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Sample records for isolated rabbit ventricular

  1. Ventricular filling slows epicardial conduction and increases action potential duration in an optical mapping study of the isolated rabbit heart

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    Sung, Derrick; Mills, Robert W.; Schettler, Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCullough, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanical stimulation can induce electrophysiologic changes in cardiac myocytes, but how mechanoelectric feedback in the intact heart affects action potential propagation remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in action potential propagation and repolarization with increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 0 to 30 mmHg were investigated using optical mapping in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. With respect to 0 mmHg, epicardial strain at 30 mmHg in the anterior left ventricle averaged 0.040 +/- 0.004 in the muscle fiber direction and 0.032 +/- 0.006 in the cross-fiber direction. An increase in ventricular loading increased average epicardial activation time by 25%+/- 3% (P action potential duration at 20% repolarization (APD20) but did at 80% repolarization (APD80), from 179 +/- 7 msec to 207 +/- 5 msec (P action potential duration by a load-dependent mechanism that may not involve stretch-activated channels.

  2. Slowing of electrical activity in ventricular fibrillation is not associated with increased defibrillation energies in the isolated rabbit heart

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    Jane eCaldwell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF arrests are associated with reduced ECG dominant frequency (DF and diminished defibrillation success. Partial reversal of ischaemia increases ECG DF and improves defibrillation outcome. We have investigated the metabolic components of ischaemia responsible for the decline in ECG DF and defibrillation success.Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were loaded with the voltage-sensitive dye RH237. Using a photodiode array, epicardial membrane potentials were recorded at 252 sites (15x15mm on the anterior surface of the left & right ventricles. Simultaneously, a global ECG was recorded. VF was induced by burst pacing, and after 60s, perfusion was either reduced to 6ml/min or the perfusate composition changed to impose hypoxia (95%N2/5%CO2, pH 6.7 (80%O2/20%CO2, or hyperkalaemia (8mM. Using Fast Fourier Transform, power spectra were created from the optical signals and the global ECG. The optical power spectra were summated to give a global power spectrum (pseudoECG. At 600s the minimum defibrillation voltage (MDV was determined by step-up protocol.During VF, the ECG and pseudoECG DF were reduced by low-flow ischaemia (9.0±1.0Hz, p<0.01, n=5 and raised [K+]o (12.2±1.3 Hz, p<0.05, n=7 compared to control (19.2±1.5 Hz, n=20, but were unaffected by acidic pHo (16.7±1.1 Hz, n=11 and hypoxia (14.0±1.2 Hz, n=10. In contrast, the MDV was raised by acidic pH (156.1±26.4V, p<0.001 and hypoxia (154.1±22.1V, p<0.01 compared to control (65.6±2.3V, but comparable changes were not observed in low-flow ischaemia (61.0±0.5V or raised [K+]o (56±3V. In summary, different metabolites are responsible for the reduction in DF and the increase in defibrillation energy during ischaemic VF.

  3. Effect of increased left ventricle mass on ischemia assessment in electrocardiographic signals: rabbit isolated heart study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ronzhina, M.; Olejníčková, Veronika; Stračina, T.; Nováková, M.; Janoušek, O.; Hejč, J.; Kolářová, J.; Hlaváčová, M.; Paulová, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, Aug 4 (2017), č. článku 216. ISSN 1471-2261 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : myocardial ischemia detection * increased left ventricular mass * electrogram * ROC analysis * isolated heart * rabbit Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 1.832, year: 2016

  4. Polarographic measurement of ascorbate washout in isolated perfused rabbit hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, T.; Kuikka, J.T.; Reneman, R.S.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    To study the myocardial washout of ascorbate, the applicability of polarographic detection of ascorbate ions by a platinum electrode (sensitive area 0.03 mm2) was investigated, in both a calibration setup (sampling flow along the electrode: 100 microliter X s-1) and isolated, retrogradely perfused rabbit hearts. In the calibration setup at pH 7.4, the sensitivity of the electrode was 70 microA/mol. This sensitivity increased moderately with increasing pH (13%/unit pH) and increasing sampling flow rate (14% at an increase from 100 to 150 microliter X s-1). In the isolated hearts, ascorbate infused into the aorta was detected in a right ventricular drain by the electrode as well as by the use of 14 C-labeled ascorbate. Both recorded time courses were similar except for a scaling factor dependent on flow velocity. During continuous infusion the arteriovenous difference of ascorbate was 2 +/- 2% (SD), indicating a relatively low consumption of ascorbate by the isolated heart. The authors conclude that polarographic measurement of ascorbate in the coronary effluent of an isolated rabbit heart can be performed on-line and relatively easily

  5. Triggered activity and automaticity in ventricular trabeculae of failing human and rabbit hearts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J. T.; McGuire, M. A.; Opthof, T.; Coronel, R.; de Bakker, J. M.; Klöpping, C.; Janse, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of triggered activity and automaticity in ventricular trabeculae from failing human hearts and normal and failing rabbit hearts during exposure to a normal and altered extracellular environment. Ventricular trabeculae were harvested from failing

  6. Effects of hydroxyl radical induced-Injury in atrial versus ventricular myocardium of dog and rabbit

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    Nitisha Hiranandani

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Despite the widespread use of ventricular tissue in the investigation involving hydroxyl-radical (OH* injury, one of the most potent mediators in ischemia-reperfusion injury, little is known about the impact on atrial myocardium. In this study we thus compared the OH*-induced injury response between atrial and right ventricular muscles from both rabbits and dogs under identical experimental conditions. Methods: Small, contracting ventricular and atrial rabbit and dog trabeculae were directly exposed to OH*, and contractile properties were examined and quantified. Results: A brief OH* exposure led to transient rigor like contracture with marked elevation of diastolic tension and depression of developed force. Although the injury response showed similarities between atrial and ventricular myocardium, there were significant differences as well. In rabbit atrial muscles, the development of the contracture and its peak was much faster as compared to ventricular muscles. Also, at the peak of contracture, both rabbit and dog atrial muscles show a lesser degree of contractile dysfunction. Conclusion: These results indicate that both atrial and ventricular muscles develop a rigor like contracture after acute OH*-induced injury, and atrial muscles showed a lesser degree of contractile dysfunction. Comparison of dog versus rabbit tissue shows that the response was similar in magnitude, but slower to develop in dog tissue.

  7. Noninvasive reconstruction of the three-dimensional ventricular activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia in the rabbit heart.

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    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias represent one of leading causes for sudden cardiac death, a significant problem in public health. Noninvasive imaging of cardiac electric activities associated with ventricular arrhythmias plays an important role in better our understanding of the mechanisms and optimizing the treatment options. The present study aims to rigorously validate a novel three-dimensional (3-D) cardiac electrical imaging (3-DCEI) technique with the aid of 3-D intra-cardiac mapping during paced rhythm and ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in thirteen healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous norepinephrine (NE). The non-invasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterparts, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 and a relative error of 0.30 averaged over all paced beats and NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. The averaged distance from imaged site of initial activation to measured site determined from intra-cardiac mapping was ∼5mm. These promising results suggest that 3-DCEI is feasible to non-invasively localize the origins and image activation sequence of focal ventricular arrhythmias.

  8. Basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

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    Ashida, Terunao; Takato, Tetsuya; Matsuzaki, Gen; Seko, Yoshinori; Fujii, Jun; Kawai, Sachio

    2014-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that basal cardiomyopathy develops in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias that have been induced by electrical stimulation of the cervical vagus. This study investigated whether similar basal cardiomyopathy would develop in rabbits with ventricular tachyarrhythmias induced by a single injection of adrenaline. Adrenaline was intravenously infused for 10-360 seconds in anesthetized rabbits. Colloidal carbon was injected after adrenaline infusion. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base was assessed by tissue Doppler echocardiography. Animals were killed either 1 week or 3-4 weeks later. Pathological lesions were identified by deposits of carbon particles. Animals were divided into two groups according to the infused dose of adrenaline. The small-dose group (group S, n = 15) received 1-10 μg and the large-dose group (group L, n = 23) received 15-60 μg of adrenaline. Adrenaline infusion induced premature ventricular contractions followed by monomorphic ventricular tachycardias in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 1 of 15 animals in group S. Wall movement velocity of the left ventricular base decreased just after adrenaline infusion, remained low after 1 week, and recovered to near-baseline levels after 3-4 weeks in group L. Unique cardiac lesions identified by deposits of carbon particles were frequently observed on the left ventricular basal portion, almost always associated with the mitral valve and papillary muscles, but were never observed in the apical area. Lesions involving all areas of the left ventricular basal portion were observed in 22 of 23 animals in group L, but in only 2 of 15 animals in group S. Basal cardiomyopathy developed in rabbits with ventricular tachycardias induced by a single injection of adrenaline.

  9. Alloxan-induced diabetes reduces sarcolemmal Na+-K+ pump function in rabbit ventricular myocytes.

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    Hansen, Peter S; Clarke, Ronald J; Buhagiar, Kerrie A; Hamilton, Elisha; Garcia, Alvaro; White, Caroline; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2007-03-01

    The effect of diabetes on sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump function is important for our understanding of heart disease associated with diabetes and design of its treatment. We induced diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia but no other major metabolic disturbances in rabbits. Ventricular myocytes isolated from diabetic rabbits and controls were voltage clamped and internally perfused with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current (I(p), arising from the 3:2 Na(+)-to-K(+) exchange ratio) was identified as the shift in holding current induced by Na(+)-K(+) pump blockade with 100 micromol/l ouabain in most experiments. There was no effect of diabetes on I(p) recorded when myocytes were perfused with pipette solutions containing 80 mmol/l Na(+) to nearly saturate intracellular Na(+)-K(+) pump sites. However, diabetes was associated with a significant decrease in I(p) measured when pipette solutions contained 10 mmol/l Na(+). The decrease was independent of membrane voltage but dependent on the intracellular concentration of K(+). There was no effect of diabetes on the sensitivity of I(p) to extracellular K(+). Pump inhibition was abolished by restoration of euglycemia or by in vivo angiotensin II receptor blockade with losartan. We conclude that diabetes induces sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition that can be reversed with pharmacological intervention.

  10. Inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica L. root on electrophysiological properties of isolated rabbit atrioventricular node

    OpenAIRE

    A. Enayati; V. Khori*; M. Azadbakhat; M. Zahedi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: The ideal drug for treatment of a wide range of supraventricular arrhythmia hasn't yet been developed. Previous studies have shown antihypertensive and negative inotropic effects of the Urtica dioica L. (nettle). Therefore, the aim of present study is to determine the rate dependent inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of nettle root and investigate the role of adrenoceptors in the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nettle on the isolated rabbit atrio-ventricular node. M...

  11. Quantitative analysis of the Ca2+ -dependent regulation of delayed rectifier K+ current IKs in rabbit ventricular myocytes.

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    Bartos, Daniel C; Morotti, Stefano; Ginsburg, Kenneth S; Grandi, Eleonora; Bers, Donald M

    2017-04-01

    [Ca 2+ ] i enhanced rabbit ventricular slowly activating delayed rectifier K + current (I Ks ) by negatively shifting the voltage dependence of activation and slowing deactivation, similar to perfusion of isoproterenol. Rabbit ventricular rapidly activating delayed rectifier K + current (I Kr ) amplitude and voltage dependence were unaffected by high [Ca 2+ ] i . When measuring or simulating I Ks during an action potential, I Ks was not different during a physiological Ca 2+ transient or when [Ca 2+ ] i was buffered to 500 nm. The slowly activating delayed rectifier K + current (I Ks ) contributes to repolarization of the cardiac action potential (AP). Intracellular Ca 2+ ([Ca 2+ ] i ) and β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation modulate I Ks amplitude and kinetics, but details of these important I Ks regulators and their interaction are limited. We assessed the [Ca 2+ ] i dependence of I Ks in steady-state conditions and with dynamically changing membrane potential and [Ca 2+ ] i during an AP. I Ks was recorded from freshly isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes using whole-cell patch clamp. With intracellular pipette solutions that controlled free [Ca 2+ ] i , we found that raising [Ca 2+ ] i from 100 to 600 nm produced similar increases in I Ks as did β-AR activation, and the effects appeared additive. Both β-AR activation and high [Ca 2+ ] i increased maximally activated tail I Ks , negatively shifted the voltage dependence of activation, and slowed deactivation kinetics. These data informed changes in our well-established mathematical model of the rabbit myocyte. In both AP-clamp experiments and simulations, I Ks recorded during a normal physiological Ca 2+ transient was similar to I Ks measured with [Ca 2+ ] i clamped at 500-600 nm. Thus, our study provides novel quantitative data as to how physiological [Ca 2+ ] i regulates I Ks amplitude and kinetics during the normal rabbit AP. Our results suggest that micromolar [Ca 2+ ] i , in the submembrane or

  12. HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 treatment regresses left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

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    Merlet, Nolwenn; Busseuil, David; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Mecteau, Melanie; Shi, Yanfen; Nachar, Walid; Brand, Genevieve; Brodeur, Mathieu R; Charpentier, Daniel; Rhainds, David; Sy, Gavin; Schwendeman, Anna; Lalwani, Narendra; Dasseux, Jean-Louis; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2016-07-15

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) infusions induce rapid improvement of experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits but their effect on ventricular function remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effects of the HDL mimetic peptide CER-522 on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD). Rabbits were fed with a cholesterol- and vitamin D2-enriched diet until mild aortic valve stenosis and hypercholesterolemia-induced LV hypertrophy and LVDD developed. Animals then received saline or 10 or 30mg/kg CER-522 infusions 6 times over 2weeks. We performed serial echocardiograms and LV histology to evaluate the effects of CER-522 therapy on LVDD. LVDD was reduced by CER-522 as shown by multiple parameters including early filling mitral deceleration time, deceleration rate, Em/Am ratio, E/Em ratio, pulmonary venous velocities, and LVDD score. These findings were associated with reduced macrophages (RAM-11 positive cells) in the pericoronary area and LV, and decreased levels of apoptotic cardiomyocytes in CER-522-treated rabbits. CER-522 treatment also resulted in decreased atheromatous plaques and internal elastic lamina area in coronary arteries. CER-522 improves LVDD in rabbits, with reductions of LV macrophage accumulation, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, coronary atherosclerosis and remodelling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prolongation of atrio-ventricular node conduction in a rabbit model of ischaemic cardiomyopathy: Role of fibrosis and connexin remodelling.

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    Nisbet, Ashley M; Camelliti, Patrizia; Walker, Nicola L; Burton, Francis L; Cobbe, Stuart M; Kohl, Peter; Smith, Godfrey L

    2016-05-01

    Conduction abnormalities are frequently associated with cardiac disease, though the mechanisms underlying the commonly associated increases in PQ interval are not known. This study uses a chronic left ventricular (LV) apex myocardial infarction (MI) model in the rabbit to create significant left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) 8weeks post-MI. In vivo studies established that the PQ interval increases by approximately 7ms (10%) with no significant change in average heart rate. Optical mapping of isolated Langendorff perfused rabbit hearts recapitulated this result: time to earliest activation of the LV was increased by 14ms (16%) in the LVD group. Intra-atrial and LV transmural conduction times were not altered in the LVD group. Isolated AVN preparations from the LVD group demonstrated a significantly longer conduction time (by approximately 20ms) between atrial and His electrograms than sham controls across a range of pacing cycle lengths. This difference was accompanied by increased effective refractory period and Wenckebach cycle length, suggesting significantly altered AVN electrophysiology post-MI. The AVN origin of abnormality was further highlighted by optical mapping of the isolated AVN. Immunohistochemistry of AVN preparations revealed increased fibrosis and gap junction protein (connexin43 and 40) remodelling in the AVN of LVD animals compared to sham. A significant increase in myocyte-non-myocyte connexin co-localization was also observed after LVD. These changes may increase the electrotonic load experienced by AVN muscle cells and contribute to slowed conduction velocity within the AVN. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolated left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy associated with polymorphous ventricular tachycardia mimicking torsades de pointes

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    Oana Dickinson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC cardiomyopathy is a rare congenital disorder, classified by the American Heart Association as a primary genetic cardiomyopathy and characterized by multiple trabeculations within the left ventricle. LVNC cardiomyopathy has been associated with 3 major clinical manifestations: heart failure, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic events, including stroke. In this case report, we describe a female patient with apparently isolated LVNC in whom pause-dependent polymorphic ventricular tachycardia suggesting torsades de pointes occurred in the presence of a normal QT interval.

  15. Screening of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from rabbits

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    David Viana Martín

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. In rabbits, this bacterium infects animals of different ages, producing several purulent lesions. The ability of S. aureus to cause disease depends on a combination of virulence factors. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the distribution of bacterial virulence determinants in 69 S. aureus isolates from rabbits. Some virulence factors (7 adhesins, 1 toxin and 1 protease were positive in all rabbit S. aureus isolates analysed, while others (1 adhesin and 10 toxins were always negative. The remaining virulence factors were more variable among isolates. An association between genotype and the different profiles of virulence factors was observed, but not with the type of lesion (P<0.05. One strain of each genotype was further analysed by multilocus sequence typing, generating ST121, ST96 and ST2951, determining a greater number of enterotoxins in ST121 isolates compared to ST96 and ST2951 isolates, which could justify the different pathogenicity between strains. 

  16. Attenuated ventricular β-adrenergic response and reduced repolarization reserve in a rabbit model of chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Jakob Dahl; Thomsen, Morten Bækgaard; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth

    2012-01-01

    Animal models of pacing-induced heart failure (HF) are often associated with high acute mortality secondary to high pacing frequencies. The present study therefore exploits lower-frequency left ventricular pacing (300 beats per minute) in rabbits for 11 weeks to produce chronic HF with low acute...... mortality but profound structural, functional, and electrical remodeling and compare with nonpaced controls. Pacing increased heart weight/body weight ratio and decreased left ventricular fractional shortening in tachypaced only. Electrocardiogram recordings during sinus rhythm revealed QTc prolongation...... in paced animals. Ventricular arrhythmias or sudden death was not observed. Isoproterenol increased heart rate similarly in both groups but showed a blunted QT-shortening effect in tachypaced rabbits compared with controls. Langendorff experiments revealed significant monophasic action potential duration...

  17. Use of wave intensity analysis of carotid arteries in identifying and monitoring left ventricular systolic function dynamics in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Rongqin; Qian, Xiaoxian; Zhang, Chengxi; Hao, Baoshun; Huang, Zeping; Wu, Tao

    2014-03-01

    Wave intensity analysis (WIA) of the carotid artery was conducted to determine the changes that occur in left ventricular systolic function after administration of doxorubicin in rabbits. Each randomly selected rabbit was subject to routine ultrasound, WIA of the carotid artery, cardiac catheterization and pathologic examination every week and was followed for 16 wk. The first positive peak (WI1) of the carotid artery revealed that left ventricular systolic dysfunction occurred earlier than conventional indexes of heart function. WI1 was highly, positively correlated with the maximum rate of rise in left ventricular pressure in cardiac catheterization (r = 0.94, p function, and the result is highly consistent with cardiac catheterization findings and the apoptosis index of myocardial cells. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Population of computational rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models for investigating sources of variability in cellular repolarisation.

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    Philip Gemmell

    Full Text Available Variability is observed at all levels of cardiac electrophysiology. Yet, the underlying causes and importance of this variability are generally unknown, and difficult to investigate with current experimental techniques. The aim of the present study was to generate populations of computational ventricular action potential models that reproduce experimentally observed intercellular variability of repolarisation (represented by action potential duration and to identify its potential causes. A systematic exploration of the effects of simultaneously varying the magnitude of six transmembrane current conductances (transient outward, rapid and slow delayed rectifier K(+, inward rectifying K(+, L-type Ca(2+, and Na(+/K(+ pump currents in two rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models (Shannon et al. and Mahajan et al. at multiple cycle lengths (400, 600, 1,000 ms was performed. This was accomplished with distributed computing software specialised for multi-dimensional parameter sweeps and grid execution. An initial population of 15,625 parameter sets was generated for both models at each cycle length. Action potential durations of these populations were compared to experimentally derived ranges for rabbit ventricular myocytes. 1,352 parameter sets for the Shannon model and 779 parameter sets for the Mahajan model yielded action potential duration within the experimental range, demonstrating that a wide array of ionic conductance values can be used to simulate a physiological rabbit ventricular action potential. Furthermore, by using clutter-based dimension reordering, a technique that allows visualisation of multi-dimensional spaces in two dimensions, the interaction of current conductances and their relative importance to the ventricular action potential at different cycle lengths were revealed. Overall, this work represents an important step towards a better understanding of the role that variability in current conductances may play in

  19. Population of computational rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models for investigating sources of variability in cellular repolarisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Philip; Burrage, Kevin; Rodriguez, Blanca; Quinn, T Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Variability is observed at all levels of cardiac electrophysiology. Yet, the underlying causes and importance of this variability are generally unknown, and difficult to investigate with current experimental techniques. The aim of the present study was to generate populations of computational ventricular action potential models that reproduce experimentally observed intercellular variability of repolarisation (represented by action potential duration) and to identify its potential causes. A systematic exploration of the effects of simultaneously varying the magnitude of six transmembrane current conductances (transient outward, rapid and slow delayed rectifier K(+), inward rectifying K(+), L-type Ca(2+), and Na(+)/K(+) pump currents) in two rabbit-specific ventricular action potential models (Shannon et al. and Mahajan et al.) at multiple cycle lengths (400, 600, 1,000 ms) was performed. This was accomplished with distributed computing software specialised for multi-dimensional parameter sweeps and grid execution. An initial population of 15,625 parameter sets was generated for both models at each cycle length. Action potential durations of these populations were compared to experimentally derived ranges for rabbit ventricular myocytes. 1,352 parameter sets for the Shannon model and 779 parameter sets for the Mahajan model yielded action potential duration within the experimental range, demonstrating that a wide array of ionic conductance values can be used to simulate a physiological rabbit ventricular action potential. Furthermore, by using clutter-based dimension reordering, a technique that allows visualisation of multi-dimensional spaces in two dimensions, the interaction of current conductances and their relative importance to the ventricular action potential at different cycle lengths were revealed. Overall, this work represents an important step towards a better understanding of the role that variability in current conductances may play in experimentally

  20. Flow heterogeneity following global no-flow ischemia in isolated rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Robert C.; Powers-Risius, Patricia; Reutter, Bryan W.; Schustz, Amy M.; Kuo, Chaincy; Huesman, Michelle K.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate flow heterogeneity and impaired reflow during reperfusion following 60 min global no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart. Radiolabeled microspheres were used to measure relative flow in small left ventricular (LV) segments in five ischemia + reperfused hearts and in five non-ischemic controls. Although variable in the post-ischemic hearts, flow heterogeneity was increased relative to pre-ischemia for the whole LV (0.92 plus or minus 0.41 vs. 0.37 plus or minus 0.07, P < 0.05) as well as the subendocardium (Endo) and subepicardium (Epi) considered separately (endo: 1.28 plus or minus 0.74 vs. 0.30 plus or minus 0.09; epi: 0.69 plus or minus 0.22 vs. 0.38 plus or minus 0.08; P < 0.05 for both comparisons) during early reperfusion. There were also segments with abnormally reduced reflow. The number of segments with abnormally reduced reflow increased as flow heterogeneity increased. Abnormally reduced reflow indicates that regional ischemia can persist despite restoration of normal global flow. In addition, the relationship between regional and global flow is altered and venous outflow is derived from regions with continued perfusion and not the whole LV. These observations emphasize the need to quantify regional reflow during reperfusion following sustained no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart

  1. Characterizing Spatial Dynamics of Bifurcation to Alternans in Isolated Whole Rabbit Hearts Based on Alternate Pacing

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    Kanchan Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death instigated by ventricular fibrillation (VF is the largest cause of natural death in the USA. Alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in the action potential duration, has been implicated as being proarrhythmic. The onset of alternans is mediated via a bifurcation, which may occur through either a smooth or a border-collision mechanism. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanism of bifurcation to alternans based on experiments in isolated whole rabbit hearts. High resolution optical mapping was performed and the electrical activity was recorded from the left ventricle (LV epicardial surface of the heart. Each heart was paced using an “alternate pacing protocol,” where the basic cycle length (BCL was alternatively perturbed by ±δ. Local onset of alternans in the heart, BCLstart, was measured in the absence of perturbations (δ=0 and was defined as the BCL at which 10% of LV exhibited alternans. The influences of perturbation size were investigated at two BCLs: one prior to BCLstart (BCLprior=BCLstart+20 ms and one preceding BCLprior (BCLfar=BCLstart+40 ms. Our results demonstrate significant spatial correlation of the region exhibiting alternans with smooth bifurcation characteristics, indicating that transition to alternans in isolated rabbit hearts occurs predominantly through smooth bifurcation.

  2. Flow heterogeneity following global no-flow ischemia in isolated rabbit heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Robert C.; Powers-Risius, Patricia; Reutter, Bryan W.; Schustz, Amy M.; Kuo, Chaincy; Huesman, Michelle K.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate flow heterogeneity and impaired reflow during reperfusion following 60 min global no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart. Radiolabeled microspheres were used to measure relative flow in small left ventricular (LV) segments in five ischemia + reperfused hearts and in five non-ischemic controls. Although variable in the post-ischemic hearts, flow heterogeneity was increased relative to pre-ischemia for the whole LV (0.92 plus or minus 0.41 vs. 0.37 plus or minus 0.07, P < 0.05) as well as the subendocardium (Endo) and subepicardium (Epi) considered separately (endo: 1.28 plus or minus 0.74 vs. 0.30 plus or minus 0.09; epi: 0.69 plus or minus 0.22 vs. 0.38 plus or minus 0.08; P < 0.05 for both comparisons) during early reperfusion. There were also segments with abnormally reduced reflow. The number of segments with abnormally reduced reflow increased as flow heterogeneity increased. Abnormally reduced reflow indicates that regional ischemia can persist despite restoration of normal global flow. In addition, the relationship between regional and global flow is altered and venous outflow is derived from regions with continued perfusion and not the whole LV. These observations emphasize the need to quantify regional reflow during reperfusion following sustained no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart.

  3. Differential responses of rabbit ventricular and atrial transient outward current (Ito) to the Ito modulator NS5806.

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    Cheng, Hongwei; Cannell, Mark B; Hancox, Jules C

    2017-03-01

    Transient outward potassium current (I to ) in the heart underlies phase 1 repolarization of cardiac action potentials and thereby affects excitation-contraction coupling. Small molecule activators of I to may therefore offer novel treatments for cardiac dysfunction, including heart failure and atrial fibrillation. NS5806 has been identified as a prototypic activator of canine I to This study investigated, for the first time, actions of NS5806 on rabbit atrial and ventricular I to Whole cell patch-clamp recordings of I to and action potentials were made at physiological temperature from rabbit ventricular and atrial myocytes. 10  μ mol/L NS5806 increased ventricular I to with a leftward shift in I to activation and accelerated restitution. At higher concentrations, stimulation of I to was followed by inhibition. The EC 50 for stimulation was 1.6  μ mol/L and inhibition had an IC 50 of 40.7  μ mol/L. NS5806 only inhibited atrial I to (IC 50 of 18  μ mol/L) and produced a modest leftward shifts in I to activation and inactivation, without an effect on restitution. 10  μ mol/L NS5806 shortened ventricular action potential duration (APD) at APD 20 -APD 90 but prolonged atrial APD NS5806 also reduced atrial AP upstroke and amplitude, consistent with an additional atrio-selective effect on Na + channels. In contrast to NS5806, flecainide, which discriminates between Kv1.4 and 4.x channels, produced similar levels of inhibition of ventricular and atrial I to NS5806 discriminates between rabbit ventricular and atrial I to, with mixed activator and inhibitor actions on the former and inhibitor actions against the later. NS5806 may be of significant value for pharmacological interrogation of regional differences in native cardiac I to . © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  4. Quantitative analysis of the Ca2+‐dependent regulation of delayed rectifier K+ current I Ks in rabbit ventricular myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Daniel C.; Morotti, Stefano; Ginsburg, Kenneth S.; Grandi, Eleonora

    2017-01-01

    Key points [Ca2+]i enhanced rabbit ventricular slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (I Ks) by negatively shifting the voltage dependence of activation and slowing deactivation, similar to perfusion of isoproterenol.Rabbit ventricular rapidly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (I Kr) amplitude and voltage dependence were unaffected by high [Ca2+]i.When measuring or simulating I Ks during an action potential, I Ks was not different during a physiological Ca2+ transient or when [Ca2+]i was buffered to 500 nm. Abstract The slowly activating delayed rectifier K+ current (I Ks) contributes to repolarization of the cardiac action potential (AP). Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) and β‐adrenergic receptor (β‐AR) stimulation modulate I Ks amplitude and kinetics, but details of these important I Ks regulators and their interaction are limited. We assessed the [Ca2+]i dependence of I Ks in steady‐state conditions and with dynamically changing membrane potential and [Ca2+]i during an AP. I Ks was recorded from freshly isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes using whole‐cell patch clamp. With intracellular pipette solutions that controlled free [Ca2+]i, we found that raising [Ca2+]i from 100 to 600 nm produced similar increases in I Ks as did β‐AR activation, and the effects appeared additive. Both β‐AR activation and high [Ca2+]i increased maximally activated tail I Ks, negatively shifted the voltage dependence of activation, and slowed deactivation kinetics. These data informed changes in our well‐established mathematical model of the rabbit myocyte. In both AP‐clamp experiments and simulations, I Ks recorded during a normal physiological Ca2+ transient was similar to I Ks measured with [Ca2+]i clamped at 500–600 nm. Thus, our study provides novel quantitative data as to how physiological [Ca2+]i regulates I Ks amplitude and kinetics during the normal rabbit AP. Our results suggest that micromolar [Ca2+]i, in the submembrane or junctional cleft

  5. Choline transport in the isolated rabbit corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, isolated epithelial sheets were obtained by performing two sequential anterior keratectomies, three weeks apart, on rabbit corneas. Light microscopy of the isolated sheets revealed a multilayered epithelium with an intact basal cell layer without contamination from other cell types. The accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into the epithelial sheets was studied at substrate concentrations varying from 1 to 100 μMoles with and without the addition of specific metabolic and stereochemical inhibitors. Accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into these sheets was saturable. Kinetic analysis, performed by estimation from double-reciprocal plots, revealed a single component system with a K m of 24.9 μM. The metabolic inhibitors potassium cyanide and ouabain showed no effect on the uptake of [ 3 H]choline; however, the stereochemical inhibitor hemicholinium-3 significantly reduced the accumulation of radiolabel at both high and low substrate concentrations. The results suggest a non-energy dependent yet a highly specific transport system for the accumulation of choline into the rabbit epithelium

  6. Ventricular tachyarrhythmia-related basal cardiomyopathy in rabbits with vagal stimulation--a novel experimental model for inverted Takotsubo-like cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takato, Tetsuya; Ashida, Terunao; Seko, Yoshinori; Fujii, Jun; Kawai, Sachio

    2010-07-01

    Electrical stimulation of the intact (unsectioned) cervical vagus in rabbits frequently provokes ventricular tachyarrhythmias that are often accompanied by mitral regurgitation. Unique pathological lesions often arise on the mitral valve, papillary muscles, and mitral annulus (mitral complex), the latter two of which become swollen and stiffened. These lesions are reversible in nature. Previous studies have essentially ignored the basal portion except for the mitral annulus. Therefore, the present study examined pathological lesions on the left ventricular basal portion in rabbits. The intact right vagal nerves of 20 anesthetized rabbits were repeatedly electrically stimulated under electrocardiographic monitoring. Colloidal carbon (lml) was injected intravenously immediately after the end of the stimulation and all animals were killed 1 week later. Pathological lesions were identified as carbon deposits visible at gross examination. Ventricular bigeminy was induced after vagal stimulation in 15 (75%) of the 20 rabbits. Pathological lesions were evident on the basal portion in 16 (80%) and on the mitral valve and papillary muscles of 15 (75%) of the 20 rabbits. Ventricular bigeminy was closely associated with the development of the pathological lesions, which were rarely observed on the ventricular apex. Cardiomyopathic lesions involving the basal portion and mitral complex were frequently induced in rabbits by vagal stimulation. These lesions bear a close similarity in distribution and reversibility to inverted Takotsubo cardiomyopathy. Copyright 2010 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Right ventricular pressure response to exercise in adults with isolated ventricular septal defect closed in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Thomas; Lindberg, Harald; Lund, May Brit; Holmstrom, Henrik; Dohlen, Gaute; Thaulow, Erik

    2018-06-01

    We previously demonstrated an abnormally high right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise in 50% of adolescents operated on for isolated ventricular septal defect. The present study investigated the prevalence of abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response in 20 adult (age 30-45 years) patients who underwent surgery for early ventricular septal defect closure and its association with impaired ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. The patients underwent cardiopulmonary tests, including exercise stress echocardiography. Five of 19 patients (26%) presented an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response to exercise ⩾ 52 mmHg. Right ventricular systolic function was mixed, with normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and fractional area change, but abnormal tricuspid annular systolic motion velocity (median 6.7 cm/second) and isovolumetric acceleration (median 0.8 m/second2). Left ventricular systolic and diastolic function was normal at rest as measured by the peak systolic velocity of the lateral wall and isovolumic acceleration, early diastolic velocity, and ratio of early diastolic flow to tissue velocity, except for ejection fraction (median 53%). The myocardial performance index was abnormal for both the left and right ventricle. Peak oxygen uptake was normal (mean z score -0.4, 95% CI -2.8-0.3). There was no association between an abnormal right ventricular systolic pressure response during exercise and right or left ventricular function, pulmonary function, or exercise capacity. Abnormal right ventricular pressure response is not more frequent in adult patients compared with adolescents. This does not support the theory of progressive pulmonary vascular disease following closure of left-to-right shunts.

  8. Atypical myxomatosis--virus isolation, experimental infection of rabbits and restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Valícek, L; Bendová, J

    2003-08-01

    Atypical form of myxomatosis, which caused non-lethal and clinically mild disease in domestic rabbits 1 month after immunization with a commercially available vaccine MXT, is described. The isolated myxoma virus designated as Litovel 2 (Li-2) did not induce systemic disease following subcutaneous and intradermal applications in susceptible experimental rabbits but led to the immune response demonstrated by ELISA. No severe disease was induced in those Li-2 inoculated rabbits by challenge with the virulent strains Lausanne (Lu) or Sanar (SA), while the control animals showed nodular form of myxomatosis with lethal course of the illness. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of genomic DNA with KpnI and BamHI endonucleases was used for genetic characterization of the Li-2 isolate, the vaccine strain MXT and both virulent strains Lu and SA, respectively. In general, RFLP analysis has shown to be informative for inferring genetic relatedness between myxoma viruses. Based on restriction endonuclease DNA fragment size distribution, it was evident that the pathogenic strain SA is genetically related to the reference strain Lu and the isolate Li-2 is more related, but not identical, to the vaccination strain MXT.

  9. Sensitivity of Rabbit Ventricular Action Potential and Ca2+ Dynamics to Small Variations in Membrane Currents and Ion Diffusion Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hung Lo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how small variations in ionic currents and Ca2+ and Na+ diffusion coefficients impact action potential and Ca2+ dynamics in rabbit ventricular myocytes. We applied sensitivity analysis to quantify the sensitivity of Shannon et al. model (Biophys. J., 2004 to 5%–10% changes in currents conductance, channels distribution, and ion diffusion in rabbit ventricular cells. We found that action potential duration and Ca2+ peaks are highly sensitive to 10% increase in L-type Ca2+ current; moderately influenced by 10% increase in Na+-Ca2+ exchanger, Na+-K+ pump, rapid delayed and slow transient outward K+ currents, and Cl− background current; insensitive to 10% increases in all other ionic currents and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ fluxes. Cell electrical activity is strongly affected by 5% shift of L-type Ca2+ channels and Na+-Ca2+ exchanger in between junctional and submembrane spaces while Ca2+-activated Cl−-channel redistribution has the modest effect. Small changes in submembrane and cytosolic diffusion coefficients for Ca2+, but not in Na+ transfer, may alter notably myocyte contraction. Our studies highlight the need for more precise measurements and further extending and testing of the Shannon et al. model. Our results demonstrate usefulness of sensitivity analysis to identify specific knowledge gaps and controversies related to ventricular cell electrophysiology and Ca2+ signaling.

  10. Inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica L. root on electrophysiological properties of isolated rabbit atrioventricular node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Enayati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The ideal drug for treatment of a wide range of supraventricular arrhythmia hasn't yet been developed. Previous studies have shown antihypertensive and negative inotropic effects of the Urtica dioica L. (nettle. Therefore, the aim of present study is to determine the rate dependent inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of nettle root and investigate the role of adrenoceptors in the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nettle on the isolated rabbit atrio-ventricular node. Methods: Urtica dioica roots were collected from Gorgan (Golestan, Iran. Male New Zealand rabbits (n=7 were used in all of the experiments. Experimental stimulation protocols (WBCL; Recovery, Facilitation, Fatigue were applied to assess electrophysiological properties of Node. All protocols were repeated in the presence and absence (control of different concentration (0.25-0.5 w/v % of nettle and 1 μM nadolol. Data were shown as Mean±SE, difference between groups statistically were assessed by SPSS software. Results: Nettle (0.5 w/v significantly decreased basic and functional properties of node as WBCL, ERP, FRP, AVCT and magnitude of fatigue (∆AH significantly increased but ∆FRP significantly decreased. In the presence of nadolol (1μM as a nonselective β-blocker, nettle (0.3 mg/L could not repeat its effects on electrophysiological properties of AV-node. Conclusion: The results showed the modifying properties of Urtica dioica root extract. It may be considered as a candidate for the treatment of supraventicular arrhythmias.

  11. Sympatholytic properties of several AT(1)-receptor antagonists in the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Alexander; Balt, Jippe C.; Pfaffendorf, Martin; van Zwieten, Pieter A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the facilitating effect of angiotensin II on sympathetic neurotransmission to quantitatively compare the sympatho-inhibitory potencies of the selective AT(1)-receptor antagonists losartan, irbesartan and telmisartan in the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta. Design To investigate

  12. Stretch-dependent slow force response in isolated rabbit myocardium is Na+ dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Dirk; Stumme, Burkhard; Maier, Lars S; Luers, Claus; Bers, Donald M; Pieske, Burkert

    2003-03-15

    Stretch induces functional and trophic effects in mammalian myocardium via various signal transduction pathways. We tested stretch signal transduction on immediate and slow force response (SFR) in rabbit myocardium. Experiments were performed in isolated right ventricular muscles from adult rabbit hearts (37 degrees C, 1 Hz stimulation rate, bicarbonate-buffer). Muscles were rapidly stretched from 88% of optimal length (L88) to near optimal length (L98) for functional analysis. The resulting immediate and slow increases in twitch force (first phase and SFR, respectively) were assessed at reduced [Na+]o or without and with blockade of stretch activated ion channels (SACs), angiotensin-II (AT1) receptors, endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptors, Na+/H+-exchange (NHE1), reverse mode Na+/Ca2+-exchange (NCX), or Na+/K+-ATPase. The effects of stretch on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-load were characterized using rapid cooling contractures (RCCs). Intracellular pH was measured in BCECF-AM loaded muscles, and action potential duration (APD) was assessed using floating electrodes. On average, force increased to 216+/-8% of the pre-stretch value during the immediate phase, followed by a further increase to 273+/-10% during the SFR (n=81). RCCs significantly increased during SFR, whereas pH and APD did not change. Neither inhibition of SACs, AT1, or ET(A) receptors affected the stretch-dependent immediate phase nor SFR. In contrast, SFR was reduced by NHE inhibition and almost completely abolished by reduced [Na+]o or inhibition of reverse-mode NCX, whereas increased SFR was seen after raising [Na+]i by Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition. The data demonstrate the existence of a delayed, Na+- and Ca2+-dependent but pH and APD independent SFR to stretch in rabbit myocardium. This inotropic response appears to be independent of autocrine/paracrine AT1 or ET(A) receptor activation, but mediated through stretch-induced activation of NHE and reverse mode NCX.

  13. Action potential conduction between a ventricular cell model and an isolated ventricular cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilders, R.; Kumar, R.; Joyner, R. W.; Jongsma, H. J.; Verheijck, E. E.; Golod, D.; van Ginneken, A. C.; Goolsby, W. N.

    1996-01-01

    We used the Luo and Rudy (LR) mathematical model of the guinea pig ventricular cell coupled to experimentally recorded guinea pig ventricular cells to investigate the effects of geometrical asymmetry on action potential propagation. The overall correspondence of the LR cell model with the recorded

  14. Noninvasive cardiac activation imaging of ventricular arrhythmias during drug-induced QT prolongation in the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Zhou, Zhaoye; He, Bin

    2013-10-01

    Imaging myocardial activation from noninvasive body surface potentials promises to aid in both cardiovascular research and clinical medicine. To investigate the ability of a noninvasive 3-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging technique for characterizing the activation patterns of dynamically changing ventricular arrhythmias during drug-induced QT prolongation in rabbits. Simultaneous body surface potential mapping and 3-dimensional intracardiac mapping were performed in a closed-chest condition in 8 rabbits. Data analysis was performed on premature ventricular complexes, couplets, and torsades de pointes (TdP) induced during intravenous administration of clofilium and phenylephrine with combinations of various infusion rates. The drug infusion led to a significant increase in the QT interval (from 175 ± 7 to 274 ± 31 ms) and rate-corrected QT interval (from 183 ± 5 to 262 ± 21 ms) during the first dose cycle. All the ectopic beats initiated by a focal activation pattern. The initial beat of TdPs arose at the focal site, whereas the subsequent beats were due to focal activity from different sites or 2 competing focal sites. The imaged results captured the dynamic shift of activation patterns and were in good correlation with the simultaneous measurements, with a correlation coefficient of 0.65 ± 0.02 averaged over 111 ectopic beats. Sites of initial activation were localized to be ~5 mm from the directly measured initiation sites. The 3-dimensional cardiac electrical imaging technique could localize the origin of activation and image activation sequence of TdP during QT prolongation induced by clofilium and phenylephrine in rabbits. It offers the potential to noninvasively investigate the proarrhythmic effects of drug infusion and assess the mechanisms of arrhythmias on a beat-to-beat basis. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14, from domestic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Huang, Yi; Wang, Ming; Guo, Rongtong; Lam, Carol S F; Tsang, Alan K L; Lai, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Che, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-05-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14 (RbCoV HKU14), from domestic rabbits. The virus was detected in 11 (8.1%) of 136 rabbit fecal samples by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), with a viral load of up to 10(8) copies/ml. RbCoV HKU14 was able to replicate in HRT-18G and RK13 cells with cytopathic effects. Northern blotting confirmed the production of subgenomic mRNAs coding for the HE, S, NS5a, E, M, and N proteins. Subgenomic mRNA analysis revealed a transcription regulatory sequence, 5'-UCUAAAC-3'. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RbCoV HKU14 formed a distinct branch among Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, being most closely related to but separate from the species Betacoronavirus 1. A comparison of the conserved replicase domains showed that RbCoV HKU14 possessed N-protein-based Western blot assay, whereas neutralizing antibody was detected in 1 of these 20 rabbits.

  16. Isolation and characterization of rabbit caecal pectinolytic bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirotek, Kamil; Marounek, Milan; Rada, V.; Benda, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2001), s. 79-82 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD0211; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : pectinolytic bacteria * rabbit Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  17. Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Rabbit Caecal Mucinolytic Bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirotek, Kamil; Santos, E.; Benda, V.; Marounek, Milan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, - (2003), s. 365-370 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 848.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : rabbit * caecum * mucin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2003

  18. Transient Outward K+ Current (Ito) Underlies the Right Ventricular Initiation of Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia in a Transgenic Rabbit Model of Long-QT Syndrome Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bum-Rak; Li, Weiyan; Terentyev, Dmitry; Kabakov, Anatoli Y; Zhong, Mingwang; Rees, Colin M; Terentyeva, Radmila; Kim, Tae Yun; Qu, Zhilin; Peng, Xuwen; Karma, Alain; Koren, Gideon

    2018-06-01

    Sudden death in long-QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1), an inherited disease caused by loss-of-function mutations in KCNQ1, is triggered by early afterdepolarizations (EADs) that initiate polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (pVT). We investigated ionic mechanisms that underlie pVT in LQT1 using a transgenic rabbit model of LQT1. Optical mapping, cellular patch clamping, and computer modeling were used to elucidate the mechanisms of EADs in transgenic LQT1 rabbits. The results showed that shorter action potential duration in the right ventricle (RV) was associated with focal activity during pVT initiation. RV cardiomyocytes demonstrated higher incidence of EADs under 50 nmol/L isoproterenol. Voltage-clamp studies revealed that the transient outward potassium current (I to ) magnitude was 28% greater in RV associated with KChiP2 but with no differences in terms of calcium-cycling kinetics and other sarcolemmal currents. Perfusing with the I to blocker 4-aminopyridine changed the initial focal sites of pVT from the RV to the left ventricle, corroborating the role of I to in pVT initiation. Computer modeling showed that EADs occur preferentially in the RV because of the larger conductance of the slow-inactivating component of I to , which repolarizes the membrane potential sufficiently rapidly to allow reactivation of I Ca,L before I Kr has had sufficient time to activate. I to heterogeneity creates both triggers and an arrhythmogenic substrate in LQT1. In the absence of I Ks , I to interactions with I Ca,L and I Kr promote EADs in the RV while prolonging action potential duration in the left ventricle. This heterogeneity of action potential enhances dispersion of refractoriness and facilitates conduction blocks that initiate pVTs. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Activation of NADPH oxidase mediates increased endoplasmic reticulum stress and left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bao; Tian, Jing; Sun, Yi; Xu, Tao-Rui; Chi, Rui-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Hu, Xin-Ling; Zhang, Yue-An; Qin, Fu-Zhong; Zhang, Wei-Fang

    2015-05-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 3-phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are increased after myocardial infarction (MI). In this study, we proposed to test whether activation of the NADPH oxidase in the remote non-infarcted myocardium mediates ER stress and left ventricular (LV) remodeling after MI. Rabbits with MI or sham operation were randomly assigned to orally receive an NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or placebo for 30 days. The agents were administered beginning at 1 week after surgery. MI rabbits exhibited decreases in LV fractional shortening, LV ejection fraction and the first derivative of the LV pressure rise, which were abolished by apocynin treatment. NADPH oxidase Nox2 protein and mRNA expressions were increased in the remote non-infarcted myocardium after MI. Immunolabeling further revealed that Nox2 was increased in cardiac myocytes in the remote myocardium. The apocynin treatment prevented increases in the Nox2 expression, NADPH oxidase activity, oxidative stress, myocyte apoptosis and GRP78, CHOP and cleaved caspase 12 protein expression in the remote myocardium. The apocynin treatment also attenuated increases in myocyte diameter and cardiac fibrosis. In cultured H9C2 cardiomyocytes exposed to angiotensin II, an important stimulus for post-MI remodeling, Nox2 knockdown with siRNA significantly inhibited angiotensin II-induced NADPH oxidase activation, reactive oxygen species and GRP78 and CHOP protein expression. We conclude that NADPH oxidase inhibition attenuates increased ER stress in the remote non-infarcted myocardium and LV remodeling late after MI in rabbits. These findings suggest that the activation of NADPH oxidase in the remote non-infarcted myocardium mediates increased ER stress, contributing to myocyte apoptosis and LV remodeling after MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chamber-specific effects of hypokalaemia on ventricular arrhythmogenicity in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchii, Oleg E; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2009-01-01

    of hypokalaemic perfusion (2.5 mm K(+) for 30 min) were assessed in isolated guinea-pig heart preparations using simultaneous recordings of volume-conducted electrocardiogram and monophasic action potentials from six ventricular epicardial sites. Effective refractory periods, ventricular fibrillation thresholds...... for re-entrant tachyarrhythmias. Taken together, these findings suggest that proarrhythmic effects of hypokalaemia are mostly attributed to increased LV arrhythmogenicity in the guinea-pig heart....

  1. Genomic 3' terminal sequence comparison of three isolates of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, I D; Vlasak, R; Nowotny, N; Rodak, L; Carter, M J

    1992-05-15

    Comparison of sequence data is necessary in older to investigate virus origins, identify features common to virulent strains, and characterize genomic organization within virus families. A virulent caliciviral disease of rabbits recently emerged in China. We have sequenced 1100 bases from the 3' ends of two independent European isolates of this virus, and compared these with previously determined calicivirus sequences. Rabbit caliciviruses were closely related, despite the different countries in which isolation was made. This supports the rapid spread of a new virus across Europe. The capsid protein sequences of these rabbit viruses differ markedly from those determined for feline calicivirus, but a hypothetical 3' open reading frame is relatively well conserved between the caliciviruses of these two different hosts and argues for a functional role.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of contrast materials on left ventricular angiography in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    The precise pathologic anatomy in complex congenital heart disease requires multiple injections of iodinated contrast materials into the cardiac chambers and/or great vessels. In the presence of intracardial shunts, more large volumes of contrast material is often required. In neonates and infants the total volume of contrast material during single angiographic procedure is limited up to 3-4ml/kg. This limitation results from the deleterious effects of systemic hyperosmolarity caused by the contrast materials and may be intensified in the neonate because of the relative immaturity of infants kidneys and delayed excretion of contrast materials. We therefore tried to compare the EKG and left ventricular pressure change with those of high osmolar and low osmolar contrast agent in experimental model. The purpose of the study is to determine and compare the effects of contrast materials on left ventricular hemodynamics

  3. Electromechanical effects of bepridil on rabbit isolated hearts.

    OpenAIRE

    Anno, T.; Furuta, T.; Itoh, M.; Kodama, I.; Toyama, J.; Yamada, K.

    1984-01-01

    Electromechanical effects of a new antianginal agent, bepridil, on Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were compared with those of verapamil and lidocaine. Bepridil at concentrations above 2 X 10(-7)M caused a dose-related decrease in heart rate (HR), a prolongation of the atrio-His bundle conduction time (A-H interval) and a prolongation of the functional refractory period (FRP) of the atrioventricular (A-V) node. Similar changes in HR, A-H interval and the FRP of the A-V node were observed w...

  4. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Cuniculorum Isolated from Rabbits Reared in Intensive and Rural Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Silvia; Florio, Daniela; Mion, Domenico; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility in Campylobacter cuniculorum. To do so, 29 isolates from rabbits reared in 18 intensive and 11 rural farms not epidemiologically correlated were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 8 antimicrobial agents was determined using the agar dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, PA, USA), modified – for what supplements in the base medium and incubation conditions concern – for C. cuniculorum isolates. The isolates obtained from rural farming resulted susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of one isolate resistant to nalidixic acid. All the isolates obtained from intensively farmed rabbits were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ampicillin; 16 isolates were resistant to tetracycline; 15 to nalidixic acid and erythromycin; 13 and 10 isolates to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively; and only 1 to gentamicin. The resistance of several isolates to macrolides and fluoroquinolones, which are the drugs of choice in treatment of human campylobacteriosis, could pose a risk to human health if a pathogenic role of C. cuniculorum was demonstrated. PMID:27853713

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter cuniculorum isolated from rabbits reared in intensive and rural farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Piva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility in Campylobacter cuniculorum. To do so, 29 isolates from rabbits reared in 18 intensive and 11 rural farms not epidemiologically correlated were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 8 antimicrobial agents was determined using the agar dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, PA, USA, modified – for what supplements in the base medium and incubation conditions concern – for C. cuniculorum isolates. The isolates obtained from rural farming resulted susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of one isolate resistant to nalidixic acid. All the isolates obtained from intensively farmed rabbits were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ampicillin; 16 isolates were resistant to tetracycline; 15 to nalidixic acid and erythromycin; 13 and 10 isolates to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively; and only 1 to gentamicin. The resistance of several isolates to macrolides and fluoroquinolones, which are the drugs of choice in treatment of human campylobacteriosis, could pose a risk to human health if a pathogenic role of C. cuniculorum was demonstrated.

  7. Uptake, incorporation and metabolism of (3H)triolein in the isolated perfused rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, M.T.; Palazzo, A.J.; Williams, J.L. Jr.; Malik, K.U.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the uptake and metabolism of exogenous triglyceride in the isolated perfused rabbit heart. When infused into the rabbit heart, [9,10-3H(N)]triolein was retained and incorporated into a lipid fraction that had the chromatographic mobility of authentic triolein. Incorporation of labeled triolein was not likely to be the result of a lipoprotein lipase-mediated lipolysis/resynthesis cycle, since: (i) The distribution of radioactivity following administration of [3H]oleic acid was markedly different from the distribution of radioactivity following the administration of [3H]triolein; (ii) heparin was administered to the rabbits at the time of sacrifice; and (iii) the hearts were perfused with a protein-free buffer for 20 min prior to the labelling period. When isoproterenol was administered to hearts labelled with [3H]triolein, there was an increased output of total radioactivity, composed of labelled free fatty acids, diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol. In these same hearts, there was an increased output of glycerol in response to isoproterenol. However, following the administration of bradykinin or angiotensin II, neither the radioactivity nor the glycerol content of the perfusate was changed. These data suggest that [3H]triolein is selectively incorporated into the triglyceride pool of the isolated perfused rabbit heart. Furthermore, this [3H]triolein is available to hormonally-activated lipolytic enzymes

  8. Prognostic impact of isolated right ventricular dysfunction in sepsis and septic shock: an 8-year historical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhajosyula, Saraschandra; Kumar, Mukesh; Pandompatam, Govind; Sakhuja, Ankit; Kashyap, Rahul; Kashani, Kianoush; Gajic, Ognjen; Geske, Jeffrey B; Jentzer, Jacob C

    2017-09-07

    Echocardiographic myocardial dysfunction is reported commonly in sepsis and septic shock, but there are limited data on sepsis-related right ventricular dysfunction. This study sought to evaluate the association of right ventricular dysfunction with clinical outcomes in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Historical cohort study of adult patients admitted to all intensive care units at the Mayo Clinic from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2014 for severe sepsis and septic shock, who had an echocardiogram performed within 72 h of admission. Patients with prior heart failure, cor-pulmonale, pulmonary hypertension and valvular disease were excluded. Right ventricular dysfunction was defined by the American Society of Echocardiography criteria. Outcomes included 1-year survival, in-hospital mortality and length of stay. Right ventricular dysfunction was present in 214 (55%) of 388 patients who met the inclusion criteria-isolated right ventricular dysfunction was seen in 100 (47%) and combined right and left ventricular dysfunction in 114 (53%). The baseline characteristics were similar between cohorts except for the higher mechanical ventilation use in patients with isolated right ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiographic findings demonstrated lower right ventricular and tricuspid valve velocities in patients with right ventricular dysfunction and lower left ventricular ejection fraction and increased mitral E/e' ratios in patients with combined right and left ventricular dysfunction. After adjustment for age, comorbidity, illness severity, septic shock and use of mechanical ventilation, isolated right ventricular dysfunction was independently associated with worse 1-year survival-hazard ratio 1.6 [95% confidence interval 1.2-2.1; p = 0.002) in patients with sepsis and septic shock. Isolated right ventricular dysfunction is seen commonly in sepsis and septic shock and is associated with worse long-term survival.

