WorldWideScience

Sample records for isolated rabbit jejunum

  1. Effect of Imperatorin on the Spontaneous Motor Activity of Rat Isolated Jejunum Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Mendel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperatorin, a psoralen-type furanocoumarin, is a potent myorelaxant agent acting as a calcium antagonist on vascular smooth muscle. Its effects on other types of smooth muscle remain unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesized myorelaxant effect of imperatorin on gut motor activity and, possibly, to define the underlying mechanism of action. Imperatorin was made available for pharmacological studies from the fruits of the widely available Angelica officinalis through the application of high-performance countercurrent chromatography (HPCCC. Imperatorin generated reversible relaxation of jejunum strips dose-dependently (1–100 μM. At 25 and 50 μM, imperatorin caused relaxation comparable to the strength of the reaction induced by isoproterenol (Isop at 0.1 μM. The observed response resulted neither from the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, nor from β-adrenoreceptor involvement, nor from Ca2+-activated potassium channels. Imperatorin relaxed intestine strips precontracted with high potassium concentration, attenuated the force and duration of K+-induced contractions, and modulated the response of jejunum strips to acetylcholine. The results suggest that imperatorin probably interacts with various Ca2+ influx pathways in intestine smooth muscle. The types of some calcium channels involved in the activity of imperatorin will be examined in a subsequent study.

  2. Luminal cholera toxin alters motility in isolated guinea-pig jejunum via a pathway independent of 5-HT3 receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice eFung

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholera toxin (CT is well established to produce diarrhoea by producing hyperactivity of the enteric neural circuits that regulate water and electrolyte secretion. Its effects on intestinal motor patterns are less well understood. We examined the effects of luminal CT on motor activity of guinea-pig jejunum in vitro. Segments of jejunum were cannulated at either end and mounted horizontally.Their contractile activity was video-imaged and the recordings were used to construct spatiotemporal maps of contractile activity with CT (1.25 μg/ml or 12.5 μg/ml in the lumen. Both concentrations of CT induced propulsive motor activity in jejunal segments. The effect of 1.25 μg/ml CT was markedly enhanced by coincubation with granisetron (5-HT3 antagonist, 1 μM, which prevents the hypersecretion induced by CT. The increased propulsive activity was not accompanied by increased segmentation and occurred very early after exposure to CT in the presence of granisetron. Luminal CT also reduced the pressure threshold for saline distension evoked propulsive reflexes, an effect resistant to granisetron. In contrast, CT prevented the induction of segmenting contractions by luminal decanoic acid, so its effects on propulsive and segmenting contractile activity are distinctly different. Thus, in addition to producing hypersecretion, CT excites propulsive motor activity with an entirely different time course and pharmacology, but inhibits nutrient induced segmentation. This suggests that CT excites more than one enteric neural circuit and that propulsive and segmenting motor patterns are differentially regulated.

  3. Screening of virulence genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Viana Martín

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a versatile pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. In rabbits, this bacterium infects animals of different ages, producing several purulent lesions. The ability of S. aureus to cause disease depends on a combination of virulence factors. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the distribution of bacterial virulence determinants in 69 S. aureus isolates from rabbits. Some virulence factors (7 adhesins, 1 toxin and 1 protease were positive in all rabbit S. aureus isolates analysed, while others (1 adhesin and 10 toxins were always negative. The remaining virulence factors were more variable among isolates. An association between genotype and the different profiles of virulence factors was observed, but not with the type of lesion (P<0.05. One strain of each genotype was further analysed by multilocus sequence typing, generating ST121, ST96 and ST2951, determining a greater number of enterotoxins in ST121 isolates compared to ST96 and ST2951 isolates, which could justify the different pathogenicity between strains. 

  4. Polarographic measurement of ascorbate washout in isolated perfused rabbit hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, T.; Kuikka, J.T.; Reneman, R.S.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    To study the myocardial washout of ascorbate, the applicability of polarographic detection of ascorbate ions by a platinum electrode (sensitive area 0.03 mm2) was investigated, in both a calibration setup (sampling flow along the electrode: 100 microliter X s-1) and isolated, retrogradely perfused rabbit hearts. In the calibration setup at pH 7.4, the sensitivity of the electrode was 70 microA/mol. This sensitivity increased moderately with increasing pH (13%/unit pH) and increasing sampling flow rate (14% at an increase from 100 to 150 microliter X s-1). In the isolated hearts, ascorbate infused into the aorta was detected in a right ventricular drain by the electrode as well as by the use of 14 C-labeled ascorbate. Both recorded time courses were similar except for a scaling factor dependent on flow velocity. During continuous infusion the arteriovenous difference of ascorbate was 2 +/- 2% (SD), indicating a relatively low consumption of ascorbate by the isolated heart. The authors conclude that polarographic measurement of ascorbate in the coronary effluent of an isolated rabbit heart can be performed on-line and relatively easily

  5. Choline transport in the isolated rabbit corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, isolated epithelial sheets were obtained by performing two sequential anterior keratectomies, three weeks apart, on rabbit corneas. Light microscopy of the isolated sheets revealed a multilayered epithelium with an intact basal cell layer without contamination from other cell types. The accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into the epithelial sheets was studied at substrate concentrations varying from 1 to 100 μMoles with and without the addition of specific metabolic and stereochemical inhibitors. Accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into these sheets was saturable. Kinetic analysis, performed by estimation from double-reciprocal plots, revealed a single component system with a K m of 24.9 μM. The metabolic inhibitors potassium cyanide and ouabain showed no effect on the uptake of [ 3 H]choline; however, the stereochemical inhibitor hemicholinium-3 significantly reduced the accumulation of radiolabel at both high and low substrate concentrations. The results suggest a non-energy dependent yet a highly specific transport system for the accumulation of choline into the rabbit epithelium

  6. Atypical myxomatosis--virus isolation, experimental infection of rabbits and restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Valícek, L; Bendová, J

    2003-08-01

    Atypical form of myxomatosis, which caused non-lethal and clinically mild disease in domestic rabbits 1 month after immunization with a commercially available vaccine MXT, is described. The isolated myxoma virus designated as Litovel 2 (Li-2) did not induce systemic disease following subcutaneous and intradermal applications in susceptible experimental rabbits but led to the immune response demonstrated by ELISA. No severe disease was induced in those Li-2 inoculated rabbits by challenge with the virulent strains Lausanne (Lu) or Sanar (SA), while the control animals showed nodular form of myxomatosis with lethal course of the illness. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of genomic DNA with KpnI and BamHI endonucleases was used for genetic characterization of the Li-2 isolate, the vaccine strain MXT and both virulent strains Lu and SA, respectively. In general, RFLP analysis has shown to be informative for inferring genetic relatedness between myxoma viruses. Based on restriction endonuclease DNA fragment size distribution, it was evident that the pathogenic strain SA is genetically related to the reference strain Lu and the isolate Li-2 is more related, but not identical, to the vaccination strain MXT.

  7. Sympatholytic properties of several AT(1)-receptor antagonists in the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Alexander; Balt, Jippe C.; Pfaffendorf, Martin; van Zwieten, Pieter A.

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the facilitating effect of angiotensin II on sympathetic neurotransmission to quantitatively compare the sympatho-inhibitory potencies of the selective AT(1)-receptor antagonists losartan, irbesartan and telmisartan in the isolated rabbit thoracic aorta. Design To investigate

  8. Isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14, from domestic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Yip, Cyril C Y; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Huang, Yi; Wang, Ming; Guo, Rongtong; Lam, Carol S F; Tsang, Alan K L; Lai, Kenneth K Y; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Che, Xiao-Yan; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-05-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a novel Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronavirus, rabbit coronavirus HKU14 (RbCoV HKU14), from domestic rabbits. The virus was detected in 11 (8.1%) of 136 rabbit fecal samples by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), with a viral load of up to 10(8) copies/ml. RbCoV HKU14 was able to replicate in HRT-18G and RK13 cells with cytopathic effects. Northern blotting confirmed the production of subgenomic mRNAs coding for the HE, S, NS5a, E, M, and N proteins. Subgenomic mRNA analysis revealed a transcription regulatory sequence, 5'-UCUAAAC-3'. Phylogenetic analysis showed that RbCoV HKU14 formed a distinct branch among Betacoronavirus subgroup A coronaviruses, being most closely related to but separate from the species Betacoronavirus 1. A comparison of the conserved replicase domains showed that RbCoV HKU14 possessed N-protein-based Western blot assay, whereas neutralizing antibody was detected in 1 of these 20 rabbits.

  9. Function of mechanically lengthened jejunum after restoration into continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullins, Veronica F; Wagner, Justin P; Walthers, Christopher M; Chiang, Elvin K; Lee, Steven L; Wu, Benjamin M; Dunn, James C Y

    2014-06-01

    Distraction enterogenesis is a potential treatment for patients with short bowel syndrome. We previously demonstrated successful lengthening of jejunum using a degradable spring device in rats. Absorptive function of the lengthened jejunum after restoration into intestinal continuity needs to be determined. Encapsulated polycaprolactone springs were placed into isolated jejunal segments in rats for four weeks. Lengthened segments of jejunum were subsequently restored into intestinal continuity. Absorption studies were performed by placing a mixture of a non-absorbable substrate and glucose into the lumen of the restored jejunum. Restored jejunal segments demonstrated visible peristalsis at specimen retrieval. Compared to normal jejunal controls, restored segments demonstrated equal water absorption and greater glucose absorption. Restored segments had thicker smooth muscle, increased villus height, increased crypt depth, and decreased sucrase activity compared to normal jejunum. The density of enteric ganglia increased after restoration to near normal levels in the submucosa and to normal levels in the myenteric plexus. Jejunum lengthened with a degradable device demonstrates peristaltic and enzymatic activity as well as glucose and water absorption after restoration into intestinal continuity. Our findings further demonstrate the therapeutic potential of a degradable device. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation and characterization of rabbit caecal pectinolytic bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirotek, Kamil; Marounek, Milan; Rada, V.; Benda, V.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2001), s. 79-82 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MZe QD0211; GA AV ČR KSK5020115 Keywords : pectinolytic bacteria * rabbit Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.776, year: 2001

  11. Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Rabbit Caecal Mucinolytic Bacteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sirotek, Kamil; Santos, E.; Benda, V.; Marounek, Milan

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 72, - (2003), s. 365-370 ISSN 0001-7213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 848.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : rabbit * caecum * mucin Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2003

  12. Genomic 3' terminal sequence comparison of three isolates of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, I D; Vlasak, R; Nowotny, N; Rodak, L; Carter, M J

    1992-05-15

    Comparison of sequence data is necessary in older to investigate virus origins, identify features common to virulent strains, and characterize genomic organization within virus families. A virulent caliciviral disease of rabbits recently emerged in China. We have sequenced 1100 bases from the 3' ends of two independent European isolates of this virus, and compared these with previously determined calicivirus sequences. Rabbit caliciviruses were closely related, despite the different countries in which isolation was made. This supports the rapid spread of a new virus across Europe. The capsid protein sequences of these rabbit viruses differ markedly from those determined for feline calicivirus, but a hypothetical 3' open reading frame is relatively well conserved between the caliciviruses of these two different hosts and argues for a functional role.

  13. Effect of increased left ventricle mass on ischemia assessment in electrocardiographic signals: rabbit isolated heart study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ronzhina, M.; Olejníčková, Veronika; Stračina, T.; Nováková, M.; Janoušek, O.; Hejč, J.; Kolářová, J.; Hlaváčová, M.; Paulová, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, Aug 4 (2017), č. článku 216. ISSN 1471-2261 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : myocardial ischemia detection * increased left ventricular mass * electrogram * ROC analysis * isolated heart * rabbit Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 1.832, year: 2016

  14. Electromechanical effects of bepridil on rabbit isolated hearts.

    OpenAIRE

    Anno, T.; Furuta, T.; Itoh, M.; Kodama, I.; Toyama, J.; Yamada, K.

    1984-01-01

    Electromechanical effects of a new antianginal agent, bepridil, on Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were compared with those of verapamil and lidocaine. Bepridil at concentrations above 2 X 10(-7)M caused a dose-related decrease in heart rate (HR), a prolongation of the atrio-His bundle conduction time (A-H interval) and a prolongation of the functional refractory period (FRP) of the atrioventricular (A-V) node. Similar changes in HR, A-H interval and the FRP of the A-V node were observed w...

  15. FACTORS AFFECTED DECARBOXYLATION ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM ISOLATED FROM RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Buňka

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE Biogenic amines (BA are basic nitrogenous compounds formed mainly by decarboxylation of amino acids. There are generated in course of microbial, vegetable and animal metabolisms. The aim of the study was to monitor factors affected production of biogenic amines by Enterococcus faecium, which is found in rabbit meat. Biogenic amines were analyzed by means of UPLC (ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography equipped with a UV/VIS DAD detector. Decarboxylation activity of E. faecium was mainly influenced by the cultivation temperature and the amount of NaCl in this study. E. faecium produced most of the monitored biogenic amines levels: tyramine ˂2500 mg.l-1; putrescine ˂30 mg.l-1; spermidine ˂10 mg.l-1 and cadaverine ˂5 mg.l-1.doi:10.5219/182

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Campylobacter Cuniculorum Isolated from Rabbits Reared in Intensive and Rural Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Silvia; Florio, Daniela; Mion, Domenico; Zanoni, Renato Giulio

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility in Campylobacter cuniculorum. To do so, 29 isolates from rabbits reared in 18 intensive and 11 rural farms not epidemiologically correlated were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 8 antimicrobial agents was determined using the agar dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, PA, USA), modified – for what supplements in the base medium and incubation conditions concern – for C. cuniculorum isolates. The isolates obtained from rural farming resulted susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of one isolate resistant to nalidixic acid. All the isolates obtained from intensively farmed rabbits were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ampicillin; 16 isolates were resistant to tetracycline; 15 to nalidixic acid and erythromycin; 13 and 10 isolates to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively; and only 1 to gentamicin. The resistance of several isolates to macrolides and fluoroquinolones, which are the drugs of choice in treatment of human campylobacteriosis, could pose a risk to human health if a pathogenic role of C. cuniculorum was demonstrated. PMID:27853713

  17. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter cuniculorum isolated from rabbits reared in intensive and rural farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Piva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility in Campylobacter cuniculorum. To do so, 29 isolates from rabbits reared in 18 intensive and 11 rural farms not epidemiologically correlated were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of 8 antimicrobial agents was determined using the agar dilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, PA, USA, modified – for what supplements in the base medium and incubation conditions concern – for C. cuniculorum isolates. The isolates obtained from rural farming resulted susceptible to all the antimicrobial agents tested, with the exception of one isolate resistant to nalidixic acid. All the isolates obtained from intensively farmed rabbits were sensitive to chloramphenicol and ampicillin; 16 isolates were resistant to tetracycline; 15 to nalidixic acid and erythromycin; 13 and 10 isolates to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin, respectively; and only 1 to gentamicin. The resistance of several isolates to macrolides and fluoroquinolones, which are the drugs of choice in treatment of human campylobacteriosis, could pose a risk to human health if a pathogenic role of C. cuniculorum was demonstrated.

  18. Uptake, incorporation and metabolism of (3H)triolein in the isolated perfused rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, M.T.; Palazzo, A.J.; Williams, J.L. Jr.; Malik, K.U.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the uptake and metabolism of exogenous triglyceride in the isolated perfused rabbit heart. When infused into the rabbit heart, [9,10-3H(N)]triolein was retained and incorporated into a lipid fraction that had the chromatographic mobility of authentic triolein. Incorporation of labeled triolein was not likely to be the result of a lipoprotein lipase-mediated lipolysis/resynthesis cycle, since: (i) The distribution of radioactivity following administration of [3H]oleic acid was markedly different from the distribution of radioactivity following the administration of [3H]triolein; (ii) heparin was administered to the rabbits at the time of sacrifice; and (iii) the hearts were perfused with a protein-free buffer for 20 min prior to the labelling period. When isoproterenol was administered to hearts labelled with [3H]triolein, there was an increased output of total radioactivity, composed of labelled free fatty acids, diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol. In these same hearts, there was an increased output of glycerol in response to isoproterenol. However, following the administration of bradykinin or angiotensin II, neither the radioactivity nor the glycerol content of the perfusate was changed. These data suggest that [3H]triolein is selectively incorporated into the triglyceride pool of the isolated perfused rabbit heart. Furthermore, this [3H]triolein is available to hormonally-activated lipolytic enzymes

  19. Inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica L. root on electrophysiological properties of isolated rabbit atrioventricular node

    OpenAIRE

    A. Enayati; V. Khori*; M. Azadbakhat; M. Zahedi

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: The ideal drug for treatment of a wide range of supraventricular arrhythmia hasn't yet been developed. Previous studies have shown antihypertensive and negative inotropic effects of the Urtica dioica L. (nettle). Therefore, the aim of present study is to determine the rate dependent inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of nettle root and investigate the role of adrenoceptors in the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nettle on the isolated rabbit atrio-ventricular node. M...

  20. Pre- and postsynaptic effects of brimonidine on isolated rabbit iris dilator muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsui S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sonoko Tatsui,1 Hitoshi Ishikawa,2 Kimiya Shimizu,1 Kimiyo Mashimo1 1Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Kitasato University, 2Department of Orthoptics and Visual Sciences, School of Allied Health Sciences, Kitasato University, Sagamihara, Japan Purpose: Brimonidine is an imidazoline compound used for the treatment of glaucoma, but having very little effect on pupil diameter. Like para-aminoclonidine, most imidazoline compounds interact with postsynaptic α-adrenoceptors and cause pupil dilatation. Therefore, as part of an investigation of the mechanism of action of brimonidine on pupil diameter, the present study was initiated to measure, in vitro, the relative potency of brimonidine on the pre- and postsynaptic α-adrenoceptors of rabbit iris dilator muscle. Methods: The contractile activity of brimonidine and its effect on twitch contraction evoked by electrical field stimulation were studied in isolated rabbit iris dilator muscles by isometric tension recording. Results: Brimonidine significantly inhibited the twitch contraction of the dilator muscle caused by field stimulation, without affecting the response to exogenously applied phenylephrine. Compared to phenylephrine, brimonidine caused only a small contractile response with % maximum contraction values of<10%. Conclusion: These results suggest that brimonidine may act on nerve endings to inhibit adrenergic neurotransmission with very little effect on postsynaptic α-adrenoceptors. This may indicate that brimonidine reduced the pupil diameter just a little, thus improving night vision. Keywords: brimonidine, rabbit iris dilator, electrical field stimulation, presynaptic α2-adrenoceptor, postsynaptic α1-adrenoceptor, imidazolin

  1. Virulence Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Pasteurella multocida Strains Isolated from Rabbits in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Sebastiana Porfida Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida is responsible for a wide range of diseases in domestic animals. In rabbits, the agent is related to nasal discharge, pneumonia, otitis media, pyometra, orchitis, abscess, and septicemia. One hundred and forty rabbits with respiratory diseases from four rabbitries in São Paulo State, Brazil were evaluated for the detection of P. multocida in their nasal cavities. A total of twenty-nine animals were positive to P. multocida isolation, and 46 strains were selected and characterized by means of biochemical tests and PCR. P. multocida strains were tested for capsular type, virulence genes, and resistance profile. A total of 45.6% (21/46 of isolates belonged to capsular type A, and 54.34% (25/46 of the isolates were untypeable. None of the strains harboured toxA or pfhA genes. The frequency of the other twenty genes tested was variable, and the data generated was used to build a dendrogram, showing the relatedness of strains, which were clustered according to origin. Resistance revealed to be more common against sulfonamides and cotrimoxazole, followed by erythromycin, penicillin, and amoxicillin.

  2. Giant polypoid gastric heterotopia of jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Ramchandra Shenovi Mandrekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastric tissue has been described in various parts of the gastrointestinal tract as an incidental finding. However, its presentation as a mass in the jejunum with obstructive manifestations is a rare event. We report here a rare case of giant polypoid gastric heterotopia in the jejunum that presented with intestinal obstruction in a 22-year-old female, along with a brief review of the literature.

  3. Flow heterogeneity following global no-flow ischemia in isolated rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, Robert C.; Powers-Risius, Patricia; Reutter, Bryan W.; Schustz, Amy M.; Kuo, Chaincy; Huesman, Michelle K.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate flow heterogeneity and impaired reflow during reperfusion following 60 min global no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart. Radiolabeled microspheres were used to measure relative flow in small left ventricular (LV) segments in five ischemia + reperfused hearts and in five non-ischemic controls. Although variable in the post-ischemic hearts, flow heterogeneity was increased relative to pre-ischemia for the whole LV (0.92 plus or minus 0.41 vs. 0.37 plus or minus 0.07, P < 0.05) as well as the subendocardium (Endo) and subepicardium (Epi) considered separately (endo: 1.28 plus or minus 0.74 vs. 0.30 plus or minus 0.09; epi: 0.69 plus or minus 0.22 vs. 0.38 plus or minus 0.08; P < 0.05 for both comparisons) during early reperfusion. There were also segments with abnormally reduced reflow. The number of segments with abnormally reduced reflow increased as flow heterogeneity increased. Abnormally reduced reflow indicates that regional ischemia can persist despite restoration of normal global flow. In addition, the relationship between regional and global flow is altered and venous outflow is derived from regions with continued perfusion and not the whole LV. These observations emphasize the need to quantify regional reflow during reperfusion following sustained no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart

  4. Characterizing Spatial Dynamics of Bifurcation to Alternans in Isolated Whole Rabbit Hearts Based on Alternate Pacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death instigated by ventricular fibrillation (VF is the largest cause of natural death in the USA. Alternans, a beat-to-beat alternation in the action potential duration, has been implicated as being proarrhythmic. The onset of alternans is mediated via a bifurcation, which may occur through either a smooth or a border-collision mechanism. The objective of this study was to characterize the mechanism of bifurcation to alternans based on experiments in isolated whole rabbit hearts. High resolution optical mapping was performed and the electrical activity was recorded from the left ventricle (LV epicardial surface of the heart. Each heart was paced using an “alternate pacing protocol,” where the basic cycle length (BCL was alternatively perturbed by ±δ. Local onset of alternans in the heart, BCLstart, was measured in the absence of perturbations (δ=0 and was defined as the BCL at which 10% of LV exhibited alternans. The influences of perturbation size were investigated at two BCLs: one prior to BCLstart (BCLprior=BCLstart+20 ms and one preceding BCLprior (BCLfar=BCLstart+40 ms. Our results demonstrate significant spatial correlation of the region exhibiting alternans with smooth bifurcation characteristics, indicating that transition to alternans in isolated rabbit hearts occurs predominantly through smooth bifurcation.

  5. Flow heterogeneity following global no-flow ischemia in isolated rabbit heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Robert C.; Powers-Risius, Patricia; Reutter, Bryan W.; Schustz, Amy M.; Kuo, Chaincy; Huesman, Michelle K.; Huesman, Ronald H.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate flow heterogeneity and impaired reflow during reperfusion following 60 min global no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart. Radiolabeled microspheres were used to measure relative flow in small left ventricular (LV) segments in five ischemia + reperfused hearts and in five non-ischemic controls. Although variable in the post-ischemic hearts, flow heterogeneity was increased relative to pre-ischemia for the whole LV (0.92 plus or minus 0.41 vs. 0.37 plus or minus 0.07, P < 0.05) as well as the subendocardium (Endo) and subepicardium (Epi) considered separately (endo: 1.28 plus or minus 0.74 vs. 0.30 plus or minus 0.09; epi: 0.69 plus or minus 0.22 vs. 0.38 plus or minus 0.08; P < 0.05 for both comparisons) during early reperfusion. There were also segments with abnormally reduced reflow. The number of segments with abnormally reduced reflow increased as flow heterogeneity increased. Abnormally reduced reflow indicates that regional ischemia can persist despite restoration of normal global flow. In addition, the relationship between regional and global flow is altered and venous outflow is derived from regions with continued perfusion and not the whole LV. These observations emphasize the need to quantify regional reflow during reperfusion following sustained no-flow ischemia in the isolated rabbit heart.

  6. Single Nisoldipine-Sensitive Calcium Channels in Smooth Muscle Cells Isolated from Rabbit Mesenteric Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Jennings F.; Deitmer, Joachim W.; Nelson, Mark T.

    1986-08-01

    Single smooth muscle cells were enzymatically isolated from the rabbit mesenteric artery. At physiological levels of external Ca, these cells were relaxed and contracted on exposure to norepinephrine, caffeine, or high levels of potassium. The patch-clamp technique was used to measure unitary currents through single channels in the isolated cells. Single channels were selective for divalent cations and exhibited two conductance levels, 8 pS and 15 pS. Both types of channels were voltage-dependent, and channel activity occurred at potentials positive to -40 mV. The activity of both channel types was almost completely inhibited by 50 nM nisoldipine. These channels appear to be the pathways for voltage-dependent Ca influx in vascular smooth muscle and may be the targets of the clinically used dihydropyridines.

  7. Aspirin induces morphological transformation to the secretory state in isolated rabbit parietal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, U K; Levine, R A

    1991-08-01

    The morphological response of rabbit parietal cells to aspirin was evaluated by grading several ultra-structural features including the extent of the tubulovesicular system, intracellular secretory canaliculi, and microvilli. After exposure of isolated parietal cells and gastric glands to aspirin or histamine, there was an approximately twofold increase in the ratio of secretory to nonsecretory parietal cells, and depletion of extracellular Ca2+ abolished the aspirin-induced morphological changes. Morphometry in parietal cells showed that aspirin induced a sixfold increase in secretory canalicular membrane elaboration. Aspirin potentiated histamine-induced parietal cell respiration and aminopyrine uptake ratio but did not increase basal respiration or aminopyrine uptake, suggesting an apparent dissociation from aspirin-induced morphological changes.

  8. Normal age-related viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes isolated from rabbit knee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Wang-ping; SUN Zhen-wei; LI Qi; LI Chun-jiang; WANG Li; CHEN Wei-yi; Jennifer Tickner; ZHENG Ming-hao; WEI Xiao-chun

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanical microenvironment of the chondrocytes plays an important role in cartilage homeostasis and in the health of the joint.The pericellular matrix,cellular membrane of the chondrocytes,and their cytoskeletal structures are key elements in the mechanical environment.The aims of this study are to measure the viscoelastic properties of isolated chondrons and chondrocytes from rabbit knee cartilage using micropipette aspiration and to determine the effect of aging on these properties.Methods Three age groups of rabbit knees were evaluated:(1) young (2 months,n=10);(2) adult (8 months,n=10);and (3) old (31 months,n=10).Chondrocytes were isolated from the right knee cartilage and chondrons were isolated from left knees using enzymatic methods.Micropipette aspiration combined with a standard linear viscoelastic solid model was used to quantify changes in the viscoelastic properties of chondrons and chondrocytes within 2 hours of isolation.The morphology and structure of isolated chondrons were evaluated by optical microscope using hematoxylin and eosin staining and collagen-6 immunofluorescence staining.Results In response to an applied constant 0.3-0.4 kPa of negative pressure,all chondrocytes exhibited standard linear viscoelastic solid properties.Model predictions of the creep data showed that the average equilibrium modulus (E∞),instantaneous modulus (E0).and apparent viscosity (μ) of old chondrocytes was significantly lower than the young and adult chondrocytes (P<0.001);however,no difference was found between young and adult chondrocytes (P>0.05).The adult and old chondrons generally possessed a thicker pericellular matrix (PCM) with more enclosed cells.The young and adult chondrons exhibited the same viscoelastic creep behavior under a greater applied pressure (1.0-1.1kPa) without the deformation seen in the old chondrons.The viscoelastic properties (E∞,E0,and u) of young and adult chondrons were significantly greater than that observed

  9. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced acute lung injury in an isolated perfused rabbit-lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masato; Nishida, Osamu; Nakamura, Fujio; Katsuya, Hirotada

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Some animal studies suggest that free radical scavengers inhibit the onset of oxidant-induced ALI. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is chemically similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as the endogenous antioxidant vitamin E. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that propofol has antioxidant potential. We hypothesized that propofol may attenuate ALI by acting as a free-radical scavenger. We investigated the effects of propofol on oxidant-induced ALI induced by purine and xanthine oxidase (XO), in isolated perfused rabbit lung, in two series of experiments. In series 1, we examined the relationship between the severity of ALI and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In series 2, we evaluated the effects of propofol on attenuating ALI and the dose dependence of these effects. The lungs were perfused for 90 min, and we evaluated the effects on the severity of ALI by monitoring the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), and the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure (Ppc). In series 1, treatment with catalase (an H2O2 scavenger) prior to the addition of purine and XO resulted in complete prevention of ALI, suggesting that H2O2 may be involved closely in the pathogenesis of ALI. In series 2, pretreatment with propofol at concentrations in excess of 0.5 mM significantly inhibited the increases in the Kfc values, and that in excess of 0.75 mM significantly inhibited the increase in the Ppa values. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced ALI in an isolated perfused rabbit lung model, probably due to its antioxidant action.

  10. Streptococcus pharyngis sp. nov., a novel streptococcal species isolated from the respiratory tract of wild rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Ana I; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F

    2015-09-01

    Four isolates of an unknown Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative coccus-shaped organism, isolated from the pharynx of four wild rabbits, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. The micro-organisms were tentatively assigned to the genus Streptococcus based on cellular morphological and biochemical criteria, although the organisms did not appear to correspond to any species with a validly published name. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed their identification as members of the genus Streptococcus, being most closely related phylogenetically to Streptococcus porcorum 682-03(T) (96.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Analysis of rpoB and sodA gene sequences showed divergence values between the novel species and S. porcorum 682-03(T) (the closest phylogenetic relative determined from 16S rRNA gene sequences) of 18.1 and 23.9%, respectively. The novel bacterial isolate could be distinguished from the type strain of S. porcorum by several biochemical characteristics, such as the production of glycyl-tryptophan arylamidase and α-chymotrypsin, and the non-acidification of different sugars. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be assigned to a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, and named Streptococcus pharyngis sp. nov. The type strain is DICM10-00796B(T) ( = CECT 8754(T) = CCUG 66496(T)).

  11. Isolation and purification of rabbit imunoglobulin (IgG) for the production of a second antibody for radioimunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R. da; Borghi, V.C.

    1990-03-01

    Immunoglobulin (IgG) from rabbit serum was isolated and purified by sodium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. The efficiency of the procedure was followed by total protein determination during all purification steps. The purity of the final product was verified through immunoelectroforesis of IgG with sheep serum anti-rabbit whole serum. Were obtained 850 mg of pure IgG, enough for the immunization of several sheeps to be used in the production of a second antibody for radioimmunoassay. (author) [pt

  12. Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) strains isolated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, Andrzej; Niedbalski, Wieslaw

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of complete genomes (7.5 kb) from RHDV strains isolated in Poland and estimate the genetic variability in different elements of the viral RNA. In addition, the sequence of Polish RHDV isolates isolated from 1988-2015 was compared with the sequences of other European RHDV, including the RHDVa and RHDV2/RHDVb subtypes. The complete sequence was developed by the compilation of partial nucleotide sequences. This sequence consisted of approximately 7428 nucleotides. For comparison of nucleotide sequences and the development of phylogenetic trees of Polish RHDV isolates and reference RHDV strains representing the main phylogenetic groups of classical RHDV, RHDVa and RHDV2 as well as the non-pathogenic rabbit lagovirus RCV, the BLAST software with blastn and MEGA6 with neighbour-joining method was applied. The complete nucleotide sequence of Polish isolates of RHDV has also been entered into GenBank. For comparative analysis, nineteen complete sequences representing the main RHDV genetic types available in GenBank were used. The results of phylogenetic analysis of Polish RHDV strains reveals the presence of three classical RHDV genogroups (G2, G4 and G5) and an RHDVa variant (G6). The oldest RHDV isolates (KGM 1988, PD 1989 and MAL 1994) belong to genogroup G2. It can be assumed that the elimination of these strains from the environment probably occurred at the turn of 1994 and 1995. Genogroup G2 was replaced by the phylogenetically younger BLA 1994 and OPO 2004 strains from genogroup G4, which probably originated from the G3 lineage, represented by the Italian strains BS89. The last representatives of classical RHDV in Poland are isolates GSK 1988 and ZD0 2000 from genogroup G5. A single clade contains the Polish RHDV strains from 2004-2015 (GRZ 2004, KRY 2004, L145 2004, W147 2005, SKO 2013, GLE 2013, RED1 2013, STR 2012, STR2 2013, STR 2014, BIE 2015) identified as RHDVa, which clustered

  13. Stretch-dependent slow force response in isolated rabbit myocardium is Na+ dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lewinski, Dirk; Stumme, Burkhard; Maier, Lars S; Luers, Claus; Bers, Donald M; Pieske, Burkert

    2003-03-15

    Stretch induces functional and trophic effects in mammalian myocardium via various signal transduction pathways. We tested stretch signal transduction on immediate and slow force response (SFR) in rabbit myocardium. Experiments were performed in isolated right ventricular muscles from adult rabbit hearts (37 degrees C, 1 Hz stimulation rate, bicarbonate-buffer). Muscles were rapidly stretched from 88% of optimal length (L88) to near optimal length (L98) for functional analysis. The resulting immediate and slow increases in twitch force (first phase and SFR, respectively) were assessed at reduced [Na+]o or without and with blockade of stretch activated ion channels (SACs), angiotensin-II (AT1) receptors, endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptors, Na+/H+-exchange (NHE1), reverse mode Na+/Ca2+-exchange (NCX), or Na+/K+-ATPase. The effects of stretch on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-load were characterized using rapid cooling contractures (RCCs). Intracellular pH was measured in BCECF-AM loaded muscles, and action potential duration (APD) was assessed using floating electrodes. On average, force increased to 216+/-8% of the pre-stretch value during the immediate phase, followed by a further increase to 273+/-10% during the SFR (n=81). RCCs significantly increased during SFR, whereas pH and APD did not change. Neither inhibition of SACs, AT1, or ET(A) receptors affected the stretch-dependent immediate phase nor SFR. In contrast, SFR was reduced by NHE inhibition and almost completely abolished by reduced [Na+]o or inhibition of reverse-mode NCX, whereas increased SFR was seen after raising [Na+]i by Na+/K+-ATPase inhibition. The data demonstrate the existence of a delayed, Na+- and Ca2+-dependent but pH and APD independent SFR to stretch in rabbit myocardium. This inotropic response appears to be independent of autocrine/paracrine AT1 or ET(A) receptor activation, but mediated through stretch-induced activation of NHE and reverse mode NCX.

  14. Inhibitory effects of Urtica dioica L. root on electrophysiological properties of isolated rabbit atrioventricular node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Enayati

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The ideal drug for treatment of a wide range of supraventricular arrhythmia hasn't yet been developed. Previous studies have shown antihypertensive and negative inotropic effects of the Urtica dioica L. (nettle. Therefore, the aim of present study is to determine the rate dependent inhibitory effects of ethanol extract of nettle root and investigate the role of adrenoceptors in the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nettle on the isolated rabbit atrio-ventricular node. Methods: Urtica dioica roots were collected from Gorgan (Golestan, Iran. Male New Zealand rabbits (n=7 were used in all of the experiments. Experimental stimulation protocols (WBCL; Recovery, Facilitation, Fatigue were applied to assess electrophysiological properties of Node. All protocols were repeated in the presence and absence (control of different concentration (0.25-0.5 w/v % of nettle and 1 μM nadolol. Data were shown as Mean±SE, difference between groups statistically were assessed by SPSS software. Results: Nettle (0.5 w/v significantly decreased basic and functional properties of node as WBCL, ERP, FRP, AVCT and magnitude of fatigue (∆AH significantly increased but ∆FRP significantly decreased. In the presence of nadolol (1μM as a nonselective β-blocker, nettle (0.3 mg/L could not repeat its effects on electrophysiological properties of AV-node. Conclusion: The results showed the modifying properties of Urtica dioica root extract. It may be considered as a candidate for the treatment of supraventicular arrhythmias.

  15. [Effects of liensinine on haemodynamics in rats and the physiologic properties of isolated rabbit atria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J L; Nong, Y; Jing, M X

    1992-01-01

    Liensinine(Lien), an alkaloid extracted from the green seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn, has been shown to have anti-arrhythmic action, its mechanism may be related to blockade of Ca2+, Na+ influx. Lien 3 mg/kg i.v. may temporarily inhibit all parameters of haemodynamics in anesthetized or pithed rats. The inhibitory effects on LVP, +dp/dtmax and SAP in anesthetized rats are slightly stronger than those of quinidine (Qui) 3 mg/kg. Lien 1-30 mg/kg dose-dependently produced these actions. Lien and Qui 12 mg/kg lowered LVP, +dp/dtmax and SAP by 33%, 37%, 29% and 9%, 12%, 9% respectively. While both of them inhibited the other parameters of haemodynamics with nearly equal degrees. The degrees of inhibitory effect of Lien 12 mg/kg on all haemodynamic parameters nearly corresponded to these of verapamil 1 mg/kg. Lien 1-100 mumol/L reduced the contractile force of isolated left atria and the spontaneously beating rate of isolated right atria of rabbits in concentration-dependent manner. These results indicate that the properties of the effect of Lien on haemodynamics may be similar to those of verapamil and different from those of Qui.

  16. Neural mechanisms of peristalsis in the isolated rabbit distal colon: a neuromechanical loop hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinning, Phil G; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Omari, Taher; Arkwright, John W; Spencer, Nick J; Brookes, Simon J H; Costa, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Propulsive contractions of circular muscle are largely responsible for the movements of content along the digestive tract. Mechanical and electrophysiological recordings of isolated colonic circular muscle have demonstrated that localized distension activates ascending and descending interneuronal pathways, evoking contraction orally and relaxation anally. These polarized enteric reflex pathways can theoretically be sequentially activated by the mechanical stimulation of the advancing contents. Here, we test the hypothesis that initiation and propagation of peristaltic contractions involves a neuromechanical loop; that is an initial gut distension activates local and oral reflex contraction and anal reflex relaxation, the subsequent movement of content then acts as new mechanical stimulus triggering sequentially reflex contractions/relaxations at each point of the gut resulting in a propulsive peristaltic contraction. In fluid filled isolated rabbit distal colon, we combined spatiotemporal mapping of gut diameter and intraluminal pressure with a new analytical method, allowing us to identify when and where active (neurally-driven) contraction or relaxation occurs. Our data indicate that gut dilation is associated with propagating peristaltic contractions, and that the associated level of dilation is greater than that preceding non-propagating contractions (2.7 ± 1.4 mm vs. 1.6 ± 1.2 mm; P polarized enteric circuits. These produce propulsion of the bolus which activates further anally, polarized enteric circuits by distension, thus closing the neuromechanical loop.

  17. Isolation of a mannose/N-acetylglucosamine receptor from rabbit lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennartz, M.R.; Wileman, T.E.; Stahl, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of a mannose receptor on alveolar macrophages was first described in 1978 and later extended to other macrophage populations. Recently the novel ligand, mannose-conjugated lactoperoxidase, was used to identify this receptor as a 175kD protein. A 175kD protein exhibiting mannose and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc)-binding properties was isolated from rabbit lung membranes. Membranes were washed with high salt, mannose and EDTA to remove endogenously bound ligand and were subsequently extracted with 1% Triton-X 100. The extract was subjected to affinity chromatography on Mannose-Sepharose followed by GlcNAc-Agarose. Triton was exchanged for 1% CHAPS while the protein was bound to GlcNAc-Agarose, allowing the eluate to be concentrated without denaturation. The eluted protein bound [ 125 I]mannose-BSA in a mannan-inhibitable fashion. Microgram quantities of protein were isolated in this fashion. SDS-PAGE revealed a major protein band at 175kD. Amino acid analysis indicates low concentrations of methionine. Results from concanavalin A binding studies and endoglycosidase F digestion suggest that the mannose receptor is a glycoprotein containing N-linked oligosaccharides

  18. Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from acute, sub-acute and sub-clinical staphylococcosis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshkumar J. Tirpude

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus bacteria isolated from different clinical presentations of staphylococcosis in rabbits were examined for the production of various virulence factors using biochemical and immunological tests. In the total of 106 S. aureus isolates; toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, staphylococcal enterotoxin-C, DNase, α-haemolysin, β-haemolysin, δ-haemolysin, protein A and clumping factor were observed with a frequency of 33.2, 16.98, 83.96, 69.81, 36.79, 100, 78.30 and 54.72 percent, respectively. No SE-A, SE-B and SE-D producing isolates were recovered in this study. All the S. aureus isolates from acute staphylococcosis produced TSST-1, SE-C and protein A. While δ–haemolysin and clumping factor were not detected in any acute isolates, these factors were observed at a relatively higher frequency in isolates from sub-acute and sub-clinical staphylococcosis. Coagulase type III was observed more predominantly with a frequency of 45.28%, while coagulase types V and VII were not observed in any isolate. Most of the virulence factors belonged to coagulase type III followed by type VI. TSST-1 and SE-C along with coagulase types III and VI could be correlated with the acute and sub-acute staphylococcal infections in rabbits in this study.

  19. Cytotopographical specialization of enzymatically isolated rabbit retinal Müller (glial) cells: K+ conductivity of the cell membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Eberhardt, W

    1988-01-01

    Müller (radial glial) cells were isolated from rabbit retinae by means of papaine and mechanical dissociation. Regional membrane properties of these cells were studied by intracellular microelectrode recordings of potential responses to local application of high K+ solutions. When different parts of the cell membrane were exposed to high K+, the amplitude of the depolarizing responses varied greatly, indicating a strong regional specialization of the membrane properties. Using morphometrical data of isolated rabbit Müller cells, and a simple circuit model, we calculated the endfoot membrane to constitute more than 80% of the total K+ conductance of the cell; the specific resistivity of the endfoot membrane was about 400 omega cm2, i.e., more than 40 times less than that of the membrane of the vitread process, which is immediately adjacent. This kind of regional membrane specialization seems to be optimized in respect to the Müller cells' ability to carry spatial buffering K+ currents.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of the Progenitor Cells From the Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Bordbar, Sima

    2013-01-01

      Objective(s): Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity. ...

  1. Transport of salicylate in proximal tubule (S2 segment) isolated from rabbit kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schild, L.; Roch-Ramel, F.

    1988-01-01

    The secretory and the reabsorptive transport of salicylate was studied in the isolated and perfused rabbit proximal tubule (S 2 segment). Salicylate secretion (J sal b→l ) fulfilled the criteria for a carrier-mediated transport system: J sal b→l was saturable, was reversibly inhibited by probenecid, and occurred against a concentration gradient. The K m and V max for this secretory transport were 80 μM and 3,200 fmol·min -1 ·mm -1 , respectively. At luminal pH of 7.4 and 6.6, salicylate reabsorption (J sal l→b ) was low. J sal l→b was stimulated by increasing the bath Pco 2 or by removing basolateral HCO 3 - ; J sal l→b was inhibited by ethoxyzolamide and by SITS in the bath. The results indicate that salicylate reabsorption depends on H + secretion, consistent with reabsorption by simple nonionic diffusion. When salicylate was present in the lumen only, J sal l→b increased after inhibition of the secretory transport by adding ouabain or probenecid in the bath or by lowering the bath temperature. These results are compatible with luminal recycling of salicylate, and suggest the presence of a mediated secretory transporter located at the luminal membrane

  2. Effect of adenosine1-receptor blockade on renin release from rabbit isolated perfused juxtaglomerular apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihprecht, H; Lorenz, J N; Schnermann, J

    1990-01-01

    Adenosine has been proposed to act within the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) as a mediator of the inhibition of renin secretion produced by a high NaCl concentration at the macula densa. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the adenosine1 (A1)-receptor blocker 8-cyclopentyl-1......,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX) on renin release from single isolated rabbit JGAs with macula densa perfused. The A1-receptor agonist, N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), applied in the bathing solution at 10(-7) M, was found to inhibit renin secretion, an effect that was completely blocked by adding CPX (10(-5) M) to the bath....... Applied to the lumen, 10(-5) M CPX produced a modest stimulation of renin secretion rates suppressed by a high NaCl concentration at the macula densa (P less than 0.05). The effect of changing luminal NaCl concentration on renin secretion rate was examined in the presence of CPX (10(-7) and 10(-5) M...

