. The results indicate that the ...

  17. Antimicrobial substances produced by bacteria isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... We report here the preliminary antimicrobial activity of substances produced by Bacillus subtilis NB-6. (air flora isolate) ... Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Corynebacterium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. .... products contaminated with animal MRSA is very plausible ...

  18. Is gingival recession a consequence of an orthodontic tooth size and/or tooth position discrepancy? "A paradigm shift".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Colin

    2011-01-01

    Gingival recession (GR) is a commonly observed dental lesion. The underlying etiology has not been clearly identified, although several theories have been suggested. Tooth crowding or tooth malalignment is also frequently observed, with both conditions appearing to be more prevalent in developed countries with heterogeneous populations. A total of 25 consecutively treated patients representing 72 teeth and demonstrating facial clinical GR of > 3 mm were examined clinically, photographically, and with 3-dimensional radiology using conebeam computed tomography. All examined teeth presented with normal interproximal probing depths and attachment levels (teeth demonstrating > 3 mm of GR presented with significantly prominent facial tooth contours and associated alveolar bone dehiscences. Most involved teeth presented with their root structures extending beyond the facial alveolar bony housing (fenestrations). This represents a discrepancy between tooth size and alveolar bone dimensions in the buccolingual, axial, and sagittal orientation. Fewer involved teeth were malpositioned toward the buccal aspect. Both conditions were associated with facial alveolar bone dehiscences and associated GR. This study suggests tooth volume and/or tooth position within the alveolar bony housing strongly correlate with GR. All nonperiodontitis-involved teeth with GR were associated with either wider teeth or facially aligned teeth. However, it is emphasized that all facially aligned teeth, or "larger" teeth, do not necessarily present with GR. Based on these findings, the radiographic-supporting bone index is proposed. This index should facilitate appropriate evaluation of the alveolar bone supporting the mucogingival complex, both on the facial and lingual aspect of teeth. Further investigations are needed to support these preliminary data.

  19. Implicit and explicit self-esteem discrepancies in people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaro, Lian V; Roberts, Nicole A; Moghaddam, Nima G; Dawson, David L; Brown, Ian; Reuber, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Self-esteem (SE), or one's sense of competence and worth, is reduced in many mental and physical disorders. Low SE is associated with perceived stigma and disability and poor treatment outcomes. The present study examined implicit and explicit SE (automatic and deliberate views about the self) in people with epilepsy and people with psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNESs). Discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE have been found to correlate with psychological distress in disorders often associated with PNESs but are relatively unexplored in PNESs. We hypothesized that, compared with epilepsy, PNESs would be associated with lower self-reported SE and greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE. Thirty adults with PNESs, 25 adults with epilepsy, and 31 controls without a history of seizures were asked to complete the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale as a measure of explicit SE and an Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure as a measure of implicit SE. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (a somatic symptom inventory) were also administered. We found significant group differences in explicit (p<0.001) but not implicit SE. Patients with PNESs reported lower SE than the other groups. No group differences were found in implicit SE. Implicit-explicit SE discrepancies were larger in the group with PNESs than in the other groups (p<0.001). Higher frequency of PNESs (but not epileptic seizures) was associated with lower explicit SE (rs=-.83, p<0.01) and greater SE discrepancies (i.e., lower explicit relative to implicit SE; rs=.65, p<0.01). These relationships remained significant when controlling for anxiety and somatization. Patients with PNESs had lower explicit SE than those with epilepsy or healthy controls. In keeping with our expectations, there were greater discrepancies between implicit SE and explicit SE among patients with PNESs than in the other groups. Our results, including the strong relationship between

  20. Isolation World

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Martín, Eugeni

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.

  1. Self-Discrepancies and Involvement Moderate the Effects of Positive and Negative Message Framing in Persuasive Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Arie; Schakenraad, Roos; Menninga, Karin; Buunk, Abraham P.; Siero, Frans

    2009-01-01

    One individual difference that is conceptually closely related to the positive and negative framing of outcomes in persuasive communications is the person's self-discrepancy. It was expected that a match between a person's self-discrepancy and framing will lead to more persuasion, under the

  2. The Relations among Measurements of Informant Discrepancies within a Multisite Trial of Treatments for Childhood Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Alfano, Candice A.; Beidel, Deborah C.

    2010-01-01

    Discrepancies between informants' reports of children's behavior are robustly observed in clinical child research and have important implications for interpreting the outcomes of controlled treatment trials. However, little is known about the basic psychometric properties of these discrepancies. This study examined the relation between…

  3. Parent-Child Acculturation Discrepancy, Perceived Parental Knowledge, Peer Deviance, and Adolescent Delinquency in Chinese Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yijie; Kim, Su Yeong; Anderson, Edward R.; Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Yan, Ni

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child acculturation discrepancy has been considered a risk factor for child maladjustment. The current study examined parent-child acculturation discrepancy as an ongoing risk factor for delinquency, through the mediating pathway of parental knowledge of the child's daily experiences relating to contact with deviant peers. Participants were…

  4. Predictors of the discrepancy between objective and subjective cognition in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, K. W.; Petersen, Jeff Zarp; Ott, C. V.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The poor relationship between subjective and objective cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder (BD) is well-established. However, beyond simple correlation, this has not been explored further using a methodology that quantifies the degree and direction of the discrepancy. This study...... aimed to develop such a methodology to explore clinical characteristics predictive of subjective-objective discrepancy in a large BD patient cohort. METHODS: Data from 109 remitted BD patients and 110 healthy controls were pooled from previous studies, including neuropsychological test scores, self......-reported cognitive difficulties, and ratings of mood, stress, socio-occupational capacity, and quality of life. Cognitive symptom 'sensitivity' scores were calculated using a novel methodology, with positive scores reflecting disproportionately more subjective complaints than objective impairment and negative values...

  5. Affective Evaluations of Exercising: The Role of Automatic-Reflective Evaluation Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Ralf; Antoniewicz, Franziska

    2016-12-01

    Sometimes our automatic evaluations do not correspond well with those we can reflect on and articulate. We present a novel approach to the assessment of automatic and reflective affective evaluations of exercising. Based on the assumptions of the associative-propositional processes in evaluation model, we measured participants' automatic evaluations of exercise and then shared this information with them, asked them to reflect on it and rate eventual discrepancy between their reflective evaluation and the assessment of their automatic evaluation. We found that mismatch between self-reported ideal exercise frequency and actual exercise frequency over the previous 14 weeks could be regressed on the discrepancy between a relatively negative automatic and a more positive reflective evaluation. This study illustrates the potential of a dual-process approach to the measurement of evaluative responses and suggests that mistrusting one's negative spontaneous reaction to exercise and asserting a very positive reflective evaluation instead leads to the adoption of inflated exercise goals.

  6. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic camouflage in a class III adult patient with a severe transverse discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracco, Antonio; Finotti, Marco; Bruno, Giovanni; de Stefani, Alberto

    2018-04-06

    A 25-year-old man presented with a maxillary transverse discrepancy, posterior cross bite, anterior open bite, molar and canine class III. Treatment included a corticotomy in the upper lateral and posterior teeth, a palatal expansor and a sectional archwire to assist the expansion. The following treatment phase included bonding with Incognito System lingual appliance, interproximal reduction to solve the crowding and bite blocks to control the verticality. Two months after the bonding intermaxillary class III elastics were used to solve the sagittal discrepancy and eight months after the bonding vertical elastics were used in order to solve the anterior open bite until the end of the treatment. A Boston splint was applied for the upper arch, an essix splint was applied for the lower arch. The patient compliance was an essential aspect in the success of the orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Factors associated with diagnostic discrepancy for left ventricular hypertrophy between electrocardiography and echocardiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager Petersen, Søren; Reinholdt Pedersen, Line; Pareek, Manan

    2017-01-01

    (absolute value/cut-off value for LVH) were used as outcome variables in order to identify explanatory variables associated with diagnostic discrepancies between ECG and echocardiography. RESULTS: Of the 1382 subjects included, 77% did not display any signs of LVH, 6% had LVH defined by ECG only, 13% had...... LVH defined by echocardiography only, and 5% had LVH on both ECG and echocardiography. Older subjects and those with higher blood pressure and RWT were more likely to have a relatively greater LVMI on echocardiography than that predicted on ECG (odds ratio: 1.65 per 10 years (95% confidence interval...... and odds ratio: 1.41 (95% CI: 1.06-1.87), p = .02), but FPG did not independently influence discrepancy between ECG and echocardiography. CONCLUSION: Age, blood pressure, female sex, greater RWT and use of antihypertensive medication were associated with a greater risk of non-consistency between LVH...

  8. Conceptualizing body dissatisfaction in eating disorders within a self-discrepancy framework: a review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Elin L; Gaspar, Monika E; DiTore, Rebecca; Piers, Amani D; Schaumberg, Katherine

    2018-02-09

    Body dissatisfaction, the negative subjective evaluation of one's body, is associated with many negative psychological and physical health consequences. One conceptualization of body dissatisfaction includes an experience of discrepancy between perceived actual and ideal body shapes. This paper reviews the literature on three facets of body dissatisfaction from the framework of self-discrepancy theory: perceptions of current weight, ideal body weight, and the relative importance of conforming to ideals. We review components of body dissatisfaction among healthy individuals and eating-disordered individuals. We also address the conceptualization's relationship among body dissatisfaction, weight history, and dieting to expand the impact of body dissatisfaction research and to provide more information on the nature and treatment of eating disorders.

  9. Analysis of discrepancies in Dalitz plot parameters in η→3π decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesár, Marián

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Dalitz plot parameters of η→3π decay in the framework of resummed chiral perturbation theory. This approach allows us to keep the uncertainties in the NNLO and higher orders under better control and estimate their influence. We cannot confirm the suspected discrepancy in the case of the charged decay parameter b, where even small uncertainties in higher orders could accommodate the difference. On the other hand, we find the experimental value of the neutral decay parameter α incompatible with an assumption of good convergence properties in the center of the Dalitz plot. We calculate ππ rescattering bubble corrections up to three loops and show that these might explain the discrepancy, especially for a low value of the pseudoscalar decay constant in the chiral limit. However, that could indicate a failure of convergence of the chiral series in this channel already at low energies around 500MeV.

  10. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  11. Intelligence quotient discrepancy indicates levels of motor competence in preschool children at risk for developmental delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Kuan-Lin Chen,2,3 Willy Chou,4,5 Shu-Han Yang,4 Sheng-Chun Kung,4 Ya-Chen Lee,2 Li-Chen Tung4,6,7 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 5Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, 6School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, 7School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Purpose: This study aimed to establish 1 whether a group difference exists in the motor competence of preschool children at risk for developmental delays with intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD; refers to difference between verbal intelligence quotient [VIQ] and performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] and 2 whether an association exists between IQD and motor competence.Methods: Children’s motor competence and IQD were determined with the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition. A total of 291 children were included in three groups: NON-IQD (n=213; IQD within 1 standard deviation [SD], VIQ>PIQ (n=39; VIQ>PIQ greater than 1 SD, and PIQ>VIQ (n=39; PIQ>VIQ greater than 1 SD.Results: The results of one-way analysis of variance indicated significant differences among the subgroups for the “Gross and fine motor” subdomains of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers, especially on the subtests of “body-movement coordination” (F=3.87, P<0.05 and “visual-motor coordination” (F=6.90, P<0.05. Motor competence was significantly

  12. Enhancing DSN Operations Efficiency with the Discrepancy Reporting Management System (DRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatillon, Mark; Lin, James; Cooper, Tonja M.

    2003-01-01

    The DRMS is the Discrepancy Reporting Management System used by the Deep Space Network (DSN). It uses a web interface and is a management tool designed to track and manage: data outage incidents during spacecraft tracks against equipment and software known as DRs (discrepancy Reports), to record "out of pass" incident logs against equipment and software in a Station Log, to record instances where equipment has be restarted or reset as Reset records, and to electronically record equipment readiness status across the DSN. Tracking and managing these items increases DSN operational efficiency by providing: the ability to establish the operational history of equipment items, data on the quality of service provided to the DSN customers, the ability to measure service performance, early insight into processes, procedures and interfaces that may need updating or changing, and the capability to trace a data outage to a software or hardware change. The items listed above help the DSN to focus resources on areas of most need.

  13. Facts and Findings on the Statistical Discrepancies of the Korean Balance of Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyong Joo

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Korea experienced drastic increases in the statistical discrepancy in balance of payments since 1997. In general, the expansion and complexity of external transactions induced by contributing capital account liberalization has contributed to this fact. The abolition of the export/import approval system seems to have accelerated the mismeasurement and omissions in external transactions. Of course, the influence of currency crisis occurred cannot be ruled out. Among economic factors, Won/dollar exchange rate volatility is found to have significant explanatory power on the magnitude of statistical discrepancy, while exchange rate returns have not. WE interpret this as the demand for relatively safe currency rising in presence of the uncertainty in domestic currency values.

  14. Relationship and significance of gait deviations associated with limb length discrepancy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamis, Sam; Carmeli, Eli

    2017-09-01

    Controversy still exists as to the clinical significance of leg length discrepancy (LLD) in spite of the fact that further evidence has been emerging regarding the relationship between several clinical conditions and LLD. The objectives of our study were to review the available research with regard to LLD as a cause of clinically significant gait deviations, to determine if there is a relationship between the magnitude of LLD and the presence of gait deviations and to identify the most common gait deviations associated with LLD. In line with the PRISMA guidelines, a literature search was carried out throughout the Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. Twelve articles met the predetermined inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Quality assessment using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) scale was completed for all included studies. Two main methodologies were found in 4 studies evaluating gait asymmetry in patients or healthy participants with anatomic LLD and 8 studies evaluating gait deviations while simulating LLD by employing artificial lifts of 1-5cm on healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between anatomic LLD and gait deviation. Evidence suggests that gait deviations may occur with discrepancies of >1cm, with greater impact seen as the discrepancy increases. Compensatory strategies were found to occur in both the shorter and longer limb, throughout the lower limb. As the discrepancy increases, more compensatory strategies occur. Sagittal plane deviations seem to be the most effective deviations, although, frontal plane compensations also occur in the pelvis, hip and foot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrepancies between calculated and observed Fe XVII and Ni XIX solar coronal lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loulergue, M [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (France); Nussbaumer, H [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1975-12-01

    The 36-levels model atom Fe/sup +16/ of Loulergue and Nussbaumer (1973) is extended to a 51-levels atom including n=4 configuration. The earlier conclusion that relative intensities among the Fe XVII lines are not sufficiently sensitive to variations in electron densities and electron temperature to deduce these parameters from observed intensity ratios still holds. Discrepancies between calculated and observed relative intensities in Fe XVII and Ni XIX are attributed to blends or misidentifications.

  16. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem among adolescents with social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Franziska; Bohn, Christiane; Aderka, Idan M; Stangier, Ulrich; Steil, Regina

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have found high implicit self-esteem (ISE) to prevail concurrently with low explicit self-esteem (ESE) in socially anxious adults. This suggests that self-esteem discrepancies are associated with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Given that the onset of SAD often occurs in adolescence, we investigated self-esteem discrepancies between ISE and ESE in adolescents suffering from SAD. Two implicit measures (Affect Misattribution Procedure, Implicit Association Test) were used both before and after a social threat activation in 20 adolescents with SAD (14-20 years), and compared to 20 healthy adolescents who were matched for age and gender. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Social Cognitions Questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory were administered as explicit measures. We expected discrepant self-esteem (high ISE, low ESE) in adolescents with SAD, in comparison to congruent self-esteem (positive ISE, positive ESE) in healthy controls, after social threat activation. Both the patient and control groups exhibited high positive ISE on both implicit measures, before as well as after social threat induction. Explicitly, patients suffering from SAD revealed lower levels of ESE, compared to the healthy adolescents. This study is the first to examine ISE and ESE in a clinical sample of adolescent patients with SAD. Our results suggest that SAD is associated with a discrepancy between high ISE and low ESE, after a social-threat manipulation. The findings are discussed in relation to other studies using implicit measures in SAD and may provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of self-esteem in adolescent SAD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Parent–Child Discrepancy on Children’s Body Weight Perception: The Role of Attachment Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcangelo Uccula

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discrepancies between parents and their children on the description of the behavior and representations of their children have been shown in various studies. Other researchers have reported the parents’ difficulty in correctly identifying the weight status of their children. The purpose of our study was to investigate the parent’s attributional accuracy on their children’s body weight perception in relation to the children attachment security. It was hypothesized that insecure children’s parents have a greater discrepancy with their children compared to secure children with their parents. The research participants were 217 children, aged between 5 and 11 years of both genders, and their parents. The attachment pattern was measured by the SAT of Klagsbrun and Bowlby, with the Italian version of Attili. The children were also shown a set of figure body-drawings with which to measure the perception of their weight status. Parents answered a questionnaire to find out the parental attribution of their children’s perception. The results show that the body weight perception of insecure children’s parents have a greater discrepancy with their children’s body weight perception compared with parentally secure children. In particular, parents of insecure children tend to underestimate the perception of their children. This result is most evident in disorganized children. In addition, the perception of insecure children’s parents show a greater correlation with children’s actual weight rather than with their children’s perception. These results suggest that the discrepancies on the perception of children’s body weight between parents and children may be influenced by the poor parental attunement to their children’s internal states, which characterizes the insecure parent–child attachment relationship.

  18. Errors and discrepancies in the administration of intravenous infusions: a mixed methods multihospital observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, I.; Furniss, D.; Blandford, A.; Chumbley, G.; Iacovides, I.; Wei, L.; Cox, A.; Mayer, A.; Vos, J.; Galal-Edeen, G. H.; Schnock, K. O.; Dykes, P. C.; Bates, D. W.; Franklin, B. D.

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Intravenous medication administration has traditionally been regarded as error prone, with high potential for harm. A recent US multisite study revealed few potentially harmful errors despite a high overall error rate. However, there is limited evidence about infusion practices in England and how they relate to prevalence and types of error. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, types and severity of errors and discrepancies in infusion administration in English hospitals, an...

  19. Frequency and causes of discrepancy between Kt/V and creatinine clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satko, S G; Burkart, J M; Bleyer, A J; Jordan, J R; Manning, T

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the frequency of discrepancy between Kt/V urea and creatinine clearance (Ccr) measurements in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the reasons for this discrepancy. Nonrandomized, retrospective data analysis. Single PD unit of a university teaching hospital. All adult patients receiving PD at our center from January 1995 to December 1996. Actual (a) and desired (d) body weight (BW) were used to calculate urea volume of distribution (V) and body surface area (BSA). Patients were divided into four groups based upon their total small solute clearances (Kt/V and Ccr, normalized by actual weight) and three additional groups based upon actual/desired (a/d) body weight ratio. An additional analysis was performed for the subset of anuric patients. Data collected for all patients included the following: total Kt, total Ccr, 4-hour dialysate/ plasma (D/P) creatinine, serum albumin concentration, duration of PD, actual body weight, age, and height. Twenty-three percent of the clearance measurements in our study were discrepant, defined as having values for either Kt/V or Ccr (but not both) above the accepted targets of Kt/V > or = 2.0/wk and Ccr > or = 60 L/wk/ 1.73 m2. Patients with both values above target are more likely to have higher residual renal function. Patients who are significantly less than BWd and patients on PD for a longer time are more likely to have adequate Kt/V but not Ccr. Furthermore, patients who are less than 90% or greater than 110% of BWd have markedly different values for Kt/V and Ccr when BWa versus BWd values are used. Kt/V and Ccr values are frequently discrepant; a number of factors affect these two measurements to varying degrees, including weight, degree of residual renal function, and duration of PD.

  20. An Analysis of the Discrepancies between MODIS and INSAT-3D LSTs in High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Alavipanah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In many disciplines, knowledge on the accuracy of Land Surface Temperature (LST as an input is of great importance. One of the most efficient methods in LST evaluation is cross validation. Well-documented and validated polar satellites with a high spatial resolution can be used as references for validating geostationary LST products. This study attempted to investigate the discrepancies between a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS and Indian National Satellite (INSAT-3D LSTs for high temperatures, focusing on six deserts with sand dune land cover in the Middle East from 3 March 2015 to 24 August 2016. Firstly, the variability of LSTs in the deserts of the study area was analyzed by comparing the mean, Standard Deviation (STD, skewness, minimum, and maximum criteria for each observation time. The mean value of the LST observations indicated that the MYD-D observation times are closer to those of diurnal maximum and minimum LSTs. At all times, the LST observations exhibited a negative skewness and the STD indicated higher variability during times of MOD-D. The observed maximum LSTs from MODIS collection 6 showed higher values in comparison with the last versions of LSTs for hot spot regions around the world. After the temporal, spatial, and geometrical matching of LST products, the mean of the MODIS—INSAT LST differences was calculated for the study area. The results demonstrated that discrepancies increased with temperature up to +15.5 K. The slopes of the mean differences were relatively similar for all deserts except for An Nafud, suggesting an effect of View Zenith Angle (VZA. For modeling the discrepancies between two sensors in continuous space, the Diurnal Temperature Cycles (DTC of both sensors were constructed and compared. The sample DTC models approved the results from discrete LST subtractions and proposed the uncertainties within MODIS DTCs. The authors proposed that the observed LST discrepancies in high

  1. Psychotherapy role expectations and experiences - discrepancy and therapeutic alliance among patients with substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankl, My; Philips, Björn; Wennberg, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The main aim of the study was to examine how the discrepancy between role expectations prior to psychotherapy and experiences of ongoing psychotherapy related to therapeutic alliance. We hypothesized that a similarity between patient role expectations and experiences would be associated with a stronger alliance. The study also examined whether different dimensions of psychotherapy role expectations predicted retention in psychotherapy. A naturalistic study design was used with data collected prior to therapy and during the first 6 months of therapy. Patients with substance use disorders completed the Psychotherapy Expectation Questionnaire-short version (PEX-S) at the time of therapy assessment. A subsample of these patients (n = 41; n = 24 in individual therapy and n = 17 in group therapy) provided data from therapy including psychotherapy experiences (also measured with PEX-S) and therapeutic alliance, measured with Working Alliance Questionnaire-short version. For patients in group therapy, discrepancy between role expectations and experiences correlated negatively with alliance. Expectations prior to psychotherapy characterized by defensiveness correlated negatively with therapy retention. The finding that disconfirmation of patients' role expectations in group therapy were associated with weaker therapeutic alliance highlights the importance of discussing psychotherapy expectations at an early stage in treatment. Expectations characterized by defensiveness predicted worse retention in psychotherapy, which indicates that the PEX-S can be helpful in detecting patients at risk for dropout. In targeting a patient's role expectancies prior to treatment, possible discrepancies between patient and therapist are made visible and possible to examine. Clarifying the patient's role expectations and the therapist's rationale might be a first step towards establishing a strong working alliance. Surveying the patient's defensiveness tendencies at the beginning of therapy

  2. Toward resolving model-measurement discrepancies of radon entry into houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbesi, K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA

    1994-10-01

    Analysis of the literature indicated that radon transport models significantly and consistently underpredict the advective entry into houses of soil-gas borne radon. Advective entry is the dominant mechanism resulting in high concentrations of radon indoors. The author investigated the source of the model-measurement discrepancy via carefully controlled field experiments conducted at an experimental basement located in natural soil in Ben Lomond, California. Early experiments at the structure confirmed the existence and magnitude of the model-measurement discrepancy, ensuring that it was not merely an artifact of inherently complex and poorly understood field sites. The measured soil-gas entry rate during structure depressurization was found to be an order of magnitude larger than predicted by a current three-dimensional numerical model of radon transport. The exact magnitude of the discrepancy depends on whether the arithmetic or geometric mean of the small-scale measurements of permeability is used to estimate the effective permeability of the soil. This factor is a critical empirical input to the model and was determined for the Ben Lomond site in the typical fashion using single-probe static depressurization measurements at multiple locations. The remainder of the dissertation research tests a hypothesis to explain the observed discrepancy: that soil permeability assessed using relatively small-scale probe measurements does not reflect bulk soil permeability for flows that is likely to occur at larger scales of several meters or more in real houses and in the test structure. The idea is that soil heterogeneity is of a nature that, as flows occur over larger scales, larger scales of heterogeneity are encountered that facilitate larger flux rates, resulting in a scale dependence of effective soil permeability

  3. Parent-Child Discrepancy on Children's Body Weight Perception: The Role of Attachment Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Nuvoli, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    The discrepancies between parents and their children on the description of the behavior and representations of their children have been shown in various studies. Other researchers have reported the parents' difficulty in correctly identifying the weight status of their children. The purpose of our study was to investigate the parent's attributional accuracy on their children's body weight perception in relation to the children attachment security. It was hypothesized that insecure children's parents have a greater discrepancy with their children compared to secure children with their parents. The research participants were 217 children, aged between 5 and 11 years of both genders, and their parents. The attachment pattern was measured by the SAT of Klagsbrun and Bowlby, with the Italian version of Attili. The children were also shown a set of figure body-drawings with which to measure the perception of their weight status. Parents answered a questionnaire to find out the parental attribution of their children's perception. The results show that the body weight perception of insecure children's parents have a greater discrepancy with their children's body weight perception compared with parentally secure children. In particular, parents of insecure children tend to underestimate the perception of their children. This result is most evident in disorganized children. In addition, the perception of insecure children's parents show a greater correlation with children's actual weight rather than with their children's perception. These results suggest that the discrepancies on the perception of children's body weight between parents and children may be influenced by the poor parental attunement to their children's internal states, which characterizes the insecure parent-child attachment relationship.

  4. Limb lengthening in Africa: tibial lengthening indicated for limb length discrepancy and postosteomyelitis pseudarthrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahima F; Fokam P; Mouafo Tambo FF

    2014-01-01

    Farikou Ibrahima,1,2 Pius Fokam,2 Félicien Faustin Mouafo Tambo11Department of Surgery and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, 2Department of Surgery, Douala General Hospital, Douala, CameroonBackground: We present a case of lengthening of a tibia to treat postosteomyelitis pseudarthrosis and limb length discrepancy by the Ilizarov device.Objective: The objective was to treat the pseudarthrosis and correc...

  5. Response to discrepancies in publications related to HMB-FA and ATP supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jacob M

    2017-01-01

    Gentles and Phillips have submitted questions regarding three recent papers investigating ATP, HMB and the combination. The questions pertaining to the homogeneity of subjects' characteristics between the three different published papers, and why there appears to be differences in the number of subjects in placebo groups across studies. This response addresses each of these issues and demonstrates that there are no discrepancies between papers but rather a misunderstanding of the papers previously published.