  9. [Effects of genistein on contractility of isolated right ventricular muscles in guinea pig].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jin-xia; Li, Hong-fang; Liu, Chong-bin; Tian, Zhi-feng

    2008-11-01

    To study the effect of genistein (GEN) on contractility of isolated right ventricular muscles in guinea pig and its mechanisms. Isolated guinea pig ventricular muscles were suspended in organ baths containing K-H solution.After an equilibration period, the effect of GEN on contraction of myocardium was observed. GEN and isoprenaline hydrochloride had the positive inotropic effects on contractity of myocardium. Meanwhile, the effect of GEN (1-100 micromol x L(-1)) was in dose-dependent manner. Propranolol (1 micromol x L(-1)) and verapamil hydrochloride (0.5 micromol x L(-1)) attenuated the positive inotropic effect of isoprenaline hydrochloride (1 micromol x L(-1)), but did not change the effect of GEN (50 micromol x L(-1)). Further more, the enhancement of the contraction induced by elevation of extracellular Ca2+ concentration in ventricular muscles had no change after pretreatment with GEN (1.10 micromol x L(-1)). In addition,the positive inotropic effect of GEN was inhibited partially by tamoxifen (1 micromol x L(-1)) and SQ22536 (1 micromol x L(-1)), also, could be attenuated by bpV (1 micromol x L(-1)). GEN has the positive inotropic effect on guinea pig ventricular muscles, which is not related to the activation of beta adrenoceptor, Ca2+ channel on cell membrane,but may involve in cAMP of intracellular signal transduction and tyrosine kinase pathway.

  10. Late Ratchet syndrome involving isolated left ventricular lead dislodgement post-cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator generator change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vern Hsen; Wong, Kelvin

    2018-04-01

    Lead dislodgement following cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) generator change is rare. We report a case including the postulate mechanism of an isolated left ventricular lead dislodgement 3 months after cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator pulse generator change.

  11. In utero premature closure of the ductus arteriosus presenting as isolated right ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Webb E; Wilson, Allen D; Srinivasan, Shardha; Seeger, Kimberly J; Maginot, Kathleen R

    2009-10-01

    The etiology of isolated right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is distinct from other forms of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. RVH is typically seen in the setting of pulmonary valve stenosis or Tetralogy of Fallot. A rare cause of isolated RVH is premature closure of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in utero that results in pulmonary hypertension. This can have a range of outcomes, from spontaneous resolution to fetal demise. This case report describes a term infant who presented with respiratory distress and striking isolated RVH, pulmonary hypertension, and no PDA. She was treated conservatively with supplemental oxygen. The patient was gradually weaned off oxygen over the course of two weeks and follow-up echocardiography showed resolution of her RVH and pulmonary hypertension by 14 weeks of age. The presentation and course of this patient with severe isolated RVH is consistent with spontaneous premature closure of the ductus arteriosus in utero.

  12. Comparative study of interventricular phase difference and pressure gradient in cases of isolated ventricular septal defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhaddad, SH; Moustafa, H; Ziada, G; Seleem, Z; Elsabban, KH; Mahmoud, F [Nuclear medicine department and pediatric cardiology department Faculty of medicine, Cairo university, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    One hundred and fifty patients with isolated VSD were evaluated by radionuclide MUGA study and Echo-Doppler. Difference between phase angle of the right and left ventricles as detected by MUGA had been divided into main four groups according to pressure gradient between the two ventricles : group I (with pressure gradient {<=}30 mmHg and phase difference 80.10 degree{+-}34.1), group III (with pressure gradient > 70 mmHg and phase difference -0.5 degree {+-} 8.4). It has been found that there was a significant difference between the 4 groups as regards right - to - left ventricular phase difference (P<0.0001). There was significant delay in emptying of right ventricle in groups with pressure gradient < 50 mmHg. Regression analysis revealed inverse correlation between right -to- left ventricular phase difference with changes in pressure gradient (r= 0.81). Similarly, significant correlation had been found between right -to-left ventricular phase difference in relation Qp/Qs (r=0.85); conclusion: interventricular phase difference can be used to evaluate interventricular pressure gradient in cases of isolated VSD. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Pre- and postsynaptic effects of brimonidine on isolated rabbit iris dilator muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsui S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sonoko Tatsui,1 Hitoshi Ishikawa,2 Kimiya Shimizu,1 Kimiyo Mashimo1 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 2Department of Orthoptics and Visual Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Japan Purpose: Brimonidine is an imidazoline compound used for the treatment of glaucoma, but having very little effect on pupil diameter. Like para-aminoclonidine, most imidazoline compounds interact with postsynaptic α-adrenoceptors and cause pupil dilatation. Therefore, as part of an investigation of the mechanism of action of brimonidine on pupil diameter, the present study was initiated to measure, in vitro, the relative potency of brimonidine on the pre- and postsynaptic α-adrenoceptors of rabbit iris dilator muscle. Methods: The contractile activity of brimonidine and its effect on twitch contraction evoked by electrical field stimulation were studied in isolated rabbit iris dilator muscles by isometric tension recording. Results: Brimonidine significantly inhibited the twitch contraction of the dilator muscle caused by field stimulation, without affecting the response to exogenously applied phenylephrine. Compared to phenylephrine, brimonidine caused only a small contractile response with % maximum contraction values of<10%. Conclusion: These results suggest that brimonidine may act on nerve endings to inhibit adrenergic neurotransmission with very little effect on postsynaptic α-adrenoceptors. This may indicate that brimonidine reduced the pupil diameter just a little, thus improving night vision. Keywords: brimonidine, rabbit iris dilator, electrical field stimulation, presynaptic α2-adrenoceptor, postsynaptic α1-adrenoceptor, imidazolin

  14. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Rabbits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in a pediatric population with isolated left ventricular non-compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated Left Ventricular Non-compaction (LVNC is an uncommon disorder characterized by the presence of increased trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses. In adults, it has been found that Ejection Fraction (EF decreases significantly as non-compaction severity increases. In children however, there are a few data describing the relation between anatomical characteristics of LVNC and ventricular function. We aimed to find correlations between morphological features and ventricular performance in children and young adolescents with LVNC using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR. Methods 15 children with LVNC (10 males, mean age 9.7 y.o., range 0.6 - 17 y.o., underwent a CMR scan. Different morphological measures such as the Compacted Myocardial Mass (CMM, Non-Compaction (NC to the Compaction (C distance ratio, Compacted Myocardial Area (CMA and Non-Compacted Myocardial Area (NCMA, distribution of NC, and the assessment of ventricular wall motion abnormalities were performed to investigate correlations with ventricular performance. EF was considered normal over 53%. Results The distribution of non-compaction in children was similar to published adult data with a predilection for apical, mid-inferior and mid-lateral segments. Five patients had systolic dysfunction with decreased EF. The number of affected segments was the strongest predictor of systolic dysfunction, all five patients had greater than 9 affected segments. Basal segments were less commonly affected but they were affected only in these five severe cases. Conclusion The segmental pattern of involvement of non-compaction in children is similar to that seen in adults. Systolic dysfunction in children is closely related to the number of affected segments.

  16. Prenatal Isolated Ventricular Septal Defect May Not Be Associated with Trisomy 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Shen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine if isolated fetal ventricular septal defect (VSD is associated with trisomy 21. One hundred twenty six cases with prenatal VSD diagnosed by a pediatric cardiologist were reviewed. Cases with known risk factors for congenital heart disease, the presence of other major anomalies, soft signs for trisomy 21 or a positive screen test for trisomy 21 were excluded. Ninety two cases formed the study group. None of the cases in the study group had trisomy 21. The upper limit of prevalence for trisomy 21 in isolated VSD is 3%. When prenatal VSD is not associated with other major anomalies, soft markers for trisomy 21 or a positive nuchal translucency or biochemical screen, a decision whether to perform genetic amniocentesis should be individualized. The currently unknown association between isolated VSD and microdeletions and microduplications should be considered when discussing this option.

  17. Single Nisoldipine-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells Isolated from Rabbit Mesenteric Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Jennings F.; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Nelson, Mark T.

    1986-08-01

    Single smooth muscle cells were enzymatically isolated from the rabbit mesenteric artery. At physiological levels of external Ca, these cells were relaxed and contracted on exposure to norepinephrine, caffeine, or high levels of potassium. The patch-clamp technique was used to measure unitary currents through single channels in the isolated cells. Single channels were selective for divalent cations and exhibited two conductance levels, 8 pS and 15 pS. Both types of channels were voltage-dependent, and channel activity occurred at potentials positive to -40 mV. The activity of both channel types was almost completely inhibited by 50 nM nisoldipine. These channels appear to be the pathways for voltage-dependent Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle and may be the targets of the clinically used dihydropyridines.

  18. Aspirin induces morphological transformation to the secretory state in isolated rabbit parietal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, U K; Levine, R A

    1991-08-01

    The morphological response of rabbit parietal cells to aspirin was evaluated by grading several ultra-structural features including the extent of the tubulovesicular system, intracellular secretory canaliculi, and microvilli. After exposure of isolated parietal cells and gastric glands to aspirin or histamine, there was an approximately twofold increase in the ratio of secretory to nonsecretory parietal cells, and depletion of extracellular Ca2+ abolished the aspirin-induced morphological changes. Morphometry in parietal cells showed that aspirin induced a sixfold increase in secretory canalicular membrane elaboration. Aspirin potentiated histamine-induced parietal cell respiration and aminopyrine uptake ratio but did not increase basal respiration or aminopyrine uptake, suggesting an apparent dissociation from aspirin-induced morphological changes.

  19. Normal age-related viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes isolated from rabbit knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wang-ping; SUN Zhen-wei; LI Qi; LI Chun-jiang; WANG Li; CHEN Wei-yi; Jennifer Tickner; ZHENG Ming-hao; WEI Xiao-chun

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanical microenvironment of the chondrocytes plays an important role in cartilage homeostasis and in the health of the joint.The pericellular matrix,cellular membrane of the chondrocytes,and their cytoskeletal structures are key elements in the mechanical environment.The aims of this study are to measure the viscoelastic properties of isolated chondrons and chondrocytes from rabbit knee cartilage using micropipette aspiration and to determine the effect of aging on these properties.Methods Three age groups of rabbit knees were evaluated:(1) young (2 months,n=10);(2) adult (8 months,n=10);and (3) old (31 months,n=10).Chondrocytes were isolated from the right knee cartilage and chondrons were isolated from left knees using enzymatic methods.Micropipette aspiration combined with a standard linear viscoelastic solid model was used to quantify changes in the viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes within 2 hours of isolation.The morphology and structure of isolated chondrons were evaluated by optical microscope using hematoxylin and eosin staining and collagen-6 immunofluorescence staining.Results In response to an applied constant 0.3-0.4 kPa of negative pressure,all chondrocytes exhibited standard linear viscoelastic solid properties.Model predictions of the creep data showed that the average equilibrium modulus (E∞),instantaneous modulus (E0).and apparent viscosity (μ) of old chondrocytes was significantly lower than the young and adult chondrocytes (P<0.001);however,no difference was found between young and adult chondrocytes (P>0.05).The adult and old chondrons generally possessed a thicker pericellular matrix (PCM) with more enclosed cells.The young and adult chondrons exhibited the same viscoelastic creep behavior under a greater applied pressure (1.0-1.1kPa) without the deformation seen in the old chondrons.The viscoelastic properties (E∞,E0,and u) of young and adult chondrons were significantly greater than that observed

  20. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced acute lung injury in an isolated perfused rabbit-lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masato; Nishida, Osamu; Nakamura, Fujio; Katsuya, Hirotada

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Some animal studies suggest that free radical scavengers inhibit the onset of oxidant-induced ALI. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is chemically similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as the endogenous antioxidant vitamin E. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that propofol has antioxidant potential. We hypothesized that propofol may attenuate ALI by acting as a free-radical scavenger. We investigated the effects of propofol on oxidant-induced ALI induced by purine and xanthine oxidase (XO), in isolated perfused rabbit lung, in two series of experiments. In series 1, we examined the relationship between the severity of ALI and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In series 2, we evaluated the effects of propofol on attenuating ALI and the dose dependence of these effects. The lungs were perfused for 90 min, and we evaluated the effects on the severity of ALI by monitoring the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), and the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure (Ppc). In series 1, treatment with catalase (an H2O2 scavenger) prior to the addition of purine and XO resulted in complete prevention of ALI, suggesting that H2O2 may be involved closely in the pathogenesis of ALI. In series 2, pretreatment with propofol at concentrations in excess of 0.5 mM significantly inhibited the increases in the Kfc values, and that in excess of 0.75 mM significantly inhibited the increase in the Ppa values. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced ALI in an isolated perfused rabbit lung model, probably due to its antioxidant action.

  1. Streptococcus pharyngis sp. nov., a novel streptococcal species isolated from the respiratory tract of wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Ana I; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F

    2015-09-01

    Four isolates of an unknown Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative coccus-shaped organism, isolated from the pharynx of four wild rabbits, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. The micro-organisms were tentatively assigned to the genus Streptococcus based on cellular morphological and biochemical criteria, although the organisms did not appear to correspond to any species with a validly published name. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed their identification as members of the genus Streptococcus, being most closely related phylogenetically to Streptococcus porcorum 682-03(T) (96.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Analysis of rpoB and sodA gene sequences showed divergence values between the novel species and S. porcorum 682-03(T) (the closest phylogenetic relative determined from 16S rRNA gene sequences) of 18.1 and 23.9%, respectively. The novel bacterial isolate could be distinguished from the type strain of S. porcorum by several biochemical characteristics, such as the production of glycyl-tryptophan arylamidase and α-chymotrypsin, and the non-acidification of different sugars. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be assigned to a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, and named Streptococcus pharyngis sp. nov. The type strain is DICM10-00796B(T) ( = CECT 8754(T) = CCUG 66496(T)).

  2. Isolation and purification of rabbit imunoglobulin (IgG) for the production of a second antibody for radioimunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R. da; Borghi, V.C.

    1990-03-01

    Immunoglobulin (IgG) from rabbit serum was isolated and purified by sodium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The efficiency of the procedure was followed by total protein determination during all purification steps. The purity of the final product was verified through immunoelectroforesis of IgG with sheep serum anti-rabbit whole serum. Were obtained 850 mg of pure IgG, enough for the immunization of several sheeps to be used in the production of a second antibody for radioimmunoassay. (author) [pt

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Andrzej; Niedbalski, Wieslaw

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of complete genomes (7.5 kb) from RHDV strains isolated in Poland and estimate the genetic variability in different elements of the viral RNA. In addition, the sequence of Polish RHDV isolates isolated from 1988-2015 was compared with the sequences of other European RHDV, including the RHDVa and RHDV2/RHDVb subtypes. The complete sequence was developed by the compilation of partial nucleotide sequences. This sequence consisted of approximately 7428 nucleotides. For comparison of nucleotide sequences and the development of phylogenetic trees of Polish RHDV isolates and reference RHDV strains representing the main phylogenetic groups of classical RHDV, RHDVa and RHDV2 as well as the non-pathogenic rabbit lagovirus RCV, the BLAST software with blastn and MEGA6 with neighbour-joining method was applied. The complete nucleotide sequence of Polish isolates of RHDV has also been entered into GenBank. For comparative analysis, nineteen complete sequences representing the main RHDV genetic types available in GenBank were used. The results of phylogenetic analysis of Polish RHDV strains reveals the presence of three classical RHDV genogroups (G2, G4 and G5) and an RHDVa variant (G6). The oldest RHDV isolates (KGM 1988, PD 1989 and MAL 1994) belong to genogroup G2. It can be assumed that the elimination of these strains from the environment probably occurred at the turn of 1994 and 1995. Genogroup G2 was replaced by the phylogenetically younger BLA 1994 and OPO 2004 strains from genogroup G4, which probably originated from the G3 lineage, represented by the Italian strains BS89. The last representatives of classical RHDV in Poland are isolates GSK 1988 and ZD0 2000 from genogroup G5. A single clade contains the Polish RHDV strains from 2004-2015 (GRZ 2004, KRY 2004, L145 2004, W147 2005, SKO 2013, GLE 2013, RED1 2013, STR 2012, STR2 2013, STR 2014, BIE 2015) identified as RHDVa, which clustered

  4. Differential effects of thioridazine enantiomers on action potential duration in rabbit papillary muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ask Schou; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Sevcencu, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    with (+)-thioridazine. In this study we for the first time investigate the cardiotoxicity of the isolated thioridazine enantiomers and show their effects on ventricular repolarization. The effects of (+)-thioridazine, (-)-thioridazine, and racemate on the rabbit ventricular action potential duration (APD) were...... investigated in a randomized controlled blinded experiment. Action potentials were measured in papillary muscles isolated from 21 female rabbits, and the drug effect on 90% APD in comparison with control (DeltaDelta-APD90) was evaluated. Increasing concentrations of (+)-thioridazine and the racemate caused...

  5. Gender differences in left ventricular function in patients with isolated aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Luca; Giordan, Massimo; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Ramondo, Angelo Bruno; Cardaioli, Paolo; Isabella, Giambattista; Chioin, Raffaello; Lupia, Mario; Razzolini, Renato

    2003-05-01

    Hypertrophic response of the left ventricle to systolic overload in aortic stenosis appears to be gender-dependent. To examine gender-related differences in left ventricular (LV) function in patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis, 145 patients (65 women, 80 men; mean age 66 +/- 8 years; range: 50 to 89 years) with aortic valve area 199 mmHg, the mass:volume ratio was increased in men compared with women; of note, the mass:volume ratio in women was not increased in this subgroup compared with the general population. LV pump function in this subgroup was normal and did not differ between men and women. Although no clear-cut difference in hemodynamic parameters was seen, there was a trend towards a less compensatory increase in LV mass in females.

  6. [Effects of liensinine on haemodynamics in rats and the physiologic properties of isolated rabbit atria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J L; Nong, Y; Jing, M X

    1992-01-01

    Liensinine(Lien), an alkaloid extracted from the green seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, has been shown to have anti-arrhythmic action, its mechanism may be related to blockade of Ca2+, Na+ influx. Lien 3 mg/kg i.v. may temporarily inhibit all parameters of haemodynamics in anesthetized or pithed rats. The inhibitory effects on LVP, +dp/dtmax and SAP in anesthetized rats are slightly stronger than those of quinidine (Qui) 3 mg/kg. Lien 1-30 mg/kg dose-dependently produced these actions. Lien and Qui 12 mg/kg lowered LVP, +dp/dtmax and SAP by 33%, 37%, 29% and 9%, 12%, 9% respectively. While both of them inhibited the other parameters of haemodynamics with nearly equal degrees. The degrees of inhibitory effect of Lien 12 mg/kg on all haemodynamic parameters nearly corresponded to these of verapamil 1 mg/kg. Lien 1-100 mumol/L reduced the contractile force of isolated left atria and the spontaneously beating rate of isolated right atria of rabbits in concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the properties of the effect of Lien on haemodynamics may be similar to those of verapamil and different from those of Qui.

  7. Neural mechanisms of peristalsis in the isolated rabbit distal colon: a neuromechanical loop hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinning, Phil G; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Omari, Taher; Arkwright, John W; Spencer, Nick J; Brookes, Simon J H; Costa, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Propulsive contractions of circular muscle are largely responsible for the movements of content along the digestive tract. Mechanical and electrophysiological recordings of isolated colonic circular muscle have demonstrated that localized distension activates ascending and descending interneuronal pathways, evoking contraction orally and relaxation anally. These polarized enteric reflex pathways can theoretically be sequentially activated by the mechanical stimulation of the advancing contents. Here, we test the hypothesis that initiation and propagation of peristaltic contractions involves a neuromechanical loop; that is an initial gut distension activates local and oral reflex contraction and anal reflex relaxation, the subsequent movement of content then acts as new mechanical stimulus triggering sequentially reflex contractions/relaxations at each point of the gut resulting in a propulsive peristaltic contraction. In fluid filled isolated rabbit distal colon, we combined spatiotemporal mapping of gut diameter and intraluminal pressure with a new analytical method, allowing us to identify when and where active (neurally-driven) contraction or relaxation occurs. Our data indicate that gut dilation is associated with propagating peristaltic contractions, and that the associated level of dilation is greater than that preceding non-propagating contractions (2.7 ± 1.4 mm vs. 1.6 ± 1.2 mm; P polarized enteric circuits. These produce propulsion of the bolus which activates further anally, polarized enteric circuits by distension, thus closing the neuromechanical loop.

  8. Isolation of a mannose/N-acetylglucosamine receptor from rabbit lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennartz, M.R.; Wileman, T.E.; Stahl, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of a mannose receptor on alveolar macrophages was first described in 1978 and later extended to other macrophage populations. Recently the novel ligand, mannose-conjugated lactoperoxidase, was used to identify this receptor as a 175kD protein. A 175kD protein exhibiting mannose and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding properties was isolated from rabbit lung membranes. Membranes were washed with high salt, mannose and EDTA to remove endogenously bound ligand and were subsequently extracted with 1% Triton-X 100. The extract was subjected to affinity chromatography on Mannose-Sepharose followed by GlcNAc-Agarose. Triton was exchanged for 1% CHAPS while the protein was bound to GlcNAc-Agarose, allowing the eluate to be concentrated without denaturation. The eluted protein bound [ 125 I]mannose-BSA in a mannan-inhibitable fashion. Microgram quantities of protein were isolated in this fashion. SDS-PAGE revealed a major protein band at 175kD. Amino acid analysis indicates low concentrations of methionine. Results from concanavalin A binding studies and endoglycosidase F digestion suggest that the mannose receptor is a glycoprotein containing N-linked oligosaccharides

  9. Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from acute, sub-acute and sub-clinical staphylococcosis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar J. Tirpude

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteria isolated from different clinical presentations of staphylococcosis in rabbits were examined for the production of various virulence factors using biochemical and immunological tests. In the total of 106 S. aureus isolates; toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, staphylococcal enterotoxin-C, DNase, α-haemolysin, β-haemolysin, δ-haemolysin, protein A and clumping factor were observed with a frequency of 33.2, 16.98, 83.96, 69.81, 36.79, 100, 78.30 and 54.72 percent, respectively. No SE-A, SE-B and SE-D producing isolates were recovered in this study. All the S. aureus isolates from acute staphylococcosis produced TSST-1, SE-C and protein A. While δ–haemolysin and clumping factor were not detected in any acute isolates, these factors were observed at a relatively higher frequency in isolates from sub-acute and sub-clinical staphylococcosis. Coagulase type III was observed more predominantly with a frequency of 45.28%, while coagulase types V and VII were not observed in any isolate. Most of the virulence factors belonged to coagulase type III followed by type VI. TSST-1 and SE-C along with coagulase types III and VI could be correlated with the acute and sub-acute staphylococcal infections in rabbits in this study.

  10. Cytotopographical specialization of enzymatically isolated rabbit retinal Müller (glial) cells: K+ conductivity of the cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Eberhardt, W

    1988-01-01

    Müller (radial glial) cells were isolated from rabbit retinae by means of papaine and mechanical dissociation. Regional membrane properties of these cells were studied by intracellular microelectrode recordings of potential responses to local application of high K+ solutions. When different parts of the cell membrane were exposed to high K+, the amplitude of the depolarizing responses varied greatly, indicating a strong regional specialization of the membrane properties. Using morphometrical data of isolated rabbit Müller cells, and a simple circuit model, we calculated the endfoot membrane to constitute more than 80% of the total K+ conductance of the cell; the specific resistivity of the endfoot membrane was about 400 omega cm2, i.e., more than 40 times less than that of the membrane of the vitread process, which is immediately adjacent. This kind of regional membrane specialization seems to be optimized in respect to the Müller cells' ability to carry spatial buffering K+ currents.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of the Progenitor Cells From the Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Bordbar, Sima

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s): Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity. ...

  12. Activation patterns of Purkinje fibers during long-duration ventricular fibrillation in an isolated canine heart model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabereaux, Paul B; Walcott, Greg P; Rogers, Jack M; Kim, Jong; Dosdall, Derek J; Robertson, Peter G; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E

    2007-09-04

    The roles of Purkinje fibers (PFs) and focal wave fronts, if any, in the maintenance of ventricular fibrillation (VF) are unknown. If PFs are involved in VF maintenance, it should be possible to map wave fronts propagating from PFs into the working ventricular myocardium during VF. If wave fronts ever arise focally during VF, it should be possible to map them appearing de novo. Six canine hearts were isolated, and the left main coronary artery was cannulated and perfused. The left ventricular cavity was exposed, which allowed direct endocardial mapping of the anterior papillary muscle insertion. Nonperfused VF was induced, and 6 segments of data, each 5 seconds long, were analyzed during 10 minutes of VF. During 36 segments of data that were analyzed, 1018 PF or focal wave fronts of activation were identified. In 534 wave fronts, activation was mapped propagating from working ventricular myocardium to PF. In 142 wave fronts, activation was mapped propagating from PF to working ventricular myocardium. In 342 wave fronts, activation was mapped arising focally. More than 1 of these 3 patterns could occur in the same wave front. PFs are highly active throughout the first 10 minutes of VF. In addition to retrograde propagation from the working ventricular myocardium to PFs, antegrade propagation occurs from PFs to working ventricular myocardium, which suggests PFs are important in VF maintenance. Prior plunge needle recordings in dogs indicate activation propagates from the endocardium toward the epicardium after 1 minute of VF, which suggests that focal sites on the endocardium may represent foci and not breakthrough. If so, in addition to reentry, abnormal automaticity or triggered activity may also occur during VF.

  13. Transport of salicylate in proximal tubule (S2 segment) isolated from rabbit kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, L.; Roch-Ramel, F.

    1988-01-01

    The secretory and the reabsorptive transport of salicylate was studied in the isolated and perfused rabbit proximal tubule (S 2 segment). Salicylate secretion (J sal b→l ) fulfilled the criteria for a carrier-mediated transport system: J sal b→l was saturable, was reversibly inhibited by probenecid, and occurred against a concentration gradient. The K m and V max for this secretory transport were 80 μM and 3,200 fmol·min -1 ·mm -1 , respectively. At luminal pH of 7.4 and 6.6, salicylate reabsorption (J sal l→b ) was low. J sal l→b was stimulated by increasing the bath Pco 2 or by removing basolateral HCO 3 - ; J sal l→b was inhibited by ethoxyzolamide and by SITS in the bath. The results indicate that salicylate reabsorption depends on H + secretion, consistent with reabsorption by simple nonionic diffusion. When salicylate was present in the lumen only, J sal l→b increased after inhibition of the secretory transport by adding ouabain or probenecid in the bath or by lowering the bath temperature. These results are compatible with luminal recycling of salicylate, and suggest the presence of a mediated secretory transporter located at the luminal membrane

  14. Effect of adenosine1-receptor blockade on renin release from rabbit isolated perfused juxtaglomerular apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihprecht, H; Lorenz, J N; Schnermann, J

    1990-01-01

    Adenosine has been proposed to act within the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) as a mediator of the inhibition of renin secretion produced by a high NaCl concentration at the macula densa. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the adenosine1 (A1)-receptor blocker 8-cyclopentyl-1......,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX) on renin release from single isolated rabbit JGAs with macula densa perfused. The A1-receptor agonist, N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), applied in the bathing solution at 10(-7) M, was found to inhibit renin secretion, an effect that was completely blocked by adding CPX (10(-5) M) to the bath....... Applied to the lumen, 10(-5) M CPX produced a modest stimulation of renin secretion rates suppressed by a high NaCl concentration at the macula densa (P less than 0.05). The effect of changing luminal NaCl concentration on renin secretion rate was examined in the presence of CPX (10(-7) and 10(-5) M...

  15. Intracellular recordings from isolated rabbit retinal Müller (glial) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Eberhardt, W

    1986-09-01

    Müller (glial) cells were isolated from rabbit retinae by papaine and mechanical dissociation. The cells were fixed on a gelatine-covered glass slide by means of concanavalin A, and the slide was mounted in a perfusion chamber under a light microscope with modified optics. Besides the recording microelectrode, two other micropipettes could be adjusted with their tips near the cell. These micropipettes were used for application of test solutions into the environment of the cells. On application of high K+ solutions, the cell depolarized strongly but during prolonged application there was a marked repolarization. After the end of high K+ application the cells showed a hyperpolarization which was enhanced in both amplitude and duration with prolongation of the K+ exposure. Both repolarization and afterhyperpolarization disappeared under ouabain. Ouabain application itself caused a small reversible depolarization. Na+ free solution caused hyperpolarization. The results suggest the existence of an active membrane pump mechanism in our cells. This pump seems to be electrogenic under our experimental conditions and seems to be activated even in the absence of sodium. The cell membrane is demonstrated to contain a significant Na+ conductance.

  16. Mechanisms behind the relaxing effect of furosemide on the isolated rabbit ear artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, R.; Aalkjaer, C.; Andreasen, F. (Institute of Pharmacology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of furosemide on isometric contration and {sup 86}Rb uptake were studied in the isolated rabbit central ear artery (CEA). A concentration-dependent relaxing effect of furosemide (0.06 mM-1.0 mM) was found in vessel segments with intact endothelium. The maximal relaxation was 28.6+-3.9% (10). The effect was not diminished in segments deprived of endothelium, and removal of endothelium itself caused no change of the force development to electrical field stimualtion. The relaxing effect was time-dependent and stimulation-dependent and was not significantly affected by membrane depolarization induced by increasing external (K{sup +}) from 10 to 120 mM. The {sup 86}Rb uptake was inhibited by both furosemide and ouabain (8.0+-0.5(8) and 5.3+-0.5(8) versus 12.8+-0.9(16) nmol (K{sup +})x mm{sup -1}x(10 min.){sup -1} in the furosemide (1.0 mM), ouabain (1.0 mM) and control groups, respectively) without interaction between the two drugs. The {sup 86}Rb uptake was not further inhibited by increasing the furosemide concentration from 0.12 mM to 1.0 mM. Our results suggest: firstly, the direct relaxing effect of furosemide on isolated vessel segments in endothelium-independent and secondly, the inhibition of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-Cl{sup -} cotransport and a possible consequent hyperpolarization of the membrane is unlikely to be the sole mechanism responsible for the vasorelaxant effect of furosemide. The demonstrated direct effect on vascular tone may be of clinical importance in situations with very high plasma concentrations of the drug or very low concentrations of serum albumin. (aluthor).

  17. Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors in rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors from rat liver have been characterized in detail by several investigators. However, little work has been done in this area using heart tissue. In this study they examined and characterized the triiodothyronine binding in rabbit hearts. Nuclei have been prepared from ventricular muscle cells of normal and thyrotoxic rabbits as well as from atrial muscle cells of normal rabbit. Hearts were perfused with a minimum essential medium containing collagenase and bovine serum albumin. Myocardial cells were isolated and then disrupted by sonication and washing with a Triton X-100 buffer solution. A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was then used to isolate the mycoardial nuclei. Radiolabelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) binding to nuclei was examined using conditions described by established procedures. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yields maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) of 0.17 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant (K/sub d/) of 400 +/- 50 pM for normal heart T 3 -receptors. The apparent capacity for T 3 binding is approximately 40% greater in myocardial nuclei prepared from hearts of hyperthyroid rabbits. The binding capacity of atrial muscle nuclei is about fourfold lower than ventricular cell nuclei. The results suggest that binding capacity for T 3 -receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle

  18. The uptake and metabolism of cystamine and taurine by isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Kodavanti, U.P.; Smith, L.L.; Mehendale, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Cystamine has been reported to be taken up by the lung slices and metabolized to taurine via hypotaurine through enzymatic processes. The objective of these studies was to determine whether intact isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs also posses similar characteristics. The lungs were isolated from male New Zealand white rabbits and S-D rats and perfused with 20 μM [ 14 C] cystamine (Sp. Act., 16.4 mCi/mmol) for 60 min and 30 min, respectively. Cystamine and its metabolites in lung as well as in perfusate were separated by TLC and quantitated using scintillation spectrometry. Similar experiments were also conducted with 20 μM taurine to investigate its fate in perfused lungs. Significant pulmonary uptake of cystamine and taurine occurred during perfusion. Cystamine was metabolized to [ 14 C] hypotaurine and [ 14 C] taurine. No further metabolism of taurine was evident in rat or rabbit lungs. Inclusion of 1 nM GSH did not significantly alter the ability of lungs to sequester cystamine, but the metabolism of hypotaurine to taurine was decreased. It was evident that cystamine was metabolized to taurine by perfused lungs in the same way as in lung slices

  19. Effects of Acetylcholine and Noradrenalin on Action Potentials of Isolated Rabbit Sinoatrial and Atrial Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; Geuzebroek, Guillaume S. C.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Wilders, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system controls heart rate and contractility through sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs to the cardiac tissue, with acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenalin (NA) as the chemical transmitters. In recent years, it has become clear that specific Regulators of G protein Signaling proteins (RGS proteins) suppress muscarinic sensitivity and parasympathetic tone, identifying RGS proteins as intriguing potential therapeutic targets. In the present study, we have identified the effects of 1 μM ACh and 1 μM NA on the intrinsic action potentials of sinoatrial (SA) nodal and atrial myocytes. Single cells were enzymatically isolated from the SA node or from the left atrium of rabbit hearts. Action potentials were recorded using the amphotericin-perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of ACh, NA, or a combination of both. In SA nodal myocytes, ACh increased cycle length and decreased diastolic depolarization rate, whereas NA decreased cycle length and increased diastolic depolarization rate. Both ACh and NA increased maximum upstroke velocity. Furthermore, ACh hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential. In atrial myocytes stimulated at 2 Hz, both ACh and NA hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential, increased the action potential amplitude, and increased the maximum upstroke velocity. Action potential duration at 50 and 90% repolarization was decreased by ACh, but increased by NA. The effects of both ACh and NA on action potential duration showed a dose dependence in the range of 1–1000 nM, while a clear-cut frequency dependence in the range of 1–4 Hz was absent. Intermediate results were obtained in the combined presence of ACh and NA in both SA nodal and atrial myocytes. Our data uncover the extent to which SA nodal and atrial action potentials are intrinsically dependent on ACh, NA, or a combination of both and may thus guide further experiments with RGS proteins. PMID:22754533

  20. Morphological variability, lectin binding and Na+,K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity of isolated Müller (glial) cells from the rabbit retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Dettmer, D; Brückner, G; Neumann, M; Birkenmeyer, G

    1985-03-22

    Rabbit retinal Müller cells were isolated by means of papaine and mechanical dissociation. These cells were shown to have a well preserved morphology and to preserve viability for many hours. Intense wheat germ agglutinin binding occurs on the photoreceptor side of Müller cells, especially in the microvillous region. Rabbit retinal Müller cells have a Na+,K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity in the same order of magnitude as brain astroglial cells.

  1. Effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors on atrial dynamics induced by C-type natriuretic peptide in isolated beating rabbit atria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Dazhi; Cui Xun; Jin Xiunan; Lan Ying; Liu Liping; Hong Lan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEI) on atrial dynamics induced by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and the contents of cyclic nucleotide (cAMP, cGMP) in isolated beating rabbit atria. Methods: After the rabbits had been anesthetized, the hearts were removed rapidly. The left auricles were isolated and fixed on the atrial perfusion system. The atrial stroke volume and the pulse pressure were observed by CNP with or without PDEIs pretreatment. The contents of cAMP and cGMP were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: (1)Compared with control cycle group, CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 ) obviously decreased the atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure (P 0.05). (2)Compared with control cycle group, IBMX(1000.0 nmol · L -1 ), a non-selective inhibitor of PDE, significantly increased the atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, cAMP and cGMP contents (P -1 ) plus CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 )group and IBMX group (P>0.05). (3)Compared with control cycle group, EHNA(30.0 nmol · L -1 ), an inhibitor of PDE2, obviously decreased the atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure (P 0.05). EHNA(30.0 nmol · L -1 ) plus CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 ) showed similar roles with EHNA only. (4)Compared with control cycle group, milrinone (1.0 nmol · L -1 ), an inhibitor of PDE3, significantly increased the content of cAMP (P 0.05). CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 ) obviously decreased the atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure (P 0.05). Conclusion: CNP can inhibit atrial dynamics by increasing the content of cGMP, the different inhibitors of PDEs play different roles in the CNP-induced inhibition of atrial dynamics in isolated beating rabbit atria. (authors)

  2. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with toxic shock syndrome, using polyethylene infection chambers in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D F; Kling, J M; Kirkland, J J; Best, G K

    1983-01-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients with toxic shock syndrome (TSS) were compared with non-TSS strains of S. aureus with respect to their virulence in rabbits. When the organisms were injected into subcutaneous chambers (perforated polyethylene golf balls) to assess virulence, a rapid mortality was observed with TSS but not with non-TSS strains. Of 16 TSS strains, 11 caused lethal infections in 33 rabbits tested, and none of the 5 control strains caused mortality in 10 rabbits. This evidence of enhanced virulence associated with TSS strains did not appear to be associated with the size of the inoculum. In addition, strains which produced lethal infections appeared to do so despite a reduction in the size of the original inoculum during the first 24 h. All of the TSS strains and none of the non-TSS strains elaborated extracellular protein(s) with a neutral pI when grown in a dialyzed beef heart medium. No other physiological difference was noted between the TSS and non-TSS strains.

  3. Validation of transport measurements in skeletal muscle with N-13 amino acids using a rabbit isolated hindlimb model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, K.C.; Bading, J.R.; DiResta, G.R.; Corbally, M.T.; Gelbard, A.S.; Brennan, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors are studying the transport of C-11 and N-13 labeled amino acids in tumor-bearing rabbits to determine the role of amino acid transport in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting in cancer. To validate a new, in vivo, method for measuring transport in skeletal muscle with these compounds, an isolated hindlimb model was developed in rabbits. The limb was perfused with a non-recirculating, normothermic, constant pressure system and a cell-free perfusate. Hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were measured during the first 75 min. of perfusion and found to remain normal and stable. Flow varied directly with perfusion pressure over the normal range of resting flows in the intact rabbit hindlimb. Time-activity curves (TAC's) were recorded from the medial thigh following bolus co-injection of L-[amide N-13] glutamine or N-13 L-glutamate with Tc-99m human serum albumin (HSA) into the femoral artery. Regional plasma flow was determined from the Tc-99m data

  4. Isolation and characterization of the progenitor cells from the blastema tissue formed at experimentally-created rabbit ear hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Bordbar, Sima

    2013-02-01

    Objective(s) : Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  5. Isoflurane administration before ischemia and during reperfusion attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury of isolated rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Ishibe, Y; Ueda, M; Hang, Y

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the effects of isoflurane on ischemia/ reperfusion (IR)-induced lung injury, we administered isoflurane before ischemia or during reperfusion. Isolated rabbit lungs were divided into the following groups: control (n = 6), perfused and ventilated for 120 min without ischemia; ISO-control (n = 6), 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) isoflurane was administered for 30 min before 120 min continuous perfusion; IR (n = 6), ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion; IR-ISO1 and IR-ISO2, ischemia followed by reperfusion and 1 MAC (n = 6) or 2 MAC (n = 6) isoflurane for 60 min; ISO-IR (n = 6), 1 MAC isoflurane was administered for 30 min before ischemia, followed by IR. During these maneuvers, we measured total pulmonary vascular resistance (Rt), coefficient of filtration (Kfc), and lung wet to dry ratio (W/D). The results indicated that administration of isoflurane during reperfusion inhibited an IR-induced increase in Kfc and W/D ratio. Furthermore, isoflurane at 2 MAC, but not 1 MAC, significantly inhibited an IR-induced increase in Rt. The administration of isoflurane before ischemia significantly attenuated the increase in IR-induced Kfc, W/D, and Rt. Our results suggest that the administration of isoflurane before ischemia and during reperfusion protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in isolated rabbit lungs.

  6. Models of torsades de pointes: effects of FPL64176, DPI201106, dofetilide, and chromanol 293B in isolated rabbit and guinea pig hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsien C; Incardona, Josephine

    2009-01-01

    For studying the torsades de pointes (TdP) liability of a compound, most high and medium throughput methods use surrogate markers such as HERG inhibition and QT prolongation. In this study, we have tested whether isolated hearts may be modified to allow TdP to be the direct readout. Isolated spontaneously beating rabbit and guinea pig hearts were perfused according to the Langendorff method in hypokalemic (2.1 mM) solution. The in vitro lead II ECG equivalent and the incidence of TdP were monitored for 1 h. In addition, heart rate, QTc, Tp-Te, short-term variability (STV), time to arrhythmia, and time to TdP were also analyzed. FPL64176, a calcium channel activator; and DPI201106, a sodium channel inactivation inhibitor, produced TdP in isolated rabbit and guinea pig hearts in a concentration dependent manner; guinea pig hearts were 3- to 5-fold more sensitive than rabbit hearts. Both compounds also increased QTc and STV. In contrast, dofetilide, an IKr inhibitor, produced no (or a low incidence of) TdP in both species, in spite of prolongation of QTc intervals. Chromanol 293B, an IKs inhibitor, did not produce TdP in rabbit hearts but elicited TdP concentration dependently in guinea pig hearts even though the compound had no effect on QTc intervals. IKs inhibition appears to be more likely to produce TdP in isolated guinea pig hearts than IKr inhibition. Chromanol 293B did not produce TdP in rabbit hearts presumably due to a low level of IKs channels in the heart. TdP produced in this study was consistent with the notion that its production was a consequence of reduced repolarization reserve, thereby causing rhythmic abnormalities. This isolated, perfused, and spontaneously beating rabbit and guinea pig heart preparation in hypokalemic medium may be useful as a preclinical test model for studying proarrhythmic liability of compounds in new drug development.

  7. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  8. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  9. Hemodynamic instability after pulmonary veins isolation in a patient with dual chamber pacemaker: The phantom injury of the ventricular lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Márcio Galindo; Lobato, Guilherme Miglioli; Chen, Shaojie

    2017-06-01

    The standard treatment of sinus node dysfunction (SND) is the pacemaker implantation, and the ideal methodology for the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) is rhythm control, but this is sometimes very hard to accomplish. For such actions, complete isolation of all pulmonary veins (PVI) is currently widely accepted as the best endpoint. In this case, we report a female patient, 81 years old, with controlled hypertension, without coronary artery disease, bearer of bilateral knee replacement, and dual chamber pacemaker implanted 1.5 years ago owing to sinus node disease, presenting the following symptoms: presyncope episodes associated with sustained irregular palpitation tachycardia. The evaluation of the pacemaker-recorded episodes of atrial fibrillation, the echocardiogram-presented normal systolic function and measurements, as well as the resting myocardial scintigraphy and with drug use did not demonstrate ischemia and/or fibrosis. The patient was in use of valsartan 320 mg daily, amlodipine 10 mg daily, sotalol hydrochloride 120 mg 2 times daily, and dabigatran 110 mg 2 times daily. At the end of the PVI, the patient presented hemodynamic instability, with a decrease in heart rate to 30 bpm and invasive arterial blood pressure to 60/30 mmHg. The pericardial puncture was quickly carried out with the possibility of cardiac tamponade as the first hypothesis, but no pericardial effusion was found. Next, we detected acute capture loss from the ventricular pacemaker lead, unvarying with high voltage and pulse width, even with stable impedance, sense and keeping the same position visualized by fluoroscopy. And there was soon afterwards induction of sustained ventricular tachycardia degenerating to spontaneous ventricular fibrillation. Electrical cardioversion-defibrillation was performed with 200J, and the sinus rhythm was reestablished, but there was a dead short, and the pacemaker generator was burned and disabled. So, we can speculate that

  10. The impact of isolated obesity on right ventricular function in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokmen, Abdullah; Sokmen, Gulizar; Acar, Gurkan; Akcay, Ahmet; Koroglu, Sedat; Koleoglu, Murat; Yalcintas, Sila; Aydin, M Naci

    2013-08-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The effects of obesity on left ventricular structure and function have been reported, but relatively little is known regarding right ventricular (RV) function in obesity. To evaluate subclinical RV alterations in obese, but otherwise healthy, young adults by conventional echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). In this study, we included 35 normal weight healthy subjects with a body mass index (BMI) 35 kg/m² (group III). All subjects underwent transthoracic echocardiography. In addition to standard echocardiographic measurements, tricuspid annular peak systolic (Sm), peak early (Em), and late diastolic (Am) velocities, isovolumetric contraction (ICTm), relaxation (IRTm) time, and ejection time (ETm) were obtained by TDI, and RV myocardial performance index (MPIm) was calculated. In group II, RV Em/Am was significantly decreased and IRTm and MPIm were significantly increased compared to group I (p obesity in young normotensive adults was associated with subclinical abnormalities in RV structure and function.

  11. Common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography of irradiated human skin and ventilated isolated rabbit lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, A.; Wendel, M.; Knels, L.; Knuschke, P.; Mehner, M.; Koch, T.; Boller, D.; Koch, P.; Koch, E.

    2005-08-01

    A compact common path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system based on a broadband superluminescence diode is used for biomedical imaging. The epidermal thickening of human skin after exposure to ultraviolet radiation is measured to proof the feasibility of FD-OCT for future substitution of invasive biopsies in a long term study on natural UV skin protection. The FD-OCT system is also used for imaging lung parenchyma. FD-OCT images of a formalin fixated lung show the same alveolar structure as scanning electron microscopy images. In the ventilated and blood-free perfused isolated rabbit lung FD-OCT is used for real-time cross-sectional image capture of alveolar mechanics throughout tidal ventilation. The alveolar mechanics changing from alternating recruitment-derecruitment at zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to persistent recruitment after applying a PEEP of 5 cm H2O is observed in the OCT images.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cardiomyopathy Merck Manual Consumer Version: Cardiomyopathy Merck Manual Consumer Version: Overview of Abnormal Heart Rhythms Orphanet: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Orphanet: Familial isolated arrhythmogenic right ventricular ...

  13. Bretylium potentiation of the contractor responses of isolated rabbit aortic strips to potassium and tyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, K; Shibata, S

    1971-09-01

    1. Pretreatment of rabbit aortic strips with bretylium potentiated the contractor response to potassium and tyramine but not to noradrenaline. On the other hand, such pretreatment inhibited the response to nicotine.2. Even in reserpinized or cold stored aortic strips, pretreatment with bretylium enhanced the contractor response to potassium and tyramine.3. Pretreatment of fresh, reserpinized, or cold stored aortic strips with pheniprazine potentiated the contractor response to potassium and tyramine.4. Pretreatment of aortic strips with bretylium or pheniprazine did not potentiate the response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT).5. The results indicate that both bretylium and pheniprazine potentiate the action of tyramine and potassium, not by presynaptic mechanisms, but by postsynaptic action, causing an increase in the sensitivity of the effector cells to the stimulants.

  14. Isolated Pulmonary Infective Endocarditis with Septic Pulmonary Embolism Complicating a Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction: Scarce and Devious Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelrahmen Abdelbar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a fifty-three-year-old male who presented with severe sepsis. He had been treated as a pneumonia patient for five months before the admission. Investigations revealed isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism in addition to undiagnosed right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT obstruction. The patient underwent surgery for the relief of RVOT obstruction by substantial muscle resection of the RVOT, pulmonary artery embolectomy, pulmonary valve replacement, and reconstruction of RVOT and main pulmonary artery with two separate bovine pericardial patches. He was discharged from our hospital after 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. He recovered well on follow-up 16 weeks after discharge. A high-suspicion index is needed to diagnose right-side heart endocarditis. Blood cultures and transesophageal echocardiogram are the key diagnostic tools.

  15. Intracellular [Ca2+] and Vo2 after manipulation of the free-energy of the Na+/Ca(2+)-exchanger in isolated rat ventricular myocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiolet, J. W.; Baartscheer, A.; Schumacher, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated whether the Na+/Ca(2+)-exchanger has a functional regulatory role in the control of oxidative metabolism in suspensions of isolated rat ventricular myocytes. Therefore we simultaneously measured intracellular [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i) with Indo-1 and respiratory rate (Vo2) after abrupt

  16. Comparative studies on mitochondria isolated from neuron-enriched and glia-enriched fractions of rabbit and beef brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberger, A; Blomstrand, C; Lehninger, A L

    1970-05-01

    Fractions enriched in neuronal and glial cells were obtained from dispersions of whole beef brain and rabbit cerebral cortex by large-scale density gradient centrifugation procedures. The fractions were characterized by appropriate microscopic observation. Mitochondria were then isolated from these fractions by differential centrifugation of their homogenates. The two different types of mitochondria were characterized with respect to certain enzyme activities, respiratory rate, rate of protein synthesis, and their buoyant density in sucrose gradients. The mitochondria from the neuron-enriched fraction were distinguished by a higher rate of incorporation of amino acids into protein, higher cytochrome oxidase activity, and a higher buoyant density in sucrose density gradients. Mitochondria from the glia-enriched fraction showed relatively high monoamine oxidase and Na(+)- and K(+)-stimulated ATPase activities. The rates of oxidation of various substrates and the acceptor control ratios did not differ appreciably between the two types of mitochondria. The difference in the buoyant density of mitochondria isolated from the neuron-enriched and glia-enriched cell fractions was utilized in attempts to separate neuronal and glial mitochondria from the mixed mitochondria obtained from whole brain homogenates in shallow sucrose gradients. The appearance of two peaks of cytochrome oxidase, monoamine oxidase, and protein concentration in such gradients shows the potential feasibility of such an approach.

  17. Hydroxyl radicals' production and ECG parameters during ischemia and reperfusion in rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulova, Hana; Stracina, Tibor; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Novakova, Marie; Taborska, Eva

    2013-06-01

    Ischemic and reperfusion injury is a serious condition related to numerous biochemical and electrical abnormalities of the myocardium. It has been repeatedly studied in various animal models. In this study, the production of hydroxyl radicals and electrophysiological parameters were compared in three species. Rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated hearts were perfused according to Langendorff under strictly identical conditions. The heart rate and arrhythmia were monitored during ischemia and reperfusion periods at defined time intervals; the production of hydroxyl radical was determined by HPLC as 2.5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2.5-DHBA) formed by salicylic acid hydroxylation. Relationship between arrhythmias and production of 2.5-DHBA was studied. The inter-species differences were observed in timing of arrhythmias onset and their severity, and in the production of 2.5-DHBA in both ischemia and reperfusion. The most considerable changes were observed in rats, where arrhythmias appeared early and with highest severity during ischemia on one side and the regular rhythm was restored early and completely during reperfusion. The corresponding changes in the production of 2.5-DHBA were observed. It can be concluded that rat isolated heart is the most suitable model for evaluation of ischemia/reperfusion injury under given experimental conditions.

  18. Assay for plasma somatomedin: (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation by isolated rabbit chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashton, I K; Francis, M J.O. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford (UK)

    1977-01-01

    The incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine by rabbit chondrocytes in vitro has been developed as a sensitive assay for plasma somatomedin. A concentration of normal plasma of 2.5% enhanced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation by 5- to 20-fold compared with basal levels in the absence of plasma. The mean potency of plasma from normal adult men was 0.96 +-0.1 u./ml (mean +- S.D.) and from acromegalic patients 1.9 +- 0.4 u./ml. The apparent potency of hypopituitary plasma alone increased on heating which suggested the presence of heat-labile inhibitors of somatomedin activity. The potency of heated hypopituitary plasma (0.6 +- 0.09 u./ml) remained significantly lower (P < 0.01) than normal plasma. Human growth hormone (0.1 to 20 ..mu..u/ml), bovine growth hormone (0.5 to 20 ..mu..u/ml), insulin (0.5 to 5 ..mu..u/ml) and glucose (0.3 to 2 mmol/l) had no direct effect on the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Chondrocytes which had been previously stored frozen also showed a response to plasma somatomedin.

  19. Water permeability of acinar cell membranes in the isolated perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, M C; Seo, Y; Rawlings, J M; Case, R M

    1990-01-01

    1. The diffusive water permeability of epithelial cell membranes in the perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland was measured at 37 degrees C by a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation method using an extracellular relaxation reagent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd(DTPA)). 2. In glands perfused with a HEPES-buffered solution containing 10 mmol l-1 Gd(DTPA), the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of the water protons showed two exponential components. The water compartment responsible for the slower component corresponded in magnitude to 71 +/- 5% of the wet weight of the gland, and was attributed to the exchangeable intracellular water of the acinar cells. 3. The rate constant for water efflux from the cells was estimated to be 4.1 +/- 0.1 s-1 which would be consistent with a diffusive membrane permeability (Pd) of approximately 3 x 10(-3) cm s-1. Stimulation with acetylcholine (10(-6) mol l-1) did not cause any detectable change in membrane water permeability. 4. Since the basolateral membrane probably provides the main pathway for water efflux, the osmotic water permeability of this barrier (expressed per gland) was estimated to be less than 6.2 cm3 s-1. This would be insufficient to account for the generation of a near-isosmotic fluid at the flow rates observed during secretion, and suggests that a substantial fraction of the flow of water occurs via a paracellular route. PMID:1966053

  20. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  1. Three dimensional endo-cardiovascular volume-rendered cine computed tomography of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia; A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Hyun Jong [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We report multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of a 34-year-old female with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. The MDCT and CMR scans displayed a spherical left ventricle (LV) with extensive fatty infiltration within the myocardium at the apex, interventricular septum and inferior wall, anteroapical origin of the papillary muscle, right ventricle wrapping around the deficient LV apex, and impaired systolic function. MDCT visualized morphologic and also functional findings of this unique cardiomyopathy.