  3. Intracellular recordings from isolated rabbit retinal Müller (glial) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Eberhardt, W

    1986-09-01

    Müller (glial) cells were isolated from rabbit retinae by papaine and mechanical dissociation. The cells were fixed on a gelatine-covered glass slide by means of concanavalin A, and the slide was mounted in a perfusion chamber under a light microscope with modified optics. Besides the recording microelectrode, two other micropipettes could be adjusted with their tips near the cell. These micropipettes were used for application of test solutions into the environment of the cells. On application of high K+ solutions, the cell depolarized strongly but during prolonged application there was a marked repolarization. After the end of high K+ application the cells showed a hyperpolarization which was enhanced in both amplitude and duration with prolongation of the K+ exposure. Both repolarization and afterhyperpolarization disappeared under ouabain. Ouabain application itself caused a small reversible depolarization. Na+ free solution caused hyperpolarization. The results suggest the existence of an active membrane pump mechanism in our cells. This pump seems to be electrogenic under our experimental conditions and seems to be activated even in the absence of sodium. The cell membrane is demonstrated to contain a significant Na+ conductance.

  4. Mechanisms behind the relaxing effect of furosemide on the isolated rabbit ear artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, R.; Aalkjaer, C.; Andreasen, F. (Institute of Pharmacology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of furosemide on isometric contration and {sup 86}Rb uptake were studied in the isolated rabbit central ear artery (CEA). A concentration-dependent relaxing effect of furosemide (0.06 mM-1.0 mM) was found in vessel segments with intact endothelium. The maximal relaxation was 28.6+-3.9% (10). The effect was not diminished in segments deprived of endothelium, and removal of endothelium itself caused no change of the force development to electrical field stimualtion. The relaxing effect was time-dependent and stimulation-dependent and was not significantly affected by membrane depolarization induced by increasing external (K{sup +}) from 10 to 120 mM. The {sup 86}Rb uptake was inhibited by both furosemide and ouabain (8.0+-0.5(8) and 5.3+-0.5(8) versus 12.8+-0.9(16) nmol (K{sup +})x mm{sup -1}x(10 min.){sup -1} in the furosemide (1.0 mM), ouabain (1.0 mM) and control groups, respectively) without interaction between the two drugs. The {sup 86}Rb uptake was not further inhibited by increasing the furosemide concentration from 0.12 mM to 1.0 mM. Our results suggest: firstly, the direct relaxing effect of furosemide on isolated vessel segments in endothelium-independent and secondly, the inhibition of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-Cl{sup -} cotransport and a possible consequent hyperpolarization of the membrane is unlikely to be the sole mechanism responsible for the vasorelaxant effect of furosemide. The demonstrated direct effect on vascular tone may be of clinical importance in situations with very high plasma concentrations of the drug or very low concentrations of serum albumin. (aluthor).

  5. The uptake and metabolism of cystamine and taurine by isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Kodavanti, U.P.; Smith, L.L.; Mehendale, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Cystamine has been reported to be taken up by the lung slices and metabolized to taurine via hypotaurine through enzymatic processes. The objective of these studies was to determine whether intact isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs also posses similar characteristics. The lungs were isolated from male New Zealand white rabbits and S-D rats and perfused with 20 μM [ 14 C] cystamine (Sp. Act., 16.4 mCi/mmol) for 60 min and 30 min, respectively. Cystamine and its metabolites in lung as well as in perfusate were separated by TLC and quantitated using scintillation spectrometry. Similar experiments were also conducted with 20 μM taurine to investigate its fate in perfused lungs. Significant pulmonary uptake of cystamine and taurine occurred during perfusion. Cystamine was metabolized to [ 14 C] hypotaurine and [ 14 C] taurine. No further metabolism of taurine was evident in rat or rabbit lungs. Inclusion of 1 nM GSH did not significantly alter the ability of lungs to sequester cystamine, but the metabolism of hypotaurine to taurine was decreased. It was evident that cystamine was metabolized to taurine by perfused lungs in the same way as in lung slices

  6. Effects of Acetylcholine and Noradrenalin on Action Potentials of Isolated Rabbit Sinoatrial and Atrial Myocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; Geuzebroek, Guillaume S. C.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Wilders, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system controls heart rate and contractility through sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs to the cardiac tissue, with acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenalin (NA) as the chemical transmitters. In recent years, it has become clear that specific Regulators of G protein Signaling proteins (RGS proteins) suppress muscarinic sensitivity and parasympathetic tone, identifying RGS proteins as intriguing potential therapeutic targets. In the present study, we have identified the effects of 1 μM ACh and 1 μM NA on the intrinsic action potentials of sinoatrial (SA) nodal and atrial myocytes. Single cells were enzymatically isolated from the SA node or from the left atrium of rabbit hearts. Action potentials were recorded using the amphotericin-perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of ACh, NA, or a combination of both. In SA nodal myocytes, ACh increased cycle length and decreased diastolic depolarization rate, whereas NA decreased cycle length and increased diastolic depolarization rate. Both ACh and NA increased maximum upstroke velocity. Furthermore, ACh hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential. In atrial myocytes stimulated at 2 Hz, both ACh and NA hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential, increased the action potential amplitude, and increased the maximum upstroke velocity. Action potential duration at 50 and 90% repolarization was decreased by ACh, but increased by NA. The effects of both ACh and NA on action potential duration showed a dose dependence in the range of 1–1000 nM, while a clear-cut frequency dependence in the range of 1–4 Hz was absent. Intermediate results were obtained in the combined presence of ACh and NA in both SA nodal and atrial myocytes. Our data uncover the extent to which SA nodal and atrial action potentials are intrinsically dependent on ACh, NA, or a combination of both and may thus guide further experiments with RGS proteins. PMID:22754533

  7. Morphological variability, lectin binding and Na+,K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity of isolated Müller (glial) cells from the rabbit retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Dettmer, D; Brückner, G; Neumann, M; Birkenmeyer, G

    1985-03-22

    Rabbit retinal Müller cells were isolated by means of papaine and mechanical dissociation. These cells were shown to have a well preserved morphology and to preserve viability for many hours. Intense wheat germ agglutinin binding occurs on the photoreceptor side of Müller cells, especially in the microvillous region. Rabbit retinal Müller cells have a Na+,K+-activated adenosine triphosphatase activity in the same order of magnitude as brain astroglial cells.

  8. Effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors on atrial dynamics induced by C-type natriuretic peptide in isolated beating rabbit atria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Dazhi; Cui Xun; Jin Xiunan; Lan Ying; Liu Liping; Hong Lan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEI) on atrial dynamics induced by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and the contents of cyclic nucleotide (cAMP, cGMP) in isolated beating rabbit atria. Methods: After the rabbits had been anesthetized, the hearts were removed rapidly. The left auricles were isolated and fixed on the atrial perfusion system. The atrial stroke volume and the pulse pressure were observed by CNP with or without PDEIs pretreatment. The contents of cAMP and cGMP were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: (1)Compared with control cycle group, CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 ) obviously decreased the atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure (P 0.05). (2)Compared with control cycle group, IBMX(1000.0 nmol · L -1 ), a non-selective inhibitor of PDE, significantly increased the atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, cAMP and cGMP contents (P -1 ) plus CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 )group and IBMX group (P>0.05). (3)Compared with control cycle group, EHNA(30.0 nmol · L -1 ), an inhibitor of PDE2, obviously decreased the atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure (P 0.05). EHNA(30.0 nmol · L -1 ) plus CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 ) showed similar roles with EHNA only. (4)Compared with control cycle group, milrinone (1.0 nmol · L -1 ), an inhibitor of PDE3, significantly increased the content of cAMP (P 0.05). CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 ) obviously decreased the atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure (P 0.05). Conclusion: CNP can inhibit atrial dynamics by increasing the content of cGMP, the different inhibitors of PDEs play different roles in the CNP-induced inhibition of atrial dynamics in isolated beating rabbit atria. (authors)

  9. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from patients with toxic shock syndrome, using polyethylene infection chambers in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, D F; Kling, J M; Kirkland, J J; Best, G K

    1983-01-01

    Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from patients with toxic shock syndrome (TSS) were compared with non-TSS strains of S. aureus with respect to their virulence in rabbits. When the organisms were injected into subcutaneous chambers (perforated polyethylene golf balls) to assess virulence, a rapid mortality was observed with TSS but not with non-TSS strains. Of 16 TSS strains, 11 caused lethal infections in 33 rabbits tested, and none of the 5 control strains caused mortality in 10 rabbits. This evidence of enhanced virulence associated with TSS strains did not appear to be associated with the size of the inoculum. In addition, strains which produced lethal infections appeared to do so despite a reduction in the size of the original inoculum during the first 24 h. All of the TSS strains and none of the non-TSS strains elaborated extracellular protein(s) with a neutral pI when grown in a dialyzed beef heart medium. No other physiological difference was noted between the TSS and non-TSS strains.

  10. Validation of transport measurements in skeletal muscle with N-13 amino acids using a rabbit isolated hindlimb model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, K.C.; Bading, J.R.; DiResta, G.R.; Corbally, M.T.; Gelbard, A.S.; Brennan, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors are studying the transport of C-11 and N-13 labeled amino acids in tumor-bearing rabbits to determine the role of amino acid transport in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting in cancer. To validate a new, in vivo, method for measuring transport in skeletal muscle with these compounds, an isolated hindlimb model was developed in rabbits. The limb was perfused with a non-recirculating, normothermic, constant pressure system and a cell-free perfusate. Hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were measured during the first 75 min. of perfusion and found to remain normal and stable. Flow varied directly with perfusion pressure over the normal range of resting flows in the intact rabbit hindlimb. Time-activity curves (TAC's) were recorded from the medial thigh following bolus co-injection of L-[amide N-13] glutamine or N-13 L-glutamate with Tc-99m human serum albumin (HSA) into the femoral artery. Regional plasma flow was determined from the Tc-99m data

  11. Isolation and characterization of the progenitor cells from the blastema tissue formed at experimentally-created rabbit ear hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza; Bordbar, Sima

    2013-02-01

    Objective(s) : Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS). Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  12. Isoflurane administration before ischemia and during reperfusion attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury of isolated rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Ishibe, Y; Ueda, M; Hang, Y

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the effects of isoflurane on ischemia/ reperfusion (IR)-induced lung injury, we administered isoflurane before ischemia or during reperfusion. Isolated rabbit lungs were divided into the following groups: control (n = 6), perfused and ventilated for 120 min without ischemia; ISO-control (n = 6), 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) isoflurane was administered for 30 min before 120 min continuous perfusion; IR (n = 6), ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion; IR-ISO1 and IR-ISO2, ischemia followed by reperfusion and 1 MAC (n = 6) or 2 MAC (n = 6) isoflurane for 60 min; ISO-IR (n = 6), 1 MAC isoflurane was administered for 30 min before ischemia, followed by IR. During these maneuvers, we measured total pulmonary vascular resistance (Rt), coefficient of filtration (Kfc), and lung wet to dry ratio (W/D). The results indicated that administration of isoflurane during reperfusion inhibited an IR-induced increase in Kfc and W/D ratio. Furthermore, isoflurane at 2 MAC, but not 1 MAC, significantly inhibited an IR-induced increase in Rt. The administration of isoflurane before ischemia significantly attenuated the increase in IR-induced Kfc, W/D, and Rt. Our results suggest that the administration of isoflurane before ischemia and during reperfusion protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in isolated rabbit lungs.

  13. Models of torsades de pointes: effects of FPL64176, DPI201106, dofetilide, and chromanol 293B in isolated rabbit and guinea pig hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsien C; Incardona, Josephine

    2009-01-01

    For studying the torsades de pointes (TdP) liability of a compound, most high and medium throughput methods use surrogate markers such as HERG inhibition and QT prolongation. In this study, we have tested whether isolated hearts may be modified to allow TdP to be the direct readout. Isolated spontaneously beating rabbit and guinea pig hearts were perfused according to the Langendorff method in hypokalemic (2.1 mM) solution. The in vitro lead II ECG equivalent and the incidence of TdP were monitored for 1 h. In addition, heart rate, QTc, Tp-Te, short-term variability (STV), time to arrhythmia, and time to TdP were also analyzed. FPL64176, a calcium channel activator; and DPI201106, a sodium channel inactivation inhibitor, produced TdP in isolated rabbit and guinea pig hearts in a concentration dependent manner; guinea pig hearts were 3- to 5-fold more sensitive than rabbit hearts. Both compounds also increased QTc and STV. In contrast, dofetilide, an IKr inhibitor, produced no (or a low incidence of) TdP in both species, in spite of prolongation of QTc intervals. Chromanol 293B, an IKs inhibitor, did not produce TdP in rabbit hearts but elicited TdP concentration dependently in guinea pig hearts even though the compound had no effect on QTc intervals. IKs inhibition appears to be more likely to produce TdP in isolated guinea pig hearts than IKr inhibition. Chromanol 293B did not produce TdP in rabbit hearts presumably due to a low level of IKs channels in the heart. TdP produced in this study was consistent with the notion that its production was a consequence of reduced repolarization reserve, thereby causing rhythmic abnormalities. This isolated, perfused, and spontaneously beating rabbit and guinea pig heart preparation in hypokalemic medium may be useful as a preclinical test model for studying proarrhythmic liability of compounds in new drug development.

  14. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  15. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  16. Late effects of irradiation in mouse jejunum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaud, A.; Travis, E.L.

    1984-01-01

    The response of mouse jejunum at intervals up to 1 year after single 'priming' doses of X-rays has been assessed by crypt survival after retreatment with single doses of X-rays and morphometric analysis of changes in the intestinal submucosa. The crypt dose-survival curves in mice re-irradiated at 2, 6, or 12 months after priming irradiation were displaced to higher doses in pre-treated than in non-pre-treated mice and were characterized by higher D 0 values. Misonidazole given before the test exposure reversed this effect so that the dose survival curve for crypts in pre-treated mice were superimposed on that for mice not previously irradiated, suggesting that the increase in isoeffect dose and the change in the D 0 in previously exposed mice was due to crypt hypoxia. Quantifications of the area of the submucosa showed that its area was increased at all three times after the priming doses and was a result of collagen deposition and oedema. Thus, the hypoxia in the crypts was probably secondary to these changes. Deaths began at 6-7 months after priming irradiation and were due to intestinal obstruction and stenosis. Thus, as in other tissues, two phases of injury can be assayed in the intestine of experimental animals. (author)

  17. Common-path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography of irradiated human skin and ventilated isolated rabbit lungs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, A.; Wendel, M.; Knels, L.; Knuschke, P.; Mehner, M.; Koch, T.; Boller, D.; Koch, P.; Koch, E.

    2005-08-01

    A compact common path Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system based on a broadband superluminescence diode is used for biomedical imaging. The epidermal thickening of human skin after exposure to ultraviolet radiation is measured to proof the feasibility of FD-OCT for future substitution of invasive biopsies in a long term study on natural UV skin protection. The FD-OCT system is also used for imaging lung parenchyma. FD-OCT images of a formalin fixated lung show the same alveolar structure as scanning electron microscopy images. In the ventilated and blood-free perfused isolated rabbit lung FD-OCT is used for real-time cross-sectional image capture of alveolar mechanics throughout tidal ventilation. The alveolar mechanics changing from alternating recruitment-derecruitment at zero positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) to persistent recruitment after applying a PEEP of 5 cm H2O is observed in the OCT images.

  18. Ventricular filling slows epicardial conduction and increases action potential duration in an optical mapping study of the isolated rabbit heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Derrick; Mills, Robert W.; Schettler, Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Omens, Jeffrey H.; McCulloch, Andrew D.; McCullough, A. D. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanical stimulation can induce electrophysiologic changes in cardiac myocytes, but how mechanoelectric feedback in the intact heart affects action potential propagation remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Changes in action potential propagation and repolarization with increased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure from 0 to 30 mmHg were investigated using optical mapping in isolated perfused rabbit hearts. With respect to 0 mmHg, epicardial strain at 30 mmHg in the anterior left ventricle averaged 0.040 +/- 0.004 in the muscle fiber direction and 0.032 +/- 0.006 in the cross-fiber direction. An increase in ventricular loading increased average epicardial activation time by 25%+/- 3% (P action potential duration at 20% repolarization (APD20) but did at 80% repolarization (APD80), from 179 +/- 7 msec to 207 +/- 5 msec (P action potential duration by a load-dependent mechanism that may not involve stretch-activated channels.

  19. Bretylium potentiation of the contractor responses of isolated rabbit aortic strips to potassium and tyramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, K; Shibata, S

    1971-09-01

    1. Pretreatment of rabbit aortic strips with bretylium potentiated the contractor response to potassium and tyramine but not to noradrenaline. On the other hand, such pretreatment inhibited the response to nicotine.2. Even in reserpinized or cold stored aortic strips, pretreatment with bretylium enhanced the contractor response to potassium and tyramine.3. Pretreatment of fresh, reserpinized, or cold stored aortic strips with pheniprazine potentiated the contractor response to potassium and tyramine.4. Pretreatment of aortic strips with bretylium or pheniprazine did not potentiate the response to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT).5. The results indicate that both bretylium and pheniprazine potentiate the action of tyramine and potassium, not by presynaptic mechanisms, but by postsynaptic action, causing an increase in the sensitivity of the effector cells to the stimulants.

  20. Effects of peptides derived from dietary proteins on mucus secretion in rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claustre, Jean; Toumi, Férial; Trompette, Aurélien; Jourdan, Gérard; Guignard, Henri; Chayvialle, Jean Alain; Plaisancié, Pascale

    2002-09-01

    The hypothesis that dietary proteins or their hydrolysates may regulate intestinal mucin discharge was investigated in the isolated vascularly perfused rat jejunum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for rat intestinal mucins. On luminal administration, casein hydrolysate [0.05-5% (wt/vol)] stimulated mucin secretion in rat jejunum (maximal response at 417% of controls). Lactalbumin hydrolysate (5%) also evoked mucin discharge. In contrast, casein, and a mixture of amino acids was without effect. Chicken egg albumin and its hydrolysate or meat hydrolysate also did not modify mucin release. Interestingly, casein hydrolysate-induced mucin secretion was abolished by intra-arterial TTX or naloxone (an opioid antagonist). beta-Casomorphin-7, an opioid peptide released from beta-casein on milk ingestion, induced a strong mucin secretion (response at 563% of controls) that was inhibited by naloxone. Intra-arterial beta-casomorphin-7 also markedly increased mucin secretion (410% of controls). In conclusion, two enzymatic milk protein hydrolysates (casein and lactalbumin hydrolysates) and beta-casomorphin-7, specifically, induced mucin release in rat jejunum. The casein hydrolysate-induced mucin secretion is triggered by a neural pathway and mediated by opioid receptor activation.

  1. Comparative studies on mitochondria isolated from neuron-enriched and glia-enriched fractions of rabbit and beef brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamberger, A; Blomstrand, C; Lehninger, A L

    1970-05-01

    Fractions enriched in neuronal and glial cells were obtained from dispersions of whole beef brain and rabbit cerebral cortex by large-scale density gradient centrifugation procedures. The fractions were characterized by appropriate microscopic observation. Mitochondria were then isolated from these fractions by differential centrifugation of their homogenates. The two different types of mitochondria were characterized with respect to certain enzyme activities, respiratory rate, rate of protein synthesis, and their buoyant density in sucrose gradients. The mitochondria from the neuron-enriched fraction were distinguished by a higher rate of incorporation of amino acids into protein, higher cytochrome oxidase activity, and a higher buoyant density in sucrose density gradients. Mitochondria from the glia-enriched fraction showed relatively high monoamine oxidase and Na(+)- and K(+)-stimulated ATPase activities. The rates of oxidation of various substrates and the acceptor control ratios did not differ appreciably between the two types of mitochondria. The difference in the buoyant density of mitochondria isolated from the neuron-enriched and glia-enriched cell fractions was utilized in attempts to separate neuronal and glial mitochondria from the mixed mitochondria obtained from whole brain homogenates in shallow sucrose gradients. The appearance of two peaks of cytochrome oxidase, monoamine oxidase, and protein concentration in such gradients shows the potential feasibility of such an approach.

  2. Hydroxyl radicals' production and ECG parameters during ischemia and reperfusion in rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulova, Hana; Stracina, Tibor; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Novakova, Marie; Taborska, Eva

    2013-06-01

    Ischemic and reperfusion injury is a serious condition related to numerous biochemical and electrical abnormalities of the myocardium. It has been repeatedly studied in various animal models. In this study, the production of hydroxyl radicals and electrophysiological parameters were compared in three species. Rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated hearts were perfused according to Langendorff under strictly identical conditions. The heart rate and arrhythmia were monitored during ischemia and reperfusion periods at defined time intervals; the production of hydroxyl radical was determined by HPLC as 2.5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2.5-DHBA) formed by salicylic acid hydroxylation. Relationship between arrhythmias and production of 2.5-DHBA was studied. The inter-species differences were observed in timing of arrhythmias onset and their severity, and in the production of 2.5-DHBA in both ischemia and reperfusion. The most considerable changes were observed in rats, where arrhythmias appeared early and with highest severity during ischemia on one side and the regular rhythm was restored early and completely during reperfusion. The corresponding changes in the production of 2.5-DHBA were observed. It can be concluded that rat isolated heart is the most suitable model for evaluation of ischemia/reperfusion injury under given experimental conditions.

  3. Assay for plasma somatomedin: (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation by isolated rabbit chondrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashton, I K; Francis, M J.O. [Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Oxford (UK)

    1977-01-01

    The incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine by rabbit chondrocytes in vitro has been developed as a sensitive assay for plasma somatomedin. A concentration of normal plasma of 2.5% enhanced (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation by 5- to 20-fold compared with basal levels in the absence of plasma. The mean potency of plasma from normal adult men was 0.96 +-0.1 u./ml (mean +- S.D.) and from acromegalic patients 1.9 +- 0.4 u./ml. The apparent potency of hypopituitary plasma alone increased on heating which suggested the presence of heat-labile inhibitors of somatomedin activity. The potency of heated hypopituitary plasma (0.6 +- 0.09 u./ml) remained significantly lower (P < 0.01) than normal plasma. Human growth hormone (0.1 to 20 ..mu..u/ml), bovine growth hormone (0.5 to 20 ..mu..u/ml), insulin (0.5 to 5 ..mu..u/ml) and glucose (0.3 to 2 mmol/l) had no direct effect on the incorporation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine. Chondrocytes which had been previously stored frozen also showed a response to plasma somatomedin.

  4. Water permeability of acinar cell membranes in the isolated perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, M C; Seo, Y; Rawlings, J M; Case, R M

    1990-01-01

    1. The diffusive water permeability of epithelial cell membranes in the perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland was measured at 37 degrees C by a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation method using an extracellular relaxation reagent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd(DTPA)). 2. In glands perfused with a HEPES-buffered solution containing 10 mmol l-1 Gd(DTPA), the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of the water protons showed two exponential components. The water compartment responsible for the slower component corresponded in magnitude to 71 +/- 5% of the wet weight of the gland, and was attributed to the exchangeable intracellular water of the acinar cells. 3. The rate constant for water efflux from the cells was estimated to be 4.1 +/- 0.1 s-1 which would be consistent with a diffusive membrane permeability (Pd) of approximately 3 x 10(-3) cm s-1. Stimulation with acetylcholine (10(-6) mol l-1) did not cause any detectable change in membrane water permeability. 4. Since the basolateral membrane probably provides the main pathway for water efflux, the osmotic water permeability of this barrier (expressed per gland) was estimated to be less than 6.2 cm3 s-1. This would be insufficient to account for the generation of a near-isosmotic fluid at the flow rates observed during secretion, and suggests that a substantial fraction of the flow of water occurs via a paracellular route. PMID:1966053

  5. Stricture of the duodenum and jejunum in an abused child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, P.; Applegate, K.E.; Buonomo, C.

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal injury secondary to child abuse in which the child had both a duodenal hematoma and contained perforations of the duodenum and proximal jejunum. These injuries were evaluated by both CT scan and upper gastrointestinal (GI) series. The child's nausea and vomiting persisted despite conservative treatment; after 3 weeks a repeat upper GI series demonstrated high-grade duodenal obstruction. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and a calcified, fibrotic mesentery and strictures in the distal duodenum and proximal jejunum were found. To our knowledge, his unusual complication of blunt abdominal trauma has not been described in association with child abuse. (orig.)

  6. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  7. Perforation of the jejunum-an unusual mechanism | Iribhogbe | Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    seater bus conveying several passengers and an unrestrained coffin. The bus was involved in a roll-over vehicle crash during which the patient suffered a severe impact to the abdomen from the coffin with perforation of the jejunum. She had a ...

  8. Lipomatosis of the jejunum with volvulus: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kyung A; Bae, Kyung Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Mi Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Han Bee; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal lipomatosis is an extremely rare disease that is characterized by numerous lipomas of the intestine. This condition is usually asymptomatic, but clinical presentation is determined by intussusceptions, volvulus, or ulceration. We report a case of intestinal lipomatosis of the jejunum with volvulus and describe the characteristic computed tomography findings that were used to make a preoperative diagnosis.

  9. Lipomatosis of the jejunum with volvulus: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyung A; Bae, Kyung Eun; Kim, Soo Hyun; Kang, Mi Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Han Bee; Kim, Jae Hyun; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kim, Hyun Jung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Intestinal lipomatosis is an extremely rare disease that is characterized by numerous lipomas of the intestine. This condition is usually asymptomatic, but clinical presentation is determined by intussusceptions, volvulus, or ulceration. We report a case of intestinal lipomatosis of the jejunum with volvulus and describe the characteristic computed tomography findings that were used to make a preoperative diagnosis.

  10. Differential Kolaviron Attenuated Contractile Responses to Agonists on Isolated Rabbit Aorta in Na+-K+ Pump Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, O K; Ofeimun, J O

    2017-12-30

    The mechanism of kolaviron-induced vascular smooth muscles (VSMs) responses has not been fullycharacterised. The present study investigated the effect and mode of action of kolaviron a biflavanoid-complex and majorcomponent of Garcinia Kola-fraction on differential contractile responses to agonists-[phenylephrine (PHE) and histamine(HIST)] on VSMs of rabbit isolated aortic rings in K+-free physiological salt solution (KFPSS). Cumulative concentrationresponses to PHE and HIST were examined on 2 mm ring segments of the thoracic aortae which were suspended in 20 mlorgan baths containing physiological salt solution (PSS) for measurement of isometric contractions, at 370C and pH 7.4. Themedium was bubbled with 95% O2, 5% CO2, and rings were given an initial load of 1g. Cumulative contractile responses tothe agonists were studied in normal PSS (control) and following 30 minutes exposure to K+-free PSS and/or 800µg/mLkolaviron. Contractile responses were expressed as percentage of 80 mM K+ contractions in normal PSS. Maximalcontractions (Emax) induced by PHE and HIST compared with high K+ contraction in the various preparations weredifferentially altered following exposure to K+-free or 800µg/mL kolaviron in both intact (+E) and endotheliumdenuded (-E) rings. Based on the efficacy (Emax) and potency (EC50) values for the dose-response curves of the agonists, it isconcluded that enhanced differential contractile responses elicited by agonists in K+-free PSS were significantly attenuatedby kolaviron concentration-dependently. This observation probably suggests the existence of another pathway of kolavironmode of action in vascular smooth muscle reactivity.

  11. Activation of rho is involved in the mechanism of hydrogen-peroxide-induced lung edema in isolated perfused rabbit lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Y; Ishii, Y; Kitamura, S; Sugiyama, Y

    2001-09-01

    Acute lung injury is attributed primarily to increased vascular permeability caused by reactive oxygen species derived from neutrophils, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Increased permeability is accompanied by the contraction and cytoskeleton reorganization of endothelial cells, resulting in intercellular gap formation. The Rho family of Ras-like GTPases is implicated in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and cell contraction. We examined the role of Rho in H2O2-induced pulmonary edema with the use of isolated perfused rabbit lungs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the role of Rho in increased vascular permeability induced by H2O2 in perfused lungs. Vascular permeability was evaluated on the basis of the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc, ml/min/cm H2O/100 g). We found that H2O2 (300 microM) increased lung weight, Kfc, and pulmonary capillary pressure. These effects of H2O2 were abolished by treatment with Y-27632 (50 microM), an inhibitor of the Rho effector p160 ROCK. In contrast, the muscular relaxant papaverine inhibited the H2O2-induced rise in pulmonary capillary pressure, but did not suppress the increases in lung weight and Kfc. These findings indicate that H2O2 causes pulmonary edema by elevating hydrostatic pressure and increasing vascular permeability. Y-27632 inhibited the formation of pulmonary edema by blocking both of these H2O2-induced effects. Our results suggest that Rho-related pathways have a part in the mechanism of H2O2-induced pulmonary edema. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  12. Mitochondrial function in type I cells isolated from rabbit arterial chemoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchen, M R; Biscoe, T J

    1992-05-01

    1. In this, and the accompanying paper (Duchen & Biscoe, 1992), we test the hypothesis that the oxygen sensitivity of mitochondrial electron transport forms a basis for transduction in the carotid body, the primary peripheral arterial oxygen sensor. We here describe for isolated type I cells the changes in autofluorescence of mitochondrial NAD(P)H that accompany changes in PO2. 2. NAD(P)H autofluorescence (excitation, 340-360 nm; emission peak, 450 nm) increased with anoxia, reflecting a rise in the NAD(P)H/NAD(P) ratio. Graded increases in autofluorescence were seen in response to graded decreases in PO2, suggesting that mitochondrial function is progressively altered below a PO2 of about 60 mmHg. 3. A mitochondrial origin for the NAD(P)H autofluorescence was suggested by the mutual exclusion of the responses to anoxia and cyanide. 4. Oxidized flavoproteins fluoresce when excited at 450 nm with an emission peak at 550 nm. The small signals obtained under these conditions increased with uncoupler and showed a graded decrease with falling PO2 reflecting a rise in the FADH/FAD ratio. 5. Hypoxia raises [Ca2+]i. The hypoxia-induced changes in mitochondrial function were not secondary to this rise. A brief K(+)-induced depolarization leads to a transient increase in [Ca2+]i. At the same time there is a rapid decrease in NAD(P)H autofluorescence followed by an increase that far outlasts the rise in [Ca2+]i. This delayed increase in autofluorescence was smaller than was the increase with anoxia, even though K(+)-induced depolarization raised [Ca2+]i more than does anoxia. In Ca(2+)-free solutions the depolarization-induced changes were abolished, while those associated with hypoxia were maintained. 6. The changes of autofluorescence with K(+)-induced depolarization appear to reflect (i) oxidation of NAD(P)H by stimulation of respiration following mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and (ii) reduction of NAD(P) by the Ca(2+)-dependent activation of mitochondrial dehydrogenases. This

  13. Effect of radiation on glucose absorption in the nouse jejunum in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overgaard, J.; Matsui, Masasuke (Danish Cancer Society, Aarhus (Denmark). Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology)

    1990-05-01

    In an attempt to develop a clinical assay for intestinal damage, the relationship between radiation dose and glucose absorpion in the jejunum has been investigated. Lightly anesthetised C3D2F1 mice had their upper abdomen irradiated. The intestine was exteriorized and a 10-cm segment of the jejunum was isolated and included in a closed circuit perfusion loop. An isotonic solution containing 2 mg/ml D-glucose was perfused in 2 h and the rate of glucose absorption calculated. The absorption decreased as a function of dose and time after irradiation with the most prominent reduction after 4-5 days, returning to normal within a week after irradiation. A dose-response relationship was found after single doses between 5 and 17.5 Gy. Split-dose recovery of approximately 7.5. Gy was fond within 2-4 h. This absorption insufficiency was only found to be present acutely, and no late abnormalities were seen for times greater than 12 months after irradiation. The results correlated with other functional endpoints such as absorptive surface. This assay seems suitable to demonstrate (acute) functional intestinal radiation damage and has obvious clinical applicability. (author). 31 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab.

  14. Slowing of electrical activity in ventricular fibrillation is not associated with increased defibrillation energies in the isolated rabbit heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane eCaldwell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF arrests are associated with reduced ECG dominant frequency (DF and diminished defibrillation success. Partial reversal of ischaemia increases ECG DF and improves defibrillation outcome. We have investigated the metabolic components of ischaemia responsible for the decline in ECG DF and defibrillation success.Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were loaded with the voltage-sensitive dye RH237. Using a photodiode array, epicardial membrane potentials were recorded at 252 sites (15x15mm on the anterior surface of the left & right ventricles. Simultaneously, a global ECG was recorded. VF was induced by burst pacing, and after 60s, perfusion was either reduced to 6ml/min or the perfusate composition changed to impose hypoxia (95%N2/5%CO2, pH 6.7 (80%O2/20%CO2, or hyperkalaemia (8mM. Using Fast Fourier Transform, power spectra were created from the optical signals and the global ECG. The optical power spectra were summated to give a global power spectrum (pseudoECG. At 600s the minimum defibrillation voltage (MDV was determined by step-up protocol.During VF, the ECG and pseudoECG DF were reduced by low-flow ischaemia (9.0±1.0Hz, p<0.01, n=5 and raised [K+]o (12.2±1.3 Hz, p<0.05, n=7 compared to control (19.2±1.5 Hz, n=20, but were unaffected by acidic pHo (16.7±1.1 Hz, n=11 and hypoxia (14.0±1.2 Hz, n=10. In contrast, the MDV was raised by acidic pH (156.1±26.4V, p<0.001 and hypoxia (154.1±22.1V, p<0.01 compared to control (65.6±2.3V, but comparable changes were not observed in low-flow ischaemia (61.0±0.5V or raised [K+]o (56±3V. In summary, different metabolites are responsible for the reduction in DF and the increase in defibrillation energy during ischaemic VF.

  15. Anti-staphylococcal properties of Eichhornia crassipes, Pistacia vera, and Ziziphus amole leaf extracts: Isolates from cattle and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Morales, Andrea; Velázquez-Ordoñez, Valente; Khusro, Ameer; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Estrada-Zúñiga, María Elena; Salem, Mohamed Z M; Valladares-Carranza, Benjamin; Burrola-Aguilar, Cristina

    2017-12-01

    The desideratum aim of the present context was to assess the biopotency of methanolic extracts of Eichhornia crassipes (E. crassipes), Pistacia vera (P. vera), and Ziziphus amole (Z. amole) leaves against various staphylococcal strains, and to quantify the phenolics as well as saponin content in them. The antibacterial activity of various concentrations (62.5-1000 μg/mL) of plant extracts was tested against control clinical strains (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 29213, and S. aureus ATCC 43300), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA1 and MRSA2), oxacillin sensitive S. aureus (SOSA1 and SOSA2), and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus epidermidis (CoNS1, CoNS2, and CoNS3) using disc diffusion assay. Leaf extracts of the three plants exhibited pronounced growth inhibitory characteristics against staphylococci in a dose dependent manner. E. crassipes extract depicted the highest relative percentage inhibition values against control clinical strains (68.6 ± 0.5%), while P. vera (68.6 ± 0.3%) and Z. amole (74.79 ± 0.3%) extracts showed pronounced relative inhibition values against staphylococcal strains isolated from cattle. Total phenols and saponin content of leaf extracts were investigated by standard in vitro methods. The methanolic extracts of these plants were found to comprise substantial content of phenolics and saponin at varying levels. The highest value of phenolics was estimated in P. vera extract (60.0 ± 1.3 mg gallic acid/g extract), followed by Z. amole (33.6 ± 1.4 mg gallic acid/g extract), and E. crassipes (23.0 ± 1.3 mg gallic acid/g extract). Saponin content for P. vera, Z. amole, and E. crassipes extracts were estimated as 41.0 ± 1.3, 35.8 ± 1.3, and 25.0 ± 1.2 mg diosgenin/g extract, respectively. The outcome of this study suggested the exploitation of methanolic extract of P. vera, Z. amole, and E. crassipes leaves for their possible application in ethnomedicine, particularly as drugs preparation

  16. Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in spontaneous activity generated in isolated interstitial cells of Cajal from the rabbit urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Maria; Bradley, Eamonn; Garcia-Pascual, Angeles; Triguero, Domingo; Thornbury, Keith D; Hollywood, Mark A; Sergeant, Gerard P

    2017-11-05

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are non-selective cation channels that mediate influx of extracellular Na + and Ca 2+ in various cell types. L-cis-Diltiazem, a CNG channel blocker, inhibits contraction of urethral smooth muscle (USM), however the mechanisms underlying this effect are still unclear. We investigated the possibility that CNG channels contribute to spontaneous pacemaker activity in freshly isolated interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) isolated from the rabbit urethra (RUICC). Using immunocytochemistry, we found intense CNG1-immunoreactivity in vimentin-immunoreactive RUICC, mainly within patches of the cellular body and processes. In contrast, α-actin immunoreactive smooth muscle cells (SMC) did not show significant reactivity to a specific CNGA1 antibody. Freshly isolated RUICC, voltage clamped at -60mV, developed spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) that were inhibited by L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM). Similarly, L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM) also inhibited Ca 2+ waves in isolated RUICC, recorded using a Nipkow spinning disk confocal microscope. L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM) did not affect caffeine (10mM)-induced Ca 2+ transients, but significantly reduced phenylephrine-evoked Ca 2+ oscillations and inward currents in in RUICC. L-type Ca 2+ current amplitude in isolated SMC was reduced by ~18% in the presence of L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM), however D-cis-Diltiazem, a recognised L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker, abolished L-type Ca 2+ current but did not affect Ca 2+ waves or STICs in RUICC. These results indicate that the effects of L-cis-diltiazem on rabbit USM could be mediated by inhibition of CNG1 channels that are present in urethral ICC and therefore CNG channels contribute to spontaneous activity in these cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of a Large Panel of Rabbit Monoclonal Antibodies against HIV-1 gp120 and Isolation of Novel Neutralizing Antibodies against the V3 Loop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yali Qin

    Full Text Available We recently reported the induction of potent, cross-clade neutralizing antibodies (nAbs against Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 in rabbits using gp120 based on an M-group consensus sequence. To better characterize these antibodies, 93 hybridomas were generated, which represent the largest panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs ever generated from a vaccinated rabbit. The single most frequently recognized epitope of the isolated mAbs was at the very C-terminal end of the protein (APTKAKRRVVEREKR, followed by the V3 loop. A total of seven anti-V3 loop mAbs were isolated, two of which (10A3 and 10A37 exhibited neutralizing activity. In contrast to 10A3 and most other anti-V3 loop nAbs, 10A37 was atypical with its epitope positioned more towards the C-terminal half of the loop. To our knowledge, 10A37 is the most potent and broadly neutralizing anti-V3 loop mAb induced by vaccination. Interestingly, all seven anti-V3 loop mAbs competed with PGT121, suggesting a possibility that early induction of potent anti-V3 loop antibodies could prevent induction of more broadly neutralizing PGT121-like antibodies that target the conserved base of the V3 loop stem.

  18. Application of Response Surface Methodology to Study the Effects of Brisket Fat, Soy Protein Isolate, and Cornstarch on Nutritional and Textural Properties of Rabbit Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, Edward G.; Wanyoike, Margaret M. M.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of brisket fat, soy protein isolate, and cornstarch on chemical and textural properties of rabbit sausages were studied using surface response methodology. Sausage samples were prepared using a five-level three-variable Central Composite Rotatable Design with 16 combinations, including two replicates of the center point, carried out in random order. The level of brisket fat (BF), soy protein isolate (SPI), and cornstarch (CS) in the sausage formulation ranged within 8.3–16.7%, 0.7–2.3%, and 1.3–4.7%, respectively. Increasing BF decreased moisture and ash contents but increased protein and fat contents of the sausages (p sausages (p sausages than CS. PMID:28706941

  19. Malignancy risk prediction for primary jejunum-ileal tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARQUES Ruy Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed at identifying factors associated with primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy, defining a prediction model with sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to distinguish malign from benign neoplasms. These tumors are rare, have highly unspecific presentation and, frequently, are diagnosed late. We reviewed the charts of 42 patients with primary jejunum-ileal tumors treated in the Department of General Surgery of Rio de Janeiro State University Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, from 1969 to 1998. We performed bivariate analyses, based on chi² test, searching associations between tumors malignancy and demographic and clinical variables. Then logistic regression was employed to consider the independent effect of variables previously identified on malignancy risk. The malign tumors included 11 adenocarcinomas, 7 leiomyosarcomas, 5 carcinoids and 4 lymphomas; the benign tumors included 10 leiomyomas, 2 hamartomas, and single cases of adenoma, multiple neurilemoma and choristoma. The bivariate analyses indicated the association between malignancy and palpable abdominal mass (P = 0.003, period from signs and symptoms onset to diagnosis (P = 0.016, anemia (P = 0.020, anorexia (P = 0.003, abdominal pain (P = 0.031, weight loss (P = 0.001, nausea and vomit (P = 0.094, and intestinal obstruction (P = 0.066; no association with patients demographic characteristics were found. In the final logistic regression model, weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction were statistically associated with the dependent variable of interest. Based only on three variables -- weight loss, anemia and intestinal obstruction -- the model defined was able to predict primary jejunum-ileal tumors malignancy with sensitivity of 85.2%, specificity of 80.0%, and accuracy of 83.3%.

  20. Isolation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against two subunits of rabbit poxvirus-associated, DNA-directed RNA polymerase.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, D K; Carter, J K; Moyer, R W

    1985-01-01

    A library of monoclonal antibodies directed against individual proteins of the rabbit poxvirus (RPV) virion within a complex immunogenic mixture has been generated through the use of in vivo and in vitro immunization regimens. The relative efficacies of the two procedures were compared. Based on immunoblot analysis, the in vitro immunization regimen led both to a wider variety of monoclonal antibodies to different proteins and to a larger number of antibodies directed against proteins of high...

  1. Potassium accumulation by the glial membrane pump as revealed by membrane potential recording from isolated rabbit retinal Müller cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Nilius, B; Eberhardt, W

    1986-01-30

    Müller (glial) cells were isolated from rabbit retinae by papaine and mechanical dissociation. In a special perfusion chamber, the cells were penetrated with a recording electrode. When high-K+ solutions were applied into the environment of the cells by means of a second micropipette, the cell membrane depolarized strongly. During prolonged application of high-K+ solutions, however, there occurred a marked repolarization, and after cessation of high-K+ application, a strong hyperpolarization was observed. Both effects disappeared under the influence of ouabain, suggesting the accumulation of intracellular K+ by an active membrane pump. The data were used for calculation of the membrane's Na+:K+ permeability ratio, the intracellular K+ concentration, the pump rate and the mean pump site density. The calculated values are in good agreement with published data from mammalian astrocytes and are compared with those from amphibian Müller cells.