  6. Digital microscopic evaluation of vertical marginal discrepancies of CAD/CAM fabricated zirconia cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Syed Rashid

    2018-05-18

    The aim of this in vitro research study was to evaluate the vertical marginal discrepancies of zirconia (Zr) cores fabricated by five different computer-aided design and manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems using a digital microscope. A total of 60 specimens were prepared and randomly divided into five groups (n=12 each) using the following systems: Ceramill Motion 2 (CM, Amanngirrbach, Germany); Weiland (WI, Ivoclar Vivadent, USA); Cerec (CS, Sirona Dental, USA); Zirkonzahn (ZZ, Gmbh Bruneck, Italy) and Cad4dent (CD, Canada). The specimens were numbered and the vertical marginal discrepancies were evaluated with a digital microscope at 50× magnification. A one-way analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference (p=0.002) between the groups. The CM group exhibited the lowest values for the marginal gaps (31.30±15.12 μm), while the ZZ group exhibited the highest values for the marginal gaps (44.83±28.76 μm) compared to other groups. A post hoc Tukey's test for multiple comparisons between the experimental groups showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the group CM and group CD with group ZZ. The rest of the groups showed no significant differences between them. Variations in the values were observed for the four sites measured with the highest and the least mean marginal gap value of 43.19±23.84 μm and 32.49±12.21 μm for buccal and lingual sites, respectively. Variations existed in the marginal discrepancy values for the CAD/CAM systems investigated in the study. Vertical marginal discrepancy values observed for various systems investigated in the study were well within the clinically acceptable range.

  7. Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem Discrepancies, Victimization and the Development of Late Childhood Internalizing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeuwis, Franca H; Koot, Hans M; Creemers, Daan H M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2015-07-01

    Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem have been linked with internalizing problems among mainly adolescents and adults. Longitudinal research on this association in children is lacking. This study examined the longitudinal link between self-esteem discrepancies and the development of internalizing problems in children. It furthermore examined the possible mediating role of self-esteem discrepancies in the longitudinal link between experiences of peer victimization and internalizing problems development. Children (N = 330, M(age) = 11.2 year; 52.5 % female) were followed over grades five (age 11 years) and six (age 12 years). Self-report measures were used annually to test for victimization and internalizing problems. Implicit self-esteem was assessed using an implicit association test, while explicit self-esteem was assessed via self-reports. Self-esteem discrepancies represented the difference between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Results showed that victimization was associated with increases in damaged self-esteem (higher levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem. Additionally, damaged self-esteem at age 11 years predicted an increase in internalizing problems in children over ages 11 to 12 years. Furthermore, damaged self-esteem mediated the relationship between age 11 years victimization and the development of internalizing problems. No impact of fragile self-esteem (lower levels of implicit than explicit self-esteem) on internalizing problems was found. The results thus underscore that, as found in adolescent and adult samples, damaged self-esteem is a predictor of increases in childhood internalizing problems. Moreover, damaged self-esteem might explain why children who are victimized develop internalizing problems. Implications are discussed.

  8. COMMUNICATION OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND INCOMES: THE REASONS AND DISCREPANCY CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yriy Chistyakov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the theory of human capital improvement of education attainment results in increase of income of human capital’s owner. This issue is interest to majority of wage earners, all the more at the economic crisis. Authors of this paper analyze presence and closeness of connection between worker’s education attainment and amount of salary on data of Kaluga region. In the paper probable reasons and discrepancy of revealed issue.

  9. Bolton's tooth size discrepancy in malaysian orthodontic patients: Are occlusal characteristics such as overjet, overbite, midline, and crowding related to tooth size discrepancy in specific malocclusions and ethnicities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Subhash Mulimani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth size, occlusal traits, and ethnicity are closely interrelated, and their impact on desirable orthodontic treatment outcome cannot be underestimated. This study was undertaken to assess the occlusal characteristics and ethnic variations in occlusion of Malaysian orthodontic patients and evaluate their correlation with Bolton's tooth size discrepancy. Materials and Methods: On 112 pretreatment study models of orthodontic patients, molar relationship, overjet, overbite, spacing, crowding, midline shift, and Bolton's ratios were assessed. ANOVA, one-sample t-test, Chi-squared test, and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient were used for statistical analysis. Results: Significant difference between anterior ratio of our study and Bolton's ideal values was found, for the entire study sample and Chinese ethnic group. Differences between races and malocclusion groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Significant correlations were found as follows – in Angle's Class I malocclusion between 1 anterior ratio and overbite, 2 overall ratio and maxillary crowding and spacing; in Angle's Class II malocclusion between 1 anterior ratio and overjet and midline shift, 2 overall ratio and mandibular crowding; in Angle's Class III malocclusion between 1 anterior ratio and mandibular crowding and both maxillary and mandibular spacing 2 overall ratio and mandibular crowding. Conclusions: Significant differences in anterior ratio and Bolton's ideal values for the Malaysian population were found, indicating variations in anterior tooth size as compared to Caucasians. Statistically significant correlations existed between Bolton's ratios and occlusal traits. These findings can be applied clinically in diagnosis and treatment planning by keeping in mind the specific discrepancies that can occur in certain malocclusions and addressing them accordingly.

  10. Discrepant feeling rules and unscripted emotion work: women coping with termination for fetal anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoyd, Judith L M

    2009-10-01

    The sociology of emotion is rapidly evolving and has implications for medical settings. Advancing medical technologies create new contexts for decision-making and emotional reaction that are framed by "feeling rules." Feeling rules guide not only behavior, but also how one believes one should feel, thereby causing one to attempt to bring one's authentic feelings into line with perceived feeling rules. Using qualitative data, the theoretical existence of feeling rules in pregnancy and prenatal testing is confirmed. Further examination extends this analysis: at times of technological development feeling rules are often discrepant, leaving patients with unscripted emotion work. Data from a study of women who interrupted anomalous pregnancies indicate that feeling rules are unclear when competing feeling rules are operating during times of societal and technological change. Because much of this occurs below the level of consciousness, medical and psychological services providers need to be aware of potential discrepancies in feeling rules and assist patients in identifying the salient feeling rules. Patients' struggles ease when they can recognize the discrepancies and assess their implications for decision-making and emotional response. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms among Hispanic adolescents: Examining acculturation discrepancies and family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; Schwartz, Seth J; Castillo, Linda G; Unger, Jennifer B; Huang, Shi; Zamboanga, Byron L; Romero, Andrea J; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Córdova, David; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E; Lizzi, Karina M; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W; Villamar, Juan Andres; Pattarroyo, Monica; Szapocznik, José

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from a theory of bicultural family functioning 2 models were tested to examine the longitudinal effects of acculturation-related variables on adolescent health risk behaviors and depressive symptoms (HRB/DS) mediated by caregiver and adolescent reports of family functioning. One model examined the effects of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A second model examined the individual effects of caregiver and adolescent acculturation components in relation to family functioning and HRB/DS. A sample of 302 recently immigrated Hispanic caregiver-child dyads completed measures of Hispanic and U.S. cultural practices, values, and identities at baseline (predictors); measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement 6 months postbaseline (mediators); and only adolescents completed measures of smoking, binge drinking, inconsistent condom use, and depressive symptoms 1 year postbaseline (outcomes). Measures of family cohesion, family communications, and family involvement were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to estimate the fit of a latent construct for family functioning. Key findings indicate that (a) adolescent acculturation components drove the effect of caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies in relation to family functioning; (b) higher levels of adolescent family functioning were associated with less HRB/DS, whereas higher levels of caregiver family functioning were associated with more adolescent HRB/DS; (c) and only adolescent reports of family functioning mediated the effects of acculturation components and caregiver-adolescent acculturation discrepancies on HRB/DS. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Micro-macro-discrepancies in nonlinear microrheology: I. Quantifying mechanisms in a suspension of Brownian ellipsoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DePuit, Ryan J; Squires, Todd M

    2012-01-01

    Active and nonlinear microrheology experiments involve a colloidal probe that is forced to move within a material, with the goal of recovering the nonlinear rheological response properties of the material. Various mechanisms cause discrepancies between the nonlinear rheology measured microrheologically and macroscopically, including direct probe-bath collisions, the Lagrangian unsteadiness experienced by the material elements, and the spatially inhomogeneous and rheologically mixed strain field set up around the probe. Here, we perform computational nonlinear microrheology experiments, in which a colloidal probe translates through a dilute suspension of Brownian ellipsoids, whose results we compare against analogous computational experiments on the macroscopic shear rheology of the same model material. The quantitative impact of each of the mechanisms for micro-macro-discrepancy can thus be computed directly, with additional computational experiments performed where the processes in question are ‘turned off’. We show that all three discrepancy mechanisms impact the microrheological measurement quantitatively, and that none can be neglected. This motivates a search for microrheological probes whose geometry or forcing is optimized to minimize these impacts, which we present in a companion article.

  13. Limb lengthening in Africa: tibial lengthening indicated for limb length discrepancy and postosteomyelitis pseudarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahima F

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Farikou Ibrahima,1,2 Pius Fokam,2 Félicien Faustin Mouafo Tambo11Department of Surgery and Specialties, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, 2Department of Surgery, Douala General Hospital, Douala, CameroonBackground: We present a case of lengthening of a tibia to treat postosteomyelitis pseudarthrosis and limb length discrepancy by the Ilizarov device.Objective: The objective was to treat the pseudarthrosis and correct the consequent limb length discrepancy of 50 mm.Materials and methods: The patient was a 5-year-old boy. Osteotomy of the tibia, excision of fibrosis, and decortications were carried out. After a latency period of 5 days, the lengthening started at a rate of 1 mm per day.Results: The pseudarthrosis healed and the gained correction was 21.73%. The index consolidation was 49 days/cm. Minor complications were reported.Discussion: Osteomyelitis of long bones is a common poverty-related disease in Africa. The disease usually is diagnosed at an advanced stage with complications. In these conditions, treatment is much more difficult. Most surgical procedures treating this condition use the Ilizarov device. The most common reported surgical complications are refractures and recurrence of infection.Conclusion: This technique should be popularized in countries with limited resources because it would be an attractive alternative to the amputations that are sometimes performed.Keywords: Limb length discrepancy (LLD, bone gap, Ilizarov device

  14. Tooth-size discrepancy: A comparison between manual and digital methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dória Cabral Correia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Technological advances in Dentistry have emerged primarily in the area of diagnostic tools. One example is the 3D scanner, which can transform plaster models into three-dimensional digital models. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the reliability of tooth size-arch length discrepancy analysis measurements performed on three-dimensional digital models, and compare these measurements with those obtained from plaster models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To this end, plaster models of lower dental arches and their corresponding three-dimensional digital models acquired with a 3Shape R700T scanner were used. All of them had lower permanent dentition. Four different tooth size-arch length discrepancy calculations were performed on each model, two of which by manual methods using calipers and brass wire, and two by digital methods using linear measurements and parabolas. RESULTS: Data were statistically assessed using Friedman test and no statistically significant differences were found between the two methods (P > 0.05, except for values found by the linear digital method which revealed a slight, non-significant statistical difference. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, it is reasonable to assert that any of these resources used by orthodontists to clinically assess tooth size-arch length discrepancy can be considered reliable.

  15. CRIEPI test program for seismic isolation of the FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiojiri, Hiroo

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry's (CRIEPIs) seismic isolation program. The test and research program on seismic isolation was started in 1987 by CRIEPI under contract with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI) of Japan. It was intended to establish a technical basis for the application of seismic isolation to fast breeder reactors (FBRs). In this paper, some details of the program and results of the preliminary study are described

  16. Autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell therapy in heart disease: discrepancies and contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Darrel P; Mielewczik, Michael; Zargaran, David; Cole, Graham D

    2013-10-09

    Autologous bone marrow stem cell therapy is the greatest advance in the treatment of heart disease for a generation according to pioneering reports. In response to an unanswered letter regarding one of the largest and most promising trials, we attempted to summarise the findings from the most innovative and prolific laboratory. Amongst 48 reports from the group, there appeared to be 5 actual clinical studies ("families" of reports). Duplicate or overlapping reports were common, with contradictory experimental design, recruitment and results. Readers cannot always tell whether a study is randomised versus not, open-controlled or blinded placebo-controlled, or lacking a control group. There were conflicts in recruitment dates, criteria, sample sizes, million-fold differences in cell counts, sex reclassification, fractional numbers of patients and conflation of competitors' studies with authors' own. Contradictory results were also common. These included arithmetical miscalculations, statistical errors, suppression of significant changes, exaggerated description of own findings, possible silent patient deletions, fractional numbers of coronary arteries, identical results with contradictory sample sizes, contradictory results with identical sample sizes, misrepresented survival graphs and a patient with a negative NYHA class. We tabulate over 200 discrepancies amongst the reports. The 5 family-flagship papers (Strauer 2002, STAR, IACT, ABCD, BALANCE) have had 2665 citations. Of these, 291 citations were to the pivotal STAR or IACT-JACC papers, but 97% of their eligible citing papers did not mention any discrepancies. Five meta-analyses or systematic reviews covered these studies, but none described any discrepancies and all resolved uncertainties by undisclosed methods, in mutually contradictory ways. Meta-analysts disagreed whether some studies were randomised or "accepter-versus-rejecter". Our experience of presenting the discrepancies to journals is that readers may

  17. Impact of a pharmacy technician-centered medication reconciliation program on medication discrepancies and implementation of recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Sarah K; Sen, Sanchita; Murphy, Michelle; Pontiggia, Laura

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a pharmacy-technician centered medication reconciliation (PTMR) program by identifying and quantifying medication discrepancies and outcomes of pharmacist medication reconciliation recommendations. A retrospective chart review was performed on two-hundred patients admitted to the internal medicine teaching services at Cooper University Hospital in Camden, NJ. Patients were selected using a stratified systematic sample approach and were included if they received a pharmacy technician medication history and a pharmacist medication reconciliation at any point during their hospital admission. Pharmacist identified medication discrepancies were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses. Potential risk factors were identified using multivariate analyses, such as logistic regression and CART. The priority level of significance was set at 0.05. Three-hundred and sixty-five medication discrepancies were identified out of the 200 included patients. The four most common discrepancies were omission (64.7%), non-formulary omission (16.2%), dose discrepancy (10.1%), and frequency discrepancy (4.1%). Twenty-two percent of pharmacist recommendations were implemented by the prescriber within 72 hours. A PTMR program with dedicated pharmacy technicians and pharmacists identifies many medication discrepancies at admission and provides opportunities for pharmacist reconciliation recommendations.

  18. The Humble Leader: Association of Discrepancies in Leader and Follower Ratings of Implementation Leadership With Organizational Climate in Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Finn, Natalie K; Beidas, Rinad S

    2017-02-01

    Discrepancies, or perceptual distance, between leaders' self-ratings and followers' ratings of the leader are common but usually go unrecognized. Research on discrepancies is limited, but there is evidence that discrepancies are associated with organizational context. This study examined the association of leader-follower discrepancies in Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) ratings of mental health clinic leaders and the association of those discrepancies with organizational climate for involvement and performance feedback. Both involvement and performance feedback are important for evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in mental health. A total of 593 individuals-supervisors (leaders, N=80) and clinical service providers (followers, N=513)-completed surveys that included ratings of implementation leadership and organizational climate. Polynomial regression and response surface analyses were conducted to examine the associations of discrepancies in leader-follower ILS ratings with organizational involvement climate and performance feedback climate, aspects of climate likely to support EBP implementation. Both involvement climate and performance feedback climate were highest where leaders rated themselves low on the ILS and their followers rated those leaders high on the ILS ("humble leaders"). Teams with "humble leaders" showed more positive organizational climate for involvement and for performance feedback, contextual factors important during EBP implementation and sustainment. Discrepancy in leader and follower ratings of implementation leadership should be a consideration in understanding and improving leadership and organizational climate for mental health services and for EBP implementation and sustainment in mental health and other allied health settings.

  19. Verbal-spatial IQ discrepancies impact brain activation associated with the resolution of cognitive conflict in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amy E; Davis, Katie S; Pao, Lisa S; Lewis, Amy; Yang, Xiao; Tau, Gregory; Zhao, Guihu; Wang, Zhishun; Marsh, Rachel

    2018-03-01

    Verbal-spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the difference between verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) scores (the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy) is associated with reduced thickness in frontal and parietal cortices (inferior frontal, anterior cingulate, inferior parietal lobule, and supramarginal gyrus) that support cognitive control. Unknown is whether the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy is associated with functional deficits in these areas in healthy or ill children and adolescents. We assessed the effects of the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy on fMRI BOLD response during the resolution of cognitive conflict in 55 healthy children and adolescents during performance of a Simon Spatial Incompatibility task. As the magnitude of the VIQ>PIQ discrepancy increased, activation of fronto-striatal, limbic, and temporal regions decreased during conflict resolution (p PIQ discrepancy was associated with reduced functional connectivity from right inferior frontal gyrus to right thalamus and increased functional connectivity to right supramarginal gyrus (ps PIQ discrepancy may be an important aspect of an individual's cognitive profile and likely contributes to, or is associated with, deficient cognitive control processes characteristic of many childhood disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Impact of a pharmacy technician-centered medication reconciliation program on medication discrepancies and implementation of recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraus SK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the impact of a pharmacy-technician centered medication reconciliation (PTMR program by identifying and quantifying medication discrepancies and outcomes of pharmacist medication reconciliation recommendations. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on two-hundred patients admitted to the internal medicine teaching services at Cooper University Hospital in Camden, NJ. Patients were selected using a stratified systematic sample approach and were included if they received a pharmacy technician medication history and a pharmacist medication reconciliation at any point during their hospital admission. Pharmacist identified medication discrepancies were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses. Potential risk factors were identified using multivariate analyses, such as logistic regression and CART. The priority level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Three-hundred and sixty-five medication discrepancies were identified out of the 200 included patients. The four most common discrepancies were omission (64.7%, non-formulary omission (16.2%, dose discrepancy (10.1%, and frequency discrepancy (4.1%. Twenty-two percent of pharmacist recommendations were implemented by the prescriber within 72 hours. Conclusion: A PTMR program with dedicated pharmacy technicians and pharmacists identifies many medication discrepancies at admission and provides opportunities for pharmacist reconciliation recommendations.

  1. Preliminary studies of the biosynthesis of Austin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicnienski, N.A.

    1979-01-01

    Aspergillus ustus is one of the most prevalent fungi in the soil. There are now two reports of the occurrence of toxin-producing strains of this fungus on stored foodstuffs. In addition, strains of A. ustus have been isolated along with Penicillium species from samples of South African cheeses. All A. ustus isolates tested were judged to be highly toxic to ducklings when grown on maize meal, however, the toxins involved were not isolated. Austin is the trivial name of one of the toxins made by the fungus found on stored food. Preliminary work to studying the biosynthesis of this compound using 13 C-labeled sodium acetate is reported here. The feasibility of the biosynthetic study was determined by feeding [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate to A. ustus cultures. The assignments made in the 13 C-nmr spectrum of Austin are shown. The lowest dilution factor obtained in [1- 14 C]-sodium acetate feeding experiments was 14. This dilution factor is sufficiently low to allow a successful feeding of [1,2- 13 C 2 ]-sodium acetate. A new metabolite of A. ustus, deacetylaustin, was isolated and identified. An alkaloid of unknown structure was also isolated from the fungus

  2. Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen-II. Analysis of the discrepancy of theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentschura, U.D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Various theoretical explanation for the recently observed experimental-theoretical discrepancy in the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift are explored. → These include a dip in the proton form factor slope, nonperturbative vacuum polarization and millicharged virtual particles, as well as process-dependent screening corrections. → Screening corrections may need to be explored further. → The need for an alternative determination of the Rydberg constant is highlighted. - Abstract: Currently, both the g factor measurement of the muon as well as the Lamb shift 2S-2P measurement in muonic hydrogen are in disagreement with theory. Here, we investigate possible theoretical explanations, including proton structure effects and small modifications of the vacuum polarization potential. In particular, we investigate a conceivable small modification of the spectral function of vacuum polarization in between the electron and muon energy scales due to a virtual millicharged particle and due to an unstable vector boson originating from a hidden sector of an extended standard model. We find that a virtual millicharged particle which could explain the muonic Lamb shift discrepancy alters theoretical predictions for the muon anomalous magnetic moment by many standard deviations and therefore is in conflict with experiment. Also, we find no parameterizations of an unstable virtual vector boson which could simultaneously explain both 'muonic' discrepancies without significantly altering theoretical predictions for electronic hydrogen, where theory and experiment currently are in excellent agreement. A process-dependent correction involving electron screening is evaluated to have the right sign and order-of-magnitude to explain the observed effect in muonic hydrogen. Additional experimental evidence from light muonic atoms and ions is needed in order to reach further clarification.

  3. The morpho/functional discrepancy in the cerebellar cortex: Looks alone are deceptive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rokni

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In a recent report we demonstrated that stimulation of cerebellar mossy fibers synchronously activates Purkinje cells that are located directly above the site of stimulation. We found that the activated Purkinje cells are arranged in a radial patch on the cerebellar surface and that this organization is independent of the integrity of the inhibitory system. This arrangement of activity is counterintuitive. The anatomical structure with the extensive parallel fiber system implies that mossy fiber stimulation will activate Purkinje cells along a beam of parallel fibers. In this short review we highlight this discrepancy between anatomical structure and functional dynamics and suggest a plausible underlying mechanism.

  4. Gender discrepancies in the outcomes of schedule control on overtime hours and income in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, Yvonne; Chung, Heejung

    2016-01-01

    Schedule control can have both positive – e.g., increased income – but also negative outcomes – e.g., increased overtime. Here our core interest is whether there are gender discrepancies in these outcomes. Given the different ways in which schedule control can be used, and perceived to be used by men and women, their outcomes are also expected to be different. This is examined using the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (2003-2011), and panel regression models. The results show that schedule ...

  5. Perceived body image and weight: discrepancies and gender differences among University undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruf, F A; Akinpelu, A O; Nwankwo, M J

    2012-12-01

    Body image (BI) is a multidimensional construct that includes perceptual, attitudinal, behavioural components, and feedback from other people's perception of oneself. The feedback from others and the degree to which one accepts or rejects it can determine self evaluation and perception. Body weight perception is a strong determinant of nutritional habits and weight management among adolescents. One of the barriers to reducing rise in obesity prevalence could be its cultural acceptability in some developing countries. To explore the gender influences on perception of self- and opposite-sex body images (BI), perceived body weight and the actual body weight categories at which discrepancies occur among the perceived BIs in undergraduates. This was a survey of perceptual dimension of BI, perceived body weight and actual body weight carried out in 121 undergraduates aged 21-29 years. Discrepancies occurred between self-perceived BI and each of actual body weight (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 confidence interval (CI)), perceived body weight (p= 0.01 at 0.000-0.02 CI) and self-ideal BI (p= 0.03 at 0.000-0.05 CI) of normal-weight males. Self-perceived BI and perceived body weight also differed in normal-weight females (p= 0.02 at 0.000-0.04 CI). Discrepancies (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) occurred between self-perceived BI and self-ideal BI, and between self-perceived BI and desired BI (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) in overweight females. Gender differences occurred for self-ideal BI (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 CI), ideal image for the opposite sex (IBIOS) (p= 0.02 at 0.00-0.04 CI) and desired BI (p= 0.00 at 0.00-0.02 CI). Normal-weight males perceived their BI differently from their actual body weight, perceived body weight and self-ideal BI whereas normal-weight females perceived their BI differently from only their perceived body weight. Discrepancies occur between self-ideal BI and self-perceived BI, and between self-perceived BI and desired BI in overweight females. There are differential

  6. A study in the use of the position of discrepant events in the teaching of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frassinelli, John James

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether alternative placement of discrepant events would impact affective and cognitive outcomes of ninth-grade physical science students grouped into intact classes and classified as either "high" or "low" in prior academic achievement. Although researchers have found discrepant events to be effective in terms of cognition and recall, their chronological placement within science lessons had not been empirically researched. In this study, discrepant events were presented before, during, and after specific science lessons involving thermodynamics and heat. Discrepant events were withheld from the control group. To measure affective outcomes, the "enjoyment" and "motivation" scales taken from Sandman's (1973) Attitudes Towards Science Inventory (ATSI) were used to index subjects' global feelings about studying science, while a 20-item set of Semantic Differential (SD) scales was employed to determine their attitudes regarding the specific subject matter taught. To measure cognitive outcomes, a 20-item, selected response test was constructed by the researcher, with 6 items intended to assess subjects' knowledge of unit materials, and 14 items designed to query their understanding of unit concepts. Each subject (N = 131) was administered identical forms of each test in both pre-and post-test formats, both before and after the four-week study. Analyzed using a 4 x 2 mixed Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) model, data pertinent to the ATSI suggested neither between- nor within-group differences in subjects' global attitudes about studying science, although data pertinent to the SD scales indicated generally improved attitudes about studying thermodynamics and heat (F (1,122) = 2.759, p < .10). On the cognitive pretests and posttests, significant two-way interactions were observed for the overall test and experimental condition (F (3,121) = 4.068, p < .01), as well as for the overall test and higher prior achievement in physical

  7. Coparenting in immigrant Chinese Canadian families: the role of discrepancies in acculturation and expectations for adolescent assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Lauren J; Costigan, Catherine L; Leadbeater, Bonnie J

    2013-12-01

    For immigrant families, differential acculturation between mothers and fathers may present challenges to parenting adolescents. The current study investigated the concurrent relations among discrepancies in parental acculturation, discrepancies in parental expectations for adolescents, and coparenting quality with a sample of 162 married immigrant Chinese Canadian couples with adolescents (mean age = 14.94 years; SD = 1.73). Acculturation was assessed as parents' behavioral involvement in both Canadian and Chinese cultures. As predicted, mother-father differences in acculturation (in relation to both cultures) were related to discrepant expectations for how much adolescents should assist the family. Further, mother-father differences in Chinese acculturation were related to fathers' perceptions of a poorer coparenting relationship. Finally, this relation was partially mediated by discrepant parental expectations for adolescent assistance. Implications for parenting roles, enculturation, family dynamics, and intervention are considered.