  2. Differential Kolaviron Attenuated Contractile Responses to Agonists on Isolated Rabbit Aorta in Na+-K+ Pump Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, O K; Ofeimun, J O

    2017-12-30

    The mechanism of kolaviron-induced vascular smooth muscles (VSMs) responses has not been fullycharacterised. The present study investigated the effect and mode of action of kolaviron a biflavanoid-complex and majorcomponent of Garcinia Kola-fraction on differential contractile responses to agonists-[phenylephrine (PHE) and histamine(HIST)] on VSMs of rabbit isolated aortic rings in K+-free physiological salt solution (KFPSS). Cumulative concentrationresponses to PHE and HIST were examined on 2 mm ring segments of the thoracic aortae which were suspended in 20 mlorgan baths containing physiological salt solution (PSS) for measurement of isometric contractions, at 370C and pH 7.4. Themedium was bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2, and rings were given an initial load of 1g. Cumulative contractile responses tothe agonists were studied in normal PSS (control) and following 30 minutes exposure to K+-free PSS and/or 800µg/mLkolaviron. Contractile responses were expressed as percentage of 80 mM K+ contractions in normal PSS. Maximalcontractions (Emax) induced by PHE and HIST compared with high K+ contraction in the various preparations weredifferentially altered following exposure to K+-free or 800µg/mL kolaviron in both intact (+E) and endotheliumdenuded (-E) rings. Based on the efficacy (Emax) and potency (EC50) values for the dose-response curves of the agonists, it isconcluded that enhanced differential contractile responses elicited by agonists in K+-free PSS were significantly attenuatedby kolaviron concentration-dependently. This observation probably suggests the existence of another pathway of kolavironmode of action in vascular smooth muscle reactivity.

  3. Activation of rho is involved in the mechanism of hydrogen-peroxide-induced lung edema in isolated perfused rabbit lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Y; Ishii, Y; Kitamura, S; Sugiyama, Y

    2001-09-01

    Acute lung injury is attributed primarily to increased vascular permeability caused by reactive oxygen species derived from neutrophils, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Increased permeability is accompanied by the contraction and cytoskeleton reorganization of endothelial cells, resulting in intercellular gap formation. The Rho family of Ras-like GTPases is implicated in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and cell contraction. We examined the role of Rho in H2O2-induced pulmonary edema with the use of isolated perfused rabbit lungs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the role of Rho in increased vascular permeability induced by H2O2 in perfused lungs. Vascular permeability was evaluated on the basis of the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc, ml/min/cm H2O/100 g). We found that H2O2 (300 microM) increased lung weight, Kfc, and pulmonary capillary pressure. These effects of H2O2 were abolished by treatment with Y-27632 (50 microM), an inhibitor of the Rho effector p160 ROCK. In contrast, the muscular relaxant papaverine inhibited the H2O2-induced rise in pulmonary capillary pressure, but did not suppress the increases in lung weight and Kfc. These findings indicate that H2O2 causes pulmonary edema by elevating hydrostatic pressure and increasing vascular permeability. Y-27632 inhibited the formation of pulmonary edema by blocking both of these H2O2-induced effects. Our results suggest that Rho-related pathways have a part in the mechanism of H2O2-induced pulmonary edema. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Mitochondrial function in type I cells isolated from rabbit arterial chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchen, M R; Biscoe, T J

    1992-05-01

    1. In this, and the accompanying paper (Duchen & Biscoe, 1992), we test the hypothesis that the oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial electron transport forms a basis for transduction in the carotid body, the primary peripheral arterial oxygen sensor. We here describe for isolated type I cells the changes in autofluorescence of mitochondrial NAD(P)H that accompany changes in PO2. 2. NAD(P)H autofluorescence (excitation, 340-360 nm; emission peak, 450 nm) increased with anoxia, reflecting a rise in the NAD(P)H/NAD(P) ratio. Graded increases in autofluorescence were seen in response to graded decreases in PO2, suggesting that mitochondrial function is progressively altered below a PO2 of about 60 mmHg. 3. A mitochondrial origin for the NAD(P)H autofluorescence was suggested by the mutual exclusion of the responses to anoxia and cyanide. 4. Oxidized flavoproteins fluoresce when excited at 450 nm with an emission peak at 550 nm. The small signals obtained under these conditions increased with uncoupler and showed a graded decrease with falling PO2 reflecting a rise in the FADH/FAD ratio. 5. Hypoxia raises [Ca2+]i. The hypoxia-induced changes in mitochondrial function were not secondary to this rise. A brief K(+)-induced depolarization leads to a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. At the same time there is a rapid decrease in NAD(P)H autofluorescence followed by an increase that far outlasts the rise in [Ca2+]i. This delayed increase in autofluorescence was smaller than was the increase with anoxia, even though K(+)-induced depolarization raised [Ca2+]i more than does anoxia. In Ca(2+)-free solutions the depolarization-induced changes were abolished, while those associated with hypoxia were maintained. 6. The changes of autofluorescence with K(+)-induced depolarization appear to reflect (i) oxidation of NAD(P)H by stimulation of respiration following mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and (ii) reduction of NAD(P) by the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases. This

  5. Anti-staphylococcal properties of Eichhornia crassipes, Pistacia vera, and Ziziphus amole leaf extracts: Isolates from cattle and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Morales, Andrea; Velázquez-Ordoñez, Valente; Khusro, Ameer; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Estrada-Zúñiga, María Elena; Salem, Mohamed Z M; Valladares-Carranza, Benjamin; Burrola-Aguilar, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    The desideratum aim of the present context was to assess the biopotency of methanolic extracts of Eichhornia crassipes (E. crassipes), Pistacia vera (P. vera), and Ziziphus amole (Z. amole) leaves against various staphylococcal strains, and to quantify the phenolics as well as saponin content in them. The antibacterial activity of various concentrations (62.5-1000 μg/mL) of plant extracts was tested against control clinical strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 29213, and S. aureus ATCC 43300), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA1 and MRSA2), oxacillin sensitive S. aureus (SOSA1 and SOSA2), and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis (CoNS1, CoNS2, and CoNS3) using disc diffusion assay. Leaf extracts of the three plants exhibited pronounced growth inhibitory characteristics against staphylococci in a dose dependent manner. E. crassipes extract depicted the highest relative percentage inhibition values against control clinical strains (68.6 ± 0.5%), while P. vera (68.6 ± 0.3%) and Z. amole (74.79 ± 0.3%) extracts showed pronounced relative inhibition values against staphylococcal strains isolated from cattle. Total phenols and saponin content of leaf extracts were investigated by standard in vitro methods. The methanolic extracts of these plants were found to comprise substantial content of phenolics and saponin at varying levels. The highest value of phenolics was estimated in P. vera extract (60.0 ± 1.3 mg gallic acid/g extract), followed by Z. amole (33.6 ± 1.4 mg gallic acid/g extract), and E. crassipes (23.0 ± 1.3 mg gallic acid/g extract). Saponin content for P. vera, Z. amole, and E. crassipes extracts were estimated as 41.0 ± 1.3, 35.8 ± 1.3, and 25.0 ± 1.2 mg diosgenin/g extract, respectively. The outcome of this study suggested the exploitation of methanolic extract of P. vera, Z. amole, and E. crassipes leaves for their possible application in ethnomedicine, particularly as drugs preparation

  6. Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in spontaneous activity generated in isolated interstitial cells of Cajal from the rabbit urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Maria; Bradley, Eamonn; Garcia-Pascual, Angeles; Triguero, Domingo; Thornbury, Keith D; Hollywood, Mark A; Sergeant, Gerard P

    2017-11-05

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are non-selective cation channels that mediate influx of extracellular Na + and Ca 2+ in various cell types. L-cis-Diltiazem, a CNG channel blocker, inhibits contraction of urethral smooth muscle (USM), however the mechanisms underlying this effect are still unclear. We investigated the possibility that CNG channels contribute to spontaneous pacemaker activity in freshly isolated interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) isolated from the rabbit urethra (RUICC). Using immunocytochemistry, we found intense CNG1-immunoreactivity in vimentin-immunoreactive RUICC, mainly within patches of the cellular body and processes. In contrast, α-actin immunoreactive smooth muscle cells (SMC) did not show significant reactivity to a specific CNGA1 antibody. Freshly isolated RUICC, voltage clamped at -60mV, developed spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) that were inhibited by L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM). Similarly, L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM) also inhibited Ca 2+ waves in isolated RUICC, recorded using a Nipkow spinning disk confocal microscope. L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM) did not affect caffeine (10mM)-induced Ca 2+ transients, but significantly reduced phenylephrine-evoked Ca 2+ oscillations and inward currents in in RUICC. L-type Ca 2+ current amplitude in isolated SMC was reduced by ~18% in the presence of L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM), however D-cis-Diltiazem, a recognised L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker, abolished L-type Ca 2+ current but did not affect Ca 2+ waves or STICs in RUICC. These results indicate that the effects of L-cis-diltiazem on rabbit USM could be mediated by inhibition of CNG1 channels that are present in urethral ICC and therefore CNG channels contribute to spontaneous activity in these cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of a Large Panel of Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies against HIV-1 gp120 and Isolation of Novel Neutralizing Antibodies against the V3 Loop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Qin

    Full Text Available We recently reported the induction of potent, cross-clade neutralizing antibodies (nAbs against Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 in rabbits using gp120 based on an M-group consensus sequence. To better characterize these antibodies, 93 hybridomas were generated, which represent the largest panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs ever generated from a vaccinated rabbit. The single most frequently recognized epitope of the isolated mAbs was at the very C-terminal end of the protein (APTKAKRRVVEREKR, followed by the V3 loop. A total of seven anti-V3 loop mAbs were isolated, two of which (10A3 and 10A37 exhibited neutralizing activity. In contrast to 10A3 and most other anti-V3 loop nAbs, 10A37 was atypical with its epitope positioned more towards the C-terminal half of the loop. To our knowledge, 10A37 is the most potent and broadly neutralizing anti-V3 loop mAb induced by vaccination. Interestingly, all seven anti-V3 loop mAbs competed with PGT121, suggesting a possibility that early induction of potent anti-V3 loop antibodies could prevent induction of more broadly neutralizing PGT121-like antibodies that target the conserved base of the V3 loop stem.

  8. Application of Response Surface Methodology to Study the Effects of Brisket Fat, Soy Protein Isolate, and Cornstarch on Nutritional and Textural Properties of Rabbit Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, Edward G.; Wanyoike, Margaret M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of brisket fat, soy protein isolate, and cornstarch on chemical and textural properties of rabbit sausages were studied using surface response methodology. Sausage samples were prepared using a five-level three-variable Central Composite Rotatable Design with 16 combinations, including two replicates of the center point, carried out in random order. The level of brisket fat (BF), soy protein isolate (SPI), and cornstarch (CS) in the sausage formulation ranged within 8.3–16.7%, 0.7–2.3%, and 1.3–4.7%, respectively. Increasing BF decreased moisture and ash contents but increased protein and fat contents of the sausages (p sausages (p sausages than CS. PMID:28706941

  9. Isolated pulmonary regurgitation causes decreased right ventricular longitudinal function and compensatory increased septal pumping in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopic, S; Stephensen, S S; Heiberg, E

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Longitudinal ventricular contraction is a parameter of cardiac performance with predictive power. Right ventricular (RV) longitudinal function is impaired in patients with free pulmonary regurgitation (PR) following corrective surgery for Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). It remains unclear whether...... received a stent in the pulmonary valve orifice, inducing PR. After 2-3 months, animals were subjected to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. A subset of animals (n = 6) then underwent percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with follow-up 1 month later. Longitudinal, lateral and septal...

  10. One-and-a-half ventricular repair for isolated right ventricle metastatic tumor resection after lobectomy for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiose, Akira; Desai, Parag; Criner, Gerard J; Pai, Sheela; Steiner, Robert M; Kaiser, Larry R; Guy, T Sloane; Toyoda, Yoshiya

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman presented with shortness of breath 1 year after a right upper lobectomy for lung cancer. She showed a possible intracardiac metastasis on positron emission tomography scan. There was no other evidence of recurrence. The large right ventricular mass was associated with the right ventricle free wall, the apex, the papillary muscle, and the chordae to the tricuspid valve. After mass resection of the right ventricle, a one-and-a-half ventricular repair was performed with tricuspid valve replacement and defect closure. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 14 without complications and has been well for the first 3 months after the surgery.

  11. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against two subunits of rabbit poxvirus-associated, DNA-directed RNA polymerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, D K; Carter, J K; Moyer, R W

    1985-01-01

    A library of monoclonal antibodies directed against individual proteins of the rabbit poxvirus (RPV) virion within a complex immunogenic mixture has been generated through the use of in vivo and in vitro immunization regimens. The relative efficacies of the two procedures were compared. Based on immunoblot analysis, the in vitro immunization regimen led both to a wider variety of monoclonal antibodies to different proteins and to a larger number of antibodies directed against proteins of high...

  12. Electrophysiological effects of Chinese medicine Shen song Yang xin (SSYX) on Chinese miniature swine heart and isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Gong, Jing; Jin, Zhen-yi; Li, Ning; Sun, Li-ping; Wu, Yi-ling; Pu, Jie-lin

    2009-07-05

    Shen song Yang xin (SSYX) is a compound of Chinese medicine with the effect of increasing heart rate (HR). This study aimed to evaluate its electrophysiological properties at heart and cellular levels. The Chinese miniature swines were randomly assigned to two groups, administered with SSYX or placebo for 4 weeks (n = 8 per group). Cardiac electrophysiological study (EPS) was performed before and after drug administration. The guinea pig ventricular myocytes were enzymatically isolated and whole cell voltage-clamp technique was used to evaluate the effect of SSYX on cardiac action potential (AP). SSYX treatment accelerated the HR from (141.8 +/- 36.0) beats per minute to (163.0 +/- 38.0) beats per minute (P = 0.013) without changing the other parameters in surface electrocardiogram. After blockage of the autonomic nervous system with metoprolol and atropin, SSYX had no effect on intrinsic HR (IHR), but decreased corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT) and sinus atrium conducting time (SACT). Intra cardiac EPS showed that SSYX significantly decreased the A-H and A-V intervals as well as shortened the atrial (A), atrioventricular node (AVN) and ventricular (V) effective refractory period (ERP). In isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, the most obvious effect of SSYX on action potential was a shortening of the action potential duration (APD) without change in shape of action potential. The shortening rates of APD(30), APD(50) and APD(90) were 19.5%, 17.8% and 15.3%, respectively. The resting potential (Em) and the interval between the end of APD(30) and APD(90) did not significantly change. The present study demonstrates that SSYX increases the HR and enhances the conducting capacity of the heart in the condition of the intact autonomic nervous system. SSYX homogenously decreases the ERP of the heart and shortens the APD of the myocytes, suggesting its antiarrhythmic effect without proarrhythmia.

  13. Potassium accumulation by the glial membrane pump as revealed by membrane potential recording from isolated rabbit retinal Müller cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Nilius, B; Eberhardt, W

    1986-01-30

    Müller (glial) cells were isolated from rabbit retinae by papaine and mechanical dissociation. In a special perfusion chamber, the cells were penetrated with a recording electrode. When high-K+ solutions were applied into the environment of the cells by means of a second micropipette, the cell membrane depolarized strongly. During prolonged application of high-K+ solutions, however, there occurred a marked repolarization, and after cessation of high-K+ application, a strong hyperpolarization was observed. Both effects disappeared under the influence of ouabain, suggesting the accumulation of intracellular K+ by an active membrane pump. The data were used for calculation of the membrane's Na+:K+ permeability ratio, the intracellular K+ concentration, the pump rate and the mean pump site density. The calculated values are in good agreement with published data from mammalian astrocytes and are compared with those from amphibian Müller cells.

  14. Characteristics of the binding of [3H]nitrendipine to rabbit ventricular membranes: modification by other Ca++ channel antagonists and by the Ca++ channel agonist Bay K 8644

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janis, R.A.; Sarmiento, J.G.; Maurer, S.C.; Bolger, G.T.; Triggle, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize [ 3 H]nitrendipine binding to cardiac membranes and to test the hypothesis that high affinity binding of Ca++ channel antagonists and agonists is to Ca++ channels. Binding was specific, rapid, reversible and stereoselective. The relative order of potency of nifedipine analogs for inhibition of binding was the same as that for inhibition of smooth and cardiac muscle contraction. Results with diltiazem, verapamil and lidoflazine were consistent with the hypothesis that nondihydropyridine Ca++ channel antagonists act at one or more sites allosterically linked to the 1,4-dihydropyridine site in cardiac cells. The Ca++ channel agonist Bay K 8644 [methyl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-nitro-4-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-pyridine- 5-carboxylate] displaced specifically bound [ 3 H]nitrendipine in an apparently competitive manner with an IC50 value of 5 nM. The results suggest that organic antagonists do not act by physically blocking the Ca++ channel. The data also support the hypothesis that the high affinity binding sites for [ 3 H]nitrendipine in isolated cardiac membranes are associated with Ca++ channels that are inactivated or are otherwise unavailable for opening

  15. Antibacterial activity of oregano and sage plant extracts against decarboxylase-positive enterococci isolated from rabbit meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Chrastinová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant extracts (sage, oregano against decarboxylase-positive enterococci from rabbit back limb meat  was reported in this study. Oregano plant extract inhibited the growth of all 34 tested enterococci (the inhibitory zones: 12 to 45 mm. The growth of the majority of strains  (n=23 was inhibited by oregano plant extract (the high size inhibitory zones (higher than 25 mm. The growth of 11 strains  was inhibited by oregano extract reaching medium size inhibitory zones (10 to 25mm. The most sensitive strain to oregano extract was E. faecium M7bA (45 mm. Sage extract was less active against tested enterococci (n=16  reaching lower inhibitory zones (up to 10 mm. doi:10.5219/239 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  16. Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Types 121 and 14 Repeatedly Isolated Within One Year of Sampling in a Rabbit Meat Processing Plant: Persistence and Ecophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Frédérique; Palma, Federica; Guillier, Laurent; Lucchi, Alex; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen adapted to survive and persist in multiple environments. Following two previous studies on prevalence and virulence of L. monocytogenes ST121 and ST14 repeatedly collected in a the same rabbit-meat processing plant, the research questions of the present study were to: (1) assess persistence of L. monocytogenes isolates from the rabbit-plant; (2) select genes associated to physiological adaptation to the food-processing environment; (3) compare presence/absence/truncation of these genes in newly sequenced and publicly available ST121 and ST14 genomes. A total of 273 draft genomes including ST121 and ST14 newly sequenced and publicly available draft genomes were analyzed. Whole-genome Single Nucleotide Polymorfism (wgSNP) analysis was performed separately on the assemblies of ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. SNPs alignments were used to infer phylogeny. A dataset of L. monocytogenes ecophysiology genes was built based on a comprehensive literature review. The 94 selected genes were screened on the assemblies of all ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. Significant gene enrichments were evaluated by statistical analyses. A persistent ST14 clone, including 23 out of 27 newly sequenced genomes, was circulating in the rabbit-meat plant along with two not persistent clones. A significant enrichment was observed in ST121 genomes concerning stress survival islet 2 (SSI-2) (alkaline and oxidative stress), qacH gene (resistance to benzalkonium chloride), cadA1C gene cassette (resistance to 70 mg/l of cadmium chloride) and a truncated version of actA gene (biofilm formation). Conversely, ST14 draft genomes were enriched with a full-length version of actA gene along with the Listeria Genomic Island 2 (LGI 2) including the ars operon (arsenic resistance) and the cadA4C gene cassette (resistance to 35 mg/l of cadmium chloride). Phenotypic tests confirmed ST121 as a weak biofilm producer in comparison to ST14. In conclusion, ST121 carried the

  17. Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Types 121 and 14 Repeatedly Isolated Within One Year of Sampling in a Rabbit Meat Processing Plant: Persistence and Ecophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen adapted to survive and persist in multiple environments. Following two previous studies on prevalence and virulence of L. monocytogenes ST121 and ST14 repeatedly collected in a the same rabbit-meat processing plant, the research questions of the present study were to: (1 assess persistence of L. monocytogenes isolates from the rabbit-plant; (2 select genes associated to physiological adaptation to the food-processing environment; (3 compare presence/absence/truncation of these genes in newly sequenced and publicly available ST121 and ST14 genomes. A total of 273 draft genomes including ST121 and ST14 newly sequenced and publicly available draft genomes were analyzed. Whole-genome Single Nucleotide Polymorfism (wgSNP analysis was performed separately on the assemblies of ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. SNPs alignments were used to infer phylogeny. A dataset of L. monocytogenes ecophysiology genes was built based on a comprehensive literature review. The 94 selected genes were screened on the assemblies of all ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. Significant gene enrichments were evaluated by statistical analyses. A persistent ST14 clone, including 23 out of 27 newly sequenced genomes, was circulating in the rabbit-meat plant along with two not persistent clones. A significant enrichment was observed in ST121 genomes concerning stress survival islet 2 (SSI-2 (alkaline and oxidative stress, qacH gene (resistance to benzalkonium chloride, cadA1C gene cassette (resistance to 70 mg/l of cadmium chloride and a truncated version of actA gene (biofilm formation. Conversely, ST14 draft genomes were enriched with a full-length version of actA gene along with the Listeria Genomic Island 2 (LGI 2 including the ars operon (arsenic resistance and the cadA4C gene cassette (resistance to 35 mg/l of cadmium chloride. Phenotypic tests confirmed ST121 as a weak biofilm producer in comparison to ST14. In conclusion, ST121

  18. Characterizing potential heart agents with an isolated perfused heart system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, D.B.; Sands, H.; Gallagher, B.M.; Camin, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used an isolated perfused heart system for characterizing potential myocardial perfusion radiopharamaceuticals. Rabbit or guinea pig (GP) hearts are removed and perfused through the aorta with a blood-free buffer. Heart rate and ventricular pressure are monitored as indices of viability. Tc-99m-MAA is 96-100% retained in these hearts, and Tc-99m human serum albumin shows less than 5% extraction. Tl-201 is 30-40% extracted. It is known that in-vivo, Tc-99m(dmpe)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2//sup +/ is taken up by rabbit heart but not by GP or human heart. Analogous results are obtained with the isolated perfused heart model, where the complex is extracted well by the isolated rabbit heart (24%) but not by the GP heart (<5%). Values are unchanged if human, rabbit or GP blood is mixed and co-injected with the complex. Tc-99m)dmpe)/sub 3//sup +/ is also taken up by rabbit but not by GP hearts in-vivo. However, isolated perfused hearts of both species extract this complex well (45-52%). Heart uptake is diminished to <7% if the complex is pre-equilibrated with human blood. GP blood produces a moderate inhibition (in GP hearts only) and rabbit blood has no effect. This suggests that a human or GP blood factor may have a significant effect on heart uptake of this complex. Tc-99m(CN-t-butyl)/sub 6//sup +/ is taken up well by both rabbit and GP hearts in-vivo, and is extracted 100% by both isolated perfused hearts. Heart retention remains high (73-75%) in the presence of human blood

  19. Kinetic identification of an intracellular calcium compartment sensitive to phosphate and dinitrophenol in intact isolated rabbit aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, C.M.; Phair, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory revealed the presence of at least three distinct intracellular calcium compartments in intact segments of rabbit aorta. In this study one of these intracellular compartments is shown to be sensitive to dinitrophenol and to increased extracellular phosphate. Intact aortic segments were loaded with 45 Ca in bicarbonate-buffered physiologic salt solution for 1 hour, and then transferred to a flow-through chamber perfused with physiologic salt solution. Effluent from the chamber was collected for 8 hours, and 45 Ca efflux curves were analyzed using compartmental analysis. When aortic segments were loaded and washed out in dinitrophenol, the slowest component of the efflux curve was less prominent; in high phosphate it was more prominent. The rate constant changes required to account for these data were primarily in the exchange between the cytosolic and slowest intracellular calcium compartment, suggesting that the slowest calcium compartment resolved during the 8-hour washout was mitochondrial. This compartment contained 5.4 +/- 3.2 nmol calcium/g wet wt. tissue. The calcium flux across its membranes was 0.32 +/- 0.04 nmol min-1g-1. Because this flux is much smaller than the plasma-membrane calcium flux, we suggest that, in normal physiological circumstances, plasma-membrane extrusion is more important for the removal of Ca from the smooth muscle cytosol than is uptake into this slow intracellular compartment

  20. Rabbit analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Nuclear thyroid hormone receptors in rabbit heart: reduced triiodothyronine binding in atrium compared with ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radiolabeled triiodothyronine (T3) binding to isolated nuclei was measured to compare the binding characteristics of the nuclear receptors in rabbit ventricular and atrial muscle cells. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yielded a maximum binding capacity of 170 +/- 20 fmol per mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant of 525 +/- 100 pM for ventricular nuclei. The binding capacity and the dissociation constant for the atrial muscle cell nuclei were 55 +/- 10 fmol per mg DNA and 500 +/- 75 pM, respectively. The results suggest that the binding capacity for T3 receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle. The reduced binding capacity of the T3 receptor in the atrium might reflect differences in the nuclear T3 receptors between ventricle and atrium

  2. The protective effect of cilostazol on isolated rabbit femoral arteries under conditions of ischemia and reperfusion: the role of the nitric oxide pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana R.G.A. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The clinical significance of ischemia/reperfusion of the lower extremities demands further investigation to enable the development of more effective therapeutic alternatives. This study investigated the changes in the vascular reactivity of the rabbit femoral artery and nitric oxide metabolites under partial ischemia/ reperfusion conditions following cilostazol administration. METHODS: Ischemia was induced using infrarenal aortic clamping. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: Control 90 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 90/60 minutes, Control 120 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, Cilostazol, Cilostazol before Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, and Ischemia 120 minutes/Cilostazol/ Reperfusion 90 minutes. Dose-response curves for sodium nitroprusside, acetylcholine, and the calcium ionophore A23187 were obtained in isolated femoral arteries. The levels of nitrites and nitrates in the plasma and skeletal muscle were determined using chemiluminescence. RESULTS: Acetylcholine-and A23187-induced relaxation was reduced in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 group, and treatment with cilostazol partially prevented this ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelium impairment. Only cilostazol treatment increased plasma levels of nitrites and nitrates. An elevation in the levels of nitrites and nitrates was observed in muscle tissues in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90, Cilostazol/Ischemia/Reperfusion, and Ischemia/ Cilostazol/Reperfusion groups. CONCLUSION: Hind limb ischemia/reperfusion yielded an impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of the femoral artery. Furthermore, cilostazol administration prior to ischemia exerted a protective effect on endotheliumdependent vascular reactivity under ischemia/reperfusion conditions.

  3. Quantitative and qualitative morphology of rabbit retinal glia. A light microscopical study on cells both in situ and isolated by papaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A

    1987-01-01

    Rabbit retinal glia was studied by light microscopy of both stained sections of frozen retinae and enzymatically isolated cells. In the vast majority of this tissue, except for a small region around the optic nerve head, the glia consists solely of radial glia, i.e. Müller cells whose morphology was found to depend markedly on their topographic localization within the retina. Müller cells in the periphery are short and have thick vitreal processes bearing a single large endfoot. Central Müller cells are long and slender; through the thickening nerve fibre layer they send vitreal processes which are subdivided into several fine branches ending with multiple small endfeet. Müller cells in the retinal centre are far more closely packed than those in the periphery; everywhere, however, a constant ratio of Müller cells: neurons of about 1:15 was found, except for the juxta-optic nerve head region where this ratio is slightly reduced. Where the central retina reaches a thickness requiring Müller cell lengths of more than 130 micron, additional non-radial glial cells occur within the nerve fibre layer. The majority of these cells seem to be astrocytes. Their number per retinal area increases with the thickening of both the whole retina and the nerve fibre layer. The occurrence of these non-radial glial cells leads to an enhancement of the glia:neuron index in the retinal centre. Possible mechanisms of physiological control of gliogenesis are discussed.

  4. Effects of allocryptopine on outward potassium current and slow delayed rectifier potassium current in rabbit myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Liu-Yang; Li, Nan; Chen, Xi; Cai, Zhong-Qi; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Allocryptopine (ALL) is an effective alkaloid of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. Papaveraceae and has proved to be anti-arrhythmic. The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of ALL on transmural repolarizing ionic ingredients of outward potassium current (I to) and slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I Ks). The monophasic action potential (MAP) technique was used to record the MAP duration of the epicardium (Epi), myocardium (M) and endocardium (Endo) of the rabbit heart and the whole cell patch clamp was used to record I to and I Ks in cardiomyocytes of Epi, M and Endo layers that were isolated from rabbit ventricles. The effects of ALL on MAP of Epi, M and Endo layers were disequilibrium. ALL could effectively reduce the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in rabbit transmural ventricular wall. ALL decreased the current densities of I to and I Ks in a voltage and concentration dependent way and narrowed the repolarizing differences among three layers. The analysis of gating kinetics showed ALL accelerated the channel activation of I to in M layers and partly inhibit the channel openings of I to in Epi, M and Endo cells. On the other hand, ALL mainly slowed channel deactivation of I Ks channel in Epi and Endo layers without affecting its activation. Our study gives partially explanation about the mechanisms of transmural inhibition of I to and I Ks channels by ALL in rabbit myocardium. These findings provide novel perspective regarding the anti-arrhythmogenesis application of ALL in clinical settings.

  5. Effect of re-expansion after short-period lung collapse on pulmonary capillary permeability and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in isolated rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, T; Ishibe, Y; Okazaki, N; Miura, K; Liu, R; Nagai, S; Minami, Y

    2004-04-01

    Re-expansion pulmonary oedema is a rare complication caused by rapid re-expansion of a chronically collapsed lung. Several cases of pulmonary oedema associated with one-lung ventilation (OLV) have been reported recently. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary oedema fluid are suggested to play important roles in its development. Activation of cytokines after re-expansion of collapsed lung during OLV has not been thoroughly investigated. Here we investigated the effects of re-expansion of the collapsed lung on pulmonary oedema formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Lungs isolated from female white Japanese rabbits were perfused and divided into a basal (BAS) group (n=7, baseline measurement alone), a control (CONT) group (n=9, ventilated without lung collapse for 120 min) and an atelectasis (ATEL) group (n=9, lung collapsed for 55 min followed by re-expansion and ventilation for 65 min). Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and the coefficient of filtration (Kfc) were measured at baseline and 60 and 120 min. At the end of perfusion, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/plasma protein ratio (B/P), wet/dry lung weight ratio (W/D) and mRNA expressions of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined. TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA were significantly up-regulated in lungs of the ATEL group compared with BAS and CONT, though no significant differences were noted in PVR, Kfc, B/P and W/D within and between groups. MPO increased at 120 min in CONT and ATEL groups. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated upon re-expansion and ventilation after short-period lung collapse, though no changes were noted in pulmonary capillary permeability.

  6. Effects of salicylic acid on post-ischaemic ventricular function and purine efflux in isolated mouse hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Don; Gehr, Lynne; Karnes, H Thomas; Sica, Domenic; Gehr, Todd; Larus, Terri; Farthing, Christine; Xi, Lei

    2007-01-01

    Acetyl salicylic acid (aspirin) is one of the most widely used drugs in the world. Various plasma concentrations of aspirin and its predominant metabolite, salicylic acid, are required for its antiarthritic (1.5-2.5 mM), anti-inflammatory (0.5-5.0 mM) or antiplatelet (0.18-0.36 mM) actions. A recent study demonstrated the inhibitory effects of both aspirin and salicylic acid on oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis in isolated rat cardiac mitochondria in a dose-dependent manner (0-10 mM concentration range). In this context, the present study was conducted to determine the effects of salicylic acid on inosine efflux (a potential biomarker of acute cardiac ischaemia) as well as cardiac contractile function in the isolated mouse heart following 20 min of zero-flow global ischaemia. Inosine efflux was found at significantly higher concentrations in ischaemic hearts perfused with Krebs buffer fortified with 1.0 mM salicylic acid compared with those without salicylic acid (12575+/-3319 vs. 1437+/-348 ng ml(-1) min(-1), mean+/-SEM, n=6 per group, psalicylic acid potentiates 8.8-fold ATP nucleotide purine catabolism into its metabolites (e.g. inosine, hypoxanthine). Salicylic acid (0.1 or 1.0 mM) did not appreciably inhibit purine nucleoside phosphorylase (the enzyme converts inosine to hypoxanthine) suggesting the augmented inosine efflux was due to the salicylic acid effect on upstream elements of cellular respiration. Whereas post-ischaemic cardiac function was further depressed by 1.0 mM salicylic acid, perfusion with 0.1 mM salicylic acid led to a remarkable functional improvement despite moderately increased inosine efflux (2.7-fold). We conclude that inosine is a sensitive biomarker for detecting cardiac ischaemia and salicylic acid-induced effects on cellular respiration. However, the inosine efflux level appears to be a poor predictor of the individual post-ischaemic cardiac functional recovery in this ex vivo model.

  7. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  9. Acidosis slows electrical conduction through the atrio-ventricular node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Ashley M; Burton, Francis L; Walker, Nicola L; Craig, Margaret A; Cheng, Hongwei; Hancox, Jules C; Orchard, Clive H; Smith, Godfrey L

    2014-01-01

    Acidosis affects the mechanical and electrical activity of mammalian hearts but comparatively little is known about its effects on the function of the atrio-ventricular node (AVN). In this study, the electrical activity of the epicardial surface of the left ventricle of isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts was examined using optical methods. Perfusion with hypercapnic Tyrode's solution (20% CO2, pH 6.7) increased the time of earliest activation (Tact) from 100.5 ± 7.9 to 166.1 ± 7.2 ms (n = 8) at a pacing cycle length (PCL) of 300 ms (37°C). Tact increased at shorter PCL, and the hypercapnic solution prolonged Tact further: at 150 ms PCL, Tact was prolonged from 131.0 ± 5.2 to 174.9 ± 16.3 ms. 2:1 AVN block was common at shorter cycle lengths. Atrial and ventricular conduction times were not significantly affected by the hypercapnic solution suggesting that the increased delay originated in the AVN. Isolated right atrial preparations were superfused with Tyrode's solutions at pH 7.4 (control), 6.8 and 6.3. Low pH prolonged the atrial-Hisian (AH) interval, the AVN effective and functional refractory periods and Wenckebach cycle length significantly. Complete AVN block occurred in 6 out of 9 preparations. Optical imaging of conduction at the AV junction revealed increased conduction delay in the region of the AVN, with less marked effects in atrial and ventricular tissue. Thus acidosis can dramatically prolong the AVN delay, and in combination with short cycle lengths, this can cause partial or complete AVN block and is therefore implicated in the development of brady-arrhythmias in conditions of local or systemic acidosis.

  10. Acidosis slows electrical conduction through the atrio-ventricular node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Muir Nisbet

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acidosis affects the mechanical and electrical activity of mammalian hearts but comparatively little is known about its effects on the function of the atrio-ventricular node (AVN. In this study, the electrical activity of the epicardial surface of the left ventricle of isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts was examined using optical methods. Perfusion with hypercapnic Tyrode’s solution (20% CO2, pH 6.7 increased the time of earliest activation (Tact from 100.5+7.9 to 166.1+7.2ms (n=8 at a pacing cycle length (PCL of 300ms (37oC. Tact increased at shorter PCL, and the hypercapnic solution prolonged Tact further: at 150ms PCL, Tact was prolonged from 131.0+5.2 to 174.9+16.3ms. 2:1 AVN block was common at shorter cycle lengths. Atrial and ventricular conduction times were not significantly affected by the hypercapnic solution suggesting that the increased delay originated in the AVN. Isolated right atrial preparations were superfused with Tyrode’s solutions at pH 7.4 (control, 6.8 and 6.3. Low pH prolonged the atrial-Hisian (AH interval, the effective and functional refractory periods and Wenckebach cycle length significantly. Complete AVN block occurred in 6 out of 9 preparations. Optical imaging of conduction at the AV junction revealed increased conduction delay in the region of the AVN, with less marked effects in atrial and ventricular tissue. Thus acidosis can dramatically prolong the AVN delay, and in combination with short cycle lengths, this can cause partial or complete AVN block and is therefore implicated in the development of brady-arrhythmias in conditions of local or systemic acidosis.

  11. Alteration effect of the PGFsub(2α) inhibition on the 3H-norepinephrine release caused by α2 receptor blocking, sodium loading and 4-aminopyridine addition in isolated pulmonary arteries of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyevacs, Zs.; Toeroek, T.; Hadhazy, P.; Magyar, K.; Feher, L.; Vizi, E.Sz.

    1983-01-01

    The tritium labelled norepinephrine release was measured in isolated pulmonary artery of rabbit. If the 3 H-norepinephrine release was induced by nerves stimulated with electric current, the PGFsub(2α) inhibited the release by 62%. In the presence of Yohimbin the inhibitory effect of FGFsub(2α) was increased to 78.8%. If the Na + pump activity was reduced by potassium-free medium the PGFsub(2α) inhibition remained at 62%. In the presence of 4-aminopyridine the potassium channel was blocked and the PGFsub(2α) inhibition decreased to 32.1%. The endogen prostaglandin may serve as a modulator of the neurotransmitter release. (L.G.)

  12. In-vitro experiments to characterize ventricular electromechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Robert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation turns out to be beneficial when clinical data lack spatio-temporal resolution or parameters cannot be measured at all. To derive trustworthy results, these in-silico models have to thoroughly parameterized and validated. In this work we present data from a simplified in-vitro setup for characterizing ventricular electromechanics. Right ventricular papillary muscles from New Zealand rabbits were isolated and stretched from slack length to lmax, i.e. the muscle length at maximum active force development. Active stress development showed an almost linear increase for moderate strain (90–100% of lmax and a significant decrease for larger strain (100–105% of lmax. Passive strain development showed a nonlinear increase. Conduction velocity CV showed an increase of ≈10% between low and moderate strain and no significant decrease beyond. Fitting active active stress-strain relationship using a 5th-order polynomial yielded adequate results for moderate and high strain values, whereas fitting using a logistic function yielded more reasonable results for low strain values. Passive stress-strain relationship was satisfactorily fitted using an exponential function.

  13. Catechol estrogen formation by brain tissue: characterization of a direct product isolation assay for estrogen-2- and 4-hydroxylase activity and its application to studies of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol formation by rabbit hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersey, R.M.; Williams, K.I.; Weisz, J.

    1981-01-01

    A direct product isolation assay for quantifying the formation of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2 and 4-OHE2) from [6,7-3H]estradiol by rabbit hypothalami in vitro was developed, and the assay was used to characterize some properties of estrogen-2- and 4-hydroxylase activity in this tissue. The reaction was carried out under conditions that minimized further metabolism of enzymatically formed catechol estrogens. A simple two-step separation procedure, involving the use of a neutral alumina column, followed by thin layer chromatography, was developed to isolate the enzymatically formed catechol estrogens in a radiochemically homogeneous form. The detergent, Tween-80, was found to activate the enzyme and was used routinely at a concentration of 0.1% in the assay. The formation of 2-OHE2 was linear up to 10 min and with increasing protein concentrations up to 150 micrograms/incubation. Similar values were obtained for 4-OHE2. Maximum velocities (Vmax) for the formation of 2- and 4-OHE2 were 190 and 270 pmol/mg protein . 10 min, respectively. The apparent Km values with respect to estradiol for 2-OHE2 and 4-OHE2 were 125 and 150 microM, respectively. The highest specific activity for the enzyme was present in the 100,000 X g supernatant (S3), while the activity in the microsomal fraction (P3) was less than that in the original homogenate. Enzyme activity depended on the presence of NADPH and oxygen and was inhibited by CO as well as by high concentrations of SKF-525A. Estrogen-2- and 4-hydroxylase activity in rabbit hypothalamus differed from that in rat liver in two respects. In the liver, enzyme activity was localized in the microsomal fraction and was virtually abolished by Tween-80. In contrast, enzyme activity in rabbit hypothalamus was maximal in the soluble fraction (100,000 X g supernatant)and was stimulated by the detergent

  14. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  15. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in a dog : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Möhr

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available An 8-month-old Labrador retriever bitch was evaluated for sudden-onset, progressive abdominal distension. Physical examination revealed an exaggerated inspiratory effort, severe ascites, bilateral jugular vein distension, and hypokinetic femoral arterial pulses. Thoracic auscultation detected tachycardia with muffled heart sounds, without audible cardiac murmurs. Thoracic radiographs identified severe right ventricular enlargement and pleural effusion. The electrocardiogram was consistent with incomplete right bundle branch block or right ventricular enlargement. Echocardiography demonstrated severe right ventricular and atrial dilation, secondary tricuspid regurgitation, and thinning and hypocontractility of the right ventricular myocardium. Left heart chamber sizes were slightly decreased, with normal left ventricular contractility. Adiagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy was reached, based on the characteristic clinical, electrocardiographic, radiographic and echocardiographic findings, and the exclusion of other causes of isolated right ventricular failure. Treatment effected good control of clinical signs, until acutely decompensated congestive right heart failure led to euthanasia after 4 months. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy is a well-described clinical entity in humans, and has previously been documented in 3 male dogs. The condition is characterised by progressive fibro-adipose replacement of right ventricular myocardium, while the left ventricle usually remains unaffected. It should be considered a differential diagnosis in any young dog presented with isolated right heart failure, syncope, or unexplained ventricular tachyarrhythmias. This article reports the 1st case of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in a female dog, and highlights its echocardiographic features.

  16. Allergy to Rabbits. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.A.; Longbottom, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out into the presence of antibody light chains in rabbit allergenic extracts and the interference in RAST and crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) caused by antibodies directed against them. A ''non-specific'' uptake of radioactivity in XRIE has been demonstrated to be caused by direct cross-linking of the 125 I rabbit anti-human IgE by the sheep antibodies in the immunoprecipitate of rabbit light chains. Preincubation with normal rabbit serum blocked this direct uptake of the labelled antibody and enabled specific IgE uptake on the light chains to be demonstrated for rabbit allergic sera. Verification of the allergenicity of the light chains was obtained from a specific light chain RAST. Elution from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column indicated a MW of approx. 50Kd and confirmation of the components as light chain dimers, not Fab fragments, was obtained by allotyping for loci present on heavy chains and light chains in the Fab region. Light chains were detected in urine from rabbits of all ages and in an extract of dust collected in a rabbit housing area. No background staining was observed in XRIE using rabbit antisera, either with rabbit allergic sera with specific IgE or with a human serum containing specific IgG antibodies to rabbit IgG. This latter serum also showed no evidence of uptake on all immunoprecipitates in systems using rabbit antisera, and did not give false positive RAST results when the labelled rabbit anti-human IgE contained unlabelled rabbit IgG. Those sera with specific IgE to light chains showed no uptake in XRIE using rabbit antisera, indicating that the IgE was possibly specific for epitopes revealed by the dissociation on the whole IgG molecule. (author)

  17. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  18. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  19. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo; Nedergaard, Ove A.

    1999-01-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased...

  20. Characteristics of the binding of (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine to rabbit ventricular membranes: modification by other Ca++ channel antagonists and by the Ca++ channel agonist Bay K 8644

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janis, R.A.; Sarmiento, J.G.; Maurer, S.C.; Bolger, G.T.; Triggle, D.J.

    1984-10-01

    This study was carried out to characterize (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine binding to cardiac membranes and to test the hypothesis that high affinity binding of Ca++ channel antagonists and agonists is to Ca++ channels. Binding was specific, rapid, reversible and stereoselective. The relative order of potency of nifedipine analogs for inhibition of binding was the same as that for inhibition of smooth and cardiac muscle contraction. Results with diltiazem, verapamil and lidoflazine were consistent with the hypothesis that nondihydropyridine Ca++ channel antagonists act at one or more sites allosterically linked to the 1,4-dihydropyridine site in cardiac cells. The Ca++ channel agonist Bay K 8644 (methyl-1,4-dihydro-2,6-dimethyl-3-nitro-4-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl)-pyridine- 5-carboxylate) displaced specifically bound (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine in an apparently competitive manner with an IC50 value of 5 nM. The results suggest that organic antagonists do not act by physically blocking the Ca++ channel. The data also support the hypothesis that the high affinity binding sites for (/sup 3/H)nitrendipine in isolated cardiac membranes are associated with Ca++ channels that are inactivated or are otherwise unavailable for opening.

  1. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger inhibition exerts a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but fails to influence the contractility of the rabbit heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, A S; Acsai, K; Nagy, N; Tóth, A; Fülöp, F; Seprényi, G; Birinyi, P; Nánási, P P; Forster, T; Csanády, M; Papp, J G; Varró, A; Farkas, A

    2008-05-01

    The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) may play a key role in myocardial contractility. The operation of the NCX is affected by the action potential (AP) configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration. This study examined the effect of selective NCX inhibition by 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 microM SEA0400 on the myocardial contractility in the setting of different AP configurations and different intracellular Na(+) concentrations in rabbit and rat hearts. The concentration-dependent effects of SEA0400 on I(Na/Ca) were studied in rat and rabbit ventricular cardiomyocytes using a patch clamp technique. Starling curves were constructed for isolated, Langendorff-perfused rat and rabbit hearts. The cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities of both species were compared by immunohistochemistry. SEA0400 inhibited I(Na/Ca) with similar efficacy in the two species; there was no difference between the inhibitions of the forward or reverse mode of the NCX in either species. SEA0400 increased the systolic and the developed pressure in the rat heart in a concentration-dependent manner, for example, 1.0 microM SEA0400 increased the maximum systolic pressures by 12% relative to the control, whereas it failed to alter the contractility in the rabbit heart. No interspecies difference was found in the cardiac sarcolemmal NCX protein densities. NCX inhibition exerted a positive inotropic effect in the rat heart, but it did not influence the contractility of the rabbit heart. This implies that the AP configuration and the intracellular Na(+) concentration may play an important role in the contractility response to NCX inhibition.

  2. Standardization of an experimental model of parabiotic isolated heart in rabbits Padronização de modelo experimental de coração isolado parabiótico em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Sérgio Martins

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to standardize an experimental model of parabiotic isolated heart in rabbits, testing their stability and durability for use in cardiovascular research. Sixty-six Norfolk-2000 rabbits were used and divided in 2 groups: donors of the isolated heart and support animals, in a total of 33 preparations. Circulatory support for the isolated heart was established with the aid of peristaltic pumps and the flow was kept constant (16ml/min.. An intraventricular balloon was inserted in the left ventriculum, and was adjusted to produce diastolic pressure of ± 10mmHg. Heart rate was established at 120 beats per minute with the use of a pacemaker. Hemodynamic, laboratory and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Of the 33 preparations, 13 were excluded according to preestablished criteria. Of the 20 remaining preparations, 10 completed the maximum protocol time (180 minutes. There was progressive hemodynamic deterioration with decrease of mean blood pressure (89.30±6.09mmHg->47.50±6.35mmHg in the support animal. There was hemodynamic stability of the isolated heart for the 10 preparations that completed the 180 minutes of the protocol. Laboratory parameters showed progressive decrease of sodium, potassium and hemoglobin, which is compatible with hemodilution. Histopathology showed greater distance among the fibers, compatible with edema. The present model showed 100% stability and activity of the preparations within 60 minutes, and 50% of the active preparations were progressively lost within 180 minutes. The present model is viable for cardiovascular research.O objetivo foi a padronização de modelo experimental de coração isolado parabiótico em coelhos, testando sua estabilidade e durabilidade, para fins de pesquisa cardiovascular. Foram utilizados 66 coelhos raça Norfolk-2000 divididos em grupo doador do coração isolado e animais suporte, totalizando 33 preparações. Mediante auxilio de bombas peristálticas estabeleceu

  3. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabóová, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42. Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococcus faecium by PCR method. The isolates have possessed the structural genes for enterocins A, P, B production. The inhibitory substances produced by the isolated enterococci inhibited the growth of 12 indicators. Of 34 isolates, 15 strains have shown the antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes CCM 4699, 12 strains against S. aureus 3A3, 10 strains against S. aureus 5A2 as well as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. Moreover, enterococci have tolerated 5 % bile, low pH; they have produced lactid acid in the amount from 0.740 ± 0.091 to 1.720 ± 0.095 mmol/l. The isolates were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Bacteriocin-producing strain E. faecium M3a has been selected for more detail characterization of its bacteriocin and probiotic properties with the aim for its further application as an additive.

  4. Andrographolide inhibits arrhythmias and is cardioprotective in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mengliu; Jiang, Wanzhen; Tian, Youjia; Hao, Jie; Cao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Zhipei; Fu, Chen; Zhang, Peihua; Ma, Jihua

    2017-09-22

    Andrographolide has a protective effect on the cardiovascular system. To study its cardic-electrophysiological effects, action potentials and voltage-gated Na + (I Na ), Ca 2+ (I CaL ), and K + (I K1 , I Kr , I to and I Kur ) currents were recorded using whole-cell patch clamp and current clamp techniques. Additionally, the effects of andrographolide on aconitine-induced arrhythmias were assessed on electrocardiograms in vivo . We found that andrographolide shortened action potential duration and reduced maximum upstroke velocity in rabbit left ventricular and left atrial myocytes. Andrographolide attenuated rate-dependence of action potential duration, and reduced or abolished delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered activities induced by isoproterenol (1 μM) and high calcium ([Ca 2+ ] o =3.6 mM) in left ventricular myocytes. Andrographolide also concentration-dependently inhibited I Na and I CaL , but had no effect on I to , I Kur , I K1 , or I Kr in rabbit left ventricular and left atrial myocytes. Andrographolide treatment increased the time and dosage thresholds of aconitine-induced arrhythmias, and reduced arrhythmia incidence and mortality in rabbits. Our results indicate that andrographolide inhibits cellular arrhythmias (delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered activities) and aconitine-induced arrhythmias in vivo , and these effects result from I Na and I CaL inhibition. Andrographolide may be useful as a class I and IV antiarrhythmic therapeutic.

  5. Avaliação dos resultados tardios da operação de derivação cavo-pulmonar bidirecional, no tratamento paliativo de cardiopatias congênitas com câmara ventricular única Assessment of late results of bidirecional cavopulmonary shunt on paliative treatment of congenital heart disease with functional isolated ventricular chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Maluf

    1994-06-01

    patients 1 to 13 years old (mean 7 years, who had congenital heart disease with functional isolated ventricular chamber, were submitted to bidirectional cavopulmonary shunts. Nine cases had Tricuspid Atresia (TA (7 type Ib, 1 type Ic and 1 type IIb. Five cases had Double Inlet Right ventricle (Dl RV; two cases had multiple Ventricular Septal Defects (VSD plus RV hypoplasia. One case had pulmonary atresia with Intact Ventricular septum (PA/IVS. Nine (52,9% patients had been submitted, to previous paliative operations. The operations in 12 (70,5% cases were with extracorporeal circulation (ECC and in 5 (29,4% cases with superior vena cava (SVC to right atrio (RA temporary shunt. In all cases the SVC was anastomosed to right pulmonary artery (RPA closing the pulmonary valve (PV or linking the Blalock-Taussig shunt to interrupt the pulmonary flow. There are three (17,6% deaths in the immediate postoperative period and 2 (14,2% late deaths. Twelve (70,5% patients were followed-up for 2 to 46 months. One patient was submitted to the 2 nd operation, tunnelating the inferior vena cava (IVC to RPA, with success. The assessment of bidirectional cavopulmonary flow was made with Doppler echocardiography and magnetic resonance and the pulmonary perfusion was made with radioisotopic cintilography. The indication tor the 2 nd, operation depended on the clinical evolution and assessment of arterial saturation during the cicloergometric test. The bidirectional cavo pulmonary shunt allows the progressive adaptation of the venous flow to lung and reduced ventricular volume load, preparing the patient to total venous shunt.

  6. Lone ventricular cardiomyopathy,

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (I) cardiac catheterisation, including coronary arteriography and pulmonary ... described existence of lone ventricular idiopathic ... spectrum of classic idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. ... endomyocardial fibrosis, and from discussions at an.

  7. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  8. Ultrastructural studies of human and rabbit alpha-M-globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloth, B; Chesebro, B; Svehag, S E

    1968-04-01

    Electron micrographs of isolated human alpha(2)M-molecules, obtained by the negative contrast technique, revealed morphologically homogenous structures resembling a graceful monogram of the two letters H and I. The modal values for the length and width of the alpha(2)M particles were 170 A and 100 A, respectively. Purified rabbit alphamacroglobulins contained about 80% alpha(1)M- and 20% alpha(2)M-globulins. The isolated rabbit alpha(1)M- and alpha(2)M-molecules were morphologically indistinguishable from one another and from human alpha(2)M-molecules. Preliminary immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two rabbit alphaM-globulins were antigenically different. Sedimentation constant determinations gave s(20, w) values of 18.8 and 18.2 for rabbit alpha(1)M and alpha(2)M, respectively.