  2. Antibacterial activity of oregano and sage plant extracts against decarboxylase-positive enterococci isolated from rabbit meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Chrastinová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant extracts (sage, oregano against decarboxylase-positive enterococci from rabbit back limb meat  was reported in this study. Oregano plant extract inhibited the growth of all 34 tested enterococci (the inhibitory zones: 12 to 45 mm. The growth of the majority of strains  (n=23 was inhibited by oregano plant extract (the high size inhibitory zones (higher than 25 mm. The growth of 11 strains  was inhibited by oregano extract reaching medium size inhibitory zones (10 to 25mm. The most sensitive strain to oregano extract was E. faecium M7bA (45 mm. Sage extract was less active against tested enterococci (n=16  reaching lower inhibitory zones (up to 10 mm. doi:10.5219/239 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Types 121 and 14 Repeatedly Isolated Within One Year of Sampling in a Rabbit Meat Processing Plant: Persistence and Ecophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, Frédérique; Palma, Federica; Guillier, Laurent; Lucchi, Alex; De Cesare, Alessandra; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2018-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen adapted to survive and persist in multiple environments. Following two previous studies on prevalence and virulence of L. monocytogenes ST121 and ST14 repeatedly collected in a the same rabbit-meat processing plant, the research questions of the present study were to: (1) assess persistence of L. monocytogenes isolates from the rabbit-plant; (2) select genes associated to physiological adaptation to the food-processing environment; (3) compare presence/absence/truncation of these genes in newly sequenced and publicly available ST121 and ST14 genomes. A total of 273 draft genomes including ST121 and ST14 newly sequenced and publicly available draft genomes were analyzed. Whole-genome Single Nucleotide Polymorfism (wgSNP) analysis was performed separately on the assemblies of ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. SNPs alignments were used to infer phylogeny. A dataset of L. monocytogenes ecophysiology genes was built based on a comprehensive literature review. The 94 selected genes were screened on the assemblies of all ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. Significant gene enrichments were evaluated by statistical analyses. A persistent ST14 clone, including 23 out of 27 newly sequenced genomes, was circulating in the rabbit-meat plant along with two not persistent clones. A significant enrichment was observed in ST121 genomes concerning stress survival islet 2 (SSI-2) (alkaline and oxidative stress), qacH gene (resistance to benzalkonium chloride), cadA1C gene cassette (resistance to 70 mg/l of cadmium chloride) and a truncated version of actA gene (biofilm formation). Conversely, ST14 draft genomes were enriched with a full-length version of actA gene along with the Listeria Genomic Island 2 (LGI 2) including the ars operon (arsenic resistance) and the cadA4C gene cassette (resistance to 35 mg/l of cadmium chloride). Phenotypic tests confirmed ST121 as a weak biofilm producer in comparison to ST14. In conclusion, ST121 carried the

  4. Listeria monocytogenes Sequence Types 121 and 14 Repeatedly Isolated Within One Year of Sampling in a Rabbit Meat Processing Plant: Persistence and Ecophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Pasquali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen adapted to survive and persist in multiple environments. Following two previous studies on prevalence and virulence of L. monocytogenes ST121 and ST14 repeatedly collected in a the same rabbit-meat processing plant, the research questions of the present study were to: (1 assess persistence of L. monocytogenes isolates from the rabbit-plant; (2 select genes associated to physiological adaptation to the food-processing environment; (3 compare presence/absence/truncation of these genes in newly sequenced and publicly available ST121 and ST14 genomes. A total of 273 draft genomes including ST121 and ST14 newly sequenced and publicly available draft genomes were analyzed. Whole-genome Single Nucleotide Polymorfism (wgSNP analysis was performed separately on the assemblies of ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. SNPs alignments were used to infer phylogeny. A dataset of L. monocytogenes ecophysiology genes was built based on a comprehensive literature review. The 94 selected genes were screened on the assemblies of all ST121 and ST14 draft genomes. Significant gene enrichments were evaluated by statistical analyses. A persistent ST14 clone, including 23 out of 27 newly sequenced genomes, was circulating in the rabbit-meat plant along with two not persistent clones. A significant enrichment was observed in ST121 genomes concerning stress survival islet 2 (SSI-2 (alkaline and oxidative stress, qacH gene (resistance to benzalkonium chloride, cadA1C gene cassette (resistance to 70 mg/l of cadmium chloride and a truncated version of actA gene (biofilm formation. Conversely, ST14 draft genomes were enriched with a full-length version of actA gene along with the Listeria Genomic Island 2 (LGI 2 including the ars operon (arsenic resistance and the cadA4C gene cassette (resistance to 35 mg/l of cadmium chloride. Phenotypic tests confirmed ST121 as a weak biofilm producer in comparison to ST14. In conclusion, ST121

  5. Kinetic identification of an intracellular calcium compartment sensitive to phosphate and dinitrophenol in intact isolated rabbit aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai, C.M.; Phair, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work from this laboratory revealed the presence of at least three distinct intracellular calcium compartments in intact segments of rabbit aorta. In this study one of these intracellular compartments is shown to be sensitive to dinitrophenol and to increased extracellular phosphate. Intact aortic segments were loaded with 45 Ca in bicarbonate-buffered physiologic salt solution for 1 hour, and then transferred to a flow-through chamber perfused with physiologic salt solution. Effluent from the chamber was collected for 8 hours, and 45 Ca efflux curves were analyzed using compartmental analysis. When aortic segments were loaded and washed out in dinitrophenol, the slowest component of the efflux curve was less prominent; in high phosphate it was more prominent. The rate constant changes required to account for these data were primarily in the exchange between the cytosolic and slowest intracellular calcium compartment, suggesting that the slowest calcium compartment resolved during the 8-hour washout was mitochondrial. This compartment contained 5.4 +/- 3.2 nmol calcium/g wet wt. tissue. The calcium flux across its membranes was 0.32 +/- 0.04 nmol min-1g-1. Because this flux is much smaller than the plasma-membrane calcium flux, we suggest that, in normal physiological circumstances, plasma-membrane extrusion is more important for the removal of Ca from the smooth muscle cytosol than is uptake into this slow intracellular compartment

  6. Rabbit analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing popularity of rabbits as household pets, the complexity of diagnostic and surgical procedures performed on rabbits is increasing, along with the frequency of routine surgical procedures. More practitioners are faced with the need to provide adequate analgesia for this species. Preemptive analgesia prior to planned surgical interventions may reduce nervous system changes in response to noxious input, as well as reduce postoperative pain levels and analgesic drug requirements. Concurrent administration of analgesic drugs to anesthetized rabbits undergoing painful procedures is warranted both pre- and intraoperatively as well as postoperatively. This article discusses the neuropharmacologic and pharmacologic aspects of pain in rabbits, and reviews current protocols for the use of analgesic drugs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. The protective effect of cilostazol on isolated rabbit femoral arteries under conditions of ischemia and reperfusion: the role of the nitric oxide pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana R.G.A. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The clinical significance of ischemia/reperfusion of the lower extremities demands further investigation to enable the development of more effective therapeutic alternatives. This study investigated the changes in the vascular reactivity of the rabbit femoral artery and nitric oxide metabolites under partial ischemia/ reperfusion conditions following cilostazol administration. METHODS: Ischemia was induced using infrarenal aortic clamping. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: Control 90 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 90/60 minutes, Control 120 minutes, Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, Cilostazol, Cilostazol before Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 minutes, and Ischemia 120 minutes/Cilostazol/ Reperfusion 90 minutes. Dose-response curves for sodium nitroprusside, acetylcholine, and the calcium ionophore A23187 were obtained in isolated femoral arteries. The levels of nitrites and nitrates in the plasma and skeletal muscle were determined using chemiluminescence. RESULTS: Acetylcholine-and A23187-induced relaxation was reduced in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90 group, and treatment with cilostazol partially prevented this ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelium impairment. Only cilostazol treatment increased plasma levels of nitrites and nitrates. An elevation in the levels of nitrites and nitrates was observed in muscle tissues in the Ischemia/Reperfusion 120/90, Cilostazol/Ischemia/Reperfusion, and Ischemia/ Cilostazol/Reperfusion groups. CONCLUSION: Hind limb ischemia/reperfusion yielded an impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation of the femoral artery. Furthermore, cilostazol administration prior to ischemia exerted a protective effect on endotheliumdependent vascular reactivity under ischemia/reperfusion conditions.

  8. Quantitative and qualitative morphology of rabbit retinal glia. A light microscopical study on cells both in situ and isolated by papaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A

    1987-01-01

    Rabbit retinal glia was studied by light microscopy of both stained sections of frozen retinae and enzymatically isolated cells. In the vast majority of this tissue, except for a small region around the optic nerve head, the glia consists solely of radial glia, i.e. Müller cells whose morphology was found to depend markedly on their topographic localization within the retina. Müller cells in the periphery are short and have thick vitreal processes bearing a single large endfoot. Central Müller cells are long and slender; through the thickening nerve fibre layer they send vitreal processes which are subdivided into several fine branches ending with multiple small endfeet. Müller cells in the retinal centre are far more closely packed than those in the periphery; everywhere, however, a constant ratio of Müller cells: neurons of about 1:15 was found, except for the juxta-optic nerve head region where this ratio is slightly reduced. Where the central retina reaches a thickness requiring Müller cell lengths of more than 130 micron, additional non-radial glial cells occur within the nerve fibre layer. The majority of these cells seem to be astrocytes. Their number per retinal area increases with the thickening of both the whole retina and the nerve fibre layer. The occurrence of these non-radial glial cells leads to an enhancement of the glia:neuron index in the retinal centre. Possible mechanisms of physiological control of gliogenesis are discussed.

  9. Travel of a mis-swallowed long spoon to the jejunum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Guo, Hua; Wu, Jian-Yong

    2009-01-01

    Foreign-body ingestion is a relatively common presentation at emergency departments, but long metallic spoon swallowing is an infrequent occurrence. Unlike most cases of foreign-body ingestion, there have been no reported cases of long foreign bodies reaching the jejunum. We report a rare case of a coffee spoon that was swallowed accidentally and passed through the pylorus and duodenal loop and reached the jejunum, with no complications. PMID:19842235

  10. Effect of re-expansion after short-period lung collapse on pulmonary capillary permeability and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in isolated rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, T; Ishibe, Y; Okazaki, N; Miura, K; Liu, R; Nagai, S; Minami, Y

    2004-04-01

    Re-expansion pulmonary oedema is a rare complication caused by rapid re-expansion of a chronically collapsed lung. Several cases of pulmonary oedema associated with one-lung ventilation (OLV) have been reported recently. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary oedema fluid are suggested to play important roles in its development. Activation of cytokines after re-expansion of collapsed lung during OLV has not been thoroughly investigated. Here we investigated the effects of re-expansion of the collapsed lung on pulmonary oedema formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Lungs isolated from female white Japanese rabbits were perfused and divided into a basal (BAS) group (n=7, baseline measurement alone), a control (CONT) group (n=9, ventilated without lung collapse for 120 min) and an atelectasis (ATEL) group (n=9, lung collapsed for 55 min followed by re-expansion and ventilation for 65 min). Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and the coefficient of filtration (Kfc) were measured at baseline and 60 and 120 min. At the end of perfusion, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/plasma protein ratio (B/P), wet/dry lung weight ratio (W/D) and mRNA expressions of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined. TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA were significantly up-regulated in lungs of the ATEL group compared with BAS and CONT, though no significant differences were noted in PVR, Kfc, B/P and W/D within and between groups. MPO increased at 120 min in CONT and ATEL groups. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated upon re-expansion and ventilation after short-period lung collapse, though no changes were noted in pulmonary capillary permeability.

  11. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida involved in rabbit infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massacci, Francesca Romana; Magistrali, Chiara Francesca; Cucco, Lucilla

    2018-01-01

    In rabbit, P. multocida is considered a predominant pathogenic agent; despite this, few data on the molecular epidemiology are available so far. The aim of this work was to characterize P. multocida isolates from rabbit affected by various diseases in Italy. Comparison was made to reference strains...... belonged to the LPS genotypes 3 (22/39) or 6 (17/39). The clonal relationships of the Italian strains from rabbit had similarity to previously reported rabbit isolates that belonged to ST9, ST74, ST204 and ST206, however, they differed from other rabbit references strains that belonged to six other STs....... In particular, ST9 with capsular type F has been previously reported from diseased rabbit in Czech Republic and ST74 has been observed for older rabbit isolates. ST50 has probably been reported from Spain. ST9 and ST50 have previously also been reported from birds and pig, respectively, whereas ST74 has...

  13. Fluorescein transport properties across artificial lipid membranes, Caco-2 cell monolayers and rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berginc, Katja; Zakelj, Simon; Levstik, Lea; Ursic, Darko; Kristl, Albin

    2007-05-01

    Membrane transport characteristics of a paracellular permeability marker fluorescein were evaluated using artificial membrane, Caco-2 cell monolayers and rat jejunum, all mounted in side-by-side diffusion cells. Modified Ringer buffers with varied pH values were applied as incubation salines on both sides of artificial membrane, cell culture monolayers or rat jejunum. Passive transport according to pH partition theory was determined using all three permeability models. In addition to that, active transport of fluorescein in the M-S (mucosal-to-serosal) direction through rat jejunum was observed. The highest M-S P(app) values regarding the active transport through the rat jejunum were observed in incubation saline with pH 6.5. Fluorescein transport through the rat jejunum was inhibited by DIDS (4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid) and alpha-CHC (alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid). Thus, we assume that two pH-dependent influx transporters could be involved in the fluorescein membrane transport through the intestinal (jejunal) epithelium. One is very likely an MCT (monocarboxylic acid cotransporter) isoform, inhibited by specific MCT inhibitor alpha-CHC, while the involvement of the second one with overlapping substrate/inhibitor specificities (most probably a member of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide family, inhibited at least partially by DIDS) could not be excluded.

  14. Genistein Stimulates Jejunum Chloride Secretion via an Akt-Mediated Pathway in Intact Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Leung

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: We have previously shown that daily subcutaneous injections with the naturally occurring phytoestrogen genistein (600 mg genistein/kg body weight/day, 600G results in a significantly increased basal intestinal chloride, Cl-, secretion (Isc, a measure of transepithelial secretion in intact C57BL/6J female mice after 1-week of treatment, compared to controls (DMSO vehicle injected. Removal of endogenous estrogen via ovariectomy (OVX had no effect on the 600G-mediated increase in basal Isc. Methods: Given the estrogen-like characteristics of genistein, we compared the effects of daily estradiol (E2 injections (10 mg E2/kg body weight/day, 10E2 on basal Isc in intact and OVX mice. In intact mice, 10E2 was without effect on basal Isc, however, in OVX mice, 10E2 significantly increased basal Isc (mimicked 600G. The goal of the current study was to characterize the intracellular signaling pathways responsible for mediating 600G- or 10E2-stimulated increases in basal Isc in intact female or OVX mice. Results: We measured total protein expression in isolated segments of jejunum using western blot from the following six groups of mice; intact or OVX with; 600G, 10E2 or control. The proteins of interest were: Akt, p-Akt, p-PDK1, p-PTEN, p-c-Raf, p-GSK-3β, rap-1 and ERK1/2. All blots were normalized to GAPDH levels (n = 6-18/group. Conclusion: These data suggest that the presence of the endogenous sex steroid, estrogen, modifies the intracellular signaling pathway required to mediate Cl- secretion when the intestine is exposed to exogenous 600G or E2. These studies may have relevance for designing pharmacological tools for women with intestinal chloride secretory dysfunctions.

  15. Cholera Toxin Induces Sustained Hyperexcitability in Myenteric, but Not Submucosal, AH Neurons in Guinea Pig Jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C. Bornstein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cholera toxin (CT-induced hypersecretion requires activation of secretomotor pathways in the enteric nervous system (ENS. AH neurons, which have been identified as a population of intrinsic sensory neurons (ISNs, are a source of excitatory input to the secretomotor pathways. We therefore examined effects of CT in the intestinal lumen on myenteric and submucosal AH neurons.Methods: Isolated segments of guinea pig jejunum were incubated for 90 min with saline plus CT (12.5 μg/ml or CT + neurotransmitter antagonist, or CT + tetrodotoxin (TTX in their lumen. After washing CT away, submucosal or myenteric plexus preparations were dissected keeping circumferentially adjacent mucosa intact. Submucosal AH neurons were impaled adjacent to intact mucosa and myenteric AH neurons were impaled adjacent to, more than 5 mm from, and in the absence of intact mucosa. Neuronal excitability was monitored by injecting 500 ms current pulses through the recording electrode.Results: After CT pre-treatment, excitability of myenteric AH neurons adjacent to intact mucosa (n = 29 was greater than that of control neurons (n = 24, but submucosal AH neurons (n = 33, control n = 27 were unaffected. CT also induced excitability increases in myenteric AH neurons impaled distant from the mucosa (n = 6 or in its absence (n = 5. Coincubation with tetrodotoxin or SR142801 (NK3 receptor antagonist, but not SR140333 (NK1 antagonist or granisetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist prevented the increased excitability induced by CT. Increased excitability was associated with a reduction in the characteristic AHP and an increase in the ADP of these neurons, but not a change in the hyperpolarization-activated inward current, Ih.Conclusions: CT increases excitability of myenteric, but not submucosal, AH neurons. This is neurally mediated and depends on NK3, but not 5-HT3 receptors. Therefore, CT may act to amplify the secretomotor response to CT via an increase in the

  16. The antispasmodic activity of Buddleja scordioides and Buddleja perfoliata on isolated intestinal preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Alma Rosa; Delgadillo, Alba Jady; Hurtado, Marcela; Domínguez-Ramírez, Adriana Miriam; Medina, José Raúl; Aoki, Kazuko

    2006-06-01

    The antispasmodic activity of extracts from the aerial parts of Buddleja scordioides and Buddleja perfoliata (family: Scrophulariaceae) was studied on isolated tissue preparations from rabbit and guinea pig intestine. The chloroformic extract from the plants exhibited a significant relaxation on the spontaneous contraction of isolated rabbit jejunum at concentrations ranging from 1 to 400 microg/ml, and also caused an inhibitory effect on both K+ and Ca2+ induced contractions in the same tissue. The extracts at moderate doses (50 microg/ml) reduced 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), acetylcholine and histamine induced contractions on isolated guinea pig ileum. Therefore, B. scordioides and B. perfoliata possess similar relaxant mechanism of action, in view of the fact that both inhibit K+ induce contraction and act through serotoninic, muscarinic and histaminic receptors. So, these data support the idea that the extracts may interfere either with calcium mobilization from intracellular stores, or with calcium interaction with regulatory proteins (e.g., calmodulin), or in other steps in the calcium signaling pathway. This leads us to suggest that the spasmolytic effect of both Buddleja species on smooth muscular contractility are due to the same or similar compounds occurring in these two species, which might be present in similar quantities.

  17. Migration of a retained surgical swab into the jejunum in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, J L; Pechman, R D; Bahr, R J

    2012-12-01

    A two-year-old spayed female shih-tzu was referred with a 10-month history of lethargy, chronic diarrhoea and weight loss. On presentation, a partial response to antibiotics was noted. Physical examination revealed an abdominal mass, and serum biochemistry and haematology revealed a mature neutrophilia, hypoalbuminaemia and a non-regenerative anaemia. Contrast radiography and abdominal ultrasound were suggestive of an intraluminal foreign body. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a surgical swab in the lumen of the jejunum that was associated with severe adhesions. Histopathology showed evidence of transmural migration of the swab from the peritoneal cavity to the lumen of the jejunum. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Single Jejunum Metastasis from Breast Cancer Arising Twelve Years after the Initial Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic involvement of gastrointestinal tract from breast cancer is a rare event. We report the case of a 61-year-old woman presenting with bowel obstruction, related to metastasis of a primary breast cancer she had 12 years earlier (a triple-negative invasive ductal carcinoma treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Bowel obstruction was caused by a 20-centimeter tumor in the jejunum, involving also the transverse colon. The patient underwent en bloc resection of tumor with jejunum and transverse bowel segment and received adjuvant chemotherapy with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Twenty months later, she was alive without disease recurrence.

  19. Alteration effect of the PGFsub(2α) inhibition on the 3H-norepinephrine release caused by α2 receptor blocking, sodium loading and 4-aminopyridine addition in isolated pulmonary arteries of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunyevacs, Zs.; Toeroek, T.; Hadhazy, P.; Magyar, K.; Feher, L.; Vizi, E.Sz.

    1983-01-01

    The tritium labelled norepinephrine release was measured in isolated pulmonary artery of rabbit. If the 3 H-norepinephrine release was induced by nerves stimulated with electric current, the PGFsub(2α) inhibited the release by 62%. In the presence of Yohimbin the inhibitory effect of FGFsub(2α) was increased to 78.8%. If the Na + pump activity was reduced by potassium-free medium the PGFsub(2α) inhibition remained at 62%. In the presence of 4-aminopyridine the potassium channel was blocked and the PGFsub(2α) inhibition decreased to 32.1%. The endogen prostaglandin may serve as a modulator of the neurotransmitter release. (L.G.)

  20. Catechol estrogen formation by brain tissue: characterization of a direct product isolation assay for estrogen-2- and 4-hydroxylase activity and its application to studies of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol formation by rabbit hypothalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersey, R.M.; Williams, K.I.; Weisz, J.

    1981-01-01

    A direct product isolation assay for quantifying the formation of 2- and 4-hydroxyestradiol (2-OHE2 and 4-OHE2) from [6,7-3H]estradiol by rabbit hypothalami in vitro was developed, and the assay was used to characterize some properties of estrogen-2- and 4-hydroxylase activity in this tissue. The reaction was carried out under conditions that minimized further metabolism of enzymatically formed catechol estrogens. A simple two-step separation procedure, involving the use of a neutral alumina column, followed by thin layer chromatography, was developed to isolate the enzymatically formed catechol estrogens in a radiochemically homogeneous form. The detergent, Tween-80, was found to activate the enzyme and was used routinely at a concentration of 0.1% in the assay. The formation of 2-OHE2 was linear up to 10 min and with increasing protein concentrations up to 150 micrograms/incubation. Similar values were obtained for 4-OHE2. Maximum velocities (Vmax) for the formation of 2- and 4-OHE2 were 190 and 270 pmol/mg protein . 10 min, respectively. The apparent Km values with respect to estradiol for 2-OHE2 and 4-OHE2 were 125 and 150 microM, respectively. The highest specific activity for the enzyme was present in the 100,000 X g supernatant (S3), while the activity in the microsomal fraction (P3) was less than that in the original homogenate. Enzyme activity depended on the presence of NADPH and oxygen and was inhibited by CO as well as by high concentrations of SKF-525A. Estrogen-2- and 4-hydroxylase activity in rabbit hypothalamus differed from that in rat liver in two respects. In the liver, enzyme activity was localized in the microsomal fraction and was virtually abolished by Tween-80. In contrast, enzyme activity in rabbit hypothalamus was maximal in the soluble fraction (100,000 X g supernatant)and was stimulated by the detergent

  1. Infliximab's influence on anastomotic strength and degree of inflammation in intestinal surgery in a rabbit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostberg, Erik; Ström, Petter; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    and conclusions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a single dose infliximab has an adverse effect on the anastomotic healing process, observed as reduced anastomotic breaking strength and histopathologically verified lower grade of inflammatory response, in the small intestine of a rabbit....... METHODS: Thirty New Zealand rabbits (median weight 2.5 kg) were allocated to treatment with an intravenous bolus of either 10 mg/kg infliximab (n = 15) or placebo (n = 15). One week later all rabbits underwent two separate end-to-end anastomoses in the jejunum under general anesthesia. At postoperative...... day three, the anastomotic breaking strength was determined and histopathological changes were examined. RESULTS: The mean value of anastomotic breaking strength in the placebo group was 1.89 +/- 0.36 N and the corresponding value was 1.81 +/- 0.33 N in the infliximab treated rabbits...

  2. Alteration in gene expression in the jejunum mucosa of Angus steers with divergent ADG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing ration containing (on a DM basis) 67.8% ...

  3. Milk bioactive peptides and beta-casomorphins induce mucus release in rat jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompette, Aurélien; Claustre, Jean; Caillon, Fabienne; Jourdan, Gérard; Chayvialle, Jean Alain; Plaisancié, Pascale

    2003-11-01

    Intestinal mucus is critically involved in the protection of the mucosa. An enzymatic casein hydrolysate and beta-casomorphin-7, a mu-opioid peptide generated in the intestine during bovine casein digestion, markedly induce mucus discharge. Because shorter mu-opioid peptides have been described, the effects of the opioid peptides in casein, beta-casomorphin-7, -6, -4, -4NH2 and -3, and of opioid neuropeptides met-enkephalin, dynorphin A and (D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,glycinol5)enkephalin (DAMGO) on intestinal mucus secretion were investigated. The experiments were conducted with isolated perfused rat jejunum. Mucus secretion under the influence of beta-casomorphins and opioid neuropeptides administered intraluminally or intra-arterially was evaluated using an ELISA for rat intestinal mucus. Luminal administration of beta-casomorphin-7 (1.2 x 10(-4) mol/L) provoked a mucus discharge (500% of controls) that was inhibited by naloxone, a specific opiate receptor antagonist. Luminal beta-casomorphin-6, -4 and -4NH2 did not modify basal mucus secretion, whereas intra-arterial administration of beta-casomorphin-4 (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a mucus discharge. In contrast, intra-arterial administration of the nonopioid peptide beta-casomorphin-3 did not release mucus. Among the opioid neuropeptides, intra-arterial infusion of Met-enkephalin or dynorphin-A did not provoke mucus secretion. In contrast, beta-endorphin (1.2 x 10(-8) to 1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L) induced a dose-dependent release of mucus (maximal response at 500% of controls). DAMGO (1.2 x 10(-6) mol/L), a mu-receptor agonist, also evoked a potent mucus discharge. Our findings suggest that mu-opioid neuropeptides, as well as beta-casomorphins after absorption, modulate intestinal mucus discharge. Milk opioid-derived peptides may thus be involved in defense against noxious agents and could have dietary and health applications.

  4. Impact of ileocecal resection and concomitant antibiotics on the microbiome of the murine jejunum and colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony A Devine

    Full Text Available Ileocecal resection (ICR is a commonly required surgical intervention in unmanageable Crohn's disease and necrotizing enterocolitis. However, the impact of ICR, and the concomitant doses of antibiotic routinely given with ICR, on the intestinal commensal microbiota has not been determined. In this study, wild-type C57BL6 mice were subjected to ICR and concomitant single intraperitoneal antibiotic injection. Intestinal lumen contents were collected from jejunum and colon at 7, 14, and 28 days after resection and compared to non-ICR controls. Samples were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. The intestinal microbiota was altered by 7 days after ICR and accompanying antibiotic treatment, with decreased diversity in the colon. Phylogenetic diversity (PD decreased from 11.8 ± 1.8 in non-ICR controls to 5.9 ± 0.5 in 7-day post-ICR samples. There were also minor effects in the jejunum where PD values decreased from 8.3 ± 0.4 to 7.5 ± 1.4. PCoA analysis indicated that bacterial populations 28 days post-ICR differed significantly from non-ICR controls. Moreover, colon and jejunum bacterial populations were remarkably similar 28 days after resection, whereas the initial communities differed markedly. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the predominant phyla in jejunum and colon before ICR; however, Firmicutes became the vastly predominant phylum in jejunum and colon 28 days after ICR. Although the microbiota returned towards a homeostatic state, with re-establishment of Firmicutes as the predominant phylum, we did not detect Bacteroidetes in the colon 28 days after ICR. In the jejunum Bacteroidetes was detected at a 0.01% abundance after this time period. The changes in jejunal and colonic microbiota induced by ICR and concomitant antibiotic injection may therefore be considered as potential regulators of post-surgical adaptive growth or function, and in a setting of active IBD, potential contributors to post

  5. Radiation induced changes in proteome of mice jejunum: an in vivo 2DE study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, Sania; Dutta, Ajaswrata; Gupta, Manju L.

    2014-01-01

    Radiation exposure results in severe damage to biological system, by affecting cellular macromolecules of an individual. Damage to bio-molecules may lead to up/down-regulation of proteins, leading to dysfunction of organs. Gastrointestinal tract a key organ for digestion, absorption and barrier to the luminal bacteria and toxins, is one of the highly sensitive radiosensitive organ. Current study is focused on differential proteomic approach to understand the effect of radiation on intestinal (jejunum) proteins in a time dependent manner. Experiments were carried out initially to determine the appropriate conditions for separation of proteins in GI tissue of non irradiated control male C57BL6/J mice. 8-10 weeks old animals were exposed to 9 Gy (lethal) dose of gamma radiation. Differential expression of gastrointestinal tissue (jejunum) proteome was studied by 2DE at different time intervals. The intensity of protein spots of different treatment groups and control was measured by PD Quest software and the differential expression of respective proteins was calculated manually. Comparison of 2-DE gel images of irradiated jejunum tissue samples showed differential expression of various proteins when compared with untreated samples. A significant upregulation of total protein spots was observed within 1 hr group of 9 Gy radiation exposed sample and maximum down-regulation was evident at 72 hr. Out of 24 spots identified in the irradiated samples, 15 spots were down-regulated, and 3 spots were found missing in 72 hr group of irradiated samples respectively. Time dependent regulation of protein expression in irradiated jejunum was thus prominently evident. The data obtained from the present study has revealed differential radio sensitivity of some of the proteins which certainly have a definite role in inducing major cellular changes after radiation exposure. The finding also suggests that proteomic approach could be a potential tool to access the role of specific

  6. Bleeding peptic ulcer caused by ectopic gastric mucosa in a duplicated segment of jejunum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newmark, H.; Ching, G.; Halls, J.; Levy, I.J.

    1981-01-01

    The authors present a case in which a patient suffered a bleeding jejunal ulcer caused by heterotopic gastric mucosa in a congenital duplication of a segment of jejunum. This is the first case diagnosed preoperatively by two different radiographic means. These lesions were shown by both pertechnetate flow and barium small bowel studies. The rarity of these entities and the modalities used for diagnosis are described

  7. Oxidant-stimulated chloride secretion in rat jejunum in vitro is mediated by eicosanoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, L.S.; Bukhave, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Specific effects of the cytotoxic secondary lipid oxidation product, 4- hydroxynonenal (10(-8) - 10(-4) M), on intact sheets of rat jejunum were measured as changes in short circuit current (DeltaI(sc)) following cumulative addition to either the mucosal or serosal side, using the analogous...... (4- hydroxynonenal: 88.9 +/- 3.0%, N = 6, p piroxicam (10 μM), while 4......- hydroxynonenal- induced &UDelta;I-sc, was abolished by piroxicam (N = 8, P

  8. Mechanism for esophagus-jejunum stent bypass in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suo-lin FU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effect of endoscopic esophagus-jejunum covered stent bypass on the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and analyze the mechanism thereof. Methods Five obese Beagle dog models of T2DM underwent endoscopic esophagus-jejunum covered stent bypass to serve as operation group, and five normal Beagle dogs as control group receive endoscopy and exploratory laparotomy. The T2DM indices of both groups, including fast plasma glucose (FPG level, fast insulin (FINS level, intravenous glucose tolerance test-2h plasma glucose (IVGTT-2h PG and IVGTT-2h FINS, were determined regularly before operation and 4, 8 and 12 weeks after operation. The insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR and the function of islet β-cell (HOMA-β were calculated with Homeostasis Model Assessment. The levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1 were also determined. Results Four weeks after operation, FPG, FINS, IVGTT-2h PG, and IVGTT-2h FINS all decreased significantly in operation group (P 0.05. The HOMA-IR index declined distinctly and HOMA-β index ascended obviously in operation group 4 weeks after operation (P 0.05. The level of GIP lowered significantly (P 0.05. Conclusion T2DM may be treated with esophagus-jejunum covered stent bypass effectively and safely, and the mechanism thereof might be related to the changes in gastrointestinal hormones.

  9. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  10. Allergy to Rabbits. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.A.; Longbottom, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Investigations have been carried out into the presence of antibody light chains in rabbit allergenic extracts and the interference in RAST and crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (XRIE) caused by antibodies directed against them. A ''non-specific'' uptake of radioactivity in XRIE has been demonstrated to be caused by direct cross-linking of the 125 I rabbit anti-human IgE by the sheep antibodies in the immunoprecipitate of rabbit light chains. Preincubation with normal rabbit serum blocked this direct uptake of the labelled antibody and enabled specific IgE uptake on the light chains to be demonstrated for rabbit allergic sera. Verification of the allergenicity of the light chains was obtained from a specific light chain RAST. Elution from a Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration column indicated a MW of approx. 50Kd and confirmation of the components as light chain dimers, not Fab fragments, was obtained by allotyping for loci present on heavy chains and light chains in the Fab region. Light chains were detected in urine from rabbits of all ages and in an extract of dust collected in a rabbit housing area. No background staining was observed in XRIE using rabbit antisera, either with rabbit allergic sera with specific IgE or with a human serum containing specific IgG antibodies to rabbit IgG. This latter serum also showed no evidence of uptake on all immunoprecipitates in systems using rabbit antisera, and did not give false positive RAST results when the labelled rabbit anti-human IgE contained unlabelled rabbit IgG. Those sera with specific IgE to light chains showed no uptake in XRIE using rabbit antisera, indicating that the IgE was possibly specific for epitopes revealed by the dissociation on the whole IgG molecule. (author)

  11. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1977-01-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times. In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed. The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level. PMID:270526

  12. Innate resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Sanders, M F

    1977-12-01

    Wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) from one study area in England have been used over a period of 11 years to investigate the possible appearance of innate resistance to myxomatosis. Rabbits of 4-6 weeks old were captured alive, retained in the laboratory until at least 4 months old, and then infected with a type of myxoma virus which kills 90-95% of laboratory rabbits. Observations were made of symptoms, mortality rate and survival times.In the first 4 years of the study (1966-9), mortality rates were not significantly different from those of laboratory rabbits, although survival times of wild rabbits were appreciably longer. In 1970, the mortality rate amongst wild rabbits was 59%, in 1974 it was 17%, and in 1976 it was 20%, thus showing that a considerable degree of inherited resistance to myxomatosis has developed.The types of myxoma virus most commonly isolated from wild rabbits in Great Britain in recent years have been those which cause 70-95% mortality in laboratory rabbits. Therefore, if the degree of innate resistance demonstrated is widespread in Great Britain, there are serious implications regarding the size of the rabbit population, because myxomatosis has been an important factor in holding rabbit numbers at a relatively low level.

  13. Effects of chicory root powder on growth performance and histomorphometry of jejunum in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homan Izadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, chicory root powder (CRP as growth promoter at 1% and 3% levels was supplemented in broilers’ diet to investigate the growth performance and histo- morphometry of jejunum. One hundred twenty, one-day-old male broilers were used in a completely randomized design (CRD with 3 treatments and 4 replicates (10 chicks per replicate. At the end of each period (0-10, 11-24 and 0-24 days, feed intake (FI, weight gain (WG, and feed conversion ratio (FCR were measured. At the end of experiment (day 24, one bird per replicate was sacrificed for breast weight (BW, drumstick weight (DW, and jejunum length (JL as a percentage of body weight, and histomorphometry of villus. The FI increased by 3% CRP in the 1st period (p < 0.01. The percentage of WG significantly increased at 1% during the 1st period and, in the 2nd and total periods, it increased only at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The FCR decreased at 1% in the 1st (p < 0.04 and, at 3% in the 2nd (p < 0.01 and total periods (p < 0.05. The percentage of DW increased at 3% CRP (p < 0.05. The treatments increased the percentage of BW (p < 0.059 and, percentage of JL (p < 0.079 as well. The villus width and, crypt depth (CD at 1% and 3% CRP and, villus surface at 3% reduced. The 3% CRP increased the villus length (VL and villi number (p < 0.05 and, VL/CD (p < 0.01 and, villus surface area (p < 0.02. The percentage of leaf-like villi decreased in CRP treatments (p < 0.05. The number of goblet cells increased in CRP treatments (p < 0.01. In conclusion, chicory root powder can improve growth performance in broilers by enhancing food digestion and absorption through modification of jejunum histomorphometry.

  14. Nanoselenium prevents eimeriosis-induced inflammation and regulates mucin gene expression in mice jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhudhayri AA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abdulsalam A Alkhudhayri,1 Mohamed A Dkhil,1,2 Saleh Al-Quraishy1 1Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Zoology and Entomology, Faculty of Science, Helwan University, Cairo, Egypt Background: Although elemental selenium has been found to be effective against Eimeria, no study has yet investigated the effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs on the Eimeria parasite. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of SeNPs compared with elemental selenium on mice jejunum infected with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria papillata.Methods: The mice were divided into 4 groups, with the first being the non-infected, control group, and the second, third, and fourth groups being orally inoculated with 1,000 sporulated oocysts of E. papillata. The third and fourth groups also received, respectively, an oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg sodium selenite and 0.5 mg/kg SeNPs daily for 5 consecutive days.Results: The infection induced severe histopathological jejunal damage, reflected in the form of destroyed jejunal mucosa, increased jejunal oxidative damage, a reduction in the number of jejunal goblet cells, and increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Treatment of mice with SeNPs significantly decreased the oocyst output in the feces by ~80%. Furthermore, the number of parasitic stages counted in stained jejunal paraffin sections was significantly decreased after the mice were treated with SeNPs. In addition, the number of goblet cells increased from 42.6±7.3 to 95.3±8.5 cells/10 villus-crypt units after treatment. By day 5 post-infection with E. papillata, SeNPs could be seen to have significantly increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase from 263±10 to 402.4±9 mU/mL. Finally, SeNPs were able to regulate the gene expression of mucin 2, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor

  15. Methodologic aspects of acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kirsten Vendelbo; Nedergaard, Ove A.

    1999-01-01

    The acetylcholine-evoked relaxation of rabbit isolated thoracic aorta precontracted by phenylephrine was studied. Phenylephrine caused a steady contraction that was maintained for 6 h. In the presence of calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and ascorbic acid the contraction decreased...

  16. Expression of nutrient transporters in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of Eimeria maxima-infected broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterer, Raymond H; Miska, Katarzyna B; Jenkins, Mark C; Wong, Eric A

    2014-10-01

    The uptake of amino acids is mediated by active transporters located on the basolateral and brush border membranes of intestinal epithelial cells. The current study investigated the expression of amino acid transporters (AAT) and other genes in the intestine of chicks infected with Eimeria maxima. At 7-day postinfection (PI), tissue from each intestinal segment (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) was taken from birds inoculated with 3 × 10(3) oocysts/bird and processed to recover RNA. Analysis of gene expression was performed using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results were given as relative expression using β₂-microglobulin as an endogenous control. All the genes studied were expressed in three segments of the intestines, and expression of the genes was altered by infection with E. maxima. Even though the jejunum is considered the parasite's primary predilection site, there was no segment-related difference in expression of most of the genes studied. The antimicrobial peptide (LEAP2) was downregulated in all three segments of the intestine. The results also demonstrate that transporters associated with brush border membranes were downregulated while transporters associated with the basolateral membranes were upregulated and that E. maxima alters the expression of AAT and LEAP2 throughout the small intestine.

  17. Standardization of an experimental model of parabiotic isolated heart in rabbits Padronização de modelo experimental de coração isolado parabiótico em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Sérgio Martins

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to standardize an experimental model of parabiotic isolated heart in rabbits, testing their stability and durability for use in cardiovascular research. Sixty-six Norfolk-2000 rabbits were used and divided in 2 groups: donors of the isolated heart and support animals, in a total of 33 preparations. Circulatory support for the isolated heart was established with the aid of peristaltic pumps and the flow was kept constant (16ml/min.. An intraventricular balloon was inserted in the left ventriculum, and was adjusted to produce diastolic pressure of ± 10mmHg. Heart rate was established at 120 beats per minute with the use of a pacemaker. Hemodynamic, laboratory and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Of the 33 preparations, 13 were excluded according to preestablished criteria. Of the 20 remaining preparations, 10 completed the maximum protocol time (180 minutes. There was progressive hemodynamic deterioration with decrease of mean blood pressure (89.30±6.09mmHg->47.50±6.35mmHg in the support animal. There was hemodynamic stability of the isolated heart for the 10 preparations that completed the 180 minutes of the protocol. Laboratory parameters showed progressive decrease of sodium, potassium and hemoglobin, which is compatible with hemodilution. Histopathology showed greater distance among the fibers, compatible with edema. The present model showed 100% stability and activity of the preparations within 60 minutes, and 50% of the active preparations were progressively lost within 180 minutes. The present model is viable for cardiovascular research.O objetivo foi a padronização de modelo experimental de coração isolado parabiótico em coelhos, testando sua estabilidade e durabilidade, para fins de pesquisa cardiovascular. Foram utilizados 66 coelhos raça Norfolk-2000 divididos em grupo doador do coração isolado e animais suporte, totalizando 33 preparações. Mediante auxilio de bombas peristálticas estabeleceu

  18. "Rendezvous technique" for intraluminal vacuum therapy of anastomotic leakage of the jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajinovic, K; Reimer, S; Kudlich, T; Germer, C T; Wiegering, A

    2016-12-01

    Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most common and serious complications following visceral surgery. In recent years, endoluminal vacuum therapy has dramatically changed therapeutic options for AL, but its use has been limited to areas easily accessible by endoscope. We describe the first use of endoluminal vacuum therapy in the small intestine employing a combined surgical and endoscopic "rendezvous technique" in which the surgeon assists the endoscopic placement of an endoluminal vacuum therapy sponge in the jejunum by means of a pullback string. This technique led to a completely closed AL after 27 days and 7 changes of the endosponge. The combined surgical and endoscopic rendezvous technique can be useful in cases of otherwise difficult endosponge placement.

  19. Crypt cell population kinetics in mouse jejunum under continuous beta irradiation from tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.; Gupta, M.L.; Saharan, B.R.

    1979-01-01

    The behaviour of crypt cell population in mouse jejunum under continuous beta irradiation from tritiated water (HTO) has been studied. Adult mice were maintained on tritiated drinking water of the activity of 1.25 μCi/ml, after priming injection. The crypts were studied at 1, 5, 7, 15 and 30 days after the initiation of treatment. It is observed that there is a partial recovery in proliferative activity after the first day of the treatment. Again there is a decrease in the crypt cells on the 7th day, after which this population appears to achieve a near-steady-state level at about 8% below normal at the last interval studied. Crypt cell population and mitotic figures showed a simultaneous dip and recovery, while dead cells showed inverse relationship. (orig.) [de

  20. Bacteriocin-producing Enterococci from Rabbit Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabóová, R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria belonging to the division Firmicutes. They occur in different ecosystems, rabbits including. Enterococci can possess probiotic properties and produce antimicrobial substances-bacteriocins. Rabbit meat as nutritionally healthy food offers novel source to study bacteriocin-producing and/or probiotic enterococci. Methodology and results: Enterococci were detected from rabbit meat samples (42. Most of the isolates were allotted to the species Enterococcus faecium by PCR method. The isolates have possessed the structural genes for enterocins A, P, B production. The inhibitory substances produced by the isolated enterococci inhibited the growth of 12 indicators. Of 34 isolates, 15 strains have shown the antimicrobial activity against L. monocytogenes CCM 4699, 12 strains against S. aureus 3A3, 10 strains against S. aureus 5A2 as well as Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4. Moreover, enterococci have tolerated 5 % bile, low pH; they have produced lactid acid in the amount from 0.740 ± 0.091 to 1.720 ± 0.095 mmol/l. The isolates were mostly sensitive to antibiotics. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Bacteriocin-producing strain E. faecium M3a has been selected for more detail characterization of its bacteriocin and probiotic properties with the aim for its further application as an additive.