  8. Mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management: associations with diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Erica D; Pendley, Jennifer Shroff; Delamater, Alan M; Rohan, Jennifer M; Pulgaron, Elizabeth R; Drotar, Dennis

    2012-09-01

    To examine the relationship of mother-father informant discrepancies regarding diabetes management to diabetes-specific family conflict and glycemic control. One hundred thirty-six mothers and fathers of youth with Type 1 diabetes reported on the youth's diabetes management, diabetes-specific family conflict, and amount of paternal involvement in diabetes care. Glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was used to measure glycemic control. As hypothesized, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management were positively associated with frequency of diabetes-specific family conflict. Contrary to hypotheses, mother-father discrepancies regarding diabetes management predicted poorer glycemic control for youth with less involved fathers only. Results highlight the importance of caregivers being consistent about pediatric illness management and support the idea that informant discrepancies represent an important window into the functioning of the family system. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Reducing discrepancies of personal goals in the context of cancer : A longitudinal study on the relation with well-being, psychological characteristics, and goal progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pama, Marlous R.; Janse, Moniek; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Fleer, Joke; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    OBJECTIVES: To (1) examine whether reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability is an adaptive predictor of well-being, (2) investigate intrusion, awareness, optimism, and pessimism as determinants of reducing discrepancies between goal importance and goal attainability, and

  10. Gender and Depression: Analysis of the Effects of Sex Roles, Sex-Role Self-Discrepancy, and Attributional Style

    OpenAIRE

    Cutler, Scott V.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of attributional style, sex roles, and sex-role self-discrepancy in the relationship between gender and depression. Epidemiological studies report a higher incidence of depression among women then men (approximately 2:1). Among the various theories suggested to explain this gender difference, sex roles, attributional style, and self-discrepancy have been conceived as possible explanations. The relationship between gender and depression ma...

  11. Retrospective analysis of forward and reverse ABO typing discrepancies among patients and blood donors in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroo, R N; Kakkar, B; Agrawal, S; Chowdhry, M; Prakash, B; Karna, P

    2018-01-12

    The aim of our study was to determine the incidence and causes of ABO typing discrepancies among patients and blood donors at our centre. An accurate interpretation of the ABO blood group of an individual is of utmost importance to ensure patient safety and good transfusion practices. A retrospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Transfusion Medicine in our hospital from March 2013 to December 2015. Records of all patient and blood donor samples were retrieved and analysed for ABO typing discrepancies. In total, 135 853 patient and 62 080 donor samples were analysed for ABO typing discrepancies. The incidence among patients and blood donors was found to be 0·1% (138/135853) and 0·02% (14/62080), respectively. The mean age for patients and blood donors was 48·4 and 29·2 years, respectively. The most common cause of ABO typing discrepancies was due to cold autoantibodies among the patients (50·7%) and blood donors (57%) causing discrepant results in reverse typing. The various other causes of reverse typing discrepancies among patients were weak/missing antibody (25·4%), cold-reacting alloantibody (4·3%), warm autoantibody (2·2%), anti-A1 antibody (2·2%), Bombay phenotype (1·5%), transplantation (0·7%) and rouleaux (0·7%), whereas in blood donors, the causes were cold-reacting antibody (7%) and weak antibody (7%). The major cause of forward typing discrepancies among patients (12·3%) and blood donors (29%) was ABO subgroups. The resolution of ABO typing discrepancy is essential to minimise the chance of transfusion of ABO-incompatible blood. © 2018 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to...

  13. Assessment of crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancies in a South Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Maruti Doodamani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess crown angulations, crown inclinations, and tooth size discrepancy in a sample population from Davangere, South India. Materials and Methods: One hundred adults (50 male and 50 female of age 18-30 years, with Angle′s class I ideal occlusion and balanced profiles, were selected for the study. Study models were prepared and crown angulations and crown inclinations were measured using a customized protractor device. Bolton′s analysis was used to measure the tooth size discrepancies. Results: Maxillary and mandibular teeth had less crown angulations. Maxillary and mandibular incisors and maxillary molars showed increased crown inclinations, whereas mandibular molars and premolars had less crown inclinations than the original Andrews sample. The mean maxillary and mandibular tooth size ratios, overall and anterior, were similar to Bolton′s ratios. Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that there are possible racial and ethnic factors contributing to variations in crown angulations and crown inclinations.

  14. Analysis of discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings in 60 patients with herniated nucleus pulposus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyun; Kim, Kab Tae; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo

    1987-01-01

    The herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) is a major cause of low back pain and sciatica. High resolution computed tomography is the most accurate diagnostic tool to define a HNP, because it provides a complete in vivo analysis of bony framework of lumbar spine as well as the supporting soft tissue structures and neural elements. But the discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings is often confusing. From May 1983 to August 1986, sixty patients with HNP who had both CT and surgical intervention at Pusan National University Hospital were analyzed. The feasibility of the neurologic examination on HNP and the effect of HNP on nerve root were evaluated on the basis of CT findings. The results were as follows : 1. Thirty-four cases (56.7%) of clinical impression were matched to CT findings in determining level of HNP and affected nerve root. 2. In evaluation of affected level, there was high trend to cause discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings in multiple disc involvement than in single involvement. 3. There was no correlation between degree of nerve root compression determined by CT and pattern of neurologic signs (motor weakness, sensory deficit, and reflex change)

  15. Analysis of discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings in 60 patients with herniated nucleus pulposus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun; Kim, Kab Tae; Sol, Chang Hyo; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Busan(Korea, Republic of)

    1987-06-15

    The herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) is a major cause of low back pain and sciatica. High resolution computed tomography is the most accurate diagnostic tool to define a HNP, because it provides a complete in vivo analysis of bony framework of lumbar spine as well as the supporting soft tissue structures and neural elements. But the discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings is often confusing. From May 1983 to August 1986, sixty patients with HNP who had both CT and surgical intervention at Pusan National University Hospital were analyzed. The feasibility of the neurologic examination on HNP and the effect of HNP on nerve root were evaluated on the basis of CT findings. The results were as follows : 1. Thirty-four cases (56.7%) of clinical impression were matched to CT findings in determining level of HNP and affected nerve root. 2. In evaluation of affected level, there was high trend to cause discrepancy between neurologic findings and CT findings in multiple disc involvement than in single involvement. 3. There was no correlation between degree of nerve root compression determined by CT and pattern of neurologic signs (motor weakness, sensory deficit, and reflex change)

  16. Masculine Discrepancy Stress and Psychosocial Maladjustment: Implications for Behavioral and Mental Health of Adolescent Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Malone, Carolyn A; Kernsmith, Poco D

    2017-01-01

    Gender role discrepancy (GRD), or nonconformity to socially prescribed gender roles, has been linked to a multitude of adverse mental and behavioral health outcomes. Masculine discrepancy stress (MDS), stress about being perceived not to conform to one's gender role, may explain the relationship between GRD and deleterious health outcomes. However, research on MDS has primarily been restricted to adult males. This leaves a critical gap pertaining to the potential effect of MDS on adolescent boys, who may be more malleable and susceptible to the influence and pressures of gender socialization. In the current study, data are drawn from a sample of adolescent male students ( N = 592) who completed self-report questionnaires. We employed structural equation modeling to test the effects of GRD and MDS on psychosocial maladjustment measured via sexual behavior, substance use, violence, mood disorder symptoms, and hopelessness. In addition, we controlled for critical risk factors including sociodemographic characteristics, adverse childhood experiences, trauma symptoms, and neighborhood disorganization. Findings indicate significant potentiating effects of MDS on maladjustment while there were direct protective effects of GRD. These data suggest that developing prevention strategies that incorporate social norms pertaining to gender socialization may have an impact on multiple behavioral and mental health problems.

  17. Discrepancies in general surgery medical terminology between South and North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Keunyoung; Park, Do-Eon; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Yang, Hyun Hui; Ko, Dayoung; Kim, Min-Hyun; Kim, Myung Jo; Kang, Sung Il; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to categorize surgery-related medical terminologies used in South and North Korea and to compare and analyze discrepancies observed in the terms. This study collected medical terminology used in the North Korean medical book "Surgery" and compared it to medical terminology found in the medical glossary of South Korea. The order of the subtitle was described according to the Instruction to Authors. In total, there were 2,168 individual medical terms, of which only 1,004 words (46.3%) were identical to South Korean medical terms. There were 581 similar terms (26.8%), 265 different terms (12.2%), and 318 terms that are nonexistent in South Korea (14.7%). Less than half of the medical terms used in North Korea match those used in South Korea. It is expected that the prolongation of the current division of South and North Korea will only worsen this discrepancy. Further efforts to bridge the gap through academic exchange between South Korea and North Korea are required in preparation for an era of reunification.

  18. Impedance computations and beam-based measurements: A problem of discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaluk, Victor

    2018-04-01

    High intensity of particle beams is crucial for high-performance operation of modern electron-positron storage rings, both colliders and light sources. The beam intensity is limited by the interaction of the beam with self-induced electromagnetic fields (wake fields) proportional to the vacuum chamber impedance. For a new accelerator project, the total broadband impedance is computed by element-wise wake-field simulations using computer codes. For a machine in operation, the impedance can be measured experimentally using beam-based techniques. In this article, a comparative analysis of impedance computations and beam-based measurements is presented for 15 electron-positron storage rings. The measured data and the predictions based on the computed impedance budgets show a significant discrepancy. Three possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed: interference of the wake fields excited by a beam in adjacent components of the vacuum chamber, effect of computation mesh size, and effect of insufficient bandwidth of the computed impedance.

  19. Stellar oxygen abundances. I - A resolution to the 7774 A O I abundance discrepancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeremy R.

    1993-09-01

    We investigate the discrepancy between O/Fe abundance ratios of metal-poor stars derived from the 7774 A O I triplet and O/Fe ratios determined from other oxygen lines. We propose a possible resolution to this discrepancy which also eliminates the correlation of O/Fe and T(eff) found in a recent 7774 A O I analysis. The equivalent widths of Abia & Rebolo (1989) are found to be systematically too high by 25 percent. Arguments are presented that current temperature estimates for halo stars are 150-200 K too low. Using the guidance of both model atmospheres and other empirical color-T(eff) relations, we construct new color temperature relations for metal-poor stars. These relations are tied to the temperature scale of Saxner & Hammarback (1985) for metal-rich stars. We use (b-y) and (V-K) indices to redetermine values of T(eff) for a handful of halo stars. (B-V)-T(eff) relations which do not take into account the effects of metallicity are found to be inadequate. Revised O/Fe ratios are determined using the new temperature scale. The mean abundance ratio of the reanalyzed halo dwarfs is about +0.52. There is no trend of O/Fe with Fe/H or T(eff).

  20. Comparison of radioassay and microbiological assay for serum folate, with clinical assessment of discrepant results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baril, L.; Carmel, R.

    1978-01-01

    Folate assays by use of radiolabeled folate provide obvious practical advantages over the standard microbiological assay, but remain incompletely tested. We therefore compared results for 415 sera with a kit involving 3 H-labeled folate and the Lactobacillus casei microbiological method. We examined the patients' data when there were discrepancies between the two methods. Although the correlation overall was satisfactory, results were discrepant in 25% of cases. In 74% of the latter, the radioassay result appeared to be the correct one, primarily because L. casei results were suppressed by antibiotics being taken by the patient. The radioassay occasionally gave falsely high values for patients with liver disease and falsely low ones for patients who had received isotopes for scanning purposes. Several assay kits that make use of 125 I- or 75 Se-labeled folate were also tested. Although these results correlated with the results of 3 H-labeled folate assay, various problems appeared, including the possible need for serum-supernate control tubes in one kit. Answers to these and other questions and careful clinical correlation of results are needed for any folate radioassays before their adoption for routine clinical use

  1. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gualano

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p189 After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation.

  2. A comparison of cancer burden and research spending reveals discrepancies in the distribution of research funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Ashley JR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ideally, the distribution of research funding for different types of cancer should be equitable with respect to the societal burden each type of cancer imposes. These burdens can be estimated in a variety of ways; “Years of Life Lost” (YLL measures the severity of death in regard to the age it occurs, "Disability-Adjusted Life-Years" (DALY estimates the effects of non-lethal disabilities incurred by disease and economic metrics focus on the losses to tax revenue, productivity or direct medical expenses. We compared research funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI to a variety of burden metrics for the most common types of cancer to identify mismatches between spending and societal burden. Methods Research funding levels were obtained from the NCI website and information for societal health and economic burdens were collected from government databases and published reports. We calculated the funding levels per unit burden for a wide range of different cancers and burden metrics and compared these values to identify discrepancies. Results Our analysis reveals a considerable mismatch between funding levels and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia while other cancers appear underfunded (bladder, esophageal, liver, oral, pancreatic, stomach, and uterine cancers. Conclusions These discrepancies indicate that an improved method of health care research funding allocation should be investigated to better match funding levels to societal burden.

  3. Mate Value Discrepancy and Mate Retention Behaviors of Self and Partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Yael; Mogilski, Justin K; Shackelford, Todd K; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Fink, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perceived mate value discrepancy (i.e., the difference between an individual's mate value and their partner's mate value) and perceived frequency of mate retention performed by an individual relative to his or her partner. In two studies, participants in long-term, exclusive, sexual, heterosexual relationships reported their own, and their partner's, mate value and mate retention. Samples included 899 community members (Study 1) and 941 students and community members (Study 2). In Study 1, we documented that individuals with higher self-perceived short-term mate value, and who perceive their partner to have lower (vs. higher) short-term mate value, perform less frequent Benefit-Provisioning mate retention, controlling for the partner's Benefit-Provisioning mate retention. In Study 2, we documented that individuals who perceive that they could less easily replace their partner, and who perceive their partner could more (vs. less) easily replace them, perform more frequent mate retention (Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting), controlling for the partner's mate retention. These results highlight the importance of assessing perceived discrepancies in mate value (notably, regarding the replaceability of self and partner with another long-term mate) and perceived mate retention behaviors of self, relative to partner, between men and women in long-term relationships. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy and vertical type effects on lower incisor preoperative decompensation and postoperative compensation in skeletal Class III patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo-Won; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2011-01-01

    To determine the initial compensation, preoperative decompensation, and postoperative compensation of the lower incisors according to the skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy and vertical type in skeletal Class III patients. The samples consisted of 68 skeletal Class III patients treated with two-jaw surgery and orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalograms were taken before preoperative orthodontic treatment (T0) and before surgery (T1) and after debonding (T2). According to skeletal anteroposterior discrepancy/vertical type (ANB, criteria  =  -4°; SN-GoMe, criteria  =  35°) at the T0 stage, the samples were allocated into group 1 (severe anteroposterior discrepancy/hypodivergent vertical type, N  =  17), group 2 (moderate anteroposterior discrepancy/hypodivergent vertical type, N  =  17), group 3 (severe anteroposterior discrepancy/hyperdivergent vertical type, N  =  17), or group 4 (moderate anteroposterior discrepancy/hyperdivergent vertical type, N  =  17). After measurement of variables, one-way analysis of variance with Duncan's multiple comparison test, crosstab analysis, and Pearson correlation analysis were performed. At T0, groups 3 and 2 exhibited the most and least compensated lower incisors. In group 2, good preoperative decompensation and considerable postoperative compensation resulted in different values for T0, T1, and T2 (IMPA, T0 lower incisors in Class III patients.

  5. Sexual Closeness Discrepancies: What They Are and Why They Matter for Sexual Well-Being in Romantic Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; McClelland, Sara I; Dettmann, Miranda

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the impact of sexual closeness on sexual well-being. We developed a nuanced and multifaceted conceptualization of sexual closeness in the form of a constellation of ideal sexual closeness with a partner, actual sexual closeness, and the discrepancy between the two. Data were obtained from a diverse sample of N = 619 participants who took part in the Lives and Relationships Study: A longitudinal survey of men and women in relationships living in the U.S. and Canada. Increases in sexual closeness discrepancies over a period of 1 year predicted concomitant decreases in two indicators of sexual well-being: sexual satisfaction and orgasm frequency evaluations. Decreases in sexual closeness discrepancies resulted in improvement in sexual well-being. Individuals who reported no sexual closeness discrepancies and experienced no changes in sexual closeness discrepancies tended to have the highest levels of sexual well-being. Importantly, sexual closeness discrepancies were robust predictors of sexual well-being, above and beyond individuals' actual sexual closeness, general relationship closeness, and other demographic and relationship characteristics known to be associated with sexual well-being. The present findings demonstrate that how close people feel sexually to their relationship partners is part of a general constellation of factors related to relationship closeness that, only when considered together, sufficiently explain the ways in which experiences of closeness impact sexual well-being in romantic relationships.

  6. The influence of discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics on the well-being of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2012-12-01

    The present study examined whether discrepancies between adolescent and parent ratings of family dynamics predict adolescent well-being over time. Self-report data from 972 adolescent-parent dyads collected at two time points separated by one year were analyzed. Both adolescents and parents rated a variety of family dynamics (e.g., cohesion), and adolescents reported on their levels of well-being (confidence, purpose in life, and positive relations with others). Significant discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' perceptions of family functioning were found for all positive family dynamics, but not for family conflict. Furthermore, discrepancies increased over time and larger discrepancies were noted for older adolescents. Results from the residualized path model showed that discrepancies were bidirectionally related to adolescent well-being. In addition, age was found to moderate the predictive model. Specifically, 14-15 year olds (year 10) were found to be more stable in their well-being over time than younger adolescents. Also, results indicate that well-being is a significantly stronger negative predictor of discrepancies over time for the 14-15 year olds (year 10) than the for 10-11 year olds (year 6). The authors suggest that future research would benefit from investigations of the relationship between divergent perspectives of family members and adjustment outcomes of adolescents. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between parenting stress and informant discrepancies on symptoms of ADHD/ODD and internalizing behaviors in preschool children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Hsing-Chang; Liang, Sophie Hsin-Yi; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Lin, Chiao-Fan; Tseng, Yu-Han

    2017-01-01

    Parent and teacher ratings of child behaviors are often discrepant, and these discrepancies may be correlated with parenting stress. The present study explored whether various parenting stress factors are associated with discrepancies between parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as well as internalizing symptoms in preschool children. We recruited 299 Taiwanese preschool children (aged 4–6 years) from the community or via clinical referrals. A structural equation modeling was used to analyze the relationships among three factors derived from the Parenting Stress Index-Short Form and informant discrepancies on symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, ODD, and internalizing behaviors. Scores reported by parents were higher for each of the symptoms examined than those reported by teachers, and the degree of agreement between informants ranged from low to moderate. The parental distress factor of parenting stress was associated only with parent ratings, whereas other factors of parenting stress—parent-child dysfunctional interaction and parents’ stress resulted from their child’s temperament—were correlated with both parent and teacher ratings. Only parental distress factor predicted informant discrepancies for all behavioral symptoms assessed. Our findings suggest that parental distress should be considered when parent rating scores show significant discrepancies from that of teacher rating scores. PMID:29016602

  8. Active Fault Detection and Isolation for Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi; Schiøler, Henrik; Bak, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    An algorithm for active fault detection and isolation is proposed. In order to observe the failure hidden due to the normal operation of the controllers or the systems, an optimization problem based on minimization of test signal is used. The optimization based method imposes the normal and faulty...... models predicted outputs such that their discrepancies are observable by passive fault diagnosis technique. Isolation of different faults is done by implementation a bank of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) where the convergence criterion for EKF is confirmed by Genetic Algorithm (GA). The method is applied...

  9. Histopathological diagnostic discrepancies in soft tissue tumours referred to a specialist centre: reassessment in the era of ancillary molecular diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thway, Khin; Wang, Jayson; Mubako, Taka; Fisher, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Soft tissue tumour pathology is a highly specialised area of surgical pathology, but soft tissue neoplasms can occur at virtually all sites and are therefore encountered by a wide population of surgical pathologists. Potential sarcomas require referral to specialist centres for review by pathologists who see a large number of soft tissue lesions and where appropriate ancillary investigations can be performed. We have previously assessed the types of diagnostic discrepancies between referring and final diagnosis for soft tissue lesions referred to our tertiary centre. We now reaudit this 6 years later, assessing changes in discrepancy patterns, particularly in relation to the now widespread use of ancillary molecular diagnostic techniques which were not prevalent in our original study. Materials and Methods. We compared the sarcoma unit's histopathology reports with referring reports on 348 specimens from 286 patients with suspected or proven soft tissue tumours in a one-year period. Results. Diagnostic agreement was seen in 250 cases (71.8%), with 57 (16.4%) major and 41 (11.8%) minor discrepancies. There were 23 cases of benign/malignant discrepancies (23.5% of all discrepancies). 50 ancillary molecular tests were performed, 33 for aiding diagnosis and 17 mutational analyses for gastrointestinal stromal tumour to guide therapy. Findings from ancillary techniques contributed to 3 major and 4 minor discrepancies. While the results were broadly similar to those of the previous study, there was an increase in frequency of major discrepancies. Conclusion. Six years following our previous study and notably now in an era of widespread ancillary molecular diagnosis, the overall discrepancy rate between referral and tertiary centre diagnosis remains similar, but there is an increase in frequency of major discrepancies likely to alter patient management. A possible reason for the increase in major discrepancies is the increasing lack of exposure to soft tissue

  10. Discrepancy in reporting among specialist registrars and the role of a paediatric neuroradiologist in reporting paediatric CT head examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraja, S.; Ullah, Q.; Lee, K.J.; Bickle, I.; Hon, L.Q.; Griffiths, P.D.; Raghavan, A.; Flynn, P.; Connolly, D.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the discrepancy rate among specialist registrars (SPR) to assess whether seniority had a bearing on the discrepancy rate. To investigate which were the commonly missed abnormalities and the consequences for teaching purposes. To investigate the role of a specialist consultant neuroradiologist in reporting paediatric head computed tomography examinations. Materials and methods: The study was carried out over a 9-month period at the regional paediatric hospital during which time 270 CT head examinations were reported. Reporting in the department is carried out by one of the five general paediatric radiologists (GR) and also a specialist paediatric neuroradiologist (NR). The NR was considered the reference standard, who corroborated in areas of discrepancy with a second senior NR for this study. Of the 270 examinations, 260 were reported by the paediatric NR, 160 were reported by the SPR, GR, and NR, and 51 were reported by an SPR and the NR. In addition, four were reported by the GR and the NR, 45 by the NR only, seven by the GR only, and three cases were reported by the GR and an SPR. The discrepancy rates were calculated for GR versus NR, and SPR versus NR. All the discrepancies were re-evaluated by a second senior NR and confirmed in all cases. The reports of the SPR were further scrutinized. The trainees of training years 1-3 were considered junior and 4-5 were considered senior. Results: There was a discrepancy in 26/164 cases (15.9%) reported by the GR and NR. There was a discrepancy in 59/211 cases (28%) reported by an SPR and NR. The chi-squared test (two-sided) showed a significant difference (p = 0.005) between the two groups. There was a discrepancy in 36/118 cases (30.5%) reported by the junior SPR and NR. There was a discrepancy in 23/93 cases (24.7%) reported by a senior SPR and NR. The chi-squared test (two-sided) showed a non-significant difference (p = 0.353) between the two groups. Conclusion: The performance of the SPR was

  11. Typing Discrepancy Between Phenotypic and Molecular Characterization Revealing an Emerging Biovar 9 Variant of Smooth Phage-Resistant B. abortus Strain 8416 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yao-Xia; Li, Xu-Ming; Piao, Dong-Ri; Tian, Guo-Zhong; Jiang, Hai; Jia, En-Hou; Lin, Liang; Cui, Bu-Yun; Chang, Yung-Fu; Guo, Xiao-Kui; Zhu, Yong-Zhang

    2015-01-01

    A newly isolated smooth colony morphology phage-resistant strain 8416 isolated from a 45-year-old cattle farm cleaner with clinical features of brucellosis in China was reported. The most unusual phenotype was its resistance to two Brucella phages Tbilisi and Weybridge, but sensitive to Berkeley 2, a pattern similar to that of Brucella melitensis biovar 1. VITEK 2 biochemical identification system found that both strain 8416 and B. melitensis strains shared positive ILATk, but negative in other B. abortus strains. However, routine biochemical and phenotypic characteristics of strain 8416 were most similar to that of B. abortus biovar 9 except CO2 requirement. In addition, multiple PCR molecular typing assays including AMOS-PCR, B. abortus special PCR (B-ab PCR) and a novel sub-biovar typing PCR, indicated that strain 8416 may belong to either biovar 3b or 9 of B. abortus. Surprisingly, further MLVA typing results showed that strain 8416 was most closely related to B. abortus biovar 3 in the Brucella MLVA database, primarily differing in 4 out of 16 screened loci. Therefore, due to the unusual discrepancy between phenotypic (biochemical reactions and particular phage lysis profile) and molecular typing characteristics, strain 8416 could not be exactly classified to any of the existing B. abortus biovars and might be a new variant of B. abortus biovar 9. The present study also indicates that the present phage typing scheme for Brucella sp. is subject to variation and the routine Brucella biovar typing needs further studies.

  12. Maternal and fetal characteristics affect discrepancies between pregnancy-dating methods: a population-based cross-sectional register study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullinger, Merit; Wesström, Jan; Kieler, Helle; Skalkidou, Alkistis

    2017-01-01

    Gestational age is estimated by ultrasound using fetal size as a proxy for age, although variance in early growth affects reliability. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics associated with discrepancies between last menstrual period-based (EDD-LMP) and ultrasound-based (EDD-US) estimated delivery dates. We identified all singleton births (n = 1 201 679) recorded in the Swedish Medical Birth Register in 1995-2010, to assess the association between maternal/fetal characteristics and large negative and large positive discrepancies (EDD-LMP earlier than EDD-US and 10th percentile in the discrepancy distribution vs. EDD-LMP later than EDD-US and 90th percentile). Analyses were adjusted for age, parity, height, body mass index, smoking, and employment status. Women with a body mass index >40 kg/m 2 had the highest odds for large negative discrepancies (-9 to -20 days) [odds ratio (OR) 2.16, 95% CI 2.01-2.33]. Other factors associated with large negative discrepancies were: diabetes, young maternal age, multiparity, body mass index between 30 and 39.9 kg/m 2 or +1 SD), and unemployment. Several maternal and fetal characteristics were associated with discrepancies between dating methods. Systematic associations of discrepancies with maternal height, fetal sex, and partly obesity, may reflect an influence on the precision of the ultrasound estimate due to variance in early growth. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  13. Discrepancies between parent and adolescent beliefs about daily life topics and performance on an emotion recognition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Reyes, Andres; Lerner, Matthew D; Thomas, Sarah A; Daruwala, Samantha; Goepel, Katherine

    2013-08-01

    Parents and children and adolescents commonly disagree in their perceptions of a variety of behaviors, including the family relationship and environment, and child and adolescent psychopathology. To this end, numerous studies have examined to what extent increased discrepant perceptions-particularly with regard to perceptions of the family relationship and environment-predict increased child and adolescent psychopathology. Parents' and children and adolescents' abilities to decode and identify others' emotions (i.e., emotion recognition) may play a role in the link between discrepant perceptions and child and adolescent psychopathology. We examined parents' and adolescents' emotion recognition abilities in relation to discrepancies between parent and adolescent perceptions of daily life topics. In a sample of 50 parents and adolescents ages 14-to-17 years (M = 15.4 years, 20 males, 54 % African-American), parents and adolescents were each administered a widely used performance-based measure of emotion recognition. Parents and adolescents were also administered a structured interview designed to directly assess each of their perceptions of the extent to which discrepancies existed in their beliefs about daily life topics (e.g., whether adolescents should complete their homework and carry out household chores). Interestingly, lower parent and adolescent emotion recognition performance significantly related to greater parent and adolescent perceived discrepant beliefs about daily life topics. We observed this relation whilst accounting for adolescent age and gender and levels of parent-adolescent conflict. These findings have important implications for understanding and using informant discrepancies in both basic developmental psychopathology research and applied research in clinic settings (e.g., discrepant views on therapeutic goals).