  9. Studies on the mechanism of cholesterol uptake and on the effects of bile salts on this uptake by brush-border membranes isolated from rabbit small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, P; Aubry, H; Brglez, I; Williamson, D G

    1984-12-19

    The effect of bile salts and other surfactants on the rate of incorporation of cholesterol into isolated brush-border membranes was tested. At constant cholesterol concentration, a stimulatory effect of taurocholate was noticed which increased as the bile salt concentration was raised to 20 mM. Taurodeoxycholate was as effective as taurocholate at concentrations of up to 5 mM and inhibited at higher concentrations. Glycocholate was only moderately stimulatory whereas cholate was nearly as effective as taurocholate at concentrations above 5 mM. Other surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100 were very inhibitory at all concentrations tried whereas cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride was stimulatory only at a very low range of concentrations. These micellizing agents all caused some disruption of the membranes and the greater effectiveness of taurocholate in stimulating sterol uptake was partly relatable to the weaker membrane solubilizing action of this bile salt. Preincubation of membranes with 20 mM taurocholate followed by washing and exposure to cholesterol-containing lipid suspensions lacking bile salt, did not enhance the incorporation of the sterol. In the absence of bile salt the incorporation of cholesterol was unaffected by stirring of the incubation mixtures. Increasing the cholesterol concentration in the mixed micelle while keeping the concentration of bile salt constant caused an increase in rate of sterol incorporation. This increased rate was seen whether the cholesterol suspension was turbid, i.e., contained non-micellized cholesterol, or whether it was optically-clear and contained only monomers and micelles. When the concentration of taurocholate and cholesterol were increased simultaneously such that the concentration ratio of these two components was kept constant, there resulted a corresponding increase in rate of cholesterol uptake. The initial rates of cholesterol incorporation from suspensions containing micellar and monomer

  10. Diclofenac prolongs repolarization in ventricular muscle with impaired repolarization reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kristóf

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. METHODS: Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. RESULTS: Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM. The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl(2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg significantly lengthened the QT(c interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QT(c. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%. In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM decreased the amplitude of rapid (I(Kr and slow (I(Ks delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (I(Ca was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (I(to and inward rectifier (I(K1 potassium currents were not influenced. CONCLUSIONS: Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve.

  11. Diclofenac Prolongs Repolarization in Ventricular Muscle with Impaired Repolarization Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, Attila; Husti, Zoltán; Koncz, István; Kohajda, Zsófia; Szél, Tamás; Juhász, Viktor; Biliczki, Péter; Jost, Norbert; Baczkó, István; Papp, Julius Gy; Varró, András; Virág, László

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present work was to characterize the electrophysiological effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac and to study the possible proarrhythmic potency of the drug in ventricular muscle. Methods Ion currents were recorded using voltage clamp technique in canine single ventricular cells and action potentials were obtained from canine ventricular preparations using microelectrodes. The proarrhythmic potency of the drug was investigated in an anaesthetized rabbit proarrhythmia model. Results Action potentials were slightly lengthened in ventricular muscle but were shortened in Purkinje fibers by diclofenac (20 µM). The maximum upstroke velocity was decreased in both preparations. Larger repolarization prolongation was observed when repolarization reserve was impaired by previous BaCl2 application. Diclofenac (3 mg/kg) did not prolong while dofetilide (25 µg/kg) significantly lengthened the QTc interval in anaesthetized rabbits. The addition of diclofenac following reduction of repolarization reserve by dofetilide further prolonged QTc. Diclofenac alone did not induce Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP) while TdP incidence following dofetilide was 20%. However, the combination of diclofenac and dofetilide significantly increased TdP incidence (62%). In single ventricular cells diclofenac (30 µM) decreased the amplitude of rapid (IKr) and slow (IKs) delayed rectifier currents thereby attenuating repolarization reserve. L-type calcium current (ICa) was slightly diminished, but the transient outward (Ito) and inward rectifier (IK1) potassium currents were not influenced. Conclusions Diclofenac at therapeutic concentrations and even at high dose does not prolong repolarization markedly and does not increase the risk of arrhythmia in normal heart. However, high dose diclofenac treatment may lengthen repolarization and enhance proarrhythmic risk in hearts with reduced repolarization reserve. PMID:23300901

  12. Protein synthesis and degradation during starvation-induced cardiac atrophy in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarel, A.M.; Parmacek, M.S.; Magid, N.M.; Decker, R.S.; Lesch, M.

    1987-01-01

    To determine the relative importance of protein degradation in the development of starvation-induced cardiac atrophy, in vivo fractional synthetic rates of total cardiac protein, myosin heavy chain, actin, light chain 1, and light chain 2 were measured in fed and fasted rabbits by continuous infusion of [ 3 H] leucine. In addition, the rate of left ventricular protein accumulation and loss were assessed in weight-matched control and fasted rabbits. Rates of total cardiac protein degradation were then estimated as the difference between rates of synthesis and growth. Fasting produced left ventricular atrophy by decreasing the rate of left ventricular protein synthesis (34.8 +/- 1.4, 27.3 +/- 3.0, and 19.3 +/- 1.2 mg/day of left ventricular protein synthesized for 0-, 3-, and 7-day fasted rabbits, respectively). Inhibition of contractile protein synthesis was evident by significant reductions in the fractional synthetic rates of all myofibrillar protein subunits. Although fractional rates of protein degradation increased significantly within 7 days of fasting, actual amounts of left ventricular protein degraded per day were unaffected. Thus, prolonged fasting profoundly inhibits the synthesis of new cardiac protein, including the major protein constituents of the myofibril. Both this inhibition in new protein synthesis as well as a smaller but significant reduction in the average half-lives of cardiac proteins are responsible for atrophy of the heart in response to fasting

  13. Pharmacological delayed preconditioning against ischaemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias: effect of an adenosine A1-receptor agonist

    OpenAIRE

    Tissier, Renaud; Souktani, Rachid; Parent de Curzon, Olivier; Lellouche, Nicolas; Henry, Patrick; Giudicelli, Jean-François; Berdeaux, Alain; Ghaleh, Bijan

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of the delayed pharmacological preconditioning produced by an adenosine A1-receptor agonist (A1-DPC) against ventricular arrhythmias induced by ischaemia and reperfusion, compared to those of ischaemia-induced delayed preconditioning (I-DPC).Eighty-nine instrumented conscious rabbits underwent a 2 consecutive days protocol. On day 1, rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: ‘Control' (saline, i.v.), ‘I-DPC' (six 4-min coronary arter...

  14. Effect of hypothyroidism on the purinergic responses of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, M K; Bagcivan, I; Sarac, B; Kilicarslan, H; Yildirim, S; Kaya, T

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have reported evidence of hormonal abnormalities in 25-35% of impotent men. Hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 6% of impotent men. In the present study, we examined purinergic relaxation responses in hypothyroidism in an experimental rabbit model and compared them with controls to evaluate the possible involvement of the purinergic pathway. The study comprised 20 male New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided into two equal groups. We tested the effects of ATP, alpha beta ATP, and adenosine precontracted with phenylephrine on the isolated corpus cavernosum preparations from control and hypothyroid rabbits. We also evaluated the effects of ATP, alpha beta ATP, and adenosine on the cGMP levels in the isolated corpus cavernosum preparations from control and hypothyroid rabbits. T3, T4, and testosterone levels were significantly lower in hypothyroid rabbits. ATP, alpha beta ATP, carbachol, and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced frequency-dependent relaxation responses in the isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum strips precontracted with phenylephrine reduced significantly (Phypothyroid rabbits. Reduction of relaxation response in hypothyroid rabbits corpus cavernosum can depend on a decreased release of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrergic nerves and endothelium.

  15. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Call your doctor if your baby or child: Tires easily when eating or playing Is not gaining ... heart procedures. Risk factors Ventricular septal defects may run in families and sometimes may occur with other ...

  16. Excito-oscillatory dynamics as a mechanism of ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Richard A; Huelsing, Delilah J

    2008-04-01

    The instabilities associated with reentrant spiral waves are of paramount importance to the initiation and maintenance of tachyarrhythmias, especially ventricular fibrillation (VF). In addition to tissue heterogeneities, there are only a few basic purported mechanisms of spiral wave breakup, most notably restitution. We test the hypothesis that oscillatory membrane properties act to destabilize spiral waves. We recorded transmembrane potential (V(m)) from isolated rabbit myocytes using a constant current stimulation protocol. We developed a mathematical model that included both the stable excitable equilibrium point at resting V(m) (-80 mV) and the unstable oscillatory equilibrium point at elevated V(m) (-10 mV). Spiral wave dynamics were studied in 2-dimensional grids using variants of the model. All models showed restitution and reproduced the experimental values of transmembrane resistance at rest and during the action potential plateau. Stable spiral waves were observed when the model showed only 1 equilibrium point. However, spatio-temporal complexity was observed if the model showed both excitable and oscillatory equilibrium points (i.e., excito-oscillatory models). The initial wave breaks resulted from oscillatory waves expanding in all directions; after a few beats, the patterns were characterized by a combination of unstable spiral waves and target patterns consistent with the patterns observed on the heart surface during VF. In our model, this VF-like activity only occurred when the single cell period of V(m) oscillations was within a specific range. The VF-like patterns observed in our excito-oscillatory models could not be explained by the existing proposed instability mechanisms. Our results introduce the important suggestion that membrane dynamics responsible for V(m) oscillations at elevated V(m) levels can destabilize spiral waves and thus may be a novel therapeutic target for preventing VF.

  17. Paraquat-poisoning in the rabbit lungs: high resolution computed tomographic findings and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eui Han; Lee, Byoung Ho; Kim, Kun Sang

    1992-01-01

    The authors evaluated high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of the isolated rabbit lungs with paraquat poisoning, and the findings were correlated with pathologic specimens. The purposes of this study are 1) to obtain the HRCT findings of the normal rabbit lung. 2) to find out if pulmonary pathology can be induced in rabbits by paraquat, and 3) to correlate the HRCT findings to those of pathology. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups: group I included four control rabbits; group II included 16 rabbits given paraquat intraperitoneally (IP group); and group III included 10 rabbits given paraquat intravenously (IV group). The rabbits were sacrificed seven, 10, and 14 days after injection of various amount of paraquat, and then the lungs were isolated for HRCT and pathologic studies. Gross and microscopic findings of the three groups of control and paraquat-injected rabbit lungs were correlated with HRCT findings. Pulmonary congestion, mild thickening of alveolar walls and septae, and multifocal micro-atelectasis were the man pathologic findings of the lungs in both groups of the rabbits. Pulmonary hemorrhage was noted in five (31%) of 16 rabbits of IP group and three (30%) of 10 IV group. Pulmonary edema was seen in one rabbits (6%) of IP and four (40%) of IV group. Typical pulmonary fibrosis was seen in one rabbit of IP (6%) and IV (10%) group, respectively. There was no correlation between the amount of paraquat and frequency of the pulmonary pathology. Pulmonary fibrosis was seen at least one week after the paraquat injection. On HRCT, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema appeared as diffuse air-space consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis as linear or band-like opacities. However, minimal changes such as mild congestion

  18. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  19. Systolic ventricular filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent-Guasp, Francisco; Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio; Komeda, Masashi; Cox, James; Flotats, A; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Carreras-Costa, Francesc

    2004-03-01

    The evidence of the ventricular myocardial band (VMB) has revealed unavoidable coherence and mutual coupling of form and function in the ventricular myocardium, making it possible to understand the principles governing electrical, mechanical and energetical events within the human heart. From the earliest Erasistratus' observations, principal mechanisms responsible for the ventricular filling have still remained obscured. Contemporary experimental and clinical investigations unequivocally support the attitude that only powerful suction force, developed by the normal ventricles, would be able to produce an efficient filling of the ventricular cavities. The true origin and the precise time frame for generating such force are still controversial. Elastic recoil and muscular contraction were the most commonly mentioned, but yet, still not clearly explained mechanisms involved in the ventricular suction. Classical concepts about timing of successive mechanical events during the cardiac cycle, also do not offer understandable insight into the mechanism of the ventricular filling. The net result is the current state of insufficient knowledge of systolic and particularly diastolic function of normal and diseased heart. Here we summarize experimental evidence and theoretical backgrounds, which could be useful in understanding the phenomenon of the ventricular filling. Anatomy of the VMB, and recent proofs for its segmental electrical and mechanical activation, undoubtedly indicates that ventricular filling is the consequence of an active muscular contraction. Contraction of the ascendent segment of the VMB, with simultaneous shortening and rectifying of its fibers, produces the paradoxical increase of the ventricular volume and lengthening of its long axis. Specific spatial arrangement of the ascendent segment fibers, their interaction with adjacent descendent segment fibers, elastic elements and intra-cavitary blood volume (hemoskeleton), explain the physical principles

  20. Left ventricular function in right ventricular overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwanaga, Shiro; Handa, Shunnosuke; Abe, Sumihisa; Onishi, Shohei; Nakamura, Yoshiro; Kunieda, Etsuo; Ogawa, Koichi; Kubo, Atsushi

    1989-01-01

    This study clarified regional and global functions of the distorted left ventricle due to right ventricular overload by gated radionuclide ventriculography (RNV). Cardiac catheterization and RNV were performed in 13 cases of atrial septal defect (ASD), 13 of pure mitral stenosis (MS), 10 of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), and 10 of normal subjects (NL). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was 32.9±13.9, 45.0±12.2, 88.3±17.1, and 21.2±4.5 mmHg, respectively. The end-systolic LAO view of the left ventricle was halved into septal and free-wall sides. The end-diastolic halves were determined in the same plane. Ejection fractions of the global left ventricle (LVEF), global right ventricle (RVEF), the septal half of the left ventricle (SEPEF), and the free-wall half of the left ventricle (FWEF) were obtained. LVEF was 56.8±9.8% in NL, 52.8±10.5% in ASD, and 49.5±12.9% in PPH. In MS, LVEF (47.0±13.0%) was smaller than those in the other groups. RVEF was 37.0±5.2% in NL, 43.7±15.5% in ASD, and 32.8±11.5% in MS. In PPH, RVEF (25.0±10.6%) was smaller than those in the other groups. SEPEF was smaller in ASD (42.5±13.2%), MS (40.4±13.1%), PPH (40.5±12.5%) than in NL (53.5±8.5%). Systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was disturbed by right ventricular overload. RVEF (r=-0.35, p<0.05) and SEPEF (r=-0.51, p<0.01) had negative correlations with RVSP. As RVSP rose, systolic function of the septal half of the left ventricle was more severely disturbed. FWEF was the same among the four groups; NL (57.0±12.6%), ASD (48.6±15.2%), MS (50.5±12.0%), and PPH (51.1±12.3%). There was a good correlation between SEPEF and LVEF in NL (r=0.81), although in PPH this correlation was poor (r=0.64). These data showed that the distorted left ventricular due to right ventricular overload maintains its global function with preserved function of the free-wall side. (J.P.N.)

  1. Staurosporine Inhibits Frequency-Dependent Myofilament Desensitization in Intact Rabbit Cardiac Trabeculae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth D. Varian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Myofilament calcium sensitivity decreases with frequency in intact healthy rabbit trabeculae and associates with Troponin I and Myosin light chain-2 phosphorylation. We here tested whether serine-threonine kinase activity is primarily responsible for this frequency-dependent modulations of myofilament calcium sensitivity. Right ventricular trabeculae were isolated from New Zealand White rabbit hearts and iontophoretically loaded with bis-fura-2. Twitch force-calcium relationships and steady state force-calcium relationships were measured at frequencies of 1 and 4 Hz at 37 °C. Staurosporine (100 nM, a nonspecific serine-threonine kinase inhibitor, or vehicle (DMSO was included in the superfusion solution before and during the contractures. Staurosporine had no frequency-dependent effect on force development, kinetics, calcium transient amplitude, or rate of calcium transient decline. The shift in the pCa50 of the force-calcium relationship was significant from 6.05±0.04 at 1 Hz versus 5.88±0.06 at 4 Hz under control conditions (vehicle, P<0.001 but not in presence of staurosporine (5.89±0.08 at 1 Hz versus 5.94±0.07 at 4 Hz, P=NS. Phosphoprotein analysis (Pro-Q Diamond stain confirmed that staurosporine significantly blunted the frequency-dependent phosphorylation at Troponin I and Myosin light chain-2. We conclude that frequency-dependent modulation of calcium sensitivity is mediated through a kinase-specific effect involving phosphorylation of myofilament proteins.

  2. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  3. The CareRabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Sanne; Stegwee, R.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The CareRabbit (ZorgKonijn) is an e-health device that can be used to play messages (e.g. text, MP3) sent through the Internet. It is used in children's departments in hospitals. Its aim is to make children feel comfortable and make their stay more pleasant. Motivation - Our goal is to investigate

  4. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignolo Puglia, W.; Freire Colla, D.; Rivara Urrutia, D.; Lujambio Grene, M.; Arbiza Bruno, T.; Oliveira, G.; Cobas Rodriguez, J.

    1997-01-01

    The arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a condition predominantly well defined with arrhythmic events. We analyze three cases diagnosed by the group. These cases were presented as ventricular tachycardia with a morphology of left bundle branch block, presenting one of them aborted sudden death in evolution. The baseline electrocardiogram and signal averaging were abnormal in two of the three cases, like the echocardiogram. The electrophysiological study was able to induce in the three patients with sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia morphology of left bundle branch block. The definitive diagnosis was made by right ventriculography in two cases and magnetic resonance imaging in the other. Treatment included antiarrhythmic drugs in the three cases and the placement of an automatic defibrillator which survived a sudden death (Author)

  5. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Production of neutralizing antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus by intravenous injections of rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Rabbit antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) produced by two immunization procedures were compared for neutralization and immunochemical properties against homologous and heterologous strains. The VHSV isolate used as the immunogen was a member of a serogroup not neutralized...... by previously available antisera. The results from this study suggested that frequent intravenous (IV) injections of rabbits with viral antigens were superior to adjuvant-mediated, combined subcutaneous and intraperitoneal (SC/IP) injections for the production of neutralizing antisera. All IV injected rabbits...... produced high neutralization titers against the homologous VHSV isolate but not against an isolate from a different serogroup. The SC/IP injected rabbits had no significant neutralization titers against either the homologous VHSV strain or two isolates of a heterologous VHSV strain. Sera from all injected...

  7. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with t...

  8. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  9. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  10. Analyzing the electrophysiological effects of local epicardial temperature in experimental studies with isolated hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormos, Alvaro; Millet, José; Guill, Antonio; Chorro, Francisco J; Cánoves, Joaquín; Mainar, Luis; Such, Luis; Alberola, Antonio; Trapero, Isabel; Such-Miquel, Luis

    2008-01-01

    As a result of their modulating effects upon myocardial electrophysiology, both hypo- and hyperthermia can be used to study the mechanisms that generate or sustain cardiac arrhythmias. The present study describes an original electrode developed with thick-film technology and capable of controlling regional temperature variations in the epicardium while simultaneously registering its electrical activity. In this way, it is possible to measure electrophysiological parameters of the heart at different temperatures. The results obtained with this device in a study with isolated and perfused rabbit hearts are reported. An exploration has been made of the effects of local temperature changes upon the electrophysiological parameters implicated in myocardial conduction. Likewise, an analysis has been made of the influence of local temperature upon ventricular fibrillation activation frequency. It is concluded that both regional hypo- and hyperthermia exert reversible and opposite effects upon myocardial refractoriness and conduction velocity in the altered zone. The ventricular activation wavelength determined during constant pacing at 250 ms cycles is not significantly modified, however. During ventricular fibrillation, the changes in the fibrillatory frequency do not seem to be transmitted to normal temperature zones

  11. [Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmia in children. Apropos of 24 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coeurderoy, A; Almange, C; Laurent, M; Biron, Y; Leborgne, P

    1985-12-01

    The severity and prognosis of idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias in childhood were studied in 24 patients (12 boys, 12 girls) with an average age of 8 years at the time of diagnosis of the arrhythmia. Investigations included clinical assessment and analysis of basal ECG (morphology of the arrhythmias) and dynamic recordings (Holter and exercise stress testing). The clinical course was followed for an average of 3.8 years. The patients were classified in two groups: monomorphic arrhythmias (Group I) and polymorphic arrhythmias (Group II). Group I was divided into 4 subgroups: isolated ventricular extrasystoles (IA), 11 patients; ventricular extrasystoles with bursts of ventricular tachycardia (IB), 6 patients; sustained ventricular tachycardia without intercritical extrasystoles (IC), 1 patient; accelerated idioventricular rhythm (ID), 2 patients. Subgroups IA, IB and ID were characterised by the absence of symptoms, the disappearance of the arrhythmia on exercise, the decreased efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs and an excellent prognosis. Therapeutic abstention was the rule in these patients. Patients in Group IC were characterised by the variability of their symptoms, the absence of exercise induced arrhythmias, the need for treatment in most cases and a good long-term prognosis. Group II was divided into 2 subgroups: adrenergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (IIA), 2 patients, and non-adrenergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (IIB), 2 patients. Patients in Subgroup IIA were characterised by syncope on exercise or emotion, the need for betablocker therapy which considerably improved the patients symptoms but which did not usually prevent sudden death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Rabbit Model of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jeong Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We created a rabbit model of retinoblastoma and confirmed the tumor clinically and histopathologically. Seventeen New Zealand rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A at doses of 10–15 mg/kg. At day 3, the animals received a 30 μl subretinal injection of 1×106 cultured WERI retinoblastoma cells. Digital fundus images were captured before euthanasia, and the eyes were submitted for histopathology. Retinoblastoma cells grew in all the inoculated eyes and established a tumor under the retina and/or in the vitreous. New blood vessels in the tumor were observed starting at week 5. Cuffs of viable tumor cells surrounded the blood vessels with regions of necrosis present at 70–80 μm from nutrient vessels. Occasional tumor seeds in the vitreous histologically exhibited central necrosis. This rabbit model demonstrated similar fundus appearance and pathologic features to human retinoblastoma and may be used as a model to test various routes of drug delivery for retinoblastoma.

  13. Simulation Methods and Validation Criteria for Modeling Cardiac Ventricular Electrophysiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankarjee Krishnamoorthi

    Full Text Available We describe a sequence of methods to produce a partial differential equation model of the electrical activation of the ventricles. In our framework, we incorporate the anatomy and cardiac microstructure obtained from magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of a New Zealand White rabbit, the Purkinje structure and the Purkinje-muscle junctions, and an electrophysiologically accurate model of the ventricular myocytes and tissue, which includes transmural and apex-to-base gradients of action potential characteristics. We solve the electrophysiology governing equations using the finite element method and compute both a 6-lead precordial electrocardiogram (ECG and the activation wavefronts over time. We are particularly concerned with the validation of the various methods used in our model and, in this regard, propose a series of validation criteria that we consider essential. These include producing a physiologically accurate ECG, a correct ventricular activation sequence, and the inducibility of ventricular fibrillation. Among other components, we conclude that a Purkinje geometry with a high density of Purkinje muscle junctions covering the right and left ventricular endocardial surfaces as well as transmural and apex-to-base gradients in action potential characteristics are necessary to produce ECGs and time activation plots that agree with physiological observations.

  14. Simulation Methods and Validation Criteria for Modeling Cardiac Ventricular Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthi, Shankarjee; Perotti, Luigi E; Borgstrom, Nils P; Ajijola, Olujimi A; Frid, Anna; Ponnaluri, Aditya V; Weiss, James N; Qu, Zhilin; Klug, William S; Ennis, Daniel B; Garfinkel, Alan

    2014-01-01

    We describe a sequence of methods to produce a partial differential equation model of the electrical activation of the ventricles. In our framework, we incorporate the anatomy and cardiac microstructure obtained from magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of a New Zealand White rabbit, the Purkinje structure and the Purkinje-muscle junctions, and an electrophysiologically accurate model of the ventricular myocytes and tissue, which includes transmural and apex-to-base gradients of action potential characteristics. We solve the electrophysiology governing equations using the finite element method and compute both a 6-lead precordial electrocardiogram (ECG) and the activation wavefronts over time. We are particularly concerned with the validation of the various methods used in our model and, in this regard, propose a series of validation criteria that we consider essential. These include producing a physiologically accurate ECG, a correct ventricular activation sequence, and the inducibility of ventricular fibrillation. Among other components, we conclude that a Purkinje geometry with a high density of Purkinje muscle junctions covering the right and left ventricular endocardial surfaces as well as transmural and apex-to-base gradients in action potential characteristics are necessary to produce ECGs and time activation plots that agree with physiological observations.

  15. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  16. PATHOGENIC POTENTIALS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrolyte and haematological parameters in rabbits infected with pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli from rural water supplies in Rivers State, Nigeria, where monitored. Rabbits were orally infected with suspension containing 3x107 cfu /ml of Escherichia coli to induce diarrhoea, and the electrolyte (sodium, potassium ...

  17. Anti-arrhythmic peptide N-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionyl Pro-Hyp-Gly-Ala-Gly-OH reduces dispersion of action potential duration during ischemia/reperfusion in rabbit hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølbye, Anne Louise; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2002-01-01

    During ischemia, cardiac gap junctions close and neighboring cells uncouple. This leads to slow conduction, increased dispersion of APD90 (duration from action potential beginning to 90% of repolarization), nonuniform anisotropy, and unidirectional conduction block, all of which favor the induction...... of reentry arrhythmias. It has been suggested that anti-arrhythmic peptides increase gap junction conductance during states of reduced coupling. The aim of this study was to test the effect of the anti-arrhythmic peptide N-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionyl Pro-Hyp-Gly-Ala-Gly-OH (HP-5) (10(-10) ) on dispersion...... of epicardial APD90 during both normokalemic and hypokalemic ischemia/reperfusion in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. HP-5 did not affect average APD90, heart rate, left ventricular contractility (LVP dP/dtmax), or mean coronary flow. HP-5 significantly reduced the epicardial APD dispersion during hypokalemic...

  18. Calculation of the ALMA Risk of Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loforte, Antonio; Montalto, Andrea; Musumeci, Francesco; Amarelli, Cristiano; Mariani, Carlo; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Lilla Della Monica, Paola; Grigioni, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Marinelli, Giuseppe

    2018-05-08

    Right ventricular failure after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is still an unsolved issue and remains a life-threatening event for patients. We undertook this study to determine predictors of the patients who are candidates for isolated LVAD therapy as opposed to biventricular support (BVAD). We reviewed demographic, echocardiographic, hemodynamic, and laboratory variables for 258 patients who underwent both isolated LVAD implantation and unplanned BVAD because of early right ventricular failure after LVAD insertion, between 2006 and 2017 (LVAD = 170 and BVAD = 88). The final study patients were randomly divided into derivation (79.8%, n = 206) and validation (20.1%, n = 52) cohorts. Fifty-seven preoperative risk factors were compared between patients who were successfully managed with an LVAD and those who required a BVAD. Nineteen variables demonstrated statistical significance on univariable analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified destination therapy (odds ratio [OR] 2.0 [1.7-3.9], p = 0.003), a pulmonary artery pulsatility index right ventricle/left ventricle end-diastolic diameter ratio >0.75 (OR 2.7 [1.5-5.5], p = 0.001), an right ventricle stroke work index 17 (OR 3.5 [1.9-6.9], p the major predictors of the need for BVAD. Using these data, we propose a simple risk calculator to determine the suitability of patients for isolated LVAD support in the era of continuous-flow mechanical circulatory support devices.

  19. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  20. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  1. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  2. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  3. Cardioplegia using low volumic cardioplegic agents: morphological study in isolated rabbit hearts Cardioplegia utilizando baixo volume de agentes cardioplégicos: estudo morfológico em coração isolado de coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Marques Lima-Oliveira

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological cardioplegic solution aims to eliminate the consequences of ischemic damage, which results from the misbalance between the offer and consumption of energy during the arrest of the heart beats during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. OBJECTIVES: This research experimentally evaluates the structural and ultrastructural changes in isolated rabbit hearts submitted to arrest protected by a Low Volumetric Cardioplegic Solution (LVCS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study counted with a control group and two experimental groups. In group I the cardiac arrest was obtained by infusion of the LVCS for 2 hours. In group II the experiment was conducted in the same way until the arrest protected by LVCS for 2 hours, and immediately after reperfusion was performed with the Ringer Locke (RL oxygenated solution for 1 hour. In the control group the hearts were perfused with the RL oxygenated solution for 2 hours. After the experiments, 8 samples of the left ventricle were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde for histological and ultrastructural analysis. RESULTS: The myocardial cells, the fibroblasts and the endothelial cells which were observed in the experimental groups I and II, presented with marginalization of the heterochromatin, compaction of the nucleolus, change in the morphology of the mitochondria and compaction of the cristae. Also there was an increase of the density of the mitochondrial matrix. This indicates that the nuclear structure as well as the structure of the cytoplasmic organelles were altered when compared to the cells of the control group. CONCLUSION: The structural modifications were due a physiological adaptation of the cell, and not an indication of oncosis or apoptosis, suggesting that the cardioplegic solution used was efficient for the preservation of the cells.INTRODUÇÃO: A solução cardioplégica farmacológica busca eliminar as conseqüências do dano isquêmico, que é o

  4. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...... [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV)] in hypertensive patients....

  5. Vaccine breaks: Outbreaks of myxomatosis on Spanish commercial rabbit farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, K P; Nicieza, I; de Llano, D; Gullón, J; Inza, M; Petralanda, M; Arroita, Z; Parra, F

    2015-08-05

    Despite the success of vaccination against myxoma virus, myxomatosis remains a problem on rabbit farms throughout Spain and Europe. In this study we set out to evaluate possible causes of myxoma virus (MYXV) vaccine failures addressing key issues with regard to pathogen, vaccine and vaccination strategies. This was done by genetically characterising MYXV field isolates from farm outbreaks, selecting a representative strain for which to assay its virulence and measuring the protective capability of a commercial vaccine against this strain. Finally, we compare methods (route) of vaccine administration under farm conditions and evaluate immune response in vaccinated rabbits. The data presented here show that the vaccine tested is capable of eliciting protection in rabbits that show high levels of seroconversion. However, the number of animals failing to seroconvert following subcutaneous vaccination may leave a large number of rabbits unprotected following vaccine administration. Successful vaccination requires the strict implication of workable, planned, on farm programs. Following this, analysis to confirm seroconversion rates may be advisable. Factors such as the wild rabbit reservoir, control of biting insects and good hygienic practices must be taken into consideration to prevent vaccine failures from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Biotransformation of hydralazine (HDZ) in monolayer cultures of rabbit hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, C.A.; Rosado, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Adverse reactions to HDZ have been associated with the acetylator polymorphism; slow acetylators are more likely to develop HDZ-induced lupus erythematosus. In studying the role of this polymorphism in susceptibility to HDZ toxicity, the biotransformation of HDZ was investigated in rabbit hepatocytes. New Zealand white rabbits, like humans, are classified as rapid or slow acetylators. Heptocytes were isolated from rapid acetylator rabbits by collagenase perfusion. Monolayer cultures were initiated and exposed to 14 C-HDZ. Since HDZ is unstable at neutral pH, parallel incubations were done in the absence of cells. Metabolites in the media were determined by reverse phase HPLC. Phthalazine (P), phthalazinone (PZ), triazoloph-thalazine (TP), methyl TP (MTP) and 3-hydroxy MTP were identified. In the absence of cells, more TP was formed than MTP, probably resulting from reaction of HDZ with components in the medium. In the presence of cells, there was a three-fold increase in MTP, while the amount of TP was relatively constant. Only trace amounts of P, PZ 3-hydroxy MTP were detected. These data indicate that monolayer cultures of rapid acetylator rabbit hepatocytes were capable of metabolizing HDZ with acetylation playing a major role. These studies are being extended to cells from slow acetylator rabbits

  7. Patterns of ventricular dysfunction in patients receiving cardiotoxic chemotherapy as assessed with gated blood pool imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, S.M.; Parikh, S.R.; Spies, W.G.; Zimmer, A.M.; Silverstein, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Clinical concern over significant cardiotoxicity of commonly employed chemotherapeutic regimens is a common indication for gated blood pool imaging. The authors have undertaken a review of 102 patients referred for such evaluation during a 14-month period. Ventricular ejection fractions, cine displays, and phase analysis were performed on each patient study. Approximately one-third of the cases showed significant abnormalities in wall motion or global ejection fraction. Many abnormal cases had isolated left ventricular findings, while fewer had isolated right ventricular findings. Left ventricular wall motion abnormalities were often focal. The patterns of ventricular dysfunction in patients receiving cardiotoxic chemotherapy are diverse, and awareness of the various possibilities is important for accurate clinical assessment of these patients

  8. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in Canadian commercial meat, companion, laboratory, and shelter rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and its association with routine antimicrobial use in commercial meat rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylie, Jennifer; McEwen, Scott A; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in zoonotic (e.g. Salmonella spp.), pathogenic, and opportunistic (e.g. E. coli) bacteria in animals represents a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and resistance genes to bacteria infecting humans and other animals. This study evaluated the prevalence of E. coli and Salmonella enterica, and the presence of associated AMR in commercial meat, companion, research, and shelter rabbits in Canada. Associations between antimicrobial usage and prevalence of AMR in bacterial isolates were also examined in commercial meat rabbits. Culture and susceptibility testing was conducted on pooled fecal samples from weanling and adult commercial meat rabbits taken during both summer and winter months (n=100, 27 farms), and from pooled laboratory (n=14, 8 laboratory facilities), companion (n=53), and shelter (n=15, 4 shelters) rabbit fecal samples. At the facility level, E. coli was identified in samples from each commercial rabbit farm, laboratory facility, and 3 of 4 shelters, and in 6 of 53 companion rabbit fecal samples. Seventy-nine of 314 (25.2%; CI: 20.7-30.2%) E. coli isolates demonstrated resistance to >1 antimicrobial agent. At least one E. coli isolate resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent was present in samples from 55.6% of commercial farms, and from 25% of each laboratory and shelter facilities, with resistance to tetracycline being most common; no resistance was identified in companion animal samples. Salmonella enterica subsp. was identified exclusively in pooled fecal samples from commercial rabbit farms; Salmonella enterica serovar London from one farm and Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from another. The S. Kentucky isolate was resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, streptomycin, and tetracycline, whereas the S. London isolate was pansusceptible. Routine use of antimicrobials on commercial meat rabbit farms was not significantly associated with the

  9. Ventricular tachycardia in ischemic heart disease substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olujimi A. Ajijola

    2014-01-01

    This review will discuss the central role of the ischemic heart disease substrate in the development MMVT. Electrophysiologic characterization of the post-infarct myocardium using bipolar electrogram amplitudes to delineate scar border zones will be reviewed. Functional electrogram determinants of reentrant circuits such as isolated late potentials will be discussed. Strategies for catheter ablation of reentrant ventricular tachycardia, including structural and functional targets will also be examined, as will the role of the epicardial mapping and ablation in the management of recurrent MMVT.

  10. Nonischemic Left Ventricular Scar as a Substrate of Life-Threatening Ventricular Arrhythmias and Sudden Cardiac Death in Competitive Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro; Perazzolo Marra, Martina; Rigato, Ilaria; De Lazzari, Manuel; Susana, Angela; Niero, Alice; Pilichou, Kalliopi; Migliore, Federico; Rizzo, Stefania; Giorgi, Benedetta; De Conti, Giorgio; Sarto, Patrizio; Serratosa, Luis; Patrizi, Giampiero; De Maria, Elia; Pelliccia, Antonio; Basso, Cristina; Schiavon, Maurizio; Bauce, Barbara; Iliceto, Sabino; Thiene, Gaetano; Corrado, Domenico

    2016-07-01

    The clinical profile and arrhythmic outcome of competitive athletes with isolated nonischemic left ventricular (LV) scar as evidenced by contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance remain to be elucidated. We compared 35 athletes (80% men, age: 14-48 years) with ventricular arrhythmias and isolated LV subepicardial/midmyocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance (group A) with 38 athletes with ventricular arrhythmias and no LGE (group B) and 40 healthy control athletes (group C). A stria LGE pattern with subepicardial/midmyocardial distribution, mostly involving the lateral LV wall, was found in 27 (77%) of group A versus 0 controls (group C; P<0.001), whereas a spotty pattern of LGE localized at the junction of the right ventricle to the septum was respectively observed in 11 (31%) versus 10 (25%; P=0.52). All athletes with stria pattern showed ventricular arrhythmias with a predominant right bundle branch block morphology, 13 of 27 (48%) showed ECG repolarization abnormalities, and 5 of 27 (19%) showed echocardiographic hypokinesis of the lateral LV wall. The majority of athletes with no or spotty LGE pattern had ventricular arrhythmias with a predominant left bundle branch block morphology and no ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities. During a follow-up of 38±25 months, 6 of 27 (22%) athletes with stria pattern experienced malignant arrhythmic events such as appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator shock (n=4), sustained ventricular tachycardia (n=1), or sudden death (n=1), compared with none of athletes with no or LGE spotty pattern and controls. Isolated nonischemic LV LGE with a stria pattern may be associated with life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death in the athlete. Because of its subepicardial/midmyocardial location, LV scar is often not detected by echocardiography. © 2016 The Authors.

  11. Paradoxical effects of KB-R7943 on arrhythmogenicity in a chronic myocardial infarction rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Po-Cheng; Wo, Hung-Ta; Lee, Hui-Ling; Wen, Ming-Shien; Chou, Chung-Chuan

    2015-07-01

    Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger blockade has been reported to be anti-arrhythmic in different models. The effects of KB-R7943, a Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger blocker, on arrhythmogenesis in hearts with chronic myocardial infarction (MI) remain unclear. Dual voltage and intracellular Ca(2+) (Cai) optical mapping was performed in nine rabbit hearts with chronic MI and four control hearts. Electrophysiology studies including inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation dominant frequency, action potential, Cai alternans, Cai decay, and conduction velocity were performed. The same protocol was repeated in the presence of KB-R7943 (0.5, 1, and 5μM) after the baseline studies. KB-R7943 was effective in suppressing afterdepolarizations and spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias in hearts with chronic MI. Surprisingly, KB-R7943 increased the inducibility of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in a dose-dependent manner (11%, 11%, 22%, and 56% at baseline and with 0.5, 1, and 5μM KB-R7943, respectively, p=0.02). Optical mapping analysis revealed that the underlying mechanisms of the induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias were probably spatially discordant alternans with wave breaks and rotors. Further analysis showed that KB-R7943 significantly enhanced both action potential (p=0.033) and Cai (p=0.001) alternans, prolonged Cai decay (tau value) in a dose-dependent manner (p=0.004), and caused heterogeneous conduction delay especially at peri-infarct zones during rapid burst pacing. In contrast, KB-R7943 had insignificant effects in control hearts. In this chronic MI rabbit model, KB-R7943 has contrasting effects on arrhythmogenesis, suppressing afterdepolarizations and spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias, but enhancing the inducibility of tachyarrhythmias. The mechanism is probably the enhanced spatially discordant alternans because of prolonged Cai decay and heterogeneous conduction delay. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier

  12. Noninvasive imaging of three-dimensional cardiac activation sequence during pacing and ventricular tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chengzong; Pogwizd, Steven M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; He, Bin

    2011-08-01

    Imaging cardiac excitation within ventricular myocardium is important in the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias and might help improve our understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms. This study sought to rigorously assess the imaging performance of a 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac electrical imaging (3DCEI) technique with the aid of 3D intracardiac mapping from up to 216 intramural sites during paced rhythm and norepinephrine (NE)-induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in the rabbit heart. Body surface potentials and intramural bipolar electrical recordings were simultaneously measured in a closed-chest condition in 13 healthy rabbits. Single-site pacing and dual-site pacing were performed from ventricular walls and septum. VTs and premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) were induced by intravenous NE. Computed tomography images were obtained to construct geometry models. The noninvasively imaged activation sequence correlated well with invasively measured counterpart, with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 ± 0.04, and a relative error of 0.30 ± 0.02 averaged over 520 paced beats as well as 73 NE-induced PVCs and VT beats. All PVCs and VT beats initiated in the subendocardium by a nonreentrant mechanism. The averaged distance from the imaged site of initial activation to the pacing site or site of arrhythmias determined from intracardiac mapping was ∼5 mm. For dual-site pacing, the double origins were identified when they were located at contralateral sides of ventricles or at the lateral wall and the apex. 3DCEI can noninvasively delineate important features of focal or multifocal ventricular excitation. It offers the potential to aid in localizing the origins and imaging activation sequences of ventricular arrhythmias, and to provide noninvasive assessment of the underlying arrhythmia mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Culture technique of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marini M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the protective covering outer layer of the mammalian skin. The epidermal cells are stratified squamous epithelia which undergo continuous differentiation of loss and replacement of cells. Ninety per cent of epidermal cells consist of keratinocytes that are found in the basal layer of the stratified epithelium called epidermis. Keratinocytes are responsible for forming tight junctions with the nerves of the skin as well as in the process of wound healing. This article highlights the method of isolation and culture of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. Approximately 2cm x 2cm oval shaped line was drawn on the dorsum of the rabbit to mark the surgical area. Then, the skin was carefully excised using a surgical blade and the target skin specimens harvested from the rabbits were placed in transport medium comprising of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% of antibiotic-antimycotic solution. The specimens were transferred into a petri dish containing 70% ethanol and washed for 5 min followed by a wash in 1 x Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (DBPS. Then, the skin specimens were placed in DMEM and minced into small pieces using a scalpel. The minced pieces were placed in a centrifuge tube containing 0.6% Dispase and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution overnight at 4°C in a horizontal orientation. The epidermis layer (whitish, semi-transparent was separated from the dermis (pink, opaque, gooey with the aid of curved forceps by fixing the dermis with one pair of forceps while detaching the epidermis with the second pair. The cells were cultured at a density of 4 x 104 cells/cm2 in culture flask at 37°C and 5% CO2. The cell morphology of the keratinocytes was analyzed using inverted microscope.

  14. [Influence of high-voltage electric burn on the microcirculation of heart in rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-fu; Zhou, Hui-min; Wang, Che-jiang; Shao, Hong-bo

    2012-06-01

    To study the influence of high-voltage electric burn on the microcirculation of heart in rabbit. One-hundred and twenty New Zealand rabbits of clean grade were divided into control group (C) and electric burn group (EB) according to the random number table, with 60 rabbits in each group. Rabbits in EB group were subjected to high-voltage electric burn (the electrical current flow into the left foreleg at the lateral side of proximal end and out from the corresponding site of the right hind leg) with voltage regulator and experimental transformer. Rabbits in C group were sham injured with the same devices without electrification. At 15 minutes before injury, and 5 minutes, 1, 2, 4, 8 hour (s) post injury (PIM or PIH), ten rabbits in each group were chosen to examine the cardiac apex microcirculation hemoperfusion (CAMH) with laser Doppler hemoperfusion image instrument. The morphologic changes of microvessels of left ventricular wall tissues of 2 rabbits from each of the 10 rabbits collected at above-mentioned time points were observed with light microscope and transmission electron microscope. Auricular vein blood of rabbit was harvested at above-mentioned time points for the determination of aspartate amino transferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (HBDH), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase isozyme MB (CK-MB) by full-automatic biochemical analyzer. Data were processed with two-factor analysis of variance and LSD test. (1) The differences between C group and EB group in detection results were statistically significant, with F values from 425.991 to 3046.834, P values all below 0.01. Only the data within EB group were comparable. (2) At PIM 5, the CAMH value of rabbits in EB group was (1.96 ± 0.09) V, which was lower than that at 15 minutes before injury [(4.34 ± 0.35) V, P electric burn can bring damage to the microvessels of heart in rabbits and change blood flow of microcirculation, which should be given adequate

  15. Susceptibility to cartap-induced lethal effect and diaphragmatic injury via ocular exposure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Hwang, Jenn-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Cheng

    2003-11-05

    Cartap is extensively used to control agricultural pests. Pertinent literatures have indicated that it causes no eye irritation [D.E. Ray, Insecticides derived from plants and other organisms, in: W.J. Hayes, E.R. Laws (Eds.), Handbook of Insecticide Toxicology, Classes of Insecticides, vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 1991, p. 611; C. Tomlin, Cartap, in: C. Tomlin (Ed.), The Insecticide Manual, 12th ed., British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UK, 2000, p. 144]; however, the instillation of a little cartap through the eye has caused death in rabbits. The aim of this study was to determine the ocular toxicity of cartap in New Zealand White rabbits. Cartap was directly instilled into the low conjunctival sac of eyes, at doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight. The changes in the enzymes and isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), as well as pathological changes in the muscles of the heart, thigh and diaphragm were determined in the cartap-treated rabbits. Moreover, the neuromuscular effect of cartap was examined using the isolated rabbit phrenic-nerve diaphragm model. The results indicated that rabbits developed severe signs and they died within 20 min of ocular instillation. The ocular LD50 of cartap was 8.1 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with cartap increased the activities of CK and LD enzymes and their isoenzymes, CK-1, CK-2, and CK-3 in serum, and CK-3 and LD-5 in the diaphragm. Microscopically, hypercontraction bands and the rupture of myofibers of the diaphragm were observed in dead rabbits. Cartap did not affect nerve-evoked twitch but induced irreversible contracture and twitch depression on the isolated rabbit's diaphragm. These results indicate that the rabbit is susceptible to cartap toxicity; the effect of cartap caused contracture and damage to the diaphragm might play a pivotal role in respiratory paralysis and death of rabbits during intoxication.

  16. Serologic activity of G immunoglobulin of irradiated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.A.; Nevinnaya, A.P.; Mozhajskij, A.M.; Snisar', N.A.

    1977-01-01

    Serologic immunochemical properties of immunoglobulins G (IgG) isolated from blood serum of normal rabbits and those given lethal and midlethal doses of radiation have been comparatively studied. A marked increase in the IgG level was detected in the recovery period of radiation sickness. The number of complement-binding antitissue antibodies in IgG grew in that period, and the anticomplementary activity and the catabolism rate of IgG increased in normal organism

  17. Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from Milk by Immunomagnetic Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Irene R.; Ball, Hywel J.; Rowe, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    An immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique was developed to facilitate selective isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis cells from milk. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against radiation-killed intact M. paratuberculosis cells were produced and used to coat sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) type M-280 Dynabeads. The rabbit anti-M. paratuberculosis IgG-coated beads (IMB) reacted strongly with laboratory strains of M. paratuberculosis as determined by slide agglutination, and microsc...

  18. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  19. Heterogeneity of rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpatkin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)

  20. Biology of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Nathan R

    2006-01-01

    In recognition of Dr. Nathan Brewer's many years of dedicated service to AALAS and the community of research animal care specialists, the premier issue of JAALAS includes the following compilation of Dr. Brewer's essays on rabbit anatomy and physiology. These essays were originally published in the ASLAP newsletter (formerly called Synapse), and are reprinted here with the permission and endorsement of that organization. I would like to thank Nina Hahn, Jane Lacher, and Nancy Austin for assistance in compiling these essays. Publishing this information in JAALAS allows Dr. Brewer's work to become part of the searchable literature for laboratory animal science and medicine and also assures that the literature references and information he compiled will not be lost to posterity. However, readers should note that this material has undergone only minor editing for style, has not been edited for content, and, most importantly, has not undergone peer review. With the agreement of the associate editors and the AALAS leadership, I elected to forego peer review of this work, in contradiction to standard JAALAS policy, based on the status of this material as pre-published information from an affiliate organization that holds the copyright and on the esteem in which we hold for Dr. Brewer as a founding father of our organization.

  1. Measurement of ventricular function using Doppler ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teague, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Doppler has wide application in the evaluation of valvular heart disease. The need to know ventricular function is a much more common reason for an echocardiographic evaluation. Interestingly, Doppler examinations can assess ventricular function from many perspectives. Description of ventricular function entails measurement of the timing, rate and volume of ventricular filling and ejection. Doppler ultrasound examination reveals all of these aspects of ventricular function noninvasively, simply, and without great expense or radiation exposure, as described in this chapter

  2. Usefulness of ventricular endocardial electric reconstruction from body surface potential maps to noninvasively localize ventricular ectopic activity in patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dakun; Sun, Jian; Li, Yigang; He, Bin

    2013-06-01

    As radio frequency (RF) catheter ablation becomes increasingly prevalent in the management of ventricular arrhythmia in patients, an accurate and rapid determination of the arrhythmogenic site is of important clinical interest. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the inversely reconstructed ventricular endocardial current density distribution from body surface potential maps (BSPMs) can localize the regions critical for maintenance of a ventricular ectopic activity. Patients with isolated and monomorphic premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) were investigated by noninvasive BSPMs and subsequent invasive catheter mapping and ablation. Equivalent current density (CD) reconstruction (CDR) during symptomatic PVCs was obtained on the endocardial ventricular surface in six patients (four men, two women, years 23-77), and the origin of the spontaneous ectopic activity was localized at the location of the maximum CD value. Compared with the last (successful) ablation site (LAS), the mean and standard deviation of localization error of the CDR approach were 13.8 and 1.3 mm, respectively. In comparison, the distance between the LASs and the estimated locations of an equivalent single moving dipole in the heart was 25.5 ± 5.5 mm. The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the catheter ablation site also showed a high consistency with the invasively recorded electroanatomical maps. The noninvasively reconstructed endocardial CD distribution is suitable to predict a region of interest containing or close to arrhythmia source, which may have the potential to guide RF catheter ablation.

  3. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhassen, B; Viskin, S

    1993-06-01

    Important data have recently been added to our understanding of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias occurring in the absence of demonstrable heart disease. Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia (VT) is usually of monomorphic configuration and can be classified according to its site of origin as either right monomorphic (70% of all idiopathic VTs) or left monomorphic VT. Several physiopathological types of monomorphic VT can be presently individualized, according to their mode of presentation, their relationship to adrenergic stress, or their response to various drugs. The long-term prognosis is usually good. Idiopathic polymorphic VT is a much rarer type of arrhythmia with a less favorable prognosis. Idiopathic ventricular fibrillation may represent an underestimated cause of sudden cardiac death in ostensibly healty patients. A high incidence of inducibility of sustained polymorphic VT with programmed ventricular stimulation has been found by our group, but not by others. Long-term prognosis on Class IA antiarrhythmic medications that are highly effective at electrophysiologic study appears excellent.

  4. A rabbit model of non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Aruna; Tatarov, Ivan; Masek, Billie Jo; Hardick, Justin; Crusan, Annabelle; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen; Yang, Samuel; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Lipsky, Michael M; McLeod, Charles G; Levine, Myron M; Rothman, Richard E; Gaydos, Charlotte A; DeTolla, Louis J

    2014-09-01

    Bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. In this study, we focused on the development of an animal model of bacteremia induced by non-typhoidal Salmonella. New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with a human isolate of non-typhoidal Salmonella strain CVD J73 via the intra-peritoneal route. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and at euthanasia from infected rabbits. Additionally, tissue samples from the heart, lungs, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were obtained at euthanasia. All experimentally infected rabbits displayed clinical signs of disease (fever, dehydration, weight loss and lethargy). Tissues collected at necropsy from the animals exhibited histopathological changes indicative of bacteremia. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteria were detected in the blood and tissue samples of infected rabbits by microbiological culture and real-time PCR assays. The development of this animal model of bacteremia could prove to be a useful tool for studying how non-typhoidal Salmonella infections disseminate and spread in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Critical assessment of the efficiency of CD34 and CD133 antibodies for enrichment of rabbit hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašíček, Jaromír; Shehata, Medhat; Schnabl, Susanne; Hilgarth, Martin; Hubmann, Rainer; Jäger, Ulrich; Bauer, Miroslav; Chrenek, Peter

    2018-06-08

    Rabbits have many hereditary diseases common to humans and are therefore a valuable model for regenerative disease and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) therapies. Currently, there is no substantial data on the isolation and/or enrichment of rabbit HSCs. This study was initiated to evaluate the efficiency of the commercially available anti-CD34 and anti-CD133 antibodies for the detection and potential enrichment of rabbit HSCs from peripheral blood. PBMCs from rabbit and human blood were labelled with different clones of anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies (AC136, 581 and 8G12) and rabbit polyclonal CD34 antibody (pCD34) and anti-human CD133 monoclonal antibodies (AC133 and 293C3). Flow cytometry showed a higher percentage of rabbit CD34 + cells labelled by AC136 in comparison to the clone 581 and pCD34 (Penrichment of rabbit CD34 + cells using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). The enrichment of the rabbit CD34 + cells after sorting was low in comparison to human samples (2.4% vs. 39.6%). PCR analyses confirmed the efficient enrichment of human CD34 + cells and the low expression of CD34 mRNA in rabbit positive fraction. In conclusion, the tested antibodies might be suitable for detection, but not for sorting the rabbit CD34 + HSCs and new specific anti-rabbit CD34 antibodies are needed for efficient enrichment of rabbit HSCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  7. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Marissa, Dyna; Jundillah, Muhammad Labib; Azainil; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  8. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  9. Ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Paulo Tomaz Barbosa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sudden death is one of the most characteristic phenomena of Chagas disease, and approximately one-third of infected patients develop life-threatening heart disease, including malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Fibrotic lesions secondary to chronic cardiomyopathy produce arrhythmogenic substrates that lead to the appearance and maintenance of ventricular arrhythmias. The objective of this study is to discuss the main clinical and epidemiological aspects of ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease, the specific workups and treatments for these abnormalities, and the breakthroughs needed to determine a more effective approach to these arrhythmias. A literature review was performed via a search of the PubMed database from 1965 to May 31, 2014 for studies of patients with Chagas disease. Clinical management of patients with chronic Chagas disease begins with proper clinical stratification and the identification of individuals at a higher risk of sudden cardiac death. Once a patient develops malignant ventricular arrhythmia, the therapeutic approach aims to prevent the recurrence of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death by the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators, antiarrhythmic drugs, or both. In select cases, invasive ablation of the reentrant circuit causing tachycardia may be useful. Ventricular arrhythmias are important manifestations of Chagas cardiomyopathy. This review highlights the absence of high-quality evidence regarding the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias in Chagas disease. Recognizing high-risk patients who require specific therapies, especially invasive procedures such as the implantation of cardioverter defibrillators and ablative approaches, is a major challenge in clinical practice.

  10. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  11. The overloaded right heart and ventricular interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeije, Robert; Badagliacca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    The right and the left ventricle are interdependent as both structures are nested within the pericardium, have the septum in common and are encircled with common myocardial fibres. Therefore, right ventricular volume or pressure overloading affects left ventricular function, and this in turn may affect the right ventricle. In normal subjects at rest, right ventricular function has negligible interaction with left ventricular function. However, the right ventricle contributes significantly to the normal cardiac output response to exercise. In patients with right ventricular volume overload without pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular diastolic compliance is decreased and ejection fraction depressed but without intrinsic alteration in contractility. In patients with right ventricular pressure overload, left ventricular compliance is decreased with initial preservation of left ventricular ejection fraction, but with eventual left ventricular atrophic remodelling and altered systolic function. Breathing affects ventricular interdependence, in healthy subjects during exercise and in patients with lung diseases and altered respiratory system mechanics. Inspiration increases right ventricular volumes and decreases left ventricular volumes. Expiration decreases both right and left ventricular volumes. The presence of an intact pericardium enhances ventricular diastolic interdependence but has negligible effect on ventricular systolic interdependence. On the other hand, systolic interdependence is enhanced by a stiff right ventricular free wall, and decreased by a stiff septum. Recent imaging studies have shown that both diastolic and systolic ventricular interactions are negatively affected by right ventricular regional inhomogeneity and prolongation of contraction, which occur along with an increase in pulmonary artery pressure. The clinical relevance of these observations is being explored. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights

  12. The anionic basis of fluid secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Hunter, M; Novak, I

    1984-01-01

    The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate, but replac......The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate...