  1. Beef steers with average dry matter intake and divergent average daily gain have altered gene expression in the jejunum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing diet containing (on a DM basis) 67...

  2. Adrenergic factors involved in the control of crypt cell proliferation in jejunum and descending colon of mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1983-01-01

    The mitotic rates in the crypts of Lieberkühn of the proximal jejunum and descending colon of mouse, following different treatments, were measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Regression coefficients, representing mitotic rates, were then calculated by the method of least squares. Treatment with adrenaline, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, phentolamine, and yohimbine all resulted in decreased mitotic rate of jejunal and colonic crypt cells. Chemical sympathectomy and cryosympathectomy had a similar effect, and chemical sympathectomy was followed by a supersensitivity to clonidine. Intraperitoneal injection of metaraminol, clonidine, propranolol, prazosin, labetolol and simultaneous injection of propranolol and adrenaline all resulted in an increased rate of crypt cell proliferation in both jejunum and colon. A significant increase in mitotic rate was observed in both tissues at night. The amplitude of this diurnal variation was decreased in both jejunum and colon following chemical sympathectomy. In addition, the amplitude of this variation in jejunum was decreased after treatment with yohimbine or phentolamine. The results of the study suggest that the sympathetic nervous system stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in both the small and large intestine and that this effect is mediated by an alpha 2-adrenoceptor. By contrast, stimulation of alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors is inhibitory to cell proliferation in these tissues.

  3. Changes in abundance of Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Y.; Yao, W.; Perez-Gutierrez, O.N.; Smidt, H.; Zhu, W.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This present study investigated the changes in bacterial community composition, with an emphasis on Lactobacillus spp. and Streptococcus suis populations as potentially beneficial and harmful groups, in the stomach, jejunum and ileum of piglets after weaning (21 days postpartum) by 16S rRNA

  4. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  5. Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors in rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear triiodothyronine receptors from rat liver have been characterized in detail by several investigators. However, little work has been done in this area using heart tissue. In this study they examined and characterized the triiodothyronine binding in rabbit hearts. Nuclei have been prepared from ventricular muscle cells of normal and thyrotoxic rabbits as well as from atrial muscle cells of normal rabbit. Hearts were perfused with a minimum essential medium containing collagenase and bovine serum albumin. Myocardial cells were isolated and then disrupted by sonication and washing with a Triton X-100 buffer solution. A discontinuous sucrose density gradient was then used to isolate the mycoardial nuclei. Radiolabelled triiodothyronine (T 3 ) binding to nuclei was examined using conditions described by established procedures. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yields maximum binding capacity (B/sub max/) of 0.17 +/- 0.2 pmol/mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant (K/sub d/) of 400 +/- 50 pM for normal heart T 3 -receptors. The apparent capacity for T 3 binding is approximately 40% greater in myocardial nuclei prepared from hearts of hyperthyroid rabbits. The binding capacity of atrial muscle nuclei is about fourfold lower than ventricular cell nuclei. The results suggest that binding capacity for T 3 -receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle

  6. Ultrastructural studies of human and rabbit alpha-M-globulins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloth, B; Chesebro, B; Svehag, S E

    1968-04-01

    Electron micrographs of isolated human alpha(2)M-molecules, obtained by the negative contrast technique, revealed morphologically homogenous structures resembling a graceful monogram of the two letters H and I. The modal values for the length and width of the alpha(2)M particles were 170 A and 100 A, respectively. Purified rabbit alphamacroglobulins contained about 80% alpha(1)M- and 20% alpha(2)M-globulins. The isolated rabbit alpha(1)M- and alpha(2)M-molecules were morphologically indistinguishable from one another and from human alpha(2)M-molecules. Preliminary immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the two rabbit alphaM-globulins were antigenically different. Sedimentation constant determinations gave s(20, w) values of 18.8 and 18.2 for rabbit alpha(1)M and alpha(2)M, respectively.

  7. Studies on the mechanism of cholesterol uptake and on the effects of bile salts on this uptake by brush-border membranes isolated from rabbit small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, P; Aubry, H; Brglez, I; Williamson, D G

    1984-12-19

    The effect of bile salts and other surfactants on the rate of incorporation of cholesterol into isolated brush-border membranes was tested. At constant cholesterol concentration, a stimulatory effect of taurocholate was noticed which increased as the bile salt concentration was raised to 20 mM. Taurodeoxycholate was as effective as taurocholate at concentrations of up to 5 mM and inhibited at higher concentrations. Glycocholate was only moderately stimulatory whereas cholate was nearly as effective as taurocholate at concentrations above 5 mM. Other surfactants such as sodium lauryl sulfate and Triton X-100 were very inhibitory at all concentrations tried whereas cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride was stimulatory only at a very low range of concentrations. These micellizing agents all caused some disruption of the membranes and the greater effectiveness of taurocholate in stimulating sterol uptake was partly relatable to the weaker membrane solubilizing action of this bile salt. Preincubation of membranes with 20 mM taurocholate followed by washing and exposure to cholesterol-containing lipid suspensions lacking bile salt, did not enhance the incorporation of the sterol. In the absence of bile salt the incorporation of cholesterol was unaffected by stirring of the incubation mixtures. Increasing the cholesterol concentration in the mixed micelle while keeping the concentration of bile salt constant caused an increase in rate of sterol incorporation. This increased rate was seen whether the cholesterol suspension was turbid, i.e., contained non-micellized cholesterol, or whether it was optically-clear and contained only monomers and micelles. When the concentration of taurocholate and cholesterol were increased simultaneously such that the concentration ratio of these two components was kept constant, there resulted a corresponding increase in rate of cholesterol uptake. The initial rates of cholesterol incorporation from suspensions containing micellar and monomer

  8. Isolated Common Hepatic Artery Branch Thrombosis: Results and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulhossein Davoodabadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Isolated common hepatic artery branch thrombosis with severe gastric ischemia and duodenojejunal infarction is a rare condition; it usually presents with acute abdomen and may be associated with underlying thrombotic risk factors. We present a 35-year-old man admitted to our hospital with five days history of sudden abdominal pain and deteriorating epigastric pain. He was a driver and had no any past medical history. Explorative laparotomy showed: distal 2/3 gastric, duodenojejunal and papilla vater was sloughed. The stomach subtotal and sloughed duodenum and first 20 cm of jejunum were resected, continuity of the gastrointestinal was preserved with anastomosis of the proximal part of jejunum to gastric stump, pancreatic duct, and CBD repaired to the lateral side of jejunum on the guide of two 18 French feeding tube as an external drain. The patient had a good immediate postoperative recovery. Coagulation checkup after operation revealed isolated Hyperhomocysteinemia.

  9. The human jejunum has an endogenous microbiota that differs from those in the oral cavity and colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundin, Olof H; Mendoza-Ladd, Antonio; Zeng, Mingtao; Diaz-Arévalo, Diana; Morales, Elisa; Fagan, B Matthew; Ordoñez, Javier; Velez, Philip; Antony, Nishaal; McCallum, Richard W

    2017-07-17

    The upper half of the human small intestine, known as the jejunum, is the primary site for absorption of nutrient-derived carbohydrates, amino acids, small peptides, and vitamins. In contrast to the colon, which contains 10 11 -10 12 colony forming units of bacteria per ml (CFU/ml), the normal jejunum generally ranges from 10 3 to 10 5  CFU per ml. Because invasive procedures are required to access the jejunum, much less is known about its bacterial microbiota. Bacteria inhabiting the jejunal lumen have been investigated by classical culture techniques, but not by culture-independent metagenomics. The lumen of the upper jejunum was sampled during enteroscopy of 20 research subjects. Culture on aerobic and anaerobic media gave live bacterial counts ranging from 5.8 × 10 3 CFU/ml to 8.0 × 10 6 CFU/ml. DNA from the same samples was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene-specific quantitative PCR, yielding values from 1.5 × 10 5 to 3.1 × 10 7 bacterial genomes per ml. When calculated for each sample, estimated bacterial viability ranged from effectively 100% to a low of 0.3%. 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis of uncultured bacteria by Illumina MiSeq sequencing gave detailed microbial composition by phylum, genus and species. The genera Streptococcus, Prevotella, Veillonella and Fusobacterium, were especially abundant, as well as non-oral genera including Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Citrobacter. The jejunum was devoid of the genera Alistipes, Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium, and other extreme anaerobes abundant in the colon. In patients with higher bacterial loads, there was no significant change in microbial species composition. The jejunal lumen contains a distinctive bacterial population consisting primarily of facultative anaerobes and oxygen-tolerant obligate anaerobes similar to those found in the oral cavity. However, the frequent abundance of Enterobacteriaceae represents a major difference from oral microbiota. Although a few genera are shared with the colon, we

  10. Immediate free jejunum transfer for salvage surgery of gastric tube necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Hiroki; Matsutani, Takeshi; Ogawa, Rei; Hyakusoku, Hiko

    2014-01-01

    Gastric tube necrosis after esophagus cancer surgery is a rare but critical situation. Salvage reconstruction of the esophagus remains a challenging procedure for head and neck surgeons. Historically, surgeons have employed a two-stage salvage surgery consisting of debridement followed by reconstruction. While this procedure generates good results, the time to restart oral alimentation is long. The present report describes the case of a 62-year-old male who developed gastric tube necrosis 3 days after undergoing surgery for thoracic-cervical esophageal cancer and immediate reconstruction with the retrosternal gastric pullup technique. He was treated with debridement and simultaneous free jejunum transfer 4 days after the primary surgery. He was able to restart oral alimentation 10 days after the salvage surgery. This rapid return to oral alimentation is a major advantage of the one-stage immediate esophagus salvage reconstruction. Another advantage is the ease of the reconstructive procedure: the absence of scarring and prolonged inflammation, which are disadvantages of the two-stage procedure, meant that recipient vessel selection and anastomosis were uncomplicated. The one-step procedure may be particularly useful in cases where the inflammation is discovered early.

  11. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in jejunum of Sus scrofa with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Hu, Liang; Gong, Desheng; Lu, Hanlin; Xuan, Yue; Wang, Ru; Wu, De; Chen, Daiwen; Zhang, Keying; Gao, Fei; Che, Lianqiang

    2018-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may elicit a series of postnatal body developmental and metabolic diseases due to their impaired growth and development in the mammalian embryo/fetus during pregnancy. In the present study, we hypothesized that IUGR may lead to abnormally regulated DNA methylation in the intestine, causing intestinal dysfunctions. We applied reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) technology to study the jejunum tissues from four newborn IUGR piglets and their normal body weight (NBW) littermates. The results revealed extensively regional DNA methylation changes between IUGR/NBW pairs from different gilts, affecting dozens of genes. Hiseq-based bisulfite sequencing PCR (Hiseq-BSP) was used for validations of 19 genes with epigenetic abnormality, confirming three genes (AIFM1, MTMR1, and TWIST2) in extra samples. Furthermore, integrated analysis of these 19 genes with proteome data indicated that there were three main genes (BCAP31, IRAK1, and AIFM1) interacting with important immunity- or metabolism-related proteins, which could explain the potential intestinal dysfunctions of IUGR piglets. We conclude that IUGR can lead to disparate DNA methylation in the intestine and these changes may affect several important biological processes such as cell apoptosis, cell differentiation, and immunity, which provides more clues linking IUGR and its long-term complications.

  12. Effect of fumonisin-containing diet on the myenteric plexus of the jejunum in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Fernando Carlos; Schamber, Christiano Rodrigues; Amorin, Sandra Sheila Seron; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal

    2014-10-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins that naturally occur as contaminants in grains that are destined for animal and human consumption. These mycotoxins cause hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, and neurotoxic effects in different intensities based on dose, time of exposure, and animal species. In the present study, male Wistar rats were fed between postnatal days 21 and 63 with diets that contained fumonisins B1+B2 at concentrations of 1 and 3mg/kg. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of fumonisins on food intake, growth, weight gain, serum activity of the alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes, and quantitative and morphometric parameters of myenteric neurons in the jejunum that are immunoreactive to HuC/D protein and neuronal nitric oxide synthase enzyme (nNOS). Diets that contained fumonisins did not significantly alter food intake or body and blood parameters. We did not observe significant differences in the neuronal density and proportion of nitrergic neurons but found a significant reduction of cell body areas in both neuronal populations. This study is the first to report the effects of fumonisins in the enteric nervous system. The possible mechanisms by which fumonisins impair neuronal development and the use of the enteric nervous system as a tool for the study of the neurotoxic effects of fumonisins are discussed. In conclusion, fumonisin-containing food negatively affected the growth of myenteric neurons. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Sex differences in neuromodulation of mucosal mast cells in the rat jejunum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottwald, T; Becker, H D; Stead, R H

    1997-01-01

    The effect of electrical stimulation of both cervical vagal nerves on mucosal mast cells in the jejunum was investigated in an in vivo animal model with rats of both sexes. Males showed a significant increase of mast cell densities after electrical stimulation (1.0 mA, 5 Hz, 5 ms, 12 min) in the lamina propria. Simultaneously, we observed a significant increase of tissue histamine levels (ANOVA: P < 0.05), whereas serum levels remained unchanged. However, even though females had significantly higher levels throughout compared to males (ANOVA: P < 0.05), they did not show any significant reaction to electrical stimulation. These in vivo data support morphological and in vitro data from other investigators, who hypothesized a functional interaction between mucosal mast cells and nerves. However, degranulation seems to be a poor in situ indicator for mast-cell stimulation, as mast-cell densities increased in males, while the percentage of degranulated cells remained the same in all groups (about 40%). Instead, electrical stimulation of the vagal nerve seems to trigger histamine synthesis, or simply stabilization of mast cells. Interestingly, this phenomenon seems to be sex-dependent, suggesting a regulatory role for sex hormones in this scenario.

  14. Small bowel adenocarcinoma of the jejunum: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Zhiliang; Liu, Na; Hao, Junfeng; Xu, Xin

    2016-07-04

    In practice, small bowel cancer is a rare entity. The most common histologic subtype is adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma of the small bowel (SBA) is challenging to diagnose, often presents at a late stage and has a poor prognosis. The treatment of early-stage SBA is surgical resection. No standard protocol has been established for unresectable or metastatic disease. We report here on a 26-year-old man with SBA in the jejunum, lacking specific symptoms and with a delay of 6 months in diagnosis. The diagnosis was finally achieved with a combination of balloon-assisted enteroscopy, computed tomography scans, positron emission computed tomography scans and the values of carcino-embryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9. The patient underwent segmental intestine with lymph node resection, followed by eight cycles of FOLFOX palliative chemotherapy with good tolerance. As of the 11-month postoperative follow-up, there has been no evidence of recurrent disease. This case is reported to arouse a clinical suspicion of SBA in patients with abdominal pain of unknown cause. We also provided evidence in this case of a response to palliative chemotherapy with FOLFOX. Because the incidence of SBA is very low, there is a need for further studies to evaluate the possible application of newer investigative agents and strategies to obtain a better outcome within the framework of international collaborations.

  15. A Large Cystic Variant of Gastro-intestinal Stromal Tumour arising from the Jejunum: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Salman Tehran; Upwanshi, Manish Harinarayan; Shetty, Tilakdas S.; Ghetla, Smruti R.; Gheewala, Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) represent a mesenchymal neoplasm arising from the interstitial cells of cajal occurring mainly in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we present a case of a large GIST arising from the jejunum with cystic presentation unlike the usual presentation as a solid mass. A 50-year-old male patient came with complaint of a painless mobile lump in abdomen of approximately 25 cm in size which had gradually increased over two years. Clinically mesenteric cyst was s...

  16. Effect of hypothyroidism on the purinergic responses of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, M K; Bagcivan, I; Sarac, B; Kilicarslan, H; Yildirim, S; Kaya, T

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have reported evidence of hormonal abnormalities in 25-35% of impotent men. Hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 6% of impotent men. In the present study, we examined purinergic relaxation responses in hypothyroidism in an experimental rabbit model and compared them with controls to evaluate the possible involvement of the purinergic pathway. The study comprised 20 male New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided into two equal groups. We tested the effects of ATP, alpha beta ATP, and adenosine precontracted with phenylephrine on the isolated corpus cavernosum preparations from control and hypothyroid rabbits. We also evaluated the effects of ATP, alpha beta ATP, and adenosine on the cGMP levels in the isolated corpus cavernosum preparations from control and hypothyroid rabbits. T3, T4, and testosterone levels were significantly lower in hypothyroid rabbits. ATP, alpha beta ATP, carbachol, and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced frequency-dependent relaxation responses in the isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum strips precontracted with phenylephrine reduced significantly (Phypothyroid rabbits. Reduction of relaxation response in hypothyroid rabbits corpus cavernosum can depend on a decreased release of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrergic nerves and endothelium.

  17. A Large Cystic Variant of Gastro-intestinal Stromal Tumour arising from the Jejunum: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Salman Tehran; Upwanshi, Manish Harinarayan; Shetty, Tilakdas S; Ghetla, Smruti R; Gheewala, Hussain

    2015-04-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) represent a mesenchymal neoplasm arising from the interstitial cells of cajal occurring mainly in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we present a case of a large GIST arising from the jejunum with cystic presentation unlike the usual presentation as a solid mass. A 50-year-old male patient came with complaint of a painless mobile lump in abdomen of approximately 25 cm in size which had gradually increased over two years. Clinically mesenteric cyst was suspected. Intra-operatively the mass was a 30x25 cm cyst with approximately 2500 ml serous fluid present inside it arising from the anti-mesenteric border of the jejunum, adherent to the jejunum, appendix and the dome of the bladder. The fluid was aspirated and the mass excised along with resection of the involved jejunal segment and appendectomy was done. Diagnosis was confirmed on immunohistochemistry study. Imatinib Mesylate 400 mg OD was started as adjuvant therapy in view of the high risk of metastasis.

  18. Population kinetics studies in mouse jejunum exposed prenatally to gamma rays at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godha, Meena; Nand Chahal, K.

    2001-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice of 18 days post conception were exposed to 0.80 Gy, 0.40 Gy and 0.20 Gy of gamma rays from a Cobalt-60 source at different dose rates (.0584 Gy/min and .00091 Gy/min). Post irradiation variations in the cell population of crypts and villus of jejunum were studied in the F 1 -generation at 1 day, 3 day and 1,2,4,6 and 12 weeks of post-partum age. In all the exposure groups at 1 day post-partum age, crypts show a decrease in total cells, mitotic figures and goblet cells on one hand and an increase in PNNC on the other hand in comparison to coeval controls. At this interval a decrease in the number of total cells as well as goblet cells/villus column was also noticeable. Dead cells which were prominently seen in crypts were totally absent in villi. The first signs of recovery can be observed on day 3 p.p. when total cell population, mitotic activity and goblet cells of crypt registered an increase while percentage of PNNC showed a fall. Percentage of total cell population and goblet cells/villus column also increased. The recovery continued up to 2 week of p.p. age. At p.p. age of 4 weeks a relapse of damage was observed when values for all the parameters of crypt and villi registered a fall except PNNC. This is followed by a second phase of recovery and by 6 and 12 weeks of post-partum age, normal value were obtained for all the parameters. (author)

  19. Caffeine inhibits nonselective cationic currents in interstitial cells of Cajal from the murine jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Nan Ge; Koh, Sang Don; Sanders, Kenton M

    2009-10-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) discharge unitary potentials in gastrointestinal muscles that constitute the basis for pacemaker activity. Caffeine has been used to block unitary potentials, but the ionic conductance responsible for unitary potentials is controversial. We investigated currents in cultured ICC from murine jejunum that may underlie unitary potentials and studied the effects of caffeine. Networks of ICC generated slow wave events under current clamp, and these events were blocked by caffeine in a concentration-dependent manner. Single ICC generated spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) under voltage clamp at -60 mV and noisy voltage fluctuations in current clamp. STICs were unaffected when the equilibrium potential for Cl- (ECl) was set to -60 mV (excluding Cl- currents) and reversed at 0 mV, demonstrating that a nonselective cationic conductance, and not a Cl- conductance, is responsible for STICs in ICC. Caffeine inhibited STICs in a concentration-dependent manner. Reduced intracellular Ca2+ and calmidazolium (CMZ; 1 microM) activated persistent inward, nonselective cation currents in ICC. Currents activated by CMZ and by dialysis of cells with 10 mM BAPTA were also inhibited by caffeine. Excised inside-out patches contained channels that exhibited spontaneous openings, and resulting currents reversed at 0 mV. Channel openings were increased by reducing Ca2+ concentration from 10(-6) M to 10(-8) M. CMZ (1 microM) also increased openings of nonselective cation channels. Spontaneous currents and channels activated by CMZ were inhibited by caffeine (5 mM). The findings demonstrate that the Ca2+-inhibited nonselective cation channels that generate STICs in ICC are blocked directly by caffeine. STICs are responsible for unitary potentials in intact muscles, and the block of these events by caffeine is consistent with the idea that a nonselective cation conductance underlies unitary potentials in ICC.

  20. Paraquat-poisoning in the rabbit lungs: high resolution computed tomographic findings and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Soo; Kim, Eui Han; Lee, Byoung Ho; Kim, Kun Sang

    1992-01-01

    The authors evaluated high resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of the isolated rabbit lungs with paraquat poisoning, and the findings were correlated with pathologic specimens. The purposes of this study are 1) to obtain the HRCT findings of the normal rabbit lung. 2) to find out if pulmonary pathology can be induced in rabbits by paraquat, and 3) to correlate the HRCT findings to those of pathology. Thirty rabbits were divided into three groups: group I included four control rabbits; group II included 16 rabbits given paraquat intraperitoneally (IP group); and group III included 10 rabbits given paraquat intravenously (IV group). The rabbits were sacrificed seven, 10, and 14 days after injection of various amount of paraquat, and then the lungs were isolated for HRCT and pathologic studies. Gross and microscopic findings of the three groups of control and paraquat-injected rabbit lungs were correlated with HRCT findings. Pulmonary congestion, mild thickening of alveolar walls and septae, and multifocal micro-atelectasis were the man pathologic findings of the lungs in both groups of the rabbits. Pulmonary hemorrhage was noted in five (31%) of 16 rabbits of IP group and three (30%) of 10 IV group. Pulmonary edema was seen in one rabbits (6%) of IP and four (40%) of IV group. Typical pulmonary fibrosis was seen in one rabbit of IP (6%) and IV (10%) group, respectively. There was no correlation between the amount of paraquat and frequency of the pulmonary pathology. Pulmonary fibrosis was seen at least one week after the paraquat injection. On HRCT, pulmonary hemorrhage and edema appeared as diffuse air-space consolidation and pulmonary fibrosis as linear or band-like opacities. However, minimal changes such as mild congestion

  1. Host Response in Rabbits to Infection with Pasteurella multocida Serogroup F Strains Originating from Fowl Cholera

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of two avian Pasteurella multocida serogroup F strains to induce disease in rabbits was investigated in this study. Two groups of 18 Pasteurella-free rabbits each were intranasally challenged with strains isolated from chicken and turkey, respectively. Half the animals in each challenge ...

  2. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5,0' a,b"differ (P<0,05) for reproducing rabbits, and may aid the prevention of enteric diseases. In Trial 3, ADG of several tropical legumes was the same as that obtained with alfalfa (Table 3). Gains with guinea grass, cassava, stylosanthes and the winged bean were lower than with alfalfa. Digestibilityof the protein and fibre ...

  3. The CareRabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Sanne; Stegwee, R.A.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda

    2010-01-01

    The CareRabbit (ZorgKonijn) is an e-health device that can be used to play messages (e.g. text, MP3) sent through the Internet. It is used in children's departments in hospitals. Its aim is to make children feel comfortable and make their stay more pleasant. Motivation - Our goal is to investigate

  4. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Production of neutralizing antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus by intravenous injections of rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Rabbit antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) produced by two immunization procedures were compared for neutralization and immunochemical properties against homologous and heterologous strains. The VHSV isolate used as the immunogen was a member of a serogroup not neutralized...... by previously available antisera. The results from this study suggested that frequent intravenous (IV) injections of rabbits with viral antigens were superior to adjuvant-mediated, combined subcutaneous and intraperitoneal (SC/IP) injections for the production of neutralizing antisera. All IV injected rabbits...... produced high neutralization titers against the homologous VHSV isolate but not against an isolate from a different serogroup. The SC/IP injected rabbits had no significant neutralization titers against either the homologous VHSV strain or two isolates of a heterologous VHSV strain. Sera from all injected...

  6. Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 modulate TLRs and cytokines expression patterns in jejunum and ileum of broilers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rashid Rajput

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR, and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers were allotted into three groups (n = 100 and each divided into five replications (n = 20. Control group (Ctr birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days. The result showed significant increase in mRNA expression level of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR15. Down streaming MyD88, TRAF6, TAB2 and NF-κB mRNA level noted higher, in the jejunum and ileum as compared to control group. Meanwhile, IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, TGF-β expression levels showed high expression in the jejunum of Sb and Bs groups. IL-10 expression level increased in the ileum and IL-6, TNFα, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels increased in the jejunum of Sb group. Levels of IL-1 β, IL-17, and IL-4, increased merely in Sb group. Ileal cytokines IL-1β, IL-17 and IL-4concentration were noted higher in Sb group, and IL-1β, and IL-4 levels were up-regulated in Bs group. The results indicated that the INF-γ and IL-8 level decreased in Sb and BS groups. Serum IgA and sIgA level increased in both treatment groups. Our findings illustrated that S. boulardii and B. subtilis B10 may have a role to induce mucosal immunity by activating the TLRs and cytokines expressions in broilers.

  7. Saccharomyces boulardii and Bacillus subtilis B10 modulate TLRs and cytokines expression patterns in jejunum and ileum of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Imran Rashid; Ying, Huang; Yajing, Sun; Arain, Muhammad Asif; Weifen, Li; Ping, Li; Bloch, Dost Muhammad; Wenhua, Liu

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) and Bacillus subtilis B10 (Bs) on intestinal epithelial Toll like receptors (TLR), and Cytokine expression response to understand the intestinal epithelial innate immune mechanism in broilers. A total of 300 birds (Sanhuang broilers) were allotted into three groups (n = 100) and each divided into five replications (n = 20). Control group (Ctr) birds were fed basal diet, broilers in experimental groups received (1×108cfu/kg feed) Sb and Bs respectively in addition to basal diet for 72 days. The result showed significant increase in mRNA expression level of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR15. Down streaming MyD88, TRAF6, TAB2 and NF-κB mRNA level noted higher, in the jejunum and ileum as compared to control group. Meanwhile, IL-6, TNFα, IL-10, TGF-β expression levels showed high expression in the jejunum of Sb and Bs groups. IL-10 expression level increased in the ileum and IL-6, TNFα, IL-10 and TGF-β expression levels increased in the jejunum of Sb group. Levels of IL-1 β, IL-17, and IL-4, increased merely in Sb group. Ileal cytokines IL-1β, IL-17 and IL-4concentration were noted higher in Sb group, and IL-1β, and IL-4 levels were up-regulated in Bs group. The results indicated that the INF-γ and IL-8 level decreased in Sb and BS groups. Serum IgA and sIgA level increased in both treatment groups. Our findings illustrated that S. boulardii and B. subtilis B10 may have a role to induce mucosal immunity by activating the TLRs and cytokines expressions in broilers.

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    OpenAIRE

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2013-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with t...

  9. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  10. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  11. Rabbit Model of Retinoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Jeong Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We created a rabbit model of retinoblastoma and confirmed the tumor clinically and histopathologically. Seventeen New Zealand rabbits were immunosuppressed with cyclosporin A at doses of 10–15 mg/kg. At day 3, the animals received a 30 μl subretinal injection of 1×106 cultured WERI retinoblastoma cells. Digital fundus images were captured before euthanasia, and the eyes were submitted for histopathology. Retinoblastoma cells grew in all the inoculated eyes and established a tumor under the retina and/or in the vitreous. New blood vessels in the tumor were observed starting at week 5. Cuffs of viable tumor cells surrounded the blood vessels with regions of necrosis present at 70–80 μm from nutrient vessels. Occasional tumor seeds in the vitreous histologically exhibited central necrosis. This rabbit model demonstrated similar fundus appearance and pathologic features to human retinoblastoma and may be used as a model to test various routes of drug delivery for retinoblastoma.

  12. Effects of Ischemic Preconditioning of Different Intraoperative Ischemic Times of Vascularized Bone Graft Rabbit Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Sukari Halim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIschemic preconditioning has been shown to improve the outcomes of hypoxic tolerance of the heart, brain, lung, liver, jejunum, skin, and muscle tissues. However, to date, no report of ischemic preconditioning on vascularized bone grafts has been published.MethodsSixteen rabbits were divided into four groups with ischemic times of 2, 6, 14, and 18 hours. Half of the rabbits in each group underwent ischemic preconditioning. The osteomyocutaneous flaps consisted of the tibia bone, from which the overlying muscle and skin were raised. The technique of ischemic preconditioning involved applying a vascular clamp to the pedicle for 3 cycles of 10 minutes each. The rabbits then underwent serial plain radiography and computed tomography imaging on the first, second, fourth, and sixth postoperative weeks. Following this, all of the rabbits were sacrificed and histological examinations were performed.ResultsThe results showed that for clinical analysis of the skin flaps and bone grafts, the preconditioned groups showed better survivability. In the plain radiographs, except for two non-preconditioned rabbits with intraoperative ischemic times of 6 hours, all began to show early callus formation at the fourth week. The computed tomography findings showed more callus formation in the preconditioned groups for all of the ischemic times except for the 18-hour group. The histological findings correlated with the radiological findings. There was no statistical significance in the difference between the two groups.ConclusionsIn conclusion, ischemic preconditioning improved the survivability of skin flaps and increased callus formation during the healing process of vascularized bone grafts.

  13. Topographical and biometrical anatomy of the digestive tract of White New Zealand Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabuj Kanti Nath

    2016-06-01

    Materials and methods: Five rabbits of both sexes were used in this study. After dissection of the rabbits, the exact positions of different parts of the digestive tract (i.e., esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine were measured using Metric rule, thread, electronic and normal balance. Results: The mean lengths of the small intestine and large intestine were 169.53+/-21.65 and 132.3+/-17.42 cm, respectively, and weight of the whole digestive tract was 263.60+/-56.80 gm. The mean lengths and mean diameter of esophagus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, colon and rectum were 9.62+/-1.64, 41.26+/-4.06, 106.60+/-14.64, 21.64+/-46.32, 41.14+/-2.82, 83.16+/-13.74 and 8.0+/-1.08 cm and 1.16+/-0.12, 1.71+/-0.11, 1.70+/-0.09, 1.73+/-0.05, 5.47+/-0.15, 3.36+/-0.16 and 2.81+/-0.24 cm, respectively. Conclusion: These results can be considered as a baseline study that may assist in disease diagnosis and clinical works with rabbits. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 145-151

  14. Alterations in myoelectric activity of the small bowel in rabbits after transarterial embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Songtao; Wang Xiaolin; Gong Gaoquan; Chen Yi; Lin Genlai; Zhang Feng; Li Guoping; Liu Lingxiao

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore alterations in myoelectric activity of the small bowel in rabbits after transarterial embolization and provide academic basis for assessing bowel viability and management. Methods: Twenty normal rabbits were selected and divided into three groups (2 mg group, n=10; 6 mg group, n=5; control group, n=5). Members of 2 mg group were embolized with PVA 2 mg, those of 6 mg group with PVA 6 mg, and the control group with normal saline 2 ml. After microcatherization embolization, myoelectric activity of the small bowel was recorded for 24 hr using chronically implanted electrodes in conscious rabbits. Results: In 2 mg group, the frequency and the amplitude of slow wave of proximal jejunum were significantly lower in post-embolization period than pre-embolization period [(17.83±0.55) cpm vs (11.59±0.23) cpm(P 0.05) and (0.1632±0.002) mV vs (0.1606±0.003) mV (P>0.05), respectively]. Conclusions: Embolization with PVA evokes significant and passive effect on basal electrical rhythm of small bowel. It could provide academic basis for assessing bowel viability to interventional embolization. (authors)

  15. Clinical effects in resection of congenital choledochal cyst of children and jejunum Roux-Y anastomosis by laparoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B-H; Lin, F

    2016-11-01

    We compared the effects and complications in resection of the congenital choledochal cyst (CCC) and hepatic duct jejunum Roux-Y anastomosis by laparoscopy and open surgery. We continuously selected 156 cases of pediatric patients with CCC, which were divided into 70 cases of the laparoscopic group and 86 cases of laparotomy group according to the treatment methods. Then the success rate of surgery, intraoperative and postoperative bleeding, intraoperative and postoperative complications was compared. It was found that after 65 cases (92.9%) completed in the laparoscopic group and all completed in laparotomy group there was less intra-operative blood loss of laparoscopic group than that of the open surgery group. However, the difference of postoperative hemorrhage in two groups was not statistically significant (p >0.05). The intra-operative complications in the two groups were not significantly different (p >0.05); in the laparoscopic group, the postoperative complication rate was significantly lower than open surgery group (p resection of CCC combined with jejunum Roux-Y anastomosis has good prospects.

  16. Isolated jejunal perforation following blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Pergel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated perforation of the jejunum, following blunt abdominaltrauma, is extremely rare. These injuries aredifficult to diagnose because initial clinical signs are frequentlynonspecific and a delay in treatment increasesmortality and morbidity of the patients. Conventional radiogramsare often inadequate for diagnosing this subsetof trauma. For an accurate and timely diagnosis, thepossibility of bowel perforation and the need for repeatedexaminations should be kept in mind. Herein, we presenta 28-year-old man with isolated jejunal perforation followingblunt abdominal trauma.Key words: Blunt abdominal trauma, isolated jejunal perforation,early diagnosis

  17. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  18. PATHOGENIC POTENTIALS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrolyte and haematological parameters in rabbits infected with pathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli from rural water supplies in Rivers State, Nigeria, where monitored. Rabbits were orally infected with suspension containing 3x107 cfu /ml of Escherichia coli to induce diarrhoea, and the electrolyte (sodium, potassium ...

  19. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  20. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  1. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  2. Cardioplegia using low volumic cardioplegic agents: morphological study in isolated rabbit hearts Cardioplegia utilizando baixo volume de agentes cardioplégicos: estudo morfológico em coração isolado de coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Marques Lima-Oliveira

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological cardioplegic solution aims to eliminate the consequences of ischemic damage, which results from the misbalance between the offer and consumption of energy during the arrest of the heart beats during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. OBJECTIVES: This research experimentally evaluates the structural and ultrastructural changes in isolated rabbit hearts submitted to arrest protected by a Low Volumetric Cardioplegic Solution (LVCS. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The study counted with a control group and two experimental groups. In group I the cardiac arrest was obtained by infusion of the LVCS for 2 hours. In group II the experiment was conducted in the same way until the arrest protected by LVCS for 2 hours, and immediately after reperfusion was performed with the Ringer Locke (RL oxygenated solution for 1 hour. In the control group the hearts were perfused with the RL oxygenated solution for 2 hours. After the experiments, 8 samples of the left ventricle were fixed in 10% formaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde for histological and ultrastructural analysis. RESULTS: The myocardial cells, the fibroblasts and the endothelial cells which were observed in the experimental groups I and II, presented with marginalization of the heterochromatin, compaction of the nucleolus, change in the morphology of the mitochondria and compaction of the cristae. Also there was an increase of the density of the mitochondrial matrix. This indicates that the nuclear structure as well as the structure of the cytoplasmic organelles were altered when compared to the cells of the control group. CONCLUSION: The structural modifications were due a physiological adaptation of the cell, and not an indication of oncosis or apoptosis, suggesting that the cardioplegic solution used was efficient for the preservation of the cells.INTRODUÇÃO: A solução cardioplégica farmacológica busca eliminar as conseqüências do dano isquêmico, que é o

  3. Localization of Ascaridia galli larvae in the jejunum of chickens 3 days post infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luna Olivares, Luz Adilia; Ferdushy, Tania; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2012-01-01

    The normal habitat of the parasitic stages of Ascaridia galli is in the small intestine of poultry but the exact localization is poorly understood. Therefore, a histological study was conducted in order to localize the larvae during the early phase of infection. Six layer pullets seven-week old...... were infected orally with 20,000 embryonated A. galli eggs each, whereas four chickens were left as un-infected controls. At necropsy 3 days after infection the first half of jejunum/ileum was divided into two equally sized sections (J1 and J2). After taking samples for histology from the middle of J1...... and J2 and the junction between these determined JX, the two sections were subjected to parasitological examination. A higher number of A. galli larvae were recovered from section J2 than J1 and the majority of larvae were recovered from the most profound layers. Based on histology 144 larvae were...

  4. Vaccine breaks: Outbreaks of myxomatosis on Spanish commercial rabbit farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, K P; Nicieza, I; de Llano, D; Gullón, J; Inza, M; Petralanda, M; Arroita, Z; Parra, F

    2015-08-05

    Despite the success of vaccination against myxoma virus, myxomatosis remains a problem on rabbit farms throughout Spain and Europe. In this study we set out to evaluate possible causes of myxoma virus (MYXV) vaccine failures addressing key issues with regard to pathogen, vaccine and vaccination strategies. This was done by genetically characterising MYXV field isolates from farm outbreaks, selecting a representative strain for which to assay its virulence and measuring the protective capability of a commercial vaccine against this strain. Finally, we compare methods (route) of vaccine administration under farm conditions and evaluate immune response in vaccinated rabbits. The data presented here show that the vaccine tested is capable of eliciting protection in rabbits that show high levels of seroconversion. However, the number of animals failing to seroconvert following subcutaneous vaccination may leave a large number of rabbits unprotected following vaccine administration. Successful vaccination requires the strict implication of workable, planned, on farm programs. Following this, analysis to confirm seroconversion rates may be advisable. Factors such as the wild rabbit reservoir, control of biting insects and good hygienic practices must be taken into consideration to prevent vaccine failures from occurring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Biotransformation of hydralazine (HDZ) in monolayer cultures of rabbit hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQueen, C.A.; Rosado, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Adverse reactions to HDZ have been associated with the acetylator polymorphism; slow acetylators are more likely to develop HDZ-induced lupus erythematosus. In studying the role of this polymorphism in susceptibility to HDZ toxicity, the biotransformation of HDZ was investigated in rabbit hepatocytes. New Zealand white rabbits, like humans, are classified as rapid or slow acetylators. Heptocytes were isolated from rapid acetylator rabbits by collagenase perfusion. Monolayer cultures were initiated and exposed to 14 C-HDZ. Since HDZ is unstable at neutral pH, parallel incubations were done in the absence of cells. Metabolites in the media were determined by reverse phase HPLC. Phthalazine (P), phthalazinone (PZ), triazoloph-thalazine (TP), methyl TP (MTP) and 3-hydroxy MTP were identified. In the absence of cells, more TP was formed than MTP, probably resulting from reaction of HDZ with components in the medium. In the presence of cells, there was a three-fold increase in MTP, while the amount of TP was relatively constant. Only trace amounts of P, PZ 3-hydroxy MTP were detected. These data indicate that monolayer cultures of rapid acetylator rabbit hepatocytes were capable of metabolizing HDZ with acetylation playing a major role. These studies are being extended to cells from slow acetylator rabbits

  6. L-Cysteine enhances nutrient absorption via a cystathionine-β-synthase-derived H2 S pathway in rodent jejunum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ailin; Li, Jing; Liu, Tianjian; Liu, Zhuxi; Wei, Chuanfei; Xu, Xiaomeng; Li, Qin; Li, Jingxin

    2016-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2 S) is generated endogenously from L-cysteine (L-Cys) by the enzymes cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE). In addition, L-Cys is commonly used as a precursor in the food and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of the present study is to determine whether L-Cys regulates intestinal nutrient transport. To that end, the presence of CBS and CSE in the jejunum epithelium was assessed by immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and the methylene blue assay. In addition, in vivo L-Cys (100 mg/kg, administered immediately after the glucose load) significantly increased blood glucose levels 30 min after the oral administration of glucose to mice. This effect of L-Cys was completely blocked by amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA; 50 mg/kg; administered at the same time as L-Cys) an inhibitor of CBS. Measurements of the short-circuit current (Isc) in the rat jejunum epithelium revealed that L-Cys (1 mmol/L; 6 min before the administration of L-alanine) enhances Na(+)-coupled L-alanine or glucose transport, and that this effect is inhibited by AOA (1 mmol/L;10 min before the administration of L-Cys), but not D,L-propargylglycine (PAG;1 mmol/L; 10 min before the administration of L-Cys), a CSE inhibitor. Notably, L-Cys-evoked enhancement of nutrient transport was alleviated by glibenclamide (Gli;0.1 mmol/L; 10 min before the administration of L-Cys), a K(+) channel blocker. Together, the data indicate that L-Cys enhances jejunal nutrient transport, suggesting a new approach to future treatment of nutrition-related maladies, including a range of serious health consequences linked to undernutrition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in fecal Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica in Canadian commercial meat, companion, laboratory, and shelter rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and its association with routine antimicrobial use in commercial meat rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kylie, Jennifer; McEwen, Scott A; Boerlin, Patrick; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Weese, J Scott; Turner, Patricia V

    2017-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in zoonotic (e.g. Salmonella spp.), pathogenic, and opportunistic (e.g. E. coli) bacteria in animals represents a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistant bacteria and resistance genes to bacteria infecting humans and other animals. This study evaluated the prevalence of E. coli and Salmonella enterica, and the presence of associated AMR in commercial meat, companion, research, and shelter rabbits in Canada. Associations between antimicrobial usage and prevalence of AMR in bacterial isolates were also examined in commercial meat rabbits. Culture and susceptibility testing was conducted on pooled fecal samples from weanling and adult commercial meat rabbits taken during both summer and winter months (n=100, 27 farms), and from pooled laboratory (n=14, 8 laboratory facilities), companion (n=53), and shelter (n=15, 4 shelters) rabbit fecal samples. At the facility level, E. coli was identified in samples from each commercial rabbit farm, laboratory facility, and 3 of 4 shelters, and in 6 of 53 companion rabbit fecal samples. Seventy-nine of 314 (25.2%; CI: 20.7-30.2%) E. coli isolates demonstrated resistance to >1 antimicrobial agent. At least one E. coli isolate resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent was present in samples from 55.6% of commercial farms, and from 25% of each laboratory and shelter facilities, with resistance to tetracycline being most common; no resistance was identified in companion animal samples. Salmonella enterica subsp. was identified exclusively in pooled fecal samples from commercial rabbit farms; Salmonella enterica serovar London from one farm and Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky from another. The S. Kentucky isolate was resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, streptomycin, and tetracycline, whereas the S. London isolate was pansusceptible. Routine use of antimicrobials on commercial meat rabbit farms was not significantly associated with the

  8. Anti-Diarrheal Activity Of The Leaf Extracts Of Daniellia oliveri Hutch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moraceae) used in diarrhea treatment in Hausa ethnomedicine of Northern Nigeria were investigated. The study was carried out on parfused isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice. The n-butanol extracts: NBD and NBF ...