  14. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  15. Estrogen, stress and the brain: progress toward unraveling gender discrepancies in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shansky, Rebecca M

    2009-07-01

    Women are twice as likely as men to develop major depressive disorder (MDD) and, while the neurobiological factors underlying this discrepancy are yet to be identified, estrogen almost certainly plays a role. MDD can be precipitated or exacerbated by exposure to stress and there is substantial evidence to suggest that estrogen can interact with stress systems to produce unique stress effects in females. This review integrates current research in animal models regarding estrogen-stress interactions in three areas of the brain known to be relevant to MDD: the hippocampus, the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. The results from these studies are discussed in the context of MDD, and their implications for future treatment of MDD in women are explored.

  16. Consistencies and Discrepancies in Communication Between Parents and Teenage Children About Sexuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita María Sevilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The family is one of the most important socializing agents in adolescent sex education. However, multiple barriers to communication within families have been identified. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize and understand the processes by which parents and their adolescent children communicate about sexuality. Two questionnaires were completed by 711 fathers/mothers and 566 male/female students in 21 schools in Cali (Colombia, and 15 discussion groups were formed. The results showed that conversations about sexuality focused on protection for women and on sexuality promotion for men. Furthermore, it was found that greater fluency exists in father/son and mother/daughter conversations. The largest discrepancy between parents and teenagers was the adults' belief that it is sufficient to mention certain topics in a directive manner and the children's expectations that parents will discuss the value and dynamics of the sexual experience. Embarrassment and lack of communication tools hinder communication processes.

  17. Discrepancies between explicit and implicit self-esteem: implications for mate retention strategies and perceived infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Fulton, Jessica J; McLemore, Chandler

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the association between explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes was moderated by implicit self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 210 undergraduates who were currently involved in romantic relationships to complete measures of their explicit self-esteem, implicit self-esteem, mate retention strategies, and likelihood of future infidelity. Implicit self-esteem was found to moderate the association between high explicit self-esteem and relationship outcomes for male participants such that men with discrepant high self-esteem (i.e., high explicit self-esteem but low implicit self-esteem) reported less use of mate retention strategies and perceived a greater likelihood of future infidelity in their relationships during the next year. These findings provide additional support for the idea that fragile self-esteem may have consequences for the manner in which individuals perceive their relationships.

  18. From Sexual Desire Discrepancies to Desirable Sex: Creating the Optimal Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinplatz, Peggy J; Paradis, Nicolas; Charest, Maxime; Lawless, Shannon; Neufeld, Marlene; Neufeld, Robert; Pratt, Danielle; Ménard, A Dana; Buduru, Bogdan; Rosen, Lianne

    2017-11-21

    Beginning in 2005, our team conducted a series of studies on optimal sexual experiences. We have applied our findings to develop a group therapy intervention for couples presenting with low sexual desire/frequency and sexual desire discrepancy. The goal was to improve the quality of erotic intimacy by focusing on such elements as being fully embodied during sex, increasing authenticity, trustworthiness, and vulnerability. Twenty-eight heterosexual individuals (14 couples) were seen in 16 hours of couples group therapy. Each completed the New Sexual Satisfaction Scale in pretests, posttests and six-month follow-ups. Significant differences in satisfaction (p creating just enough safety to enable couples to take erotic risks and thereby create desirable sexual intimacy.

  19. Self-discrepancy and regulatory fit in avatar-based exergames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seung-A Annie

    2012-12-01

    Drawing from Higgins's self-discrepancy theory and regulatory focus theory, this study examined the use of activated selves and regulatory foci in health games. Utilizing the Wii's avatar-creating and exergaming features, a 2 (activated self: actual self versus ideal self) x 2 (regulatory focus: promotion versus prevention) x 2 (efficacy appeals: self-efficacy versus response-efficacy) between-subjects experiment tested the interactions of activated selves, regulatory foci, and efficacy appeals on low-calorie dieting intentions after health game playing. Results from an experiment with 156 participants demonstrated that a fit between regulatory focus and efficacy appeals induced greater dieting intentions when the actual self was activated while the opposite effect occurred when the ideal self was activated. Theoretical contributions to basic and applied social psychology as well as managerial implications for consumer behavior research are considered.

  20. Does Mother Know Best? Parental Discrepancies in Assessing Child Behavioral and Educational Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Lausten, Mette; Pozzoli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the degree of correspondence between parents’ reports on child behavioral and educational outcomes using wave four of a rich Danish longitudinal survey of children (the DALSC). All outcomes are measured at age 11 when the children are expected to be in fifth grade. Once discrepancies...... are detected, we analyze whether they are driven by noisy evaluations or by systematic bias, focusing on the role of parental characteristics and response heterogeneity. We then explicitly assess the relative importance of the mother’s versus the father’s assessments in explaining child academic performance...... and diagnosed mental health to investigate whether one parent is systematically a better informant of their child’s outcomes than the other. Our results show that parental psychopathology, measured as maternal distress, is a source of systematic misreporting of child functioning, that the parent–child...

  1. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  2. Apsidal motion of the eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis: An apparent discrepancy with general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinan, E.F.; Maloney, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    In 1959, Rudkjobing called attention to the 8th magnitude, eccentric eclipsing binary DI Herculis as an important test case for studying relativistic apsidal motion, since the theoretical relativistic apsidal motion is greater than that expected from the classical effects (i.e., from the tidal and rotational deformation of the stellar components). Excellent determinations of the orbital and stellar parameters of the system have been made by Popper (1982) from the combined analysis of the system's radial-velocity data and UBV light curves of Martynov and Khaliullin (1980), which permit the theoretical relativistic and classical components of the apsidal motion to be determined with reasonable certainty: omega-dot/sup theor//sub GR/ = 2X34/100 yr and omega-dot/sup theor//sub CL/ = 1X93/100 yr. Least-squares solutions of the timings of primary and secondary minima, extending over an 84-yr interval, and including eclipse timings obtained as recently as 1984, yield a small advance of periastron omega-dot/sup obs/ = 0X65/100 yr +- 0X18/100 yr. The observed advance of the periastron is about one-seventh the theoretical value of omega-dot/sup theor//sub GR+CL/ = 4X27/100 yr that is expected from the combined relativistic and classical effects, and results in a discrepancy of -3X62/100 yr, a value which has a magnitude of approx.20 sigma. Classical mechanisms that can possibly explain this apparent discrepancy are discussed, along with the possibility that there may be problems with general relativity

  3. Microdose acquisition in adolescent leg length discrepancy using a low-dose biplane imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo R; Hjarbæk, John; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Pedersen, Niels W; Gerke, Oke; Torfing, Trine

    2017-09-01

    Background Children with leg length discrepancy often undergo repeat imaging. Therefore, every effort to reduce radiation dose is important. Using low dose preview images and noise reduction software rather than diagnostic images for length measurements might contribute to reducing dose. Purpose To compare leg length measurements performed on diagnostic images and low dose preview images both acquired using a low-dose bi-planar imaging system. Material and Methods Preview and diagnostic images from 22 patients were retrospectively collected (14 girls, 8 boys; mean age, 12.8 years; age range, 10-15 years). All images were anonymized and measured independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Three sets of measurements were performed on all images; the mechanical axis lines of the femur and the tibia as well as the anatomical line of the entire extremity. Statistical significance was tested with a paired t-test. Results No statistically significant difference was found between measurements performed on the preview and on the diagnostic image. The mean tibial length difference between the observers was -0.06 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.01) and -0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.21 to 0.05), respectively; 0.10 cm (95% CI, 0.02-0.17) and 0.06 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.14) for the femoral measurements and 0.12 cm (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.26) and 0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.19) for total leg length discrepancy. ICCs were >0.99 indicating excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. Conclusion The data strongly imply that leg length measurements performed on preview images from a low-dose bi-planar imaging system are comparable to measurements performed on diagnostic images.

  4. Adolescent Loneliness and Social Skills: Agreement and Discrepancies Between Self-, Meta-, and Peer-Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, G M A; Goossens, L; Scholte, R H J; Engels, R C M E; Verhagen, M

    2016-12-01

    Lonely adolescents report that they have poor social skills, but it is unknown whether this is due to an accurate perception of a social skills deficit, or a biased negative perception. This is an important distinction, as actual social skills deficits require different treatments than biased negative perceptions. In this study, we compared self-reported social skills evaluations with peer-reported social skills and meta-evaluations of social skills (i.e., adolescents' perceptions of how they believe their classmates evaluate them). Based on the social skills view, we expected negative relations between loneliness and these three forms of social skills evaluations. Based on the bias view, we expected lonely adolescents to have more negative self- and meta-evaluations compared to peer-evaluations of social skills. Participants were 1342 adolescents (48.64 % male, M age  = 13.95, SD = .54). All classmates rated each other in a round-robin design to obtain peer-evaluations. Self- and meta-evaluations were obtained using self-reports. Data were analyzed using polynomial regression analyses and response surface modeling. The results indicated that, when self-, peer- and meta-evaluations were similar, a greater sense of loneliness was related to poorer social skills. Loneliness was also related to larger discrepancies between self- and peer-evaluations of loneliness, but not related to the direction of these discrepancies. Thus, for some lonely adolescents, loneliness may be related to an actual social skills deficit, whereas for others a biased negative perception of one's own social skills or a mismatch with the environment may be related to their loneliness. This implies that different mechanisms may underlie loneliness, which has implications for interventions.

  5. The biological basis of treating jaw discrepancies: An interplay of mechanical forces and skeletal configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamesinis, Konstantinos; Basdra, Efthimia K

    2018-05-01

    Jaw discrepancies and malrelations affect a large proportion of the general population and their treatment is of utmost significance for individuals' health and quality of life. The aim of their therapy is the modification of aberrant jaw development mainly by targeting the growth potential of the mandibular condyle through its cartilage, and the architectural shape of alveolar bone through a suture type of structure, the periodontal ligament. This targeted treatment is achieved via external mechanical force application by using a wide variety of intraoral and extraoral appliances. Condylar cartilage and sutures exhibit a remarkable plasticity due to the mechano-responsiveness of the chondrocytes and the multipotent mesenchymal cells of the sutures. The tissues respond biologically and adapt to mechanical force application by a variety of signaling pathways and a final interplay between the proliferative activity and the differentiation status of the cells involved. These targeted therapeutic functional alterations within temporo-mandibular joint ultimately result in the enhancement or restriction of mandibular growth, while within the periodontal ligament lead to bone remodeling and change of its architectural structure. Depending on the form of the malrelation presented, the above treatment approaches, in conjunction or separately, lead to the total correction of jaw discrepancies and the achievement of facial harmony and function. Overall, the treatment of craniofacial and jaw anomalies can be seen as an interplay of mechanical forces and adaptations occurring within temporo-mandibular joint and alveolar bone. The aim of the present review is to present up-to-date knowledge on the mechano-biology behind jaw growth modification and alveolar bone remodeling. Furthermore, future molecular targeted therapeutic strategies are discussed aiming at the improvement of mechanically-driven chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Consensuses and discrepancies of basin-scale ocean heat content changes in different ocean analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongjie; Cheng, Lijing; Abraham, John; Li, Chongyin

    2018-04-01

    Inconsistent global/basin ocean heat content (OHC) changes were found in different ocean subsurface temperature analyses, especially in recent studies related to the slowdown in global surface temperature rise. This finding challenges the reliability of the ocean subsurface temperature analyses and motivates a more comprehensive inter-comparison between the analyses. Here we compare the OHC changes in three ocean analyses (Ishii, EN4 and IAP) to investigate the uncertainty in OHC in four major ocean basins from decadal to multi-decadal scales. First, all products show an increase of OHC since 1970 in each ocean basin revealing a robust warming, although the warming rates are not identical. The geographical patterns, the key modes and the vertical structure of OHC changes are consistent among the three datasets, implying that the main OHC variabilities can be robustly represented. However, large discrepancies are found in the percentage of basinal ocean heating related to the global ocean, with the largest differences in the Pacific and Southern Ocean. Meanwhile, we find a large discrepancy of ocean heat storage in different layers, especially within 300-700 m in the Pacific and Southern Oceans. Furthermore, the near surface analysis of Ishii and IAP are consistent with sea surface temperature (SST) products, but EN4 is found to underestimate the long-term trend. Compared with ocean heat storage derived from the atmospheric budget equation, all products show consistent seasonal cycles of OHC in the upper 1500 m especially during 2008 to 2012. Overall, our analyses further the understanding of the observed OHC variations, and we recommend a careful quantification of errors in the ocean analyses.

  7. Gait and posture analysis in patients with maxillary transverse discrepancy, before and after RPE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Martina; Spolaor, Fabiola; Guiotto, Annamaria; De Stefani, Alberto; Gracco, Antonio; Sawacha, Zimi

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the rapid palatal expansion (RPE) on posture and gait analysis in subjects with maxillary transverse discrepancies. Forty-one patients between 6 and 12 years were divided into 3 groups: 10 control subjects (Cs), 16 patients with unilateral posterior crossbite (CbMono), 15 patients with maxillary transverse discrepancy and no crossbite (Nocb). Every subject underwent gait analysis and posturographic examination in order to evaluate the presence of balance alterations before (T0) and after (T4) RPE application. The examinations were performed through a six-cameras stereophotogrammetric system (60-120Hz, BTS S.p.A.) synchronized with two force plates (FP4060, Bertec Corp.). Romberg test was performed on a force plate, and the statokinesiogram and joint kinematics were evaluated. One-way Anova was performed among the variables after evidence of normal distribution (Levene's test for equality of variances) and Kruskal-Wallis test (Ptest was performed, or Kruskal-Wallis test, instead when comparing pre- and post-RPE application within the same group of subjects (P<0.05). Tamane T2 or Bonferroni correction was applied where needed. The posturographic analysis reveal significant differences across the 3 population: 95% power frequency in medio-lateral and antero-posterior direction in T0, median frequency in medio-lateral direction in T0, mean power frequency in medio-lateral direction in T0. Significant differences were also registered in the three-dimensional joints kinematics variables, mainly between Cs and Cbmono in T0 and T4 and between Cbmono and Nocb in T4. A detectable correlation between dental occlusion and body posture is shown in this study that confirms another benefit of the RPE. This was mainly revealed in the dynamic posture where modifications at the mandibular level affect the whole body. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. 2-dimensional shear wave elastography: Interobserver agreement and factors related to interobserver discrepancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kibo Yoon

    Full Text Available To evaluate the interobserver reproducibility of two-dimensional shear wave elastography (2D-SWE in measuring liver stiffness (LS and to investigate factors related to liver 2D-SWE.A prospective study was conducted between August 2011 and August 2012 in rheumatoid arthritis patients who had been treated with methotrexate. Interobserver reproducibility of 2D-SWE was evaluated, and the relationship between interobserver difference in LS and related factors was analyzed using linear regression analyses. We considered age, sex, alanine transaminase, cholesterol, body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference as clinical factors, and the mean value of standard deviation (SDM, its difference between two examiners, mean diameter of the regions of interest (ROIM, and its difference in the elasticity map as investigation factors. The cut-off value for significant factors to predict interobserver discrepancies in LS-based fibrosis stage was also inspected.In total, 176 patients were enrolled. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two examiners was 0.784. In the univariate analysis, SDM and ROIM were independently associated with interobserver differences in LS as well as BMI, waist circumference, and the difference of ROI, but SDM and ROIM were the only ones significantly related in multivariate analysis (p<0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively. The best cut-off value for SDM in predicting interobserver discrepancy in LS-based fibrosis stage was 1.4.Interobserver reproducibility of 2D-SWE for measuring LS was good and SDM was the most significantly associated factor with interobserver differences in LS and interobserver discordance in LS-based fibrosis stage.

  9. Discrepancies between self- and adult-perceptions of social competence in children with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, M; Autti-Rämö, I; Junttila, N; Vauras, M; Tuulio-Henriksson, A

    2017-09-01

    The present study examines discrepancies between self- and adult-perceptions of social competence in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and possible co-morbid disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). Self-reported questionnaires were collected from multiple informants at the baseline of a multi-systemic family intervention programme for children (aged 5-12) with ADHD, ASD and possible co-morbid DBD. In total, out of the 154 families eligible for the study, information was received concerning children from 124 families (children n = 121; mothers n = 117; fathers n = 86; teachers n = 97). In addition to this, a comparison community sample of 318 school-aged children (approximately 10 years old) was utilized to examine the perceptions of children's social competence across intervention and population groups in more detail. Children's self-perceptions in the prosocial dimension of social competence (i.e. cooperating skills, empathy) did not differ between the intervention and comparison groups. Interestingly, the children in the intervention sample expressed more impulsivity and disruptiveness - the antisocial dimension of social competence - when compared with the children in the comparison sample. Adult ratings demonstrated that mothers, fathers and teachers reported decreased prosocial behaviour and increased antisocial behaviour across overall dimensions and sub-dimensions when compared with adults' ratings of elementary school children. Informant discrepancies between self-ratings and adult ratings across intervention groups yielded significant effect sizes (eta-squared) across all domains of social competence ranging from .09 to .25. Children's positive self-ratings of social competence relative to adult ratings increased within intervention sample when compared with population sample. The intervention sample children appeared to acknowledge their social competence deficits, yet self

  10. THE DISCREPANT KINEMATICS OF ORLs AND CELs IN NGC 7009 AS A FUNCTION OF IONIZATION STRUCTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, Michael G. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 106, 22800 Ensenada, BC (Mexico); Georgiev, Leonid; Torres-Peimbert, Silvia [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-264, CP 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico); Arrieta, Anabel, E-mail: richer@astrosen.unam.mx, E-mail: silvia@astroscu.unam.mx, E-mail: anabel.arrieta@ibero.mx [Departamento de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad Iberoamericana, Prolongacion Paseo de la Reforma 880, Lomas de Santa Fe, CP 01210 Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2013-08-20

    We present spatially and velocity-resolved echelle spectroscopy for NGC 7009 obtained with the UVES spectrograph at the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. Our objective is to analyze the kinematics of emission lines excited by recombination and collisions with electrons to determine whether similarities or differences could be useful in elucidating the well-known abundance discrepancy derived from them. We construct position-velocity maps for recombination, fluorescence, charge transfer, and collisionally excited lines. We find a plasma component emitting in the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II recombination lines whose kinematics are discrepant: they are incompatible with the ionization structure derived from all other evidence and the kinematics derived from all of these lines are unexpectedly very similar. We find direct evidence for a recombination contribution to [N II] {lambda}5755. Once taken into account, the electron temperatures from [N II], [O III], and [Ne III] agree at a given position and velocity. The electron densities derived from [O II] and [Ar IV] are consistent with direct imaging and the distribution of hydrogen emission. The kinematics of the C II, N II, O II, and Ne II lines does not coincide with the kinematics of the [O III] and [Ne III] forbidden emission, indicating that there is an additional plasma component to the recombination emission that arises from a different volume from that giving rise to the forbidden emission from the parent ions within NGC 7009. Thus, the chemical abundances derived from either type of line are correct only for the plasma component from which they arise. Apart from [N II] {lambda}5755, we find no anomaly with the forbidden lines usually used to determine chemical abundances in ionized nebulae, so the abundances derived from them should be reliable for the medium from which they arise.

  11. Recent results of seismic isolation study in CRIEPI: Tests on seismic isolation elements, vibration tests and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, Katsuhiko; Shiojiri, Hiroo; Mazda, Taiji; Ohtori, Yasuki [Abiko Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan); Aoyagi, Sakae [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (Japan)

    1992-07-01

    Seismic isolation is expected to be effective in raising reliability during earthquake, reducing cost, enlarging and promoting the design standardization of electric power facilities. In Japan, it has been applied to several buildings. However it is considered that more research is needed to verify the reliability and effectiveness of seismic isolation for fast breeder reactors. In the preliminary study of isolation concepts for FBRs the horizontal base isolation of buildings was investigated in detail. The laminated rubber bearings were considered to be most suitable isolation system. Tests on large scale models of rubber bearing and vibration test of base isolation system have been conducted as well as the earthquake response observation of isolated buildings were conducted.

  12. Recent results of seismic isolation study in CRIEPI: Tests on seismic isolation elements, vibration tests and observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Katsuhiko; Shiojiri, Hiroo; Mazda, Taiji; Ohtori, Yasuki; Aoyagi, Sakae

    1992-01-01

    Seismic isolation is expected to be effective in raising reliability during earthquake, reducing cost, enlarging and promoting the design standardization of electric power facilities. In Japan, it has been applied to several buildings. However it is considered that more research is needed to verify the reliability and effectiveness of seismic isolation for fast breeder reactors. In the preliminary study of isolation concepts for FBRs the horizontal base isolation of buildings was investigated in detail. The laminated rubber bearings were considered to be most suitable isolation system. Tests on large scale models of rubber bearing and vibration test of base isolation system have been conducted as well as the earthquake response observation of isolated buildings were conducted

  13. Discrepancies between Abstracts Presented at International Association for Dental Research Annual Sessions from 2004 to 2005 and Full-Text Publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Soni; Lee, Damian J; Yuan, Judy Chia-Chun; Barao, Valentim A R; Shyamsunder, Nodesh; Sukotjo, Cortino

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the discrepancies between abstracts presented at the IADR meeting (2004-2005) and their full-text publication. Material and Methods. Abstracts from the Prosthodontic Section of IADR meeting were obtained. The following information was collected: abstract title, number of authors, study design, statistical analysis, outcome, and funding source. PubMed was used to identify the full-text publication of the abstracts. The discrepancies between the abstract and the full-text publication were examined, categorized as major and minor discrepancies, and quantified. The data were collected and analyzed using descriptive analysis. Frequency and percentage of major and minor discrepancies were calculated. Results. A total of 109 (95.6%) articles showed changes from their abstracts. Seventy-four (65.0%) and 105 (92.0%) publications had at least one major and one minor discrepancies, respectively. Minor discrepancies were more prevalent (92.0%) than major discrepancies (65.0%). The most common minor discrepancy was observed in the title (80.7%), and most common major discrepancies were seen in results (48.2%). Conclusion. Minor discrepancies were more prevalent than major discrepancies. The data presented in this study may be useful to establish a more comprehensive structured abstract requirement for future meetings.

  14. Post-prior discrepancies in the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approximation for ion-helium ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciappina, M F [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Cravero, W R [CONICET and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Garibotti, C R [CONICET and Division Colisiones Atomicas, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina)

    2003-09-28

    We have explored post-prior discrepancies within continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state theory for ion-atom ionization. Although there are no post-prior discrepancies when electron-target initial and final states are exact solutions of the respective Hamiltonians, discrepancies do arise for multielectronic targets, when a hydrogenic continuum with effective charge is used for the final electron-residual target wavefunction. We have found that the prior version calculations give better results than the post version, particularly for highly charged projectiles. We have explored the reasons for this behaviour and found that the prior version shows less sensitivity to the choice of the final state. The fact that the perturbation potentials operate upon the initial state suggests that the selection of the initial bound state is relatively more important than the final continuum state for the prior version.

  15. IQ discrepancy differentiates levels of fine motor skills and their relationship in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzu-Ying; Chou, Willy; Chow, Julie Chi; Lin, Chien-Ho; Tung, Li-Chen; Chen, Kuan-Lin

    2018-01-01

    We investigated 1) the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD) on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 2) the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81), discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points]), and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points]). Children's IQD and motor skills were determined with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ - Fourth Edition and the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT), respectively. One-way analysis of variance revealed significant group differences for the fine motor domain of the CDIIT and the visual-motor coordination subtest ( F =3.37-4.38, p motor skills than were children with even IQD and those with discrepantly higher VIQ, and vice versa. IQD (PIQ - VIQ) had significant positive correlations with the fine motor domain and fine motor subtests of the CDIIT ( r =0.18-0.29, p motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. This study suggests important implications for clinicians, therapists, and researchers: discrepantly higher PIQ could be related to better visual-motor coordination, and discrepantly higher VIQ could be related to poor visual-motor coordination. Furthermore, the results support that when therapists are working with preschool-aged children with ASD who are developing fine motor skills or undertaking fine motor tasks related to visual-motor coordination, they may need to pay attention to the children's IQD.