  13. Left ventricular noncompaction: Clinical-echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a disorder in endomyocardial morphogenesis, seen either isolated (in the absence of other cardiac anomalies or in association with congenital heart disease and some neuromuscular diseases. Intrauterine arrest of the compaction of myocardial fibers is postulated to be the reason of LVNC. Recognition of this condition is extremely important due to its high mortality and morbidity that lead to progressive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of LVNC among consecutive outpatients according to clinical and echocardiographyic findings. Methode. A total of 3,854 consecutive patients examined at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases within a period January 2006 - January 2007 were included in the study. All the patients underwent echocardiographic examination using the same equipment (Vivid 7, GE Medical System. Echocardiographic parameters and clinical presentation in patients with echocardiographic criteria for LVNC were analyzed. Results. Analyzing 3,854 consecutive outpatients, using two-dimensional Color Doppler echocardiography from January 2006 to January 2007, 12 patients met the criteria for LVNC. Seven of them were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 45 ± 15 years. Analyzing clinical manifestation of LVNC it was found that seven patients had signs of heart failure, six had arrhythmias with no embolic events. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the real prevalence of LVNC may be higher than expected. New studies have to be done to solve this problem.

  14. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  15. Effects of bepridil on the electrophysiological properties of guinea-pig ventricular muscles.

    OpenAIRE

    Anno, T.; Furuta, T.; Itho, M.; Kodama, I.; Toyama, J.; Yamada, K.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of bepridil, a new antianginal and potential antiarrhythmic agent, on transmembrane action potentials of ventricular muscles were examined in isolated right ventricular papillary muscles of guinea-pig. Bepridil at concentrations above 5 X 10(-6)M caused a dose-dependent decrease in both the maximum upstroke velocity (Vmax) and the action potential duration from the upstroke to 30% repolarization ( APD30 ). On the other hand, the resting potential (RP), the amplitude of action potentia...

  16. Effects of Khaya senegalensis leaves on performance, carcass traits, hemtological and biochemical parameters in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wareth, A. A. A.; Hammad, Seddik; Ahmed, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing farmers today is to ensure adequate integration of natural resources into animal feeds. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Khaya senegalensis (KS) leaves on the performance of growing male rabbits, carcass traits and biochemical as well as hematological parameters. Thirty New Zealand White male growing rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits per group). Group I (control) received standard rabbit diet. Rabbits in group II and group III were fed standard rabbit diet supplemented with 35 % and 65 % KS leaves, respectively. All rabbits were fed daily for 25 days. The performance parameters and carcass criteria, including daily body weight gain, final body weight, and the percentage of dressing, were increased in rabbits fed 35 % KS when compared to the control group. Kidney and liver weight ratios increased significantly in group II but dropped in group III. Furthermore, liver enzymes - alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and kidney function parameters - urea, and creatinine - increased in both group II (significant P<0.05) and in group III (significant P<0.01) when compared to the control group. Moreover, KS leaves induced a significant increase (P<0.05) in the total white blood cell count, the percentage of granulocytes and the platelet count; whereas, the percentage of lymphocytes, red blood cell count, hemoglobin content, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were not statistically significantly changed. This study demonstrates that the performance parameters and carcass traits are improved by the replacement of rabbit's diet with KS leaves. However, KS leaves may adversely affect liver and kidney function in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, further studies are required to elucidate the maximum tolerable and toxic, as well as lethal doses, and to isolate the pharmacologically active components from KS leaves. PMID

  17. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of ventricular tachycardia ablation in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cipriani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC is characterized by progressive fibro-fatty replacement of the myocardium that represents the substrate for recurrent sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT. These arrhythmias characterize the clinical course of a sizeable proportion of patients and have significant implications for their quality of life and long-term prognosis. Antiarrhythmic drugs are often poorly tolerated and usually provide incomplete control of arrhythmia relapses. Catheter ablation is a potentially effective strategy to treat frequent VT episodes and ICD shocks in ARVC patients. The aims of this review are to discuss the electrophysiological and electroanatomic substrates of ventricular tachycardia in patients with ARVC and to analyze the role of catheter ablation in their management with particular reference to selection of patients, technical issues, potential complications and outcomes.

  19. Vasodilation increases pulse pressure variation, mimicking hypovolemic status in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco A Westphal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that pulse pressure respiratory variation (PPV amplification, observed in hypovolemia, can also be observed during sodium nitroprusside (SNP-induced vasodilation. INTRODUCTION: PPV is largely used for early identification of cardiac responsiveness, especially when hypovolemia is suspected. PPV results from respiratory variation in transpulmonary blood flow and reflects the left ventricular preload variations during respiratory cycles. Any factor that decreases left ventricular preload can be associated with PPV amplification, as seen in hypovolemia. METHODS: Ten anesthetized and mechanically ventilated rabbits underwent progressive hypotension by either controlled hemorrhage (Group 1 or intravenous SNP infusion (Group 2. Animals in Group 1 (n = 5 had graded hemorrhage induced at 10% steps until 50% of the total volume was bled. Mean arterial pressure (MAP steps were registered and assumed as pressure targets to be reached in Group 2. Group 2 (n = 5 was subjected to a progressive SNP infusion to reach similar pressure targets as those defined in Group 1. Heart rate (HR, systolic pressure variation (SPV and PPV were measured at each MAP step, and the values were compared between the groups. RESULTS: SPV and PPV were similar between the experimental models in all steps (p > 0.16. SPV increased earlier in Group 2. CONCLUSION: Both pharmacologic vasodilation and graded hemorrhage induced PPV amplification similar to that observed in hypovolemia, reinforcing the idea that amplified arterial pressure variation does not necessarily represent hypovolemic status but rather potential cardiovascular responsiveness to fluid infusion.

  20. Clozapine-induced rabbit syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicek Hocaoglu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit syndrome (RS is an antipsychoticinduced rhythmic motion of the mouth/lips resembling the chewing movements of a rabbit. The movement consists of a vertical-only motion, at about 5 Hz, with no involvement of the tongue. Long-term exposure to typical antipsychotics has clearly been associated with RS, but little is known of the risk of RS due to exposure to newer atypical antipsychotics. There have been isolated reports of RS in patients treated with the atypical agents risperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and clozapine. We present the case history of a 44-year old female patient treated for paranoid schizophrenia for 22 years and RS during her last 10-month clozapine treatment. Background information from the literature is also discussed.

  1. Maternal alcohol drinking pattern during pregnancy and the risk for an offspring with an isolated congenital heart defect and in particular a ventricular septal defect or an atrial septal defect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Skov-Ettrup, Lise Skrubbeltrang; Grønbaek, Morten

    2011-01-01

    (VSD) or of an atrial septal defect (ASD). METHODS: Participants were 80,346 pregnant women who were enrolled into the Danish National Birth Cohort in 1996-2002 and gave birth to a live-born singleton without any chromosome anomalies. Twice during pregnancy these women were asked about their intake...... the early part of pregnancy was not statistical significantly associated with the prevalence of isolated VSD and ASD in offspring. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  2. Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaauw, P A M; Avermaete, K H A van; Mertens, C A R M; Meijer, M; Schoemaker, N J

    2017-06-01

    Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite Cheyletiella parasitovorax in asymptomatic rabbits and guinea pigs in Dutch pet shops. In 91 pet shops a total of 213 rabbits and 179 guinea pigs were sampled using the Mackenzie technique and cultured. Clean cultures were examined microscopically and a PCR was performed on at least one sample from each pet shop. All animals were investigated for fur mite using a flea comb, a magnifying glass and white paper. From the fur of 3.8% (8/213) of the rabbits and 16.8% (30/179) of the guinea pigs, T. mentagrophytes was isolated. From 1 guinea pig (0,6%) Chrysosporium keratinophilum was isolated. Dermatophyte-positive rabbits and guinea pigs originated from 5.6% (5/90) and 27.3% (24/88) of the investigated pet shops, respectively. Fur mites were not found. Pet shops can play an important role in preventing transmission of zoonotic ringworm infections (dermatophytosis) and educating their customers. Specific preventive measures such as routine screening examinations and (prophylactic) treatment of rabbits and guinea pigs are recommended next to regular hygiene when handling animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Establishment of a new model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xianying; Yin Meizhen; Zhang Lina; Li Shipu; Cao Yang

    2006-01-01

    To establish an experimental model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro, the osteoblasts were isolated from the calvarial bone of a 15-day old rabbit using a method of culturing the bone pieces in a medium after they had been digested by an enzyme for 15 min. The acquired cells were assayed by cell morphology, alkaline phosphatase activity and production of a mineralized matrix. The results showed that the cells had the morphologic characteristics and some biological behaviours of osteoblasts. Based on the primary isolation of osteoblasts from bone and combining digestion with explants, a novel model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro was established, which is easy, efficient and effective. This model can be used in many studies of osteogenesis mechanisms and bone replacement materials. (communication)

  4. Right Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm Following Endomyocardial Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita; Santos; Manteiga; Rodriguez; Beiras

    1996-03-01

    Ventricular perforation is an unusual complication after endomyocardial biopsy in heart transplanted patients. We report a case of asymptomatic right ventricular perforation and pseudoaneurysm formation, secondary to endomyocardial biopsy, diagnosed by angiography. The spontaneous obliteration of the pseudoaneurysm was observed.

  5. Microbiologic, radiographic, and anatomic study of the nasolacrimal duct apparatus in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, R.P.; Foltz, C.J.; Kersten, D.; Batchelder, M.; Kaser, W.; Li, X.

    1996-01-01

    This study was motivated by the sporadic observation of epiphora in two male rabbits. The epiphora was unilateral and not associated with conjunctivitis or Pasteurella infection. To characterize the cause of epiphora, we studied 15 specific-pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits. This study group was composed of the two affected males, four unaffected males, and nine unaffected females. Clinical evaluation consisted of bacterial culture of conjunctival specimens, examination of conjunctival scrapings for chlamydial inclusions, culture and cytologic examination of specimens from the nasolacrimal duct, plain and contrast radiography, latex casting, histologic examination, and the Schirmer tear test. Important differences found in the rabbits with epiphora included an opalescent, gritty, nasolacrimal duct flush fluid and marked unilateral dilatation of the duct proximal to a dorsal flexure at the caudal limit of the incisor tooth root. The flush solution from one affected rabbit cleared with ether, suggesting the presence of triglycerides or cholesterol. The organisms most commonly isolated from the conjunctiva were Moraxella sp., Oligella urethralis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus viridans. The organisms most commonly isolated from the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid were Moraxella sp., S. viridans, and Neisseria sp. Culture of the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid yielded microorganisms more consistently than did culture of the conjunctival specimens. All microorganisms isolated from affected rabbits also were isolated from unaffected rabbits. There was no apparent contribution of microorganisms to the development of epiphora, and Schirmer tear test results for affected animals were within the range seen in unaffected animals. Occlusion of the nasolacrimal duct was presumed to be attributable to fat droplets nasolacrimal duct anatomic

  6. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  7. Characterization of a novel alphaherpesvirus associated with fatal infections of domestic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, L.; Loehr, C.V.; Vanarsdall, A.L.; Baker, R.J.; Moerdyk-Schauwecker, M.; Levine, C.; Gerlach, R.F.; Cohen, S.A.; Alvarado, D.E.; Rohrmann, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    A virus was found to be associated with a severe disease affecting rabbits on a farm near Anchorage, Alaska. Extracts from the skin of infected rabbits produced syncytia and cell lysis in cultured rabbit skin, rabbit kidney, and Vero cells. Examination of the infectious agent by electron microscopy revealed an icosahedral nucleocapsid surrounded by an envelope with a diameter of about 120 nm, suggesting that it was a herpesvirus. The viral genome was determined to be composed of double-stranded DNA of 120-130 kbp. PCR using degenerate primers to conserved herpesvirus genes was used to amplify sequences from purified viral DNA. Sequencing of these products allowed the design of specific primers so that complete sequence data for a number of genes could be determined. Analysis of these data indicated that the virus is most closely related to bovine herpesvirus 2. The next most closely related viruses are human herpesviruses 1 and 2, and a number of cercopithecine herpesviruses. Experimental exposure of domestic rabbits to the isolate resulted in severe clinical disease and necrosis in the spleen and lymph node. In addition, viral DNA was identified in a variety of tissues by PCR, consistent with a systemic infection. Taken together, these data suggest that this virus is highly pathogenic for domestic rabbits and belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Simplexvirus

  8. Impaired atrial electromechanical function and atrial fibrillation promotion in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaying; Liu, Changle; Li, Jian; Zhou, Changyu; Cheng, Lijun; Liu, Tong; Li, Guangping

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atrial electromechanical function, atrial electrophysiological changes and AF inducibility in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. In 8 alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits and 8 controls, we evaluated atrial electromechanical function by tissue Doppler imaging. Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were prepared to measure atrial refractory effective period (AERP) and its dispersion (AERPD), interatrial conduction time (IACT) and vulnerability to AF. Atrial interstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius-Red staining. Compared with controls, left atrial lateral wall Pa'-start interval (Pastart) and right atrial wall Pastart were increased in diabetic rabbits. AERPD was increased and IACT was prolonged in diabetic rabbits. Inducibility of AF in diabetic group was significant higher than controls (6/8 vs. 1/8, p TEMA); left atrial lateral wall Papeak and TEMA, left atrial posterior wall TEMA, and IACT were correlated with atrial areas of fibrosis. Atrial electromechanical function is impaired in diabetic rabbits, and is associated with atrial fibrosis and interatrial electrical conduction delay.

  9. Factors affecting wild rabbit production in extensive breeding enclosures: how can we optimise efforts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerrero-Casado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The declining rabbit population in the Iberian Peninsula has led hunters and authorities to rear rabbits in captivity systems for their subsequent release. One alternative method to intensive rabbitry systems is the use of extensive breeding enclosures, since they produce animals of greater quality for hunting and conservation purposes. However, some of the factors that affect rabbit production in breeding enclosures are still unknown. The present study used partial least squares regression (PLSR to analyse the effects of plot size, scrub cover, slope, initial rabbit abundance, the resources needed to dig warrens, predation and proximity to other enclosures on rabbit abundance. The results of our study show a positive effect of the number of other fenced plots within a radius of 3 km, a positive relationship with the availability of optimal resources for building warrens and a positive influence of intermediate values of scrub cover. According to our results, to maximise rabbit production in the enclosures it would be advisable to concentrate the restocking effort by ensuring that the restocking plots are close to each other, thus avoiding isolated enclosures. Furthermore, the selection of plots with an appropriate scrub cover and high availability of elements that favour the construction of warrens, such as large stones, sloping land or tall shrubs, may optimise results.

  10. Signal analysis of ventricular fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herbschleb, J.N.; Heethaar, R.M.; Tweel, L.H. van der; Zimmerman, A.N.E.; Meijler, F.L.

    Signal analysis of electro(cardio)grams during ventricular fibrillation (VF) in dogs and human patients indicates more organization and regularity than the official WHO definition suggests. The majority of the signal is characterized by a power spectrum with narrow, equidistant peaks. In a further

  11. Ketamine, but not S(+)-ketamine, blocks ischemic preconditioning in rabbit hearts in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müllenheim, J.; Frässdorf, J.; Preckel, B.; Thämer, V.; Schlack, W.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ketamine blocks KATP channels in isolated cells and abolishes the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in vitro. The authors investigated the effects of ketamine and S(+)-ketamine on ischemic preconditioning in the rabbit heart in vivo. METHODS: In 46

  12. Secretion of saliva by the rabbit mandibular gland in vitro: the role of anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Hunter, M

    1981-01-01

    and ductal modification with a recently developed technique for isolation and perfusion of the rabbit mandibular gland. Neither of the major extracellular anions (Cl- or HCO-3) is essential for primary fluid secretion. HCO-3 can be removed altogether and replaced with Cl- without diminution in secretory rate...

  13. The role of buffer anions and protons in secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Favaloro, E J

    1982-01-01

    1. The role of extracellular HCO3- and H+ in the formation of primary saliva and its subsequent modification by the glandular ducts has been investigated in the isolated perfused mandibular salivary gland of the rabbit. 2. Variation of extracellular HCO3- concentration between 12.5 and 50.0 mmol...

  14. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  15. AHP 47: THE PROVOCATIVE RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rnam rgyal རྣམ་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A retreatant finished chanting for a family, packed up the offerings from the host, and started back to his hermitage feeling satisfied. A rabbit, called Ja dkrug mgo 'Trouble Maker', watched the retreatant through an evergreen bush, and decided he wanted to cheat the retreatant out of his offerings. Trouble Maker came out of the bush and stood in front of the retreatant in the middle of the path. As the retreatant came closer, Trouble Maker ran forward a few steps and then again turned back to watch the retreatant, who chased the rabbit for a while, but the heavy bag burdened him and he soon got very tired. He finally threw down his bag and chased Trouble Maker, who ran just beyond the retreatant’s grasp. Finally, having left the retreatant far behind, Trouble Maker doubled back, picked up the retreatant's bag, and carried it off. ...

  16. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies in the gut associated lymphoid tissue of slaughtered rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, Rakel; Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia

    2015-06-11

    Rabbits are susceptible to infection by different species of the genus Mycobacterium. Particularly, development of specific lesions and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, both subspecies of the M. avium complex, has been reported in wildlife conditions. Although, rabbit meat production worldwide is 200 million tons per year, microbiological data on this source of meat is lacking and more specifically reports of mycobacterial presence in industrially reared rabbit for human consumption have not been published. To this end, we sought mycobacteria by microbiological and histopathological methods paying special attention to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits from commercial rabbitries from the North East of Spain. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was not detected either by culture or PCR. However, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was detected in 15.15% (10/66) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 1.51% (1/66) of gut associated lymphoid tissue of sampled animals by PCR, whereas caecal contents were negative. 9% (6/66) of the animals presented gross lesions suggestive of lymphoid activation, 6% (4/66) presented granulomatous lesions and 3% (2/66) contained acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterial isolation from samples was not achieved, although colonies of Thermoactinomycetes sp. were identified by 16s rRNA sequencing in 6% (4/66) of sampled animals. Apparently healthy farmed rabbits that go to slaughter may carry M. avium subspecies in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

  17. Alternative right ventricular pacing sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuciuk, Dariusz; Łuciuk, Marek; Gajek, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The main adverse effect of chronic stimulation is stimulation-induced heart failure in case of ventricular contraction dyssynchrony. Because of this fact, new techniques of stimulation should be considered to optimize electrotherapy. One of these methods is pacing from alternative right ventricular sites. The purpose of this article is to review currently accumulated data about alternative sites of cardiac pacing. Medline and PubMed bases were used to search English and Polish reports published recently. Recent studies report a deleterious effect of long term apical pacing. It is suggested that permanent apical stimulation, by omitting physiological conduction pattern with His-Purkinie network, may lead to electrical and mechanical dyssynchrony of heart muscle contraction. In the long term this pathological situation can lead to severe heart failure and death. Because of this, scientists began to search for some alternative sites of cardiac pacing to reduce the deleterious effect of stimulation. Based on current accumulated data, it is suggested that the right ventricular outflow tract, right ventricular septum, direct His-bundle or biventricular pacing are better alternatives due to more physiological electrical impulse propagation within the heart and the reduction of the dyssynchrony effect. These methods should preserve a better left ventricular function and prevent the development of heart failure in permanent paced patients. As there is still not enough, long-term, randomized, prospective, cross-over and multicenter studies, further research is required to validate the benefits of using this kind of therapy. The article should pay attention to new sites of cardiac stimulation as a better and safer method of treatment.

  18. Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbits are characterized by small body size, short gestation period, high ... feeders and other equipment for rabbits can be made using readily available materials such as ... Limitations to rabbit production in developing countries include the ...

  19. Arrival of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 to northern Europe: Emergence and outbreaks in wild and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimanis, A S; Ahola, H; Zohari, S; Larsson Pettersson, U; Bröjer, C; Capucci, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2018-02-01

    Incursion of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Sweden was documented in 1990 and it is now considered endemic in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a new, related lagovirus was first detected in France in 2010, and has spread rapidly throughout Europe and beyond. However, knowledge of RHDV2 in northern Europe is sporadic and incomplete, and in Sweden, routinely available diagnostic methods to detect rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) do not distinguish between types of virus causing disease. Using RHDV2-specific RT-qPCR, sequencing of the VP60 gene and immunological virus typing of archived and prospective case material from the National Veterinary Institute's (SVA) wildlife disease surveillance programme and diagnostic pathology service, we describe the emergence of RHDV2 in Sweden in both wild and domestic rabbits. The earliest documented outbreak occurred on 22 May 2013, and from May 2013 to May 2016, 10 separate incidents of RHDV2 were documented from six different municipalities in the southern half of Sweden. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP60 gene shows clear clustering of Swedish isolates into three separate clusters within two different clades according to geographic location and time, suggesting viral evolution, multiple introduction events or both. Almost all cases of RHD examined by SVA from May 2013 to May 2016 were caused by RHDV2, suggesting that RHDV2 may be replacing RHDV as the predominant cause of RHD in Sweden. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Epizootic rabbit enteropathy inoculum (TEC4): antibiograms and antibiotic fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybens, Nathalie; Houeix, Julien; Licois, Dominique; Mainil, Jacques; Marlier, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) emerged and spread in Europe within the last 13 years causing major economical loss. The aims of the study was to evaluate antibiograms of TEC4, an inoculum composed of an extract of intestinal content of affected rabbits, and to test the potential of different antibiotic-based TEC4 fractions to reproduce the disease. Twenty nine different antibiotic discs were incubated for determining bacteria resistance. In a complementary study, nine tubes of liquid medium were inoculated with TEC4, incubated and added individually with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, bacitracin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, novobiocin, streptomycyin, tylosin, vancomycin and 0.9% saline solution as control. The content of each tube was washed by centrifugation and suspended in saline. The three most effective antibiotics are florfenicol, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and tylosin. A high concentration of Clostridium sordelli and Bacillus firmus were isolated in all fractions. Species never cultured from TEC4 were identified as Fusobacterium necrogenes (in vancomycin fraction), Cellulomonas sp (in novobiocin fraction) and Bacteroides distasonis (in doxycycline fraction). The ERE was reproduced when bacitracin, doxycycline and 0.9% fractions were inoculated. Rabbits showed ERE clinical signs with the specific drop in daily weight gain.

  1. Four cases of right ventricular dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Ichiro; Ando, Joji; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Sakamoto, Sanya; Yasuda, Hisakazu

    1985-01-01

    Finding of 81 Kr right ventriculography and 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging in 4 patients with right ventricular dysplasia (RVD) were compared with those in 28 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Remarkably dilated right ventricle was detected on 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging in the RVD group. In a patient with RVD who died suddenly, perfusion defect of the left ventricular myocardium, a decreased right ventricular ejection fraction, and an increased right ventricular end diastolic volume were seen. Perfusion defect of the left ventricular myocardium was seen in 10 of the 28 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, 4 of whom died suddenly. In these 4 patients, a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction and an increased right ventricular end diastolic volume were seen. These findings obtained by the radionuclide techniques suggested that there are differences in cardiac dysfunction of the both ventricles between the groups with RVD and dilated cardiomyopathy. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Subtyping of Cryptosporidium cuniculus and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in rabbits in two farms in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two prevalent opportunistic pathogens in humans and animals. Currently, few data are available on genetic characterization of both pathogens in rabbits in China. The aim of the present study was to understand prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in rabbits. We collected 215 fecal samples from 150 Rex rabbits and 65 New Zealand White rabbits on two different farms in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing the partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected in 3.3% (5/150 of Rex rabbits and 29.2% (19/65 of New Zealand White rabbits. All the 24 Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. cuniculus. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was only found in 14.7% (22/150 of Rex rabbits. Five known genotypes: CHN-RD1 (n = 12, D (n = 3, Type IV (n = 2, Peru6 (n = 1, and I (n = 1, and three novel ones CHN-RR1 to CHN-RR3 (one each were detected. By analyzing the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene sequences of C. cuniculus isolates, three subtypes were obtained: VbA28 (n = 2, VbA29 (n = 16, and VbA32 (n = 3. All these three C. cuniculus subtypes were reported previously in humans. Four known E. bieneusi genotypes have been found to be present in humans. The three novel ones fell into zoonotic group 1. The results suggest zoonotic potential of C. cuniculus and E. bieneusi isolates in rabbits.

  3. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073286826; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares

  4. Cell kinetics, DNA integrity, differentiation, and lipid fingerprinting analysis of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, Letícia Siqueira de Sá; Lessio, Camila; Sawaki e Nakamura, Ahy Natally; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; da Silva, Camila Gonzaga; Zambon, João Paulo; Gozzo, Fábio César; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; de Almeida, Fernando Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Human adipose tissue has been described as a potential alternative reservoir for stem cells. Although studies have been performed in rabbits using autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC), these cells have not been well characterized. The primary objectives of this study were to demonstrate the presence of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rabbit inguinal fat pads and to characterize them through osteogenic and adipogenic in vitro differentiation and lipid fingerprinting analysis. The secondary objective was to evaluate cell behavior through growth kinetics, cell viability, and DNA integrity. Rabbit ADSCs were isolated to determine the in vitro growth kinetics and cell viability. DNA integrity was assessed by an alkaline Comet assay in passages 0 and 5. The osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by Von Kossa, and Alizarin Red S staining and adipogenic differentiation were assessed by Oil Red O staining. Lipid fingerprinting analyses of control, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiated cells were performed by MALDI-TOF/MS. We demonstrate that rabbit ADSC have a constant growth rate at the early passages, with increased DNA fragmentation at or after passage 5. Rabbit ADSC viability was similar in passages 2 and 5 (90.7% and 86.6%, respectively), but there was a tendency to decreased cellular growth rate after passage 3. The ADSC were characterized by the expression of surface markers such as CD29 (67.4%) and CD44 (89.4%), using CD 45 (0.77%) as a negative control. ADSC from rabbits were successfully isolated form the inguinal region. These cells were capable to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic tissue when they were placed in inductive media. After each passage, there was a trend towards decreased cell growth. On the other hand, DNA fragmentation increased at each passage. ADSC had a different lipid profile when placed in control, adipogenic, or osteogenic media.

  5. The right ventricular response to ventricular hypofunction in anteroseptal infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Sugako

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-seven patients with acute anteroseptal infarction but not significant right coronary artery stenosis were examined by using thallium-201 (Tl-201) myocardial perfusion SPECT to determine how the right ventricular (RV) free wall responded to a severely impaired ventricular septum. The patients were divided into the group in which RV free wall was visualized on Tl-201 myocardial SPECT (n=19, RV(+) Group) and the group in which it was not visualized (n=18, RV(-) Group). The relationship between visualization of RV free wall and both RV and left ventricular (LV) function was evaluated. RV(+) Group had larger extent of anteroseptal necrosis and severer impairment of RV free wall, as compared with RV(-) Group. LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly lower in RV(+) Group than RV(-) Group in both acute and chronic phases. Although RV ejection fraction (RVEF) in acute phase was significantly lower in RV(+) Group than RV(-) Group, it did not differ in chronic phase between the two groups. In RV(+) Group, RV stroke work index (RVSWI), pulmonary artery end diastolic pressure (PAEDP), and mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPA) in chronic phase showed a statistically significant increase compared with those in acute phase; these hemodynamic variables in chronic phase were also significantly higher than those in RV(-) Group. RV/LV ratio inversely correlated with LVEF, and both necrotic extent and impairment severity positively correlated with both PAEDP and MPA. RV free wall could be visualized more clearly, corresponding to extremely decreased LV function. These findings suggest that RV free wall may play an important role in maintaining LV and RV function when ventricular septum is severely impaired by anteroseptal infarction. (N.K.)

  6. Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity.   Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  7. Comparison of the effects of isobutylmethylxanthine and milrinone on ischaemia-induced arrhythmias and platelet aggregation in anaesthetized rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, M.; Coker, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of the non-selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and the selective PDE III inhibitor, milrinone, in a rabbit model of acute myocardial ischaemia. 2. Coronary artery occlusion caused changes in the ST-segment of the ECG and ectopic activity in all control rabbits. Ventricular fibrillation occurred in 10 out of 14 (71%) of these animals. Pretreatment with IBMX 100 micrograms kg-1 plus 10 micrograms kg-1 min-1, starting 10 min before coronary artery occlusion, reduced ischaemia-induced ST-segment changes and ventricular fibrillation occurred in only 10% of this group (n = 10). A similar dose of milrinone had no antiarrhythmic activity, whereas with a lower dose of milrinone, 30 micrograms kg-1 plus 3 micrograms kg-1 min-1 (n = 10), only 30% of rabbits fibrillated and ST-segment changes were attenuated. 3. Acute administration of both IBMX and milrinone reduced arterial blood pressure. With the higher dose of milrinone a significant effect was still present after 10 min of drug infusion. A greater hypotensive response to the higher dose of milrinone was observed in the rabbits which subsequently fibrillated during ischaemia. A marked tachycardia was also observed after administration of the higher dose of milrinone. 4. At the end of the experiment platelet aggregation was studied ex vivo. ADP-induced aggregation was reduced by pretreatment of the rabbits with milrinone but not IBMX. Both PDE inhibitors enhanced the ability of isoprenaline to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation but milrinone was more effective, particularly at the higher dose.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2478245

  8. Prophylactic implantable defibrillator in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia and no prior ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachycardia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Corrado, Domenico

    2010-09-21

    The role of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy\\/dysplasia and no prior ventricular fibrillation (VF) or sustained ventricular tachycardia is an unsolved issue.

  9. Spatial correlation of action potential duration and diastolic dysfunction in transgenic and drug-induced LQT2 rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odening, Katja E; Jung, Bernd A; Lang, Corinna N; Cabrera Lozoya, Rocio; Ziupa, David; Menza, Marius; Relan, Jatin; Franke, Gerlind; Perez Feliz, Stefanie; Koren, Gideon; Zehender, Manfred; Bode, Christoph; Brunner, Michael; Sermesant, Maxime; Föll, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    Enhanced dispersion of action potential duration (APD) is a major contributor to long QT syndrome (LQTS)-related arrhythmias. To investigate spatial correlations of regional heterogeneities in cardiac repolarization and mechanical function in LQTS. Female transgenic LQTS type 2 (LQT2; n = 11) and wild-type littermate control (LMC) rabbits (n = 9 without E4031 and n = 10 with E4031) were subjected to phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging to assess regional myocardial velocities. In the same rabbits' hearts, monophasic APDs were assessed in corresponding segments. In LQT2 and E4031-treated rabbits, APD was longer in all left ventricular segments (P < .01) and APD dispersion was greater than that in LMC rabbits (P < .01). In diastole, peak radial velocities (Vr) were reduced in LQT2 and E4031-treated compared to LMC rabbits in LV base and mid (LQT2: -3.36 ± 0.4 cm/s, P < .01; E4031-treated: -3.24 ± 0.6 cm/s, P < .0001; LMC: -4.42 ± 0.5 cm/s), indicating an impaired diastolic function. Regionally heterogeneous diastolic Vr correlated with APD (LQT2: correlation coefficient [CC] 0.38, P = .01; E4031-treated: CC 0.42, P < .05). Time-to-diastolic peak Vr were prolonged in LQT2 rabbits (LQT2: 196.8 ± 2.9 ms, P < .001; E4031-treated: 199.5 ± 2.2 ms, P < .0001, LMC 183.1 ± 1.5), indicating a prolonged contraction duration. Moreover, in transgenic LQT2 rabbits, diastolic time-to-diastolic peak Vr correlated with APD (CC 0.47, P = .001). In systole, peak Vr were reduced in LQT2 and E4031-treated rabbits (P < .01) but longitudinal velocities or ejection fraction did not differ. Finally, random forest machine learning algorithms enabled a differentiation between LQT2, E4031-treated, and LMC rabbits solely based on "mechanical" magnetic resonance imaging data. The prolongation of APD led to impaired diastolic and systolic function in transgenic and drug-induced LQT2 rabbits. APD correlated with regional diastolic dysfunction, indicating that LQTS is not purely an

  10. Optimization of HIV-1 Envelope DNA Vaccine Candidates within Three Different Animal Models, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Cynomolgus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggren, Marie; Vinner, Lasse; Andresen, Betina Skovgaard; Grevstad, Berit; Repits, Johanna; Melchers, Mark; Elvang, Tara Laura; Sanders, Rogier W; Martinon, Frédéric; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Bowles, Emma Joanne; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Biswas, Priscilla; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Jansson, Marianne; Heyndrickx, Leo; Grand, Roger Le; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2013-07-19

    HIV-1 DNA vaccines have many advantageous features. Evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates often starts in small animal models before macaque and human trials. Here, we selected and optimized DNA vaccine candidates through systematic testing in rabbits for the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb). We compared three different animal models: guinea pigs, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Envelope genes from the prototype isolate HIV-1 Bx08 and two elite neutralizers were included. Codon-optimized genes, encoded secreted gp140 or membrane bound gp150, were modified for expression of stabilized soluble trimer gene products, and delivered individually or mixed. Specific IgG after repeated i.d. inoculations with electroporation confirmed in vivo expression and immunogenicity. Evaluations of rabbits and guinea pigs displayed similar results. The superior DNA construct in rabbits was a trivalent mix of non-modified codon-optimized gp140 envelope genes. Despite NAb responses with some potency and breadth in guinea pigs and rabbits, the DNA vaccinated macaques displayed less bNAb activity. It was concluded that a trivalent mix of non-modified gp140 genes from rationally selected clinical isolates was, in this study, the best option to induce high and broad NAb in the rabbit model, but this optimization does not directly translate into similar responses in cynomolgus macaques.

  11. Optimization of HIV-1 Envelope DNA Vaccine Candidates within Three Different Animal Models, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Cynomolgus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Le Grand

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 DNA vaccines have many advantageous features. Evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates often starts in small animal models before macaque and human trials. Here, we selected and optimized DNA vaccine candidates through systematic testing in rabbits for the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb. We compared three different animal models: guinea pigs, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Envelope genes from the prototype isolate HIV-1 Bx08 and two elite neutralizers were included. Codon-optimized genes, encoded secreted gp140 or membrane bound gp150, were modified for expression of stabilized soluble trimer gene products, and delivered individually or mixed. Specific IgG after repeated i.d. inoculations with electroporation confirmed in vivo expression and immunogenicity. Evaluations of rabbits and guinea pigs displayed similar results. The superior DNA construct in rabbits was a trivalent mix of non-modified codon-optimized gp140 envelope genes. Despite NAb responses with some potency and breadth in guinea pigs and rabbits, the DNA vaccinated macaques displayed less bNAb activity. It was concluded that a trivalent mix of non-modified gp140 genes from rationally selected clinical isolates was, in this study, the best option to induce high and broad NAb in the rabbit model, but this optimization does not directly translate into similar responses in cynomolgus macaques.

  12. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rabbit Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    Neoplasia has long been reported as a rare finding in rabbits, but over the past decades the number of reports on neoplastic disease in rabbits has risen considerably. Similar to other animals, neoplastic changes may occur in any organ system, but the rate in which the organ systems are affected

  14. Right ventricular function in patients with ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Haruo; Hisano, Ryuichi; Nagata, Yoshiyuki; Caglar, N.; Nakamura, Motoomi

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-five patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 10 normal subjects were studied. Right and left ventricular ejecction fractions (EF) were determined using equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography with technetium-99m. Furthermore, abnormal motion of the right ventricular septal wall was obtained by cardiac cathetelization, and its relation to the right ventricular EF was examined. In IHD patients with anterior myocardial infarction, left ventricular EF decreased, but right ventricular EF was normal. This suggested that left ventricular dysfunction does not always have an effect on right ventricular function. Right ventricular EF was normal even when akinesis or dyskinesis was present in the ventricular septul, suggesting that abnormal motion of the ventricular septal wall has no significantly stimulant effect on right ventricular function. A decreased right ventricular EF was likely to occur only when the right ventricular free wall became ischemic or necrotic simultaneously with occurrence of posterior myocardial infarction. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy in an Endurance Athlete Presenting with Ventricular Tachycardia and Normal Right Ventricular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedley, Jeffrey S; Al Mheid, Ibhar; Alikhani, Zoubin; Pernetz, Maria A; Kim, Jonathan H

    2017-08-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, a genetically inherited disease that results in fibrofatty replacement of normal cardiac myocytes, has been associated with sudden cardiac death in athletes. Long-term participation in endurance exercise hastens the development of both the arrhythmic and structural arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy phenotypes. We describe the unusual case of a 34-year-old, symptomatic, female endurance athlete who had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy in the presence of a structurally normal right ventricle. Clinicians should be aware of this infrequent presentation when evaluating athletic patients who have ventricular arrhythmias and normal findings on cardiac imaging studies.

  16. Evolution of ventricular outpouching through the fetal and postnatal periods: Unabating dilemma of serial observation or surgical correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niraj Kumar Dipak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular outpouching is a rare finding in prenatal sonography and the main differential diagnoses are diverticulum, aneurysm, and pseudoaneurysm in addition to congenital cysts and clefts. The various modes of fetal presentation of congenital ventricular outpouching include an abnormal four-chamber view on fetal two-dimensional echocardiogram, fetal arrhythmia, fetal hydrops, and pericardial effusion. Left ventricular aneurysm (LVA/nonapical diverticula are usually isolated defects. Apical diverticula are always associated with midline thoracoabdominal defects (epigastric pulsating diverticulum or large omphalocele and other structural malformations of the heart. Most patients with LVA/congenital ventricular diverticulum remain clinically asymptomatic but they can potentially give rise to complications such as ventricular tachyarrhythmias, systemic embolism, sudden death, spontaneous rupture, and severe valvular regurgitation. The treatment of asymptomatic LVA and isolated congenital ventricular diverticulum is still undefined. In this review, our aim is to outline a systematic approach to a fetus detected with ventricular outpouching. Starting with prevalence and its types, issues in fetal management, natural course and evolution postbirth, and finally the perpetual dilemma of serial observation or surgical correction is discussed.

  17. Surgical ablation of ventricular tachycardia secondary to congenital ventricular septal aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A; Minzioni, G; Ressia, L; Vigano, M

    1994-04-01

    Three patients underwent surgical ablation for ventricular tachycardia resulting from an aneurysm of the membranous portion of the ventricular septum. Two patients had a definite history of cardiac murmur during infancy, and one of them was found at the time of operation to have a left-to-right shunt through the apex of the aneurysm. The earliest ventricular activation sites were located around the neck of the aneurysm and were ablated in 1 patient by encircling the endocardial ventriculotomy and by cryoablation in the remaining 2. After focus resection had been completed, aneurysm resection and ventricular septal reconstruction were performed. All patients were alive and free of ventricular tachycardia and did not need medication as of 61, 66, and 88 months postoperatively. Spontaneous closure of a ventricular septal defect may lead to the formation of an aneurysm in the ventricular septum that may sustain ventricular tachycardias. Such arrhythmias can be effectively treated using electrically guided surgical techniques.

  18. Characterization of a rabbit germ-line VH gene that is a candidate donor for VH gene conversion in mutant Alicia rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H T; Alexander, C B; Mage, R G

    1995-06-15

    Normal rabbits preferentially rearrange the 3'-most VH gene, VH1, to encode Igs with VHa allotypes, which constitute the majority of rabbit serum Igs. A gene conversion-like mechanism is employed to diversify the primary Ab repertoire. In mutant Alicia rabbits that derived from a rabbit with VHa2 allotype, the VH1 gene was deleted. Our previous studies showed that the first functional gene (VH4) or VH4-like genes were rearranged in 2- to 8-wk-old homozygous Alicia. The VH1a2-like sequences that were found in splenic mRNA from 6-wk and older Alicia rabbits still had some residues that were typical of VH4. The appearances of sequences resembling that of VH1a2 may have been caused by gene conversions that altered the sequences of the rearranged VH or there may have been rearrangement of upstream VH1a2-like genes later in development. To investigate this further, we constructed a cosmid library and isolated a VH1a2-like gene, VH12-1-6, with a sequence almost identical to VH1a2. This gene had a deleted base in the heptamer of its recombination signal sequence. However, even if this defect diminished or eliminated its ability to rearrange, the a2-like gene could have acted as a donor for gene-conversion-like alteration of rearranged VH genes. Sequence comparisons suggested that this gene or a gene like it could have acted as a donor for gene conversion in mutant Alicia and in normal rabbits.

  19. Dual-dye optical mapping after myocardial infarction: does the site of ventricular stimulation alter the properties of electrical propagation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Samir; Mathier, Michael A; Mehdi, Haider; Liu, Tong; Choi, Bum-Rak; London, Barry; Salama, Guy

    2008-02-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) disrupts electrical conduction in affected ventricular areas. We investigated the effect of MI on the regional voltage and calcium (Ca) signals and their propagation properties, with special attention to the effect of the site of ventricular pacing on these properties. New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four study groups: sham-operated (C, n = 6), MI with no pacing (MI, n = 7), MI with right ventricular pacing (MI + RV, n = 6), and MI with BIV pacing (MI + BIV, n = 7). At 4 weeks, hearts were excised, perfused, and optically mapped. As previously shown, systolic and diastolic dilation of the LV were prevented by BIV pacing, as was the reduction in LV fractional shortening. Four weeks after MI, optical mapping revealed markedly reduced action potential amplitudes and conduction velocities (CV) in MI zones, and these increased gradually in the border zone and normal myocardial areas. Also, Ca transients were absent in the infarcted areas and increased gradually 3-5 mm from the border of the normal zone. Neither BIV nor RV pacing affected these findings in any of the MI, border, or normal zones. MI has profound effects on the regional electrical and Ca signals and on their propagation properties in this rabbit model. The absence of differences in these parameters by study group suggests that altering the properties of myocardial electrical conduction and Ca signaling are unlikely mechanisms by which BIV pacing confers its benefits. Further studies into the regional, cellular, and molecular benefits of BIV pacing are therefore warranted.

  20. Pleural fluid exchange in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Gregg J; Robichaux, Amy; Lee, Y C Gary; Sanders, Jonathan R; Roselli, Robert J; Light, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The study was designed to better characterize pleural fluid absorption in rabbits with the following two objectives: to determine the relative absorption of saline versus high-protein solutions, and to identify the relative rates of absorption of dextran molecules of varying sizes. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits received a 12-mL intrapleural injection of saline solution and a 10% protein solution on opposite sides, each solution containing dextran molecules with varying MWs. At sacrifice at 1, 4, 8, 18 and 24 h, the volume of pleural fluid and the concentrations of the dextran molecules were determined. Saline was absorbed faster than the high-protein fluid (P higher than those in the protein solution at all times after injection (P = 0.005; P higher-MW dextrans were cleared more slowly than the lower-MW dextrans in a continuously graded manner. Saline was absorbed faster than a solution with a high protein content. There was a continuous spectrum in the rate of absorption of the dextran molecules, with the larger molecules being absorbed more slowly.

  1. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, E.E. van der; Bootsma, M.M.; Schalij, M.J.; Kayser, H.W.M.; Roos, A. de

    2000-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is a heart muscle disorder of unknown cause that is characterized pathologically by fibrofatty replacement of the right ventricular myocardium. Clinical manifestations include structural and functional malformations of the right ventricle, electrocardiographic abnormalities, and presentation with ventricular tachycardias with left bundle branch pattern or sudden death. The disease is often familial with an autosomal inheritance. In addition to right ventricular dilatation, right ventricular aneurysms are typical deformities of ARVD and they are distributed in the so-called ''triangle of dysplasia'', i. e., right ventricular outflow tract, apex, and infundibulum. Ventricular aneurysms at these sites can be considered pathognomonic of ARVD. Another typical hallmark of ARVD is fibrofatty infiltration of the right ventricular free wall. These functional and morphologic characteristics are relevant to clinical imaging investigations such as contrast angiography, echocardiography, radionuclide angiography, ultrafast computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Among these techniques, MRI allows the clearest visualization of the heart, in particular because the right ventricle is involved, which is usually more difficult to explore with the other imaging modalities. Furthermore, MRI offers the specific advantage of visualizing adipose infiltration as a bright signal of the right ventricular myocardium. MRI provides the most important anatomic, functional, and morphologic criteria for diagnosis of ARVD within one single study. As a result, MRI appears to be the optimal imaging technique for detecting and following patients with clinical suspicion of ARVD. (orig.) [de

  2. Short communication: Absence of campylobacter spp. In intensive rabbit farming in eastern Spain, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonoses and among the most common causes of diarrhoeal illness in the European Union and the United States, and their incidence appears to be increasing. Campylobacter species are routinely found in poultry, swine, cattle, dairy cows and sheep. So far, there are few descriptions of Campylobacter isolation from rabbits. Rabbit meat is a common item in the Mediterranean diet. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in healthy rabbits reared in intensive farms in the Alto Palancia region, eastern Spain. Caecal contents from 70 healthy does reared on 7 different farms were collected. Bacteriological culture was performed in accordance with ISO 10272-1:2006. All samples tested negative for Campylobacter spp. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which comprehensive monitoring was specifically carried out in order to provide data on the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in large intensive rabbit farms in Spain. However, further microbiological studies throughout the Spanish territory are needed to determine the prevalence and risk of other foodborne pathogens in rabbits at farm level.

  3. [Improving myocardial mechanics parameters of severe burn rabbits with oral fluid resuscitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jing; Zhang, Bing-qian; Wang, Guang; Luo, Zhong-hua; Zheng, Qing-yi; Zheng, Jian-sheng; Huang, Yue-sheng; Xiao, Rong

    2008-08-01

    To investigate the protective effect of oral fluid resuscitation on cardiac function in severe burn rabbits. One hundred and fifty rabbits were randomly divided into normal control group (NC group, n = 6, without treatment), burn group (B group, n = 42, without fluid therapy), immediate oral fluid resuscitation group (C group, n = 42), delayed oral fluid resuscitation group (D group, n = 30) and delayed and rapid oral fluid resuscitation group (E group, n = 30). The rabbits in B, C, D, E groups were subjected to 40% TBSA full-thickness burn, then were treated with fluid therapy immediately after burn (C group), at 6 hour after burn (D, E groups). The myocardial mechanics parameters including mean arterial pressure (MAP), left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP), left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP), LV +/- dp/dt max were observed at 2, 6, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48 post burn hour (PBH). Urine output was also examined. The level of LVSP, LV +/- dp/dt max in B roup were significantly lower than those in NC group. The level of LVSP, LV +/- dp/dt max in the C and E group were singnificantly increased during 24 hour after burn. The level of LV + dp/dt max and LV-dp/dt max in C group peaked at 8 PBH (892 +/- 116 kPa/s) and at 6PBH (724 +/- 149 kPa/s) respectively. The levels of LV +/- dp/dt max, LVSP in D group at each time point were similar to B group (P > 0.05). Both the levels of LV +/- dp/dt max in E group peaked at 8 PBH. The level of LVEDP was no obvious difference between B and other groups at each time point (P > 0.05). The changes of MAP and urine output on 24 PBH in each group were similar to above indices. Effective oral fluid therapy in severe burn rabbits during 24 hours after burn can ameliorate myocardial mechanics parameters. The amount of fluid resuscitation can be estimated according to relevant formula for delayed fluid resuscitation in burn rabbits.

  4. Left ventricular remodeling in preclinical experimental mitral regurgitation of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A Ray; Dell'Italia, Louis J; Tillson, Michael; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Denney, Thomas; Hathcock, John; Botzman, Logan

    2012-03-01

    Dogs with experimental mitral regurgitation (MR) provide insights into the left ventricular remodeling in preclinical MR. The early preclinical left ventricular (LV) changes after mitral regurgitation represent progressive dysfunctional remodeling, in that no compensatory response returns the functional stroke volume (SV) to normal even as total SV increases. The gradual disease progression leads to mitral annulus stretch and enlargement of the regurgitant orifice, further increasing the regurgitant volume. Remodeling with loss of collagen weave and extracellular matrix (ECM) is accompanied by stretching and hypertrophy of the cross-sectional area and length of the cardiomyocyte. Isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes demonstrate dysfunction based on decreased cell shortening and reduced intracellular calcium transients before chamber enlargement or decreases in contractility in the whole heart can be clinically appreciated. The genetic response to increased end-diastolic pressure is down-regulation of genes associated with support of the collagen and ECM and up-regulation of genes associated with matrix remodeling. Experiments have not demonstrated any beneficial effects on remodeling from treatments that decrease afterload via blocking the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Beta-1 receptor blockade and chymase inhibition have altered the progression of the LV remodeling and have supported cardiomyocyte function. The geometry of the LV during the remodeling provides insight into the importance of regional differences in responses to wall stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of competitive exclusion in rabbits using an autochthonous probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cunha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal nutrition has been severely challenged by the ban on antimicrobials as growth promoters. This has fostered the study of alternative methods to avoid colonisation by pathogenic bacteria as well as to improve the growth of animals and feed conversion efficiency. These new options should not alter the normal intestinal microbiota, or affect it as little as possible. The use of probiotics, which are live microorganisms that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, can be seen as a promising way to achieve that goal. In this study, New Zealand White rabbits were fed diets containing an autochthonous probiotic of Enterococcus spp., with the strains EaI, EfaI and EfaD, and Escherichia coli, with the strains ECI 1, ECI 2 and ECD, during a 25-d trial, to evaluate the impact of the probiotic on the faecal microbiota, including population dynamics and antimicrobial resistance profiles. A control group of rabbits, which was fed a diet containing a commonly used mixture of antimicrobials (colistin, oxytetracycline, and valnemulin, was also studied. To assess the colonisation ability of the mentioned probiotic, the faecal microbiota of the rabbits was characterised up to 10 d after the administration had ended. Isolates of enterococci and E. coli were studied for phylogenetic relationships using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, respectively. Although partially affected by an unexpected clinical impairment suffered by the rabbits in the experimental group, our results showed the following. The difference between the growth rate of the animals treated with antimicrobials and those fed the probiotic was not statistically significant (P> 0.05. The competitive exclusion product was present in the faecal samples in a large proportion, but stopped being recovered by culture as soon as the administration ended and the housing conditions were changed

  6. Listeria monocytogenes Circulating in Rabbit Meat Products and Slaughterhouses in Italy: Prevalence Data and Comparison Among Typing Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Parisi, Antonio; Mioni, Renzo; Comin, Damiano; Lucchi, Alex; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2017-03-01

    Rabbit meat has outstanding dietetic and nutritional properties. However, few data on microbiological hazards associated with rabbit productions are available. In this study, the presence of Listeria monocytogenes was determined in 430 rabbit carcasses, 256 rabbit meat cuts and products, and 599 environmental sponges collected from four Italian rabbit slaughterhouses over a period of 1 year. Prevalence of L. monocytogenes among the 1285 rabbit meat and environmental samples was 11%, with statistically significant differences between slaughterhouses. The highest prevalence (33.6%) was observed in rabbit meat cuts and products; the majority of positive environmental samples were collected from conveyor belts. Overall, 27.9% and 14.3% of rabbit cuts and carcasses, respectively, had L. monocytogenes counts higher than 1 colony-forming unit (CFU)/10 g. A selection of 123 isolates from positive samples was genotyped and serotyped to determine genetic profiles and diversity among L. monocytogenes isolates contaminating different slaughterhouses and classes of products investigated. Discriminatory power and concordance among the results obtained using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated EcoRI ribotyping, and serotyping were assessed. The isolates selected for typing were classified into serotypes 1/2a (52.8%), 1/2c (32.5%), and 1/2b (14.6%). The majority of the isolates were classified as ST14 (34.1%), ST9 (35.5%), ST121 (17.9%), and ST224 (14.6%). The greatest discriminatory power was observed with the MLVA typing, followed by MLST, PFGE, and ribotyping. The best bidirectional concordance was achieved between PFGE and MLST. There was 100% correlation between both MLST and MLVA with serotype. Moreover, a high unidirectional correspondence was observed between MLVA and both MLST and PFGE, as well as between PFGE and both MLST and serotyping. The results of this

  7. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  8. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  9. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Atien Priyanti; Yono Cahyo Rahadjo

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic ferti...

  10. Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardia with Structural Abnormalities of the Right Ventricle and Left Ventricular Diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolo Martini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with a sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT. ECG showed a QRS in left bundle branch block morphology with inferior axis. Echocardiography, ventricular angiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI revealed a normal right ventricle and a left ventricular diverticulum. Electrophysiology studies with epicardial voltage mapping identified a large fibrotic area in the inferolateral layer of the right ventricular wall and a small area of fibrotic tissue at the anterior right ventricular outflow tract. VT ablation was successfully performed with combined epicardial and endocardial approaches.