  9. Culture technique of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marini M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The epidermis is the protective covering outer layer of the mammalian skin. The epidermal cells are stratified squamous epithelia which undergo continuous differentiation of loss and replacement of cells. Ninety per cent of epidermal cells consist of keratinocytes that are found in the basal layer of the stratified epithelium called epidermis. Keratinocytes are responsible for forming tight junctions with the nerves of the skin as well as in the process of wound healing. This article highlights the method of isolation and culture of rabbit primary epidermal keratinocytes in vitro. Approximately 2cm x 2cm oval shaped line was drawn on the dorsum of the rabbit to mark the surgical area. Then, the skin was carefully excised using a surgical blade and the target skin specimens harvested from the rabbits were placed in transport medium comprising of Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM and 1% of antibiotic-antimycotic solution. The specimens were transferred into a petri dish containing 70% ethanol and washed for 5 min followed by a wash in 1 x Dulbecco’s Phosphate Buffered Saline (DBPS. Then, the skin specimens were placed in DMEM and minced into small pieces using a scalpel. The minced pieces were placed in a centrifuge tube containing 0.6% Dispase and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic solution overnight at 4°C in a horizontal orientation. The epidermis layer (whitish, semi-transparent was separated from the dermis (pink, opaque, gooey with the aid of curved forceps by fixing the dermis with one pair of forceps while detaching the epidermis with the second pair. The cells were cultured at a density of 4 x 104 cells/cm2 in culture flask at 37°C and 5% CO2. The cell morphology of the keratinocytes was analyzed using inverted microscope.

  10. Olsenella umbonata sp. nov., a microaerotolerant anaerobic lactic acid bacterium from the sheep rumen and pig jejunum, and emended descriptions of Olsenella, Olsenella uli and Olsenella profusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraatz, Mareike; Wallace, R John; Svensson, Liselott

    2011-04-01

    Strain A2 is an anaerobic, variably Gram-stain-positive, non-spore-forming, small and irregularly rod-shaped bacterium from the ruminal fluid of a sheep that has been described informally as a representative of 'Olsenella (basonym Atopobium) oviles'. Three phenotypically similar bacterial strains (lac15, lac16 and lac31(T)) were isolated in concert with Veillonella magna lac18(T) from the mucosal jejunum of a pig. A phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) formed a genetically coherent group (100 % interstrain sequence similarity) within the bigeneric Olsenella-Atopobium branch of the family Coriobacteriaceae, class Actinobacteria. This group was most closely related to the type strains of the two recognized Olsenella species, namely Olsenella uli (sequence similarity of 96.85 %) and Olsenella profusa (sequence similarity of 97.20 %). The sequence similarity to the type strain of Atopobium minutum, the type species of the genus Atopobium, was 92.33 %. Unlike those of O. uli and O. profusa, outgrown colonies of strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) were opaque and greyish-white with an umbonate elevation on solid culture media. The four novel strains were characterized as being well-adapted and presumably indigenous to the gastrointestinal tract of homoeothermic vertebrates: they were mesophilic, microaerotolerant, neutrophilic and acidotolerant, bile-resistant, mucin-utilizing and markedly peptidolytic lactic acid bacteria. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, cellular fatty acid analysis and other differential phenotypic (physiological and biochemical) tests confirmed that strains A2, lac15, lac16 and lac31(T) represent a novel species of the genus Olsenella. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic results, we therefore describe Olsenella umbonata sp. nov., with lac31(T) ( = CCUG 58604(T)  = DSM 22620(T)  = JCM 16156(T)) as the type strain and A2 ( = CCUG 58212

  11. Chemo preventive action of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Sunita; Bhati, Sharwan; Isran, Rakesh; Ranga, Deepti; Meena, Dinesh; Pyarelal

    2012-01-01

    The present century has been an ever-increasing use of nuclear technologies in different fields raising the alarming problem of radiation hazards to living beings including man. An increasing body of evidence indicates that human activities are responsible for global climatic changes, which, in turn, may be directly or indirectly increasing human exposure to environmental hazards. On the other hand, all forms of cadmium are poisonous leading cadmium intoxication under appropriate circumstances. The interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of immense potential importance as their total environmental burden may have greater effects than expected from the sum of their individual impact. In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Liv.52 for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice. The changes included loosened sub-mucosa with hydropic degeneration. Lamina propria exhibited hydropic degeneration, abnormal mitotic figures, pyknotic nuclei and cytoplasmic degranulation in crypt cells, loosened tips and shortened villi. Leucocytic infiltration appeared in lamina propria. Few mitotic figures were observed during the early intervals but were not normal and resulted in mitotic death. Recovery started on day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in Liv.52 treated groups. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculature, hydropic degeneration in sub-mucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in sub-mucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis

  12. Susceptibility to cartap-induced lethal effect and diaphragmatic injury via ocular exposure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Hwang, Jenn-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Cheng

    2003-11-05

    Cartap is extensively used to control agricultural pests. Pertinent literatures have indicated that it causes no eye irritation [D.E. Ray, Insecticides derived from plants and other organisms, in: W.J. Hayes, E.R. Laws (Eds.), Handbook of Insecticide Toxicology, Classes of Insecticides, vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 1991, p. 611; C. Tomlin, Cartap, in: C. Tomlin (Ed.), The Insecticide Manual, 12th ed., British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UK, 2000, p. 144]; however, the instillation of a little cartap through the eye has caused death in rabbits. The aim of this study was to determine the ocular toxicity of cartap in New Zealand White rabbits. Cartap was directly instilled into the low conjunctival sac of eyes, at doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight. The changes in the enzymes and isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), as well as pathological changes in the muscles of the heart, thigh and diaphragm were determined in the cartap-treated rabbits. Moreover, the neuromuscular effect of cartap was examined using the isolated rabbit phrenic-nerve diaphragm model. The results indicated that rabbits developed severe signs and they died within 20 min of ocular instillation. The ocular LD50 of cartap was 8.1 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with cartap increased the activities of CK and LD enzymes and their isoenzymes, CK-1, CK-2, and CK-3 in serum, and CK-3 and LD-5 in the diaphragm. Microscopically, hypercontraction bands and the rupture of myofibers of the diaphragm were observed in dead rabbits. Cartap did not affect nerve-evoked twitch but induced irreversible contracture and twitch depression on the isolated rabbit's diaphragm. These results indicate that the rabbit is susceptible to cartap toxicity; the effect of cartap caused contracture and damage to the diaphragm might play a pivotal role in respiratory paralysis and death of rabbits during intoxication.

  13. Serologic activity of G immunoglobulin of irradiated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.A.; Nevinnaya, A.P.; Mozhajskij, A.M.; Snisar', N.A.

    1977-01-01

    Serologic immunochemical properties of immunoglobulins G (IgG) isolated from blood serum of normal rabbits and those given lethal and midlethal doses of radiation have been comparatively studied. A marked increase in the IgG level was detected in the recovery period of radiation sickness. The number of complement-binding antitissue antibodies in IgG grew in that period, and the anticomplementary activity and the catabolism rate of IgG increased in normal organism

  14. Isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis from Milk by Immunomagnetic Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Irene R.; Ball, Hywel J.; Rowe, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    An immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique was developed to facilitate selective isolation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis cells from milk. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies against radiation-killed intact M. paratuberculosis cells were produced and used to coat sheep anti-rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) type M-280 Dynabeads. The rabbit anti-M. paratuberculosis IgG-coated beads (IMB) reacted strongly with laboratory strains of M. paratuberculosis as determined by slide agglutination, and microsc...

  15. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  16. Heterogeneity of rabbit platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpatkin, S.

    1978-01-01

    Rabbits were injected intravenously with a cohort platelet label, 75 Se-selenomethionine. Platelet-rich plasma was separated into five different platelet density fractions on each of seven days by repetitively centrifuging the same sample of platelet-rich plasma at increasing gravitational force. The heaviest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with larger platelets. The lightest platelet sediment fraction was enriched with smaller platelets. Incorporation of isotope into the heaviest platelet fraction was considerably greater than incorporation into the lightest platelet fraction. The mean platelet survival of the lightest two fractions was significantly shorter than that of the heaviest three fractions. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the platelet cell sap generally revealed 10 prominent protein bands for the heaviest platelet fractions. The lightest platelet fraction had six absent to markedly diminished platelet proteins. The data are compatible with two models, (1) heavy-large platelets are, on average, young platelets which become lighter-smaller platelets while losing platelet membranes and cell sap components with time. (2) Heavy-large platelets and light-small platelets are produced independently by specific megakarocytes. The heavy-large platelets incorporate more isotope that lighter-smaller platelets (possibly because of their megakarocyte precursor). However, they are released earlier into the circulation than lighter-smaller platelets and are therefore younger platelets. The light-smaller platelets which are released later into the circulation have a shorter survival. (author)

  17. Biology of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Nathan R

    2006-01-01

    In recognition of Dr. Nathan Brewer's many years of dedicated service to AALAS and the community of research animal care specialists, the premier issue of JAALAS includes the following compilation of Dr. Brewer's essays on rabbit anatomy and physiology. These essays were originally published in the ASLAP newsletter (formerly called Synapse), and are reprinted here with the permission and endorsement of that organization. I would like to thank Nina Hahn, Jane Lacher, and Nancy Austin for assistance in compiling these essays. Publishing this information in JAALAS allows Dr. Brewer's work to become part of the searchable literature for laboratory animal science and medicine and also assures that the literature references and information he compiled will not be lost to posterity. However, readers should note that this material has undergone only minor editing for style, has not been edited for content, and, most importantly, has not undergone peer review. With the agreement of the associate editors and the AALAS leadership, I elected to forego peer review of this work, in contradiction to standard JAALAS policy, based on the status of this material as pre-published information from an affiliate organization that holds the copyright and on the esteem in which we hold for Dr. Brewer as a founding father of our organization.

  18. A rabbit model of non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Aruna; Tatarov, Ivan; Masek, Billie Jo; Hardick, Justin; Crusan, Annabelle; Wakefield, Teresa; Carroll, Karen; Yang, Samuel; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Lipsky, Michael M; McLeod, Charles G; Levine, Myron M; Rothman, Richard E; Gaydos, Charlotte A; DeTolla, Louis J

    2014-09-01

    Bacteremia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. In this study, we focused on the development of an animal model of bacteremia induced by non-typhoidal Salmonella. New Zealand White rabbits were inoculated with a human isolate of non-typhoidal Salmonella strain CVD J73 via the intra-peritoneal route. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and at euthanasia from infected rabbits. Additionally, tissue samples from the heart, lungs, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were obtained at euthanasia. All experimentally infected rabbits displayed clinical signs of disease (fever, dehydration, weight loss and lethargy). Tissues collected at necropsy from the animals exhibited histopathological changes indicative of bacteremia. Non-typhoidal Salmonella bacteria were detected in the blood and tissue samples of infected rabbits by microbiological culture and real-time PCR assays. The development of this animal model of bacteremia could prove to be a useful tool for studying how non-typhoidal Salmonella infections disseminate and spread in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Critical assessment of the efficiency of CD34 and CD133 antibodies for enrichment of rabbit hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vašíček, Jaromír; Shehata, Medhat; Schnabl, Susanne; Hilgarth, Martin; Hubmann, Rainer; Jäger, Ulrich; Bauer, Miroslav; Chrenek, Peter

    2018-06-08

    Rabbits have many hereditary diseases common to humans and are therefore a valuable model for regenerative disease and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) therapies. Currently, there is no substantial data on the isolation and/or enrichment of rabbit HSCs. This study was initiated to evaluate the efficiency of the commercially available anti-CD34 and anti-CD133 antibodies for the detection and potential enrichment of rabbit HSCs from peripheral blood. PBMCs from rabbit and human blood were labelled with different clones of anti-human CD34 monoclonal antibodies (AC136, 581 and 8G12) and rabbit polyclonal CD34 antibody (pCD34) and anti-human CD133 monoclonal antibodies (AC133 and 293C3). Flow cytometry showed a higher percentage of rabbit CD34 + cells labelled by AC136 in comparison to the clone 581 and pCD34 (Penrichment of rabbit CD34 + cells using magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). The enrichment of the rabbit CD34 + cells after sorting was low in comparison to human samples (2.4% vs. 39.6%). PCR analyses confirmed the efficient enrichment of human CD34 + cells and the low expression of CD34 mRNA in rabbit positive fraction. In conclusion, the tested antibodies might be suitable for detection, but not for sorting the rabbit CD34 + HSCs and new specific anti-rabbit CD34 antibodies are needed for efficient enrichment of rabbit HSCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadiani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  1. Simple Additive Weighting to Diagnose Rabbit Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadiani; Marissa, Dyna; Jundillah, Muhammad Labib; Azainil; Hatta, Heliza Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    Rabbit is one of the many pets maintained by the general public in Indonesia. Like other pet, rabbits are also susceptible to various diseases. Society in general does not understand correctly the type of rabbit disease and the way of treatment. To help care for sick rabbits it is necessary a decision support system recommendation diagnosis of rabbit disease. The purpose of this research is to make the application of rabbit disease diagnosis system so that can help user in taking care of rabbit. This application diagnoses the disease by tracing the symptoms and calculating the recommendation of the disease using Simple Additive Weighting method. This research produces a web-based decision support system that is used to help rabbit breeders and the general public.

  2. Teratology studies in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Linda; Reynaud, Lucie

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is generally the non-rodent species or second species after the rat recommended by the regulatory authorities and is part of the package of regulatory reproductive studies for the detection of potential embryotoxic and/or teratogenic effects of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, food additives, and other compounds, including vaccines (see Chapters 1-7).Its availability, practicality in housing and in mating as well as its large size makes the rabbit the preferred choice as a non-rodent species. The study protocols are essentially similar to those established for the rat (Chapter 9), with some particularities. The study designs are well defined in guidelines and are relatively standardized between testing laboratories across the world.As for the rat, large litter sizes and extensive background data in the rabbit are valuable criteria for an optimal assessment of in utero development of the embryo or fetus and for the detection of potential external or internal fetal malformations.

  3. The anionic basis of fluid secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Hunter, M; Novak, I

    1984-01-01

    The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate, but replac......The role played by anions in salivary secretion has been studied in experiments on the isolated, perfused mandibular gland of the rabbit, in which perfusate Cl- and/or HCO3- were replaced by other anions. Replacement of Cl- with Br- had no significant effect on salivary secretion rate...

  4. Differential effects of thioridazine enantiomers on action potential duration in rabbit papillary muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ask Schou; Pennisi, Cristian Pablo; Sevcencu, Cristian

    2015-01-01

    with (+)-thioridazine. In this study we for the first time investigate the cardiotoxicity of the isolated thioridazine enantiomers and show their effects on ventricular repolarization. The effects of (+)-thioridazine, (-)-thioridazine, and racemate on the rabbit ventricular action potential duration (APD) were...... investigated in a randomized controlled blinded experiment. Action potentials were measured in papillary muscles isolated from 21 female rabbits, and the drug effect on 90% APD in comparison with control (DeltaDelta-APD90) was evaluated. Increasing concentrations of (+)-thioridazine and the racemate caused...

  5. Carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters from rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of restricted feeding and realimentation during pregnancy was studied to know the carryover effect on carcass characteristics and meat quality of rabbit litters.Young does fed ad libitum diets often show parturition problems (Dystokia and abnormal presentation) with the subsequent reduction of number of kits, ...

  6. Protective role of aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bhartiya, K.M.; Agarwal, Manisha; Swami, Rajesh; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Meena, Dharmpal

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The extensive use of atomic energy now a days in various branches of natural economy, science and technology, radio diagnosis, radiotherapy, industries, agriculture, nuclear research etc. has made radiation injury an urgent problem attracting the attention not only of specialists in a variety of clinical disciplines but also of a vast army of theoretical scientists. Metals like cadmium have always been intrinsic components of earth crust with the continuing trends towards and increasing human activities involving man may become exposed to concentration of toxic metals presenting a potential threat for survival. The severity of the damage can be modulated by treating the animals with antioxidants. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radio protective activities. Among these, Aloe vera hold a great promise. Aloe vera juice was obtained from Millennium Agro Company, Goregaon (W) Mumbai. It is a herbal drug and known to contain well over 100 separate ingredients or constituents between those found in the leaf and mucilaginous gel inside the leaf. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum Swiss albino mice. For this purpose, healthy adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups. Group I included sham-irradiated normal mice. Group II was administered CdCl 2 at the dose of 20ppm, while Group III was exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma radiation. Animals of Group IV were treated with both CdCl 2 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. The animals of Group V and VI were treated with CdCl 2 + Aloe vera and 5.0Gy + Aloe vera respectively, whereas Group VII was treated with CdCl 2 +5.0Gy+ Aloe vera. In the groups V, VI and VII the Aloe vera was given seven days prior to the treatment of CdCl 2 or gamma rays. Three animals from all the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical

  7. Effects of Khaya senegalensis leaves on performance, carcass traits, hemtological and biochemical parameters in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wareth, A. A. A.; Hammad, Seddik; Ahmed, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing farmers today is to ensure adequate integration of natural resources into animal feeds. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Khaya senegalensis (KS) leaves on the performance of growing male rabbits, carcass traits and biochemical as well as hematological parameters. Thirty New Zealand White male growing rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits per group). Group I (control) received standard rabbit diet. Rabbits in group II and group III were fed standard rabbit diet supplemented with 35 % and 65 % KS leaves, respectively. All rabbits were fed daily for 25 days. The performance parameters and carcass criteria, including daily body weight gain, final body weight, and the percentage of dressing, were increased in rabbits fed 35 % KS when compared to the control group. Kidney and liver weight ratios increased significantly in group II but dropped in group III. Furthermore, liver enzymes - alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and kidney function parameters - urea, and creatinine - increased in both group II (significant P<0.05) and in group III (significant P<0.01) when compared to the control group. Moreover, KS leaves induced a significant increase (P<0.05) in the total white blood cell count, the percentage of granulocytes and the platelet count; whereas, the percentage of lymphocytes, red blood cell count, hemoglobin content, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were not statistically significantly changed. This study demonstrates that the performance parameters and carcass traits are improved by the replacement of rabbit's diet with KS leaves. However, KS leaves may adversely affect liver and kidney function in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, further studies are required to elucidate the maximum tolerable and toxic, as well as lethal doses, and to isolate the pharmacologically active components from KS leaves. PMID

  8. Hippophae leaf extract (SBL-1) countered radiation induced dysbiosis in jejunum of total body 60Cobalt gamma - irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniwal, C.S.; Madhu Bala

    2014-01-01

    Single dose of SBL-1 administered at the rate 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) 30 min prior to whole body 60 Co-gamma-irradiation at lethal dose (10 Gy), rendered >90% survival in comparison to zero survival in the non-SBL-1 treated 60 Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population (J Herbs Spices Med Plants, 2009; 15(2): 203-215). Present study investigated the effect of SBL-1 on jejunal microbiota in lethally irradiated mice. Study was performed with inbred Swiss albino Strain 'A' male mice (age 9 weeks) weighing 28±2 g. The animals were maintained under controlled environment at 26±2℃; 12 h light/dark cycle and offered standard animal food (Golden feed, Delhi) as well as tap water ad libitum. Metagenomic DNA was extracted, purified and quantified from jejunum of the mice. Universal primers (27f and 1492r) were used to amplify the 16S rRNA DNA from the metagenomic DNA. Amplicons were sequenced, vector contamination and chimeras were removed. The sequences (GenBank Accession No: KF681283 to KF681351) were taxonomically classified by using Sequence Match program, Ribosomal Database Project as well as by nucleotide-BLAST (E-value: 10, database: 16S rRNA gene sequences, Bacteria and Archea). Phylogenetic Tree was prepared using MEGA 5.2 package, using maximum likelihood algorithm after sequence alignment by MUSCLE. Thermus aquaticus was used as out-group to construct rooted tree. Branch stability was assessed by bootstrap analysis. Untreated animals and the animals treated with SBL-1 had 100% Lactobacillus; 60 Co gamma-irradiated animals had 55% Cohaesibacter (Alphaproteobacteria); 27% Mycoplasma (Tenericutes) and only 18% Lactobacillus; animals treated with SBL-1 prior to irradiation had 89% Lactobacillus and 11% Clostridium. This study demonstrated that treatment with SBL-1 at radioprotective doses before total body irradiation with lethal dose (10 Gy) countered the jejunal dysbiosis. (author)

  9. Protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced changes in the Jejunum of Swiss Albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Meena, Dinesh; Issran, Rakesh; Pyarelal; Jangir, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Recently, increased interest has developed on search for potential drugs of plant origin which can quench the radiation induced free radicals and eliminate oxygen with minimum side effects. In view of the fact, present study was planned to evaluate the protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced changes in jejunum of mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups on the basis of radiation, lead, combined treatment and drug treated. The values of total proteins, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA were estimated. The values of total proteins, cholesterol, DNA and RNA decreased whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity increased. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculatrue, hydropic degeneration in submucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in submucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis and chromatolysis were also observed in crypt cells. Shortening and breaking of villus tips, leucocytic infiltration in lamina propria and cell debris in intestinal lumen were also noted. The number of goblet cells per crypt section also decreased in all the experimental groups. The value of the experimental groups was significantly lower than that of the control group. The biochemical finding indicated the drug treated section of living tissue showed slightly/no degenerative changes. The drug treated groups demonstrating the ability of Aloe vera to inhibit oxidative stress thus preventing tissue injury. (author)

  10. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clozapine-induced rabbit syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicek Hocaoglu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit syndrome (RS is an antipsychoticinduced rhythmic motion of the mouth/lips resembling the chewing movements of a rabbit. The movement consists of a vertical-only motion, at about 5 Hz, with no involvement of the tongue. Long-term exposure to typical antipsychotics has clearly been associated with RS, but little is known of the risk of RS due to exposure to newer atypical antipsychotics. There have been isolated reports of RS in patients treated with the atypical agents risperidone, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and clozapine. We present the case history of a 44-year old female patient treated for paranoid schizophrenia for 22 years and RS during her last 10-month clozapine treatment. Background information from the literature is also discussed.

  12. Prevalence and zoonotic risks of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Cheyletiella spp. in guinea pigs and rabbits in Dutch pet shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaauw, P A M; Avermaete, K H A van; Mertens, C A R M; Meijer, M; Schoemaker, N J

    2017-06-01

    Young rabbits and guinea pigs are often purchased as pets for children and may be infected with zoonotic skin infections. To assess the risk of acquiring such an infection from rabbits or guinea pigs, this study investigated the prevalence of the fungus Trichophyton mentagrophytes and the fur mite Cheyletiella parasitovorax in asymptomatic rabbits and guinea pigs in Dutch pet shops. In 91 pet shops a total of 213 rabbits and 179 guinea pigs were sampled using the Mackenzie technique and cultured. Clean cultures were examined microscopically and a PCR was performed on at least one sample from each pet shop. All animals were investigated for fur mite using a flea comb, a magnifying glass and white paper. From the fur of 3.8% (8/213) of the rabbits and 16.8% (30/179) of the guinea pigs, T. mentagrophytes was isolated. From 1 guinea pig (0,6%) Chrysosporium keratinophilum was isolated. Dermatophyte-positive rabbits and guinea pigs originated from 5.6% (5/90) and 27.3% (24/88) of the investigated pet shops, respectively. Fur mites were not found. Pet shops can play an important role in preventing transmission of zoonotic ringworm infections (dermatophytosis) and educating their customers. Specific preventive measures such as routine screening examinations and (prophylactic) treatment of rabbits and guinea pigs are recommended next to regular hygiene when handling animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Establishment of a new model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xianying; Yin Meizhen; Zhang Lina; Li Shipu; Cao Yang

    2006-01-01

    To establish an experimental model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro, the osteoblasts were isolated from the calvarial bone of a 15-day old rabbit using a method of culturing the bone pieces in a medium after they had been digested by an enzyme for 15 min. The acquired cells were assayed by cell morphology, alkaline phosphatase activity and production of a mineralized matrix. The results showed that the cells had the morphologic characteristics and some biological behaviours of osteoblasts. Based on the primary isolation of osteoblasts from bone and combining digestion with explants, a novel model for culturing rabbit osteoblasts in vitro was established, which is easy, efficient and effective. This model can be used in many studies of osteogenesis mechanisms and bone replacement materials. (communication)

  14. Microbiologic, radiographic, and anatomic study of the nasolacrimal duct apparatus in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, R.P.; Foltz, C.J.; Kersten, D.; Batchelder, M.; Kaser, W.; Li, X.

    1996-01-01

    This study was motivated by the sporadic observation of epiphora in two male rabbits. The epiphora was unilateral and not associated with conjunctivitis or Pasteurella infection. To characterize the cause of epiphora, we studied 15 specific-pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits. This study group was composed of the two affected males, four unaffected males, and nine unaffected females. Clinical evaluation consisted of bacterial culture of conjunctival specimens, examination of conjunctival scrapings for chlamydial inclusions, culture and cytologic examination of specimens from the nasolacrimal duct, plain and contrast radiography, latex casting, histologic examination, and the Schirmer tear test. Important differences found in the rabbits with epiphora included an opalescent, gritty, nasolacrimal duct flush fluid and marked unilateral dilatation of the duct proximal to a dorsal flexure at the caudal limit of the incisor tooth root. The flush solution from one affected rabbit cleared with ether, suggesting the presence of triglycerides or cholesterol. The organisms most commonly isolated from the conjunctiva were Moraxella sp., Oligella urethralis, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp., and Streptococcus viridans. The organisms most commonly isolated from the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid were Moraxella sp., S. viridans, and Neisseria sp. Culture of the nasolacrimal duct flush fluid yielded microorganisms more consistently than did culture of the conjunctival specimens. All microorganisms isolated from affected rabbits also were isolated from unaffected rabbits. There was no apparent contribution of microorganisms to the development of epiphora, and Schirmer tear test results for affected animals were within the range seen in unaffected animals. Occlusion of the nasolacrimal duct was presumed to be attributable to fat droplets nasolacrimal duct anatomic

  15. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  16. Characterization of a novel alphaherpesvirus associated with fatal infections of domestic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, L.; Loehr, C.V.; Vanarsdall, A.L.; Baker, R.J.; Moerdyk-Schauwecker, M.; Levine, C.; Gerlach, R.F.; Cohen, S.A.; Alvarado, D.E.; Rohrmann, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    A virus was found to be associated with a severe disease affecting rabbits on a farm near Anchorage, Alaska. Extracts from the skin of infected rabbits produced syncytia and cell lysis in cultured rabbit skin, rabbit kidney, and Vero cells. Examination of the infectious agent by electron microscopy revealed an icosahedral nucleocapsid surrounded by an envelope with a diameter of about 120 nm, suggesting that it was a herpesvirus. The viral genome was determined to be composed of double-stranded DNA of 120-130 kbp. PCR using degenerate primers to conserved herpesvirus genes was used to amplify sequences from purified viral DNA. Sequencing of these products allowed the design of specific primers so that complete sequence data for a number of genes could be determined. Analysis of these data indicated that the virus is most closely related to bovine herpesvirus 2. The next most closely related viruses are human herpesviruses 1 and 2, and a number of cercopithecine herpesviruses. Experimental exposure of domestic rabbits to the isolate resulted in severe clinical disease and necrosis in the spleen and lymph node. In addition, viral DNA was identified in a variety of tissues by PCR, consistent with a systemic infection. Taken together, these data suggest that this virus is highly pathogenic for domestic rabbits and belongs to the family Herpesviridae, subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, genus Simplexvirus

  17. Impaired atrial electromechanical function and atrial fibrillation promotion in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huaying; Liu, Changle; Li, Jian; Zhou, Changyu; Cheng, Lijun; Liu, Tong; Li, Guangping

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an independent risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the underlying mechanisms are still not clearly elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the atrial electromechanical function, atrial electrophysiological changes and AF inducibility in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. In 8 alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits and 8 controls, we evaluated atrial electromechanical function by tissue Doppler imaging. Isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were prepared to measure atrial refractory effective period (AERP) and its dispersion (AERPD), interatrial conduction time (IACT) and vulnerability to AF. Atrial interstitial fibrosis was evaluated by Sirius-Red staining. Compared with controls, left atrial lateral wall Pa'-start interval (Pastart) and right atrial wall Pastart were increased in diabetic rabbits. AERPD was increased and IACT was prolonged in diabetic rabbits. Inducibility of AF in diabetic group was significant higher than controls (6/8 vs. 1/8, p TEMA); left atrial lateral wall Papeak and TEMA, left atrial posterior wall TEMA, and IACT were correlated with atrial areas of fibrosis. Atrial electromechanical function is impaired in diabetic rabbits, and is associated with atrial fibrosis and interatrial electrical conduction delay.

  18. Factors affecting wild rabbit production in extensive breeding enclosures: how can we optimise efforts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Guerrero-Casado

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The declining rabbit population in the Iberian Peninsula has led hunters and authorities to rear rabbits in captivity systems for their subsequent release. One alternative method to intensive rabbitry systems is the use of extensive breeding enclosures, since they produce animals of greater quality for hunting and conservation purposes. However, some of the factors that affect rabbit production in breeding enclosures are still unknown. The present study used partial least squares regression (PLSR to analyse the effects of plot size, scrub cover, slope, initial rabbit abundance, the resources needed to dig warrens, predation and proximity to other enclosures on rabbit abundance. The results of our study show a positive effect of the number of other fenced plots within a radius of 3 km, a positive relationship with the availability of optimal resources for building warrens and a positive influence of intermediate values of scrub cover. According to our results, to maximise rabbit production in the enclosures it would be advisable to concentrate the restocking effort by ensuring that the restocking plots are close to each other, thus avoiding isolated enclosures. Furthermore, the selection of plots with an appropriate scrub cover and high availability of elements that favour the construction of warrens, such as large stones, sloping land or tall shrubs, may optimise results.

  19. Anti-Eimeria activity of berberine and identification of associated gene expression changes in the mouse jejunum infected with Eimeria papillata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Metwaly, Mahmoud S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Sherif, Nour E; Delic, Denis; Al Omar, Suliman Y; Wunderlich, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Plant-based natural products are promising sources for identifying novel agents with potential anti-Eimeria activity. This study explores possible effects of berberine on Eimeria papillata infections in the jejunum of male Swiss albino mice. Berberine chloride, when daily administered to mice during infection, impairs intracellular development and multiplication of E. papillata, evidenced as 60% reduction of maximal fecal output of oocysts on day 5 p.i. Concomitantly, berberine attenuates the inflammatory response, evidenced as decreased messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ, and iNOS, as well as the oxidative stress response, evidenced as impaired increase in malondialdehyde, nitrate, and H2O2 and as prevented decrease in glutathione and catalase activity. Berberine also alters gene expression in the infected jejunum. On day 5 p.i., mRNA expression of 29 genes with annotated functions is more than 10-fold upregulated and that of 14 genes downregulated. Berberine downregulates the genes Xaf1, Itgb3bp, and Faim3 involved in apoptotic processes and upregulates genes involved in innate immune responses, as e.g., Colec11, Saa2, Klra8, Clec1b, and Crtam, especially the genes Cpa3, Fcer1a, and Mcpt1, Mcpt2, and Mcpt4 involved in mast cell activity. Additionally, 18 noncoding lincRNA species are differentially expressed more than 10-fold under berberine. Our data suggest that berberine induces hosts to exert anti-Eimeria activity by attenuating the inflammatory and oxidative stress response, by impairing apoptotic processes, and by activating local innate immune responses and epigenetic mechanisms in the host jejunum. Berberine has the potential as an anti-Eimeria food additive in animal farming.

  20. Ketamine, but not S(+)-ketamine, blocks ischemic preconditioning in rabbit hearts in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müllenheim, J.; Frässdorf, J.; Preckel, B.; Thämer, V.; Schlack, W.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ketamine blocks KATP channels in isolated cells and abolishes the cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in vitro. The authors investigated the effects of ketamine and S(+)-ketamine on ischemic preconditioning in the rabbit heart in vivo. METHODS: In 46

  1. Secretion of saliva by the rabbit mandibular gland in vitro: the role of anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Hunter, M

    1981-01-01

    and ductal modification with a recently developed technique for isolation and perfusion of the rabbit mandibular gland. Neither of the major extracellular anions (Cl- or HCO-3) is essential for primary fluid secretion. HCO-3 can be removed altogether and replaced with Cl- without diminution in secretory rate...

  2. The role of buffer anions and protons in secretion by the rabbit mandibular salivary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Case, R M; Conigrave, A D; Favaloro, E J

    1982-01-01

    1. The role of extracellular HCO3- and H+ in the formation of primary saliva and its subsequent modification by the glandular ducts has been investigated in the isolated perfused mandibular salivary gland of the rabbit. 2. Variation of extracellular HCO3- concentration between 12.5 and 50.0 mmol...

  3. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  4. AHP 47: THE PROVOCATIVE RABBIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rnam rgyal རྣམ་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A retreatant finished chanting for a family, packed up the offerings from the host, and started back to his hermitage feeling satisfied. A rabbit, called Ja dkrug mgo 'Trouble Maker', watched the retreatant through an evergreen bush, and decided he wanted to cheat the retreatant out of his offerings. Trouble Maker came out of the bush and stood in front of the retreatant in the middle of the path. As the retreatant came closer, Trouble Maker ran forward a few steps and then again turned back to watch the retreatant, who chased the rabbit for a while, but the heavy bag burdened him and he soon got very tired. He finally threw down his bag and chased Trouble Maker, who ran just beyond the retreatant’s grasp. Finally, having left the retreatant far behind, Trouble Maker doubled back, picked up the retreatant's bag, and carried it off. ...

  5. Abdominal scanning with technetium-99m pertechnetate localizes ectopic gastric mucosa in the jejunum: case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakatsanis, K.G.; Chatzipavlidou, V. (Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Zafiriadou, E. (Thessaloniki Univ. (Greece). 2. Dept. of Paediatric Surgery); Mavroudis, N. (Hippocrateion Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology); Patsiaoura, K.; Gotzamani-Psarrakos, A. (Hippocrateion Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. of Pathology)

    1993-06-01

    A 16-year old male patient was admitted to hospital because of a fainting episode which was accompanied by diarrhoea that was dark red. All investigations were normal except a low haematocrit, a technetium-99m pertechnetate abdominal scan, which showed a large area of moderate activity in the upper left abdomen, and digital subtraction angiography, which showed bleeding in the same area where the abnormal finding on the pertechnetate scan was found. Ectopic gastric mucosa and a deep ulcer in an otherwise normal jejunum were found during the urgent exploratory laparotomy. (orig.).

  6. Detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies in the gut associated lymphoid tissue of slaughtered rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, Rakel; Sevilla, Iker A; Molina, Elena; Pérez, Valentín; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A; Elguezabal, Natalia

    2015-06-11

    Rabbits are susceptible to infection by different species of the genus Mycobacterium. Particularly, development of specific lesions and isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, both subspecies of the M. avium complex, has been reported in wildlife conditions. Although, rabbit meat production worldwide is 200 million tons per year, microbiological data on this source of meat is lacking and more specifically reports of mycobacterial presence in industrially reared rabbit for human consumption have not been published. To this end, we sought mycobacteria by microbiological and histopathological methods paying special attention to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in rabbits from commercial rabbitries from the North East of Spain. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was not detected either by culture or PCR. However, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium was detected in 15.15% (10/66) and Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was detected in 1.51% (1/66) of gut associated lymphoid tissue of sampled animals by PCR, whereas caecal contents were negative. 9% (6/66) of the animals presented gross lesions suggestive of lymphoid activation, 6% (4/66) presented granulomatous lesions and 3% (2/66) contained acid fast bacilli. Mycobacterial isolation from samples was not achieved, although colonies of Thermoactinomycetes sp. were identified by 16s rRNA sequencing in 6% (4/66) of sampled animals. Apparently healthy farmed rabbits that go to slaughter may carry M. avium subspecies in gut associated lymphoid tissue.

  7. Problems and prospects of rabbit production in Nigeria - a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbits are characterized by small body size, short gestation period, high ... feeders and other equipment for rabbits can be made using readily available materials such as ... Limitations to rabbit production in developing countries include the ...

  8. Arrival of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 to northern Europe: Emergence and outbreaks in wild and domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neimanis, A S; Ahola, H; Zohari, S; Larsson Pettersson, U; Bröjer, C; Capucci, L; Gavier-Widén, D

    2018-02-01

    Incursion of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) into Sweden was documented in 1990 and it is now considered endemic in wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2), a new, related lagovirus was first detected in France in 2010, and has spread rapidly throughout Europe and beyond. However, knowledge of RHDV2 in northern Europe is sporadic and incomplete, and in Sweden, routinely available diagnostic methods to detect rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) do not distinguish between types of virus causing disease. Using RHDV2-specific RT-qPCR, sequencing of the VP60 gene and immunological virus typing of archived and prospective case material from the National Veterinary Institute's (SVA) wildlife disease surveillance programme and diagnostic pathology service, we describe the emergence of RHDV2 in Sweden in both wild and domestic rabbits. The earliest documented outbreak occurred on 22 May 2013, and from May 2013 to May 2016, 10 separate incidents of RHDV2 were documented from six different municipalities in the southern half of Sweden. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP60 gene shows clear clustering of Swedish isolates into three separate clusters within two different clades according to geographic location and time, suggesting viral evolution, multiple introduction events or both. Almost all cases of RHD examined by SVA from May 2013 to May 2016 were caused by RHDV2, suggesting that RHDV2 may be replacing RHDV as the predominant cause of RHD in Sweden. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Epizootic rabbit enteropathy inoculum (TEC4): antibiograms and antibiotic fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybens, Nathalie; Houeix, Julien; Licois, Dominique; Mainil, Jacques; Marlier, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) emerged and spread in Europe within the last 13 years causing major economical loss. The aims of the study was to evaluate antibiograms of TEC4, an inoculum composed of an extract of intestinal content of affected rabbits, and to test the potential of different antibiotic-based TEC4 fractions to reproduce the disease. Twenty nine different antibiotic discs were incubated for determining bacteria resistance. In a complementary study, nine tubes of liquid medium were inoculated with TEC4, incubated and added individually with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, bacitracin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, novobiocin, streptomycyin, tylosin, vancomycin and 0.9% saline solution as control. The content of each tube was washed by centrifugation and suspended in saline. The three most effective antibiotics are florfenicol, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and tylosin. A high concentration of Clostridium sordelli and Bacillus firmus were isolated in all fractions. Species never cultured from TEC4 were identified as Fusobacterium necrogenes (in vancomycin fraction), Cellulomonas sp (in novobiocin fraction) and Bacteroides distasonis (in doxycycline fraction). The ERE was reproduced when bacitracin, doxycycline and 0.9% fractions were inoculated. Rabbits showed ERE clinical signs with the specific drop in daily weight gain.

  10. Subtyping of Cryptosporidium cuniculus and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in rabbits in two farms in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ziyin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi are two prevalent opportunistic pathogens in humans and animals. Currently, few data are available on genetic characterization of both pathogens in rabbits in China. The aim of the present study was to understand prevalence and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi in rabbits. We collected 215 fecal samples from 150 Rex rabbits and 65 New Zealand White rabbits on two different farms in Heilongjiang Province, China. Cryptosporidium spp. and E. bieneusi were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing the partial small subunit of ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of rDNA, respectively. Cryptosporidium was detected in 3.3% (5/150 of Rex rabbits and 29.2% (19/65 of New Zealand White rabbits. All the 24 Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. cuniculus. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was only found in 14.7% (22/150 of Rex rabbits. Five known genotypes: CHN-RD1 (n = 12, D (n = 3, Type IV (n = 2, Peru6 (n = 1, and I (n = 1, and three novel ones CHN-RR1 to CHN-RR3 (one each were detected. By analyzing the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60 gene sequences of C. cuniculus isolates, three subtypes were obtained: VbA28 (n = 2, VbA29 (n = 16, and VbA32 (n = 3. All these three C. cuniculus subtypes were reported previously in humans. Four known E. bieneusi genotypes have been found to be present in humans. The three novel ones fell into zoonotic group 1. The results suggest zoonotic potential of C. cuniculus and E. bieneusi isolates in rabbits.

  11. Is there a difference between hare syphilis and rabbit syphilis? Cross infection experiments between rabbits and hares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumeij, J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073286826; Mikalová, L.; Smajs, D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Cross infection of rabbits and hares with Treponema paraluiscuniculi from rabbits and the related microorganism from hares, which was provisionally named "Treponema paraluisleporis", revealed that T. paraluiscuniculi affects rabbits clinically, but only causes seroconversion in hares

  12. Cell kinetics, DNA integrity, differentiation, and lipid fingerprinting analysis of rabbit adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barretto, Letícia Siqueira de Sá; Lessio, Camila; Sawaki e Nakamura, Ahy Natally; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; da Silva, Camila Gonzaga; Zambon, João Paulo; Gozzo, Fábio César; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; de Almeida, Fernando Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    Human adipose tissue has been described as a potential alternative reservoir for stem cells. Although studies have been performed in rabbits using autologous adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC), these cells have not been well characterized. The primary objectives of this study were to demonstrate the presence of adipose-derived stem cells isolated from rabbit inguinal fat pads and to characterize them through osteogenic and adipogenic in vitro differentiation and lipid fingerprinting analysis. The secondary objective was to evaluate cell behavior through growth kinetics, cell viability, and DNA integrity. Rabbit ADSCs were isolated to determine the in vitro growth kinetics and cell viability. DNA integrity was assessed by an alkaline Comet assay in passages 0 and 5. The osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by Von Kossa, and Alizarin Red S staining and adipogenic differentiation were assessed by Oil Red O staining. Lipid fingerprinting analyses of control, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiated cells were performed by MALDI-TOF/MS. We demonstrate that rabbit ADSC have a constant growth rate at the early passages, with increased DNA fragmentation at or after passage 5. Rabbit ADSC viability was similar in passages 2 and 5 (90.7% and 86.6%, respectively), but there was a tendency to decreased cellular growth rate after passage 3. The ADSC were characterized by the expression of surface markers such as CD29 (67.4%) and CD44 (89.4%), using CD 45 (0.77%) as a negative control. ADSC from rabbits were successfully isolated form the inguinal region. These cells were capable to differentiate into osteogenic and adipogenic tissue when they were placed in inductive media. After each passage, there was a trend towards decreased cell growth. On the other hand, DNA fragmentation increased at each passage. ADSC had a different lipid profile when placed in control, adipogenic, or osteogenic media.

  13. Effect of Digestible Protein and Sulfur Amino Acids in Starter Diet on Performance and Small Intestinal (Jejunum Morphology of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avisa Akhavan khaleghi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Protein is an essential constituent of all tissues of animal body and has major effect on growth performance of the bird. A better understanding of the nutritional requirements of amino acids allows a more precise nutrition, offering the possibility for the formulator to optimize the requirement of at least minimum levels of crude protein by essential amino acids requirements, generating better result and lower costs for the producer. Methionine + Cystine (total sulfur amino acid = TSSA perform a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. Methionine is an essential amino acid for poultry and has an important role as a precursor of Cystine. Methionine is usually the first limiting amino acid in most of the practical diets for broiler chicken. The efficiency of utilization of dietary nutrients partly depends on the development of the gastro intestinal tract. Material and methods A 2×3 factorial arrangement in a CRD experiment was conducted to study the effect of digestible protein (DP and sulfur amino acids (DSAA during the starter period on performance and small intestinal (jejunum villous morphology. A total number of 300 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 30 groups with 10 chicks each. Treatments consisted of two dietary levels of DP (19.5 and 21.5% and three dietary levels of DSAA (0.94, 1.02 and 1.1% that were fed for 10 days. For Each group and treatment, Feed Intake (FI, Weight Gain (WG and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were calculated and all the data were statistically analyzed by the SAS software. Results and Discussions The effects of different levels of protein and digestible sulfur amino acids on the mean feed intake, feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain are shown in the Table 3. Increase in the percentage of digestible sulfur amino acids, increased the levels of feed intake and feed conversion ratio in the starter period but, had no effect on the WG. Adding the DSAA

  14. Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity.   Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  15. Interactions of soybean lectin, soyasaponins, and glycinin with rabbit jejunal mucosa in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, J.R.; Torres-Pinedo, R.