  16. Information-theoretic discrepancy based iterative reconstructions (IDIR) for polychromatic x-ray tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Kwang Eun; Lee, Jongha; Sung, Younghun; Lee, SeongDeok

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: X-ray photons generated from a typical x-ray source for clinical applications exhibit a broad range of wavelengths, and the interactions between individual particles and biological substances depend on particles' energy levels. Most existing reconstruction methods for transmission tomography, however, neglect this polychromatic nature of measurements and rely on the monochromatic approximation. In this study, we developed a new family of iterative methods that incorporates the exact polychromatic model into tomographic image recovery, which improves the accuracy and quality of reconstruction.Methods: The generalized information-theoretic discrepancy (GID) was employed as a new metric for quantifying the distance between the measured and synthetic data. By using special features of the GID, the objective function for polychromatic reconstruction which contains a double integral over the wavelength and the trajectory of incident x-rays was simplified to a paraboloidal form without using the monochromatic approximation. More specifically, the original GID was replaced with a surrogate function with two auxiliary, energy-dependent variables. Subsequently, the alternating minimization technique was applied to solve the double minimization problem. Based on the optimization transfer principle, the objective function was further simplified to the paraboloidal equation, which leads to a closed-form update formula. Numerical experiments on the beam-hardening correction and material-selective reconstruction were conducted to compare and assess the performance of conventional methods and the proposed algorithms.Results: The authors found that the GID determines the distance between its two arguments in a flexible manner. In this study, three groups of GIDs with distinct data representations were considered. The authors demonstrated that one type of GIDs that comprises “raw” data can be viewed as an extension of existing statistical reconstructions; under a

  17. Effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise: discrepancies and methodological appraisals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Chackur Brum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available After a brief review of the literature on the effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, the main aim of this study was to discuss methodological differences between studies which could explain the discrepancies observed in the literature. The effects of creatine supplementation on high-intensity intermittent exercise performance have been investigated in depth. Although the results of much research demonstrates the effi cacy of this supplement, there is just as much evidence that does not support this ergogenic effect. The explanation for this divergence appears to be multifactorial, although it is always linked to methodological characteristics. Study design (crossover or parallel groups, individual variability of muscular creatine content, chronic high meat intake, sample size, exercise protocol characteristics (body weight dependence and time between series, and gender and age all differ between studies and are potentially the variables responsible, to differing extents, for the discrepancies observed in the literature. Studies involving young males, with parallel group design, adequate statistical power, control of the incorporation of creatine into muscles, food intake assessment and intermittent exercise protocols in which performance is independent of body weight and with rest-recovery intervals of 1 to 6 minutes, usually produce positive results. The many methodological factors which can contribute to divergence on the ergogenic effects of creatine should be considered in futures studies, as well as when prescribing creatine supplementation. Resumo Após breve revisão da literatura existente acerca dos efeitos da suplementação de creatina no rendimento em atividades intermitentes de alta intensidade, o objetivo principal dessa revisão foi discutir diferenças metodológicas dos estudos que possam explicar a divergência encontrada na literatura. Os efeitos da suplementação de creatina

  18. Posterior transverse interarch discrepancy on HbE β thalassemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Zen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the symptoms that often arises on thalassemia patients is disharmony dentofacial, class II skeletal malocclusion, as a result of the malrelation of maxilla and mandible. This malrelation can be affected by either maxillary bone position, dentoalveolar maxillary position, mandibular bone position, dentoalveolar mandibular position, or combinations of those components. Purpose: The study was aimed to examine whether there is posterior transverse interarch discrepancy on the HbE β thalassemia patients or not. Methods: This study is an observational research with cross-sectional design. The sample consisted of 33 HbE β thalassemia patients and 33 non-thalassemia patients as a control group aged 12–14 years. Lateral cephalogram was carried out and dental casts of maxillary and mandibular dental arches were also taken in all of those patients. Results: There was no difference between the maxillary intermolar width of the HbE β thalassemia patients and that of the normal ones, but the mandibular intermolar width of the HbE β thalassemia patients was significantly smaller than that of the normal ones. Beside that, posterior transverse interarch discrepancy of of the HbE β thalassemia patients was significantly greater than that of the normal ones, which showed great difference between maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths. Conclusion: Posterior transverse interarch discrepancy of the HbE β thalassemia patients was different from that of the normal ones. The dentofacial abnormalities on the HbE β thalassemia patients aged 12–14 years primarily was due to disporposional dentofacial growth in the vertical, sagittal, and transversal directions, especially in the posterior region.Latar belakang: Salah satu akibat yang sering timbul pada penderita talasemia adalah disharmoni dentofasial berupa maloklusi skeletal kelas II yang merupakan kelainan hubungan maksila dan mandibula. Malrelasi ini dapat dipengaruhi oleh posisi

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  1. Digital evaluation of absolute marginal discrepancy: A comparison of ceramic crowns fabricated with conventional and digital techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shanshan; Yuan, Fusong; Luo, Xu; Yu, Zhuoren; Tang, Zhihui

    2018-04-05

    Marginal discrepancy is key to evaluating the accuracy of fixed dental prostheses. An improved method of evaluating marginal discrepancy is needed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the absolute marginal discrepancy of ceramic crowns fabricated using conventional and digital methods with a digital method for the quantitative evaluation of absolute marginal discrepancy. The novel method was based on 3-dimensional scanning, iterative closest point registration techniques, and reverse engineering theory. Six standard tooth preparations for the right maxillary central incisor, right maxillary second premolar, right maxillary second molar, left mandibular lateral incisor, left mandibular first premolar, and left mandibular first molar were selected. Ten conventional ceramic crowns and 10 CEREC crowns were fabricated for each tooth preparation. A dental cast scanner was used to obtain 3-dimensional data of the preparations and ceramic crowns, and the data were compared with the "virtual seating" iterative closest point technique. Reverse engineering software used edge sharpening and other functional modules to extract the margins of the preparations and crowns. Finally, quantitative evaluation of the absolute marginal discrepancy of the ceramic crowns was obtained from the 2-dimensional cross-sectional straight-line distance between points on the margin of the ceramic crowns and the standard preparations based on the circumferential function module along the long axis. The absolute marginal discrepancy of the ceramic crowns fabricated using conventional methods was 115 ±15.2 μm, and 110 ±14.3 μm for those fabricated using the digital technique was. ANOVA showed no statistical difference between the 2 methods or among ceramic crowns for different teeth (P>.05). The digital quantitative evaluation method for the absolute marginal discrepancy of ceramic crowns was established. The evaluations determined that the absolute marginal discrepancies were

  2. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Second opinion and discrepancy in the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions at surgical pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the frequency and magnitude of discrepancies in the surgical pathological diagnosis of soft tissue lesions on review and second opinion in a histopathology center. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Histopathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from April 2006 to May 2007. Materials and Methods: All the cases of soft tissue as well as bone lesions, irrespective of age and gender, which were referred for second opinion or review after being reported elsewhere, were included in the study. A panel of antibodies of soft tissue, epithelial and lymphoid markers was applied according to the requirements of each case. The cases were categorized as category A where there was concurrence between initial diagnosis and diagnosis at review. Category B included cases where there was disagreement in the specific diagnostic entity as per WHO classifications without therapeutic implications. Category C was cases where the category of benign or malignant diagnosis remained the same but there was disagreement in the specific diagnosis with definite therapeutic implications. Category D had diagnosis of benign changed to malignant while category E had cases where diagnosis of malignancy was changed to a benign lesion. Results: During the study period, 34 cases of soft tissue lesions were received for review and second opinion. The mean age of the patients was 39 ΁ 22 years and immunohistochemistry was performed in 21 (62% of 34 cases. Concurrence between the review and initial diagnosis was seen in 18 (53% cases (category A. Discrepancy in the diagnosis at review and initial consultation was seen in 16 (47% cases. There were four (11.8% cases that were placed in category B as the diagnosis of benign and malignant remained the same but the specific diagnostic entity was changed. Category C included eight (23.5% cases where the review diagnosis changed the therapeutic

  4. Inertia: the discrepancy between individual and common good in dispersal and prospecting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, María del Mar; Ratikainen, Irja I; Kokko, Hanna

    2011-08-01

    The group selection debate of the 1960s made it clear that evolution does not necessarily increase population performance. Individuals can be selected to have traits that diminish a common good and make population persistence difficult. At the extreme, the discrepancy between levels of selection is predicted to make traits evolve towards values at which a population can no longer persist (evolutionary suicide). Dispersal and prospecting are prime examples of traits that have a strong influence on population persistence under environmental and demographic stochasticity. Theory predicts that an 'optimal' dispersal strategy from a population point of view can differ considerably from that produced by individual-level selection. Because dispersal is frequently risky or otherwise costly, individuals are often predicted to disperse less than would be ideal for population performance (persistence or size). We define this discrepancy as 'inertia' and examine current knowledge of its occurrence and effects on population dynamics in nature. We argue that inertia is potentially widespread but that a framework is currently lacking for predicting precisely the extent to which it has a real influence on population persistence. The opposite of inertia, 'hypermobility' (more dispersal by individuals than would maximize population performance) remains a possibility: it is known that highest dispersal rates do not lead to best expected population performance, and examples of such high dispersal evolving exist at least in the theoretical literature. We also show, by considering prospecting behaviour, that similar issues arise in species with advanced cognitive and learning abilities. Individual prospecting strategies and the information acquired during dispersal are known to influence the decisions and therefore the fate of individuals and, as a corollary, populations. Again, the willingness of individuals to sample environments might evolve to levels that are not optimal for

  5. Medication reconciliation errors in a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia: admission discrepancies and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar F

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medication reconciliation is a major component of safe patient care. One of the main problems in the implementation of a medication reconciliation process is the lack of human resources. With limited resources, it is better to target medication reconciliation resources to patients who will derive the most benefit from it. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency and types of medication reconciliation errors identified by pharmacists performing medication reconciliation at admission. Each medication error was rated for its potential to cause patient harm during hospitalization. A secondary objective was to determine risk factors associated with medication reconciliation errors. Methods: This was a prospective, single-center pilot study conducted in the internal medicine and surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A clinical pharmacist took the best possible medication history of patients admitted to medical and surgical services and compared with the medication orders at hospital admission; any identified discrepancies were noted and analyzed for reconciliation errors. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors related to reconciliation errors. Results: A total of 328 patients (138 in surgical and 198 in medical were included in the study. For the 1419 medications recorded, 1091 discrepancies were discovered out of which 491 (41.6% were reconciliation errors. The errors affected 177 patients (54%. The incidence of reconciliation errors in the medical patient group was 25.1% and 32.0% in the surgical group (p<0.001. In both groups, the most frequent reconciliation error was the omission (43.5% and 51.2%. Lipid-lowering (12.4% and antihypertensive agents were most commonly involved. If undetected, 43.6% of order errors were rated as potentially requiring increased monitoring or intervention to preclude harm; 17

  6. Discrepant comorbidity between minority and white suicides: a national multiple cause-of-death analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stack Steven

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinician training deficits and a low and declining autopsy rate adversely impact the quality of death certificates in the United States. Self-report and records data for the general population indicate that proximate mental and physical health of minority suicides was at least as poor as that of white suicides. Methods This cross-sectional mortality study uses data from Multiple Cause-of-Death (MCOD public use files for 1999–2003 to describe and evaluate comorbidity among black, Hispanic, and white suicides. Unintentional injury decedents are the referent for multivariate analyses. Results One or more mentions of comorbid psychopathology are documented on the death certificates of 8% of white male suicides compared to 4% and 3% of black and Hispanic counterparts, respectively. Corresponding female figures are 10%, 8%, and 6%. Racial-ethnic discrepancies in the prevalence of comorbid physical disease are more attenuated. Cross-validation with National Violent Death Reporting System data reveals high relative underenumeration of comorbid depression/mood disorders and high relative overenumeration of schizophrenia on the death certificates of both minorities. In all three racial-ethnic groups, suicide is positively associated with depression/mood disorders [whites: adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 31.9, 95% CI = 29.80–34.13; blacks: AOR = 60.9, 95% CI = 42.80–86.63; Hispanics: AOR = 34.7, 95% CI = 23.36–51.62] and schizophrenia [whites: AOR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.07–2.86; blacks: AOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.73–6.37; Hispanics: AOR = 4.1, 95% CI = 2.01–8.22]. Suicide is positively associated with cancer in whites [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.69–1.93] and blacks [AOR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.36–2.48], but not with HIV or alcohol and other substance use disorders in any group under review. Conclusion The multivariate analyses indicate high consistency in predicting suicide-associated comorbidities across racial-ethnic groups using MCOD data

  7. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  8. Discrepancies Between Planned and Actual Operating Room Turnaround Times at a Large Rural Hospital in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regula Morgenegg

    2018-01-01

    retrospective study examined the OR turnaround data of 875 elective surgery cases scheduled at the Marienhospital, Vechta, Germany, between July and October 2014. The frequency distributions of planned and actual OR turnaround times were compared and correlations between turnaround times and various factors were established, including the time of day of the procedure, patient age and the planned duration of the surgery. Results: There was a significant difference between mean planned and actual OR turnaround times (0.32 versus 0.64 hours; P <0.001. In addition, significant correlations were noted between actual OR turnaround times and the time of day of the surgery, patient age, actual duration of the procedure and staffing changes affecting the surgeon or the medical specialty of the surgery (P <0.001 each. The quotient of actual/planned OR turnaround times ranged from 1.733–3.000. Conclusion: Significant discrepancies between planned and actual OR turnaround times were noted during the study period. Such findings may be potentially used in future studies to establish a tool to improve OR planning, measure OR management performance and enable benchmarking.

  9. Parent-Child Endorsement Discrepancies among Youth at Chronic-Risk for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makol, Bridget A; Polo, Antonio J

    2017-11-10

    Depression is one of the most common mental health problems among U.S. adolescents, particularly among Latinos. Parent-child ratings of the presence and severity of child depressive symptoms show only low-to-moderate agreement. However, research has failed to examine discrepancies in populations with the highest levels of unmet need and little is known about patterns and predictors of parent-child agreement in ratings of depressive symptoms among ethnic minority families in community settings. Using a sample of 184 low-income, predominantly Latino, 5th through 7th grade students (63.6% female) at chronic risk for depression, this study utilized exploratory Latent Class Analysis (LCA) to uncover patterns of parent-child endorsement of core diagnostic depressive symptoms. Overall, children reported higher levels of core (i.e., depressed mood, anhedonia, irritability) and secondary (e.g., sleep disturbances) depressive symptoms relative to their parents. The three latent classes identified include a low endorsement and high agreement class (LH), high endorsement and high agreement class (HH), and high child endorsement and low agreement class (HCL). Multinomial regression models revealed that previous mental health service use and higher externalizing problems were associated with HH class membership, relative to HCL class membership. Findings provide evidence that a substantial number of children may have depressive symptoms that go undetected by their parents. Access to services among children at-risk for depression may be increased with psychoeducation to improve parental awareness and stigma reduction.

  10. Depressive symptoms moderate the effects of a self-discrepancy induction on overgeneral autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smets, Jorien; Griffith, James W; Wessel, Ineke; Walschaerts, Dominique; Raes, Filip

    2013-01-01

    According to the CaRFAX model, rumination is one of the key underlying mechanisms of overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM). The association between rumination and OGM is well established in clinical populations, but this relationship is not robust in nonclinical samples. A series of null findings is reported in the current paper. Additionally we followed up on recent findings suggesting that a state of rumination needs to be active in order to detect a relationship between trait-rumination and OGM. Secondary school students (N= 123) completed questionnaires assessing trait-rumination and depressive symptoms as well as two autobiographical memory tests (AMTs), one before and one after a self-discrepancy induction. This induction should trigger state-rumination, which would subsequently promote the retrieval of general rather than specific memories. Trait-rumination failed to predict increases in OGM. We did find, however, that higher BDI-II scores were positively related to an increase in OGM following the induction. This adds to the growing body of evidence that OGM reactivity might be more important than baseline memory specificity.

  11. A case of 45,X/47,XXX mosaic Turner syndrome with limb length discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishimura-Yonemaru, Nozomi; Okuhara, Koji; Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Tonoki, Hidefumi; Iizuka, Susumu; Tajima, Toshihiro

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Turner syndrome (TS) frequently show short stature and skeletal deformities, such as kyphosis and scoliosis. However, to the best of our knowledge, limb length discrepancy (LLD) has not yet been reported in patients with TS. The case of a 12-yr-old girl with 45,X/47,XXX mosaic TS showing LLD is herein presented. She was on GH therapy for short stature and was noted to have scoliosis in the standing position at a regular examination; however, the scoliosis became less evident in the supine position, which is indicative of LLD. The length of the left leg was 5.0 cm shorter than that of the right leg when measured. She was referred to orthopedics and underwent right distal femoral and right proximal tibial staple epiphysiodesis to shorten the abnormally long limb at 10 yr 6 mo of age. One year after the operation, the LLD decreased from 5.0 to 1.5 cm. During this period, GH was continued. LLD is a rare complication in TS, but when patients with TS show scoliosis in the standing position, re-evaluation for scoliosis in the supine position should be performed and the lengths of both legs should be measured.

  12. Discrepancies between the ultrasonographic and gross pathological size of papillary thyroid carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Soo Yeon; Shin, Jung Hee; Oh, Young Lyun; Son, Young Ik [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this study was to investigate the level of agreement between tumor sizes measured on ultrasonography (US) and in pathological specimens of papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) and to identify the US characteristics contributing to discrepancies in these measurements. We retrospectively reviewed the US findings and pathological reports of 490 tumors in 431 patients who underwent surgery for PTC. Agreement was defined as a difference of <20% between the US and pathological tumor size measurements. Tumors were divided by size into groups of 0.5-1 cm, 1-2 cm, 2-3 cm, and ≥3 cm. We compared tumors in which the US and pathological tumor size measurements agreed and those in which they disagreed with regard to the following parameters: taller-than-wide shape, infiltrative margin, echogenicity, microcalcifications, cystic changes in tumors, and the US diagnosis. The rate of agreement between US and the pathological tumor size measurements was 64.1% (314/490). Statistical analysis indicated that the US and pathological measurements significantly differed in tumors <1.0 cm in size (P=0.033), with US significantly overestimating the tumor size by 0.2 cm in such tumors (P<0.001). Cystic changes were significantly more frequent in the tumors where US and pathological tumor size measurements disagreed (P<0.001). Thyroid US may overestimate the size of PTCs, particularly for tumors <1.0 cm in size. This information may be helpful in guiding decision making regarding surgical extent.

  13. A gender discrepancy analysis of heterosexual sexual behaviors in two university samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozkowski, Kristen N; Satinsky, Sonya A

    2013-12-01

    The current study aimed to (1) offer a large-scale enumeration of college students' lifetime sexual behaviors and sexual behaviors at last event, and (2) apply a gender discrepancy lens to college students' sexual behaviors in order to examine potential gender differences in heterosexual college students' experiences. Nine-hundred and seventy college students between the ages of 18 and 27 from two large universities in the United States participated in the current study. Participants filled out a paper-pencil questionnaire during the last 30 min of class. Measures of lifetime sexual behaviors and engagement in behaviors at last sexual event were replicated from the National Survey of Sexual Health Behavior. Most college students engaged in some form of sexual behavior (manual, oral, vaginal-penile, anal). Men more frequently reported engaging in receptive sexual behaviors (e.g., receiving oral sex) where as women were more likely to engage in performative sexual behaviors (e.g., performing oral sex). At most recent sexual event, men were more likely than women to report being the sexual initiator. Findings highlight gender differences in sexual behavior and provide a foundation for social norms interventions. Holistic sexual health promotion for young adults includes acknowledging and discouraging sites of disparity in equity and pleasure. Therefore, college-level sexual health educators should pay attention to the potential pleasure gap between men and women in heterosexual encounters, and to see pleasure as an important part of sexual health that should be included in social norms campaigns.

  14. Effects of unreasonable pay discrepancies for under- and overpayment on double demotivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, S C; McLoughlin, D; Hodgson, M; MacLachlan, M

    1996-11-01

    The "double demotivation" hypothesis that pay discrepancies decrease work motivation among both lower and higher paid groups was tested in two experiments. In experiment 1, 70 Australian undergraduates received either $1 or $2 to work on an intrinsically rewarding puzzle, with or without knowledge of what amount other participants were receiving. A comparison of participants with a no-payment control showed that participants exhibited significantly reduced intrinsic motivation (seconds spent interacting with the puzzle during a free-choice period) when they knew that they were being under- or overpaid. In experiment 2, 126 occupationally matched Australian workers receiving wages equal to, lower than, or higher than those of counterparts reported their level of job satisfaction and whether they would stay on the job, change jobs, or retire, if given the financial opportunity. Compared with equitably paid workers, employees who felt they were being under- or overpaid reported lower job satisfaction and greater readiness to change jobs. The results provide experimental support for double demotivation, which is relevant not only to international development cooperation but also to Western enterprise bargaining, merit pay, and minority groups in the multicultural workplace.

  15. Student and teacher perceptions of school climate: a multilevel exploration of patterns of discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary M; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Leaf, Philip J

    2010-06-01

    School climate has been linked with improved academic achievement and reduced discipline problems, and thus is often a target of school improvement initiatives. However, few studies have examined the extent to which student and teacher perceptions vary as a function of individual, classroom, and school characteristics, or the level of congruence between teachers' and their students' perceptions of school climate. Using data from 1881 fifth-grade students and their 90 homeroom teachers, we examined parallel models of students' and teachers' perceptions of overall school climate and academic emphasis. Two additional models were fit that assessed the congruence between teacher and student perceptions of school climate and academic emphasis. Multilevel analyses indicated that classroom-level factors were more closely associated with teachers' perceptions of climate, whereas school-level factors were more closely associated with the students' perceptions. Further analyses indicated an inverse association between student and teacher ratings of academic emphasis, and no association between student and teacher ratings of overall climate. Teacher ratings were more sensitive to classroom-level factors, such as poor classroom management and proportion of students with disruptive behaviors, whereas student ratings were more influenced by school-level factors such as student mobility, student-teacher relationship, and principal turnover. The discrepancy in ratings of academic emphasis suggests that while all of the respondents may have shared objectively similar experiences, their perceptions of those experiences varied significantly. These results emphasize the importance of assessing both student and teacher perceptions in future research on school climate.

  16. Applications of Rajeval technique for the evaluation of discrepant nuclear decay data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.

    2006-11-01

    There are 4 levels 95NB below the decay energy in the Adopted Levels of the 93 micro 08 evaluation that are not reported in this decay scheme: these are 730 6 (5/2+), 799 5 (3/2), 1011 8 (5/2), and 1088keV. These levels have only been reported in reaction studies and their lemma decay modes are not known the 730 level would be fed fed by and allowed beta decay, so this evaluator suggests it is actually the 724 level and the J* assignment is incorrect. The failure to observe decays to the possible 799 and 1011 levels is surprising since these would be 1st forbidden decays and from beta decay systematics (73Ra10) could have branches of several percent. Therefore, one must rely on the fact that other lemda rays have not been reported to support the completeness of this scheme. If one leaves the values of 65F102 in the data set, it is desirable to use either the RAJEVAL or Normalized Residual method to treat this discrepancy. The RAJEVAL method increase the uncertainty for the 65F102 value from 0.2 to 0.88 and gives the resulting value of 64.032(6) while the Normalized Residual method increase this uncertainty to 0.58 and give a result of 64.032(6). So, the adopted value is the same for each of these three methods. (author)

  17. Discrepant perceptions of communication, teamwork and situation awareness among surgical team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauben, L S G L; Dekker-van Doorn, C M; van Wijngaarden, J D H; Goossens, R H M; Huijsman, R; Klein, J; Lange, J F

    2011-04-01

    To assess surgical team members' differences in perception of non-technical skills. Questionnaire design. Operating theatres (OTs) at one university hospital, three teaching hospitals and one general hospital in the Netherlands. Sixty-six surgeons, 97 OT nurses, 18 anaesthetists and 40 nurse anaesthetists. All surgical team members, of five hospitals, were asked to complete a questionnaire and state their opinion on the current state of communication, teamwork and situation awareness at the OT. Ratings for 'communication' were significantly different, particularly between surgeons and all other team members (P ≤ 0.001). The ratings for 'teamwork' differed significantly between all team members (P ≤ 0.005). Within 'situation awareness' significant differences were mainly observed for 'gathering information' between surgeons and other team members (P communication, teamwork and situation awareness. Future research needs to ascertain whether these discrepancies are linked to greater risk of adverse events or to process as well as systems failures. Establishing this link would support implementation and use of complex team interventions that intervene at multiple levels of the healthcare system.

  18. When tinnitus loudness and annoyance are discrepant: audiological characteristics and psychological profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Wolfgang; Goebel, Gerhard

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of patients reporting discrepant levels of tinnitus loudness and annoyance. 4958 subjects recruited from a national tinnitus association completed a comprehensive screening questionnaire including Klockhoff and Lindblom's loudness grading system and the psychometric Mini-TQ (Tinnitus Questionnaire). There was a moderate correlation of 0.45 between loudness and annoyance. Of the subjects reporting very loud tinnitus, about one third had only mild or moderate annoyance scores. They were not different from those with high annoyance regarding age, gender and tinnitus duration, but annoyance was increased when subjects had additional hearing loss (OR = 1.71), vertigo/dizziness (OR = 1.94) or hyperacusis (OR = 4.96). Another significant predictor was history of neurological disease (OR = 3.16). Subjects reported low annoyance despite high loudness more often if not feeling low/depressed and not considering themselves as victims of their noises. A specific psychological profile was found to characterize annoyed tinnitus sufferers. Permanent awareness of the noises, decreased ability to ignore them and concentration difficulties were reported frequently even when overall annoyance scores were comparatively low. It is concluded that the coexistence of tinnitus with hearing loss, vertigo/dizziness and hyperacusis as complicating otological conditions seems to be of clinical relevance for the prediction of high annoyance levels. Tinnitus loudness and annoyance are not necessarily congruent and should be assessed separately. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Shedding light on the mercury mass discrepancy by weighing Hg52+ ions in a Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritioff, T.; Bluhme, H.; Schuch, R.; Bergstroem, I.; Bjoerkhage, M.

    2003-01-01

    In their nuclear tables Audi and Wapstra have pointed out a serious mass discrepancy between their extrapolated values for the mercury isotopes and those from a direct measurement by the Manitoba group. The values deviate by as much as 85 ppb from each other with claimed uncertainties of about 16 and 7 ppb, respectively. In order to decide which values are correct the masses of the 198 Hg and 204 Hg isotopes have been measured in the Stockholm Penning trap mass spectrometer SMILETRAP using 52+ ions. This charge state corresponds to a filled Ni electron configuration for which the electron binding energy can be accurately calculated. The mass values obtained are 197.966 768 44(43) u for 198 Hg and 203.973 494 10(39) u for 204 Hg. These values agree with those measured by the Manitoba group, with a 3 times lower uncertainty. This measurement was made possible through the implementation of a cooling technique of the highly charged mercury ions during charge breeding in the electron beam ion source used for producing the Hg 52+ ions

  20. Poor Efficiency of Eight-Plates in the Treatment of Lower Limb Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumétou, Elodie; Mallet, Cindy; Souchet, Philippe; Mazda, Keyvan; Ilharreborde, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Among the numerous existing epiphysiodesis procedures, the eight-plate-guided growth technique, initially described for angular deformities correction, has progressively gained popularity among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons to treat lower limb discrepancy (LLD). The goal of this study was to assess the efficacy of eight-plates in LLD. All children treated for LLD with eight-plates were prospectively included and followed until skeletal maturity. Efficacy of the epiphysiodesis was calculated 6 and 18 months postoperatively and at latest follow-up, according to a method previously validated for percutaneous epiphysiodesis using transphyseal screws (PETS). Radiologic measurements were performed using 3-dimensional low-dose stereoradiography. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were reported. Thirty-two patients were included (average age at surgery, 12.5 y). For femoral epiphysiodesis, efficacy was only 23% at 6 months and 68% at latest follow-up. The procedure was even less efficient on the proximal tibia, with only 42% of the expected growth arrest at latest examination. Eight patients (20%) experienced plate-related pain during follow-up, and 5 physes (12.5%) required unplanned revision surgery. Results of the current series show that the eight-plate technique procedure was associated with few perioperative complications, but the growth arrest observed at follow-up was unpredictable and lower than that achieved with PETS in previous reports. Eight-plate procedures cannot be considered as an efficient epiphysiodesis technique in comparison with standard technique. Level IV.