  11. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  12. chronic sleep deprevation and ventricular arrhythmias: effect of symphatic nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Choopani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We assessed the effect of chronic sleep deprivation on incidence of ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation and the role of the sympathetic nervous system in this respect. Material and methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups; 1 ischemia/reperfusion group (IR: 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion was induced, 2 control group (CON: rats has been placed in large multiple platforms for 72h prior to ischemia and reperfusion, 3 Chronic sleep deprivation group( SD: 72h sleep deprivation was induced by using small  multiple platform prior to ischemia and reperfusion, 4 Sympathectomy group (SYM: chemical sympathectomy was done 24h before to chronic sleep deprivation and then underwent ischemia and reperfusion. The heart isolated and perfused by langendorff apparatus. After thoracotomy and aorta cannulation, the hearts perfused in the langendorff apparatus using krebs-Henseleit buffer. Hearts were allowed to recovery for 15 min. After recovery period, 15 minutes was considered as baseline prior to 30 minutes ischemia followed by 60 minutes reperfusion.Tow thin stainless stell electrodes fixed on the ventricular apex and right atrium for recording the lead II of electrocardiogram (ECG.Results: There were no significant differences between heart rates between groups, and ventricular tachycardia significantly increased in chronic sleep deprivation group As compared with IR group in ischemia period. Sympathectomy significantly reduced ventricular tachycardia incidence when compared with SD. There is no difference in incidence of ventricular tachycardia between control group and IR group. The incidence of ventricular fibrillation during early reperfusion was significantly augmented (P<0.05 in sleep deprivation group as compared with IR group and Sympathectomy significantly could reverse ventricular fibrillation incidence to IR group level as

  13. Next step in the ongoing arms race between myxoma virus and wild rabbits in Australia is a novel disease phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G.; Dodds, Jeff W.; Brooks, Jason W.; Kennett, Mary J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2017-01-01

    In host–pathogen arms races, increases in host resistance prompt counteradaptation by pathogens, but the nature of that counteradaptation is seldom directly observed outside of laboratory models. The best-documented field example is the coevolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) in European rabbits. To understand how MYXV in Australia has continued to evolve in wild rabbits under intense selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis, we compared the phenotypes of the progenitor MYXV and viral isolates from the 1950s and the 1990s in laboratory rabbits with no resistance. Strikingly, and unlike their 1950s counterparts, most virus isolates from the 1990s induced a highly lethal immune collapse syndrome similar to septic shock. Thus, the next step in this canonical case of coevolution after a species jump has been further escalation by the virus in the face of widespread host resistance. PMID:28808019

  14. Electrical Signs predictors of malignant ventricular arrhythmias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleman Fernandez, Ailema Amelia; Dorantes Sanchez, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Recurrence of malignant ventricular arrhythmia is frequent in cardioverter-defibrillators related patients. The risk stratification is difficult, there are numerous electrocardiographic predictors but his sensibility and specificity are not absolute. The limit between normal and pathological is not defined, besides the complexity of ventricular arrhythmias. We expose different electrocardiographic predictors that can help to better individual risk stratification

  15. Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia of unusual etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praloy Chakraborty

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia (BDVT is a rare form of ventricular arrhythmia, characterized by changing QRS axis of 180 degrees. Digitalis toxicity is considered as commonest cause of BDVT; other causes include aconite toxicity, myocarditis, myocardial infarction, metastatic cardiac tumour and cardiac channelopathies. We describe a case of BDVT in a patient with Anderson-Tawil syndrome.

  16. Detection of premature ventricular contractions on a ventricular electrocardiogram for patients with left ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Min; Lee, Jin Hong; Choi, Seong Wook

    2014-12-01

    The ventricular electrocardiogram (v-ECG) was developed for long-term monitoring of heartbeats in patients with a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and does not normally have the functionality necessary to detect additional heart irregularities that can progress to critical arrhythmias. Although the v-ECG has the benefits of physiological optimization and counterpulsation control, when abnormal heartbeats occur, the v-ECG does not show the distinct abnormal waveform that enables easy detection of an abnormal heartbeat among normal heartbeats on the conventional ECG. In this study, the v-ECGs of normal and abnormal heartbeats are compared with each other with respect to peak-to-peak voltage, area, and maximal slopes, and a new method to detect abnormal heartbeats is suggested. In a series of animal experiments with three porcine models (Yorkshire pigs weighing 30-40 kg), a v-ECG and conventional ECG were taken simultaneously during LVAD perfusion. Clinical experts found 104 abnormal heartbeats from the saved conventional ECG data and confirmed that the other 3159 heartbeats were normal. Almost all of the abnormal heartbeats were premature ventricular contractions (PVCs), and there was short-term tachycardia for 3 s. A personal computer was used to automatically detect abnormal heartbeats with the v-ECG according to the new method, and its results were compared with the clinicians' results. The new method found abnormal heartbeats with 90% accuracy, and less than 15% of the total PVCs were missed. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Impact of Heat Stress on Electrocardiographic Changes in New Zealand White Rabbits

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    Kour, Juneet

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted on twelve clinically normal and healthy New Zealand White rabbits of both sexes, weighing between 2-3 kg, and aged between 1-3 years to observe the normal electrocardiogram and its changes during heat stress. The normal electrocardiogram and changes during heat stress were evaluated for the three bipolar standard limb leads (I, II and III and three unipolar augmented limb leads (aVR, aVL and aVF. ECG recordings were made in sternal recumbency using a multi channel electrocardiograph . The normal heart rate with a mean of 204±7 beats/min was recorded. The mean amplitude observed was 0.05±0.002 mV for P wave; 0.19±0.008 mV for QRS; 0.14±0.007 mV for T wave. The mean duration observed was 0.03±0.002 sec for P wave; 0.06±0.002 sec for PR interval; 0.05±0.003 sec for QRS complex; 0.13±0.004 sec for QT interval; 0.07±0.002 sec for T wave. During heat stress tachycardia was observed with progressive rise in temperature along with ventricular fibrillation, ventricular extra-systole and atrial fibrillation. At 43°C, ventricular fibrillation was observed in Lead II, III, aVL and aVF. At 45°C, ventricular extra-systole was recorded in Lead III, aVL and aVF. At 45°C (30 mins more exposure, ventricular extra-systole in Lead I and ventricular fibrillation in Lead III was observed. At 47°C, ventricular fibrillation was seen in Lead II, III, aVR, aVL and aVF. At 47°C (30 mins more exposure, atrial fibrillation in all the leads were observed. The mean cardiac axis recorded was 90°±0.065 without significant alterations throughout the study.

  18. Predictors of the left ventricular dysfunction induced by ventricular arrhythmia

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    А. І. Vytryhovskiy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The most powerful predictor of life-threatening arrhythmia risk is a combination of low heart rate variability with low ejection fraction (EF of the left ventricle. Aim. To identify predictors of left ventricle dysfunction which is induced by ventricular arrhythmia. Materials and methods. To diagnose structural changes of left ventricular functional capacity and reserves in patients with previous myocardial infarction and patients with high and very high cardiovascular risk by SCORE scale and for establishment the relationship between morphological heart changes and pathological phenomenon of heart turbulence echocardiography and study of heart rate turbulence variability were performed. 603 patients were selected for the research. All patients were divided into groups: group 1 – patients with coronary heart disease, but without associated risk factors, such as smoking, obesity, metabolic syndrome; group 2 – patients who smoke tobacco more than 2 years (very high cardiovascular risk by scale SCORE; group 3 – patients with metabolic syndrome without coronary heart disease or arterial hypertension (very high cardiovascular risk by scale SCORE. The control group consisted of 149 persons. Results. The feature of structural changes in patients with myocardial infarction and in patients with a high cardiovascular risk by SCORE with heart rate turbulence compared with cases without НRT is considerably thickening of the left interventricular septum in systole. Based on this, it can be argued that the emergence of ventricular arrhythmia and accordingly phenomenon of heart rate turbulence in patients with existing cardiovascular diseases and risk factors has both morphological and functional character. Significant difference of echocardioscopy parameters in patients with postinfarction cardiosclerosis and risk factors by the SCORE system was established by index of intraventricular septum thickness in systole, and in persons with high risk – in

  19. Flecainide attenuates rate adaptation of ventricular repolarization in guinea-pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchii, Oleg E.

    2016-01-01

    examined flecainide effect on adaptation of the QT interval and ventricular action potential duration (APD) to abrupt reductions of the cardiac cycle length. DESIGN: ECG and ventricular epicardial and endocardial monophasic APD were recorded in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations upon...... a sustained cardiac acceleration (rapid pacing for 30 s), and following a single perturbation of the cycle length evoked by extrasystolic stimulation. RESULTS: Sustained increase in heart rate was associated with progressive bi-exponential shortening of the QT interval and APD. Flecainide prolonged...

  20. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  1. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    Md. 20205 We have recently described a method for the direct removal of T lymphocytes by " panning " of rabbit splenocytes on plastic dishes coated...Research University of Illinois Washington, DC 20012 Chicago, IL 60612 Hammadi Ayadi Linda Cook Institut Jacques Monod University of Illinois, Chicago...other species and tested for its ability to inhibit a rabbit Id-anti-Id reaction. Guinea pigs, mice, goats, and chickens were immunized with al IgG and

  2. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  3. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  4. Sequential and Simultaneous Immunization of Rabbits with HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein SOSIP.664 Trimers from Clades A, B and C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klasse, P. J.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cupo, Albert; Pugach, Pavel; Ringe, Rajesh P.; Golabek, Michael; van Gils, Marit J.; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K.; Wilson, Ian A.; Butera, Salvatore T.; Ward, Andrew B.; Montefiori, David C.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the immunogenicity in rabbits of native-like, soluble, recombinant SOSIP.664 trimers based on the env genes of four isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); specifically BG505 (clade A), B41 (clade B), CZA97 (clade C) and DU422 (clade C). The various trimers were

  5. Oxidation of N-alkyl and N-aryl azaheterocycles by free and immobilized rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1984-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase isolated from rabbit liver is studied in this thesis with regard to its application in organic synthesis. The enzyme has a broad substrate specificity towards azaheterocycles and therefore offers great potential for profitable use.

    The oxidation of

  6. Pathogenesis of meningoencephalitis in rabbits by bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Adriana M. da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main aspects of bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5 neurologic infection and disease in rabbits, a candidate animal model for studying BHV-5 neuropathogenesis. Intranasal inoculation of weanling rabbits with a Brazilian BHV-5 isolate produced neurological disease and death in 78.8% (26/33 of the animals. Neurological signs started as early as 5 days post-inoculation and lasted from 10-12 hours up to several days. Most animals evolved to a moribund state or death within 24 (69.2% to 48 hours (88.5%. Neurological disease was characterized by excitability or depression, tremors, bruxism, walking or running in circles, backward arching of the head and body, incoordination, backward and sideways falling, paddling, profound depression and death. Moderate levels of infectivity were detected in several areas of the brain, most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere (in 16 out of 20 animals, anterior cerebrum (15/20, midbrain (11/20, dorso-lateral hemisphere (10/20 and pons (12/26. Infectious virus was also recovered from the olfactory bulb (9/20, medulla oblongata (10/26, cerebellum (7/20, posterior cerebrum (5/20 and trigeminal ganglia (4/20. No gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions were mild and consisted of non-suppurative meningitis, mononuclear perivascular cuffing and focal gliosis. These changes were observed most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere and anterior cerebrum. Passive immunity partially protected rabbits from BHV-5-induced encephalitis. Rabbits born to immunized dams showed a significative delay in the onset of clinical disease and reduced morbidity and mortality rates compared to rabbits born to unvaccinated dams. These results demonstrate that BHV-5-induced neurological disease can consistently be reproduced in rabbits and point towards the use of this species as an animal model to study BHV-5 neuropathogenesis.

  7. Pathological studies on lachrymal dilated drainage tube implantation in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Peng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the pathological changes of the lower segment of nasolacrimal duct mucosa in rabbits at different stages after retrograde lachrymal dilated drainage tube implantation. METHODS: Totally 14 New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study. One side of nasolacrimal duct was obstructed to produce an experimental model and operated the reverse implantation of nasolacrimal duct intubation. Histological changes of the lower segment of nasolacrimal duct mucosa were observed by routine light microscope at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14wk after the operation. RESULTS: Compared with the control side, the group of 2 and 4wk after surgery presented the inflammatory cytokine. The group of 12wk after the operation presented isolated granuloma. Group 12 and 14wk presented scattered granuloma. The size of the granulomas was smaller and the density of epithelioid cell and fibroblast were lower in group 12wk than those in group 14wk by HE and Masson trichrome stain.CONCLUSION: Recurrent Silicone Tube is used to treat nasolacrymal duct obstruction. Nasolacrimal duct can be narrowed and blocked again by granuloma, progressive fibrosis and adhesion of surrounding tissues when tube is in the duct more than 12wk.

  8. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  9. Production of rabbit antibodies against purified Glucose oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anjum Zia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glucose oxidase is an active oxygen species generating enzyme produced from Aspergillus niger grown in submerged fermentation. Disintegration of the mycelium resulted in high glucose oxidase activity that was subjected to ammonium sulfate precipitation at 60-85% saturation rates that resulted to 6.14 U mg -1 specific activity. Purification of enzyme by anion exchange column (DEAE-Cellulose resulted into 22.53 U mg-1 specific activity and 10.27 fold purification. This was applied to sephadex G-200 column for gel filtration chromatography. It was observed that enzyme achieved 59.37 U mg-1of specific activity with 27.08 fold purity and 64.36% recovery. Purified glucose oxidase was injected into rabbits through intravenous route, to raise the glucose oxidase antibodies. After 30 days incubation period, the rabbits were slaughtered and serum was separated from blood. The antibodies were isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and confirmed by agar gel precipitation test. This could be a convenient and low cost alternate assay for the estimation of glucose oxidase in biological fluids. Moreover, such antibodies against the said enzyme could be used in various therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  10. Rabbit uterine epithelial cells: Co-culture with spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A primary culture of rabbit uterine epithelial cells was established and their effects on sperm function were examined in vitro. Epithelial cells were isolated from uteri of estrous rabbits and cultured on floating collagen gels in phenol red-free medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. Light microscopy and keratin staining showed that the epithelial cell population established in culture had morphological characteristics similar to that seen in the intact endometrium. Cells were cultured with 3 H-leucine and uptake of label by cells and its incorporation into cellular and secretory proteins determined. When compared to cells cultured for 24-48 h, incorporation of label into cellular protein was lower at 72-96 h, but secretion increased. Estradiol 17-β did not affect label uptake or incorporation, but did enhance proliferation of cells as judged by total DNA content of the cell population. Analysis of proteins in media by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography suggested that epithelial and stromal cells synthesis proteins that may be secretory in nature during 72-96 h culture. Twenty-nine to thirty-one h after initiation of epithelial cultures, 1-2 x 10 6 sperm were co-incubated with cells and sperm viability, motility, loss of acrosome and fertilizing ability determined

  11. Mechanisms of adaptation to chronic respiratory acidosis in the rabbit proximal tubule.

    OpenAIRE

    Krapf, R

    1989-01-01

    The hyperbicarbonatemia of chronic respiratory acidosis is maintained by enhanced bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubule. To investigate the cellular mechanisms involved in this adaptation, cell and luminal pH were measured microfluorometrically using (2",7')-bis(carboxyethyl)-(5,6)-carboxyfluorescein in isolated, microperfused S2 proximal convoluted tubules from control and acidotic rabbits. Chronic respiratory acidosis was induced by exposure to 10% CO2 for 52-56 h. Tubules from ac...

  12. A possible role of rabbit heart cytosol tocopherol binding in the transfer of tocopherol into nuclei.

    OpenAIRE

    Guarnieri, C; Flamigni, F; Caldarera, C M

    1980-01-01

    An alpha-tocopherol-binding macromolecule was isolated from the heart cytosol of rabbits fed for 1 month with an alpha-tocopherol-deficient diet. The amount of [3H]-tocopherol bound to nuclear chromatin was increased when the alpha-tocopherol-deficient heart nuclei were incubated in the presence of [3H]tocopherol-cytosol complex. In this condition, large amounts of [3H]tocopherol were associated with a subnuclear fraction that contained non-histone acidic proteins.

  13. Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Dizaye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function. Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

  14. Some factors affecting rabbit production under egyptian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.

    1994-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the rabbit of the department of animal production, faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, Blood biochemical analysis and hormonal assay were conducted in tracer bio climatology Unit., Department of radiobiology, nuclear research centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Eighty male New Zealand white (NZW) and 80 male californian (Cal) rabbits aged 5-6 weeks were used. The animals were housed in rabbit building, naturally ventilated. Rabbits cages were provided with automatic nipple drinkers and drinking and drinking water ad libitum.Rabbits were fed ad libitum on balanced growing pelted rabbit ration. 21 tabs.,13 figs.,158 refs

  15. β1-Adrenoceptor blocker aggravated ventricular arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Patel, Dimpi; Wang, Dao Wu; Yan, Jiang Tao; Hsia, Henry H; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Chun Xia; Zuo, Hou Juan; Wang, Dao Wen

    2013-11-01

    To assess the impact of β1 -adrenoceptor blockers (β1 -blocker) and isoprenaline on the incidence of idiopathic repetitive ventricular arrhythmia that apparently decreases with preprocedural anxiety. From January 2010 to July 2012, six patients were identified who had idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias that apparently decreased (by greater than 90%) with preprocedural anxiety. The number of ectopic ventricular beats per hour (VPH) was calculated from Holter or telemetry monitoring to assess the ectopic burden. The mean VPH of 24 hours from Holter before admission (VPH-m) was used as baseline (100%) for normalization. β1 -Blockers, isoprenaline, and/or aminophylline were administrated successively on the ward and catheter lab to evaluate their effects on the ventricular arrhythmias. Among 97 consecutive patients with idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias, six had reduction in normalized VPHs in the hour before the scheduled procedure time from (104.6 ± 4.6%) to (2.8 ± 1.6%) possibly due to preprocedural anxiety (P < 0.05), then increased to (97.9 ± 9.7%) during β1 -blocker administration (P < 0.05), then quickly reduced to (1.6 ± 1.0%) during subsequent isoprenaline infusion. Repeated β1 -blocker quickly counteracted the inhibitory effect of isoprenaline, and VPHs increased to (120.9 ± 2.4%) from (1.6 ± 1.0%; P < 0.05). Isoprenaline and β1 -blocker showed similar effects on the arrhythmias in catheter lab. In some patients with structurally normal heart and ventricular arrhythmias there is a marked reduction of arrhythmias associated with preprocedural anxiety. These patients exhibit a reproducible sequence of β1 -blocker aggravation and catecholamine inhibition of ventricular arrhythmias, including both repetitive ventricular premature beats and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. ©2013, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Remodelado ventricular y cirugía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Moriones

    2008-01-01

    Se han diseñado anillos mitrales como el de Carpentier- McCarthy-Adams (IMR ETlogix™ para pacientes isquémicos, o el Edwards-Geoform™ en miocardiopatías. La asistencia ventricular puede conseguir en determinados casos recuperación permanente del volumen de la cavidad y función ventricular, particularmente en miocarditis y determinadas miocardiopatías. Paralelamente, se han iniciado experiencias con el sistema de contención CorCap o el sistema Myosplint. Finalmente, la actuación sobre las valvulopatías y la revascularización favorecen la restauración ventricular.

  17. [The reasonable use of right ventricular protection strategy in right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Yuan, H Y; Liu, X B; Wen, S S; Xu, G; Cui, H J; Zhuang, J; Chen, J M

    2018-06-01

    As a result of right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, which is the important and basic step of complex cardiac surgery, the blood flow of right ventricular outflow tract is unobstructed, while pulmonary valve regurgitation and right heart dysfunction could be happened. These problems are often ignored in early days, more and more cases of right heart dysfunction need clinical intervention, which is quite difficult and less effective. How to protect effectively the right ventricular function is the focus. At present main methods to protect the right ventricular function include trying to avoid or reduce length of right ventricular incision, reserving or rebuilding the function of the pulmonary valve, using growth potential material for surgery. The protection of the right ventricular function is a systemic project, it involves many aspects, single measures is difficult to provide complete protection, only the comprehensive use of various protection strategy, can help to improve the long-term prognosis.

  18. Surgery for ventricular tachycardia in patients undergoing surgical ventricular restoration: the Karolinska approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartipy, Ulrik; Albåge, Anders; Insulander, Per; Lindblom, Dan

    2007-09-01

    This article presents a review on the efficacy of surgical ventricular restoration and direct surgery for ventricular tachycardia in patients with left ventricular aneurysm or dilated ischemic cardiomyopathy. The procedure includes a non-electrophysiologically guided subtotal endocardiectomy and cryoablation in addition to endoventricular patch plasty of the left ventricle. Coronary artery bypass surgery and mitral valve repair are performed concomitantly as needed. In our experience, this procedure yielded a 90% success rate in terms of freedom from spontaneous ventricular tachycardia, with an early mortality rate of 3.8%. A practical guide to the pre- and postoperative management of these patients is provided.

  19. Right Ventricular Endomyocardial Fibrosis Presenting With Ventricular Tachycardia And Apical Thrombus - An Interesting Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitesh Aggarwal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Endomyocardial fibrosis is a progressive disease of unknown origin affecting children and young adults. It involves inflow portion of right and/or left ventricle and apex. It may be associated with thrombus. Literature regarding right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis with thrombus is scarce. Here we report a rare case of right ventricular endomyocardial fibrosis presenting as ventricular tachycardia and echocardiographic evidence of apical thrombus. Interestingly there was no pulmonary involvement or evidence of deep venous thrombosis. This case also underscores the importance of urgent echocardiography in diagnosis of obscure cases of ventricular tachycardia.

  20. Left ventricular function in patients with ventricular arrhythmias and aortic valve disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santinga, J.T.; Kirsh, M.M.; Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.; Pitt, B.

    1983-01-01

    Forty patients having aortic valve replacement were evaluated preoperatively for ventricular arrhythmia and left ventricular ejection fraction. Arrhythmias were classified as complex or simple using the Lown criteria on the 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram; ejection fractions were determined by radionuclide gated blood pool analysis and contrast angiography. The ejection fractions determined by radionuclide angiography were 59.1 +/- 13.1% for 26 patients with simple or no ventricular arrhythmias, and 43.9 +/- 20.3% for 14 patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (p less than 0.01). Ejection fractions determined by angiography, available for 31 patients, were also lower in patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (61.1 +/- 16.3% versus 51.4 +/- 13.4%; p less than 0.05). Seven of 9 patients showing conduction abnormalities on the electrocardiogram had complex ventricular arrhythmias. Eight of 20 patients with aortic stenosis had complex ventricular arrhythmias, while 2 of 13 patients with aortic insufficiency had such arrhythmias. It is concluded that decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, intraventricular conduction abnormalities, and aortic stenosis are associated with an increased frequency of complex ventricular arrhythmias in patients with aortic valve disease

  1. Rest and exercise ventricular function in adults with congenital ventricular septal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonsky, G.; Hilton, J.D.; Liu, P.P.; Morch, J.E.; Druck, M.N.; Bar-Shlomo, B.Z.; McLaughlin, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Rest and exercise right and left ventricular function were compared using equilibrium gated radionuclide angiography in 19 normal sedentary control subjects and 34 patients with hemodynamically documented congenital ventricular septal defect (VSD). Gated radionuclide angiography was performed at rest and during each level of graded supine bicycle exercise to fatigue. Heart rate, blood pressure, maximal work load achieved, and right and left ventricular ejection fractions were assessed. The control subjects demonstrated an increase in both the left and right ventricular ejection fractions with exercise. All study groups failed to demonstrate an increase in ejection fraction in either ventricle with exercise. Furthermore, resting left ventricular ejection fraction in Groups 2 and 3 was lower than that in the control subjects and resting right ventricular ejection fraction was lower in Group 3 versus control subjects. Thus left and right ventricular function on exercise were abnormal in patients with residual VSD as compared with control subjects; rest and exercise left ventricular ejection fractions remained abnormal despite surgical closure of VSD in the remote past; resting left and right ventricular function was abnormal in patients with Eisenmenger's complex; lifelong volume overload may be detrimental to myocardial function

  2. Plasma clearance and biodistribution of oxidatively modified 99mTc-ß-VLDL in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva E.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The biodistribution and removal from plasma (measured as fractional clearance rate, FCR, per hour of native and oxidatively modified 99mtechnetium-labeled ß-very low density lipoprotein (99mTc-ß-VLDL were investigated in hypercholesterolemic (HC and control (C three-month old New Zealand rabbits. The intracellular accumulation of ß-VLDL labeled with 99mTc was studied in vitro in THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from rabbits. After intravenous injection into C rabbits, copper-oxidized ß-VLDL (99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL was cleared from the circulation faster (0.362 ± 0.070/h than native ß-VLDL (99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL, 0.241 ± 0.070/h. In contrast, the FCR of 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL in HC rabbits was lower (0.100 ± 0.048/h than that of 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL (0.163 ± 0.043/h. The hepatic uptake of radiolabeled lipoproteins was lower in HC rabbits (0.114 ± 0.071% injected dose/g tissue for 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL and 0.116 ± 0.057% injected dose/g tissue for 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL than in C rabbits (0.301 ± 0.113% injected dose/g tissue for 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL and 0.305 ± 0.149% injected dose/g tissue for 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL. The uptake of 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL and 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL by atherosclerotic aorta lesions isolated from HC rabbits (99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL: 0.033 ± 0.012% injected dose/g tissue and 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL: 0.039 ± 0.017% injected dose/g tissue was higher in comparison to that of non-atherosclerotic aortas from C rabbits (99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL: 0.023 ± 0.010% injected dose/g tissue and 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL: 0.019 ± 0.010% injected dose/g tissue. However, 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL and 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL were taken up by atherosclerotic lesions at similar rates. In vitro studies showed that both monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from rabbits and THP-1 macrophages significantly internalized more 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL than 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL. These results indicate that in cholesterol-fed rabbits 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL is slowly cleared from plasma and accumulates in

  3. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Negrín Valdés

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia is a heart muscle disease that predominantly affects the right ventricle, bringing about the replacement of normal myocardium with fatty or fibrofatty tissue and causing sudden death in young individuals. Ventricular tachycardia is an important clinical manifestation, although there are reports of right or global heart failure. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging. The case of a 65-year-old former smoker, with hypertension and ischemic heart disease, a history of effort syncope symptoms and proven non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, with morphology of left bundle branch block, is reported. Relevant diagnostic studies were performed, and echocardiographic elements which were compatible with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia were found. Therefore, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted, after which the patient has had a favorable outcome.

  4. Ventricular repolarization measures for arrhythmic risk stratification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Monitillo; Marta Leone; Caterina Rizzo; Andrea Passantino; Massimo Iacoviello

    2016-01-01

    Ventricular repolarization is a complex electrical phenomenon which represents a crucial stage in electrical cardiac activity. It is expressed on the surface electrocardiogram by the interval between the start of the QRS complex and the end of the T wave or U wave(QT). Several physiological, pathological and iatrogenic factors can influence ventricular repolarization. It has been demonstrated that small perturbations in this process can be a potential trigger of malignant arrhythmias, therefore the analysis of ventricular repolarization represents an interesting tool to implement risk stratification of arrhythmic events in different clinical settings. The aim of this review is to critically revise the traditional methods of static analysis of ventricular repolarization as well as those for dynamic evaluation, their prognostic significance and the possible application in daily clinical practice.

  5. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmen, Valentin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) at local and paravertebral acupoints for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy. Twelve clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were chosen and divided into two groups: the control group (5 rabbits) and the experimental group (7 rabbits). A neuroleptanalgesic (ketamine + xylazine) was administered to the control group (NLA group); the experimental group received EAA treatment (EAA group). The EAA treatment includes one acupuncture formula for local stimulation at the incision site and systemic stimulation. Results of clinical research have shown postoperative analgesia using EAA treatment to be superior to that using NLA. The average postoperative recovery time was 5.2 times longer in the NLA group than in the EAA group. Because consciousness was maintained, EAA presented an advantage in thermoregulation. Animals administered NLA had prolonged thermal homeostasis because of neurovegetative disconnection. For the EAA group, the operative times were characterized as excellent (28%, p = 0.28) or good (72%, p = 0.72). Local stimulation at the incision site provided excellent analgesia of the abdominal wall (100%). In conclusion, EA can provide general analgesia with a considerable analgesic effect for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  7. Accumulation of 125I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of 125 I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with 125 I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits

  8. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z.

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines

  9. Local edge detectors: a substrate for fine spatial vision at low temporal frequencies in rabbit retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Michiel; Taylor, W Rowland; Vaney, David I

    2006-12-20

    Visual acuity is limited by the size and density of the smallest retinal ganglion cells, which correspond to the midget ganglion cells in primate retina and the beta-ganglion cells in cat retina, both of which have concentric receptive fields that respond at either light-On or light-Off. In contrast, the smallest ganglion cells in the rabbit retina are the local edge detectors (LEDs), which respond to spot illumination at both light-On and light-Off. However, the LEDs do not predominate in the rabbit retina and the question arises, what role do they play in fine spatial vision? We studied the morphology and physiology of LEDs in the isolated rabbit retina and examined how their response properties are shaped by the excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Although the LEDs comprise only approximately 15% of the ganglion cells, neighboring LEDs are separated by 30-40 microm on the visual streak, which is sufficient to account for the grating acuity of the rabbit. The spatial and temporal receptive-field properties of LEDs are generated by distinct inhibitory mechanisms. The strong inhibitory surround acts presynaptically to suppress both the excitation and the inhibition elicited by center stimulation. The temporal properties, characterized by sluggish onset, sustained firing, and low bandwidth, are mediated by the temporal properties of the bipolar cells and by postsynaptic interactions between the excitatory and inhibitory inputs. We propose that the LEDs signal fine spatial detail during visual fixation, when high temporal frequencies are minimal.

  10. Effect of a lytic bacteriophage on rabbits experimentally infected with pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli is severely threatening the rabbit industry in China, and the concern over antibiotic-resistant bacteria has given rise to an urgent need for antibiotic alternatives. In this study, a member (ZRP1 of the Myoviridae family was isolated from rabbit faeces using a strain of rabbit atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (ZR1 as host. The one-step growth curve indicated that the latent period was around 25 to 30 min and the burst size was 144±31 plaque-forming unit/cell. The rate of phage-resistant mutation was 7×10–5±4×10–5. When the bacteriophage input at the multiplicity of infection (MOI was 0.1, 1 or 10, the growth of host E. coli in broth was inhibited for 5 h. A single intravenous injection of ZRP1 at MOI 0.1, 1 or 10 significantly prolonged the survival time of rabbits which simultaneously received a lethal dose of ZR1.

  11. A new rabbit model of implant-related biofilm infection: development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cheng-Bing; Zeng, Hong; Shen, Ding-Xia; Wang, Hui; Wang, Ji-Fang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2016-03-01

    This study is to establish a rabbit model for human prosthetic joint infection and biofilm formation. Thirty-two healthy adult rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and implanted with stainless steel screws and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) washers in the non-articular surface of the femoral lateral condyle of the right hind knees. The rabbit knee joints were inoculated with 1 mL saline containing 0, 102, 103, 104 CFU of Staphylococcus epidermidis ( S. epidermidis) isolated from the patient with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) infection, respectively. On the 14th postoperative day, the UHMWPE washers from the optimal 103 CFU group were further examined. The SEM examination showed a typical biofilm construction that circular S. epidermidis were embedded in a mucous-like matrix. In addition, the LCSM examination showed that the biofilm consisted of the polysaccharide stained bright green fluorescence and S. epidermidis radiating red fluorescence. Thus, we successfully create a rabbit model for prosthetic joint infection and biofilm formation, which should be valuable for biofilm studies.

  12. Calcium Transient and Sodium-Calcium Exchange Current in Human versus Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie O. Verkerk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate on the mechanism underlying the pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node (SAN cells, focusing on the relative importance of the “membrane clock” and the “Ca2+ clock” in the generation of the small net membrane current that depolarizes the cell towards the action potential threshold. Specifically, the debate centers around the question whether the membrane clock-driven hyperpolarization-activated current, If, which is also known as the “funny current” or “pacemaker current,” or the Ca2+ clock-driven sodium-calcium exchange current, INaCa, is the main contributor to diastolic depolarization. In our contribution to this journal’s “Special Issue on Cardiac Electrophysiology,” we present a numerical reconstruction of If and INaCa in isolated rabbit and human SAN pacemaker cells based on experimental data on action potentials, If, and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i that we have acquired from these cells. The human SAN pacemaker cells have a smaller If, a weaker [Ca2+]i transient, and a smaller INaCa than the rabbit cells. However, when compared to the diastolic net membrane current, INaCa is of similar size in human and rabbit SAN pacemaker cells, whereas If is smaller in human than in rabbit cells.

  13. Environmental Bacteria Associated With an Institutional Rabbit House

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    associated with rabbit houses was undertaken to determine the occurrence of bacteria in rabbit ... biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when .... frequently incriminated in bovine mastitis by. Jones ...

  14. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional ingredient. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... groups of 8 rabbits each and the groups were assigned randomly to the three diets with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a Complete Randomized Design experiment.

  15. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  16. Salbutamol Abuse is Associated with Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin UYSAL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Salbutamol-induced cardiac complications are well-established. Herein, we describe a case of a 24-year female who was admitted to the emergency department because of a suicide attempt with salbutamol (76 mg. Salbutamol abuse induced the development of supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Regular sinus rhythm was restored with defibrillation. The hypokalemic patient who stayed in the intensive care unit was discharged after 48 hours of hospitalization. Key words: Salbutamol, suicide, ventricular fibrillation

  17. Clustering Of Left Ventricular Wall Motion Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelogrlic, Z.; Jakopin, J.; Gyergyek, L.

    1982-11-01

    A method for detection of wall regions with similar motion was presented. A model based on local direction information was used to measure the left ventricular wall motion from cineangiographic sequence. Three time functions were used to define segmental motion patterns: distance of a ventricular contour segment from the mean contour, the velocity of a segment and its acceleration. Motion patterns were clustered by the UPGMA algorithm and by an algorithm based on K-nearest neighboor classification rule.

  18. Ventricular tachycardia induced by weight loss pills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Hansson, Nils Henrik; Grove, Erik Lerkevang

    2013-01-01

    A previously healthy 29-year-old man was admitted with palpitations, dizziness, and near-syncope after he had recently started taking weight loss pills purchased on the internet. The pills contained caffeine and ephedrine. An electrocardiogram and telemetry revealed multiple episodes of non......-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia, which was successfully treated with amiodarone. In conclusion, unauthorized weight loss pills can be harmful. In particular, ephedrine-containing drugs carry a risk of ventricular tachycardia and should be discouraged....

  19. In vitro host erythrocyte specificity and differential morphology of Babesia divergens and a zoonotic Babesia sp. from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Angela M; Goethert, Heidi K; Telford, Samuel R; Holman, Patricia J

    2006-04-01

    A Babesia sp. isolated from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) is morphologically similar and genetically identical, based on SSU rRNA gene comparisons, to 2 agents responsible for human babesiosis in the United States. This zoonotic agent is closely related to the European parasite, Babesia divergens. The 2 organisms were characterized by in vitro comparisons. In vitro growth of the rabbit Babesia sp. was supported in human and cottontail rabbit erythrocytes, but not in bovine cells. Babesia divergens was supported in vitro in bovine and human erythrocytes, but not in cottontail rabbit cells. Morphometric analysis classifies B. divergens as a small babesia in bovine erythrocytes, but the parasite exceeds this size in human erythrocytes. The rabbit Babesia sp. is large, the same size in both human or rabbit erythrocytes, and is significantly larger than B. divergens. Eight or more rabbit Babesia sp. parasites may occur within a single erythrocyte, sometimes in a floret array, unlike B. divergens. The erythrocyte specificity and morphological differences reported in this study agree with previous in vivo results and validate the use of in vitro methods for characterization of Babesia species.

  20. Resolving the True Ventricular Mural Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S. Stephenson

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The precise nature of packing together of the cardiomyocytes within the ventricular walls has still to be determined. The spiraling nature of the chains of interconnected cardiomyocytes has long been recognized. As long ago as the end of the nineteenth century, Pettigrew had emphasized that the ventricular cone was not arranged on the basis of skeletal muscle. Despite this guidance, subsequent anatomists described entities such as “bulbo-spiral muscles”, with this notion of subunits culminating in the suggestion that the ventricular cone could be unwrapped so as to produce a “ventricular myocardial band”. Others, in contrast, had suggested that the ventricular walls were arranged on the basis of “sheets”, or more recently “sheetlets”, with investigators seeking to establishing the angulation of these entities using techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging. Our own investigations, in contrast, have shown that the cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the supporting fibrous matrix so as to produce a three-dimensional myocardial mesh. In this review, we summarize the previous accounts, and provide the anatomical evidence we have thus far accumulated to support the model of the myocardial mesh. We show how these anatomic findings underscore the concept of the myocardial mesh functioning in antagonistic fashion. They lend evidence to support the notion that the ventricular myocardium works as a muscular hydrostat.

  1. Large right ventricular sinusoids in an infant with aorta-left ventricular tunnel and proximal right coronary artery atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C; Spinner, Joseph A; Heinle, Jeffrey S

    2018-07-01

    We report a 1-month-old infant diagnosed with an aorta-left ventricular tunnel, ventricular septal defect, and right coronary atresia with right ventricular sinusoids. The patient's anatomy and physiology did not indicate right-ventricular-dependent coronary circulation, and therefore right ventricular decompression could be performed without compromising coronary perfusion during surgical correction. A detailed understanding of the coronary anatomy is critical in managing this defect when coronary anomalies are present.

  2. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  3. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  4. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  5. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  6. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  7. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  8. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  9. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... droppings to digest their food further and extract sufficient nutrients (Oaktreevet, 2010). Rabbits are generally infected with numerous parasites. Parasitic infections have caused considerable losses to rabbits in the region. Numbers of parasites are responsible for illness of rabbits (Allan et al., 1999).

  10. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  11. Retinitis-pigmentosa-like tapetoretinal degeneration in a rabbit breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Baar, U

    1985-08-15

    By chance, we found a rabbit strain with retinal dystrophy. The eyes of these rabbits were examined by ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, histology, and cytology--the latter after retina dissociation with papaine. The results suggest this rabbit strain to be a possible animal model for human retinitis pigmentosa.

  12. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  13. Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in renal anatomy and physiology between rabbits and other domestic species. Neurogenic renal ischemia occurs readily. Reversible prerenal azotemia may be seen in conjunction with gut stasis. Potentially fatal acute renal failure may be due to structural kidney damage or post-renal disease. Chronic renal failure is often associated with encephalitozoonosis. Affected rabbits cannot vomit and often eat well. Weight loss, lethargy, and cachexia are common clinical signs. Polydypsia/polyuria may be present. Derangements in calcium and phosphorus metabolism are features of renal disease. Radiography is always indicated. Urolithiasis, osteosclerosis, aortic and renal calcification are easily seen on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Stress induced right ventricular dysfunction: An indication of reversible right ventricular ischaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, S.R.; Walton, S.; Emanuel, R.W.; Swanton, R.H.; Campos Costa, D.; Laming, P.J.; Ell, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Stress induced changes in left ventricular ejection fraction are widely used in the detection and assessment of coronary artery disease. This study demonstrates that right ventricular dysfunction may also occur, and assesses its significance in terms of coronary artery anatomy. This study involved 14 normal subjects and 26 with coronary artery disease investigated by equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography, at rest and during maximal dynamic exercise. Mean normal resting right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF) was 0.40 (SD 0.118), and all normal subjects increased RVEF with stress (mean ΔRVEF+0.13 SD 0.099). Mean ΔRVEF in the subjects with coronary artery disease was significantly lower at 0.00 (SD 0.080), but there was overlap between the two groups. The largest falls in RVEF were seen if the right coronary artery was occluded without retrograde filling. In this subgroup with the most severely compromised right ventricular perfusion (nine subjects), RVEF always fell with stress, and mean ΔRVEF was -0.08 (SD 0.050). There was no significant correlation between ΔLVEF and ΔRVEF, implying that the right ventricular dysfunction was due to right ventricular ischaemia, rather than secondary to left ventricular dysfunction. Stress induced right ventricular ischaemia can therefore be detected readily by radionuclide ventriculography. (orig.)

  16. Right ventricular failure after implantation of a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Johan Joakim; Nilsson, Jens C; Hansen, Peter B

    2014-01-01

    Right ventricular failure (RVF) is a significant complication after implantation of a left ventricular assist device. We aimed to identify haemodynamic changes in the early postoperative phase that predicted subsequent development of RVF in a cohort of HeartMate II (HMII) implanted patients....

  17. Exercise thallium testing in ventricular preexcitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, S.; Gornick, C.; Grund, F.; Shafer, R.; Weir, E.K.

    1987-05-01

    Ventricular preexcitation, as seen in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, results in a high frequency of positive exercise electrocardiographic responses. Why this occurs is unknown but is not believed to reflect myocardial ischemia. Exercise thallium testing is often used for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with conditions known to result in false-positive electrocardiographic responses. To assess the effects of ventricular preexcitation on exercise thallium testing, 8 men (aged 42 +/- 4 years) with this finding were studied. No subject had signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease. Subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer to a double product of 26,000 +/- 2,000 (+/- standard error of mean). All but one of the subjects had at least 1 mm of ST-segment depression. Tests were terminated because of fatigue or dyspnea and no patient had chest pain. Thallium test results were abnormal in 5 patients, 2 of whom had stress defects as well as abnormally delayed thallium washout. One of these subjects had normal coronary arteries on angiography with a negative ergonovine challenge, and both had normal exercise radionuclide ventriculographic studies. Delayed thallium washout was noted in 3 of the subjects with ventricular preexcitation and normal stress images. This study suggests that exercise thallium testing is frequently abnormal in subjects with ventricular preexcitation. Ventricular preexcitation may cause dyssynergy of ventricular activation, which could alter myocardial thallium handling, much as occurs with left bundle branch block. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography may be a better test for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with ventricular preexcitation.

  18. Exercise thallium testing in ventricular preexcitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, S.; Gornick, C.; Grund, F.; Shafer, R.; Weir, E.K.

    1987-01-01

    Ventricular preexcitation, as seen in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, results in a high frequency of positive exercise electrocardiographic responses. Why this occurs is unknown but is not believed to reflect myocardial ischemia. Exercise thallium testing is often used for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with conditions known to result in false-positive electrocardiographic responses. To assess the effects of ventricular preexcitation on exercise thallium testing, 8 men (aged 42 +/- 4 years) with this finding were studied. No subject had signs or symptoms of coronary artery disease. Subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer to a double product of 26,000 +/- 2,000 (+/- standard error of mean). All but one of the subjects had at least 1 mm of ST-segment depression. Tests were terminated because of fatigue or dyspnea and no patient had chest pain. Thallium test results were abnormal in 5 patients, 2 of whom had stress defects as well as abnormally delayed thallium washout. One of these subjects had normal coronary arteries on angiography with a negative ergonovine challenge, and both had normal exercise radionuclide ventriculographic studies. Delayed thallium washout was noted in 3 of the subjects with ventricular preexcitation and normal stress images. This study suggests that exercise thallium testing is frequently abnormal in subjects with ventricular preexcitation. Ventricular preexcitation may cause dyssynergy of ventricular activation, which could alter myocardial thallium handling, much as occurs with left bundle branch block. Exercise radionuclide ventriculography may be a better test for noninvasive assessment of coronary artery disease in patients with ventricular preexcitation

  19. Comparison of arterial intimal clearances of LDL from diabetic and nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits. Differences in intimal clearance explained by size differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordestgaard, B.G.; Zilversmit, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Arterial intimal clearances of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from diabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits (D-LDL) and LDL from nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits (N-LDL) were compared. In six experiments, D-LDL and N-LDL were isolated from a diabetic and a nondiabetic rabbit, were iodinated with 125I and 131I, respectively, were mixed, and were reinjected into the same two rabbits as well as into a normal rabbit. Fractional catabolic rates for D-LDL and N-LDL in normal rabbits were 0.065 and 0.074 h-1 (p less than 0.05), respectively. For five of the six pairs of LDL, the D-LDL was smaller than N-LDL as determined by gel filtration. The arterial permeability to N-LDL, when normalized for differences in arterial cholesterol content, did not appear to differ between diabetic and nondiabetic rabbits. The relative arterial intimal clearance (D-LDL/N-LDL) in arteries from diabetic and nondiabetic rabbits was inversely related to the relative molecular weight (D-LDL/N-LDL). For example, when the molecular weight of D-LDL was as low as 60% of that of N-LDL (i.e., the diameter of D-LDL was reduced 16%), the intimal clearance of D-LDL was 40% larger than that of N-LDL. When, on the other hand, molecular weights and diameters of the two LDL were similar, the intimal clearance was also quite similar. These results suggest that arterial intimal clearance of LDL from diabetic and nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits is comparable unless the two types of LDL have a different size

  20. A dual potassium channel activator improves repolarization reserve and normalizes ventricular action potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Di Diego, José M; Hansen, Rie Schultz

    2016-01-01

    in cultured canine cardiac myocytes and determined whether a dual K(+) current activator can normalize K(+) currents and restore action potential (AP) configuration. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ventricular myocytes were isolated and cultured for up to 48h. Current and voltage clamp recordings were made using patch...... of EADs. Our results suggest a potential benefit of K(+) current activators under conditions of reduced repolarization reserve including heart failure....

  1. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia: when one became many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J; Holmes, Edward C

    2014-02-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16-year period (1995-2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared with those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 rereleases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia -4.0 (3.3-4.7) × 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year - was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 re-releases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia – 4.0 (3.3 – 4.7) × 10−3 nucleotide substitutions per site per year – was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. PMID:24251353

  4. Epidemiological survey of dermatophytosis in meat rabbits with alopecia in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological dermatophytosis survey was carried out in farmed rabbits with alopecia in Northern and Central Portugal.  Between August and October 2008, samples from suspected clinical cases of alopecia in meat rabbits on industrial farms were collected and cultured by conventional methods.  Effects on the prevalence of several variables, such as breed, age, month of sample collection, configuration of the lesions and presence of concomitant infections in the rabbitries were evaluated using a logistic regression model.  The overall prevalence of dermatophytes species was 82.7% (95% CI: 80.1-85.3%. Two dermatophytes species were isolated: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (91.9% and Microsporum canis (8.1%.  Five variables were associated with dermatophyte isolation in univariate analysis.  The multivariate logistic regression model identified configuration of lesions (OR=3.15; 95% CI: 1.39-7.15% and the presence of concomitant infections on the farms (OR=2.71; 95% CI: 1.03-7.12% as risk factors.  Considering the paucity of epidemiological reports in this country, these results could make a useful contribution towards the diagnosis and prevention of rabbit dermatophytosis.

  5. Human-derived nanoparticles and vascular response to injury in rabbit carotid arteries: Proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A K Schwartz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria A K Schwartz1, John C Lieske2, Vivek Kumar2, Gerard Farell-Baril2, Virginia M Miller1,31Departments of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Internal Medicine; 2Division of Nephrology, and 3Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Self-calcifying, self-replicating nanoparticles have been isolated from calcified human tissues. However, it is unclear if these nanoparticles participate in disease processes. Therefore, this study was designed to preliminarily test the hypothesis that human-derived nanoparticles are causal to arterial disease processes. One carotid artery of 3 kg male rabbits was denuded of endothelium; the contralateral artery remained unoperated as a control. Each rabbit was injected intravenously with either saline, calcified, or decalcified nanoparticles cultured from calcified human arteries or kidney stones. After 35 days, both injured and control arteries were removed for histological examination. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with saline showed minimal, eccentric intimal hyperplasia. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with calcified kidney stone- and arterial-derived nanoparticles occluded, sometimes with canalization. The calcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles caused calcifications within the occlusion. Responses to injury in rabbits injected with decalcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles were similar to those observed in saline-injected animals. However, decalcified arterial-derived nanoparticles produced intimal hyperplasia that varied from moderate to occlusion with canalization and calcifi cation. This study offers the first evidence that there may be a causal relationship between human-derived nanoparticles and response to injury including calcification in arteries with damaged endothelium.Keywords: arterial calcification, endothelial injury, intimal hyperplasia

  6. Production of double antibody for radioimmunoassay (sheep anti-rabbit IgG antiserum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R. da.

    1993-01-01

    A second antibody (sheep anti-rabbit IgG antiserum) to be used in RIAs in which the first antibody is raised in rabbits was produced. For this production, initially the IgG was isolated from rabbit serum and purified by sodium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Four sheep were immunized with 500 u g of purified rabbit IgG, emulsified in Freund Complete Adjuvant and administered by multisite subcutaneous injections. These injections were repeated at 20-days intervals and blood samples (40 ml) were taken from the jugular vein 10 days after the boosts for the evaluation of the antisera title. After each four boosts a great bleeding was done by the same route. Approximately 500 ml of serum were obtained in each bleeding per animal. The antisera were evaluated by the human thyrotropin RIA developed at IPEN laboratories employing reagents provided by NIDDKD, USA. These evaluations referred to the determination of the antisera title and of the ideal concentration of carrier IgG, to the study of the kinetic of precipitation and to the confirmation of the inexistent cross-reactivity with human IgG, in comparison with a reference antiserum of know precipitation characteristics supplied by the Radioassay System Laboratories. Approximately 3,6 l of antiserum (sheep anti-rabbit IgG serum) were produced from the four sheep, which presented title and precipitation characteristics very similar to those exhibited by the imported commercial product, even presenting higher titles. The results obtained in this work indicated that it was created enough experience for the production of this biological reagent for RIA, that could be done integrally in the country in greater scale, and at a very reduced cost. (author). 81 refs, 36 figs, 33 tabs

  7. Dynamic Changes of QRS Morphology of Premature Ventricular Contractions During Ablation in the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue-Chun, Li; Jia-Feng, Lin; Jia-Xuan, Lin

    2015-10-01

    Electrocardiographic characteristics can be useful in differentiating between right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and aortic sinus cusp (ASC) ventricular arrhythmias. Ventricular arrhythmias originating from ASC, however, show preferential conduction to RVOT that may render the algorithms of electrocardiographic characteristics less reliable. Even though there are few reports describing ventricular arrhythmias with ASC origins and endocardial breakout sites of RVOT, progressive dynamic changes in QRS morphology of the ventricular arrhythmias during ablation obtained were rare.This case report describes a patient with symptomatic premature ventricular contractions of left ASC origin presenting an electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristic of right ventricular outflow tract before ablation. Pacing at right ventricular outflow tract reproduced an excellent pace map. When radiofrequency catheter ablation was applied to the right ventricular outflow tract, the QRS morphology of premature ventricular contractions progressively changed from ECG characteristics of right ventricular outflow tract origin to ECG characteristics of left ASC origin.Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation was achieved at the site of the earliest ventricular activation in the left ASC. The distance between the successful ablation site of the left ASC and the site with an excellent pace map of the RVOT was 20 mm.The ndings could be strong evidence for a preferential conduction via the myocardial bers from the ASC origin to the breakout site in the right ventricular outflow tract. This case demonstrates that ventricular arrhythmias with a single origin and exit shift may exhibit QRS morphology changes.

  8. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (<1:40) died of RHD. When the cut-off was moved from 25% to 50% inhibition (1:10(50)) at 1:10 serum dilution, the assay sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the protective immunity were improved from 84%, 54.2% and 69.4% to 84%, 100% and 91.8%, respectively. We also demonstrated at the epitope amino acid sequence level why the presence of the RHDV-cross reactive benign rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of new-generation TMEM16A inhibitors on calcium-activated chloride currents in rabbit urethral interstitial cells of Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedigan, Stephen; Bradley, Eamonn; Webb, Timothy; Large, Roddy J; Hollywood, Mark A; Thornbury, Keith D; McHale, Noel G; Sergeant, Gerard P

    2017-11-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) isolated from the rabbit urethra exhibit Ca 2+ -activated Cl - currents (I ClCa ) that are important for the development of urethral tone. Here, we examined if TMEM16A (ANO1) contributed to this activity by examining the effect of "new-generation" TMEM16A inhibitors, CACC inh -A01 and T16A inh -A01, on I ClCa recorded from freshly isolated rabbit urethral ICC (RUICC) and on contractions of intact strips of rabbit urethra smooth muscle. Real-time quantitative PCR experiments demonstrated that TMEM16A was highly expressed in rabbit urethra smooth muscle, in comparison to TMEM16B and TMEM16F. Single-cell RT-PCR experiments revealed that only TMEM16A was expressed in freshly isolated RUICC. Depolarization-evoked I ClCa in isolated RUICC, recorded using voltage clamp, were inhibited by CACC inh -A01 and T16A inh -A01 with IC 50 values of 1.2 and 3.4 μM, respectively. Similarly, spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) recorded from RUICC voltage clamped at -60 mV and spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs), recorded in current clamp, were also inhibited by CACC inh -A01 and T16A inh -A01. In contrast, spontaneous Ca 2+ waves in isolated RUICC were only partially reduced by CACC inh -A01 and T16A inh -A01. Finally, neurogenic contractions of strips of rabbit urethra smooth muscle (RUSM), evoked by electric field stimulation (EFS), were also significantly reduced by CACC inh -A01 and T16A inh -A01. These data are consistent with the idea that TMEM16A is involved with CACCs in RUICC and in contraction of rabbit urethral smooth muscle.

  10. Muscular anatomy of the human ventricular folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jerald; Alipour, Fariborz

    2013-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to better understand the muscular anatomy of the ventricular folds in order to help improve biomechanical modeling of phonation and to better understand the role of these muscles during phonatory and nonphonatory tasks. Four human larynges were decalcified, sectioned coronally from posterior to anterior by a CryoJane tape transfer system, and stained with Masson's trichrome. The total and relative areas of muscles observed in each section were calculated and used for characterizing the muscle distribution within the ventricular folds. The ventricular folds contained anteriorly coursing thyroarytenoid and ventricularis muscle fibers that were in the lower half of the ventricular fold posteriorly, and some ventricularis muscle was evident in the upper and lateral portions of the fold more anteriorly. Very little muscle tissue was observed in the medial half of the fold, and the anterior half of the ventricular fold was largely devoid of any muscle tissue. All 4 larynges contained muscle bundles that coursed superiorly and medially through the upper half of the fold, toward the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Although variability of expression was evident, a well-defined thyroarytenoid muscle was readily apparent lateral to the arytenoid cartilage in all specimens.

  11. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  12. Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis in rabbits.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: A total of 20 domestic rabbits divided into 4 groups of 5 animals per ... Herbs have been used as food and ... adjuncts in helping reduced the risk of cardiovascular ... effective with minimal toxicity should be processed ... confirmed to have purgative, diuretic effects in dogs ... It is a glabrous tender shrub, annual or.

  13. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  14. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  15. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate. PMID:21461214

  16. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate.