    1982-09-01

    Mucosal samples from rabbit jejunum were incubated (30 min, 25 degrees C) with (/sup 125/I)glycinin in the presence of buffer, soybean lectin (50 micrograms/ml) soyasaponins (1 mg/ml), or both lectin and saponins. The mucosal uptake of (/sup 125/I)glycinin was negligible with buffer, and increased progressively with additions of soybean lectin (P less than 0.05), soyasaponins (P less than 0.005), and both (P less than 0.0001). The stimulation of uptake by lectin and saponins together was greater than the sum of their individual effects (P less than 0.0005). The effect of soybean lectin on glycinin uptake was concentration dependent, reaching a maximum at approximately 50 micrograms/ml for the stimulation of uptake in the presence of saponins, and was inhibited by D-GaINAc. Although the mechanisms involved in mucosal uptake of glycinin cannot be described from these data, we have assumed the presence of two independent pathways for lectin-stimulated and saponin-induced uptakes. In addition, we have proposed that soybean lectin, by binding to terminal galactoside sites at the enterocyte apical membrane, enhances a crenator effect of saponins that leads to increasing leakage of glycinin into the cell.

  16. Optimization of HIV-1 Envelope DNA Vaccine Candidates within Three Different Animal Models, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Cynomolgus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggren, Marie; Vinner, Lasse; Andresen, Betina Skovgaard; Grevstad, Berit; Repits, Johanna; Melchers, Mark; Elvang, Tara Laura; Sanders, Rogier W; Martinon, Frédéric; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Bowles, Emma Joanne; Stewart-Jones, Guillaume; Biswas, Priscilla; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Jansson, Marianne; Heyndrickx, Leo; Grand, Roger Le; Fomsgaard, Anders

    2013-07-19

    HIV-1 DNA vaccines have many advantageous features. Evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates often starts in small animal models before macaque and human trials. Here, we selected and optimized DNA vaccine candidates through systematic testing in rabbits for the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb). We compared three different animal models: guinea pigs, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Envelope genes from the prototype isolate HIV-1 Bx08 and two elite neutralizers were included. Codon-optimized genes, encoded secreted gp140 or membrane bound gp150, were modified for expression of stabilized soluble trimer gene products, and delivered individually or mixed. Specific IgG after repeated i.d. inoculations with electroporation confirmed in vivo expression and immunogenicity. Evaluations of rabbits and guinea pigs displayed similar results. The superior DNA construct in rabbits was a trivalent mix of non-modified codon-optimized gp140 envelope genes. Despite NAb responses with some potency and breadth in guinea pigs and rabbits, the DNA vaccinated macaques displayed less bNAb activity. It was concluded that a trivalent mix of non-modified gp140 genes from rationally selected clinical isolates was, in this study, the best option to induce high and broad NAb in the rabbit model, but this optimization does not directly translate into similar responses in cynomolgus macaques.

  17. Optimization of HIV-1 Envelope DNA Vaccine Candidates within Three Different Animal Models, Guinea Pigs, Rabbits and Cynomolgus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Le Grand

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 DNA vaccines have many advantageous features. Evaluation of HIV-1 vaccine candidates often starts in small animal models before macaque and human trials. Here, we selected and optimized DNA vaccine candidates through systematic testing in rabbits for the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAb. We compared three different animal models: guinea pigs, rabbits and cynomolgus macaques. Envelope genes from the prototype isolate HIV-1 Bx08 and two elite neutralizers were included. Codon-optimized genes, encoded secreted gp140 or membrane bound gp150, were modified for expression of stabilized soluble trimer gene products, and delivered individually or mixed. Specific IgG after repeated i.d. inoculations with electroporation confirmed in vivo expression and immunogenicity. Evaluations of rabbits and guinea pigs displayed similar results. The superior DNA construct in rabbits was a trivalent mix of non-modified codon-optimized gp140 envelope genes. Despite NAb responses with some potency and breadth in guinea pigs and rabbits, the DNA vaccinated macaques displayed less bNAb activity. It was concluded that a trivalent mix of non-modified gp140 genes from rationally selected clinical isolates was, in this study, the best option to induce high and broad NAb in the rabbit model, but this optimization does not directly translate into similar responses in cynomolgus macaques.

  18. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rabbit Oncology : Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeeland, Yvonne

    Neoplasia has long been reported as a rare finding in rabbits, but over the past decades the number of reports on neoplastic disease in rabbits has risen considerably. Similar to other animals, neoplastic changes may occur in any organ system, but the rate in which the organ systems are affected

  20. Characterization of a rabbit germ-line VH gene that is a candidate donor for VH gene conversion in mutant Alicia rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H T; Alexander, C B; Mage, R G

    1995-06-15

    Normal rabbits preferentially rearrange the 3'-most VH gene, VH1, to encode Igs with VHa allotypes, which constitute the majority of rabbit serum Igs. A gene conversion-like mechanism is employed to diversify the primary Ab repertoire. In mutant Alicia rabbits that derived from a rabbit with VHa2 allotype, the VH1 gene was deleted. Our previous studies showed that the first functional gene (VH4) or VH4-like genes were rearranged in 2- to 8-wk-old homozygous Alicia. The VH1a2-like sequences that were found in splenic mRNA from 6-wk and older Alicia rabbits still had some residues that were typical of VH4. The appearances of sequences resembling that of VH1a2 may have been caused by gene conversions that altered the sequences of the rearranged VH or there may have been rearrangement of upstream VH1a2-like genes later in development. To investigate this further, we constructed a cosmid library and isolated a VH1a2-like gene, VH12-1-6, with a sequence almost identical to VH1a2. This gene had a deleted base in the heptamer of its recombination signal sequence. However, even if this defect diminished or eliminated its ability to rearrange, the a2-like gene could have acted as a donor for gene-conversion-like alteration of rearranged VH genes. Sequence comparisons suggested that this gene or a gene like it could have acted as a donor for gene conversion in mutant Alicia and in normal rabbits.

  1. Pleural fluid exchange in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashenko, Gregg J; Robichaux, Amy; Lee, Y C Gary; Sanders, Jonathan R; Roselli, Robert J; Light, Richard W

    2007-07-01

    The study was designed to better characterize pleural fluid absorption in rabbits with the following two objectives: to determine the relative absorption of saline versus high-protein solutions, and to identify the relative rates of absorption of dextran molecules of varying sizes. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits received a 12-mL intrapleural injection of saline solution and a 10% protein solution on opposite sides, each solution containing dextran molecules with varying MWs. At sacrifice at 1, 4, 8, 18 and 24 h, the volume of pleural fluid and the concentrations of the dextran molecules were determined. Saline was absorbed faster than the high-protein fluid (P higher than those in the protein solution at all times after injection (P = 0.005; P higher-MW dextrans were cleared more slowly than the lower-MW dextrans in a continuously graded manner. Saline was absorbed faster than a solution with a high protein content. There was a continuous spectrum in the rate of absorption of the dextran molecules, with the larger molecules being absorbed more slowly.

  2. Short communication: Absence of campylobacter spp. In intensive rabbit farming in eastern Spain, preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Marín

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis are the most frequently reported zoonoses and among the most common causes of diarrhoeal illness in the European Union and the United States, and their incidence appears to be increasing. Campylobacter species are routinely found in poultry, swine, cattle, dairy cows and sheep. So far, there are few descriptions of Campylobacter isolation from rabbits. Rabbit meat is a common item in the Mediterranean diet. In this context, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in healthy rabbits reared in intensive farms in the Alto Palancia region, eastern Spain. Caecal contents from 70 healthy does reared on 7 different farms were collected. Bacteriological culture was performed in accordance with ISO 10272-1:2006. All samples tested negative for Campylobacter spp. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which comprehensive monitoring was specifically carried out in order to provide data on the occurrence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in large intensive rabbit farms in Spain. However, further microbiological studies throughout the Spanish territory are needed to determine the prevalence and risk of other foodborne pathogens in rabbits at farm level.

  3. Effect of competitive exclusion in rabbits using an autochthonous probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Cunha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal nutrition has been severely challenged by the ban on antimicrobials as growth promoters. This has fostered the study of alternative methods to avoid colonisation by pathogenic bacteria as well as to improve the growth of animals and feed conversion efficiency. These new options should not alter the normal intestinal microbiota, or affect it as little as possible. The use of probiotics, which are live microorganisms that beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, can be seen as a promising way to achieve that goal. In this study, New Zealand White rabbits were fed diets containing an autochthonous probiotic of Enterococcus spp., with the strains EaI, EfaI and EfaD, and Escherichia coli, with the strains ECI 1, ECI 2 and ECD, during a 25-d trial, to evaluate the impact of the probiotic on the faecal microbiota, including population dynamics and antimicrobial resistance profiles. A control group of rabbits, which was fed a diet containing a commonly used mixture of antimicrobials (colistin, oxytetracycline, and valnemulin, was also studied. To assess the colonisation ability of the mentioned probiotic, the faecal microbiota of the rabbits was characterised up to 10 d after the administration had ended. Isolates of enterococci and E. coli were studied for phylogenetic relationships using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-PCR and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, respectively. Although partially affected by an unexpected clinical impairment suffered by the rabbits in the experimental group, our results showed the following. The difference between the growth rate of the animals treated with antimicrobials and those fed the probiotic was not statistically significant (P> 0.05. The competitive exclusion product was present in the faecal samples in a large proportion, but stopped being recovered by culture as soon as the administration ended and the housing conditions were changed

  4. Listeria monocytogenes Circulating in Rabbit Meat Products and Slaughterhouses in Italy: Prevalence Data and Comparison Among Typing Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesare, Alessandra; Parisi, Antonio; Mioni, Renzo; Comin, Damiano; Lucchi, Alex; Manfreda, Gerardo

    2017-03-01

    Rabbit meat has outstanding dietetic and nutritional properties. However, few data on microbiological hazards associated with rabbit productions are available. In this study, the presence of Listeria monocytogenes was determined in 430 rabbit carcasses, 256 rabbit meat cuts and products, and 599 environmental sponges collected from four Italian rabbit slaughterhouses over a period of 1 year. Prevalence of L. monocytogenes among the 1285 rabbit meat and environmental samples was 11%, with statistically significant differences between slaughterhouses. The highest prevalence (33.6%) was observed in rabbit meat cuts and products; the majority of positive environmental samples were collected from conveyor belts. Overall, 27.9% and 14.3% of rabbit cuts and carcasses, respectively, had L. monocytogenes counts higher than 1 colony-forming unit (CFU)/10 g. A selection of 123 isolates from positive samples was genotyped and serotyped to determine genetic profiles and diversity among L. monocytogenes isolates contaminating different slaughterhouses and classes of products investigated. Discriminatory power and concordance among the results obtained using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), automated EcoRI ribotyping, and serotyping were assessed. The isolates selected for typing were classified into serotypes 1/2a (52.8%), 1/2c (32.5%), and 1/2b (14.6%). The majority of the isolates were classified as ST14 (34.1%), ST9 (35.5%), ST121 (17.9%), and ST224 (14.6%). The greatest discriminatory power was observed with the MLVA typing, followed by MLST, PFGE, and ribotyping. The best bidirectional concordance was achieved between PFGE and MLST. There was 100% correlation between both MLST and MLVA with serotype. Moreover, a high unidirectional correspondence was observed between MLVA and both MLST and PFGE, as well as between PFGE and both MLST and serotyping. The results of this

  5. Welfare aspects in rabbit rearing and transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cavani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The review starts with the description of the rabbits’ (Oryctolagus cuniculus main habits and the current situation concerning the rabbit husbandry and management systems, as well as their effects on the welfare of these animals. As far as the intensive rabbit husbandry systems are concerned, the main problems are related to the time since rabbits have been domesticated and their adaptive capacity and coping styles as respects the farming environment and management systems. Both these aspects have implications in the present and future of rabbit rearing for different purposes. Examples are given on the effects of different housing and management systems on rabbit welfare, as well as examples of the ethological, physiological and productive indicators used to evaluate these effects. Transportation and, more generally, preslaughter phases including catching, fasting and lairage at the abattoir are considered major stressors for farmed rabbits and might have deleterious effects on health, well-being, performance, and finally, product quality. A general statement of the recent scientific studies considering the effects of pre-slaughter factors on physiological and productive measurements are reported. Finally, some indications in order to improve rabbit welfare, already present at the European level, are also outlined, together with the European Food Safety Authority opinions.

  6. Parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the most important parasitic infections of wild rabbits and hares, which harmful effect in this animal population is manifested as a gradual weakening of the immune system, reduction in fertility, weight loss and constant exhaustion. Order of Lagomorpha (hares or lagomorphs belongs to superorder of higher mammals which includes the family of rabbits (Leporidae which are represented in Europe as well as the family of whistleblowers (Ochotonidae which live only in North America and Northern regions of Asia. The most important representatives of Leporidae family are European hare (Lepus europeus and wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. The most important endoparasitosis of hares and wild rabbits are: coccidiosis, encephalitozoonosis (nosemosis, toxoplasmosis, sarcocystosis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, protostrongylosis, trichostrngylodosis, passalurosis, anoplocephalidosis, cysticercosis and fasciolosis. The most frequent ectoparasites of rabbits and wild hares are fleas, lice and ticks. Reduction in hare population, which is noticed in whole Europe including Serbia, is caused by changed living conditions, quantitatively and qualitatively insufficient nutrition, increased use of herbicides as well as various infectious diseases and the diseases of parasitic etiology. Since wild rabbits and hares pose a threat to health of domestic rabbits and people, knowledge of parasitic fauna of these wild animals is of extreme epizootiological and epidemiological importance.

  7. Histopathological studies show protective efficacy of Hippophae leaf extract against damage to jejunum in whole body 60Co-a-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Manish; Prasad, Jagdish; Madhu Bala

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ionizing radiation affect living tissue by causing majority of in vivo damage by free radical production. Earlier we reported that our preparation from Hippophae leaf offered survival benefit to >90% mice population which was whole body irradiated ( 60 Co-a-rays, 10 Gy). Objective: This study was planned to examine the protective effects of our drug (from Hippophae leaf) on ( 60 Co-a-ray induced oxidative damage and histopathological changes in jejunum. Methods: Around 2 months old adult male Strain 'A' mice were irradiated (10 Gy). Drug was administered intraperitoneally (-30 mm.). Histological parameters were studied after staining the sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Malondialdehyde formation (index of lipid peroxidation), alkaline phosphatase activity, and total thiol content were determined by biochemical techniques. The data was obtained at different time interval upto 30 days. Results: Biochemical studies showed that in comparison to the untreated controls, in the irradiated (10 Gy) mice, there was significant increase in the alkaline phosphatase activity and level of malondialdehyde whereas decrease in total thiol content within 2 days. Histological studies showed that whole body irradiation (10 Gy), damaged the jejunam crypt cells and decreased the villi height within 2 days. Intra-peritoneal administration of drug, 30 mm prior to irradiation, protected the crypt cells and villi height, countered the radiation induced increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and lipid peroxidation and values were comparable to the level of control in 30 days. Conclusions: These biochemical and histopathological studies suggested that our drug can offer effective radioprotection against the oxidative damage to jejunum in vivo. (author)

  8. The Effect of Exogenous Protease in Broiler Diets on the Apparent Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and on Protease Activity in Jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Rada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a mono-component commercial serine protease supplement in broiler diets on apparent ileal amino acid digestibility and protease activity. A total of 150 male (28 d old ROSS 308 were randomly placed into 30 battery pens and divided into 5 treatment groups with 6 replicates each. The experiment was performed for 7 days. Five dietary treatments were used: 2 standard protein diets without (SP and with protease (SP + P formulated 20.7 % CP, 2 lower-protein diets (19.9 % CP without (LP and with protease (LP + P and one lower‑protein diet with protease and with doubled rapeseed meal (RSM content (SP-RSM + P compared with the other treatments. Lower-protein diets were formulated with a 4 % decrease in the relative CP value compared with the standard protein diet. Enzyme protease was added to the diets at a concentration of 200 ppm (15,000 PROT units per kg. The diets contained 0.3 % Cr2O3 to facilitate the estimation of apparent AA digestibility and overall apparent ileal crude protein digestibility. Mono-component protease had no effect on apparent ileal AA digestibility or jejunum protease activity if diets contained the same level of RSM. The supplement of exogenous protease did not affect (P > 0.05 the apparent ileal AA digestibility coefficients if a higher RSM level was used. The CP level influenced (P < 0.05 only the coefficients of the apparent ileal AA digestibility of Pro and Arg. The RSM level (P < 0.01 had significant effects on protease activity in the jejunum.

  9. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Atien Priyanti; Yono Cahyo Rahadjo

    2012-01-01

    Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic ferti...

  10. Comparative quantitative monitoring of rabbit haemorrhagic disease viruses in rabbit kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaei, Markus; Kerr, Peter J; Read, Andrew J; Hick, Paul; Haboury, Stephanie; Wright, John D; Strive, Tanja

    2014-06-09

    Only one strain (the Czech CAPM-v351) of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) has been released in Australia and New Zealand to control pest populations of the European rabbit O. cuniculus. Antigenic variants of RHDV known as RHDVa strains are reportedly replacing RHDV strains in other parts of the world, and Australia is currently investigating the usefulness of RHDVa to complement rabbit biocontrol efforts in Australia and New Zealand. RHDV efficiently kills adult rabbits but not rabbit kittens, which are more resistant to RHD the younger they are and which may carry the virus without signs of disease for prolonged periods. These different infection patterns in young rabbits may significantly influence RHDV epidemiology in the field and hence attempts to control rabbit numbers. We quantified RHDV replication and shedding in 4-5 week old rabbits using quantitative real time PCR to assess their potential to shape RHDV epidemiology by shedding and transmitting virus. We further compared RHDV-v351 with an antigenic variant strain of RHDVa in kittens that is currently being considered as a potential RHDV strain for future release to improve rabbit biocontrol in Australia. Kittens were susceptible to infection with virus doses as low as 10 ID50. Virus growth, shedding and transmission after RHDVa infection was found to be comparable or non-significantly lower compared to RHDV. Virus replication and shedding was observed in all kittens infected, but was low in comparison to adult rabbits. Both viruses were shed and transmitted to bystander rabbits. While blood titres indicated that 4-5 week old kittens mostly clear the infection even in the absence of maternal antibodies, virus titres in liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph node were still high on day 5 post infection. Rabbit kittens are susceptible to infection with very low doses of RHDV, and can transmit virus before they seroconvert. They may therefore play an important role in RHDV field epidemiology, in

  11. Validation of ethnopharmacological uses of Heliotropium strigosum Willd. as spasmolytic, bronchodilator and vasorelaxant remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid H; Javed, Sana; Saqib, Fatima; Imran, Imran; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2015-06-06

    Heliotropium strigosum is used in traditional medicine to manage gastrointestinal pain, respiratory distress and vascular disorders. The present study was undertaken to provide scientific evidences for these folkloric uses by in vitro experimental settings. A crude methanol extract of the Heliotropium strigosum (Hs.Cr) was tested in vitro on isolated rabbit jejunum preparations to detect the possible presence of spasmolytic activity. Moreover, isolated rabbit tracheal and aorta preparations were used to ascertain the relaxant effects of the extract. The Hs.Cr exhibited relaxant effects in rabbit jejunum in a concentration dependent manner (0.01-3.0 mg/ml). The Hs.Cr also relaxed K(+) (80 mM)-induced spastic contractions in rabbit jejunum and shifted the Ca(2+) concentration response curves towards right. The extract relaxed carbachol (1 μM)- as well as K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions in rabbit trachea at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10 mg/ml. Moreover, Hs.Cr. also relaxed (0.01-3.0 mg/ml) the phenylephrine (1 μM)- and K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions in isolated rabbit aorta. The Hs.Cr was found to exhibit spasmolytic, bronchodilator and vasorelaxant activities on isolated rabbit jejunum, trachea and aorta preparations, likely mediated through Ca(2+) channel blockade. This finding may provide a scientific basis for the folkloric uses of the plant.

  12. Next step in the ongoing arms race between myxoma virus and wild rabbits in Australia is a novel disease phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J.; Cattadori, Isabella M.; Liu, June; Sim, Derek G.; Dodds, Jeff W.; Brooks, Jason W.; Kennett, Mary J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2017-01-01

    In host–pathogen arms races, increases in host resistance prompt counteradaptation by pathogens, but the nature of that counteradaptation is seldom directly observed outside of laboratory models. The best-documented field example is the coevolution of myxoma virus (MYXV) in European rabbits. To understand how MYXV in Australia has continued to evolve in wild rabbits under intense selection for genetic resistance to myxomatosis, we compared the phenotypes of the progenitor MYXV and viral isolates from the 1950s and the 1990s in laboratory rabbits with no resistance. Strikingly, and unlike their 1950s counterparts, most virus isolates from the 1990s induced a highly lethal immune collapse syndrome similar to septic shock. Thus, the next step in this canonical case of coevolution after a species jump has been further escalation by the virus in the face of widespread host resistance. PMID:28808019

  13. Carcass traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajda Kermauner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-three rabbits of four genotypes (A - SIKA maternal line; C - SIKA sire line; AxC - hybrids between line A and C; AxCal - crossbreds between line A and the Californian breed were used to evaluate the effect of genotype on carcass traits. Rabbits were weaned at 35 days and slaughtered at 93 days of age. Rabbits were fed standard feed mixture ad libitum. The highest live weight at slaughter and dressing percentage was achieved by line C, and the lowest in line A. Hybrids between line A and C exhibited slightly worse carcass traits than rabbits in line C, but the differences were not statistically significant. The Californian breed gave worse results than crossbreeding with line C, though in most cases the differences between AxC and AxCal were not significant. The differences between genotypes in hind leg tissue composition, pH and meat colour were not statistically significant.

  14. International Conference on Immunogenetics of the Rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-09

    Md. 20205 We have recently described a method for the direct removal of T lymphocytes by " panning " of rabbit splenocytes on plastic dishes coated...Research University of Illinois Washington, DC 20012 Chicago, IL 60612 Hammadi Ayadi Linda Cook Institut Jacques Monod University of Illinois, Chicago...other species and tested for its ability to inhibit a rabbit Id-anti-Id reaction. Guinea pigs, mice, goats, and chickens were immunized with al IgG and

  15. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS (SANARELLI) IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprunt, Douglas H.

    1932-01-01

    Pregnancy in rabbits alters the reactivity of the tissues to the virus of infectious myxomatosis. The livers of pregnant animals with the myxoma have a central acidophilic necrosis. Secondary lesions in the lungs are much more numerous and larger in the pregnant than in the non-gravid animals. In like manner the lesions in the spleen are more extensive in the pregnant rabbit. On the other hand the skin lesions of the pregnant animal are decreased in size. PMID:19870088

  16. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  17. Sequential and Simultaneous Immunization of Rabbits with HIV-1 Envelope Glycoprotein SOSIP.664 Trimers from Clades A, B and C

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klasse, P. J.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Ketas, Thomas J.; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Cupo, Albert; Pugach, Pavel; Ringe, Rajesh P.; Golabek, Michael; van Gils, Marit J.; Guttman, Miklos; Lee, Kelly K.; Wilson, Ian A.; Butera, Salvatore T.; Ward, Andrew B.; Montefiori, David C.; Sanders, Rogier W.; Moore, John P.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the immunogenicity in rabbits of native-like, soluble, recombinant SOSIP.664 trimers based on the env genes of four isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); specifically BG505 (clade A), B41 (clade B), CZA97 (clade C) and DU422 (clade C). The various trimers were

  18. Oxidation of N-alkyl and N-aryl azaheterocycles by free and immobilized rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1984-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase isolated from rabbit liver is studied in this thesis with regard to its application in organic synthesis. The enzyme has a broad substrate specificity towards azaheterocycles and therefore offers great potential for profitable use.

    The oxidation of

  19. Pathogenesis of meningoencephalitis in rabbits by bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Adriana M. da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main aspects of bovine herpesvirus type-5 (BHV-5 neurologic infection and disease in rabbits, a candidate animal model for studying BHV-5 neuropathogenesis. Intranasal inoculation of weanling rabbits with a Brazilian BHV-5 isolate produced neurological disease and death in 78.8% (26/33 of the animals. Neurological signs started as early as 5 days post-inoculation and lasted from 10-12 hours up to several days. Most animals evolved to a moribund state or death within 24 (69.2% to 48 hours (88.5%. Neurological disease was characterized by excitability or depression, tremors, bruxism, walking or running in circles, backward arching of the head and body, incoordination, backward and sideways falling, paddling, profound depression and death. Moderate levels of infectivity were detected in several areas of the brain, most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere (in 16 out of 20 animals, anterior cerebrum (15/20, midbrain (11/20, dorso-lateral hemisphere (10/20 and pons (12/26. Infectious virus was also recovered from the olfactory bulb (9/20, medulla oblongata (10/26, cerebellum (7/20, posterior cerebrum (5/20 and trigeminal ganglia (4/20. No gross lesions were observed. Microscopic lesions were mild and consisted of non-suppurative meningitis, mononuclear perivascular cuffing and focal gliosis. These changes were observed most consistently in the ventro-lateral hemisphere and anterior cerebrum. Passive immunity partially protected rabbits from BHV-5-induced encephalitis. Rabbits born to immunized dams showed a significative delay in the onset of clinical disease and reduced morbidity and mortality rates compared to rabbits born to unvaccinated dams. These results demonstrate that BHV-5-induced neurological disease can consistently be reproduced in rabbits and point towards the use of this species as an animal model to study BHV-5 neuropathogenesis.

  20. Characterizing potential heart agents with an isolated perfused heart system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, D.B.; Sands, H.; Gallagher, B.M.; Camin, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used an isolated perfused heart system for characterizing potential myocardial perfusion radiopharamaceuticals. Rabbit or guinea pig (GP) hearts are removed and perfused through the aorta with a blood-free buffer. Heart rate and ventricular pressure are monitored as indices of viability. Tc-99m-MAA is 96-100% retained in these hearts, and Tc-99m human serum albumin shows less than 5% extraction. Tl-201 is 30-40% extracted. It is known that in-vivo, Tc-99m(dmpe)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2//sup +/ is taken up by rabbit heart but not by GP or human heart. Analogous results are obtained with the isolated perfused heart model, where the complex is extracted well by the isolated rabbit heart (24%) but not by the GP heart (<5%). Values are unchanged if human, rabbit or GP blood is mixed and co-injected with the complex. Tc-99m)dmpe)/sub 3//sup +/ is also taken up by rabbit but not by GP hearts in-vivo. However, isolated perfused hearts of both species extract this complex well (45-52%). Heart uptake is diminished to <7% if the complex is pre-equilibrated with human blood. GP blood produces a moderate inhibition (in GP hearts only) and rabbit blood has no effect. This suggests that a human or GP blood factor may have a significant effect on heart uptake of this complex. Tc-99m(CN-t-butyl)/sub 6//sup +/ is taken up well by both rabbit and GP hearts in-vivo, and is extracted 100% by both isolated perfused hearts. Heart retention remains high (73-75%) in the presence of human blood

  1. Pathological studies on lachrymal dilated drainage tube implantation in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Peng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the pathological changes of the lower segment of nasolacrimal duct mucosa in rabbits at different stages after retrograde lachrymal dilated drainage tube implantation. METHODS: Totally 14 New Zealand rabbits were used in the present study. One side of nasolacrimal duct was obstructed to produce an experimental model and operated the reverse implantation of nasolacrimal duct intubation. Histological changes of the lower segment of nasolacrimal duct mucosa were observed by routine light microscope at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14wk after the operation. RESULTS: Compared with the control side, the group of 2 and 4wk after surgery presented the inflammatory cytokine. The group of 12wk after the operation presented isolated granuloma. Group 12 and 14wk presented scattered granuloma. The size of the granulomas was smaller and the density of epithelioid cell and fibroblast were lower in group 12wk than those in group 14wk by HE and Masson trichrome stain.CONCLUSION: Recurrent Silicone Tube is used to treat nasolacrymal duct obstruction. Nasolacrimal duct can be narrowed and blocked again by granuloma, progressive fibrosis and adhesion of surrounding tissues when tube is in the duct more than 12wk.

  2. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  3. Production of rabbit antibodies against purified Glucose oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anjum Zia

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Glucose oxidase is an active oxygen species generating enzyme produced from Aspergillus niger grown in submerged fermentation. Disintegration of the mycelium resulted in high glucose oxidase activity that was subjected to ammonium sulfate precipitation at 60-85% saturation rates that resulted to 6.14 U mg -1 specific activity. Purification of enzyme by anion exchange column (DEAE-Cellulose resulted into 22.53 U mg-1 specific activity and 10.27 fold purification. This was applied to sephadex G-200 column for gel filtration chromatography. It was observed that enzyme achieved 59.37 U mg-1of specific activity with 27.08 fold purity and 64.36% recovery. Purified glucose oxidase was injected into rabbits through intravenous route, to raise the glucose oxidase antibodies. After 30 days incubation period, the rabbits were slaughtered and serum was separated from blood. The antibodies were isolated by ammonium sulfate precipitation and confirmed by agar gel precipitation test. This could be a convenient and low cost alternate assay for the estimation of glucose oxidase in biological fluids. Moreover, such antibodies against the said enzyme could be used in various therapeutic and diagnostic applications.

  4. Rabbit uterine epithelial cells: Co-culture with spermatozoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    A primary culture of rabbit uterine epithelial cells was established and their effects on sperm function were examined in vitro. Epithelial cells were isolated from uteri of estrous rabbits and cultured on floating collagen gels in phenol red-free medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. Light microscopy and keratin staining showed that the epithelial cell population established in culture had morphological characteristics similar to that seen in the intact endometrium. Cells were cultured with 3 H-leucine and uptake of label by cells and its incorporation into cellular and secretory proteins determined. When compared to cells cultured for 24-48 h, incorporation of label into cellular protein was lower at 72-96 h, but secretion increased. Estradiol 17-β did not affect label uptake or incorporation, but did enhance proliferation of cells as judged by total DNA content of the cell population. Analysis of proteins in media by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography suggested that epithelial and stromal cells synthesis proteins that may be secretory in nature during 72-96 h culture. Twenty-nine to thirty-one h after initiation of epithelial cultures, 1-2 x 10 6 sperm were co-incubated with cells and sperm viability, motility, loss of acrosome and fertilizing ability determined

  5. Mechanisms of adaptation to chronic respiratory acidosis in the rabbit proximal tubule.

    OpenAIRE

    Krapf, R

    1989-01-01

    The hyperbicarbonatemia of chronic respiratory acidosis is maintained by enhanced bicarbonate reabsorption in the proximal tubule. To investigate the cellular mechanisms involved in this adaptation, cell and luminal pH were measured microfluorometrically using (2",7')-bis(carboxyethyl)-(5,6)-carboxyfluorescein in isolated, microperfused S2 proximal convoluted tubules from control and acidotic rabbits. Chronic respiratory acidosis was induced by exposure to 10% CO2 for 52-56 h. Tubules from ac...

  6. A possible role of rabbit heart cytosol tocopherol binding in the transfer of tocopherol into nuclei.

    OpenAIRE

    Guarnieri, C; Flamigni, F; Caldarera, C M

    1980-01-01

    An alpha-tocopherol-binding macromolecule was isolated from the heart cytosol of rabbits fed for 1 month with an alpha-tocopherol-deficient diet. The amount of [3H]-tocopherol bound to nuclear chromatin was increased when the alpha-tocopherol-deficient heart nuclei were incubated in the presence of [3H]tocopherol-cytosol complex. In this condition, large amounts of [3H]tocopherol were associated with a subnuclear fraction that contained non-histone acidic proteins.

  7. Renal and vascular studies of aqueous extract of Urtica dioica in rats and rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.F. Dizaye

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Urtica dioica has a variety of uses in traditional medicine for genitourinary ailments kidney disorders, allergies, diabetes, anemia, gastrointestinal tract ailments, musculoskeletal aches and alopecia. However, only a few of these uses have scientific bases that support their clinical uses. This study was done to evaluate some of the in vivo and in vitro pharmacological actions of this plant. Eighteen local domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus were used for in vitro studies (effect of the plant extract on isolated pulmonary arteries and isolated urinary bladder smooth muscle and in vivo studies (effect of the extract on renal function. Six male albino rats were used for studying the effects of the plant extract on blood pressure and heart rate. Urtica dioica extract produced a significant increase in urine volume and urinary Na+ excretion without significant changes in K+ excretion rates in experimental rabbits. No changes occurred in Glomerular filtration rate and %Na+ reabsorption of filtered load. Neither vasodilatation nor vasoconstriction of isolated pulmonary arteries of the rabbit was seen after applying the aqueous extract of U. dioica. Besides it could not reverse the vasoconstrictor effect of phenylephrine. Urtica dioica has no detectable effects on the isolated bladder; moreover it did not reverse the contraction that was produced by pilocarpine. In experimental rats, the plant extract produced a profound drop in blood pressure associated with decreased heart rate. In conclusion the aqueous extract of U. dioica produced diuretic and natriuretic effects with out significant effect on the K+ excretion rate in rabbits. Moreover it produced a profound drop in blood pressure and heart rate.

  8. Some factors affecting rabbit production under egyptian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nessim, M.Z.

    1994-01-01

    The present work was carried out in the rabbit of the department of animal production, faculty of agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt, Blood biochemical analysis and hormonal assay were conducted in tracer bio climatology Unit., Department of radiobiology, nuclear research centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt. Eighty male New Zealand white (NZW) and 80 male californian (Cal) rabbits aged 5-6 weeks were used. The animals were housed in rabbit building, naturally ventilated. Rabbits cages were provided with automatic nipple drinkers and drinking and drinking water ad libitum.Rabbits were fed ad libitum on balanced growing pelted rabbit ration. 21 tabs.,13 figs.,158 refs

  9. Plasma clearance and biodistribution of oxidatively modified 99mTc-ß-VLDL in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva E.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The biodistribution and removal from plasma (measured as fractional clearance rate, FCR, per hour of native and oxidatively modified 99mtechnetium-labeled ß-very low density lipoprotein (99mTc-ß-VLDL were investigated in hypercholesterolemic (HC and control (C three-month old New Zealand rabbits. The intracellular accumulation of ß-VLDL labeled with 99mTc was studied in vitro in THP-1 cells and monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from rabbits. After intravenous injection into C rabbits, copper-oxidized ß-VLDL (99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL was cleared from the circulation faster (0.362 ± 0.070/h than native ß-VLDL (99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL, 0.241 ± 0.070/h. In contrast, the FCR of 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL in HC rabbits was lower (0.100 ± 0.048/h than that of 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL (0.163 ± 0.043/h. The hepatic uptake of radiolabeled lipoproteins was lower in HC rabbits (0.114 ± 0.071% injected dose/g tissue for 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL and 0.116 ± 0.057% injected dose/g tissue for 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL than in C rabbits (0.301 ± 0.113% injected dose/g tissue for 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL and 0.305 ± 0.149% injected dose/g tissue for 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL. The uptake of 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL and 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL by atherosclerotic aorta lesions isolated from HC rabbits (99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL: 0.033 ± 0.012% injected dose/g tissue and 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL: 0.039 ± 0.017% injected dose/g tissue was higher in comparison to that of non-atherosclerotic aortas from C rabbits (99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL: 0.023 ± 0.010% injected dose/g tissue and 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL: 0.019 ± 0.010% injected dose/g tissue. However, 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL and 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL were taken up by atherosclerotic lesions at similar rates. In vitro studies showed that both monocyte-derived macrophages isolated from rabbits and THP-1 macrophages significantly internalized more 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL than 99mTc-nat-ß-VLDL. These results indicate that in cholesterol-fed rabbits 99mTc-ox-ß-VLDL is slowly cleared from plasma and accumulates in

  10. Electroacupuncture analgesia in a rabbit ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmen, Valentin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of electroacupuncture analgesia (EAA) at local and paravertebral acupoints for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy. Twelve clinically healthy New Zealand white rabbits were chosen and divided into two groups: the control group (5 rabbits) and the experimental group (7 rabbits). A neuroleptanalgesic (ketamine + xylazine) was administered to the control group (NLA group); the experimental group received EAA treatment (EAA group). The EAA treatment includes one acupuncture formula for local stimulation at the incision site and systemic stimulation. Results of clinical research have shown postoperative analgesia using EAA treatment to be superior to that using NLA. The average postoperative recovery time was 5.2 times longer in the NLA group than in the EAA group. Because consciousness was maintained, EAA presented an advantage in thermoregulation. Animals administered NLA had prolonged thermal homeostasis because of neurovegetative disconnection. For the EAA group, the operative times were characterized as excellent (28%, p = 0.28) or good (72%, p = 0.72). Local stimulation at the incision site provided excellent analgesia of the abdominal wall (100%). In conclusion, EA can provide general analgesia with a considerable analgesic effect for a rabbit undergoing an ovariohysterectomy, resulting in a short postoperative recovery time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Hypercholesterolemia Impaired Sperm Functionality in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monclus, Maria A.; Cabrillana, Maria E.; Clementi, Marisa A.; Espínola, Leandro S.; Cid Barría, Jose L.; Vincenti, Amanda E.; Santi, Analia G.; Fornés, Miguel W.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia represents a high risk factor for frequent diseases and it has also been associated with poor semen quality that may lead to male infertility. The aim of this study was to analyze semen and sperm function in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twelve adult White New Zealand male rabbits were fed ad libitum a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.05% cholesterol. Rabbits under cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased total cholesterol level in the serum. Semen examination revealed a significant reduction in semen volume and sperm motility in hypercholesterolemic rabbits (HCR). Sperm cell morphology was seriously affected, displaying primarily a “folded head”-head fold along the major axe-, and the presence of cytoplasmic droplet on sperm flagellum. Cholesterol was particularly increased in acrosomal region when detected by filipin probe. The rise in cholesterol concentration in sperm cells was determined quantitatively by Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. We also found a reduction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in sperm incubated under capacitating conditions from HCR. Interestingly, the addition of Protein Kinase A pathway activators -dibutyryl-cyclic AMP and iso-butylmethylxanthine- to the medium restored sperm capacitation. Finally, it was also reported a significant decrease in the percentage of reacted sperm in the presence of progesterone. In conclusion, our data showed that diet-induced hypercholesterolemia adversely affects semen quality and sperm motility, capacitation and acrosomal reaction in rabbits; probably due to an increase in cellular cholesterol content that alters membrane related events. PMID:20976152

  12. Accumulation of 125I-factor XI in atheroma of rabbit with hereditary hyperlipidemia (WHHL-rabbit)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komiyama, Y.; Masuda, M.; Murakami, T.; Nishikado, H.; Egawa, H.; Nishimura, T.; Morii, S.; Murata, K.

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the turnover and accumulation of rabbit factor XI (F.XI) in atherosclerotic lesion in Watanabe-hereditable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL rabbit) to reveal the participation of blood coagulation in atherosclerotic lesion. Rabbit F.XI was iodinated and administered intravenously to WHHL rabbits and Japanese white rabbits. The turnover of 125 I-rabbit F.XI was significantly faster in WHHL rabbits (T1/2 = 2.84 +/- 0.44 days) than in normal rabbits (T1/2 = 4.44 +/- 0.42 days). The thoracic aorta of WHHL rabbit was strongly labelled with 125 I-rabbit F.XI, in sections obtained after 5 days by en-face autoradiography, whereas no radioactivity was detected in normal aorta. By an immunohistochemical study of WHHL rabbit aorta, we confirmed that many F.XI- and fibrin-related compounds existed in the atheroma, whereas albumin did not in these area. These results suggest that the activation of F.XI proceeds on the atherosclerotic lesions of WHHL rabbits

  13. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z.

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines

  14. Local edge detectors: a substrate for fine spatial vision at low temporal frequencies in rabbit retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wyk, Michiel; Taylor, W Rowland; Vaney, David I

    2006-12-20

    Visual acuity is limited by the size and density of the smallest retinal ganglion cells, which correspond to the midget ganglion cells in primate retina and the beta-ganglion cells in cat retina, both of which have concentric receptive fields that respond at either light-On or light-Off. In contrast, the smallest ganglion cells in the rabbit retina are the local edge detectors (LEDs), which respond to spot illumination at both light-On and light-Off. However, the LEDs do not predominate in the rabbit retina and the question arises, what role do they play in fine spatial vision? We studied the morphology and physiology of LEDs in the isolated rabbit retina and examined how their response properties are shaped by the excitatory and inhibitory inputs. Although the LEDs comprise only approximately 15% of the ganglion cells, neighboring LEDs are separated by 30-40 microm on the visual streak, which is sufficient to account for the grating acuity of the rabbit. The spatial and temporal receptive-field properties of LEDs are generated by distinct inhibitory mechanisms. The strong inhibitory surround acts presynaptically to suppress both the excitation and the inhibition elicited by center stimulation. The temporal properties, characterized by sluggish onset, sustained firing, and low bandwidth, are mediated by the temporal properties of the bipolar cells and by postsynaptic interactions between the excitatory and inhibitory inputs. We propose that the LEDs signal fine spatial detail during visual fixation, when high temporal frequencies are minimal.

  15. Effect of a lytic bacteriophage on rabbits experimentally infected with pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli is severely threatening the rabbit industry in China, and the concern over antibiotic-resistant bacteria has given rise to an urgent need for antibiotic alternatives. In this study, a member (ZRP1 of the Myoviridae family was isolated from rabbit faeces using a strain of rabbit atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (ZR1 as host. The one-step growth curve indicated that the latent period was around 25 to 30 min and the burst size was 144±31 plaque-forming unit/cell. The rate of phage-resistant mutation was 7×10–5±4×10–5. When the bacteriophage input at the multiplicity of infection (MOI was 0.1, 1 or 10, the growth of host E. coli in broth was inhibited for 5 h. A single intravenous injection of ZRP1 at MOI 0.1, 1 or 10 significantly prolonged the survival time of rabbits which simultaneously received a lethal dose of ZR1.

  16. A new rabbit model of implant-related biofilm infection: development and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Cheng-Bing; Zeng, Hong; Shen, Ding-Xia; Wang, Hui; Wang, Ji-Fang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2016-03-01

    This study is to establish a rabbit model for human prosthetic joint infection and biofilm formation. Thirty-two healthy adult rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and implanted with stainless steel screws and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) washers in the non-articular surface of the femoral lateral condyle of the right hind knees. The rabbit knee joints were inoculated with 1 mL saline containing 0, 102, 103, 104 CFU of Staphylococcus epidermidis ( S. epidermidis) isolated from the patient with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) infection, respectively. On the 14th postoperative day, the UHMWPE washers from the optimal 103 CFU group were further examined. The SEM examination showed a typical biofilm construction that circular S. epidermidis were embedded in a mucous-like matrix. In addition, the LCSM examination showed that the biofilm consisted of the polysaccharide stained bright green fluorescence and S. epidermidis radiating red fluorescence. Thus, we successfully create a rabbit model for prosthetic joint infection and biofilm formation, which should be valuable for biofilm studies.