  1. Effect of an unrelated fluent action on word recognition: A case of motor discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouillet, Denis; Milhau, Audrey; Brouillet, Thibaut; Servajean, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    It is now well established that motor fluency affects cognitive processes, including memory. In two experiments participants learned a list of words and then performed a recognition task. The original feature of our procedure is that before judging the words they had to perform a fluent gesture (i.e., typing a letter dyad). The dyads comprised letters located on either the right or left side of the keyboard. Participants typed dyads with their right or left index finger; the required movement was either very small (dyad composed of adjacent letters, Experiment 1) or slightly larger (dyad composed of letters separated by one key, experiment 2). The results show that when the gesture was performed in the ipsilateral space the probability of recognizing a word increased (to a lesser extent it is the same with the dominant hand, experiment 2). Moreover, a binary regression logistic highlighted that the probability of recognizing a word was proportional to the speed by which the gesture was performed. These results are discussed in terms of a feeling of familiarity emerging from motor discrepancy.

  2. Radiation risk perception: a discrepancy between the experts and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perko, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Determining the differences in the perception of risks between experts who are regularly exposed to radiation, and lay people provides important insights into how potential hazards may be effectively communicated to the public. In the present study we examined lay people's (N = 1020) and experts' (N = 332) perception of five different radiological risks: nuclear waste, medical x-rays, natural radiation, an accident at a nuclear installation in general, and the Fukushima accident in particular. In order to link risk perception with risk communication, media reporting about radiation risks is analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analyses. The results showed that experts perceive radiological risks differently from the general public. Experts' perception of medical X-rays and natural radiation is significantly higher than in general population, while for nuclear waste and an accident at a nuclear installation, experts have lower risk perception than the general population. In-depth research is conducted for a group of workers that received an effective dose higher than 0.5 mSv in the year before the study; for this group we identify predictors of risk perception. The results clearly show that mass media don't use the same language as technical experts in addressing radiological risks. The study demonstrates that the discrepancy in risk perception and the communication gap between the experts and the general population presents a big challenge in understanding each other

  3. Discrepancies between beliefs and behavior: a prospective study into immunosuppressive medication adherence after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Tielen, Mirjam; Laging, Mirjam; Timman, Reinier; Beck, Denise K; Khemai, Roshni; van Gelder, Teun; Weimar, Willem

    2015-02-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressive medication after kidney transplantation is a behavioral issue and as such it is important to understand the psychological factors that influence this behavior. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which goal cognitions, illness perceptions, and treatment beliefs were related to changes in self-reported immunosuppressive medication adherence up to 18 months after transplantation. Interviews were conducted with patients in the outpatient clinic 6 weeks (T1; n=113), 6 months (T2; n=106), and 18 months (T3; n=84) after transplantation. Self-reported adherence was measured using the Basel Assessment of Adherence to Immunosuppressive Medications Scale Interview. Psychological concepts were measured using the Brief Illness Perceptions Questionnaire, Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, and questions on the importance of adherence as a personal goal, conflict with other goals, and self-efficacy for goal attainment. Nonadherence significantly increased over time to 31% at T3. Perceived necessity of medication, perceived impact of transplant on life (consequences) and emotional response to transplantation significantly decreased over time. Participants who reported low importance of medication adherence as a personal goal were more likely to become nonadherent over time. Illness perceptions can be described as functional and supportive of adherence which is inconsistent with the pervasive and increasing nonadherence observed. There appears therefore to be a discrepancy between beliefs about adherence and actual behavior. Promoting (intrinsic) motivation for adherence goals and exploring the relative importance in comparison to other personal goals is a potential target for interventions.

  4. Multidetector CT angiography in living donor renal transplantation: accuracy and discrepancies in right venous anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, S; Emre, S; Arvelakis, A; Asch, W; Bia, M; Formica, R; Israel, G

    2011-01-01

    Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography is a reliable technique for assessing pre-operative renal anatomy in living kidney donors. The method has largely evolved into protocols that eliminate dedicated venous phase and instead utilize a combined arterial/venous phase to delineate arterial and venous anatomy simultaneously. Despite adoption of this protocol, there has been no study to assess its accuracy. To assess whether or not MDCT angiography compares favorably to intra-operative findings, 102 donors underwent MDCT angiography without a dedicated venous phase with surgical interpretation of renal anatomy. Anatomical variants included multiple arteries (12%), multiple veins (7%), early arterial bifurcation (13%), late venous confluence (5%), circumaortic renal veins (5%), retroaortic vein (1%), and ureteral duplication (2%). The sensitivity and specificity of multiple arterial anomalies were 100% and 97%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of multiple venous anomalies were 92% and 98%, respectively. The most common discrepancy was noted exclusively in the interpretation of right venous anatomy as it pertained to the renal vein/vena cava confluence (3%). MDCT angiography using a combined arterial/venous contrast-enhanced phase provides suitable depiction of renal donor anatomy. Careful consideration should be given when planning a right donor nephrectomy whether the radiographic interpretation is suggestive of a late confluence. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Discrepancy Between Clinician and Research Assistant in TIMI Score Calculation (TRIAGED CPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Brian T.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have attempted to demonstrate that the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI risk score has the ability to risk stratify emergency department (ED patients with potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Most of the studies we reviewed relied on trained research investigators to determine TIMI risk scores rather than ED providers functioning in their normal work capacity. We assessed whether TIMI risk scores obtained by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED differed from those obtained by trained research investigators. Methods: This was an ED-based prospective observational cohort study comparing TIMI scores obtained by 49 ED providers admitting patients to an ED chest pain unit (CPU to scores generated by a team of trained research investigators. We examined provider type, patient gender, and TIMI elements for their effects on TIMI risk score discrepancy. Results: Of the 501 adult patients enrolled in the study, 29.3% of TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers and trained research investigators were generated using identical TIMI risk score variables. In our low-risk population the majority of TIMI risk score differences were small; however, 12% of TIMI risk scores differed by two or more points. Conclusion: TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED frequently differ from scores generated by trained research investigators who complete them while not under the same pressure of an ED provider. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:24–33.

  6. Do different data analytic approaches generate discrepant findings when measuring mother-infant HPA axis attunement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Nicola K; Kashy, Deborah A; Levendosky, Alytia A; Bogat, G Anne; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2017-03-01

    Attunement between mothers and infants in their hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness to acute stressors is thought to benefit the child's emerging physiological and behavioral self-regulation, as well as their socioemotional development. However, there is no universally accepted definition of attunement in the literature, which appears to have resulted in inconsistent statistical analyses for determining its presence or absence, and contributed to discrepant results. We used a series of data analytic approaches, some previously used in the attunement literature and others not, to evaluate the attunement between 182 women and their 1-year-old infants in their HPA axis responsivity to acute stress. Cortisol was measured in saliva samples taken from mothers and infants before and twice after a naturalistic laboratory stressor (infant arm restraint). The results of the data analytic approaches were mixed, with some analyses suggesting attunement while others did not. The strengths and weaknesses of each statistical approach are discussed, and an analysis using a cross-lagged model that considered both time and interactions between mother and infant appeared the most appropriate. Greater consensus in the field about the conceptualization and analysis of physiological attunement would be valuable in order to advance our understanding of this phenomenon. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Influence of experimental occlusal discrepancy on masticatory muscle activity during clenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K; Ai, M; Mizutani, H; Enosawa, S

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the experimental occlusal discrepancy on masticatory muscle activity was investigated on 12 subjects. Specially designed occlusal interferences were fabricated and various occlusal states were simulated with their aid. Subjects were asked to carry out eccentric clenching efforts and electromyographic activity of the masseter plus the anterior and posterior temporal muscles was measured. When compared with clenching on the unaltered natural dentition, clenching on the experimental interferences resulted in distinct patterns in the jaw elevator muscles, and the most characteristic change was observed when clenching effort was exerted on the experimental non-working side interference. Electromyographic activity in the anterior and posterior temporal muscles was decreased on the working side and increased on the non-working side and originally unilateral activity pattern with clear dominance on the working side was altered to a bilateral pattern, while that of the masseter muscles remained uninfluenced. Resultant bilateral activity in the anterior and posterior temporal muscles is thought to cause a superior movement of the working side condyle and an inferior movement of the non-working side condyle.

  8. One explanatory basis for the discrepancy of reported prevalences of sleep paralysis among healthy respondents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, K

    1993-12-01

    In a previous study, the author and coworkers found 39.8% of healthy young adults had experienced sleep paralysis. Some other studies reported prevalence as about the same or higher (i.e., 40.7% to 62.0%) than that previous estimate, while yet other studies, including Goode's work cited by ASDC and ASDA classifications, suggested much lower prevalences (i.e., 4.7% to 26.2%). The author tested the hypothesis that this discrepancy among the reported prevalences is partly due to the expression used in each questionnaire. University students who answered the questionnaire using the term 'transient paralysis' reported the lower prevalence (26.4%), while the second group of respondents who answered the questionnaire using the term kanashibari, the Japanese folklore expression for sleep paralysis, gave the higher prevalence (39.3%). The third group who answered the questionnaire with the term 'condition,' probably a rather neutral expression, marked the middle (31.0%) of these.

  9. Foraminifera Models to Interrogate Ostensible Proxy-Model Discrepancies During Late Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P.; Dowsett, H. J.; de Mutsert, K.

    2017-12-01

    Planktic foraminifera faunal assemblages have been used in the reconstruction of past oceanic states (e.g. the Last Glacial Maximum, the mid-Piacenzian Warm Period). However these reconstruction efforts have typically relied on inverse modeling using transfer functions or the modern analog technique, which by design seek to translate foraminifera into one or two target oceanic variables, primarily sea surface temperature (SST). These reconstructed SST data have then been used to test the performance of climate models, and discrepancies have been attributed to shortcomings in climate model processes and/or boundary conditions. More recently forward proxy models or proxy system models have been used to leverage the multivariate nature of proxy relationships to their environment, and to "bring models into proxy space". Here we construct ecological models of key planktic foraminifera taxa, calibrated and validated with World Ocean Atlas (WO13) oceanographic data. Multiple modeling methods (e.g. multilayer perceptron neural networks, Mahalanobis distance, logistic regression, and maximum entropy) are investigated to ensure robust results. The resulting models are then driven by a Late Pliocene climate model simulation with biogeochemical as well as temperature variables. Similarities and differences with previous model-proxy comparisons (e.g. PlioMIP) are discussed.

  10. Change in attitudes about employed mothers: exposure, interests, and gender ideology discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroska, Amy; Elman, Cheryl

    2009-06-01

    Using a sample of continuously-married individuals (793 women and 847 men) and their spouses drawn from the first two waves of the NSFH, we examine change in individuals' attitudes about mothers' employment. We investigate hypotheses derived from three models of attitude change: the exposure model, the interest-based model, and the control model. We find support for hypotheses derived from all three. Consistent with exposure hypotheses, the adoption of fundamentalist beliefs reduces egalitarianism, while spouses' egalitarianism and spouses' education are positively related to individuals' own egalitarianism. As predicted in both exposure and interest hypotheses, women's entry into employment is positively related to women's egalitarianism, while wives' occupational prestige is positively related to men's egalitarianism. Congruent with the interest model, the presence of a young child is positively associated with women's egalitarianism. Consistent with the exposure model, the number of children in the home reduces men's egalitarianism, and a traditional division of housework decreases women's egalitarianism. Finally, consistent with the gender ideology discrepancy hypothesis, derived from the control model, individuals whose background, work, and family life are inconsistent with their gender ideology at wave 1 shift their gender ideology at wave 2 in a direction that is more compatible with their background, work, and family life: egalitarians with traditional life patterns at wave 1 are more traditional in their gender ideology at wave 2, and traditionals with egalitarian life patterns at wave 1 are more egalitarian at wave 2. We discuss the implications of these patterns for larger scale change in gender ideology.

  11. Discrepancy between the default and financial distress measured by bankruptcy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Skerlikova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This paper analyzes the discrepancy between the year when a company’s financial problems begin to be measured by bankruptcy models and the year of its default, regardless of the solution (bankruptcy or reorganization. The sample of 50 companies (not traded on financial markets, chosen by turnover, with data available has been chosen from the list of companies which underwent bankruptcy proceedings in the period 1st January 2008 – 31st August 2013. The timing of the default has been compared to the beginning of financial distress according to the chosen models and the ability of the models to predict the default has been examined. The main objective of this study is to determine how long these not traded companies postpone filling. Our objective is to find out if the companies commence insolvency proceedings in accordance with their impaired financial situation measured by the standard formulas for predicting bankruptcy or if there is any delay. We have found out that companies defer commencement of insolvency proceedings measured by bankruptcy models at least for 2 years. Moreover we conclude that even debtors are not successful with their insolvency petition at their first attempt.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  12. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M; Frenzel, Anne C; Hall, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers' reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, "real") emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers' emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed.

  13. On the linear discrepancy model and risky shifts in group behavior: a nonlinear Fokker-Planck perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T D

    2009-01-01

    Using a nonlinear Fokker-Planck perspective we re-formulate the linear discrepancy model proposed by Boster and colleagues that describes the emergence of risky shifts during group decision making. Analytical expressions for the stationary case are derived and risky shifts are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations. Striking similarities with the Kuramoto model for group synchronization are pointed out

  14. The Glass Half Empty: How Emotional Exhaustion Affects the State-Trait Discrepancy in Self-Reports of Teaching Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Thomas; Becker, Eva S.; Bieg, Madeleine; Keller, Melanie M.; Frenzel, Anne C.; Hall, Nathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Following from previous research on intensity bias and the accessibility model of emotional self-report, the present study examined the role of emotional exhaustion in explaining the discrepancy in teachers’ reports of their trait (habitual) versus state (momentary, “real”) emotions. Trait reports (habitual emotions, exhaustion) were assessed via trait questionnaires, and state reports (momentary emotions) were assessed in real time via the experience sampling method by using personal digital assistants (N = 69 high school teachers; 1,089 measures within teachers). In line with our assumptions, multi-level analyses showed that, as compared to the state assessment, teachers reported higher levels of habitual teaching-related emotions of anger, anxiety, shame, boredom, enjoyment, and pride. Additionally, the state-trait discrepancy in self-reports of negative emotions was accounted for by teachers’ emotional exhaustion, with high exhaustion levels corresponding with a greater state-trait discrepancy. Exhaustion levels did not moderate the state-trait discrepancy in positive emotions indicating that perceived emotional exhaustion may reflect identity-related cognitions specific to the negative belief system. Implications for research and educational practice are discussed. PMID:26368911

  15. Response inconsistency of patient-reported symptoms as a predictor of discrepancy between patient and clinician reported depression severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conijn, J.M.; Emons, W.H.M.; Page, B.F.; Sijtsma, K.; van der Does, W.; Carlier, I.V.; Giltay, E.J.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which discrepancy between self-reported and clinician-rated severity of depression are due to inconsistent self-reports. Response inconsistency threatens the validity of the test score. We used data from a large sample of outpatients (N = 5,959) who

  16. Verbal--Spatial IQ Discrepancies Impact Brain Activation Associated with the Resolution of Cognitive Conflict in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Amy E.; Davis, Katie S.; Pao, Lisa S.; Lewis, Amy; Yang, Xiao; Tau, Gregory; Zhao, Guihu; Wang, Zhishun; Marsh, Rachel

    2018-01-01

    Verbal--spatial discrepancies are common in healthy individuals and in those with neurodevelopmental disorders associated with cognitive control deficits including: Autism Spectrum Disorder, Non-Verbal Learning Disability, Fragile X, 22q11 deletion, and Turner Syndrome. Previous data from healthy individuals suggest that the magnitude of the…

  17. Perspectives on quality of life of people with intellectual disabilities: the interpretation of discrepancies between clients and caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.G.C.; Schuengel, C.; Stolk, J.

    2005-01-01

    Large discrepancies have sometimes been found between the quality of life (QOL) experienced by clients with intellectual disabilities and their QOL as described by their caregivers. Olsen and Schober (Soc Indi Res 1993; 28: 173-193) may have provided a framework useful to conceptualize such

  18. Even More Brain-Powered Science: Teaching and Learning with Discrepant Events. Brain-Powered Science Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    How can water and a penny demonstrate the power of mathematics and molecular theory? Do spelling and punctuation really matter to the human brain? The third of Thomas O'Brien's books designed for 5-12 grade science teachers, "Even More Brain-Powered Science" uses the questions above and 11 other inquiry-oriented discrepant events--experiments or…

  19. Discrepancies between the school examination en central examination grades of non-Dutch students. Extent and explanations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rekers-Mombarg, L. T. M.; Harms, G. J.; van der Werf, M. P. C.

    2009-01-01

    From previous research in Dutch secondary education it is known that the central (national) examination grades are at average lower than school examination grades, and that the discrepancy between both grades is larger for students from non-Dutch origin. This study examined the individual

  20. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms : An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S. A.; Branje, S. J. T.; Hale, W. W.; Goossens, L.; Koot, H. M.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Meeus, W. H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their

  1. Discrepancies between perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship and early adolescent depressive symptoms : An illustration of polynomial regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S. A.; Branje, S. J. T.; Hale, W. W.; Goossens, L.; Koot, H. M.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their

  2. Exploration of the Raven APM-National Adult Reading Test discrepancy as a measure of intellectual decline in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, E. van den; Nys, G.M.; Brands, A.M.; Ruis, C.; Zandvoort, M.J. Van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the discrepancy between performance on "fluid" and "crystallized" intelligence measures may serve as an indicator for intellectual decline. The validity of this procedure in older persons is unknown. The present study developed a multiple regression equation, to

  3. Exploration of the Raven APM – National Adult Reading Test discrepancy as a measure of intellectual decline in older persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, E. van den; Nys, G.M.S.; Brands, A.M.A.; Ruis, C.; Zandvoort, M.J.E. van; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the discrepancy between performance on “fluid” and “crystallized” intelligence measures may serve as an indicator for intellectual decline. The validity of this procedure in older persons is unknown. The present study developed a multiple regression equation, to

  4. Local discrepancies in continental scale biomass maps: a case study over forested and non-forested landscapes in Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenli Huang; Anu Swatantran; Kristofer Johnson; Laura Duncanson; Hao Tang; Jarlath O' Neil Dunne; George Hurtt; Ralph Dubayah

    2015-01-01

    Continental-scale aboveground biomass maps are increasingly available, but their estimates vary widely, particularly at high resolution. A comprehensive understanding of map discrepancies is required to improve their effectiveness in carbon accounting and local decision-making. To this end, we compare four continental-scale maps with a recent high-resolution lidar-...

  5. The privacy paradox : Investigating discrepancies between expressed privacy concerns and actual online behavior - A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, Susanne; de Jong, Menno D.T.

    2017-01-01

    Also known as the privacy paradox, recent research on online behavior has revealed discrepancies between user attitude and their actual behavior. More specifically: While users claim to be very concerned about their privacy, they nevertheless undertake very little to protect their personal data.

  6. A Standardized Generalized Dimensionality Discrepancy Measure and a Standardized Model-Based Covariance for Dimensionality Assessment for Multidimensional Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Roy; Xu, Yuning; Yel, Nedim; Svetina, Dubravka

    2015-01-01

    The standardized generalized dimensionality discrepancy measure and the standardized model-based covariance are introduced as tools to critique dimensionality assumptions in multidimensional item response models. These tools are grounded in a covariance theory perspective and associated connections between dimensionality and local independence.…

  7. Goldberger-Treiman discrepancy and the momentum variation of the pion-nucleon form factor and pion decay constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coon, S.A.; Scadron, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    We suggest that the observed 6% Goldberger-Treiman discrepancy is due in part to a 3% variation in the pion-nucleon form factor and in part due to a 3% variation in the pion decay form factor from q 2 =m/sub π/ 2 to q 2 =0

  8. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specification C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges..., June 22, 2010, table C-1 to subpart C was revised, effective Aug. 23, 2010. For the convenience of the...

  9. Who is at risk for diagnostic discrepancies? Comparison of pre- and postmortal diagnoses in 1800 patients of 3 medical decades in East and West Berlin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wittschieber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autopsy rates in Western countries consistently decline to an average of <5%, although clinical autopsies represent a reasonable tool for quality control in hospitals, medically and economically. Comparing pre- and postmortal diagnoses, diagnostic discrepancies as uncovered by clinical autopsies supply crucial information on how to improve clinical treatment. The study aimed at analyzing current diagnostic discrepancy rates, investigating their influencing factors and identifying risk profiles of patients that could be affected by a diagnostic discrepancy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of all adult autopsy cases of the Charité Institute of Pathology from the years 1988, 1993, 1998, 2003 and 2008, the pre- and postmortal diagnoses and all demographic data were analyzed retrospectively. Based on power analysis, 1,800 cases were randomly selected to perform discrepancy classification (class I-VI according to modified Goldman criteria. The rate of discrepancies in major diagnoses (class I was 10.7% (95% CI: 7.7%-14.7% in 2008 representing a reduction by 15.1%. Subgroup analysis revealed several influencing factors to significantly correlate with the discrepancy rate. Cardiovascular diseases had the highest frequency among class-I-discrepancies. Comparing the 1988-data of East- and West-Berlin, no significant differences were found in diagnostic discrepancies despite an autopsy rate differing by nearly 50%. A risk profile analysis visualized by intuitive heatmaps revealed a significantly high discrepancy rate in patients treated in low or intermediate care units at community hospitals. In this collective, patients with genitourinary/renal or infectious diseases were at particularly high risk. CONCLUSIONS: This is the current largest and most comprehensive study on diagnostic discrepancies worldwide. Our well-powered analysis revealed a significant rate of class-I-discrepancies indicating that autopsies are still of value. The identified risk

  10. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle occupant safety in Nova Scotia--a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchar, Natalie L; Kirkland, Susan A; LeBlanc, John C; Langille, Donald B

    2012-03-01

    To determine discrepancies between knowledge and practice of childhood motor vehicle restraints (CMVRs) and vehicle seating position amongst parents within the province of Nova Scotia. Random telephone survey. The Canadian province of Nova Scotia. Four hundred and twenty-six households with at least one child under the age of 12 years, totaling 723 children. The proportion of parents whose children who should be in a specific stage of CMVR and sitting in the rear seat of the vehicle, and who demonstrate correct knowledge of that restraint system and seating position, yet do not use that restraint system/seating position for their child (demonstrate practice discrepant from their knowledge). Awareness of what restraint system to use is good (>80%). However, knowledge of when it is safe to graduate to the next stage is low (30-55%), most marked for when to use a seatbelt alone. Awareness of the importance of sitting in the rear seat of a vehicle was universal. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice were most marked with booster seats and rear-seating of older children. Factors influencing incorrect practice (prematurely graduated to a higher-level restraint system than what is appropriate for age and weight) included lower household income, caregiver education level, and knowledge of when to graduate from forward-facing car seats and booster seats. Incorrect practice was also more commonly observed amongst children of weight and/or age approaching (but not yet reaching) recommended graduation parameters of the appropriate CMVR. Discrepancies between knowledge and practice are evident through all stages of CMVRs, but most marked with booster seats. The roles of lower socioeconomic status and gaps in CMVR legislation, in influencing discrepant practice, must be acknowledged and suggest the need for targeted education concurrent with development of comprehensive all-stages CMVR policies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Typing discrepancy between phenotypic and molecular characterization revealing an emerging biovar 9 variant of smooth phage-resistant B. abortus strain 8416 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaoXia eKang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A newly isolated smooth colony morphology phage-resistant (SPR strain 8416 isolated from a 45-year-old cattle farm cleaner with clinical features of brucellosis in China was reported. The most unusual phenotype was its resistance to two Brucella phages Tbilisi and Weybridge, but sensitive to Berkeley 2, a pattern similar to that of B. melitensis biovar 1. VITEK 2 biochemical identification system found that both strain 8416 and B. melitensis strains shared positive ILATk, but negative in other B. abortus strains. However, routine biochemical and phenotypic characteristics of strain 8416 were most similar to that of B. abortus biovar 9 except CO2 requirement. In addition, multiple PCR molecular typing assays including AMOS-PCR, B. abortus special PCR (B-ab PCR and a novel sub-biovar typing PCR, indicated that strain 8416 may belong to either biovar 3b or 9 of B. abortus. Surprisingly, further MLVA typing results showed that strain 8416 was most closely related to B. abortus biovar 3 in the Brucella MLVA database, primarily differing in 4 out of 16 screened loci. Therefore, due to the unusual discrepancy between phenotypic (biochemical reactions and particular phage lysis profile and molecular typing characteristics, strain 8416 couldn’t be exactly classified to any of the existing B. abortus biovars and might be a new variant of B. abortus biovar 9. The present study also indicates that the present phage typing scheme for Brucella spp. is subject to variation and the routine Brucella biovar typing needs further studies.

  13. Theoretical vs. actual energy consumption of labelled dwellings in the Netherlands: Discrepancies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, D.; Itard, L.C.M.; Visscher, H.