  17. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  18. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  19. Studies of radiolabelled preparations in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits are used to investigate the dose-response relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. The relationship can be divided into three phases:- (i) Pharmaceutical, covering the rate of release of the drug from the preparation. (ii) Pharmacokinetic, comprising processes of absorption, distribution and metabolism. (iii) Pharmacodynamic, interaction of the drug with the receptor site. (U.K.)

  20. Combination of opium smoking and hypercholesterolemia augments susceptibility for lethal cardiac arrhythmia and atherogenesis in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafipour, Hamid; Joukar, Siyavash

    2012-09-01

    Opium consumption is increasing in some eastern societies, where it is grown. We investigated the effect of opium smoking on plasma atherogenic index and incidence of lethal cardiac arrhythmia, i.e. ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in rabbits. Animals were divided into two-, normo- and hyper-cholesterolemic main groups fed with normal or high cholesterol diet prior and during short-term and long-term exposure to opium smoke. Then, isoproterenol (3mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce cardiac ischemia and animals were followed for 3h for counting of lethal arrhythmia incidence. Long-term opium smoking significantly increased the plasma atherogenic index. In ischemic hearts, opium smoking along with hypercholesterolemia significantly enhanced the incidence of fatal arrhythmia. This vulnerability was not mediated by changes in QT interval. These data suggest that opium smoking, especially in hypercholesterolemic conditions, can be a predisposing factor for atherogenesis and lethal arrhythmia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Aortic Valve Replacement on Left Ventricular Remodeling in Patients with Severe Aortic Stenosis and Severe Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Bakkali

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of aortic valve replacement on left ventricular function and remodeling among patients with severe aortic stenosis and severe left ventricular dysfunction. Methods: In this retrospective bicentric study extended over a 15-year period, 61 consecutive patients underwent isolated AVR for severe AS associated to reduced LV function. The mean age was 58.21 ± 12.50 years and 83.60 % were men. 70.50% of patients were in class III or IV NYHA. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was 32.9 ± 5.6.The mean LVEDD and LVESD were respectively 63.6 ± 9.2 and 50.2 ± 8.8 mm. The mean calculated logistic EuroScore was 12.2 ±4.5. Results: The hospital mortality was 11.5%. Morbidity was marked mainly by low output syndrome in 40.8% of cases. After a median follow-up of 38 months we have recorded 3 deaths. Almost all survivors were in class I and II of NYHA. The mean LV end-diastolic and end-systolic diameters decreased significantly at late postoperative stage. The mean LV ejection fraction increased significantly from 32.9 ± 5.6 to 38.2 ± 9.3 and to 50.3 ± 9.6 in early and late postoperative stages, respectively. Multivariate linear regression analysis found that increased early postoperative LVEF (β= 0.44, 95% CI [0.14; 0.75], p=0.006 and low mean transprosthesis gradient (β=-0.72, 95% CI [-1.42; -0.02], p= 0.04 were the independent predictors of left ventricular systolic function recovery. Conclusion: Patients with aortic valve stenosis and impaired LV systolic function benefited from AVR as regard improvement of LV function parameters and regression of the LV diameters .This improvement depends mainly on early postoperative LVEF and mean transprosthesis gradient.

  2. Manipulations of core temperatures in ischemia-reperfusion lung injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung; Huang, Kun-Lun; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Ching-Wang; Tsai, Shih-Hung; Chu, Shi-Jye

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of various core temperatures on acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in our isolated rabbit lung model. Typical acute lung injury was successfully induced by 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion observation. The I/R elicited a significant increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, microvascular permeability (measured by using the capillary filtration coefficient, Kfc), Delta Kfc ratio, lung weight gain and the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Mild hypothermia significantly attenuated acute lung injury induced by I/R, all parameters having decreased significantly (p<0.05); conversely, mild hyperthermia did not further exacerbate acute lung injury. These experimental data suggest that mild hypothermia significantly ameliorated acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits.

  3. Swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in China: detection of HEV RNA in feces of farmed and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junke; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Geng, Jiabao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. The positive rates of HEV RNA isolated from pigs in Beijing, Shandong, and Henan were 33%, 30%, and 92%, respectively, and that from rabbits in Beijing was 5%. HEV RNA was not detectable in farmed foxes, sheep or sika deer, or in wild animals in zoos, including wild boars, yaks, camels, Asiatic black bears, African lions, red pandas, civets, wolves, jackals and primates. Sequence analysis revealed that swine isolates had 97.8%-98.4% nucleotide sequence identity to genotype 4d isolates from patients in Shandong and Jiangsu of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that swine HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, including subgenotype 4h in Henan and 4d in Beijing and Shandong. The rabbit HEV strains shared 93%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with rabbit strains isolated from Inner Mongolia. In conclusion, swine and rabbits have been confirmed to be the main reservoirs of HEV in China.

  4. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  5. Ventricular and myocardial scintiscanning: Methodical fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standke, R.; Hoer, G.; Maul, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear cardiology is concerned with non invasive procedures to quantitate global and regional left ventricular function (Radionuclide ventriculography), also the imaging of vitally perfused myocardium (Myocardial scintigraphy) is achieved. A gammacamera and a minicomputer are necessary. Radionuclide ventriculography enables the analysis of global and regional time dependent left ventricular volume curves and hence the evaluation of contraction and contractility of the heart muscle. The basis is a sequence of scans covering an average heartcycle. This sequence may be produced either by first pass or equilibrium technique. Myocardial scintigraphy at rest images vital myocardium, scans immediately after exercise represent the interference of myocardial perfusion and muscle mass. The regional difference (Redistribution) between normalized exercise- and rest scans provide quantitative parameters to detect impairment of exercise-induced myocardial perfusion anomalies. The procedures of sectorial analysis of left ventricular function and myocardial perfusion are presented. (orig.) [de

  6. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C; Pinto, Yigal M

    2003-06-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there are structural changes in myofilaments, disorganization of the cytoskeletal framework and increased collagen synthesis. LVH is associated with progressive left ventricular remodeling that culminates to heart failure. The modern treatment of left ventricular hypertrophy is now largely based on the hypothesis that neuroendocrine activation is important in the progression of the disease and inhibition of neurohormones is likely to have long-term benefit with regard to morbidity and mortality. Drugs specifically designed to unload the left ventricle, such as diuretics and vasodilators, appears to be less effective in reducing LV mass and improving prognosis. Thus, the evolution of treatment for LVH itself has provided much enlightenment for our understanding of the fundamental biology of the disorder.

  7. Oxidized CaMKII (Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II) Is Essential for Ventricular Arrhythmia in a Mouse Model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiongling; Quick, Ann P; Cao, Shuyi; Reynolds, Julia; Chiang, David Y; Beavers, David; Li, Na; Wang, Guoliang; Rodney, George G; Anderson, Mark E; Wehrens, Xander H T

    2018-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients are prone to ventricular arrhythmias, which may be caused by abnormal calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis and elevated reactive oxygen species. CaMKII (Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II) is vital for normal Ca 2+ homeostasis, but excessive CaMKII activity contributes to abnormal Ca 2+ homeostasis and arrhythmias in cardiomyocytes. Reactive oxygen species induce CaMKII to become autonomously active. We hypothesized that genetic inhibition of CaMKII oxidation (ox-CaMKII) in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy can alleviate abnormal Ca 2+ homeostasis, thus, preventing ventricular arrhythmia. The objective of this study was to test if selective loss of ox-CaMKII affects ventricular arrhythmias in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. 5-(6)-Chloromethyl-2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining revealed increased reactive oxygen species production in ventricular myocytes isolated from mdx mice, which coincides with elevated ventricular ox-CaMKII demonstrated by Western blotting. Genetic inhibition of ox-CaMKII by knockin replacement of the regulatory domain methionines with valines (MM-VV [CaMKII M281/282V]) prevented ventricular tachycardia in mdx mice. Confocal calcium imaging of ventricular myocytes isolated from mdx :MM-VV mice revealed normalization of intracellular Ca 2+ release events compared with cardiomyocytes from mdx mice. Abnormal action potentials assessed by optical mapping in mdx mice were also alleviated by genetic inhibition of ox-CaMKII. Knockout of the NADPH oxidase regulatory subunit p47 phox normalized elevated ox-CaMKII, repaired intracellular Ca 2+ homeostasis, and rescued inducible ventricular arrhythmias in mdx mice. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species or ox-CaMKII protects against proarrhythmic intracellular Ca 2+ handling and prevents ventricular arrhythmia in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  9. Relationship between Fibrosis and Ventricular Arrhythmias in Chagas Heart Disease Without Ventricular Dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassi, Eduardo Marinho, E-mail: etassi@ibest.com.br [Instituto de Cardiologia Edson Saad - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Continentino, Marcelo Abramoff [Hospital Frei Galvão, Guaratinguetá, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Emília Matos do; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança [Instituto de Cardiologia Edson Saad - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coppe - Instituto Alberto Luiz Coimbra de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa de Engenharia - UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pedrosa, Roberto Coury [Instituto de Cardiologia Edson Saad - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Patients with Chagas disease and segmental wall motion abnormality (SWMA) have worse prognosis independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is currently the best method to detect SWMA and to assess fibrosis. To quantify fibrosis by using late gadolinium enhancement CMR in patients with Chagas disease and preserved or minimally impaired ventricular function (> 45%), and to detect patterns of dependence between fibrosis, SWMA and LVEF in the presence of ventricular arrhythmia. Electrocardiogram, treadmill exercise test, Holter and CMR were carried out in 61 patients, who were divided into three groups as follows: (1) normal electrocardiogram and CMR without SWMA; (2) abnormal electrocardiogram and CMR without SWMA; (3) CMR with SWMA independently of electrocardiogram. The number of patients with ventricular arrhythmia in relation to the total of patients, the percentage of fibrosis, and the LVEF were, respectively: Group 1, 4/26, 0.74% and 74.34%; Group 2, 4/16, 3.96% and 68.5%; and Group 3, 11/19, 14.07% and 55.59%. Ventricular arrhythmia was found in 31.1% of the patients. Those with and without ventricular arrhythmia had mean LVEF of 59.87% and 70.18%, respectively, and fibrosis percentage of 11.03% and 3.01%, respectively. Of the variables SWMA, groups, age, LVEF and fibrosis, only the latter was significant for the presence of ventricular arrhythmia, with a cutoff point of 11.78% for fibrosis mass (p < 0.001). Even in patients with Chagas disease and preserved or minimally impaired ventricular function, electrical instability can be present. Regarding the presence of ventricular arrhythmia, fibrosis is the most important variable, its amount being proportional to the complexity of the groups.

  10. Relationship between Fibrosis and Ventricular Arrhythmias in Chagas Heart Disease Without Ventricular Dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassi, Eduardo Marinho; Continentino, Marcelo Abramoff; Nascimento, Emília Matos do; Pereira, Basílio de Bragança; Pedrosa, Roberto Coury

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Chagas disease and segmental wall motion abnormality (SWMA) have worse prognosis independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is currently the best method to detect SWMA and to assess fibrosis. To quantify fibrosis by using late gadolinium enhancement CMR in patients with Chagas disease and preserved or minimally impaired ventricular function (> 45%), and to detect patterns of dependence between fibrosis, SWMA and LVEF in the presence of ventricular arrhythmia. Electrocardiogram, treadmill exercise test, Holter and CMR were carried out in 61 patients, who were divided into three groups as follows: (1) normal electrocardiogram and CMR without SWMA; (2) abnormal electrocardiogram and CMR without SWMA; (3) CMR with SWMA independently of electrocardiogram. The number of patients with ventricular arrhythmia in relation to the total of patients, the percentage of fibrosis, and the LVEF were, respectively: Group 1, 4/26, 0.74% and 74.34%; Group 2, 4/16, 3.96% and 68.5%; and Group 3, 11/19, 14.07% and 55.59%. Ventricular arrhythmia was found in 31.1% of the patients. Those with and without ventricular arrhythmia had mean LVEF of 59.87% and 70.18%, respectively, and fibrosis percentage of 11.03% and 3.01%, respectively. Of the variables SWMA, groups, age, LVEF and fibrosis, only the latter was significant for the presence of ventricular arrhythmia, with a cutoff point of 11.78% for fibrosis mass (p < 0.001). Even in patients with Chagas disease and preserved or minimally impaired ventricular function, electrical instability can be present. Regarding the presence of ventricular arrhythmia, fibrosis is the most important variable, its amount being proportional to the complexity of the groups

  11. Left cardiac sympathetic denervation for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Bhuiyan, Zahurul A.; Crotti, Lia; Facchini, Mario; de Ferrari, Gaetano M.; Paul, Thomas; Ferrandi, Chiara; Koolbergen, Dave R.; Odero, Attilio; Schwartz, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia is a potentially lethal disease characterized by adrenergically mediated ventricular arrhythmias manifested especially in children and teenagers. Beta-blockers are the cornerstone of therapy, but some patients do not have a complete response to

  12. Evaluation of right ventricular volumes measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang, J; Stubgaard, M; Thomsen, C

    1988-01-01

    stroke volume was calculated as the difference between end-diastolic and end-systolic volume and compared to left ventricular stroke volume and to stroke volume determined simultaneously by a classical indicator dilution technique. There was good agreement between right ventricular stroke volume......Right ventricular volumes were determined in 12 patients with different levels of right and left ventricular function by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using an ECG gated multisection technique in planes perpendicular to the diastolic position of the interventricular septum. Right ventricular...... determined by MRI and by the indicator dilution method and between right and left ventricular stroke volume determined by MRI. Thus, MRI gives reliable values not only for left ventricular volumes, but also for right ventricular volumes. By MRI it is possible to obtain volumes from both ventricles...

  13. An Incidentally Detected Right Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamsi C. Gaddipati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon, potentially fatal complication that has been associated with myocardial infarction, cardiac surgery, chest trauma, and infectious processes. Diagnosis can be challenging, as cases are rare and slowly progressing and typically lack identifiable features on clinical presentation. As a result, advanced imaging techniques have become the hallmark of identification. Ahead, we describe a patient who presents with acute decompensated heart failure and was incidentally discovered to have a large right ventricular pseudoaneurysm that developed following previous traumatic anterior rib fracture.

  14. Left ventricular performance during psychological stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, D.Z.; Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Dimsdale, J.E.; Moore, R.H.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Fifer, M.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Left ventricular ejection fraction, systolic blood pressure and plasma norepinephrine were measured in six normotensive and six mildly hypertensive subjects during rest and psychological stress. Compared with rest, 8 of the 12 subjects developed significant changes in ejection fraction (increase in 6, decrease in 2); 10 of 12 subjects developed significant elevations of plasma norepinephrine; and all developed significant increases in systolic blood pressure. When the stress effects were examined for the total group, as opposed to within subjects, there were significant increases in plasma norepinephrine and systolic blood pressure but, interestingly, mean ejection fraction and stroke volume remained unchanged, implying stress led to increased left ventricular contractility. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear medical diagnostic with ventricular aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litter, H.

    1987-01-01

    In the diagnostic of ventricular aneurysms myocardial scintigraphy and above all radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) have special importance. Because of the non-invasive method and the as a result safe and easy use even with stress studies, RNV can provide a very valuable aid with aneurysm patients in early diagnosis, evaluation of the operability and as well as in the prognosis. It must be noted, however, that the differentiation of multivascular diseases and sometimes ventricular aneurysms can be difficult and the inclusion of an angiocardiograph as a radiological invasive examination procedure seems fitting. (orig./MG) [de

  16. Bidirectional ventricular tachycardia of unknown etiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Khan, J.A.; Masood, T.; Shamsi, F.; Dero, M.H.; Khan, S.

    2013-01-01

    A 45 years old male presented to the emergency department with palpitations, headache and apprehension. His electrocardiogram revealed bidirectional ventricular tachycardia. He remained vitally stable and responded to intravenous beta-blocker. Initially digitalis toxicity was suspected but history was negative for digitalis intake. The cause remained unidentified in patient despite detailed investigations. During a short follow-up (of 6 months) he remained asymptomatic and no cause was further identified during this period. Some other unseen causes of bidirectional ventricular tachycardia need to be explored. (author)

  17. Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian van der Werf

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT is a rare, potentially lethal inherited arrhythmia syndrome characterized by stress or emotion-induced ventricular arrhythmias. CPVT was first described in 1960, while the genetic basis underlying this syndrome was discovered in 2001. The past decade has seen substantial advances in understanding the pathophysiology of CPVT. In addition, significant advances have been made in elucidating clinical characteristics of CPVT patients and new treatment options have become available. Here, we review current literature on CPVT to present state-of-the-art knowledge on the subject of the genetic basis, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

  18. The management of patients with aortic regurgitation and severe left ventricular dysfunction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badar, Athar A; Brunton, Alan P T; Mahmood, Ammad H; Dobbin, Stephen; Pozzi, Andrea; McMinn, Jenna F; Sinclair, Andrew J E; Gardner, Roy S; Petrie, Mark C; Curry, Phil A; Al-Attar, Nawwar H K; Pettit, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL electronic databases was performed. Original research articles reporting all-cause mortality following surgery in patients with aortic regurgitation and severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) were identified. Nine of the 10 eligible studies were observational, single-center, retrospective analyses. Survival ranged from 86 to 100% at 30 days; 81 to 100% at 1 year and 68 to 84% at 5 years. Three studies described an improvement in mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) following aortic valve replacement (AVR) of 5-14%; a fourth study reported an increase in mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 9% in patients undergoing isolated AVR but not when AVR was combined with coronary artery bypass graft and/or mitral valve surgery. Three studies demonstrated improvements in functional New York Heart Association (NYHA) class following AVR. Additional studies are needed to clarify the benefits of AVR in patients with more extreme degrees of left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) and the potential roles of cardiac transplantation and transaortic valve implantation.

  19. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction and apical aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.D. Oryshchyn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A case report of apical left ventricular aneurysm in patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mid-ventricular obstruction (diagnosis and surgical treatment is presented. We revealed apical aneurysm and mid-ventricular obstruction during echocardiography and specified anatomical characteristics of aneurysm during computer tomography. There was no evidence of obstructive coronary artery disease during coronary angiography. Taking into consideration multiple cerebral infarcts, aneurysm resection and left ventricular plastics was performed. Electronic microscopy of myocardium confirmed the diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

  20. Investigation of the relationship between venticular fibrillation duration and cardiac/neurological damage in a rabbit model of electrically induced arrhythmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chun-Lin; Wei, Hong-Yan; Liu, Zi-You; Li, Xing; Liao, Xiao-Xing; Li, Yu-Jie; Zhan, Hong; Jing, Xiao-Li; Xiong, Yan; Liu, Yan-Yan; Wu, Gui-Fu

    2010-12-01

    To establish a simple, economic, and reliable alternating current (AC)-induced cardiac arrest (ACCA) model in rabbits for cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation research. Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 27 New Zealand rabbits by external transthoracic AC, which were randomly divided into three groups according to the duration of untreated ACCA (ACCA-3 minutes, ACCA-5 minutes, and ACCA-8 minutes). After ACCA, all animals received cardiopulmonary resuscitation for 2 minutes and subsequent defibrillation until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). The troponin I levels were measured at 4 hours after ROSC. Animals died spontaneously or were killed at 72 hours after ROSC. The hippocampus were removed and fixed in 3% formalin. TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling and Nissl stainings were performed in 10-μm thickness coronal sections. Furthermore, two rabbits (without induction of ventricular fibrillation, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and defibrillation) served as normal control group. Mean survival times after ROSC were 48.57 hours ± 24.70 hours, 18.0 hours ± 15.13 hours, and 3.88 hours ± 2.39 hours for groups ACCA-3 minutes, ACCA-5 minutes, and ACCA-8 minutes, respectively. Survival was significantly different between ACCA-3 minutes and other two groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.01). Neuronal necrosis and apoptosis were found in the hippocampus CA1, CA2, and CA3 areas of group ACCA-3 minutes. In contrast, neuronal necrosis and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling positive cells were fewer in control animals. The rabbits in group ACCA-3 minutes had significant neuronal damage with apoptosis in hippocampus CA1, CA2, and CA3 areas at 72 hours after ROSC and survived longer than those in other groups. The model we describe may be a simple, economic, and reliable model for experimental investigation on cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation.

  1. Congestive Heart Failure Leads to Prolongation of the PR Interval and Atrioventricular Junction Enlargement and Ion Channel Remodelling in the Rabbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidou, Theodora; Cai, Xue J.; Stephenson, Robert S.; Yanni, Joseph; Lowe, Tristan; Atkinson, Andrew J.; Jones, Caroline B.; Sardar, Rida; Corno, Antonio F.; Dobrzynski, Halina; Withers, Philip J.; Jarvis, Jonathan C.; Hart, George; Boyett, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure is a major killer worldwide. Atrioventricular conduction block is common in heart failure; it is associated with worse outcomes and can lead to syncope and bradycardic death. We examine the effect of heart failure on anatomical and ion channel remodelling in the rabbit atrioventricular junction (AVJ). Heart failure was induced in New Zealand rabbits by disruption of the aortic valve and banding of the abdominal aorta resulting in volume and pressure overload. Laser micro-dissection and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were employed to investigate the effects of heart failure on ion channel remodelling in four regions of the rabbit AVJ and in septal tissues. Investigation of the AVJ anatomy was performed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Heart failure animals developed first degree heart block. Heart failure caused ventricular myocardial volume increase with a 35% elongation of the AVJ. There was downregulation of HCN1 and Cx43 mRNA transcripts across all regions and downregulation of Cav1.3 in the transitional tissue. Cx40 mRNA was significantly downregulated in the atrial septum and AVJ tissues but not in the ventricular septum. mRNA abundance for ANP, CLCN2 and Navβ1 was increased with heart failure; Nav1.1 was increased in the inferior nodal extension/compact node area. Heart failure in the rabbit leads to prolongation of the PR interval and this is accompanied by downregulation of HCN1, Cav1.3, Cx40 and Cx43 mRNAs and anatomical enlargement of the entire heart and AVJ. PMID:26509807

  2. Congestive Heart Failure Leads to Prolongation of the PR Interval and Atrioventricular Junction Enlargement and Ion Channel Remodelling in the Rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Nikolaidou

    Full Text Available Heart failure is a major killer worldwide. Atrioventricular conduction block is common in heart failure; it is associated with worse outcomes and can lead to syncope and bradycardic death. We examine the effect of heart failure on anatomical and ion channel remodelling in the rabbit atrioventricular junction (AVJ. Heart failure was induced in New Zealand rabbits by disruption of the aortic valve and banding of the abdominal aorta resulting in volume and pressure overload. Laser micro-dissection and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR were employed to investigate the effects of heart failure on ion channel remodelling in four regions of the rabbit AVJ and in septal tissues. Investigation of the AVJ anatomy was performed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. Heart failure animals developed first degree heart block. Heart failure caused ventricular myocardial volume increase with a 35% elongation of the AVJ. There was downregulation of HCN1 and Cx43 mRNA transcripts across all regions and downregulation of Cav1.3 in the transitional tissue. Cx40 mRNA was significantly downregulated in the atrial septum and AVJ tissues but not in the ventricular septum. mRNA abundance for ANP, CLCN2 and Navβ1 was increased with heart failure; Nav1.1 was increased in the inferior nodal extension/compact node area. Heart failure in the rabbit leads to prolongation of the PR interval and this is accompanied by downregulation of HCN1, Cav1.3, Cx40 and Cx43 mRNAs and anatomical enlargement of the entire heart and AVJ.

  3. follow-up of patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was sudden, 1 patient died due to left ventricular failure, and ... Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/ dysplasia .... hypertension and from atrial fibrillation that developed 2.4 .... of left ventricular function was global without regional ..... 99mTc he brain si before a acid (G minute his sem next 3 - his sem showed.

  4. Left Ventricular Geometry In Nigerians With Type II Diabetes Mellitus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy is independently associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, cardiovascular and all cause mortality. In a relatively healthy hypertensive adult population, type II diabetes is associated with higher left ventricular mass, concentric left ventricular geometry and lower ...

  5. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  6. Isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in laboratory settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudratullah; Muhammad, G; Saqib, M; Bilal, M Qamar

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbits and mice. Isolates of P. multocida, S. aureus and Str. agalactiae recovered from field cases of Hemorragic septicemia and mastitis were scrutinized for virulence/pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Mouse LD 50 of P. multocida showed that P. multocida isolate No.1 was more virulent than isolates No. 2 and 3. Virulence of isolate No.1S. aureus and Str. agalactiae revealed that 100, 80% rabbits died within 18h of inoculation. Seven-digit numerical profiles of these 4 isolates with API ® Staph test strips isolates, No.1 (6736153) showed good identification (S. aureus id=90.3%). Indirect ELISA-based serum antibody titers to P. multocida isolate No.1, S. aureus No.1, Str. agalactiae, isolate No.1 elicited high antibody titers 1.9, 1.23, 1.12 respectively. All the pathogens of Isolate No. 1 (P. multocida, S. aureus Str. agalactiae), were high antibody than others isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Flecainide Therapy Reduces Exercise-Induced Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients With Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Christian; Kannankeril, Prince J.; Sacher, Frederic; Krahn, Andrew D.; Viskin, Sami; Leenhardt, Antoine; Shimizu, Wataru; Sumitomo, Naokata; Fish, Frank A.; Bhuiyan, Zahurul A.; Willems, Albert R.; van der Veen, Maurits J.; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Laborderie, Julien; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Knollmann, Björn C.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of flecainide in addition to conventional drug therapy in patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Background CPVT is an inherited arrhythmia syndrome caused by gene mutations that destabilize cardiac

  8. Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Complicating Prolonged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of transient right ventricular dysfunction associated with prolonged cardiac tamponade, an unusual complication of uncertain etiology. We believe that in this case dynamic coronary flow restriction resulted in ischemic injury and stunning of the right ventricle. Other possible causes are briefly reviewed. Right ...

  9. Left ventricular hypertrophy : virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, S; Sharma, UC; Pinto, YM

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis, there

  10. Left ventricular hypertrophy: virtuous intentions, malign consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pokharel, Saraswati; Sharma, Umesh C.; Pinto, Yigal M.

    2003-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is currently the focus of intense cardiovascular research, with the resultant rapid evolution of novel concepts relating to its exceedingly complex pathophysiology. In addition to the alterations in signal transduction and disturbances in Ca(2+) homeostasis, there

  11. Right ventricular myxoma with heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuri, M.M.H.; Naseem, A.; Raza, A.; Ahmad, W.; Raja, M.K.; Ahmad, A.; Rasheed, A.; Gohar, A.

    2005-01-01

    Cardiac myxomas are histologically benign tumors but they may be lethal because of their strategic position. These are mostly located in the left atrium and uncommonly in the right atrium. We report a case of a large right ventricular myxoma presenting with heart failure. (author)

  12. Radionuclide analysis of right and left ventricular response to exercise in patients with atrial and ventricular septal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, C.A.; Bowyer, K.; Jones, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    In patients with ventricular or atrial septal defect, the ventricle which is chronically volume overloaded might not appropriately respond to increased demand for an augmentation in output and thereby might limit total cardiac function. In this study we simultaneously measured right and left ventricular response to exercise in 10 normal individuals, 10 patients with ventricular septal defect (VSD), and 10 patients with atrial septal defect (ASD). The normal subjects increased both right and left ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, and stroke volume to achieve a higher cardiac output during exercise. Patients with VSD failed to increase right ventricular ejection fraction, but increased right ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume. Left ventricular end-diastolic volume did not increase in these patients but ejection fraction, stroke volume, and forward left ventricular output achieved during exercise were comparable to the response observed in healthy subjects. In the patients with ASD, no rest-to-exercise change occurred in either right ventricular ejection fraction, end-diastolic volume, or stroke volume. In addition, left ventricular end-diastolic volume failed to increase, and despite an increase in ejection fraction, left ventricular stroke volume remained unchanged from rest to exercise. Therefore, cardiac output was augmented only by the heart rate increase in these patients. Right ventricular function appeared to be the major determinant of total cardiac output during exercise in patients with cardiac septal defects and left-to-right shunt

  13. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  14. PAPAIN-INDUCED CHANGES IN RABBIT CARTILAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Theodore T.

    1958-01-01

    Some biochemical aspects of the collapse of the rabbit ears produced by the intravenous injection of papain have been studied. A marked depletion of chondromucoprotein (M.C.S.) and a reduction of the S35 content of cartilage matrix were found to coincide with the gross and histologic changes in the cartilage. At the same time there was a marked increase in the amount of S35 in the serum and an increase of S35 and glucuronic acid excreted in the urine. Alteration in the composition of the M.C.S. remaining in the cartilage of the papain-injected animals was detected. The findings indicate that the collapse of the rabbit ears is due to loss of chondromucoprotein from cartilage and reduction of chondroitin sulfate in the chondromucoprotein that remains. All these changes were reversed in recovery. PMID:13575681

  15. [Idiopathic rabbit syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, H; Sasaki, Y; Hatori, K; Tanaka, S; Mizuno, Y

    1999-10-01

    We report a patient with idiopathic oromandibular tremor resembling rabbit syndrome. The patient is a 36-year-old Japanese woman without any past and medical histories. On neurological examination, there was no abnormal finding except the oromandibular tremor. The tremor was confined to the jaw and perioral muscles. There was no extremity tremor. Laboratory findings were all normal, as well as her MRI and EEG. Surface EMG studies revealed that regular grouped discharges at a frequency of about 6 Hz appeared in the masseter, the orbicularis oris, and the digastric, and that the alternative contractions were found between the masseter and the digastric. Oral administration of tiapride was effective, but diazepam, trihexyphenydil, levodopa, and a beta-blocker were without effect. Although she had not taken neuroleptics, the appearance of the tremor was identical to the rabbit syndrome. The efficacy of the dopamine blockade may suggest that an abnormal basal ganglia function contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying this type of tremor.

  16. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  17. Repair of articular cartilage defects by tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with adipose-derived stem cells and acellular cartilaginous matrix in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z J; An, R Z; Zhao, J Y; Zhang, Q; Yang, J; Wang, J B; Wen, G Y; Yuan, X H; Qi, X W; Li, S J; Ye, X C

    2014-06-18

    After injury, inflammation, or degeneration, articular cartilage has limited self-repair ability. We aimed to explore the feasibility of repair of articular cartilage defects with tissue-engineered cartilage constructed by acellular cartilage matrices (ACMs) seeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). The ADSCs were isolated from 3-month-old New Zealand albino rabbit by using collagenase and cultured and amplified in vitro. Fresh cartilage isolated from adult New Zealand albino rabbit were freeze-dried for 12 h and treated with Triton X-100, DNase, and RNase to obtain ACMs. ADSCs were seeded in the acellular cartilaginous matrix at 2x10(7)/mL, and cultured in chondrogenic differentiation medium for 2 weeks to construct tissue-engineered cartilage. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into A, B, and C groups. Engineered cartilage was transplanted into cartilage defect position of rabbits in group A, group B obtained ACMs, and group C did not receive any transplants. The rabbits were sacrificed in week 12. The restored tissue was evaluated using macroscopy, histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the tissue-engineered cartilage group (group A), articular cartilage defects of the rabbits were filled with chondrocyte-like tissue with smooth surface. Immunohistochemistry showed type II-collagen expression and Alcian blue staining was positive. TEM showed chondrocytes in the recesses, with plenty of secretary matrix particles. In the scaffold group (group B), the defect was filled with fibrous tissue. No repaired tissue was found in the blank group (group C). Tissue-engineered cartilage using ACM seeded with ADSCs can help repair articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

  18. Characterization of the functional and anatomical differences in the atrial and ventricular myocardium from three species of elasmobranch fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie; Bushnell, Peter; Steffensen, John

    2017-01-01

    We assessed the functional properties in atrial and ventricular myocardium (using isolated cardiac strips) of smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis), clearnose skate (Raja eglanteria), and sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by blocking Ca2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) with ryanodine...... positive first derivative (i.e., contractility), and increased time to 50 % relaxation in atrial tissue from smooth dogfish at 30 °C. It also increased times to peak force and half relaxation in clearnose skate atrial and ventricular tissue at both temperatures, but only in atrial tissue from sandbar shark...... at 30 °C; indicating that SR involvement in excitation–contraction (EC) coupling is species- and temperature-specific in elasmobranch fishes, as it is in teleost fishes. Atrial and ventricular myocardium from all three species displayed a negative force–frequency relationship, but there was no evidence...

  19. Gender differences in left ventricular structure and function during antihypertensive treatment: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdts, E.; Okin, P.M.; Simone, G. de

    2008-01-01

    . Left ventricular hypertrophy was diagnosed as left ventricular mass divided by height(2.7) >or=46.7 g/m(2.7) and 49.2 g/m(2.7) in women and men, respectively, and systolic function as ejection fraction and stress-corrected midwall fractional shortening. Women included more patients with obesity......, isolated systolic hypertension, and mitral regurgitation (all Pstress-corrected midwall shortening, and prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy were higher in women at baseline and at the end of study (all P... analyses, female gender also predicted 2% higher mean in-treatment ejection fraction and 2% higher mean stress-corrected midwall shortening (both beta=0.07; Pstress-corrected midwall shortening in spite of less...

  20. Hollow mandrin facilitates external ventricular drainage placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heese, O; Regelsberger, J; Kehler, U; Westphal, M

    2005-07-01

    Placement of ventricular catheters is a routine procedure in neurosurgery. Ventricle puncture is done using a flexible ventricular catheter stabilised by a solid steel mandrin in order to improve stability during brain penetration. A correct catheter placement is confirmed after removing the solid steel mandrin by observation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow out of the flexible catheter. Incorrect placement makes further punctures necessary. The newly developed device allows CSF flow observation during the puncture procedure and in addition precise intracranial pressure (ICP) measurement. The developed mandrin is hollow with a blunt tip. On one side 4-5 small holes with a diameter of 0.8 mm are drilled corresponding exactly with the holes in the ventricular catheter, allowing CSF to pass into the hollow mandrin as soon as the ventricle is reached. By connecting a small translucent tube at the distal portion of the hollow mandrin ICP can be measured without loss of CSF. The system has been used in 15 patients with subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) or intraventricular haemeorrhage (IVH) and subsequent hydrocephalus. The new system improved the external ventricular drainage implantation procedure. In all 15 patients catheter placement was correct. ICP measurement was easy to perform immediately at ventricle puncture. In 4 patients at puncture no spontaneous CSF flow was observed, therefore by connecting a syringe and gentle aspiration of CSF correct placement was confirmed in this unexpected low pressure hydrocephalus. Otherwise by using the conventional technique further punctures would have been necessary. Advantages of the new technique are less puncture procedures with a lower risk of damage to neural structures and reduced risk of intracranial haemorrhages. Implantation of the ventricular catheter to far into the brain can be monitored and this complication can be overcome. Using the connected pressure monitoring tube an exact measurement of the opening

  1. Left ventricular function in chronic aortic regurgitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Manno, B.; Amenta, A.; Kane, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Left ventricular performance was determined in 42 patients with moderate or severe aortic regurgitation during upright exercise by measuring left ventricular ejection fraction and volume with radionuclide ventriculography. Classification of the patients according to exercise tolerance showed that patients with normal exercise tolerance (greater than or equal to 7.0 minutes) had a significantly higher ejection fraction at rest (probability [p] . 0.02) and during exercise (p . 0.0002), higher cardiac index at exercise (p . 0.0008) and lower exercise end-systolic volume (p . 0.01) than did patients with limited exercise tolerance. Similar significant differences were noted in younger patients compared with older patients in ejection fraction at rest and exercise (both p . 0.001) and cardiac index at rest (p . 0.03) and exercise (p . 0.0005). The end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise in 60% of the patients. The patients with a decrease in volume were significantly younger and had better exercise tolerance and a larger end-diastolic volume at rest than did patients who showed an increase in volume. The mean corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio was significantly greater in patients with abnormal than in those with normal exercise reserve (mean +/- standard deviation 476 +/- 146 versus 377 +/- 92 mm Hg, p less than 0.05). Thus, in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation: 1) left ventricular systolic function during exercise was related to age, exercise tolerance and corrected left ventricular end-diastolic radius/wall thickness ratio, and 2) the end-diastolic volume decreased during exercise, especially in younger patients and patients with normal exercise tolerance or a large volume at rest

  2. Milkweed control by food imprinted rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducs, Anita; Kazi, Andrea; Bilkó, Ágnes; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2016-09-01

    Many species of invasive plants are spreading out rapidly in Europe. The common milkweed occupies increasingly more area. Being poisonous, most animals will not graze on it however rabbits would be an effective organism for the biological control of milkweed. Rabbit kittens can learn the maternal diet in various ways. They prefer aromatic foods which their mother had eaten during pregnancy or lactation period, -even if it is poisonous- but they can also learn the maternal diet from the fecal pellets deposited by the mother into the nest during the nursing events. The present study was aimed to investigate if rabbit kittens can learn that the common milkweed is a potential food also. In the first 10days of their lives kits got fecal pellets originating from individuals having fed on common milkweed previously. When weaned on day 28 postpartum, these pups preferred the milkweed in the 3-way food choice test, opposite to the control group. Most surprisingly in a second experiment it was also shown that the common milkweed was also preferred by the kittens if their mother ate it not during, but one month before pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  4. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  5. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  6. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  7. Blood Profile of Rabbits Infected with Eimeria magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research aimed at determining the blood profile of local rabbits infected with different dose of Eimeria magna oocysts. This research used 45 male rabbits with the age of 4 month old, range from 1.5 to 1.8 kg, clinically healthy and free from coccidiosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, group I as control (K-0 was given 1.0 ml distilled water/rabbit orally, group II (K-10 was infected with single dose of 10x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally, and group III (K-20 was infected with single dose of 20x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally. After infection, rabbits were examined for clinical signs, body weight and temperature daily for five days. Blood samples were drawn from the vena marginalis to examine the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobine, packed cell volume (PCV, leukocytes and its deferent, total protein plasma (TPP and fibrinogen, activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and aspartat aminotransferase (AST. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way anova using factorial design. The results of this research showed that the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused fever and weight loss, accompanied by normochromic microcytic anemia (at doses of 10x106 oocysts, macrocytic normochromic (at doses of 20x106 oocysts, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, hiperfibrinogenemia, and increased of ALP activity. There were correlations between clinical symptoms and blood profile of rabbits infected with E. magna for five days. The higher the dose and the longer the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused weight loss, increased body temperature, MCV (microcytic to macrocytic, leukocyte, fibrinogen and ALP activity. These findings were useful to have a better understanding of pathophysiology of E. magna infection in  rabbits. Key Words: Eimeria magna, oocyst, rabbit, blood profile A Hana et al/Animal Production 13(3:185-190 (2011

  8. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (GI.2) is replacing endemic strains of RHDV in the Australian landscape within 18 months of its arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Jackie E; Hall, Robyn N; Peacock, David; Kovaliski, John; Piper, Melissa; Mourant, Roslyn; Huang, Nina; Campbell, Susan; Gu, Xingnian; Read, Andrew; Urakova, Nadya; Cox, Tarnya; Holmes, Edward C; Strive, Tanja

    2017-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2; Lagovirus GI.2) is a pathogenic calicivirus that affects European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) and various hare ( Lepus ) species. GI.2 was first detected in France in 2010 and subsequently caused epidemics in wild and domestic lagomorph populations throughout Europe. In May 2015 GI.2 was detected in Australia. Within 18 months of its initial detection GI.2 had spread to all Australian states and territories and rapidly became the dominant circulating strain, replacing Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV/GI.1) in mainland Australia. Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of 127 Australian GI.2 isolates revealed that the virus arrived in Australia at least several months before its initial description and likely circulated unnoticed in wild rabbit populations in the east of the continent prior to its detection. GI.2 sequences isolated from five hares clustered with sequences from sympatric rabbit populations sampled contemporaneously, indicating multiple spillover events into hares rather than an adaptation of the Australian GI.2 to a new host. Since the presence of GI.2 in Australia may have wide ranging consequences for rabbit biocontrol, particularly with the release of the novel biocontrol agent GI.1a/RHDVa-K5 in March 2017, ongoing surveillance is critical to understanding the interactions of the various lagoviruses in Australia, and their impact on host populations. IMPORTANCE This study describes the spread and distribution of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus 2 (GI.2) in Australia since its first detection in May 2015. Within the first 18 months following its detection, RHDV2 spread from east to west across the continent and became the dominant strain in all mainland states of Australia. This has important implications for pest animal management and for owners of pet and farmed rabbits, as there is currently no effective vaccine available in Australia for GI.2. The closely related RHDV (GI.1) is used

  9. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon; Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong

    1999-01-01

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  10. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  11. The Effect of pH on Rabbit Septal Cartilage Shape Change: Exploring the Mechanism of Electromechanical Tissue Reshaping

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy, Lauren E.; Wong, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) involves the application of an electrical current to mechanically deformed cartilage to create sustained tissue shape change. Although EMR may evolve to become an inexpensive and reliable way of producing shape change in cartilage during reconstructive surgery, the precise mechanism of EMR is unknown. We aim to examine the isolated effect of protonation (pH) on shape change in cartilage. Methods: Nasal septal cartilages of rabbits were mechanica...

  12. Genetic characterization of antibiotic resistance in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli carrying extended-spectrum beta-lactamases recovered from diarrhoeic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, P; Radhouani, H; Gonçalves, A; Figueiredo, N; Carvalho, C; Rodrigues, J; Igrejas, G

    2010-05-01

    A total of 52 Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhoeic rabbits were investigated for their enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) pathotype by PCR amplification of eae and bfp virulence genes. A total of 22 EPEC isolates were identified, serotyped and studied for antibiotic resistance and screened for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The EPEC isolates belonged to three serogroups (O26, O92 and O103). The most common serogroup (O103:K-:H2) was observed among 17 EPEC strains, the O92:K-serogroup in three isolates (the antibiotic sensitive ones) and the remaining O26:K-serogroup in two isolates (the ESBLs isolates). Resistances to ampicillin and tetracycline were the most frequent and detected followed by resistance to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cefoxitin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. All the isolates were sensitive for amikacin, ceftazidime, aztreonam, imipenem, chloramphenicol, tobramycin and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. Two isolates recovered from two adult animals showed an intermediate susceptibility to cefotaxime, and a positive screening test for ESBL was demonstrated in both. The bla(TEM) gene was demonstrated in the majority of ampicillin-resistant isolates. The aac(3)-II or aac(3)-IV genes were detected in the four gentamicin-resistant isolates. In addition, the aadA gene was detected in 60% of streptomycin-resistant isolates. The tet(A) or tet(B) genes were identified in all tetracycline-resistant isolates. A total of nine EPEC isolates showed the phenotype SXT-resistant, and the sul1 and/or sul2 and/or sul3 genes were detected in all of them. Our findings showed that the molecular detection by the eae and bfp genes by PCR followed by serotyping is useful for monitoring trends in EPEC infections of rabbits allowing the identification of their possible reservoirs. The detection of genes involved in the resistance to antibiotics of different families in a relatively high proportion of faecal E

  13. Chest wall restriction limits high airway pressure-induced lung injury in young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L A; Peevy, K J; Moise, A A; Parker, J C

    1989-05-01

    High peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) during mechanical ventilation can induce lung injury. In the present study we compare the respective roles of high tidal volume with high PIP in intact immature rabbits to determine whether the increase in capillary permeability is the result of overdistension of the lung or direct pressure effects. New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to one of three protocols, which produced different degrees of inspiratory volume limitation: intact closed-chest animals (CC), closed-chest animals with a full-body plaster cast (C), and isolated excised lungs (IL). The intact animals were ventilated at 15, 30, or 45 cmH2O PIP for 1 h, and the lungs of the CC and C groups were placed in an isolated lung perfusion system. Microvascular permeability was evaluated using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). Base-line Kfc for isolated lungs before ventilation was 0.33 +/- 0.31 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.100g-1 and was not different from the Kfc in the CC group ventilated with 15 cmH2O PIP. Kfc increased by 850% after ventilation with only 15 cmH2O PIP in the unrestricted IL group, and in the CC group Kfc increased by 31% after 30 cmH2O PIP and 430% after 45 cmH2O PIP. Inspiratory volume limitation by the plaster cast in the C group prevented any significant increase in Kfc at the PIP values used. These data indicate that volume distension of the lung rather than high PIP per se produces microvascular damage in the immature rabbit lung.

  14. Echocardiographic left ventricular masses in distance runners and weight lifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J. C.; Gonyea, W. J.; Mitchell, J. H.; Kelly, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    The relationships of different forms of exercise training to left ventricular mass and body mass are investigated by echocardiographic studies of weight lifters, long-distance runners, and comparatively sized untrained control subjects. Left ventricular mass determinations by the Penn convention reveal increased absolute left ventricular masses in long-distance runners and competitive weight lifters with respect to controls matched for age, body weight, and body surface area, and a significant correlation between ventricular mass and lean body mass. When normalized to lean body mass, the ventricular masses of distance runners are found to be significantly higher than those of the other groups, suggesting that dynamic training elevates left ventricular mass compared to static training and no training, while static training increases ventricular mass only to the extent that lean body mass is increased.

  15. Two-dimensional echocardiographic features of right ventricular infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Arcy, B.; Nanda, N.C.

    1982-01-01

    Real-time, two-dimensional echocardiographic studies were performed in 10 patients with acute myocardial infarction who had clinical features suggestive of right ventricular involvement. All patients showed right ventricular wall motion abnormalities. In the four-chamber view, seven patients showed akinesis of the entire right ventricular diaphragmatic wall and three showed akinesis of segments of the diaphragmatic wall. Segmental dyskinetic areas involving the right ventricular free wall were identified in four patients. One patient showed a large right ventricular apical aneurysm. Other echocardiographic features included enlargement of the right ventricle in eight cases, paradoxical ventricular septal motion in seven cases, tricuspid incompetence in eight cases, dilation of the stomach in four cases and localized pericardial effusion in two cases. Right ventricular infarction was confirmed by radionuclide methods in seven patients, at surgery in one patient and at autopsy in two patients

  16. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage could be a risk for development of clinical infections in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selva Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although nasal carriage has been described as a risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infections in humans, there is a scarcity of studies about S. aureus nasal carriers in animals. In rabbits, S. aureus is one of the most important pathogens responsible for a number of different types of infections. This study was designed to determine the extent of staphylococcal nasal carriage and to establish whether a relationship exists between nasal carriage and development of lesions. One hundred and sixteen rabbits with and without chronic signs of staphylococcosis from 6 industrial rabbitries were monitored. Nasal swabs for microbiological assessments were obtained from all animals. Microbiological results showed that 56% of the animals carried S. aureus in their nasal cavities with significantly higher incidence in animals with staphylococcal-related lesions (84.2% compared to apparently healthy animals (28.8%. Additionally, the S. aureus strains isolated from the nasal cavity and lesions were clonally related in 91.7% of animals. This suggests that nasal carriage of S. aureus in rabbits could be a risk for development of clinical infections.

  17. An in vivo system for directed experimental evolution of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robyn N; Capucci, Lorenzo; Matthaei, Markus; Esposito, Simona; Kerr, Peter J; Frese, Michael; Strive, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    The calicivirus Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is widely used in Australia as a biocontrol agent to manage wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. However, widespread herd immunity limits the effectiveness of the currently used strain, CAPM V-351. To overcome this, we developed an experimental platform for the selection and characterisation of novel RHDV strains. As RHDV does not replicate in cell culture, variant viruses were selected by serially passaging a highly virulent RHDV field isolate in immunologically naïve laboratory rabbits that were passively immunised 18-24 hours post-challenge with a neutralising monoclonal antibody. After seven passages, two amino acid substitutions in the P2 domain of the capsid protein became fixed within the virus population. Furthermore, a synonymous substitution within the coding sequence of the viral polymerase appeared and was also maintained in all subsequent passages. These findings demonstrate proof-of-concept that RHDV evolution can be experimentally manipulated to select for virus variants with altered phenotypes, in this case partial immune escape.

  18. Immunopurification of the suppressor tRNA dependent rabbit β-globin readthrough protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, D.; Thorgeirsson, S.S.; Copeland, T.D.; Oroszlan, S.; Bustin, M.

    1988-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the rabbit β-globin readthrough protein is the only known example of a naturally occurring readthrough protein which does not involve a viral system. To provide an efficient means for its isolation, detection, and study, the authors elicited specific antibodies against this unique protein. The 22 amino acid peptide corresponding to the readthrough portion of this protein was synthesized, coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and injected into sheep. Specific antibodies to the peptide were produced as demonstrated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique and by immunoblotting. The antibodies did not react with globin. The rabbit β-globin readthrough protein was separated from globin and other reticulocyte proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining or by labeling with [ 35 S] methionine. Incorporation of [ 35 S] methionine into the readthrough protein was significantly enhanced upon addition of an opal suppressor tRNA to reticulocyte lysates. Immunoblotting revealed that the readthrough protein also occurs in lysates without added suppressor tRNA. The antibodies were purified on an affi-gel column which had been coupled with the peptide antigen. The readthrough protein was then purified from reticulocytes by immunoaffinity chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results provide conclusive evidence that the β-globin readthrough protein is naturally occurring in rabbit reticulocytes

  19. Effect of fiber source on cecal fermentation and nitrogen recycled through cecotrophy in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J; Carabaño, R; Pérez-Alba, L; de Blas, J C

    2000-03-01

    The influence of fiber source on fiber digestion in rabbits was investigated. Six fibrous feedstuffs with wide differences in chemical composition and particle size were selected: paprika meal, olive leaves, alfalfa hay, soybean hulls, sodium hydroxide-treated barley straw, and sunflower hulls. Six diets were formulated to contain one of these ingredients as the sole source of fiber. To avoid nutrient imbalances, fiber sources were supplemented with different proportions of a fiber-free concentrate, based on soy protein isolate, wheat flour, lard, and a vitamin and mineral mix, to obtain diets containing at least 3% nitrogen and 5% starch. Daily soft feces excretion, and its NDF, and total and microbial nitrogen content were determined in 60 fattening rabbits (10 per diet). Seven days after the last cecotrophy control, the same animals were used to determine weight of stomach, cecum and their contents, and cecal fermentation traits (pH, VFA and ammonia concentrations, and buffer properties of cecal contents). Stepwise regression analysis showed a positive effect (P 1.25 mm). Degree of lignification of NDF decreased total nitrogen concentration in soft feces and cecal VFA concentration (P lignification of NDF, and base-buffering capacity of dry cecal contents (r = -.52, -.37, and -.49, respectively). From these results, we conclude that pectic constituent concentration, degree of lignification of NDF, and particle size are the variables that best characterize the influence of the source of fiber on soft feces excretion and cecal fermentation traits in rabbits.

  20. Intravascular application of electrocautery in a rabbit model of abdominal aortic endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xin, Yi; Li, Na; Li, Diankun; Li, Jingxing; Gu, Chengxiong

    2017-07-01

    Effective therapies for preventing perioperative complications such as thrombosis and inflammation after coronary endarterectomy (CE) are lacking. Electrocoagulation electrotomes have been routinely used in surgery for their cutting, clotting, and hemostatic properties. As strong flattening tools, their electrocautery function may prevent mechanical intimal-adventitial injury to arterial circulation and attenuate stenosis. The present study investigated the effects of intravascular application of electrocautery on ameliorating inflammation and thrombosis in a rabbit model of abdominal aortic endarterectomy. New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the sham, control (endarterectomy), and study (endarterectomy + electrocautery) groups with 10 in each group. Abdominal aortas were partially blocked and intima was removed. Electrocautery was performed with an electrocoagulation electrotome through the entire blocked vessel lumen. Vascular ultrasound parameters, molecular biological and histological characteristics of the abdominal aorta including vascular diameter, blood flow velocity, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis rate of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) were evaluated postoperatively by vascular Doppler ultrasound, ELISA, real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence at various time points. Compared with the endarterectomy + electrocautery group, the isolated endarterectomy group had significantly increased levels and gene expression of TNF-α and IL-6 (Pelectrocautery has favorable short-term effects on the abdominal aorta and can reduce inflammation in a rabbit model of abdominal aorta endarterectomy. Long-term anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects on arterial remodeling and the clinical value of electrocautery in CE remain to be determined.

  1. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  2. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  3. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  4. COMPOSTING OF RABBIT MORTALITIES IMPLEMENTD IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AT CHAPINGO AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jerónimo-Romero; L.A. Miranda-Romero; L.A. Saavedra-Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of composting rabbit carcasses with various substrates, six treatments were established according to the substrate used: oat straw-rabbit manure-dead rabbit (PAEC), wood shavings- rabbit manure- dead rabbit (EVC) and oat straw-dead rabbit (PAC), with or without the addition of 0.3 % ( v / w) mixed microbial inoculum consisting of Streptomyces spp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp. Temperature, pH, dry matter (DM ), moisture, organic matter (OM), ash and ...