  17. Effects of allocryptopine on outward potassium current and slow delayed rectifier potassium current in rabbit myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yi-Cheng; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Liu-Yang; Li, Nan; Chen, Xi; Cai, Zhong-Qi; Zhu, Chao; Li, Yang

    2016-05-01

    Allocryptopine (ALL) is an effective alkaloid of Corydalis decumbens (Thunb.) Pers. Papaveraceae and has proved to be anti-arrhythmic. The purpose of our study is to investigate the effects of ALL on transmural repolarizing ionic ingredients of outward potassium current (I to) and slow delayed rectifier potassium current (I Ks). The monophasic action potential (MAP) technique was used to record the MAP duration of the epicardium (Epi), myocardium (M) and endocardium (Endo) of the rabbit heart and the whole cell patch clamp was used to record I to and I Ks in cardiomyocytes of Epi, M and Endo layers that were isolated from rabbit ventricles. The effects of ALL on MAP of Epi, M and Endo layers were disequilibrium. ALL could effectively reduce the transmural dispersion of repolarization (TDR) in rabbit transmural ventricular wall. ALL decreased the current densities of I to and I Ks in a voltage and concentration dependent way and narrowed the repolarizing differences among three layers. The analysis of gating kinetics showed ALL accelerated the channel activation of I to in M layers and partly inhibit the channel openings of I to in Epi, M and Endo cells. On the other hand, ALL mainly slowed channel deactivation of I Ks channel in Epi and Endo layers without affecting its activation. Our study gives partially explanation about the mechanisms of transmural inhibition of I to and I Ks channels by ALL in rabbit myocardium. These findings provide novel perspective regarding the anti-arrhythmogenesis application of ALL in clinical settings.

  18. Calcium Transient and Sodium-Calcium Exchange Current in Human versus Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie O. Verkerk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate on the mechanism underlying the pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node (SAN cells, focusing on the relative importance of the “membrane clock” and the “Ca2+ clock” in the generation of the small net membrane current that depolarizes the cell towards the action potential threshold. Specifically, the debate centers around the question whether the membrane clock-driven hyperpolarization-activated current, If, which is also known as the “funny current” or “pacemaker current,” or the Ca2+ clock-driven sodium-calcium exchange current, INaCa, is the main contributor to diastolic depolarization. In our contribution to this journal’s “Special Issue on Cardiac Electrophysiology,” we present a numerical reconstruction of If and INaCa in isolated rabbit and human SAN pacemaker cells based on experimental data on action potentials, If, and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i that we have acquired from these cells. The human SAN pacemaker cells have a smaller If, a weaker [Ca2+]i transient, and a smaller INaCa than the rabbit cells. However, when compared to the diastolic net membrane current, INaCa is of similar size in human and rabbit SAN pacemaker cells, whereas If is smaller in human than in rabbit cells.

  19. Environmental Bacteria Associated With an Institutional Rabbit House

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Dr Olaleye

    associated with rabbit houses was undertaken to determine the occurrence of bacteria in rabbit ... biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when .... frequently incriminated in bovine mastitis by. Jones ...

  20. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conventional ingredient. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... groups of 8 rabbits each and the groups were assigned randomly to the three diets with each rabbit serving as a replicate in a Complete Randomized Design experiment.

  1. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  2. In vitro host erythrocyte specificity and differential morphology of Babesia divergens and a zoonotic Babesia sp. from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Angela M; Goethert, Heidi K; Telford, Samuel R; Holman, Patricia J

    2006-04-01

    A Babesia sp. isolated from eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) is morphologically similar and genetically identical, based on SSU rRNA gene comparisons, to 2 agents responsible for human babesiosis in the United States. This zoonotic agent is closely related to the European parasite, Babesia divergens. The 2 organisms were characterized by in vitro comparisons. In vitro growth of the rabbit Babesia sp. was supported in human and cottontail rabbit erythrocytes, but not in bovine cells. Babesia divergens was supported in vitro in bovine and human erythrocytes, but not in cottontail rabbit cells. Morphometric analysis classifies B. divergens as a small babesia in bovine erythrocytes, but the parasite exceeds this size in human erythrocytes. The rabbit Babesia sp. is large, the same size in both human or rabbit erythrocytes, and is significantly larger than B. divergens. Eight or more rabbit Babesia sp. parasites may occur within a single erythrocyte, sometimes in a floret array, unlike B. divergens. The erythrocyte specificity and morphological differences reported in this study agree with previous in vivo results and validate the use of in vitro methods for characterization of Babesia species.

  3. [Kinetic properties of the fructose influx across the brush border of the rat jejunum. Effects of a diet rich in fructose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzoulon, G

    1978-10-01

    The unidirectional influx (i.e. initial rate of uptake) of D-fructose across the brush border of rat jejunum is a saturable function of concentration, with a Kt of 125 mM, which implicates a carrier mechanism. This mechanism appears to be very specific for fructose in view of the lack of influx inhibition observed in the presence of large concentrations of the sugars or polyols, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, D-xylose, L-sorbose, D-tagatose, sorbitol or mannitol. D-Fructose uptake is inhibited by incubation, preceded by a 30-min preincubation in the same inhibitory conditions, in the absence of Na, or in the presence of metabolic poisons, NaF, 2,4-dinitrophenol, monoiodoacetate. Phloridzin (10-3 M), with or without preincubation, has no effect on uptake. D-Fructose influx is stimulated by fructose feeding, mainly because the augmentation of the number of active sites of transfer: Jmax is increased two-fold, Kt is more weakly affected.

  4. Serological Survey for RHD Antibodies in Rabbits from Two Types of Rabbit Breeding Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzner, A; Niedbalski, W

    2016-09-01

    Seroprevalence studies of RHDV antibodies in domestic rabbits were conducted between 2008-2014. A total of 12,169 sera from the provinces of central, southern and south-east Poland, including 7,570 samples collected from mixed-breed rabbits reared in smallholder farms and nearly 4,600 sera taken mainly from unvaccinated rabbits kept in industrial farms, were examined using ELISA tests. Additionally, cross-reactivity of selected tested and control archival sera using both classic RHDV and RHDVa antigens was determined by HI assay. The overall seroprevalence was 13.3%. In rabbits with unkown history of immunisation or RHD infection which came from small farms, RHDV antibodies were detected in 6.1% ranging between 1.0% to 17.2% of animals. In rabbits of the same group, but with a declared vaccination status, or confirmed exposure to an infectious virus, or coming from exposed females, the seroprevalence ranged from 83% to 100%. Among unvaccinated meat rabbits aged 71 to 90 days from industrial farms, low (1.85%, 4.17%, 11%), medium (34%, 54%) or high rates (98.7%) of seropositivity were detected. The seroconversion recorded in adult vaccinated females from industrial farms was 70% and 95%. Generally, the antibody levels examined by ELISAs and HI were comparable. However, a number of sera from the rabbits from small farms, as well as archival sera, showed clear differences. Several-fold differences in antibody titers, evidenced mainly in the postoutbreak sera, indictaed the contact of animals with RHDVa antigen. The overall results of the survey revealed a great proportion of seronegative rabbits potentially highly susceptible to RHD infection. In combination with the emergence of a novel pathogenic RHD virus type (RHDV2), it poses a severe risk of a next wave of fatal disease cases spreading in the native population of domestic rabbits, especially in farms with a traditional system of husbandry.

  5. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  6. Rabbit tissue model (RTM) harvesting technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Marelyn

    2002-01-01

    A method for creating a tissue model using a female rabbit for laparoscopic simulation exercises is described. The specimen is called a Rabbit Tissue Model (RTM). Dissection techniques are described for transforming the rabbit carcass into a small, compact unit that can be used for multiple training sessions. Preservation is accomplished by using saline and refrigeration. Only the animal trunk is used, with the rest of the animal carcass being discarded. Practice exercises are provided for using the preserved organs. Basic surgical skills, such as dissection, suturing, and knot tying, can be practiced on this model. In addition, the RTM can be used with any pelvic trainer that permits placement of larger practice specimens within its confines.

  7. Performance characteristics of Weaner rabbits fed Moringa oleifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the utilization of Moringa oleifera (MO) and Moringa stenopetala (MS) by weaner rabbit. In a twelve week feeding trial, forty eight weaner rabbits of about five weeks old were allotted into three treatments with each treatment consisting of sixteen rabbits in a completely randomized ...

  8. Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Rabbit Testicular Lipid Peroxidation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cigarette smoke on oxidative status of liver and testis was evaluated. Three groups of male weaned rabbits (1.0 – 1.5kg) were used. Group 1, the basal control group consisted of 2 rabbits which were sacrificed immediately after one week acclimatization (week O). Group 2 – (S) group consisted of 6 rabbits.

  9. Performance evaluation and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 32 weaned rabbits (56 days old; 586 ± 60.31g body weight) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary growth promoters on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass characteristics of rabbits. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 8) including a basal diet (control), ...

  10. Performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits fed urea treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effect of varying levels of urea treated and untreated cowpea husk on the performance of weaner rabbits. Thirty-two mongrel weaner rabbits of both sexes, 6 – 8 weeks old with an average weight of 822g were randomly distributed to four dietary treatments with four rabbits per ...

  11. Occurrence of Gastrointestinal Helminths in rabbits with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... droppings to digest their food further and extract sufficient nutrients (Oaktreevet, 2010). Rabbits are generally infected with numerous parasites. Parasitic infections have caused considerable losses to rabbits in the region. Numbers of parasites are responsible for illness of rabbits (Allan et al., 1999).

  12. Energy partitioning for growth by rabbits fed groundnut and stylo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty eight crossbred (California X New Zealand White) rabbits were used to evaluate energy partitioning of rabbits fed forages supplemented with concentrate. The rabbits were randomly allocated to three treatments consisting of sole Stylosanthes hamata (stylo),sole Arachis hypogea (groundnut) haulms and 50:50 mixture ...

  13. Retinitis-pigmentosa-like tapetoretinal degeneration in a rabbit breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, A; Baar, U

    1985-08-15

    By chance, we found a rabbit strain with retinal dystrophy. The eyes of these rabbits were examined by ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography, histology, and cytology--the latter after retina dissociation with papaine. The results suggest this rabbit strain to be a possible animal model for human retinitis pigmentosa.

  14. Teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Al–Saraj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty three pregnant rabbits were exposed to vapour of 10% formaldehyde (12 ppm throughout the gestation period to know its effect on newborns. The results showed no abortion or foetal mortality but there were some anomalies (23.8% among the newborns rabbits which includes: meromelia (6.8%, encephalocele (6.1%, Oligodactyly (4.1%, Umbilical hernia (3.4% and Short tail (3.4%; besides that small for date and decrease in the body weight of the newborns were also noticed. These findings suggest that formaldehyde is a teratogenic agent.

  15. Diagnosis of renal disease in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2013-01-01

    There are differences in renal anatomy and physiology between rabbits and other domestic species. Neurogenic renal ischemia occurs readily. Reversible prerenal azotemia may be seen in conjunction with gut stasis. Potentially fatal acute renal failure may be due to structural kidney damage or post-renal disease. Chronic renal failure is often associated with encephalitozoonosis. Affected rabbits cannot vomit and often eat well. Weight loss, lethargy, and cachexia are common clinical signs. Polydypsia/polyuria may be present. Derangements in calcium and phosphorus metabolism are features of renal disease. Radiography is always indicated. Urolithiasis, osteosclerosis, aortic and renal calcification are easily seen on radiographs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Trichostatin A (TSA) improves the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies cloned embryos, but not rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Li-Hong; Miao, Yi-Liang; Ouyang, Ying-Chun; Huang, Jun-Cheng; Lei, Zi-Li; Yang, Ji-Wen; Han, Zhi-Ming; Song, Xiang-Fen; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Chen, Da-Yuan

    2008-03-01

    The interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) technique for therapeutic cloning gives great promise for treatment of many human diseases. However, the incomplete nuclear reprogramming and the low blastocyst rate of iSCNT are still big problems. Herein, we observed the effect of TSA on the development of rabbit-rabbit intraspecies and rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos. After treatment with TSA for 6 hr during activation, we found that the blastocyst rate of rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos was more than two times higher than that of untreated embryos; however, the blastocyst rate of TSA-treated rabbit-human interspecies cloned embryos decreased. We also found evident time-dependent histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in rabbit-rabbit cloned embryos, but not in rabbit-human cloned embryos from fusion to 6 hr after activation. Our results suggest that TSA-treatment does not improve blastocyst development of rabbit-human iSCNT embryos and that abnormal histone deacetylation-reacetylation changes in iSCNT embryos may account for their poor blastocyst development. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Comparison of arterial intimal clearances of LDL from diabetic and nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits. Differences in intimal clearance explained by size differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordestgaard, B.G.; Zilversmit, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Arterial intimal clearances of low density lipoproteins (LDL) from diabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits (D-LDL) and LDL from nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits (N-LDL) were compared. In six experiments, D-LDL and N-LDL were isolated from a diabetic and a nondiabetic rabbit, were iodinated with 125I and 131I, respectively, were mixed, and were reinjected into the same two rabbits as well as into a normal rabbit. Fractional catabolic rates for D-LDL and N-LDL in normal rabbits were 0.065 and 0.074 h-1 (p less than 0.05), respectively. For five of the six pairs of LDL, the D-LDL was smaller than N-LDL as determined by gel filtration. The arterial permeability to N-LDL, when normalized for differences in arterial cholesterol content, did not appear to differ between diabetic and nondiabetic rabbits. The relative arterial intimal clearance (D-LDL/N-LDL) in arteries from diabetic and nondiabetic rabbits was inversely related to the relative molecular weight (D-LDL/N-LDL). For example, when the molecular weight of D-LDL was as low as 60% of that of N-LDL (i.e., the diameter of D-LDL was reduced 16%), the intimal clearance of D-LDL was 40% larger than that of N-LDL. When, on the other hand, molecular weights and diameters of the two LDL were similar, the intimal clearance was also quite similar. These results suggest that arterial intimal clearance of LDL from diabetic and nondiabetic cholesterol-fed rabbits is comparable unless the two types of LDL have a different size

  18. Possible interaction between myxomatosis and calicivirosis related to rabbit haemorrhagic disease affecting the European rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchandeau, S; Bertagnoli, S; Peralta, B; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Letty, J; Reitz, F

    2004-11-06

    Serological data on myxoma virus, rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) virus and RHD-like viruses in juvenile rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) trapped in 1995, 1996 and 1997 in two areas of France were analysed. For each disease, the effects of bodyweight, year, month and seropositivity for the other disease were modelled by using logistic regressions. In one area, a model including RHD seropositivity was selected to explain the myxoma virus seropositivity. Models including myxoma virus seropositivity were selected to explain the RHD seropositivity in both areas, and the odds of a rabbit being seropositive to both viruses were 5.1 and 8.4 times higher than the odds of a rabbit being seronegative to myxoma virus and seropositive to RHD. The year and bodyweight had significant effects for myxomatosis in one area and for RHD in both areas.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus in Australia: when one became many.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J; Holmes, Edward C

    2014-02-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16-year period (1995-2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared with those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 rereleases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia -4.0 (3.3-4.7) × 10(-3) nucleotide substitutions per site per year - was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) in Australia: when one became many

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaliski, John; Sinclair, Ron; Mutze, Greg; Peacock, David; Strive, Tanja; Abrantes, Joana; Esteves, Pedro J.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2015-01-01

    Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus (RHDV) was introduced into Australia in 1995 as a biological control agent against the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). We evaluated its evolution over a 16 year period (1995–2011) by examining 50 isolates collected throughout Australia, as well as the original inoculum strains. Phylogenetic analysis of capsid protein VP60 sequences of the Australian isolates, compared to those sampled globally, revealed that they form a monophyletic group with the inoculum strains (CAPM V-351 and RHDV351INOC). Strikingly, despite more than 3000 re-releases of RHDV351INOC since 1995, only a single viral lineage has sustained its transmission in the long-term, indicative of a major competitive advantage. In addition, we find evidence for widespread viral gene flow, in which multiple lineages entered individual geographic locations, resulting in a marked turnover of viral lineages with time, as well as a continual increase in viral genetic diversity. The rate of RHDV evolution recorded in Australia – 4.0 (3.3 – 4.7) × 10−3 nucleotide substitutions per site per year – was higher than previously observed in RHDV, and evidence for adaptive evolution was obtained at two VP60 residues. Finally, more intensive study of a single rabbit population (Turretfield) in South Australia provided no evidence for viral persistence between outbreaks, with genetic diversity instead generated by continual strain importation. PMID:24251353

  1. Epidemiological survey of dermatophytosis in meat rabbits with alopecia in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiological dermatophytosis survey was carried out in farmed rabbits with alopecia in Northern and Central Portugal.  Between August and October 2008, samples from suspected clinical cases of alopecia in meat rabbits on industrial farms were collected and cultured by conventional methods.  Effects on the prevalence of several variables, such as breed, age, month of sample collection, configuration of the lesions and presence of concomitant infections in the rabbitries were evaluated using a logistic regression model.  The overall prevalence of dermatophytes species was 82.7% (95% CI: 80.1-85.3%. Two dermatophytes species were isolated: Trichophyton mentagrophytes (91.9% and Microsporum canis (8.1%.  Five variables were associated with dermatophyte isolation in univariate analysis.  The multivariate logistic regression model identified configuration of lesions (OR=3.15; 95% CI: 1.39-7.15% and the presence of concomitant infections on the farms (OR=2.71; 95% CI: 1.03-7.12% as risk factors.  Considering the paucity of epidemiological reports in this country, these results could make a useful contribution towards the diagnosis and prevention of rabbit dermatophytosis.

  2. Atividade da amilase no intestino delgado de coelhos alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de amido antes e após desmame = Amylase activity in the small intestine of rabbits fed with diets containing starch levels before and after weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Garcia de Faria

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a atividade amilásica em coelhos após a desmama, foram utilizados 200 animais da Raça Nova Zelândia Branco, submetidos a diferentes padrões de alimentação desde a fase de lactação. Quarenta deles foram abatidos aos 35 dias de idade e 80, aos 50 e aos 70 dias de idade. Para modular o padrão de consumo de leite e ração antes da desmama, as ninhadas equalizadas em 8 láparos do nascimento até ao 16º dia de idade, a partir desta idade, até a desmama, foram submetidos à alta e baixa disponibilidade de leite, mantendo ninhadas com 4 ou 8 láparos recebendo dietas com nível normal (15% e alto (24% de amido. A partir da desmama, os animais de cada um dos 4 padrões de alimentação até a desmama passaram a receber as mesmasdietas com níveis normal e alto de amido, em um esquema fatorial 2x2x2 (ninhadas submetidas à baixa e alta disponibilidade de leite versus dois níveis de amido na dieta até a desmama versus doisníveis de amido na dieta após a desmama. Os resultados mostraram que a manutenção de ninhadas com 4 ou 8 animais entre o 16º e 35º dia de lactação não modificou (P>0,05 a atividade da amilase em qualquer das idades avaliadas após o desmame. O uso de dietas com alto teor de amido durante a lactação aumentou (POne experiment was carried out to study the amylase activity in the small intestine (jejunum and ileum of rabbits from litters maintained on different feeding patterns. Two hundred White New Zealand rabbits were analyzed, out of which 40 35- days-old rabbits, 80 50-days-old rabbits and 80 70-days-old rabbits were slaughtered. To modulate the pattern of feed and milk intake before weaning, the litters were modulated for eight young rabbits until 16 days old. From 16 days until weaning, they were submitted to low or high milkavailability, litters maintained with four or eight young rabbits receiving diets containing normal or high starch level. The animals were distributed in a factorial design 2

  3. Human-derived nanoparticles and vascular response to injury in rabbit carotid arteries: Proof of principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A K Schwartz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria A K Schwartz1, John C Lieske2, Vivek Kumar2, Gerard Farell-Baril2, Virginia M Miller1,31Departments of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Internal Medicine; 2Division of Nephrology, and 3Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USAAbstract: Self-calcifying, self-replicating nanoparticles have been isolated from calcified human tissues. However, it is unclear if these nanoparticles participate in disease processes. Therefore, this study was designed to preliminarily test the hypothesis that human-derived nanoparticles are causal to arterial disease processes. One carotid artery of 3 kg male rabbits was denuded of endothelium; the contralateral artery remained unoperated as a control. Each rabbit was injected intravenously with either saline, calcified, or decalcified nanoparticles cultured from calcified human arteries or kidney stones. After 35 days, both injured and control arteries were removed for histological examination. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with saline showed minimal, eccentric intimal hyperplasia. Injured arteries from rabbits injected with calcified kidney stone- and arterial-derived nanoparticles occluded, sometimes with canalization. The calcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles caused calcifications within the occlusion. Responses to injury in rabbits injected with decalcified kidney stone-derived nanoparticles were similar to those observed in saline-injected animals. However, decalcified arterial-derived nanoparticles produced intimal hyperplasia that varied from moderate to occlusion with canalization and calcifi cation. This study offers the first evidence that there may be a causal relationship between human-derived nanoparticles and response to injury including calcification in arteries with damaged endothelium.Keywords: arterial calcification, endothelial injury, intimal hyperplasia

  4. Production of double antibody for radioimmunoassay (sheep anti-rabbit IgG antiserum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, S.R. da.

    1993-01-01

    A second antibody (sheep anti-rabbit IgG antiserum) to be used in RIAs in which the first antibody is raised in rabbits was produced. For this production, initially the IgG was isolated from rabbit serum and purified by sodium sulphate precipitation followed by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose. Four sheep were immunized with 500 u g of purified rabbit IgG, emulsified in Freund Complete Adjuvant and administered by multisite subcutaneous injections. These injections were repeated at 20-days intervals and blood samples (40 ml) were taken from the jugular vein 10 days after the boosts for the evaluation of the antisera title. After each four boosts a great bleeding was done by the same route. Approximately 500 ml of serum were obtained in each bleeding per animal. The antisera were evaluated by the human thyrotropin RIA developed at IPEN laboratories employing reagents provided by NIDDKD, USA. These evaluations referred to the determination of the antisera title and of the ideal concentration of carrier IgG, to the study of the kinetic of precipitation and to the confirmation of the inexistent cross-reactivity with human IgG, in comparison with a reference antiserum of know precipitation characteristics supplied by the Radioassay System Laboratories. Approximately 3,6 l of antiserum (sheep anti-rabbit IgG serum) were produced from the four sheep, which presented title and precipitation characteristics very similar to those exhibited by the imported commercial product, even presenting higher titles. The results obtained in this work indicated that it was created enough experience for the production of this biological reagent for RIA, that could be done integrally in the country in greater scale, and at a very reduced cost. (author). 81 refs, 36 figs, 33 tabs

  5. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: advantages of cELISA in assessing immunity in wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Parkes, John P

    2011-12-15

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is an acute fatal disease of domestic and wild European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) caused by RHD virus (RHDV). Accurate assessment of immunity is of great importance for the conservation and control of wild rabbits. We evaluated a competitive ELISA (cELISA) against isotype ELISAs for assessing the protective immunity against the disease by challenging 50 wild-caught rabbits with a lethal dose of RHDV. Death or survival to the challenge was used as a criterion to determine the performance characteristics of the assay for the assessment of immunity in rabbits. At 1:10 dilution, a serum exhibiting ≥ 25% inhibition (1:10(25)) was regarded as the presence of RHDV-specific antibodies. Eleven of 16 (68.8%) rabbits with antibodies at 1:10(25) (<1:40) died of RHD. When the cut-off was moved from 25% to 50% inhibition (1:10(50)) at 1:10 serum dilution, the assay sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the protective immunity were improved from 84%, 54.2% and 69.4% to 84%, 100% and 91.8%, respectively. We also demonstrated at the epitope amino acid sequence level why the presence of the RHDV-cross reactive benign rabbit calicivirus, which interfered with isotype ELISAs, had little impact on the specificity of the cELISA for the diagnosis of RHDV infection. The presence of RHDV-specific antibody at 1:10(50) by the cELISA is a reliable indicator for the protective immunity. In contrast to isotype ELISAs, the cELISA is a valuable specific tool for monitoring the herd immunity to RHD for the conservation and management of wild rabbits in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of new-generation TMEM16A inhibitors on calcium-activated chloride currents in rabbit urethral interstitial cells of Cajal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedigan, Stephen; Bradley, Eamonn; Webb, Timothy; Large, Roddy J; Hollywood, Mark A; Thornbury, Keith D; McHale, Noel G; Sergeant, Gerard P

    2017-11-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) isolated from the rabbit urethra exhibit Ca 2+ -activated Cl - currents (I ClCa ) that are important for the development of urethral tone. Here, we examined if TMEM16A (ANO1) contributed to this activity by examining the effect of "new-generation" TMEM16A inhibitors, CACC inh -A01 and T16A inh -A01, on I ClCa recorded from freshly isolated rabbit urethral ICC (RUICC) and on contractions of intact strips of rabbit urethra smooth muscle. Real-time quantitative PCR experiments demonstrated that TMEM16A was highly expressed in rabbit urethra smooth muscle, in comparison to TMEM16B and TMEM16F. Single-cell RT-PCR experiments revealed that only TMEM16A was expressed in freshly isolated RUICC. Depolarization-evoked I ClCa in isolated RUICC, recorded using voltage clamp, were inhibited by CACC inh -A01 and T16A inh -A01 with IC 50 values of 1.2 and 3.4 μM, respectively. Similarly, spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) recorded from RUICC voltage clamped at -60 mV and spontaneous transient depolarizations (STDs), recorded in current clamp, were also inhibited by CACC inh -A01 and T16A inh -A01. In contrast, spontaneous Ca 2+ waves in isolated RUICC were only partially reduced by CACC inh -A01 and T16A inh -A01. Finally, neurogenic contractions of strips of rabbit urethra smooth muscle (RUSM), evoked by electric field stimulation (EFS), were also significantly reduced by CACC inh -A01 and T16A inh -A01. These data are consistent with the idea that TMEM16A is involved with CACCs in RUICC and in contraction of rabbit urethral smooth muscle.

  7. Ultrastructural researches on rabbit myxomatosis. Lymphnodal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato, P S; Simoni, P

    1977-07-01

    Ultrastructural examination of head and neck lymph nodes in rabbits with spontaneous subacute myxomatosis showed fusion of immature reticuloendothelial cells which lead to the formation of polykarocytes. There was no ultrastructural evidence of viral infection of these polykaryocytes. Histiosyncytial lymphadenitis can be considered a specific lesion of myxomatosis.

  8. Ficus mucoso and Senna occidentalis in rabbits.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: A total of 20 domestic rabbits divided into 4 groups of 5 animals per ... Herbs have been used as food and ... adjuncts in helping reduced the risk of cardiovascular ... effective with minimal toxicity should be processed ... confirmed to have purgative, diuretic effects in dogs ... It is a glabrous tender shrub, annual or.

  9. Measures For Achieving Sustainable Rabbit Production In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to ascertain ways of achieving sustainable rabbits production in Ogba/Egbema/Ndoni Local Government Area of Rivers State. The study population involved 120 respondents comprising 40 students and 80 farmers. Two sets of structured questionnaire designed with a 4-point Likert type rating scale ...

  10. Strategies for rearing of rabbit does

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rommers, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of different rearing strategies for young rabbit does on body development and reproduction performance. In current rearing, does are often fed to appetite from weaning to first insemination. First insemination is applied when 75 to 80% of mature body weight (BW) is

  11. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate. PMID:21461214

  12. Dystocia in a rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Dickie, Erica

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old female dwarf lop rabbit was presented with dystocia after mis-mating. Abdominal palpation, vaginal examination, and radiography confirmed that the doe was carrying 3 kits. Treatment for the dystocia consisted of gentle manual extraction of the fetuses and fetal membranes, and administration of oxytocin and calcium borogluconate.

  13. Resveratrol protects rabbits against cholesterol diet- induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... groups compared to HFD group only. In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrations and might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis. Keywords: Cholesterol diet, Lipidaemia, Rabbit; Resveratrol, LDL-c, HDL-c, TC, TG ...

  14. Alanine - Valine dynamics in pregnant rabbits | Emudianughe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  15. Studies of radiolabelled preparations in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.G.; Hardy, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Rabbits are used to investigate the dose-response relationship of radiopharmaceuticals. The relationship can be divided into three phases:- (i) Pharmaceutical, covering the rate of release of the drug from the preparation. (ii) Pharmacokinetic, comprising processes of absorption, distribution and metabolism. (iii) Pharmacodynamic, interaction of the drug with the receptor site. (U.K.)

  16. Supplementation with 0.1% and 2% vitamin e in diabetic rats: analysis of myenteric neurons immunostained for myosin-V and nNOS in the jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleandro Aparecido Tronchini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by hyperglycemia that, when allowed to progress long-term untreated, develops vascular and neurological complications, which are responsible for the development of alterations in the enteric nervous system in diabetic patients. In the gastrointestinal tract, diabetes mellitus promotes motor and sensory changes, and in the reflex function of this system, causing gastroparesis, diarrhea, constipation, megacolon, slow gastrointestinal transit, gastric stasis and dilation with decreased or increased peristaltic contractions. Several studies have shown that oxidative stress is the main responsible for the vascular and neurological complications affecting the enteric nervous system of diabetics. OBJECTIVE: The effects of 0.1% and 2% vitamin E on myosin-V- and nNOS-immunoreactive neurons in the jejunum of diabetic rats were investigated. METHODS: Thirty rats were divided into the groups: normoglycemic, normoglycemic treated with 0.1% vitamin E, normoglycemic treated with 2% vitamin E, diabetic, diabetic treated with 0.1% vitamin E, and diabetic treated with 2% vitamin E. The neuronal density and areas of neuron cell bodies were determined. RESULTS: Diabetes (diabetic group significantly reduced the number of myosin-V-immunoreactive neurons compared with the normoglycemic group. The diabetic treated with 0.1% vitamin E and diabetic treated with 2% vitamin E groups did not exhibit a greater density than the D group (P>0.05. Nitrergic density did not change with diabetes (P>0.05. The areas of myosin-V- and nNOS-immunoreactive neurons significantly increased in the normoglycemic treated with 2% vitamin E and diabetic groups compared with the normoglycemic group. CONCLUSION: Supplementation with 2% vitamin E had a neurotrophic effect only in the area of myosin-V-immunoreactive neurons compared with the diabetic group.

  17. β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide acts at prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors to suppress inhibitory musculomotor neurotransmission in guinea pig colon and human jejunum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Liu, Sumei; Xia, Yun; Zou, Fei; Qu, Meihua; Needleman, Bradley J.; Mikami, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record neurogenic inhibitory junction potentials in the intestinal circular muscle coat. Electrical field stimulation was used to stimulate intramural neurons and evoke contraction of the smooth musculature. Exposure to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) did not alter smooth muscle membrane potential in guinea pig colon or human jejunum. ATP, ADP, β-NAD, and adenosine, as well as the purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS 2179 and MRS 2500 and the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, each suppressed inhibitory junction potentials in guinea pig and human preparations. β-NAD suppressed contractile force of twitch-like contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in guinea pig and human preparations. P2Y1 receptor antagonists did not reverse this action. Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine suppressed the force of twitch contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in like manner to the action of β-NAD. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine suppressed the inhibitory action of β-NAD on the force of electrically evoked contractions. The results do not support an inhibitory neurotransmitter role for β-NAD at intestinal neuromuscular junctions. The data suggest that β-NAD is a ligand for the adenosine A1 receptor subtype expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system. The influence of β-NAD on intestinal motility emerges from adenosine A1 receptor-mediated suppression of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory neuromuscular junctions. PMID:25813057

  18. Manipulations of core temperatures in ischemia-reperfusion lung injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung; Huang, Kun-Lun; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Ching-Wang; Tsai, Shih-Hung; Chu, Shi-Jye

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of various core temperatures on acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in our isolated rabbit lung model. Typical acute lung injury was successfully induced by 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion observation. The I/R elicited a significant increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, microvascular permeability (measured by using the capillary filtration coefficient, Kfc), Delta Kfc ratio, lung weight gain and the protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Mild hypothermia significantly attenuated acute lung injury induced by I/R, all parameters having decreased significantly (p<0.05); conversely, mild hyperthermia did not further exacerbate acute lung injury. These experimental data suggest that mild hypothermia significantly ameliorated acute lung injury induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rabbits.

  19. Swine and rabbits are the main reservoirs of hepatitis E virus in China: detection of HEV RNA in feces of farmed and wild animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Junke; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Lin; Zhang, Yulin; Liu, Peng; Geng, Jiabao; Wang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as a zoonosis. The prevalence of HEV RNA and anti-HEV antibodies in many animal species has been reported, but the host range of HEV is unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate HEV infection in various animal species and to determine the reservoirs of HEV. Eight hundred twenty-two fecal samples from 17 mammal species and 67 fecal samples from 24 avian species were collected in China and tested for HEV RNA by RT-nPCR. The products of PCR were sequenced and analyzed phylogenetically. The positive rates of HEV RNA isolated from pigs in Beijing, Shandong, and Henan were 33%, 30%, and 92%, respectively, and that from rabbits in Beijing was 5%. HEV RNA was not detectable in farmed foxes, sheep or sika deer, or in wild animals in zoos, including wild boars, yaks, camels, Asiatic black bears, African lions, red pandas, civets, wolves, jackals and primates. Sequence analysis revealed that swine isolates had 97.8%-98.4% nucleotide sequence identity to genotype 4d isolates from patients in Shandong and Jiangsu of China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that swine HEV isolates belong to genotype 4, including subgenotype 4h in Henan and 4d in Beijing and Shandong. The rabbit HEV strains shared 93%-99% nucleotide sequence identity with rabbit strains isolated from Inner Mongolia. In conclusion, swine and rabbits have been confirmed to be the main reservoirs of HEV in China.

  20. Prostaglandin synthesis and catabolism in the gastric mucosa: studies in normal rabbits and rabbits immunized with prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redfern, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    Antral and fundic mucosal homogenates obtained from prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits converted 14C-arachidonic acid to prostaglandin E2, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin F2 alpha, and prostaglandin D2. Percentage conversion of 14C-arachidonic acid to these prostaglandin products was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits compared with control rabbits (thyroglobulin-immunized and unimmunized rabbits combined). Synthesis of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, prostaglandin E2 and 13,14-dihydro 15-keto prostaglandin E2 from endogenous arachidonic acid after vortex mixing fundic mucosal homogenates was similar in prostaglandin E2 immunized rabbits and control rabbits. Both in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and controls, 3H-prostaglandin E2 was catabolized extensively by the fundic mucosa, whereas 3H-6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, 3H-prostaglandin F2 alpha, and 3H-prostaglandin D2 were not catabolized to any appreciable extent. The rate of catabolism of PGs was not significantly different in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits and control rabbits, with the exception of prostaglandin F2 alpha which was catabolized slightly more rapidly in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits. These results indicate that development of gastric ulcers in prostaglandin E2-immunized rabbits is not associated with an alteration in the capacity of the gastric mucosa to synthesize or catabolize prostaglandins

  1. Detection and localization of rabbit hepatitis e virus and antigen in systemic tissues from experimentally intraperitoneally infected rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Mao

    Full Text Available Rabbit hepatitis E virus (HEV is a novel genotype of HEV, and is considered to pose a risk of zoonotic transmission. Research into the systemic distribution of rabbit HEV in rabbits during different periods of infection has rarely been reported. To better understand this virus, we infected rabbits with second-passage rabbit HEV via an intraperitoneal route. After inoculation, the infection showed two types, temporary and constant infection. The detection of HEV RNA in the feces varied with time, and serum antigen correlated with fecal HEV RNA. Viremia only appeared 72 days after inoculation. The rabbits remained antibody negative throughout the experimental period. When HEV was localized, several organs besides the liver were HEV RNA positive. Tissue antigen was observed immunohistochemically in the different cells of various organs, especially in parts of the small intestine and the characteristic rabbit gut-associated lymphoid tissue. These data provide valuable information for future research into the pathogenesis of HEV.

  2. The rabbit meat quality after different feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this present work was to evaluation the effect of feeding on selected chemical and physical parameters rabbit meat. For testing was used rabbits incurred by the crossing of two breeds: the mother - Nitriansky králik and father - Nemecký obrovitý strakoš. Rabbits came from domestic breeding and were 8 weeks old separated from the mother. We created two groups: group A was fed by feed wheat and group B was fed by granulated fodder Králik gold forte. During all the time of fattening, rabbits were fed with hay, respectively green fodder. Rabbits were slaughtered at the age of 19 weeks. After slaughtering was dissection obtained fresh rabbit meat for analysis. From chemical parameters were determined: dry matter, fat, protein, ash, energy value and biogenic amines as putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine. From physical parameter was measured pH of meat. The initial value of pH in group A was 6.12 and after 48 hours was 6.38 and in group B was 7.32 and 6.40, respectively.Dry matter in group A was 24.86 g.100 g-1 and in group B was 24.70 g.100 g-1, content of fat was 1.44 g.100g-1 and 1.33 g.100 g-1, protein was 20.94 g.100 g-1 and 21.12 g.100 g-1, ash was 1.18 g.100 g-1 and 1.25 g.100 g-1, energy value was 461.89 kJ.100 g-1 and 440.27 kJ.100 g-1, respectively. Statistical evaluation of all results we found statistically significant differences (p <0.05 only between the groups A and B only in biogenic amine - spermidine. Experiment was shown a high correlation between biogenic amines putrescine and tyramine, putrescine and spermine, cadaverine and tyramine. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in laboratory settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qudratullah; Muhammad, G; Saqib, M; Bilal, M Qamar

    2017-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate isolation, characterization, virulence and immunogenicity testing of field isolates of Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus agalactiae in rabbits and mice. Isolates of P. multocida, S. aureus and Str. agalactiae recovered from field cases of Hemorragic septicemia and mastitis were scrutinized for virulence/pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Mouse LD 50 of P. multocida showed that P. multocida isolate No.1 was more virulent than isolates No. 2 and 3. Virulence of isolate No.1S. aureus and Str. agalactiae revealed that 100, 80% rabbits died within 18h of inoculation. Seven-digit numerical profiles of these 4 isolates with API ® Staph test strips isolates, No.1 (6736153) showed good identification (S. aureus id=90.3%). Indirect ELISA-based serum antibody titers to P. multocida isolate No.1, S. aureus No.1, Str. agalactiae, isolate No.1 elicited high antibody titers 1.9, 1.23, 1.12 respectively. All the pathogens of Isolate No. 1 (P. multocida, S. aureus Str. agalactiae), were high antibody than others isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  5. PAPAIN-INDUCED CHANGES IN RABBIT CARTILAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, Theodore T.

    1958-01-01

    Some biochemical aspects of the collapse of the rabbit ears produced by the intravenous injection of papain have been studied. A marked depletion of chondromucoprotein (M.C.S.) and a reduction of the S35 content of cartilage matrix were found to coincide with the gross and histologic changes in the cartilage. At the same time there was a marked increase in the amount of S35 in the serum and an increase of S35 and glucuronic acid excreted in the urine. Alteration in the composition of the M.C.S. remaining in the cartilage of the papain-injected animals was detected. The findings indicate that the collapse of the rabbit ears is due to loss of chondromucoprotein from cartilage and reduction of chondroitin sulfate in the chondromucoprotein that remains. All these changes were reversed in recovery. PMID:13575681

  6. [Idiopathic rabbit syndrome: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, H; Sasaki, Y; Hatori, K; Tanaka, S; Mizuno, Y

    1999-10-01

    We report a patient with idiopathic oromandibular tremor resembling rabbit syndrome. The patient is a 36-year-old Japanese woman without any past and medical histories. On neurological examination, there was no abnormal finding except the oromandibular tremor. The tremor was confined to the jaw and perioral muscles. There was no extremity tremor. Laboratory findings were all normal, as well as her MRI and EEG. Surface EMG studies revealed that regular grouped discharges at a frequency of about 6 Hz appeared in the masseter, the orbicularis oris, and the digastric, and that the alternative contractions were found between the masseter and the digastric. Oral administration of tiapride was effective, but diazepam, trihexyphenydil, levodopa, and a beta-blocker were without effect. Although she had not taken neuroleptics, the appearance of the tremor was identical to the rabbit syndrome. The efficacy of the dopamine blockade may suggest that an abnormal basal ganglia function contributes to the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying this type of tremor.

  7. Gastric Perforation by Ingested Rabbit Bone Fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gambaracci

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of accidentally ingested foreign bodies is excreted from the gastrointestinal (GI tract without any complications. Sometimes sharp foreign bodies – like chicken and fish bones – can lead to intestinal perforation and may present insidiously with a wide range of symptoms and, consequently, different diagnoses. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman presenting with fever and a 1-month history of vague abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT showed the presence of a hyperdense linear image close to the gastric antrum surrounded by a fluid collection and free peritoneal air. At laparotomy, a 4-cm rabbit bone fragment covered in inflamed tissue was detected next to a gastric wall perforation. Rabbit bone fragment ingestion, even if rarely reported, should not be underestimated as a possible cause of GI tract perforation.

  8. Repair of articular cartilage defects by tissue-engineered cartilage constructed with adipose-derived stem cells and acellular cartilaginous matrix in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z J; An, R Z; Zhao, J Y; Zhang, Q; Yang, J; Wang, J B; Wen, G Y; Yuan, X H; Qi, X W; Li, S J; Ye, X C

    2014-06-18

    After injury, inflammation, or degeneration, articular cartilage has limited self-repair ability. We aimed to explore the feasibility of repair of articular cartilage defects with tissue-engineered cartilage constructed by acellular cartilage matrices (ACMs) seeded with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). The ADSCs were isolated from 3-month-old New Zealand albino rabbit by using collagenase and cultured and amplified in vitro. Fresh cartilage isolated from adult New Zealand albino rabbit were freeze-dried for 12 h and treated with Triton X-100, DNase, and RNase to obtain ACMs. ADSCs were seeded in the acellular cartilaginous matrix at 2x10(7)/mL, and cultured in chondrogenic differentiation medium for 2 weeks to construct tissue-engineered cartilage. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into A, B, and C groups. Engineered cartilage was transplanted into cartilage defect position of rabbits in group A, group B obtained ACMs, and group C did not receive any transplants. The rabbits were sacrificed in week 12. The restored tissue was evaluated using macroscopy, histology, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the tissue-engineered cartilage group (group A), articular cartilage defects of the rabbits were filled with chondrocyte-like tissue with smooth surface. Immunohistochemistry showed type II-collagen expression and Alcian blue staining was positive. TEM showed chondrocytes in the recesses, with plenty of secretary matrix particles. In the scaffold group (group B), the defect was filled with fibrous tissue. No repaired tissue was found in the blank group (group C). Tissue-engineered cartilage using ACM seeded with ADSCs can help repair articular cartilage defects in rabbits.