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) provides for compulsory energy performance certification (labelling) for all existing dwellings. In the Netherlands, a labelling scheme was introduced in 2008. Certificates contain the energy label of the dwelling and corresponding theoretical gas and electricity consumption, calculated based on the dwellings physical characteristics, its heating, ventilation and cooling systems and standard use characteristics. This paper reports on a large-scale study of around 200,000 dwellings comparing labels and theoretical energy use with data on actual energy use. The study shows that dwellings with a low energy label actually consume much less energy than predicted by the label, but on the other hand, energy-efficient dwellings consume more than predicted. In practice, policy targets are set according to the theoretical rather than the actual consumptions of the building stock. In line with identified discrepancies, the study shows that whereas most energy reduction targets can be met according to the theoretical energy consumption of the dwelling stock, the future actual energy reduction potential is much lower and fails to meet most of the current energy reduction targets. - Highlights: ► Actual gas consumption in Dutch dwellings is lower than the theoretical. ► In the dwellings with label A–B, theoretical gas consumption is lower than actual gas consumption. ► In less efficient dwellings, theoretical gas consumption is much higher than the actual. ► Most current energy reduction targets are unachievable if modelled with actual instead of theoretical energy consumption

  14. Increased delta power and discrepancies in objective and subjective sleep measurements in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Feige, Bernd; Al-Shajlawi, Anam; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Richter, Harald; Voderholzer, Ulrich; Lieb, Klaus; Riemann, Dieter

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies have shown depression-like sleep abnormalities in borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, findings in BPD are not unequivocal for REM dysregulation, as well as for a decrement of slow wave sleep and sleep continuity disturbances. Earlier findings in sleep EEG abnormalities in BPD may have been confounded by concomitant depressive symptoms. Twenty unmedicated female BPD patients without current comorbid major depression and 20 sex- and age-matched control subjects entered the study. Conventional polysomnographic parameters and for the first time sleep EEG spectral power analysis was performed on two sleep laboratory nights. Subjective sleep parameters were collected by sleep questionnaires in order to assess the relationship between objective and subjective sleep measurements. BPD patients showed a tendency for shortened REM latency and significantly decreased NonREM sleep (stage 2). Spectral EEG analysis showed increased delta power in total NREM sleep as well as in REM sleep in BPD patients. Subjective ratings documented drastically impaired sleep quality in BPD patients for the two weeks before the study and during the two laboratory nights. Not-depressed BPD patients only showed tendencies for depression-like REM sleep abnormalities. Surprisingly, BPD patients displayed higher levels of delta power in the sleep EEG in NREM sleep than healthy control subjects. There was a marked discrepancy between objective and subjective sleep measurements, which indicates an altered perception of sleep in BPD. The underlying psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of these alterations are still unclear and need to be clarified in future studies including interventions on a pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral level.

  15. Discrepancy between haemagglutination and radioimmunological techniques for measurement of serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, U; Perrild, H; Bech, K; Bliddal, H; Date, J; Hoeier Madsen, M; Nordfang, O; Ryder, L P; Thomsen, M; Kappelgaard, E [Dept. of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Herlev University Hospital, Dept. of Medicine E, Frederiksberg Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Odense University Hospital, Autoimmune Lab., Serum Institute, Tissue Typing Laboratory and Medical Dept. TA, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark

    1983-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that in some patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases the tanned red cell (TRC) method for detection of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) is negative where TgAb measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) show positive values. To investigate this further, patients with thyroid diseaes, pernicious anaemia and a control group were studied for serum concentrations of TgAb by TRC and by quantitative RIA, calibrated against MRC Standard A65/93. Antibodies for microsomes (MAb) were measured immunofluoretically. There was in all patient groups Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n=41), Graves' disease (n=50), Idiopathic myxoedemia (n=12), euthyroid Graves' disease (n=7), pernicious anaemia (n=81) a discrepancy between TgAb measured by TRC and RIA, respectively, whereas there was a reasonable correlation between the presence of TgAb by RIA and the presence of MAb. A possible interference from antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factors was ruled out. There was no increased frequency of TgAb measured by RIA in the control group. Fractionation of TRC negative sera revealed macromolecular TRC-activity, whereas TgAb positive sera by both methods had almost exclusively RIA and TRC activiy corresponding to TgG. Based on these results and others it seems that the TRC method for measurement of serum TgAb is of limited diagnostic value. Furthermore, the TRC method is in many cases not sensitive for screening fo TgAb prior to measurement of serum Tg which is of importance as this method shows false values in the presence of TgAb due to methodologial interference.

  16. Decoupling of size and shape fluctuations in heteropolymeric sequences reconciles discrepancies in SAXS vs. FRET measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Gustavo; Banterle, Niccolò; Ruff, Kiersten M; Chowdhury, Aritra; Mercadante, Davide; Koehler, Christine; Kachala, Michael; Estrada Girona, Gemma; Milles, Sigrid; Mishra, Ankur; Onck, Patrick R; Gräter, Frauke; Esteban-Martín, Santiago; Pappu, Rohit V; Svergun, Dmitri I; Lemke, Edward A

    2017-08-01

    Unfolded states of proteins and native states of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) populate heterogeneous conformational ensembles in solution. The average sizes of these heterogeneous systems, quantified by the radius of gyration ( R G ), can be measured by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Another parameter, the mean dye-to-dye distance ( R E ) for proteins with fluorescently labeled termini, can be estimated using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (smFRET). A number of studies have reported inconsistencies in inferences drawn from the two sets of measurements for the dimensions of unfolded proteins and IDPs in the absence of chemical denaturants. These differences are typically attributed to the influence of fluorescent labels used in smFRET and to the impact of high concentrations and averaging features of SAXS. By measuring the dimensions of a collection of labeled and unlabeled polypeptides using smFRET and SAXS, we directly assessed the contributions of dyes to the experimental values R G and R E For chemically denatured proteins we obtain mutual consistency in our inferences based on R G and R E , whereas for IDPs under native conditions, we find substantial deviations. Using computations, we show that discrepant inferences are neither due to methodological shortcomings of specific measurements nor due to artifacts of dyes. Instead, our analysis suggests that chemical heterogeneity in heteropolymeric systems leads to a decoupling between R E and R G that is amplified in the absence of denaturants. Therefore, joint assessments of R G and R E combined with measurements of polymer shapes should provide a consistent and complete picture of the underlying ensembles.

  17. Dose discrepancies in the buildup region and their impact on dose calculations for IMRT fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Shu-Hui; Moran, Jean M.; Chen Yu; Kulasekere, Ravi; Roberson, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Dose accuracy in the buildup region for radiotherapy treatment planning suffers from challenges in both measurement and calculation. This study investigates the dosimetry in the buildup region at normal and oblique incidences for open and IMRT fields and assesses the quality of the treatment planning calculations. Methods: This study was divided into three parts. First, percent depth doses and profiles (for 5x5, 10x10, 20x20, and 30x30 cm 2 field sizes at 0 deg., 45 deg., and 70 deg. incidences) were measured in the buildup region in Solid Water using an Attix parallel plate chamber and Kodak XV film, respectively. Second, the parameters in the empirical contamination (EC) term of the convolution/superposition (CVSP) calculation algorithm were fitted based on open field measurements. Finally, seven segmental head-and-neck IMRT fields were measured on a flat phantom geometry and compared to calculations using γ and dose-gradient compensation (C) indices to evaluate the impact of residual discrepancies and to assess the adequacy of the contamination term for IMRT fields. Results: Local deviations between measurements and calculations for open fields were within 1% and 4% in the buildup region for normal and oblique incidences, respectively. The C index with 5%/1 mm criteria for IMRT fields ranged from 89% to 99% and from 96% to 98% at 2 mm and 10 cm depths, respectively. The quality of agreement in the buildup region for open and IMRT fields is comparable to that in nonbuildup regions. Conclusions: The added EC term in CVSP was determined to be adequate for both open and IMRT fields. Due to the dependence of calculation accuracy on (1) EC modeling, (2) internal convolution and density grid sizes, (3) implementation details in the algorithm, and (4) the accuracy of measurements used for treatment planning system commissioning, the authors recommend an evaluation of the accuracy of near-surface dose calculations as a part of treatment planning commissioning.

  18. FABP4 dynamics in obesity: discrepancies in adipose tissue and liver expression regarding circulating plasma levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Queipo-Ortuño

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: FABP4 is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, and its circulating levels are linked with obesity and a poor atherogenic profile. OBJECTIVE: In patients with a wide BMI range, we analyze FABP4 expression in adipose and hepatic tissues in the settings of obesity and insulin resistance. Associations between FABP4 expression in adipose tissue and the FABP4 plasma level as well as the main adipogenic and lipolytic genes expressed in adipose tissue were also analyzed. METHODS: The expression of several lipogenic, lipolytic, PPAR family and FABP family genes was analyzed by real time PCR. FABP4 protein expression in total adipose tissues and its fractions were determined by western blot. RESULTS: In obesity FABP4 expression was down-regulated (at both mRNA and protein levels, with its levels mainly predicted by ATGL and inversely by the HOMA-IR index. The BMI appeared as the only determinant of the FABP4 variation in both adipose tissue depots. FABP4 plasma levels showed a significant progressive increase according to BMI but no association was detected between FABP4 circulating levels and SAT or VAT FABP4 gene expression. The gene expression of FABP1, FABP4 and FABP5 in hepatic tissue was significantly higher in tissue from the obese IR patients compared to the non-IR group. CONCLUSION: The inverse pattern in FABP4 expression between adipose and hepatic tissue observed in morbid obese patients, regarding the IR context, suggests that both tissues may act in a balanced manner. These differences may help us to understand the discrepancies between circulating plasma levels and adipose tissue expression in obesity.

  19. Computer Aided Theragnosis Using Quantitative Ultrasound Spectroscopy and Maximum Mean Discrepancy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangeh, Mehrdad J; Tadayyon, Hadi; Sannachi, Lakshmanan; Sadeghi-Naini, Ali; Tran, William T; Czarnota, Gregory J

    2016-03-01

    A noninvasive computer-aided-theragnosis (CAT) system was developed for the early therapeutic cancer response assessment in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The proposed CAT system was based on multi-parametric quantitative ultrasound (QUS) spectroscopic methods in conjunction with advanced machine learning techniques. Specifically, a kernel-based metric named maximum mean discrepancy (MMD), a technique for learning from imbalanced data based on random undersampling, and supervised learning were investigated with response-monitoring data from LABC patients. The CAT system was tested on 56 patients using statistical significance tests and leave-one-subject-out classification techniques. Textural features using state-of-the-art local binary patterns (LBP), and gray-scale intensity features were extracted from the spectral parametric maps in the proposed CAT system. The system indicated significant differences in changes between the responding and non-responding patient populations as well as high accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity in discriminating between the two patient groups early after the start of treatment, i.e., on weeks 1 and 4 of several months of treatment. The proposed CAT system achieved an accuracy of 85%, 87%, and 90% on weeks 1, 4 and 8, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of developed CAT system for the same times was 85%, 95%, 90% and 85%, 85%, 91%, respectively. The proposed CAT system thus establishes a noninvasive framework for monitoring cancer treatment response in tumors using clinical ultrasound imaging in conjunction with machine learning techniques. Such a framework can potentially facilitate the detection of refractory responses in patients to treatment early on during a course of therapy to enable possibly switching to more efficacious treatments.

  20. Diabetes Educators' Intended and Reported Use of Common Diabetes-Related Technologies: Discrepancies and Dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Steven; Perry, Lin; Gallagher, Robyn; Lowe, Julia

    2016-11-01

    Technology provides adjuvant and/or alternative approaches to care and may promote self-care, communication, and engagement with health care services. Common recent technologies for diabetes include continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions (insulin pumps), continuous glucose monitoring systems, smartphone and tablet applications, and telehealth (video conferencing). This study reports Australian diabetes educators' intentions and reported professional use of these technologies for people with type 1 diabetes, and factors predictive of this. An anonymous, web-based questionnaire based on the technology acceptance model was distributed to members of the Australian Diabetes Educators Association through their electronic newsletter. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 5-factor solution comprising confidence and competence, improving clinical practice, preparation (intentions and training), ease of use, and subjective norms. Logistic regression analyses identified factors predicting intention and use of technology. Respondents (n = 228) had high intentions to use technology. The majority reported using continuous subcutaneous insulin infusions, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and applications with patients, but usage was occasional. Confidence and competence independently predicted both intentions and use of all 4 technologies. Preparation (intentions and training) independently predicted use of each technology also. Discrepancies and dissonance appear between diabetes educators' intentions and behavior (intentions to use and reported technology use). Intentions were higher than current use, which was relatively low and not likely to provide significant support to people with type 1 diabetes for disease management, communication, and engagement with health care services. Continuing education and experiential learning may be key in supporting diabetes educators to align their intentions with their practice. © 2016 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Emergence of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation from dark matter-baryon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famaey, Benoit; Khoury, Justin; Penco, Riccardo

    2018-03-01

    The observed tightness of the mass discrepancy-acceleration relation (MDAR) poses a fine-tuning challenge to current models of galaxy formation. We propose that this relation could arise from collisional interactions between baryons and dark matter (DM) particles, without the need for modification of gravity or ad hoc feedback processes. We assume that these interactions satisfy the following three conditions: (i) the relaxation time of DM particles is comparable to the dynamical time in disk galaxies; (ii) DM exchanges energy with baryons due to elastic collisions; (iii) the product between the baryon-DM cross section and the typical energy exchanged in a collision is inversely proportional to the DM number density. As a proof of principle, we present an example of a particle physics model that gives a DM-baryon cross section with the desired density and velocity dependence. For consistency with direct detection constraints, our DM particles must be either very light (m ll mb) or very heavy (mgg mb), corresponding respectively to heating and cooling of DM by baryons. In both cases, our mechanism applies and an equilibrium configuration can in principle be reached. In this exploratory paper, we focus on the heavy DM/cooling case because it is technically simpler, since the average energy exchanged turns out to be approximately constant throughout galaxies. Under these assumptions, we find that rotationally-supported disk galaxies could naturally settle to equilibrium configurations satisfying a MDAR at all radii without invoking finely tuned feedback processes. We also discuss issues related to the small scale clumpiness of baryons, as well as predictions for pressure-supported systems. We argue in particular that galaxy clusters do not follow the MDAR despite being DM-dominated because they have not reached their equilibrium configuration. Finally, we revisit existing phenomenological, astrophysical and cosmological constraints on baryon-DM interactions in light

  2. Discrepancy between haemagglutination and radioimmunological techniques for measurement of serum thyroglobulin autoantibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, U.; Perrild, H.; Bech, K.; Bliddal, H.; Date, J.; Hoeier Madsen, M.; Nordfang, O.; Ryder, L.P.; Thomsen, M.; Kappelgaard, E. (Dept. of Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, Herlev University Hospital, Dept. of Medicine E, Frederiksberg Hospital, Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Odense University Hospital, Autoimmune Lab., Serum Institute, Tissue Typing Laboratory and Medical Dept. TA, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    1983-01-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that in some patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases the tanned red cell (TRC) method for detection of thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) is negative where TgAb measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) show positive values. To investigate this further, patients with thyroid diseaes, pernicious anaemia and a control group were studied for serum concentrations of TgAb by TRC and by quantitative RIA, calibrated against MRC Standard A65/93. Antibodies for microsomes (MAb) were measured immunofluoretically. There was in all patient groups Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n=41), Graves' disease (n=50), Idiopathic myxoedemia (n=12), euthyroid Graves' disease (n=7), pernicious anaemia (n=81) a discrepancy between TgAb measured by TRC and RIA, respectively, whereas there was a reasonable correlation between the presence of TgAb by RIA and the presence of MAb. A possible interference from antinuclear antibodies and rheumatoid factors was ruled out. There was no increased frequency of TgAb measured by RIA in the control group. Fractionation of TRC negative sera revealed macromolecular TRC-activity, whereas TgAb positive sera by both methods had almost exclusively RIA and TRC activiy corresponding to TgG. Based on these results and others it seems that the TRC method for measurement of serum TgAb is of limited diagnostic value. Furthermore, the TRC method is in many cases not sensitive for screening fo TgAb prior to measurement of serum Tg which is of importance as this method shows false values in the presence of TgAb due to methodologial interference.

  3. The discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanta, Ivan; Lesinger, Gordana

    2014-03-01

    Key place in this paper takes the study of political speech in the Republic of Croatia and their impact on voters, or which keywords are in political speeches and public appearances of politicians in Croatia that their voting body wants to hear. Given listed below we will define the research topic in the form of a question - is there a discrepancy in the perception of the public-political speech in Croatia, and which keywords are specific to the two main regions in Croatia and that inhabitant these regions respond. Marcus Tullius Cicero, the most important Roman orator, he used a specific associative mnemonic technique that is called "technique room". He would talk expound on keywords and conceptual terms that he needed for the desired topic and join in these make them, according to the desired order, in a very creative and unique way, the premises of the house or palace, which he knew well. Then, while holding the speech intended to pass through rooms of the house or palace and then put keywords and concepts come to mind, again according to the desired order. Given that this is a specific kind of research political speech that is relatively recent in Croatia, it should be noted that there is still, this kind of political communication is not sufficiently explored. Particularly the emphasis on the impact and use of keywords specific to the Republic of Croatia, in everyday public and political communication. The paper will be analyzed the political, campaign speeches and promises several winning candidates, and now Croatian MEPs, specific keywords related to: economics, culture, science, education and health. The analysis is based on comparison of the survey results on the representation of key words in the speeches of politicians and qualitative analysis of the speeches of politicians on key words during the election campaign.

  4. Optimum Shock Isolation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolotnik, Nikolai

    2001-01-01

    .... Several types of performance criteria for isolation are considered, the most important of which are the peak force transmitted to the body to be isolated and the maximum displacement of the body relative to the base...

  5. Isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonbergen, J.P.W. van; Poolman, R.W.; Kampen, A. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The optimal treatment for isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis is unclear at present. We systematically reviewed the highest level of available evidence on the nonoperative and operative treatment of isolated patellofemoral osteoarthritis to develop an evidenced-based

  6. Discrepância e acordo entre informadores na avaliação da ansiedade em crianças em idade escolar : discrepância e acordo mãe criança

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Patrícia Isabel Simões

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado, Psicologia (Secção de Psicologia Clínica e da Saúde - Núcleo de Psicologia Clínica da Saúde e da Doença), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Psicologia, 2011 As Perturbações de Ansiedade têm uma elevada prevalência na infância e na adolescência. Na sua avaliação são verificadas discrepâncias na informação recolhida aos vários informadores. Este trabalho teve por objectivo o estudo da discrepância e acordo mãe-criança na avaliação da ansiedade nas crianças atrav...

  7. Two-Player Partnered Exergame for Obesity Prevention: Using Discrepancy in Players’ Abilities as a Strategy to Motivate Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L.; Irwin, Brandon; Kerr, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A key obstacle to physical activity is lack of motivation. Although some interactive exercise games (i.e., exergames—video games that require physical exertion in order to play) motivate players to exercise more, few games take advantage of group dynamics to motivate players’ duration of exercise. In a test of the Köhler motivation gain effect, this study varied the ability level of a virtually presented partner in an interactive exergame that focused on abdominal strength to identify effects on a subject’s (S’) persistence with the task. Method Male (n = 63) and female (n = 72) undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (individual control or low-, moderate-, or high- partner discrepancy) in a conditions × gender factorial design and tested on a series of isometric abdominal exercises using PlayStation 2 EyeToy: Kinetic software. They performed the first series of five exercises alone (trial block 1), and after a rest period, those in the partner conditions performed remaining trials (trial block 2) with a same-sex virtually presented partner whom they could observe during their performance, while those in the individual control condition performed the remaining trials alone. In the partner conditions, the partner’s performance was manipulated to be always better than the S’s, the exact difference depending on the discrepancy condition. The partnered tasks were conjunctive; that is, success in the game depended on the performance of the weaker team member. Persistence, the outcome measure for this study, consisted of the total number of seconds the S held the exercise position. Results Using planned orthogonal contrasts on difference scores between blocks 1 and 2, results showed that persistence was significantly (p < .001) greater in all experimental conditions with a virtually presented partner (M = 33.59 s) than in the individual control

  8. Two-player partnered exergame for obesity prevention: using discrepancy in players' abilities as a strategy to motivate physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L; Irwin, Brandon; Kerr, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    Physical inactivity is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A key obstacle to physical activity is lack of motivation. Although some interactive exercise games (i.e., exergames--video games that require physical exertion in order to play) motivate players to exercise more, few games take advantage of group dynamics to motivate players' duration of exercise. In a test of the Köhler motivation gain effect, this study varied the ability level of a virtually presented partner in an interactive exergame that focused on abdominal strength to identify effects on a subject's (S') persistence with the task. Male (n = 63) and female (n = 72) undergraduate students were randomly assigned to one of four conditions (individual control or low-, moderate-, or high- partner discrepancy) in a conditions × gender factorial design and tested on a series of isometric abdominal exercises using PlayStation 2 EyeToy: Kinetic software. They performed the first series of five exercises alone (trial block 1), and after a rest period, those in the partner conditions performed remaining trials (trial block 2) with a same-sex virtually presented partner whom they could observe during their performance, while those in the individual control condition performed the remaining trials alone. In the partner conditions, the partner's performance was manipulated to be always better than the S's, the exact difference depending on the discrepancy condition. The partnered tasks were conjunctive; that is, success in the game depended on the performance of the weaker team member. Persistence, the outcome measure for this study, consisted of the total number of seconds the S held the exercise position. Using planned orthogonal contrasts on difference scores between blocks 1 and 2, results showed that persistence was significantly (p < .001) greater in all experimental conditions with a virtually presented partner (M = 33.59 s) than in the individual control condition (M = -49.04 s). Subjects

  9. Apresentação de um programa de computador para calcular a discrepância de tamanho dentário de Bolton Presentation of a computer program to calculate the Bolton’s tooth size discrepancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Francisco de Lucca Facholli

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O diagnóstico da discrepância de tamanho dentário de Bolton é de fundamental importância para a boa finalização do tratamento ortodôntico. Por meio da medição dos dentes, com o auxílio de um paquímetro digital e a inserção dos valores no programa de computador desenvolvido e apresentado pelos autores, o trabalho do ortodontista fica mais simples, pois não é necessário realizar nenhum cálculo matemático ou auxiliar-se de nenhuma tabela de valores, eliminando-se a probabilidade de erros. Além disso, o programa apresenta a localização da discrepância por segmento - total, anterior e posterior - e individual - por elemento dentário, permitindo assim maior precisão na planificação das estratégias para a resolução dos problemas, caminhando para um tratamento ortodôntico de sucesso.The diagnosis of the Bolton’s Tooth Size Discrepancy is of fundamental importance for the good orthodontics finalization. Through the measurement of the teeth with the aid of a digital caliper and the insert of the values in the computer program developed by the authors and which that it will be presented in this article, the orthodontist’s work is simpler, because it is not necessary to accomplish any mathematical calculation or to aid of any table of values, eliminating the probability of mistakes. Besides, the program presents the location of the discrepancy for segment - overall, anterior and posterior - and individual - for dental element, allowing larger precision in the planning of the strategies for the resolution of the problems and walking for a success orthodontic treatment.

  10. Isolation of Triterpenoid Glycoside from Bark of Terminalia arjuna using Chromatographic Technique and Investigation of Pharmacological Behavior upon Muscle Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Patnaik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the isolation and characterization of a new triterpenoid glycoside extracted from the bark of Terminalia arjuna. The isolation of the organic compounds was done using simple chromatographic technique. Compound characterization using various spectroscopic technique identify the final isolated compound as Olean-3β,22β-diol-12-en-28β-D-glucopyranoside-oic acid. The method of isolation is simple, cost effective and efficient. The preliminary bioactivity of the compound was also evaluated.

  11. Spectroscopic and physical parameters of Galactic O-type stars. III. Mass discrepancy and rotational mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, N.; Puls, J.; Langer, N.

    2018-05-01

    induced mixing as the most likely explanation. However, none of the considered models can match the observed trends correctly, especially in the high mass regime. Conclusions: We confirm mass discrepancy for objects in the low mass O-star regime. We conclude that the rotationally induced mixing of helium to the stellar surface is too strong in some of the models. We also suggest that present inadequacies of the models to represent the N enrichment in more massive stars with relatively slow rotation might be related (among other issues) to problematic efficiencies of rotational mixing. We are left with a picture in which invoking binarity and magnetic fields is required to achieve a more complete agreement of the observed surface properties of a population of massive main-sequence stars with corresponding evolutionary models.

  12. Discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood during experimental endotoxemia in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse R Ostrowski

    Full Text Available Sepsis induces early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis followed by late fibrinolytic shutdown and progressive endothelial damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the functional hemostatic response in whole blood and plasma during experimental human endotoxemia by the platelet function analyzer, Multiplate and by standard and modified thrombelastography (TEG.Prospective physiologic study of nine healthy male volunteers undergoing endotoxemia by means of a 4-hour infusion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 ng/kg/hour, with blood sampled at baseline and at 4 h and 6 h. Physiological and standard biochemical data and coagulation tests, TEG (whole blood: TEG, heparinase-TEG, Functional Fibrinogen; plasma: TEG±tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA and Multiplate (TRAPtest, ADPtest, ASPItest, COLtest were recorded. Mixed models with Tukey post hoc tests and correlations were applied.Endotoxemia induced acute SIRS with increased HR, temperature, WBC, CRP and procalcitonin and decreased blood pressure. It also induced a hemostatic response with platelet consumption and reduced APTT while INR increased (all p<0.05. Platelet aggregation decreased (all tests, p<0.05, whereas TEG whole blood clot firmness increased (G, p = 0.05. Furthermore, during endotoxemia (4 h, whole blood fibrinolysis increased (clot lysis time (CLT, p<0.001 and Functional Fibrinogen clot strength decreased (p = 0.049. After endotoxemia (6 h, whole blood fibrinolysis was reduced (CLT, p<0.05. In contrast to findings in whole blood, the plasma fibrin clot became progressively more resistant towards tPA-induced fibrinolysis at both 4 h and 6 h (p<0.001.Endotoxemia induced a hemostatic response with reduced primary but enhanced secondary hemostasis, enhanced early fibrinolysis and fibrinogen consumption followed by downregulation of fibrinolysis, with a discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood. The finding that blood cells are

  13. Comparative analyses reveal discrepancies among results of commonly used methods for Anopheles gambiaemolecular form identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinto João

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles gambiae M and S molecular forms, the major malaria vectors in the Afro-tropical region, are ongoing a process of ecological diversification and adaptive lineage splitting, which is affecting malaria transmission and vector control strategies in West Africa. These two incipient species are defined on the basis of single nucleotide differences in the IGS and ITS regions of multicopy rDNA located on the X-chromosome. A number of PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches based on form-specific SNPs in the IGS region are used for M and S identification. Moreover, a PCR-method to detect the M-specific insertion of a short interspersed transposable element (SINE200 has recently been introduced as an alternative identification approach. However, a large-scale comparative analysis of four widely used PCR or PCR-RFLP genotyping methods for M and S identification was never carried out to evaluate whether they could be used interchangeably, as commonly assumed. Results The genotyping of more than 400 A. gambiae specimens from nine African countries, and the sequencing of the IGS-amplicon of 115 of them, highlighted discrepancies among results obtained by the different approaches due to different kinds of biases, which may result in an overestimation of MS putative hybrids, as follows: i incorrect match of M and S specific primers used in the allele specific-PCR approach; ii presence of polymorphisms in the recognition sequence of restriction enzymes used in the PCR-RFLP approaches; iii incomplete cleavage during the restriction reactions; iv presence of different copy numbers of M and S-specific IGS-arrays in single individuals in areas of secondary contact between the two forms. Conclusions The results reveal that the PCR and PCR-RFLP approaches most commonly utilized to identify A. gambiae M and S forms are not fully interchangeable as usually assumed, and highlight limits of the actual definition of the two molecular forms, which might

  14. Discrepancy between severity of lung impairment and seniority on the lung transplantation list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaline, J M; Cordova, F C; Furukawa, S; Criner, G J

    2004-12-01

    severity, and the discrepancy between disease severity and seniority on the lung waiting list may compromise overall outcomes in the lung transplantation population.