  5. The Role of Serotonin in Ventricular Repolarization in Pregnant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Shanyu; Park, Hyewon; Park, Hyelim; Mun, Dasom; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyoeun; Yun, Nuri; Kim, Hail; Kim, Michael; Pak, Hui Nam; Lee, Moon Hyoung; Joung, Boyoung

    2018-03-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization abnormalities during pregnancy are not fully understood. Although maternal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) production is an important determinant for normal fetal development in mice, its role in mothers remains unclear. We evaluated the role of serotonin in ventricular repolarization in mice hearts via 5Htr3 receptor (Htr3a) and investigated the mechanism of QT-prolongation during pregnancy. We measured current amplitudes and the expression levels of voltage-gated K⁺ (Kv) channels in freshly-isolated left ventricular myocytes from wild-type non-pregnant (WT-NP), late-pregnant (WT-LP), and non-pregnant Htr3a homozygous knockout mice (Htr3a(-/-)-NP). During pregnancy, serotonin and tryptophan hydroxylase 1, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of serotonin, were markedly increased in hearts and serum. Serotonin increased Kv current densities concomitant with the shortening of the QT interval in WT-NP mice, but not in WT-LP and Htr3a(-/-)-NP mice. Ondansetron, an Htr3 antagonist, decreased Kv currents in WT-LP mice, but not in WT-NP mice. Kv4.3 directly interacted with Htr3a, and this binding was facilitated by serotonin. Serotonin increased the trafficking of Kv4.3 channels to the cellular membrane in WT-NP. Serotonin increases repolarizing currents by augmenting Kv currents. Elevated serotonin levels during pregnancy counterbalance pregnancy-related QT prolongation by facilitating Htr3-mediated Kv currents. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018

  6. Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery in severe left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarfarin, Rasoul; Pourafkari, Leili; Parvizi, Rezayat; Alizadehasl, Azin; Mahmoodian, Roghaiyeh

    2010-02-01

    Our aim was to examine hospital outcomes of coronary artery bypass surgery in patients with and without left ventricular dysfunction, with regard to the surgical technique (off- or on-pump). Between March 2007 and March 2008, 689 consecutive patients underwent isolated first-time coronary artery bypass; 127 had ejection fractions fractions >30% (group 2). Data of preoperative risk profiles and hospital outcomes were collected prospectively. Off-pump operations were performed in 49 (38.6%) patients in group 1 and 196 (34.9%) in group 2. The incidences of infectious, neurologic, and cardiac complications postoperatively were significantly higher in group 1. In multivariate analysis, preoperative ejection fraction operations, but no significant difference in mortality was observed between those undergoing off-pump or conventional surgery in either group. Off-pump surgery helped to limit the increased morbidity rate after coronary bypass in patients with ventricular dysfunction.

  7. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  8. Purification and properties of a ribosomal casein kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    A casein kinase was isolated and purifed from rabbit reticulocytes. About 90% of the enzyme activity co-sedimented with the ribosomal fraction, whereas about 10% of the enzyme activity was found in the ribosome-free supernatant. Both casein kinases (the ribosome-bound enzyme as well as the free...... suggested that the casein kinase is a dimer composed of subunits of identical molecular weight. The enzyme utilizes GTP as well as ATP as a phosphoryl donor. It preferentially phosphorylates acidic proteins, in particular the model substrates casein and phosvitin. Casein kinase is cyclic AMP...

  9. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  10. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  11. Mechanical deformation and glycosaminoglycan content changes in a rabbit annular puncture disc degeneration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Deva D; Khan, Safdar N; Ye, Xiaojing; Curtiss, Shane B; Gupta, Munish C; Klineberg, Eric O; Neu, Corey P

    2011-08-15

    Evaluation of degenerated intervertebral discs from a rabbit annular puncture model by using specialized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including displacement encoding with stimulated echoes and a fast-spin echo (DENSE-FSE) acquisition and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC). To evaluate a rabbit disc degeneration model by using various MRI techniques. To determine the displacements and strains, spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) distribution of degenerated discs as compared to normal and adjacent level discs. Annular puncture of the intervertebral disc produces disc degeneration in rabbits. DENSE-FSE has been previously demonstrated in articular cartilage for the measurement of soft tissue displacements and strains. MRI also can measure the T1 of tissue, and dGEMRIC can quantify GAG concentration in cartilage. METHODS.: In eight New Zealand white rabbits, the annulus fibrosis of a lumbar disc was punctured. After 4 weeks, the punctured and cranially adjacent motion segments were isolated for MRI and histology. MRI was used to estimate the disc volume and map T1. DENSE-FSE was used to determine displacements for the estimation of strains. dGEMRIC was then used to determine GAG distributions. Histology and standard MRI indicated degeneration in punctured discs. Disc volume increased significantly at 4 weeks after the puncture. Displacement of the nucleus pulposus was distinct from that of the annulus fibrosis in most untreated discs but not in punctured discs. T1 was significantly higher and GAG concentration significantly lower in punctured discs compared with untreated adjacent level discs. Noninvasive and quantitative MRI techniques can be used to evaluate the mechanical and biochemical changes that occur with animal models of disc degeneration. DENSE-FSE, dGEMRIC, and similar techniques have potential for evaluating the progression of disc degeneration and the efficacy of treatments.

  12. Development of IgY antibodies in chickens and IgG in rabbits immunized against proteins of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses in the state of Rio de Janeiro Desenvolvimento de Anticorpos IgY em galinhas e IgG em coelhos imunizados contra proteínas de Pythium insidiosum isolado de equinos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fabíola Nunes Rangel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythiosis is caused by Pythium insidiosum and the occurrence of disease in horses was described in the North and Northwest State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The disease was described in cattle, sheep, humans, and horses in different states and regions across the country. This paper describes the development of IgY and IgG polyclonal antibodies, in chicken and rabbits, respectively against proteins extracted from kunkers and hyphae of P. insidiosum from affected horses. The proteins were recognized by chicken, rabbit and horse antibodies by immunodiffusion and Western blot against majority bands of 27 and 43 KDa, and titrated by ELISA. The antibodies IgY developed by the first time against Brazilian strains of P. insidiosum may represent a valuable tool in the detection of antigens of the pathogen and contribute to further studies aimed at immunotherapy and knowledge about this disease in endemic areas in Rio de Janeiro and in Brazil.Pitiose é causada por Pythium insidiosum e a doença foi descrita em equinos no Norte e Noroeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A doença foi descrita em bovinos, ovelhas, humanos e cavalos em diferentes estados e regiões do país. Este trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de anticorpos policlonais, IgY e IgG, em galinha e coelho, respectivamente, contra proteínas extraídas de kunkers e hifas de P. insidiosum de cavalos doentes. As proteínas foram reconhecidas por anticorpos de galinha, coelho e cavalos contra as bandas majoritárias de 27 e 34 KDa em imunodifusão e Western blot tituladas por ELISA. Os anticorpos IgY desenvolvidos pela primeira vez contra cepas brasileiras de P. insidiosum podem representar um valioso instrumento na detecção de antígenos de patógenos e contribuem para novos estudos baseados na imunoterapia e no entendimento sobre esta doença em áreas endêmicas no Rio de Janeiro e em todo o país.

  13. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  14. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  15. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described.

  16. [Ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, K.; Christensen, A.H.; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    2008-01-01

    by disease, gender, age, previous cardiac arrest and treatment with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). RESULTS: 993 patients were screened and 128 patients with cardiomyopathy were identified, corresponding to 13% of the screened patients. 58 (45%) of the patients had dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM......), 57 (45%) patients had arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and 13 (10%) had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). The average age was 44 years for HCM, 41 years for ARVC and 58 years for DCM. The majority of the patients were male. ICD treatment was used in 95% of the patients...... with ARVC, 70% of the patients with HCM and 59% of the patients with DCM. Only 5 patients had previous cardiac arrest without reversible cause. CONCLUSION: The study shows that cardiomyopathies are relatively frequent causes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients discharged from a specialised...

  17. Detection of left ventricular thrombi by computerised tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, C.K.; Sketch, M.H.; Mahoney, P.D.; Lynch, J.D.; Mooss, A.N.; Kenney, N.P.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen patients suspected of having left ventricular mural thrombi were studied. All had suffered transmural myocardial infarction. Fifteen patients had a ventricular aneurysm. One had had systemic emboli. The mean length of time between the myocardial infarction and the study was 14.8 months, with a range of one month to 79 months. All patients underwent computerised tomography of the heart, M-mode echocardiography (M-mode), and two-dimensional echocardiography (2-D). Eight patients underwent left ventricular cineangiography. Five patients had surgical confirmation. Computerised tomography, two-dimensional, and M-mode echocardiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in 10, eight, and one of the 16 patients, respectively. Left ventricular cineangiography predicted left ventricular mural thrombi in four out of eight patients. Computerised tomography and left ventricular cineangiography correctly predicted the presence or absence of left ventricular thrombi in all five patients who underwent operation. In the same group, however, two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography failed to predict the presence of thrombi in one and three patients, respectively. Among the 11 patients without surgical confirmation, one, in whom no left ventricular thrombi were shown by M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiography, was found to have thrombi on computerised tomography. In another, two-dimensional echocardiography was positive but this finding was not confirmed either by computerised tomography or by left ventricular angiography. (author)

  18. Amiodarone for the treatment and prevention of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Van Herendael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Van Herendael, Paul DorianDivision of Cardiology, St. Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Amiodarone has emerged as the leading antiarrhythmic therapy for termination and prevention of ventricular arrhythmia in different clinical settings because of its proven efficacy and safety. In patients with shock refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and hemodynamically destabilizing ventricular arrhythmia, amiodarone is the most effective drug available to assist in resuscitation. Although the superiority of the transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD over amiodarone has been well established in the preventive treatment of patients at high risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, amiodarone (if used with a beta-blocker is the most effective antiarrhythmic drug to prevent ICD shocks and treat electrical storm. Both the pharmacokinetics and the electrophysiologic profile of amiodarone are complex, and its optimal and safe use requires careful patient surveillance with respect to potential adverse effects.Keywords: amiodarone, ventricular fibrillation, unstable ventricular tachycardia

  19. Left Ventricular Myocardial Function in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: Relation to Right Ventricular Performance and Hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Dale A; Slorach, Cameron; Patel, Sonali S; Redington, Andrew N; Ivy, D Dunbar; Mertens, Luc; Younoszai, Adel K; Friedberg, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that LV strain/strain rate, surrogate measures of myocardial contractility, are reduced in pediatric PH and relate to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional measures of PH. At 2 institutions, echocardiography was prospectively performed in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization, and in 54 matched controls. Patients with PH had reduced LV global longitudinal strain (LS; -18.8 [-17.3 to -20.4]% versus -20.2 [-19.0 to -20.9]%; P=0.0046) predominantly because of reduced basal (-12.9 [-10.8 to -16.3]% versus -17.9 [-14.5 to -20.7]%; Pright ventricular free-wall LS (r=0.64; PBrain natriuretic peptide levels correlated moderately with septal LS (r=0.48; P=0.0038). PH functional class correlated moderately with LV free-wall LS (r=-0.48; P=0.0051). The septum, shared between ventricles and affected by septal shift, was the most affected LV region in PH. Pediatric PH patients demonstrate reduced LV strain/strain rate, predominantly within the septum, with relationships to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional PH measures. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. The helical ventricular myocardial band: global, three-dimensional, functional architecture of the ventricular myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocica, Mladen J; Corno, Antonio F; Carreras-Costa, Francesc; Ballester-Rodes, Manel; Moghbel, Mark C; Cueva, Clotario N C; Lackovic, Vesna; Kanjuh, Vladimir I; Torrent-Guasp, Francisco

    2006-04-01

    We are currently witnessing the advent of new diagnostic tools and therapies for heart diseases, but, without serious scientific consensus on fundamental questions about normal and diseased heart structure and function. During the last decade, three successive, international, multidisciplinary symposia were organized in order to setup fundamental research principles, which would allow us to make a significant step forward in understanding heart structure and function. Helical ventricular myocardial band of Torrent-Guasp is the revolutionary new concept in understanding global, three-dimensional, functional architecture of the ventricular myocardium. This concept defines the principal, cumulative vectors, integrating the tissue architecture (i.e. form) and net forces developed (i.e. function) within the ventricular mass. Here we expose the compendium of Torrent-Guasp's half-century long functional anatomical investigations in the light of ongoing efforts to define the integrative approach, which would lead to new understanding of the ventricular form and function by linking across multiple scales of biological organization, as defined in ongoing Physiome project. Helical ventricular myocardial band of Torrent-Guasp may also, hopefully, allow overcoming some difficulties encountered in contemporary efforts to create a comprehensive mathematical model of the heart.

  1. Assessment of left ventricular global function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuel, H.-P.; Baehre, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide ventriculography (RNV), i.e. noninvasive evaluation of left venticular performance following the application of radionuclides has had a major impact on many aspects of cardiology and has proven its clinical value and reliability in the last few years. This article deals mainly with the changes in global left ventricular function. The clinical applications of RNV for coronary artery diseases and valvular heart diseases are described. (Auth.)

  2. Left ventricular heart failure and pulmonary hypertension†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Stephan; Gibbs, J. Simon R.; Wachter, Rolf; De Marco, Teresa; Vonk-Noordegraaf, Anton; Vachiéry, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In patients with left ventricular heart failure (HF), the development of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are frequent and have important impact on disease progression, morbidity, and mortality, and therefore warrant clinical attention. Pulmonary hypertension related to left heart disease (LHD) by far represents the most common form of PH, accounting for 65–80% of cases. The proper distinction between pulmonary arterial hypertension and PH-LHD may be challenging, yet it has direct therapeutic consequences. Despite recent advances in the pathophysiological understanding and clinical assessment, and adjustments in the haemodynamic definitions and classification of PH-LHD, the haemodynamic interrelations in combined post- and pre-capillary PH are complex, definitions and prognostic significance of haemodynamic variables characterizing the degree of pre-capillary PH in LHD remain suboptimal, and there are currently no evidence-based recommendations for the management of PH-LHD. Here, we highlight the prevalence and significance of PH and RV dysfunction in patients with both HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and provide insights into the complex pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary interaction in LHD, which may lead to the evolution from a ‘left ventricular phenotype’ to a ‘right ventricular phenotype’ across the natural history of HF. Furthermore, we propose to better define the individual phenotype of PH by integrating the clinical context, non-invasive assessment, and invasive haemodynamic variables in a structured diagnostic work-up. Finally, we challenge current definitions and diagnostic short falls, and discuss gaps in evidence, therapeutic options and the necessity for future developments in this context. PMID:26508169

  3. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using

  4. Do right-ventricular trabeculae gain energetic advantage from having a greater velocity of shortening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Toan; Han, June-Chiew; Taberner, Andrew; Loiselle, Denis

    2017-10-15

    We designed a study to test whether velocity of shortening in right-ventricular tissue preparations is greater than that of the left side under conditions mimicking those encountered by the heart in vivo. Our experiments allowed us to explore whether greater velocity of shortening results in any energetic advantage. We found that velocity of shortening was higher in the rat right-ventricular trabeculae. These results at the tissue level seem paradoxical to the velocity of ventricular ejection at the organ level, and are not always in accord with shortening of unloaded cells. Despite greater velocity of shortening in right-ventricular trabeculae, they neither gained nor lost advantage with respect to both mechanical efficiency and the heat generated during shortening. Our study aimed to ascertain whether the interventricular difference of shortening velocity, reported for isolated cardiac tissues in vitro, affects interventricular mechano-energetic performance when tested under physiological conditions using a shortening protocol designed to mimic those in vivo. We isolated trabeculae from both ventricles of the rat, mounted them in a calorimeter, and performed experiments at 37°C and 5 Hz stimulus frequency to emulate conditions of the rat heart in vivo. Each trabecula was subjected to two experimental protocols: (i) isotonic work-loop contractions at a variety of afterloads, and (ii) isometric contractions at a variety of preloads. Velocity of shortening was calculated from the former protocol during the isotonic shortening phase of the contraction. Simultaneous measurements of force-length work and heat output allowed calculation of mechanical efficiency. The shortening-dependent thermal component was quantified from the difference in heat output between the two protocols. Our results show that both extent of shortening and velocity of shortening were higher in trabeculae from the right ventricle. Despite these differences, trabeculae from both ventricles

  5. Ventricular enlargement in patients with affective disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murashita, Jun; Kato, Tadafumi; Shioiri, Toshiki; Hamakawa, Inubushi, Toshiro; Hiroshi; Takahashi, Saburo

    1994-01-01

    Ventricular enlargement was determined using linear measurement on MR images in a total of 71 patients with affective disorders, including bipolar affective disorder (41) and depression (30). Fourty-one healthy persons served as controls. Evans ratio, Huckman number and minimum distance of caudate nuclei (MDCN) were used as indices for ventricular enlargment. No significant difference in Evans ratio was observed between both the group of bipolar affective disorder and the group of depression and the control group. Nor did it correlate with age in any of the groups. Huckman number was significantly higher in the group of bipolar affective disorder than the other two groups. It positively correlated with age in the group of depression. MDCN was significantly increased in the group of bipolar affective disorder, as compared with the control group; and there was a positive correlation between MDCN and age in both the group of dipolar affective disorder and the group of depression. In conclusion, ventricular enlargement was dependent upon aging in affetive disorder patients. This tendency was more noticeable in the group of depression. In addition, atrophy of the caudate nuclei was likely to be severer in the group of dipolar affective disorder than the group of depression. (N.K.)

  6. Identification of rabbit annulus fibrosus-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available Annulus fibrosus (AF injuries can lead to substantial deterioration of intervertebral disc (IVD which characterizes degenerative disc disease (DDD. However, treatments for AF repair/regeneration remain challenging due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of AF tissue at cellular, biochemical, and biomechanical levels. In this study, we isolated and characterized a sub-population of cells from rabbit AF tissue which formed colonies in vitro and could self-renew. These cells showed gene expression of typical surface antigen molecules characterizing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, including CD29, CD44, and CD166. Meanwhile, they did not express negative markers of MSCs such as CD4, CD8, and CD14. They also expressed Oct-4, nucleostemin, and SSEA-4 proteins. Upon induced differentiation they showed typical osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis potential. Together, these AF-derived colony-forming cells possessed clonogenicity, self-renewal, and multi-potential differentiation capability, the three criteria characterizing MSCs. Such AF-derived stem cells may potentially be an ideal candidate for DDD treatments using cell therapies or tissue engineering approaches.

  7. Purification of dihydropyridine receptor from rabbit skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, N.; Vaghy, P.; Schwartz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP)receptor was purified from T-tubules isolated from freeze-thawed rabbit skeletal muscle after French press treatment of microsomal membranes. DHP receptor was labeled with 25 nM [ 3 H]-(+)-PN-200-110 (PN, one of the most potent Ca-antagonists) and solubilized with 1% digitonin. The solubilized receptor was purified in the presence of protease inhibitors (0.1 mM PMSF, 1 mM iodoacetamide, 1μM pepstatin A, 1 mg/l antipain and 0.2 mM o-phenanthroline) using WGA-Sepharose and DEAE-Biogel A column chromatography as well as sucrose density gradient (SDG) centrifugation. The pooled fractions of the SDG had a maximum binding of 590 pmol/mg protein even without correcting for dissociation of PN from the receptors during purification. On SDS-PAGE, a single major band (191 K dalton) was shown both in presence and absence of 20 mM N-ethyl maleimide. However, two major (145 and 103 K dalton) a few minor bands (55,46,32 and 31K dalton) were obtained if the fraction was treated with 20 mM dithiothreitol prior to electrophoresis. The authors data suggest that 191 and 145 k dalton proteins correspond to the α-subunit of the DHP receptor as reported by Curtis and Catterall

  8. [The speed of nerve-conduction after micro-surgical suture of the tibial nerve of the rabbit (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, M; Mellerowicz, H; Werhahn, C

    1975-10-01

    Isolated division of the tibial nerve in the thigh preserving the peroneal and sural nerves does not cause loss of normal position of the animal, in particular of sitting. Nor does it lead to pressure sores. The animals are fitter then after division of the sciatic nerve. Microsurgical suture of the isolated tibial nerve in the thigh of the rabbit with 1 or 2 simple sutures with 10 x 0 thread show that an average recovery can be achieved in over 80 per cent. As few sutures as possible should be used. Otherwise there with be scarring and no return of function.

  9. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  10. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  11. the assessment of fasciola gigantica infection in the rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the rabbit was assessed as a laboratory host for the helminthes parasite, Fasciola gigantica. Three groups of rabbits were Infected experimentally with 5, 10 end 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica respectively. Clinical signs found included pale mucous membrane, progressive emaciation and rough hair coat.

  12. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  13. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  14. Experimental study on lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve allografts in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Sun Shiquan; Liu Hechen

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve grafts in rabbits were used in allogeneic nerve transplantation. The result show that about 76% of experimental rabbits had fairly well morphologic (microscopic and electron microscopic) and electrophysiological recovery 3 month after operation. Preservation of neurilemmal tubes in nerve grafts, repopulation of Schwann cells in this tube and suppression of immune rejection are the key points in allogeneic nerve transplantation

  15. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K

    2008-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 6 healthy adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits. Physical examinations and plasma biochemical analyses were performed to ensure rabbits were healthy prior to the experiment. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and IV catheters were placed in a medial saphenous or jugular vein for collection of blood samples. One blood sample was collected before treatment with tramadol. Rabbits were allowed to recover from anesthesia a minimum of 1 hour before treatment. Then, tramadol (11 mg/kg, PO) was administered once, and blood samples were collected at various time points up to 360 minutes after administration. Blood samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol). No adverse effects were detected after oral administration of tramadol to rabbits. Mean +/- SD half-life of tramadol after administration was 145.4 +/- 81.0 minutes; mean +/- SD maximum plasma concentration was 135.3 +/- 89.1 ng/mL. Although the dose of tramadol required to provide analgesia in rabbits is unknown, the dose administered in the study reported here did not reach a plasma concentration of tramadol or O-desmethyltramadol that would provide sufficient analgesia in humans for clinically acceptable periods. Many factors may influence absorption of orally administered tramadol in rabbits.

  16. Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits | Gomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two 3 year-old, healthy, client-owned Lop rabbits presented with bilateral cataracts. After performing a physical examination, bloodwork, ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography, both animals were deemed good surgical candidates for phacoemulsification. Bilateral cataract surgery was performed and both rabbits ...

  17. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a degradable and a non-degradable material for guided bone regeneration. Forty rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Bicortical defects 15 mm in diameter were prepared in rabbit calvaria. A titanium microplate was placed over the defect to prevent collapse...

  18. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  19. Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit: Histopathological Perspective. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... 60 and 90 days in the albino (n=10) and pigmented (n=22) rabbits, with mean weight value of 1.40 ± 0.44kg and mean age value of 9.0 ± 0.25 months were investigated in the ...

  20. Optimum rabbit density over fish ponds to optimise Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although previous studies have suggested that rabbit excreta can be used as high-quality manure for sustaining plankton production due to their gradual nutrient release, integrated rabbit–fish production systems are still not widely used. Between 2006 and 2010 optimal rabbit densities for sustainable integrated rabbit–Nile ...

  1. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  2. Growth response of rabbits fed graded levels of processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of processed and undehulled sunflower seed (PUSS) as feed supplement, on the performance of growing rabbits was studied.The eight weeks feeding trial involving twenty four, six weeks old male and female New Zealand white rabbits weighing 600-650g in a completely randomized design were feed three ...

  3. Environmental bacteria associated with an institutional rabbit house ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is the need for regular microbiological surveillance to protect our growing rabbitaries and the rabbit models in biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when the rabbits are exposed to stress conditions. Above all the importance of good hygiene and management in rabbitaries ...

  4. Haematology and serum profile of rabbits due to generation interval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of ninety-six (96) weaner rabbits (Chinchilla and New Zealand White crossbred) were used for this study and were divided into forty-eight (48) per generation. These fortyeight weaner rabbits were further divided into three replicates of four males (12) and four females each (12) housed in cage (24) and deep litter ...

  5. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals. A total number of 12 mixed bred rabbits weighing. 3.5 ± 0.5 kg were selected. Then, the necessary blood and parasite analysis as well as clinical ..... 8. Flecknell PA, Ed. BSAVA manual of rabbit medicine and surgery. London: British Small Animal Veterinary. Association; 2000; pp 30-31, 106. 9. Ji Y, Gao H, Zhang ...

  6. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  7. Evolutionary morphology of the rabbit skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kraatz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt. Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in leporids, and here we use an extensive 3D geometric morphometrics dataset to further explore what influences leporid cranial diversity. Facial tilt angle, a trait that strongly correlates with locomotor mode, significantly predicts the cranial shape variation captured by the primary axis of cranial shape space, and describes a small proportion (13.2% of overall cranial shape variation in the clade. However, locomotor mode does not correlate with overall cranial shape variation in the clade, because there are two district morphologies of generalist species, and saltators and cursorial species have similar morphologies. Cranial shape changes due to phyletic size change (evolutionary allometry also describes a small proportion (12.5% of cranial shape variation in the clade, but this is largely driven by the smallest living leporid, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis. By integrating phylogenetic history with our geometric morphometric data, we show that the leporid cranium exhibits weak phylogenetic signal and substantial homoplasy. Though these results make it difficult to reconstruct what the ‘ancestral’ leporid skull looked like, the fossil records suggest that dorsal arching and facial tilt could have occurred before the origin of the crown group. Lastly, our study highlights the diversity of cranial variation in crown leporids, and highlights a need for additional phylogenetic work that includes stem (fossil leporids and includes morphological data that captures the transformed morphology of rabbits and hares.

  8. Experimental osteoarthritis in the rabbit knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, H.

    1976-01-01

    development of arthrotic-like changes following resection of the of the cruciate ligaments in the knee joint of rabbits has been studied at intervals from 2 weeks to 10 months in 35 animals. Signs of cartilage degeneration were followed by changes in the subchondral bone, where formation of osteophytes and condensation to took place. An increased vascular supply was demonstrated by microangiographic and scintigraphic investigations. The uptake of 18 F and 99 mTc-polyphosphate reached a maximal value about 2 months after the operation and then diminished despite further development of arthrotic changes. (author)

  9. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  10. Ampicillin penetration into the rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Distribution of intravenously injected ampicillin of 50 mg/kg was studied in the rabbit eye using radioactive tracer method. Antibiotic concentration regarded as therapeutic in the treatment of gram-negative organisms was obtained in all vascularized ocular structures. Intermediate values were measured from the cornea and aqueous humour. In the vitreous body and lens, ampicillin was unable to approach a concentration that would be effective against the common gram-negative organisms. The low ampicillin concentration in the vitreous body and lens was unchanged by systemically administered probenecid, which in other parts of the eye caused significantly higher ampicillin levels. (author)

  11. Sequential computed tomographic imaging of a transplantable rabbit brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Beck, T.J.; Ahn, H.S.; Anderson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of CT imaging in evaluating VX-2 tumor growth in the rabbit brain was assessed. CT scanning was performed in 5 outbred New Zealand white male rabbits before and at 4, 7, 9 and 13 (in 3 animals) days after surgical implantation of 3 x 10 5 viable VX-2 tumor cells in the frontoparietal lobes. The CT studies were correlated with gross pathology in each. The tumor was visualized with CT in all 5 rabbits by the 9th day post implantation when the tumor ranged in size from 4-6 x 3-4 x 2-3 mm. Between the 9th and 13th day, the tumor increased 6-fold in two rabbits and 12-fold in the third rabbit. CT is a useful technique to evaluate brain tumor growth in this model and should be valuable in documenting the efficacy of chemotherapy on tumor growth. (orig.)

  12. A new electric method for non-invasive continuous monitoring of stroke volume and ventricular volume-time curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konings Maurits K

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper a new non-invasive, operator-free, continuous ventricular stroke volume monitoring device (Hemodynamic Cardiac Profiler, HCP is presented, that measures the average stroke volume (SV for each period of 20 seconds, as well as ventricular volume-time curves for each cardiac cycle, using a new electric method (Ventricular Field Recognition with six independent electrode pairs distributed over the frontal thoracic skin. In contrast to existing non-invasive electric methods, our method does not use the algorithms of impedance or bioreactance cardiography. Instead, our method is based on specific 2D spatial patterns on the thoracic skin, representing the distribution, over the thorax, of changes in the applied current field caused by cardiac volume changes during the cardiac cycle. Since total heart volume variation during the cardiac cycle is a poor indicator for ventricular stroke volume, our HCP separates atrial filling effects from ventricular filling effects, and retrieves the volume changes of only the ventricles. Methods ex-vivo experiments on a post-mortem human heart have been performed to measure the effects of increasing the blood volume inside the ventricles in isolation, leaving the atrial volume invariant (which can not be done in-vivo. These effects have been measured as a specific 2D pattern of voltage changes on the thoracic skin. Furthermore, a working prototype of the HCP has been developed that uses these ex-vivo results in an algorithm to decompose voltage changes, that were measured in-vivo by the HCP on the thoracic skin of a human volunteer, into an atrial component and a ventricular component, in almost real-time (with a delay of maximally 39 seconds. The HCP prototype has been tested in-vivo on 7 human volunteers, using G-suit inflation and deflation to provoke stroke volume changes, and LVot Doppler as a reference technique. Results The ex-vivo measurements showed that ventricular filling

  13. Familial occurrence of isolated non-compaction cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorsheyd, Anouk; Cramer, Maarten-Jan M.; Velthuis, Birgitta K.; Vonken, Evert-Jan P.; van der Smagt, Jasper; van Tintelen, Peter; Hauer, Richard N. W.

    2006-01-01

    Background and aims: Isolated left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) may have an autosomal dominant or X-linked recessive inheritance. We focus on the familial occurrence of LVNC after misdiagnosing this disorder in symptomatic patients in two families. After identification of the

  14. High pathogenicity and strong immunogenicity of a Chinese isolate of Eimeria magna Pérard, 1925.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Geru; Wang, Yunzhou; Li, Chao; Gu, Xiaolong; Cui, Ping; Fang, Sufang; Suo, Xun; Liu, Xianyong

    2017-06-01

    Coccidia infection of rabbits with one or several species of parasites of the genus Eimeria causes coccidiosis, a disease leading to huge economic losses in the rabbit industry. Eimeria magna, one of the causal agents of rabbit coccidiosis, was characterized as mildly pathogenic and moderately immunogenic in previous studies. In this study, we identified a Chinese isolate of E. magna by testing its biological features (oocyst morphology and size, prepatent time) and sequencing its internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) DNA fragment. This isolate is highly pathogenic; infection of rabbits with only 1×10 2 oocysts caused a 55% reduction in weight gain in 14days. In addition, immunization with 1×10 2 oocysts prevented body weight loss against re-infection with 5×10 4 oocysts, indicating the high immunogenicity of this isolate. Our study described the distinctive phenotype of the Chinese isolate of E. magna and contributed to the research of geographic variation of rabbit coccidia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ventricular Effective Refraction Period and Ventricular Repolarization Analysis in Experimental Tachycardiomyopathy in Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Pasławska, Urszula; Gajek, Jacek; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Zyśko, Dorota; Nicpoń, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Swine are recognized animal models of human cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known on the CHF-associated changes in the electrophysiological ventricular parameters of humans and animals. The aim of this study was to analyze changes in the durations of ventricular effective refraction period (VERP), QT and QTc intervals of pigs with chronic tachycardia-induced tachycardiomyopathy (TIC). The study was comprised of 28 adult pigs (8 females and 20 males) of the Polish Large White breed. A one-chamber pacemaker was implanted in each of the 28 pigs. Electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and electrophysiological studies were carried out prior to the pacemaker implantation and at subsequent 4-week intervals. All electrocardiographic, echocardiographic and short electrophysiological study measurements in all swine were done under general anesthesia (propofol) after premedication with midazolam, medetomidine, and ketamine. No significant changes in the duration of QT interval and corrected QT interval (QTc) were observed during consecutive weeks of the experiment. The duration of the QTc interval of female pigs was shown to be significantly longer than that of the males throughout the whole study period. Beginning from the 12th week of rapid ventricular pacing, a significant increase in duration of VERP was observed in both male and female pigs. Males and females did not differ significantly in terms of VERP duration determined throughout the whole study period. Ventricular pacing, stimulation with 2 and 3 premature impulses at progressively shorter coupling intervals and an imposed rhythm of 130 bpm or 150 bpm induced transient ventricular tachycardia in one female pig and four male pigs. One episode of permanent ventricular tachycardia was observed. The number of induced arrhythmias increased proportionally to the severity of heart failure and duration of the experiment. However, relatively aggressive protocols of stimulation were required in order to induce

  16. The Mechanism of Helium-Induced Preconditioning: A Direct Role for Nitric Oxide in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Paul S.; Krolikowski, John G.; Pratt, Phillip F.; Shim, Yon Hee; Amour, Julien; Warltier, David C.; Weihrauch, Dorothee

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Helium produces preconditioning against myocardial infarction by activating prosurvival signaling, but whether nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial NO synthase plays a role in this phenomenon is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that NO mediates helium-induced cardioprotection in vivo. METHODS Rabbits (n = 62) instrumented for hemodynamic measurement were subjected to a 30-min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 3 h reperfusion, and received 0.9% saline (control) or three cycles of 70% helium–30% oxygen administered for 5 min interspersed with 5 min of an air–oxygen mixture before left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion in the absence or presence of pretreatment with the nonselective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg), the selective inducible NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine hydrochloride (AG; 300 mg/kg), or selective neuronal NOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 50 mg/kg). In additional rabbits, the fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluroscein diacetate (DAF-2DA) and confocal laser microscopy were used to detect NO production in the absence or presence of helium with or without L-NAME pretreatment. RESULTS Helium reduced (P < 0.05) infarct size (24% ± 4% of the left ventricular area at risk; mean ± sd) compared with control (46% ± 3%). L-NAME, AG, and 7-NI did not alter myocardial infarct size when administered alone. L-NAME, but not 7-NI or AG, abolished helium-induced cardioprotection. Helium enhanced DAF-2DA fluorescence compared with control (26 ± 8 vs 15 ± 5 U, respectively). Pretreatment with L-NAME abolished these helium-induced increases in DAF-2DA fluorescence. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate that cardioprotection by helium is mediated by NO that is probably generated by endothelial NOS in vivo. PMID:18713880

  17. Histological analysis of femoral bones in rabbits administered by amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kováčová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glycosides are present in several economically important plant foods. Amygdalin, one of the most common cyanoglucoside, can be found abundantly in the seeds of apples, bitter almonds, apricots, peaches, various beans, cereals, cassava and sorghum. Amygdalin has been used for the treatment of cancer, it shows killing effects on cancer cells by release of cyanide. However, its effect on bone structure has not been investigated to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine a possible effect of amygdalin application on femoral bone microstructure in adult rabbits. Four month old rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of three animals each. Rabbits from E group received amygdalin intramuscularly at a dose 0.6 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw (group E, n = 3 one time per day during 28 days. The second group of rabbits without amygdalin supplementation served as a control (group C, n = 3. After 28 days, histological structure of femoral bones in both groups of rabbits was analysed and compared. Rabbits from E group displayed different microstructure in middle part of the compact bone and near endosteal bone surface. For endosteal border, an absence of the primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was typical. This part of the bone was formed by irregular Haversian and/or by dense Haversian bone tissues. In the middle part of substantia compacta, primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was observed. Cortical bone thickness did not change between rabbits from E and C groups. However, rabbits from E group had a significantly lower values of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons as compared to the C group. On the other hand, all measured parameters of Haversian canals did not differ between rabbits from both groups. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular application of amygdalin at the dose used in our study affects femoral bone microstructure in rabbits.

  18. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We

  19. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  20. Ventricular Septal Dissection Complicating Inferior Wall Myocardial Infarction

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    Lindsey Kalvin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmyocardial infarction ventricular septal defect is an increasingly rare mechanical complication of acute myocardial infarction. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction from right coronary artery occlusion that developed hypotension and systolic murmur 12 hours after successful percutaneous coronary intervention. Although preoperative imaging suggested a large ventricular septal defect and a pseudoaneurysm, intraoperative findings concluded a serpiginous dissection of the ventricular septum. The imaging technicalities are discussed.

  1. Postexertional Supraventricular Tachycardia in Children with Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D. N. Else

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT is a severe arrhythmia associated with sudden death in the young. It is caused by defective calcium handling in ventricular myocytes. The association of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT with CPVT is described in the literature, occurring in the lead-up to ventricular tachycardia during exercise testing. We describe three cases of SVT that were initiated in the recovery period of exercise testing in children with CPVT.

  2. Experimental arthritis induced by a clinical Mycoplasma fermentans isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giono Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, it was detected in the joints and blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but it is not clear yet how the bacteria enter the body and reach the joints. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of M. fermentans to induce experimental arthritis in rabbits following inoculation of the bacteria in the trachea and knee joints. Methods P-140 and PG-18 strains were each injected in the knee joints of 14 rabbits in order to evaluate and compare their arthritogenicity. P-140 was also injected in the trachea of 14 rabbits in order to test the ability of the bacteria to reach the joints and induce arthritis. Results M. fermentans produced an acute arthritis in rabbits. Joint swelling appeared first in rabbits injected with P-140, which caused a more severe arthritis than PG-18. Both strains were able to migrate to the uninoculated knee joints and they were detected viable in the joints all along the duration of the experiment. Changes in the synovial tissue were more severe by the end of the experiment and characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils and substitution of adipose tissue by connective tissue. Rabbits intracheally injected with P-140 showed induced arthritis and the bacteria could be isolated from lungs, blood, heart, kidney, spleen, brain and joints. Conclusion M. fermentans induced arthritis regardless of the inoculation route. These findings may help explain why mycoplasmas are commonly isolated from the joints of rheumatic patients.

  3. Reduced Right Ventricular Function Predicts Long-Term Cardiac Re-Hospitalization after Cardiac Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela K Lella

    Full Text Available The significance of right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF, independent of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, following isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and valve procedures remains unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the significance of abnormal RVEF by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR, independent of LVEF in predicting outcomes of patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve surgery.From 2007 to 2009, 109 consecutive patients (mean age, 66 years; 38% female were referred for pre-operative CMR. Abnormal RVEF and LVEF were considered 30 days outcomes included, cardiac re-hospitalization, worsening congestive heart failure and mortality. Mean clinical follow up was 14 months.Forty-eight patients had reduced RVEF (mean 25% and 61 patients had normal RVEF (mean 50% (p<0.001. Fifty-four patients had reduced LVEF (mean 30% and 55 patients had normal LVEF (mean 59% (p<0.001. Patients with reduced RVEF had a higher incidence of long-term cardiac re-hospitalization vs. patients with normal RVEF (31% vs.13%, p<0.05. Abnormal RVEF was a predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization (HR 3.01 [CI 1.5-7.9], p<0.03. Reduced LVEF did not influence long-term cardiac re-hospitalization.Abnormal RVEF is a stronger predictor for long-term cardiac re-hospitalization than abnormal LVEF in patients undergoing isolated CABG and valve procedures.

  4. Possible involvement of mitochondrial energy-producing ability in the development of right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daicho, Takuya; Yagi, Tatsuya; Abe, Yohei; Ohara, Meiko; Marunouchi, Tetsuro; Takeo, Satoshi; Tanonaka, Kouichi

    2009-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible involvement of alterations in the mitochondrial energy-producing ability in the development of the right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-administered rats. The rats at the 6th week after subcutaneous injection of 60 mg/kg monocrotaline revealed marked myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, that is, severe cardiac remodeling. The time-course study on the cardiac hemodynamics of the monocrotaline-administered rat by the cannula and echocardiographic methods showed a reduction in cardiac double product, a decrease in cardiac output index, and an increase in the right ventricular Tei index, suggesting that the right ventricular failure was induced at the 6th week after monocrotaline administration in rats. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate of the right ventricular muscle isolated from the monocrotaline-administered animal was decreased, which was associated with a reduction in myocardial high-energy phosphates. Furthermore, the decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate was inversely related to the increase in the right ventricular Tei index of the monocrotaline-administered rats. These results suggest that impairment of the mitochondrial energy-producing ability is involved in the development of the right ventricular failure in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertensive rats.

  5. Right ventricular strain in heart failure: Clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadic, Marijana; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Cuspidi, Cesare; Morris, Daniel A; Burkhardt, Franziska; Baudisch, Ana; Haßfeld, Sabine; Tschöpe, Carsten; Pieske, Burket

    2017-10-01

    The number of studies demonstrating the importance of right ventricular remodelling in a wide range of cardiovascular diseases has increased in the past two decades. Speckle-tracking imaging provides new variables that give comprehensive information about right ventricular function and mechanics. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of right ventricular mechanics in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and preserved ejection fraction. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Ovid and Embase databases for studies published from January 2000 to December 2016 in the English language using the following keywords: "right ventricle"; "strain"; "speckle tracking"; "heart failure with reduced ejection fraction"; and "heart failure with preserved ejection fraction". Investigations showed that right ventricular dysfunction is associated with higher cardiovascular and overall mortality in patients with heart failure, irrespective of ejection fraction. The number of studies investigating right ventricular strain in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is constantly increasing, whereas data on right ventricular mechanics in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are limited. Given the high feasibility, accuracy and clinical implications of right ventricular strain in the population with heart failure, it is of great importance to try to include the evaluation of right ventricular strain as a regular part of each echocardiographic examination in patients with heart failure. However, further investigations are necessary to establish right ventricular strain as a standard variable for decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanism of fever induction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, R; Philipp-Dormston, W K; Radsak, K; Menzel, H

    1976-01-01

    Three exogenous pyrogens (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid. Newcastle disease virus) were compared with respect to their mechanisms of fever induction in rabbits. All inducers stimulated the production of an endogenous pyrogen demonstrated in the blood as well as prostaglandins of the E group, and of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the cerebrospinal fluid. The concentrations of these compounds were elevated approximately twofold as compared to the controls. Independently of the mode of induction, the fever reaction could be prevented by pretreatment with 5 mg of cycloheximide per kg, although the three fever mediators were induced as in febrile animals. Consequently, at least one additional fever mediator that is sensitive to a 30 to 50% inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide has to be postulated. The comparable reactions of the rabbits after administration of different pyrogens argues for a similar fever mechanism. In contrast to fever induction there was no stimulation of endogenous pyrogen, prostaglandins of the E group, and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in hyperthermia as a consequence of exposure of the animals to exogenous overheating. Furthermore, hyperthermia could not be prevented by cycloheximide. PMID:185148

  7. Purification and partial characterization of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans from cultured rabbit smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatino, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans synthesized by cultured rabbit smooth muscle cells were isolated after incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into glycosaminoglycans in the presence or absence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Glycosaminoglycans were quantitated by two-dimensional electrophoresis after proteolytic digestion of the cell layers and media. The results show that the presence of serum has no effect on the chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate content of the cell layers. The incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into hyaluronic acid of the cell layers was three times higher in the presence of serum. In the medium , the quantity of hyaluronic was two times higher in the presence of serum while the other glycosaminoglycans remained unchanged. The incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into hyaluronic acid was unaffected by the presence of serum. Specific proteoglycans were isolated from medium after with [ 35 S]-sulfate and [ 3 H]-serine by isopycnic ultracentrifugation and chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B and DEAE-cellulose. Preparations contained a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, a condroitin sulfate-dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans synthesized by rabbit aorta smooth muscle cells are similar to those from human aorta

  8. Inhibitory Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on the Tonus of the Small Intestine and the Colon of Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is widely used in folk medicine. Patients very often use the plant preparation with no concern for purity. They also tend to increase the dosage by themselves and this may result in certain insufficiently researched acute effects. Due to this extremely widespread application, the aim of this work is an examination of the possible acute effects of Ginkgo bilobaon the motility of the small and the large intestine of rabbits. Тhe effects of Gingium® - a standardized ginkgo biloba extract (GBE [one milliliter preparation contained 8.8–10.8 mg ginkgo flavonol glycoside and 2.0–2.8 mg lactone ring-containing terpenes (ginkgolides and bilobalides], on the tonus of isolated segments of the ileum and the colon of rabbits were examined. The experiments were carried out on isolated bowel incisions according to the Magnus method. Data was registered by physiography (Narco-Bio-System. Our results show that GBE (0.006 g/L, - 0.06 g/L concentration-dependently reduces the tonus of the ileum and the colon of rabbits. Apart from that, GBE reduces the increase of the tonus of the ileum caused by acetylcholine (ACh, but does not change colon tonus intensified by ACh. This indicates that the effects of the used extract in the ileum are predominantly achieved through cholinergic mechanisms, while the relaxant effects in the colon are achieved in some other way.

  9. Coronary oscillatory flow amplitude is more affected by perfusion pressure than ventricular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, R; Sipkema, P; Westerhof, N

    1990-06-01

    In this study on the isolated, maximally vasodilated, blood-perfused cat heart we investigated the relation between left ventricular developed pressure (delta Piv) and coronary oscillatory flow amplitude (diastolic minus systolic flow, delta F) at different levels of constant perfusion pressure (Pp). We hypothesized that the effect of cardiac contraction on the phasic flow results from the changing elastic properties of cardiac muscle. The coronary vessel compartment can, as can the left ventricular lumen compartment, be described by a time-varying elastance. This concept predicts that the effect of left ventricular pressure on delta F is small, whereas the effect of Pp is considerable. Both the waterfall model and the intramyocardial pump model predict the inverse. The relation between delta Piv and delta F at a Pp of 10 kPa is delta F = (4.71 +/- 3.08).delta Piv + 337 +/- 75 (slope in ml.min-1.100 g-1.kPa-1 and intercept in ml.min-1.100 g-1; n = 7); the relation between (constant levels of) Pp and delta F at a constant delta Piv of 10 kPa is delta F = 51.Pp + 211 (slope in ml.min-1.100 g-1.kPa-1 and intercept in ml.min-1.100 g-1; n = 6). The differences in slope are best predicted by the time-varying elastance concept.

  10. Changes in Left Ventricular Morphology and Function After Mitral Valve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafii, Alexis E.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Stewart, William; Batizy, Lillian H.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative mitral valve disease is the leading cause of mitral regurgitation in North America. Surgical intervention has hinged on symptoms and ventricular changes that develop as compensatory ventricular remodeling takes place. In this study, we sought to characterize the temporal response of left ventricular (LV) morphology and function to mitral valve surgery for degenerative disease, and identify preoperative factors that influence reverse remodeling. From 1986–2007, 2,778 patients with isolated degenerative mitral valve disease underwent valve repair (n=2,607/94%) or replacement (n=171/6%) and had at least 1 postoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE); 5,336 TTEs were available for analysis. Multivariable longitudinal repeated-measures analysis was performed to identify factors associated with reverse remodeling. LV dimensions decreased in the first year after surgery (end-diastolic from 5.7±0.80 to 4.9±1.4 cm; end-systolic from 3.4±0.71 to 3.1±1.4 cm). LV mass index decreased from 139±44 to 112±73 g·m−2. Reduction of LV hypertrophy was less pronounced in patients with greater preoperative left heart enlargement (P.2). In conclusion, a positive response toward normalization of LV morphology and function after mitral valve surgery is greatest in the first year. The best response occurs when surgery is performed before left heart dilatation, LV hypertrophy, or LV dysfunction develop. PMID:22534055

  11. Cloning the uteroglobin gene promoter from the relic volcano rabbit (Romerolagus diazi) reveals an ancient estrogen-response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-MontesdeOca, Adriana; Zariñán, Teresa; Macías, Héctor; Pérez-Solís, Marco A; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Sagal, Rubén

    2012-05-01

    To gain further insight on the estrogen-dependent transcriptional regulation of the uteroglobin (UG) gene, we cloned the 5'-flanking region of the UG gene from the phylogenetically ancient volcano rabbit (Romerolagus diazi; Rd). The cloned region spans 812 base pairs (bp; -812/-1) and contains a noncanonical TATA box (TACA). The translation start site is 48 bp downstream from the putative transcription initiation site (AGA), and is preceded by a consensus Kozak box. Comparison of the Rd-UG gene with that previously isolated from rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) showed 93% in sequence identity as well as a number of conserved cis-acting elements, including the estrogen-response element (ERE; -265/-251), which differs from the consensus by two nucleotides. In MCF-7 cells, 17β-estradiol (E(2)) induced transcription of a luciferase reporter driven by the Rd-UG promoter in a similar manner as in an equivalent rabbit UG reporter; the Rd-UG promoter was 30% more responsive to E(2) than the rabbit promoter. Mutagenesis studies on the Rd-ERE confirmed this cis-element as a target of E(2) as two luciferase mutant reporters of the Rd-promoter, one with the rabbit and the other with the consensus ERE, were more responsive to the hormone than the wild-type reporter. Gel shift and super-shift assays showed that estrogen receptor-α indeed binds to the imperfect palindromic sequence of the Rd-ERE. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of left ventricular mass in vitro and in vivo with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogelvang, J.; Thomsen, C.; Mehisen, J.; Henriksen, O.; Horn, T.

    1986-01-01

    The left ventricular (LV) mass was determined by MR multisection imaging in ten unopened postmortem human hearts and compared with the true weight of the isolated LV. In addition, the LV mass in 14 patients was determined by MR imaging. LV myocardial volume determined from acquisitions at end diastole were compared with the volume determined from acquisitions at end systole. The LV masses as determined on MR imaging showed excellent correlation with reference values (r = .99, P < .001). There was fine correlation between myocardial volume (mass) estimated in vivo in diastole and systole (r = .95, P < .0001). These results suggest that MR imaging is accurate for the determination of LV mass in vivo

  13. Impact of the right ventricular lead position on clinical outcome and on the incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with CRT-D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Bloch Thomsen, Poul Erik; Huang, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Data on the impact of right ventricular (RV) lead location on clinical outcome and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) patients are limited.......Data on the impact of right ventricular (RV) lead location on clinical outcome and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) patients are limited....

  14. Left Ventricular Function Improves after Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Patients with Previous Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Reconstruction and Biventricular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Colin; Kogon, Brian; Pernetz, Maria; McConnell, Michael; Kirshbom, Paul; Rodby, Katherine; Book, Wendy M.

    2011-01-01

    Congenital heart defects that have a component of right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, such as tetralogy of Fallot, are frequently palliated in childhood by disruption of the pulmonary valve. Although this can provide an initial improvement in quality of life, these patients are often left with severe pulmonary valve insufficiency. Over time, this insufficiency can lead to enlargement of the right ventricle and to the deterioration of right ventricular systolic and diastolic function. Pulmonary valve replacement in these patients decreases right ventricular volume overload and improves right ventricular performance. To date, few studies have examined the effects of pulmonary valve replacement on left ventricular function in patients with biventricular dysfunction. We sought to perform such an evaluation. Records of adult patients who had undergone pulmonary valve replacement from January 2003 through November 2006 were analyzed retrospectively. We reviewed preoperative and postoperative echocardiograms and calculated left ventricular function in 38 patients. In the entire cohort, the mean left ventricular ejection fraction increased by a mean of 0.07 after pulmonary valve replacement, which was a statistically significant change (P < 0.01). In patients with preoperative ejection fractions of less than 0.50, mean ejection fractions increased by 0.10. We conclude that pulmonary valve replacement in patients with biventricular dysfunction arising from severe pulmonary insufficiency and right ventricular enlargement can improve left ventricular function. Prospective studies are needed to verify this finding. PMID:21720459

  15. Towards Early Detection and Risk Stratification of Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riele, A.S.J.M. te

    2016-01-01

    Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is an inherited cardiomyopathy characterized by frequent ventricular arrhythmias and usually slowly progressive ventricular dysfunction. Since its initial description in 1982, sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurring in young and usually

  16. Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia: Atypical clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marçalo, José; Menezes Falcão, Luiz

    2017-03-01

    A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital after episodes of syncope preceded by malaise and diffuse neck and chest discomfort. No family history of cardiac disease was reported. Laboratory workup was within normal limits, including D-dimers, serum troponin I and arterial blood gases. The electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm with T-wave inversion in leads V1 to V3. Computed tomography angiography to investigate pulmonary embolism showed no abnormal findings. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) displayed massive enlargement of the right ventricle with intact interatrial septum and no pulmonary hypertension. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed right ventricular (RV) dilatation and revealed marked hypokinesia/akinesia of the lateral wall. Exercise stress testing was negative for ischemia. According to the 2010 Task Force criteria for arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD), this patient presented two major criteria (global or regional dysfunction and structural alterations: by MRI, regional RV akinesia or dyskinesia or dyssynchronous RV contraction and RV ejection fraction ≤40%, and repolarization abnormalities: inverted T waves in right precordial leads [V1, V2, and V3]); and one minor criterion (>500 ventricular extrasystoles per 24 hours by Holter), and so a diagnosis of ARVD was made. After electrophysiologic study (EPS) the patient received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). This late clinical presentation of ARVD highlights the importance of TTE screening, possibly complemented by MRI. The associated risk of sudden death was assessed by EPS leading to the implantation of an ICD. Genetic association studies should be offered to the offspring of all ARVD patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  18. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the need for testing in a second species could be decided on a case by case basis. As part of an RIVM/CBG-MEB/HESI/US EPA consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 EFDT studies conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceutical compounds. The animal models (rat and rabbit) were assessed for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes. The database was analyzed for the prevalence of EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings in the two species. Some manifestation of EFDT in either one or both species (rat and rabbit) was demonstrated for 282 compounds (74%), and EFDT was detected in only one species (rat or rabbit) in almost a third (31%, 118 compounds), with approximately 58% rat and 42% rabbit studies identifying an EFDT signal among the 379 compounds tested. For 24 compounds (6%), fetal malformations were observed in one species (rat or rabbit) in the absence of any EFDT in the second species. In general, growth retardation, fetal variations, and malformations were more prominent in the rat, whereas embryo-fetal death was observed more often in the rabbit. Discor

  19. Impact of Pregnancy on Zonisamide Pharmacokinetics in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Matar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes which may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetic profile of zonisamide (ZNM in the rabbit. Seven female rabbits were used in this study. The pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits received ZNM orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg and blood samples were collected from the animals just before receiving the drug and then serially for up to 24 h. The plasma samples were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometric method. Following a single oral dose of ZNM to the rabbits, the mean values of ZNM plasma concentrations at different times were consistently low in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. The mean values of ZNM’s Cmax and AUC0-∞ were significantly (P<0.05 decreased, whereas the CL/F exhibited substantial increase (P<0.05 in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. Tmax, t1/2abs, t1/2el, MRT, and Vd/F showed no significant differences between the two groups. The present study demonstrates that pregnancy decreased ZNM plasma concentrations in rabbits and that the decrease could be due to decreased extent of gastrointestinal absorption, induced hepatic metabolism, or enhanced renal elimination of the drug.

  20. Pseudo ventricular tachycardia: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riaz, A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Dramatic artifacts of pseudo flutter have been reported in the past secondary to various factors including tremor (Handwerker and Raptopoulos in N Engl J Med 356:503, 2007) and dialysis machines (Kostis et al. in J Electrocardiol 40(4):316-318, 2007). METHODS: We present this unusual case where the artifact, produced by tremor, was so pronounced to be misdiagnosed and treated as ventricular tachycardia. CONCLUSION: This case highlights the importance of correlating ECG findings with history and clinical examination and of using 12 lead ECGs for rhythm interpretation especially to confirm consistence of arrhythmias in all leads.