  15. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity

  16. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  17. The association between automatic thoughts about eating, the actual-ideal weight discrepancies, and eating disorders symptoms: a longitudinal study in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarychta, Karolina; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Scholz, Urte

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the reciprocal relationships between automatic thoughts about eating and the actual-ideal weight discrepancies, and their role in the formation and maintenance of eating disorders (ED) symptoms in a non-clinical sample of adolescents. In particular, we investigated whether thoughts about eating mediated the effects of weight discrepancies on ED formation and whether weight discrepancies mediated the effects of thoughts about eating on ED formation were investigated. Data were collected three times, with a 2-month interval between Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2), and a 9-month interval between T2 and Time 3 (T3). Adolescents (N = 55) aged 15-18 filled out the SCOFF Questionnaire, assessing eating disorders symptoms, and the Eating Disorder Thoughts Questionnaire, evaluating automatic thoughts. To assess weight discrepancies questions about actual (subjectively reported) and ideal body weight were asked followed by objective measurement of height and weight. Negative thoughts about eating (T2) mediated the relation between weight discrepancies (T1) and symptoms of anorexia and bulimia (T3). In addition, the association between negative thoughts (T1) and eating disorders symptoms (T3) was mediated by weight discrepancies (T2). The negative thoughts and the actual (both subjectively reported and objectively measured)-ideal weight discrepancies constitute a vicious cycle, related to higher ED symptoms. Prevention of eating disorders should be directed to adolescents who manifest large weight discrepancies or high levels of negative thoughts about eating, as they are at risk for developing eating disorder symptoms.

  18. Discrepancies Between Youth and Mothers' Perceptions of Their Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Self-Disclosure: Implications for Youth- and Mother-Reported Youth Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidler, Esther B.; Swenson, Lance P.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, researchers have devoted greater attention to understanding how disagreement between mothers and their children regarding parent-child relationship quality and functioning impacts youth adjustment. While some view discrepancies as indices of developmentally appropriate individuation, discrepancies regarding family functioning also have…

  19. Report to the 238U discrepancy task force on SIOB fits to the ORNL, CBNM, and JAERI transmission data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.K.

    1984-05-01

    The computer code SIOB has been used to obtain least-squares simultaneous-sample shape fits to the recent 238 U transmission data of ORNL, CBNM, and JAERI over the energy regions 1460 to 1820 eV, 2470 to 2740 eV, and 3820 to 4000 eV. The fits indicate that much of the systematic discrepancy in the published neutron widths from these data arose in the data analysis procedure. Except for the 3820- to 4000-eV JAERI data, the systematic differences in the resulting neutron widths from the present widths are larger than those contained in any existing evaluation. These fits were performed as part of the work for the NEANDC ad hoc 238 U Discrepancy Task Force. 20 references

  20. Noise properties of CT images reconstructed by use of constrained total-variation, data-discrepancy minimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Sean; Andersen, Martin S.; Sidky, Emil Y.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors develop and investigate iterative image reconstruction algorithms based on data-discrepancy minimization with a total-variation (TV) constraint. The various algorithms are derived with different data-discrepancy measures reflecting the maximum likelihood (ML) principle......: An incremental algorithm framework is developed for this purpose. The instances of the incremental algorithms are derived for solving optimization problems including a data fidelity objective function combined with a constraint on the image TV. For the data fidelity term the authors, compare application....... Simulations demonstrate the iterative algorithms and the resulting image statistical properties for low-dose CT data acquired with sparse projection view angle sampling. Of particular interest is to quantify improvement of image statistical properties by use of the ML data fidelity term. Methods...

  1. Discrepancies in sample size calculations and data analyses reported in randomised trials: comparison of publications with protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, A.W.; Hrobjartsson, A.; Jorgensen, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how often sample size calculations and methods of statistical analysis are pre-specified or changed in randomised trials. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Data source Protocols and journal publications of published randomised parallel group trials initially approved...... in 1994-5 by the scientific-ethics committees for Copenhagen and Frederiksberg, Denmark (n=70). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of protocols and publications that did not provide key information about sample size calculations and statistical methods; proportion of trials with discrepancies between...... of handling missing data was described in 16 protocols and 49 publications. 39/49 protocols and 42/43 publications reported the statistical test used to analyse primary outcome measures. Unacknowledged discrepancies between protocols and publications were found for sample size calculations (18/34 trials...

  2. Body image and personality: associations between the Big Five Personality Factors, actual-ideal weight discrepancy, and body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Tran, Ulrich S; Brooks, Louise Hoffmann; Kanaan, Laura; Luesse, Ellen-Marlene; Nader, Ingo W; Pietschnig, Jakob; Stieger, Stefan; Voracek, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Studies have suggested associations between personality dimensions and body image constructs, but these have not been conclusively established. In two studies, we examined direct associations between the Big Five dimensions and two body image constructs, actual-ideal weight discrepancy and body appreciation. In Study 1, 950 women completed measures of both body image constructs and a brief measure of the Big Five dimensions. In Study 2,339 women completed measures of the body image constructs and a more reliable measure of the Big Five. Both studies showed that Neuroticism was significantly associated with actual-ideal weight discrepancy (positively) and body appreciation (negatively) once the effects of body mass index and social status had been accounted for. These results are consistent with the suggestion that Neuroticism is a trait of public health significance requiring attention by body image scholars. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  3. IQ discrepancy differentiates levels of fine motor skills and their relationship in children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TY

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Ying Yu,1 Willy Chou,2,3 Julie Chi Chow,4 Chien-Ho Lin,5 Li-Chen Tung,2,6 Kuan-Lin Chen7,8 1Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chi-Mei Medical Center, 3Department of Recreation and Health Care Management, Cha Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 4Department of Pediatrics, 5Department of Psychiatry, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, 6Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Da Chien General Hospital, Miaoli, 7Department of Occupational Therapy, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 8Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan Purpose: We investigated 1 the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; 2 the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. Methods: A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81, discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points], and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points]. Children’s IQD and motor skills were determined with the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence™ – Fourth Edition and the motor subtests of the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Toddlers (CDIIT, respectively. Results: One-way analysis of variance revealed significant group differences for the fine motor domain of the CDIIT and the visual–motor coordination subtest (F=3.37–4.38, p<0.05. Children with discrepantly higher PIQ were associated with better fine motor skills than were children with even IQD and those with discrepantly higher VIQ, and vice versa. IQD (PIQ

  4. Preliminary observations of gate valve flow interruption tests, Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary observations from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Flexible Wedge Gate Valve Qualification and Flow Interruption Test Program, Phase 2. The program investigated the ability of selected boiling water reactor (BWR) process line valves to perform their containment isolation function at high energy pipe break conditions and other more normal flow conditions. The fluid and valve operating responses were measured to provide information concerning valve and operator performance at various valve loadings so that the information could be used to assess typical nuclear industry motor operator sizing equations. Six valves were tested, three 6-in. isolation valves representative of those used in reactor water cleanup systems in BWRs and three 10-in. isolation valves representative of those used in BWR high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) steam lines. The concern with these normally open isolation valves is whether they will close in the event of a downstream pipe break outside of containment. The results of this testing will provide part of the technical insights for NRC efforts regarding Generic Issue 87 (GI-87), Failure of the HPCI Steam Line Without Isolation, which includes concerns about the uncertainties in gate valve motor operator sizing and torque switch settings for these BWR containment isolation valves. As of this writing, the Phase 2 test program has just been completed. Preliminary observations made in the field confirmed most of the results from the Phase 1 test program. All six valves closing in high energy water, high energy steam, and high pressure cold water require more force to close than would be calculated using the typical variables in the standard industry motor operator sizing equations

  5. Emergency CT brain: preliminary interpretation with a tablet device: image quality and diagnostic performance of the Apple iPad.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Laughlin, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Tablet devices have recently been used in radiological image interpretation because they have a display resolution comparable to desktop LCD monitors. We identified a need to examine tablet display performance prior to their use in preliminary interpretation of radiological images. We compared the spatial and contrast resolution of a commercially available tablet display with a diagnostic grade 2 megapixel monochrome LCD using a contrast detail phantom. We also recorded reporting discrepancies, using the ACR RADPEER system, between preliminary interpretation of 100 emergency CT brain examinations on the tablet display and formal review on a diagnostic LCD. The iPad display performed inferiorly to the diagnostic monochrome display without the ability to zoom. When the software zoom function was enabled on the tablet device, comparable contrast detail phantom scores of 163 vs 165 points were achieved. No reporting discrepancies were encountered during the interpretation of 43 normal examinations and five cases of acute intracranial hemorrhage. There were seven RADPEER2 (understandable) misses when using the iPad display and 12 with the diagnostic LCD. Use of software zoom in the tablet device improved its contrast detail phantom score. The tablet allowed satisfactory identification of acute CT brain findings, but additional research will be required to examine the cause of "understandable" reporting discrepancies that occur when using tablet devices.

  6. Pickering safeguards: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L.; Hodgkinson, J.G.

    1977-05-01

    A summary is presented of thoughts relative to a systems approach for implementing international safeguards. Included is a preliminary analysis of the Pickering Generating Station followed by a suggested safeguards system for the facility

  7. Cell emulation and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report details preliminary results of the testing plan implemented by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV battery cells ar...

  8. Discrepancies Between Perceptions of the Parent-Adolescent Relationship and Early Adolescent Depressive Symptoms: An Illustration of Polynomial Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, S A; Branje, S J T; Hale, W W; Goossens, L; Koot, H M; Oldehinkel, A J; Meeus, W H J

    2016-10-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for the development of depressive symptoms. Lower quality of the parent-adolescent relationship has been consistently associated with higher adolescent depressive symptoms, but discrepancies in perceptions of parents and adolescents regarding the quality of their relationship may be particularly important to consider. In the present study, we therefore examined how discrepancies in parents' and adolescents' perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship were associated with early adolescent depressive symptoms, both concurrently and longitudinally over a 1-year period. Our sample consisted of 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys, M age = 13.03 years), residing in the western and central regions of the Netherlands, and their mothers and fathers, who all completed several questionnaires on two occasions with a 1-year interval. Adolescents reported on depressive symptoms and all informants reported on levels of negative interaction in the parent-adolescent relationship. Results from polynomial regression analyses including interaction terms between informants' perceptions, which have recently been proposed as more valid tests of hypotheses involving informant discrepancies than difference scores, suggested the highest adolescent depressive symptoms when both the mother and the adolescent reported high negative interaction, and when the adolescent reported high but the father reported low negative interaction. This pattern of findings underscores the need for a more sophisticated methodology such as polynomial regression analysis including tests of moderation, rather than the use of difference scores, which can adequately address both congruence and discrepancies in perceptions of adolescents and mothers/fathers of the parent-adolescent relationship in detail. Such an analysis can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of risk factors for early adolescent depressive symptoms.

  9. Marginal discrepancy of noble metal-ceramic fixed dental prosthesis frameworks fabricated by conventional and digital technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afify, Ahmed; Haney, Stephan; Verrett, Ronald; Mansueto, Michael; Cray, James; Johnson, Russell

    2018-02-01

    Studies evaluating the marginal adaptation of available computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) noble alloys for metal-ceramic prostheses are lacking. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the vertical marginal adaptation of cast, milled, and direct metal laser sintered (DMLS) noble metal-ceramic 3-unit fixed partial denture (FDP) frameworks before and after fit adjustments. Two typodont teeth were prepared for metal-ceramic FDP abutments. An acrylic resin pattern of the prepared teeth was fabricated and cast in nickel-chromium (Ni-Cr) alloy. Each specimen group (cast, milled, DMLS) was composed of 12 casts made from 12 impressions (n=12). A single design for the FDP substructure was created on a laboratory scanner and used for designing the specimens in the 3 groups. Each specimen was fitted to its corresponding cast by using up to 5 adjustment cycles, and marginal discrepancies were measured on the master Ni-Cr model before and after laboratory fit adjustments. The milled and DMLS groups had smaller marginal discrepancy measurements than those of the cast group (PDMLS and cast groups (F=30.643, P<.001). Metal-ceramic noble alloy frameworks fabricated by using a CAD-CAM workflow had significantly smaller marginal discrepancies compared with those with a traditional cast workflow, with the milled group demonstrating the best marginal fit among the 3 test groups. Manual refining significantly enhanced the marginal fit of all groups. All 3 groups demonstrated marginal discrepancies within the range of clinical acceptability. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. In vitro evaluation of marginal discrepancy of monolithic zirconia restorations fabricated with different CAD-CAM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Tamer A; Sherif, Rana M

    2017-06-01

    Dental laboratories use different computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) systems to fabricate fixed prostheses; however, limited evidence is available concerning which system provides the best marginal discrepancy. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal fit of 5 different monolithic zirconia restorations milled with different CAD-CAM systems. Thirty monolithic zirconia crowns were fabricated on a custom-designed stainless steel die and were divided into 5 groups according to the type of monolithic zirconia crown and the CAD-CAM system used: group TZ, milled with an MCXL milling machine; group CZ, translucent zirconia milled with a motion milling machine; group ZZ, zirconia milled with a dental milling unit; group PZ, translucent zirconia milled with a zirconia milling unit; and group BZ, solid zirconia milled using an S1 VHF milling machine. The marginal fit was measured with a binocular microscope at an original magnification of ×100. The results were tabulated and statistically analyzed with 1-way ANOVA and post hoc surface range test, and pairwise multiple comparisons were made using Bonferroni correction (α=.05). The type of CAD-CAM used affected the marginal fit of the monolithic restoration. The mean (±SD) highest marginal discrepancy was recorded in group TZI at 39.3 ±2.3 μm, while the least mean marginal discrepancy was recorded in group IZ (22.8 ±8.9 μm). The Bonferroni post hoc test showed that group TZI was significantly different from all other groups tested (Pmarginal discrepancies; however, the CAD-CAM system with the 5-axis milling unit produced the best marginal fit. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Minimizing the Discrepancy between Simulated and Historical Failures in Turbine Engines: A Simulation-Based Optimization Method

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Kibria; Krystel K. Castillo-Villar; Harry Millwater

    2015-01-01

    The reliability modeling of a module in a turbine engine requires knowledge of its failure rate, which can be estimated by identifying statistical distributions describing the percentage of failure per component within the turbine module. The correct definition of the failure statistical behavior per component is highly dependent on the engineer skills and may present significant discrepancies with respect to the historical data. There is no formal methodology to approach this problem and a l...

  12. Implementation of a virtual learning from discrepancy meeting: a method to improve attendance and facilitate shared learning from radiological error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlton Jones, A.L.; Roddie, M.E.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect on radiologist participation in learning from discrepancy meetings (LDMs) in a multisite radiology department by establishing virtual LDMs using OsiriX (Pixmeo). Materials and methods: Sets of anonymised discrepancy cases were added to an OsiriX database available for viewing on iMacs in all radiology reporting rooms. Radiologists were given a 3-week period to review the cases and send their feedback to the LDM convenor. Group learning points and consensus feedback were added to each case before it was moved to a permanent digital LDM library. Participation was recorded and compared with that from the previous 4 years of conventional LDMs. Radiologist feedback comparing the two types of LDM was collected using an anonymous online questionnaire. Results: Numbers of radiologists attending increased significantly from a mean of 12±2.9 for the conventional LDM to 32.7±7 for the virtual LDM (p<0.0001) and the percentage of radiologists achieving the UK standard of participation in at least 50% of LDMs annually rose from an average of 18% to 68%. The number of cases submitted per meeting rose significantly from an average of 11.1±3 for conventional LDMs to 15.9±5.9 for virtual LDMs (p<0.0097). Analysis of 35 returned questionnaires showed that radiologists welcomed being able to review cases at a time and place of their choosing and at their own pace. Conclusion: Introduction of virtual LDMs in a multisite radiology department improved radiologist participation in shared learning from radiological discrepancy and increased the number of submitted cases. - Highlights: • Learning from error is an important way to improve patient safety. • Consultant attendance at learning from discrepancy meetings (LDMs) was persistently poor in a large, multisite Trust. • Introduction of a ‘virtual’ LDM improved consultant participation and increased the number of cases submitted.

  13. Knowledge vs. Action: Discrepancies in University Students' Knowledge about and Self-Reported Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora M. Foerst

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available University students are supposed to be autonomous learners, able to adapt to an educational environment significantly less guided than school. Entering higher education poses a challenge of self-regulation, in which beginning students are often not prepared with self-regulation strategies needed. Since there are many studies assessing self-regulated learning (SRL via classical self-reports, we know a lot about how students generally self-assess their SRL strategies. However, SRL and performance do not always correlate highly in these studies. The aim of the present study is to determine whether there are discrepancies between students' knowledge about SRL and their action in applying adequate SRL strategies in relevant learning situations. We also want to know whether such discrepancies generalize across domains and what the reasons for discrepancies are. The situation-specific Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire for Action and Knowledge (SRL-QuAK was used in a sample of 408 psychology and economic sciences students. Descriptive data analysis was conducted to determine potential discrepancies between SRL knowledge and action and differences between the study domains in an explorative way. The reasons for not using SRL-strategies were derived via qualitative content analysis. The results showed that although students had quite advanced knowledge of SRL strategies, they did not put this knowledge into action. This dissonance between SRL knowledge and action was found in both domains. In terms of reasons, students stated that they (a lacked the time to use SRL strategies, (b would not benefit from SRL strategies in the given situation, (c would not be able to put the strategies to use effectively or (d found it too arduous to use SRL strategies. The implications of these results will be discussed, e.g., the consequences for measures to overcome students' dissonance between knowledge and action and therefore to promote academic performance and

  14. Knowledge vs. Action: Discrepancies in University Students' Knowledge about and Self-Reported Use of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerst, Nora M; Klug, Julia; Jöstl, Gregor; Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    University students are supposed to be autonomous learners, able to adapt to an educational environment significantly less guided than school. Entering higher education poses a challenge of self-regulation, in which beginning students are often not prepared with self-regulation strategies needed. Since there are many studies assessing self-regulated learning (SRL) via classical self-reports, we know a lot about how students generally self-assess their SRL strategies. However, SRL and performance do not always correlate highly in these studies. The aim of the present study is to determine whether there are discrepancies between students' knowledge about SRL and their action in applying adequate SRL strategies in relevant learning situations. We also want to know whether such discrepancies generalize across domains and what the reasons for discrepancies are. The situation-specific Self-Regulated Learning Questionnaire for Action and Knowledge (SRL-QuAK) was used in a sample of 408 psychology and economic sciences students. Descriptive data analysis was conducted to determine potential discrepancies between SRL knowledge and action and differences between the study domains in an explorative way. The reasons for not using SRL-strategies were derived via qualitative content analysis. The results showed that although students had quite advanced knowledge of SRL strategies, they did not put this knowledge into action. This dissonance between SRL knowledge and action was found in both domains. In terms of reasons, students stated that they (a) lacked the time to use SRL strategies, (b) would not benefit from SRL strategies in the given situation, (c) would not be able to put the strategies to use effectively or (d) found it too arduous to use SRL strategies. The implications of these results will be discussed, e.g., the consequences for measures to overcome students' dissonance between knowledge and action and therefore to promote academic performance and well-being.

  15. Cross-country discrepancies on public understanding of stress concepts: evidence for stress-management psychoeducational programs

    OpenAIRE

    Souza-Talarico, Juliana Nery; Wan, Nathalie; Santos, Sheila; Fialho, Patr?cia Paes Araujo; Chaves, Eliane Corr?a; Caramelli, Paulo; Bianchi, Estela Ferraz; Santos, Aline Talita; Lupien, Sonia J

    2016-01-01

    Background Negative effects of stress have pose one of the major threats to the health and economic well being of individuals independently of age and cultural background. Nevertheless, the term ?stress? has been globally used unlinked from scientificevidence-based meaning. The discrepancies between scientific and public stress knowledge are focus of concern and little is know about it. This is relevant since misconceptions about stress may influence the effects of stress-management psychoedu...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung Hoi

    2017-03-01

    ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to the laboratory protocol. The AutoVue system confirmed ABO blood typing of 12,816 samples (97.7%), and these results were concordant with those of the manual method. The remaining 297 samples (2.3%) showed discrepant results in the AutoVue system and were confirmed by the manual method. The discrepant results involved weak serum reactions (serum reactions, samples from patients who had received stem cell transplants, ABO subgroups, and specific system error messages. Among the 98 samples showing ≤1+ reaction grade in the AutoVue system, 70 samples (71.4%) showed a normal serum reaction (≥2+ reaction grade) with the manual method, and 28 samples (28.6%) showed weak serum reaction in both methods. ABO blood tying of 97.7% samples could be confirmed by the AutoVue system and a small proportion (2.3%) needed to be re-evaluated by the manual method. Samples with a 2+ reaction grade in serum typing do not need to be evaluated manually, while those with ≤1+ reaction grade do.

  17. Minimizing the Discrepancy between Simulated and Historical Failures in Turbine Engines: A Simulation-Based Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kibria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability modeling of a module in a turbine engine requires knowledge of its failure rate, which can be estimated by identifying statistical distributions describing the percentage of failure per component within the turbine module. The correct definition of the failure statistical behavior per component is highly dependent on the engineer skills and may present significant discrepancies with respect to the historical data. There is no formal methodology to approach this problem and a large number of labor hours are spent trying to reduce the discrepancy by manually adjusting the distribution’s parameters. This paper addresses this problem and provides a simulation-based optimization method for the minimization of the discrepancy between the simulated and the historical percentage of failures for turbine engine components. The proposed methodology optimizes the parameter values of the component’s failure statistical distributions within the component’s likelihood confidence bounds. A complete testing of the proposed method is performed on a turbine engine case study. The method can be considered as a decision-making tool for maintenance, repair, and overhaul companies and will potentially reduce the cost of labor associated to finding the appropriate value of the distribution parameters for each component/failure mode in the model and increase the accuracy in the prediction of the mean time to failures (MTTF.

  18. Parental autonomy support and discrepancies between implicit and explicit sexual identities: dynamics of self-acceptance and defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Netta; Ryan, William S; Dehaan, Cody R; Przybylski, Andrew K; Legate, Nicole; Ryan, Richard M

    2012-04-01

    When individuals grow up with autonomy-thwarting parents, they may be prevented from exploring internally endorsed values and identities and as a result shut out aspects of the self perceived to be unacceptable. Given the stigmatization of homosexuality, individuals perceiving low autonomy support from parents may be especially motivated to conceal same-sex sexual attraction, leading to defensive processes such as reaction formation. Four studies tested a model wherein perceived parental autonomy support is associated with lower discrepancies between self-reported sexual orientation and implicit sexual orientation (assessed with a reaction time task). These indices interacted to predict anti-gay responding indicative of reaction formation. Studies 2-4 showed that an implicit/explicit discrepancy was particularly pronounced in participants who experienced their fathers as both low in autonomy support and homophobic, though results were inconsistent for mothers. Findings of Study 3 suggested contingent self-esteem as a link between parenting styles and discrepancies in sexual orientation measures. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. A shift to glycolysis accompanies the inflammatory changes in PBMCs from individuals with an IQ-discrepant memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Hannah; Hannigan, Caoimhe; O'Sullivan, Michael; Carroll, Liam Barry; Brennan, Sabina; Lawlor, Brian; Robertson, Ian H; Lynch, Marina

    2018-04-15

    Identification of a blood-based biomarker that can detect early cognitive decline presents a significant healthcare challenge. We prepared peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from individuals who had a poorer than predicted performance in their delayed recall performance on the Logical Memory II Subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS) relative to their IQ estimated by the National Adult Reading Test (NART); we described these individuals as IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. Stimulation with Aβ + LPS increased production of TNFα to a greater extent in cells from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. This was associated with a shift towards glycolysis and the evidence indicates that 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase (PFKFB)3 plays a role in driving glycolysis. A similar shift towards glycolysis was observed in MDMs prepared from IQ-discrepant, compared with IQ-consistent, individuals. The important finding here is that we have established an increased sensitivity to Aβ + LPS stimulation in PBMCs from individuals that under-perform on a memory task, relative to their estimated premorbid IQ, which may be an indicator of early cognitive decline. This may be a useful tool in determining the presence of early cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Discrepancies in historical emissions point to a wider 2020 gap between 2 deg. C benchmarks and aggregated national mitigation pledges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Hare, William; Chen, Claudine; Meinshausen, Malte

    2011-01-01

    Aggregations of greenhouse gas mitigation pledges by countries are frequently used to indicate whether resulting global emissions in 2020 will be 'on track' to limit global temperature increase to below specific warming levels such as 1.5 or 2 deg. C. We find that historical emission levels aggregated from data that are officially reported by countries to the UNFCCC are lower than independent global emission estimates, such as the IPCC SRES scenarios. This discrepancy in historical emissions could substantially widen the gap between 2020 pledges and 2020 benchmarks, as the latter tend to be derived from scenarios that share similar historical emission levels to IPCC SRES scenarios. Three methods for resolving this discrepancy, here called 'harmonization', are presented and their influence on 'gap' estimates is discussed. Instead of a 3.4-9.2 GtCO 2 eq shortfall in emission reductions by 2020 compared with the 44 GtCO 2 eq benchmark, the actual gap might be as high as 5.4-12.5 GtCO 2 eq (a 22-88% increase of the gap) if this historical discrepancy is accounted for. Not applying this harmonization step when using 2020 emission benchmarks could lead to an underestimation of the insufficiency of current mitigation pledges.