  9. Milkweed control by food imprinted rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducs, Anita; Kazi, Andrea; Bilkó, Ágnes; Altbäcker, Vilmos

    2016-09-01

    Many species of invasive plants are spreading out rapidly in Europe. The common milkweed occupies increasingly more area. Being poisonous, most animals will not graze on it however rabbits would be an effective organism for the biological control of milkweed. Rabbit kittens can learn the maternal diet in various ways. They prefer aromatic foods which their mother had eaten during pregnancy or lactation period, -even if it is poisonous- but they can also learn the maternal diet from the fecal pellets deposited by the mother into the nest during the nursing events. The present study was aimed to investigate if rabbit kittens can learn that the common milkweed is a potential food also. In the first 10days of their lives kits got fecal pellets originating from individuals having fed on common milkweed previously. When weaned on day 28 postpartum, these pups preferred the milkweed in the 3-way food choice test, opposite to the control group. Most surprisingly in a second experiment it was also shown that the common milkweed was also preferred by the kittens if their mother ate it not during, but one month before pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sildenafil Stimulates Aqueous Humor Turnover in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Lawrence J.; Zamudio, Aldo C.; Candia, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Sildenafil citrate increases ocular blood flow and accelerates the rate of anterior chamber refilling after paracentesis. The latter effect could have resulted from a reduction in outflow facility or from an increase in aqueous humor (AH) production. In this study, we used scanning ocular fluorophotometry to examine the effects of sildenafil on AH turnover, and thus, AH production in eyes of live normal rabbits. For this, the rate of aqueous humor flow (AHF) was quantified with a commercially available fluorophotometer that measured the rate of fluorescein clearance from the anterior segment, which predominantly occurs via the trabecular meshwork. After ≈ 2 hrs of control scans to determine the baseline rate of AHF, the rabbits were fed 33 mg of sildenafil and allowed ≈ 45 min for the drug to enter the systemic circulation. Thereafter, fluorescence scans were retaken for an additional 90–120 min. Sildenafil ingestion increased AHF by about 36%, from 2.31 μL/min to 3.14 μL/min (PViagra, Revatio), stimulates AHF in rabbits. Our results seem consistent with reports indicating that the drug dilates intraocular arteries and augments intraocular vascular flow. These physiological responses to the agent apparently led to increased fluid entry into the anterior chamber. As such, the drug might have utility in patients with ocular hypotony resulting from insufficient AH formation. PMID:23562660

  11. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  12. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  13. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Tittensor, A. M.; Fox, A. P.; Sanders, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in suffici...

  14. Blood Profile of Rabbits Infected with Eimeria magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hana

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The research aimed at determining the blood profile of local rabbits infected with different dose of Eimeria magna oocysts. This research used 45 male rabbits with the age of 4 month old, range from 1.5 to 1.8 kg, clinically healthy and free from coccidiosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups, group I as control (K-0 was given 1.0 ml distilled water/rabbit orally, group II (K-10 was infected with single dose of 10x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally, and group III (K-20 was infected with single dose of 20x106 oocysts of E. magna/rabbit orally. After infection, rabbits were examined for clinical signs, body weight and temperature daily for five days. Blood samples were drawn from the vena marginalis to examine the number of erythrocytes, hemoglobine, packed cell volume (PCV, leukocytes and its deferent, total protein plasma (TPP and fibrinogen, activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine amino transferase (ALT, and aspartat aminotransferase (AST. The data were statistically analyzed by two-way anova using factorial design. The results of this research showed that the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused fever and weight loss, accompanied by normochromic microcytic anemia (at doses of 10x106 oocysts, macrocytic normochromic (at doses of 20x106 oocysts, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, hiperfibrinogenemia, and increased of ALP activity. There were correlations between clinical symptoms and blood profile of rabbits infected with E. magna for five days. The higher the dose and the longer the infection of E. magna in rabbits caused weight loss, increased body temperature, MCV (microcytic to macrocytic, leukocyte, fibrinogen and ALP activity. These findings were useful to have a better understanding of pathophysiology of E. magna infection in  rabbits. Key Words: Eimeria magna, oocyst, rabbit, blood profile A Hana et al/Animal Production 13(3:185-190 (2011

  15. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (GI.2) is replacing endemic strains of RHDV in the Australian landscape within 18 months of its arrival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Jackie E; Hall, Robyn N; Peacock, David; Kovaliski, John; Piper, Melissa; Mourant, Roslyn; Huang, Nina; Campbell, Susan; Gu, Xingnian; Read, Andrew; Urakova, Nadya; Cox, Tarnya; Holmes, Edward C; Strive, Tanja

    2017-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus 2 (RHDV2; Lagovirus GI.2) is a pathogenic calicivirus that affects European rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ) and various hare ( Lepus ) species. GI.2 was first detected in France in 2010 and subsequently caused epidemics in wild and domestic lagomorph populations throughout Europe. In May 2015 GI.2 was detected in Australia. Within 18 months of its initial detection GI.2 had spread to all Australian states and territories and rapidly became the dominant circulating strain, replacing Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV/GI.1) in mainland Australia. Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of 127 Australian GI.2 isolates revealed that the virus arrived in Australia at least several months before its initial description and likely circulated unnoticed in wild rabbit populations in the east of the continent prior to its detection. GI.2 sequences isolated from five hares clustered with sequences from sympatric rabbit populations sampled contemporaneously, indicating multiple spillover events into hares rather than an adaptation of the Australian GI.2 to a new host. Since the presence of GI.2 in Australia may have wide ranging consequences for rabbit biocontrol, particularly with the release of the novel biocontrol agent GI.1a/RHDVa-K5 in March 2017, ongoing surveillance is critical to understanding the interactions of the various lagoviruses in Australia, and their impact on host populations. IMPORTANCE This study describes the spread and distribution of Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease virus 2 (GI.2) in Australia since its first detection in May 2015. Within the first 18 months following its detection, RHDV2 spread from east to west across the continent and became the dominant strain in all mainland states of Australia. This has important implications for pest animal management and for owners of pet and farmed rabbits, as there is currently no effective vaccine available in Australia for GI.2. The closely related RHDV (GI.1) is used

  16. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon; Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong

    1999-01-01

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  17. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  18. The Effect of pH on Rabbit Septal Cartilage Shape Change: Exploring the Mechanism of Electromechanical Tissue Reshaping

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy, Lauren E.; Wong, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) involves the application of an electrical current to mechanically deformed cartilage to create sustained tissue shape change. Although EMR may evolve to become an inexpensive and reliable way of producing shape change in cartilage during reconstructive surgery, the precise mechanism of EMR is unknown. We aim to examine the isolated effect of protonation (pH) on shape change in cartilage. Methods: Nasal septal cartilages of rabbits were mechanica...

  19. Genetic characterization of antibiotic resistance in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli carrying extended-spectrum beta-lactamases recovered from diarrhoeic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, P; Radhouani, H; Gonçalves, A; Figueiredo, N; Carvalho, C; Rodrigues, J; Igrejas, G

    2010-05-01

    A total of 52 Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhoeic rabbits were investigated for their enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) pathotype by PCR amplification of eae and bfp virulence genes. A total of 22 EPEC isolates were identified, serotyped and studied for antibiotic resistance and screened for the detection of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). The EPEC isolates belonged to three serogroups (O26, O92 and O103). The most common serogroup (O103:K-:H2) was observed among 17 EPEC strains, the O92:K-serogroup in three isolates (the antibiotic sensitive ones) and the remaining O26:K-serogroup in two isolates (the ESBLs isolates). Resistances to ampicillin and tetracycline were the most frequent and detected followed by resistance to nalidixic acid, streptomycin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole, cefoxitin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. All the isolates were sensitive for amikacin, ceftazidime, aztreonam, imipenem, chloramphenicol, tobramycin and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid. Two isolates recovered from two adult animals showed an intermediate susceptibility to cefotaxime, and a positive screening test for ESBL was demonstrated in both. The bla(TEM) gene was demonstrated in the majority of ampicillin-resistant isolates. The aac(3)-II or aac(3)-IV genes were detected in the four gentamicin-resistant isolates. In addition, the aadA gene was detected in 60% of streptomycin-resistant isolates. The tet(A) or tet(B) genes were identified in all tetracycline-resistant isolates. A total of nine EPEC isolates showed the phenotype SXT-resistant, and the sul1 and/or sul2 and/or sul3 genes were detected in all of them. Our findings showed that the molecular detection by the eae and bfp genes by PCR followed by serotyping is useful for monitoring trends in EPEC infections of rabbits allowing the identification of their possible reservoirs. The detection of genes involved in the resistance to antibiotics of different families in a relatively high proportion of faecal E

  20. Chest wall restriction limits high airway pressure-induced lung injury in young rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, L A; Peevy, K J; Moise, A A; Parker, J C

    1989-05-01

    High peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) during mechanical ventilation can induce lung injury. In the present study we compare the respective roles of high tidal volume with high PIP in intact immature rabbits to determine whether the increase in capillary permeability is the result of overdistension of the lung or direct pressure effects. New Zealand White rabbits were assigned to one of three protocols, which produced different degrees of inspiratory volume limitation: intact closed-chest animals (CC), closed-chest animals with a full-body plaster cast (C), and isolated excised lungs (IL). The intact animals were ventilated at 15, 30, or 45 cmH2O PIP for 1 h, and the lungs of the CC and C groups were placed in an isolated lung perfusion system. Microvascular permeability was evaluated using the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc). Base-line Kfc for isolated lungs before ventilation was 0.33 +/- 0.31 ml.min-1.cmH2O-1.100g-1 and was not different from the Kfc in the CC group ventilated with 15 cmH2O PIP. Kfc increased by 850% after ventilation with only 15 cmH2O PIP in the unrestricted IL group, and in the CC group Kfc increased by 31% after 30 cmH2O PIP and 430% after 45 cmH2O PIP. Inspiratory volume limitation by the plaster cast in the C group prevented any significant increase in Kfc at the PIP values used. These data indicate that volume distension of the lung rather than high PIP per se produces microvascular damage in the immature rabbit lung.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage could be a risk for development of clinical infections in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selva Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although nasal carriage has been described as a risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infections in humans, there is a scarcity of studies about S. aureus nasal carriers in animals. In rabbits, S. aureus is one of the most important pathogens responsible for a number of different types of infections. This study was designed to determine the extent of staphylococcal nasal carriage and to establish whether a relationship exists between nasal carriage and development of lesions. One hundred and sixteen rabbits with and without chronic signs of staphylococcosis from 6 industrial rabbitries were monitored. Nasal swabs for microbiological assessments were obtained from all animals. Microbiological results showed that 56% of the animals carried S. aureus in their nasal cavities with significantly higher incidence in animals with staphylococcal-related lesions (84.2% compared to apparently healthy animals (28.8%. Additionally, the S. aureus strains isolated from the nasal cavity and lesions were clonally related in 91.7% of animals. This suggests that nasal carriage of S. aureus in rabbits could be a risk for development of clinical infections.

  2. An in vivo system for directed experimental evolution of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Robyn N; Capucci, Lorenzo; Matthaei, Markus; Esposito, Simona; Kerr, Peter J; Frese, Michael; Strive, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    The calicivirus Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) is widely used in Australia as a biocontrol agent to manage wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) populations. However, widespread herd immunity limits the effectiveness of the currently used strain, CAPM V-351. To overcome this, we developed an experimental platform for the selection and characterisation of novel RHDV strains. As RHDV does not replicate in cell culture, variant viruses were selected by serially passaging a highly virulent RHDV field isolate in immunologically naïve laboratory rabbits that were passively immunised 18-24 hours post-challenge with a neutralising monoclonal antibody. After seven passages, two amino acid substitutions in the P2 domain of the capsid protein became fixed within the virus population. Furthermore, a synonymous substitution within the coding sequence of the viral polymerase appeared and was also maintained in all subsequent passages. These findings demonstrate proof-of-concept that RHDV evolution can be experimentally manipulated to select for virus variants with altered phenotypes, in this case partial immune escape.

  3. Immunopurification of the suppressor tRNA dependent rabbit β-globin readthrough protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, D.; Thorgeirsson, S.S.; Copeland, T.D.; Oroszlan, S.; Bustin, M.

    1988-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the rabbit β-globin readthrough protein is the only known example of a naturally occurring readthrough protein which does not involve a viral system. To provide an efficient means for its isolation, detection, and study, the authors elicited specific antibodies against this unique protein. The 22 amino acid peptide corresponding to the readthrough portion of this protein was synthesized, coupled to keyhole limpet hemocyanin, and injected into sheep. Specific antibodies to the peptide were produced as demonstrated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique and by immunoblotting. The antibodies did not react with globin. The rabbit β-globin readthrough protein was separated from globin and other reticulocyte proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and visualized by silver staining or by labeling with [ 35 S] methionine. Incorporation of [ 35 S] methionine into the readthrough protein was significantly enhanced upon addition of an opal suppressor tRNA to reticulocyte lysates. Immunoblotting revealed that the readthrough protein also occurs in lysates without added suppressor tRNA. The antibodies were purified on an affi-gel column which had been coupled with the peptide antigen. The readthrough protein was then purified from reticulocytes by immunoaffinity chromatography and by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results provide conclusive evidence that the β-globin readthrough protein is naturally occurring in rabbit reticulocytes

  4. Effect of fiber source on cecal fermentation and nitrogen recycled through cecotrophy in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J; Carabaño, R; Pérez-Alba, L; de Blas, J C

    2000-03-01

    The influence of fiber source on fiber digestion in rabbits was investigated. Six fibrous feedstuffs with wide differences in chemical composition and particle size were selected: paprika meal, olive leaves, alfalfa hay, soybean hulls, sodium hydroxide-treated barley straw, and sunflower hulls. Six diets were formulated to contain one of these ingredients as the sole source of fiber. To avoid nutrient imbalances, fiber sources were supplemented with different proportions of a fiber-free concentrate, based on soy protein isolate, wheat flour, lard, and a vitamin and mineral mix, to obtain diets containing at least 3% nitrogen and 5% starch. Daily soft feces excretion, and its NDF, and total and microbial nitrogen content were determined in 60 fattening rabbits (10 per diet). Seven days after the last cecotrophy control, the same animals were used to determine weight of stomach, cecum and their contents, and cecal fermentation traits (pH, VFA and ammonia concentrations, and buffer properties of cecal contents). Stepwise regression analysis showed a positive effect (P 1.25 mm). Degree of lignification of NDF decreased total nitrogen concentration in soft feces and cecal VFA concentration (P lignification of NDF, and base-buffering capacity of dry cecal contents (r = -.52, -.37, and -.49, respectively). From these results, we conclude that pectic constituent concentration, degree of lignification of NDF, and particle size are the variables that best characterize the influence of the source of fiber on soft feces excretion and cecal fermentation traits in rabbits.

  5. Intravascular application of electrocautery in a rabbit model of abdominal aortic endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Xin, Yi; Li, Na; Li, Diankun; Li, Jingxing; Gu, Chengxiong

    2017-07-01

    Effective therapies for preventing perioperative complications such as thrombosis and inflammation after coronary endarterectomy (CE) are lacking. Electrocoagulation electrotomes have been routinely used in surgery for their cutting, clotting, and hemostatic properties. As strong flattening tools, their electrocautery function may prevent mechanical intimal-adventitial injury to arterial circulation and attenuate stenosis. The present study investigated the effects of intravascular application of electrocautery on ameliorating inflammation and thrombosis in a rabbit model of abdominal aortic endarterectomy. New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the sham, control (endarterectomy), and study (endarterectomy + electrocautery) groups with 10 in each group. Abdominal aortas were partially blocked and intima was removed. Electrocautery was performed with an electrocoagulation electrotome through the entire blocked vessel lumen. Vascular ultrasound parameters, molecular biological and histological characteristics of the abdominal aorta including vascular diameter, blood flow velocity, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels, and apoptosis rate of vascular endothelial cells (ECs) were evaluated postoperatively by vascular Doppler ultrasound, ELISA, real-time RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence at various time points. Compared with the endarterectomy + electrocautery group, the isolated endarterectomy group had significantly increased levels and gene expression of TNF-α and IL-6 (Pelectrocautery has favorable short-term effects on the abdominal aorta and can reduce inflammation in a rabbit model of abdominal aorta endarterectomy. Long-term anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic effects on arterial remodeling and the clinical value of electrocautery in CE remain to be determined.

  6. Abstracts of the 24th Hungary conference on rabbit production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    24TH Conference on rabbit production Kaposvár, Hungary. 30th May, 2012

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Some 100 guests took part in the 24th Hungarian Conference on Rabbit Production in Kaposvár, organised by the University of Kaposvár, the Hungarian Branch of the WRSA and the Rabbit Production Board. This is the largest and most popular event for rabbit breeders in Hungary. Seventeen papers were presented, both by senior and young scientists. Topics of the papers covered all fields of rabbit production (production, housing and welfare, reproduction, genetics, nutrition, meat quality and pathology. Full papers are available from the organiser (matics.zsolt@ke.hu on request.

  7. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  8. Rabbit haemorrhagic disease: are Australian rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) evolving resistance to infection with Czech CAPM 351 RHDV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsworth, P G; Kovaliski, J; Cooke, B D

    2012-11-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease is a major tool for the management of introduced, wild rabbits in Australia. However, new evidence suggests that rabbits may be developing resistance to the disease. Rabbits sourced from wild populations in central and southeastern Australia, and domestic rabbits for comparison, were experimentally challenged with a low 60 ID50 oral dose of commercially available Czech CAPM 351 virus - the original strain released in Australia. Levels of resistance to infection were generally higher than for unselected domestic rabbits and also differed (0-73% infection rates) between wild populations. Resistance was lower in populations from cooler, wetter regions and also low in arid regions with the highest resistance seen within zones of moderate rainfall. These findings suggest the external influences of non-pathogenic calicivirus in cooler, wetter areas and poor recruitment in arid populations may influence the development rate of resistance in Australia.

  9. COMPOSTING OF RABBIT MORTALITIES IMPLEMENTD IN THE EXPERIMENTAL FARM AT CHAPINGO AUTONOMOUS UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Jerónimo-Romero; L.A. Miranda-Romero; L.A. Saavedra-Jiménez

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of composting rabbit carcasses with various substrates, six treatments were established according to the substrate used: oat straw-rabbit manure-dead rabbit (PAEC), wood shavings- rabbit manure- dead rabbit (EVC) and oat straw-dead rabbit (PAC), with or without the addition of 0.3 % ( v / w) mixed microbial inoculum consisting of Streptomyces spp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp. Temperature, pH, dry matter (DM ), moisture, organic matter (OM), ash and ...

  10. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein

    OpenAIRE

    Bertagnoli, Stéphane; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Le Gall, Ghislaine; Boilletot, Eric; Vautherot, Jean-François; Rasschaert, Denis; Laurent, Sylvie; Petit, Frédérique; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Milon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma vir...

  11. Purification and properties of a ribosomal casein kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    A casein kinase was isolated and purifed from rabbit reticulocytes. About 90% of the enzyme activity co-sedimented with the ribosomal fraction, whereas about 10% of the enzyme activity was found in the ribosome-free supernatant. Both casein kinases (the ribosome-bound enzyme as well as the free...... suggested that the casein kinase is a dimer composed of subunits of identical molecular weight. The enzyme utilizes GTP as well as ATP as a phosphoryl donor. It preferentially phosphorylates acidic proteins, in particular the model substrates casein and phosvitin. Casein kinase is cyclic AMP...

  12. Protection against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease with recombinant myxoma viruses expressing rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertagnoli, S; Gelfi, J; Le Gall, G; Boilletot, E; Vautherot, J F; Rasschaert, D; Laurent, S; Petit, F; Boucraut-Baralon, C; Milon, A

    1996-08-01

    Two myxoma virus-rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) recombinant viruses were constructed with the SG33 strain of myxoma virus to protect rabbits against myxomatosis and rabbit viral hemorrhagic disease. These recombinant viruses expressed the RHDV capsid protein (VP60). The recombinant protein, which is 60 kDa in size, was antigenic, as revealed by its reaction in immunoprecipitation with antibodies raised against RHDV. Both recombinant viruses induced high levels of RHDV- and myxoma virus-specific antibodies in rabbits after immunization. Inoculations by the intradermal route protected animals against virulent RHDV and myxoma virus challenges.

  13. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  14. Mechanical deformation and glycosaminoglycan content changes in a rabbit annular puncture disc degeneration model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Deva D; Khan, Safdar N; Ye, Xiaojing; Curtiss, Shane B; Gupta, Munish C; Klineberg, Eric O; Neu, Corey P

    2011-08-15

    Evaluation of degenerated intervertebral discs from a rabbit annular puncture model by using specialized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques, including displacement encoding with stimulated echoes and a fast-spin echo (DENSE-FSE) acquisition and delayed gadolinium-enhanced MRI of cartilage (dGEMRIC). To evaluate a rabbit disc degeneration model by using various MRI techniques. To determine the displacements and strains, spin-lattice relaxation time (T1), and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) distribution of degenerated discs as compared to normal and adjacent level discs. Annular puncture of the intervertebral disc produces disc degeneration in rabbits. DENSE-FSE has been previously demonstrated in articular cartilage for the measurement of soft tissue displacements and strains. MRI also can measure the T1 of tissue, and dGEMRIC can quantify GAG concentration in cartilage. METHODS.: In eight New Zealand white rabbits, the annulus fibrosis of a lumbar disc was punctured. After 4 weeks, the punctured and cranially adjacent motion segments were isolated for MRI and histology. MRI was used to estimate the disc volume and map T1. DENSE-FSE was used to determine displacements for the estimation of strains. dGEMRIC was then used to determine GAG distributions. Histology and standard MRI indicated degeneration in punctured discs. Disc volume increased significantly at 4 weeks after the puncture. Displacement of the nucleus pulposus was distinct from that of the annulus fibrosis in most untreated discs but not in punctured discs. T1 was significantly higher and GAG concentration significantly lower in punctured discs compared with untreated adjacent level discs. Noninvasive and quantitative MRI techniques can be used to evaluate the mechanical and biochemical changes that occur with animal models of disc degeneration. DENSE-FSE, dGEMRIC, and similar techniques have potential for evaluating the progression of disc degeneration and the efficacy of treatments.

  15. Inhibitory effects of Ledebouria ovaltifolia (hyacithaceae) aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolated epidydymal end of the adult male rat{200-350g],and rabbit jejunum in separate experiment were mounted in Ugo Basil organ bath containing Tyrode solution aerated with95% O2 and 5% CO2, and responses monitored through isometric transducer connected to a 2-channel dynamometer recorder The effect of ...

  16. Development of IgY antibodies in chickens and IgG in rabbits immunized against proteins of Pythium insidiosum isolated from horses in the state of Rio de Janeiro Desenvolvimento de Anticorpos IgY em galinhas e IgG em coelhos imunizados contra proteínas de Pythium insidiosum isolado de equinos no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fabíola Nunes Rangel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pythiosis is caused by Pythium insidiosum and the occurrence of disease in horses was described in the North and Northwest State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The disease was described in cattle, sheep, humans, and horses in different states and regions across the country. This paper describes the development of IgY and IgG polyclonal antibodies, in chicken and rabbits, respectively against proteins extracted from kunkers and hyphae of P. insidiosum from affected horses. The proteins were recognized by chicken, rabbit and horse antibodies by immunodiffusion and Western blot against majority bands of 27 and 43 KDa, and titrated by ELISA. The antibodies IgY developed by the first time against Brazilian strains of P. insidiosum may represent a valuable tool in the detection of antigens of the pathogen and contribute to further studies aimed at immunotherapy and knowledge about this disease in endemic areas in Rio de Janeiro and in Brazil.Pitiose é causada por Pythium insidiosum e a doença foi descrita em equinos no Norte e Noroeste do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. A doença foi descrita em bovinos, ovelhas, humanos e cavalos em diferentes estados e regiões do país. Este trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de anticorpos policlonais, IgY e IgG, em galinha e coelho, respectivamente, contra proteínas extraídas de kunkers e hifas de P. insidiosum de cavalos doentes. As proteínas foram reconhecidas por anticorpos de galinha, coelho e cavalos contra as bandas majoritárias de 27 e 34 KDa em imunodifusão e Western blot tituladas por ELISA. Os anticorpos IgY desenvolvidos pela primeira vez contra cepas brasileiras de P. insidiosum podem representar um valioso instrumento na detecção de antígenos de patógenos e contribuem para novos estudos baseados na imunoterapia e no entendimento sobre esta doença em áreas endêmicas no Rio de Janeiro e em todo o país.

  17. Myxomatosis in farmland rabbit populations in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J; Tittensor, A M; Fox, A P; Sanders, M F

    1989-10-01

    The overall pattern and consequences of myxomatosis in wild rabbit populations were studied at three farmland sites in lowland southern England and upland central Wales between 1971 and 1978. When results from all years were combined, the disease showed a clear two-peaked annual cycle, with a main autumn peak between August and January, and a subsidiary spring peak during February to April. Rabbit fleas, the main vectors of myxomatosis in Britain, were present on full-grown rabbits in sufficient numbers for transmission to occur throughout the year, but the observed seasonal pattern of the disease appeared to be influenced by seasonal mass movements of these fleas. However other factors were also important including the timing and success of the main rabbit breeding season, the proportion of rabbits which had recovered from the disease and the timing and extent of autumn rabbit mortality from other causes. Significantly more males than females, and more adults and immatures than juveniles, were observed to be infected by myxomatosis. Only 25-27% of the total populations were seen to be infected during outbreaks. Using two independent methods of calculation, it was estimated that between 47 and 69% of infected rabbits died from the disease (much lower than the expected 90-95% for fully susceptible rabbits with the partly attenuated virus strains that predominated). Thus it was estimated that 12-19% of the total rabbit populations were known to have died directly or indirectly from myxomatosis. Although the effects of myxomatosis were much less than during the 1950s and 1960s, it continued to be an important mortality factor. It may still have a regulatory effect on rabbit numbers, with autumn/winter peaks of disease reducing the numbers of rabbits present at the start of the breeding season.

  18. Market Driving to Develop Rabbit Meat Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atien Priyanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbit meat is a nutritional food containing high protein and low cholesterol, fat and sodium. Current research in rabbit production is aimed for developing production strategies to increase the nutritional and economic values of rabbit meat products as functional food. Nowadays, producing rabbit is a popular farming activity in many parts of Indonesia as a small and medium scale operation for food security and cash income. Rabbit farming is to produce meat, skin and hides, fur, organic fertilizers and pet or fancy animals. Consumption of rabbit meat is considered very low, due partly to low meat supply and inavailability of marketing. In some tourist areas, such as Lembang (West Java, Tawangmangu (Central Java, Sarangan and Batu (East Java rabbit meat is a specific food. Attempt to create and drive rabbit markets will simultaneously increase meat production to fulfill the demand and meet economic scale of farming. Hence, this will give significant impact to the farmers’ welfare. Availability of good quality meat, dissemination and diversification of meat products, production efficiency toward competitive price along with its proper marketing strategy will drive consumers’ preferences to consume more rabbit meat. Market driving needs to be created in order to promote rabbit meat products by establishing food outlets. This program has been developed by a farmers group in Magelang, Central Java. During the period of 2006 – 2007 the food outlets had increased to 5 outlets, and in 2012 become 9 outlets. This market driving will also have an impact on changing orientation of rabbit farming from traditional to a small and medium economic scale that will influence the production efficiency.

  19. Surface Ig on rabbit lymphocytes. Rabbit B and T cells are distinct populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bast, B J; Catty, D; Manten-Slingerland, R; Jansen, J T; Veldhuis, Dick H.; Roholl, P; Ballieux, R E

    1979-01-01

    Rabbit peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were analyzed by immunofluorescence using anti-T cell conjugates and anti-Fab, anti-a1 allotype, anti-IgM and anti-IgA conjugates. In addition, T cells were demonstrated by rosetting with papain-treated homologous erythrocytes. Control experiments, using

  20. Identification of rabbit annulus fibrosus-derived stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available Annulus fibrosus (AF injuries can lead to substantial deterioration of intervertebral disc (IVD which characterizes degenerative disc disease (DDD. However, treatments for AF repair/regeneration remain challenging due to the intrinsic heterogeneity of AF tissue at cellular, biochemical, and biomechanical levels. In this study, we isolated and characterized a sub-population of cells from rabbit AF tissue which formed colonies in vitro and could self-renew. These cells showed gene expression of typical surface antigen molecules characterizing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, including CD29, CD44, and CD166. Meanwhile, they did not express negative markers of MSCs such as CD4, CD8, and CD14. They also expressed Oct-4, nucleostemin, and SSEA-4 proteins. Upon induced differentiation they showed typical osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, and adipogenesis potential. Together, these AF-derived colony-forming cells possessed clonogenicity, self-renewal, and multi-potential differentiation capability, the three criteria characterizing MSCs. Such AF-derived stem cells may potentially be an ideal candidate for DDD treatments using cell therapies or tissue engineering approaches.

  1. Purification of dihydropyridine receptor from rabbit skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, N.; Vaghy, P.; Schwartz, A.

    1986-01-01

    Dihydropyridine (DHP)receptor was purified from T-tubules isolated from freeze-thawed rabbit skeletal muscle after French press treatment of microsomal membranes. DHP receptor was labeled with 25 nM [ 3 H]-(+)-PN-200-110 (PN, one of the most potent Ca-antagonists) and solubilized with 1% digitonin. The solubilized receptor was purified in the presence of protease inhibitors (0.1 mM PMSF, 1 mM iodoacetamide, 1μM pepstatin A, 1 mg/l antipain and 0.2 mM o-phenanthroline) using WGA-Sepharose and DEAE-Biogel A column chromatography as well as sucrose density gradient (SDG) centrifugation. The pooled fractions of the SDG had a maximum binding of 590 pmol/mg protein even without correcting for dissociation of PN from the receptors during purification. On SDS-PAGE, a single major band (191 K dalton) was shown both in presence and absence of 20 mM N-ethyl maleimide. However, two major (145 and 103 K dalton) a few minor bands (55,46,32 and 31K dalton) were obtained if the fraction was treated with 20 mM dithiothreitol prior to electrophoresis. The authors data suggest that 191 and 145 k dalton proteins correspond to the α-subunit of the DHP receptor as reported by Curtis and Catterall

  2. [The speed of nerve-conduction after micro-surgical suture of the tibial nerve of the rabbit (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigert, M; Mellerowicz, H; Werhahn, C

    1975-10-01

    Isolated division of the tibial nerve in the thigh preserving the peroneal and sural nerves does not cause loss of normal position of the animal, in particular of sitting. Nor does it lead to pressure sores. The animals are fitter then after division of the sciatic nerve. Microsurgical suture of the isolated tibial nerve in the thigh of the rabbit with 1 or 2 simple sutures with 10 x 0 thread show that an average recovery can be achieved in over 80 per cent. As few sutures as possible should be used. Otherwise there with be scarring and no return of function.

  3. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  4. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  5. the assessment of fasciola gigantica infection in the rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the rabbit was assessed as a laboratory host for the helminthes parasite, Fasciola gigantica. Three groups of rabbits were Infected experimentally with 5, 10 end 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica respectively. Clinical signs found included pale mucous membrane, progressive emaciation and rough hair coat.

  6. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  7. Rabbit management and occurrences of mange mite infestations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Morogoro Municipality between September and December 2015 to explore the rabbit farming and assess the common health problems with a focus on epidemiology of mange infestation. A total of 18 rabbit farms with 622 animals from 9 wards were investigated. A questionnaire ...

  8. Experimental study on lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve allografts in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zhiyuan; Sun Shiquan; Liu Hechen

    1991-01-01

    Lyophilized irradiation sterilized nerve grafts in rabbits were used in allogeneic nerve transplantation. The result show that about 76% of experimental rabbits had fairly well morphologic (microscopic and electron microscopic) and electrophysiological recovery 3 month after operation. Preservation of neurilemmal tubes in nerve grafts, repopulation of Schwann cells in this tube and suppression of immune rejection are the key points in allogeneic nerve transplantation

  9. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K

    2008-08-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of an orally administered dose of tramadol in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). 6 healthy adult sexually intact female New Zealand White rabbits. Physical examinations and plasma biochemical analyses were performed to ensure rabbits were healthy prior to the experiment. Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane, and IV catheters were placed in a medial saphenous or jugular vein for collection of blood samples. One blood sample was collected before treatment with tramadol. Rabbits were allowed to recover from anesthesia a minimum of 1 hour before treatment. Then, tramadol (11 mg/kg, PO) was administered once, and blood samples were collected at various time points up to 360 minutes after administration. Blood samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to determine plasma concentrations of tramadol and its major metabolite (O-desmethyltramadol). No adverse effects were detected after oral administration of tramadol to rabbits. Mean +/- SD half-life of tramadol after administration was 145.4 +/- 81.0 minutes; mean +/- SD maximum plasma concentration was 135.3 +/- 89.1 ng/mL. Although the dose of tramadol required to provide analgesia in rabbits is unknown, the dose administered in the study reported here did not reach a plasma concentration of tramadol or O-desmethyltramadol that would provide sufficient analgesia in humans for clinically acceptable periods. Many factors may influence absorption of orally administered tramadol in rabbits.

  10. Phacoemulsification of bilateral cataracts in two pet rabbits | Gomes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two 3 year-old, healthy, client-owned Lop rabbits presented with bilateral cataracts. After performing a physical examination, bloodwork, ocular ultrasonography and electroretinography, both animals were deemed good surgical candidates for phacoemulsification. Bilateral cataract surgery was performed and both rabbits ...

  11. Incomplete bone regeneration of rabbit calvarial defects using different membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M; Schou, S

    1998-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a degradable and a non-degradable material for guided bone regeneration. Forty rabbits were divided into 5 groups. Bicortical defects 15 mm in diameter were prepared in rabbit calvaria. A titanium microplate was placed over the defect to prevent collapse...

  12. Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits | Pulei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of parity on endometrial glands in gravid rabbits. ... Anatomy Journal of Africa ... Image J. Endometrial gland density was noted to decrease with a rise in parity such that the percentage proportion in the primigravid rabbit was 45% compared to that of 34% and 37.5% in the biparous and multiparous groups respectively.

  13. Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects Of Chloroquine On Some Visceral Organs In The Rabbit: Histopathological Perspective. ... Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy ... 60 and 90 days in the albino (n=10) and pigmented (n=22) rabbits, with mean weight value of 1.40 ± 0.44kg and mean age value of 9.0 ± 0.25 months were investigated in the ...

  14. Optimum rabbit density over fish ponds to optimise Nile tilapia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although previous studies have suggested that rabbit excreta can be used as high-quality manure for sustaining plankton production due to their gradual nutrient release, integrated rabbit–fish production systems are still not widely used. Between 2006 and 2010 optimal rabbit densities for sustainable integrated rabbit–Nile ...

  15. Mechanism of kolaviron-induced relaxation of rabbit aortic smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (KV) and the exert mechanisms of action on VSM of rabbit aorta have not been reported. The present study examines the vascular effect of kolaviron on VSM of rabbit aorta and the possible mechanism of its vasorelaxant effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Extraction of Kolaviron (KV). Garcinia Kola seeds were obtained ...

  16. Growth response of rabbits fed graded levels of processed and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of processed and undehulled sunflower seed (PUSS) as feed supplement, on the performance of growing rabbits was studied.The eight weeks feeding trial involving twenty four, six weeks old male and female New Zealand white rabbits weighing 600-650g in a completely randomized design were feed three ...

  17. Environmental bacteria associated with an institutional rabbit house ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is the need for regular microbiological surveillance to protect our growing rabbitaries and the rabbit models in biomedical research since these latent organisms may produce clinical conditions when the rabbits are exposed to stress conditions. Above all the importance of good hygiene and management in rabbitaries ...

  18. Haematology and serum profile of rabbits due to generation interval ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of ninety-six (96) weaner rabbits (Chinchilla and New Zealand White crossbred) were used for this study and were divided into forty-eight (48) per generation. These fortyeight weaner rabbits were further divided into three replicates of four males (12) and four females each (12) housed in cage (24) and deep litter ...

  19. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals. A total number of 12 mixed bred rabbits weighing. 3.5 ± 0.5 kg were selected. Then, the necessary blood and parasite analysis as well as clinical ..... 8. Flecknell PA, Ed. BSAVA manual of rabbit medicine and surgery. London: British Small Animal Veterinary. Association; 2000; pp 30-31, 106. 9. Ji Y, Gao H, Zhang ...

  20. Experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasteghin K.T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Propose a new experimental model of bladder instability in rabbits after partial bladder obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty North Folk male rabbits, weighting 1,700 to 2,820 g (mean: 2,162 g were studied. The animals were distributed in 2 experimental groups, formed by 15 rabbits each: Group 1 - clinical control. In this group there was no surgical intervention; Group 2 - bladder outlet obstruction. In this group, after anesthetizing the animal, urethral cannulation with Foley catheter 10F was performed and then an adjustable plastic bracelet was passed around the bladder neck. It was then adjusted in order to not constrict the urethra. The following parameters were studied in M1 - pre-operative period; M2 - 4 weeks post-operatively moments: 1- urine culture; 2- cystometric study; 3- serum creatinine and BUN. RESULTS: Bladder weight was 2.5 times larger in the group with obstruction than in the control group. Cystometric evaluation showed a significant increase in maximal vesical volume in the final moment at Group G2. However, there was no statistically significant difference among the groups studied. There was no statistically significant difference between maximal detrusor pressure and vesical compliance in the different moments or in the studied groups. There was an absence of uninhibited detrusor contractions in all the animals in group 1, and involuntary contractions were detected in 93% of group 2 animals. There was no significant variation in BUN and serum creatinine either among the groups or in the same group. CONCLUSIONS: We observed in the group with obstruction a bladder weight 2.5 higher than normal bladders. We detected involuntary contractions in 93% of the animals in group 2, establishing this experimental model as appropriate to secondary bladder instability and partial bladder outlet obstruction.

  1. Evolutionary morphology of the rabbit skull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Kraatz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The skull of leporids (rabbits and hares is highly transformed, typified by pronounced arching of the dorsal skull and ventral flexion of the facial region (i.e., facial tilt. Previous studies show that locomotor behavior influences aspects of cranial shape in leporids, and here we use an extensive 3D geometric morphometrics dataset to further explore what influences leporid cranial diversity. Facial tilt angle, a trait that strongly correlates with locomotor mode, significantly predicts the cranial shape variation captured by the primary axis of cranial shape space, and describes a small proportion (13.2% of overall cranial shape variation in the clade. However, locomotor mode does not correlate with overall cranial shape variation in the clade, because there are two district morphologies of generalist species, and saltators and cursorial species have similar morphologies. Cranial shape changes due to phyletic size change (evolutionary allometry also describes a small proportion (12.5% of cranial shape variation in the clade, but this is largely driven by the smallest living leporid, the pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis. By integrating phylogenetic history with our geometric morphometric data, we show that the leporid cranium exhibits weak phylogenetic signal and substantial homoplasy. Though these results make it difficult to reconstruct what the ‘ancestral’ leporid skull looked like, the fossil records suggest that dorsal arching and facial tilt could have occurred before the origin of the crown group. Lastly, our study highlights the diversity of cranial variation in crown leporids, and highlights a need for additional phylogenetic work that includes stem (fossil leporids and includes morphological data that captures the transformed morphology of rabbits and hares.

  2. Experimental osteoarthritis in the rabbit knee joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, H.

    1976-01-01

    development of arthrotic-like changes following resection of the of the cruciate ligaments in the knee joint of rabbits has been studied at intervals from 2 weeks to 10 months in 35 animals. Signs of cartilage degeneration were followed by changes in the subchondral bone, where formation of osteophytes and condensation to took place. An increased vascular supply was demonstrated by microangiographic and scintigraphic investigations. The uptake of 18 F and 99 mTc-polyphosphate reached a maximal value about 2 months after the operation and then diminished despite further development of arthrotic changes. (author)

  3. Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, & Other Mathematical Explorations

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Keith

    2011-01-01

    How does mathematics enable us to send pictures from space back to Earth? Where does the bell-shaped curve come from? Why do you need only 23 people in a room for a 50/50 chance of two of them sharing the same birthday? In Strange Curves, Counting Rabbits, and Other Mathematical Explorations, Keith Ball highlights how ideas, mostly from pure math, can answer these questions and many more. Drawing on areas of mathematics from probability theory, number theory, and geometry, he explores a wide range of concepts, some more light-hearted, others central to the development of the field and used dai

  4. Ampicillin penetration into the rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, L.

    1978-01-01

    Distribution of intravenously injected ampicillin of 50 mg/kg was studied in the rabbit eye using radioactive tracer method. Antibiotic concentration regarded as therapeutic in the treatment of gram-negative organisms was obtained in all vascularized ocular structures. Intermediate values were measured from the cornea and aqueous humour. In the vitreous body and lens, ampicillin was unable to approach a concentration that would be effective against the common gram-negative organisms. The low ampicillin concentration in the vitreous body and lens was unchanged by systemically administered probenecid, which in other parts of the eye caused significantly higher ampicillin levels. (author)

  5. Sequential computed tomographic imaging of a transplantable rabbit brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.J.; Rosenbaum, A.E.; Beck, T.J.; Ahn, H.S.; Anderson, J.

    1986-01-01

    The accuracy of CT imaging in evaluating VX-2 tumor growth in the rabbit brain was assessed. CT scanning was performed in 5 outbred New Zealand white male rabbits before and at 4, 7, 9 and 13 (in 3 animals) days after surgical implantation of 3 x 10 5 viable VX-2 tumor cells in the frontoparietal lobes. The CT studies were correlated with gross pathology in each. The tumor was visualized with CT in all 5 rabbits by the 9th day post implantation when the tumor ranged in size from 4-6 x 3-4 x 2-3 mm. Between the 9th and 13th day, the tumor increased 6-fold in two rabbits and 12-fold in the third rabbit. CT is a useful technique to evaluate brain tumor growth in this model and should be valuable in documenting the efficacy of chemotherapy on tumor growth. (orig.)

  6. High pathogenicity and strong immunogenicity of a Chinese isolate of Eimeria magna Pérard, 1925.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Geru; Wang, Yunzhou; Li, Chao; Gu, Xiaolong; Cui, Ping; Fang, Sufang; Suo, Xun; Liu, Xianyong

    2017-06-01

    Coccidia infection of rabbits with one or several species of parasites of the genus Eimeria causes coccidiosis, a disease leading to huge economic losses in the rabbit industry. Eimeria magna, one of the causal agents of rabbit coccidiosis, was characterized as mildly pathogenic and moderately immunogenic in previous studies. In this study, we identified a Chinese isolate of E. magna by testing its biological features (oocyst morphology and size, prepatent time) and sequencing its internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) DNA fragment. This isolate is highly pathogenic; infection of rabbits with only 1×10 2 oocysts caused a 55% reduction in weight gain in 14days. In addition, immunization with 1×10 2 oocysts prevented body weight loss against re-infection with 5×10 4 oocysts, indicating the high immunogenicity of this isolate. Our study described the distinctive phenotype of the Chinese isolate of E. magna and contributed to the research of geographic variation of rabbit coccidia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Histological analysis of femoral bones in rabbits administered by amygdalin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Kováčová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cyanogenic glycosides are present in several economically important plant foods. Amygdalin, one of the most common cyanoglucoside, can be found abundantly in the seeds of apples, bitter almonds, apricots, peaches, various beans, cereals, cassava and sorghum. Amygdalin has been used for the treatment of cancer, it shows killing effects on cancer cells by release of cyanide. However, its effect on bone structure has not been investigated to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine a possible effect of amygdalin application on femoral bone microstructure in adult rabbits. Four month old rabbits were randomly divided into two groups of three animals each. Rabbits from E group received amygdalin intramuscularly at a dose 0.6 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw (group E, n = 3 one time per day during 28 days. The second group of rabbits without amygdalin supplementation served as a control (group C, n = 3. After 28 days, histological structure of femoral bones in both groups of rabbits was analysed and compared. Rabbits from E group displayed different microstructure in middle part of the compact bone and near endosteal bone surface. For endosteal border, an absence of the primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was typical. This part of the bone was formed by irregular Haversian and/or by dense Haversian bone tissues. In the middle part of substantia compacta, primary vascular longitudinal bone tissue was observed. Cortical bone thickness did not change between rabbits from E and C groups. However, rabbits from E group had a significantly lower values of primary osteons' vascular canals and secondary osteons as compared to the C group. On the other hand, all measured parameters of Haversian canals did not differ between rabbits from both groups. Our results demonstrate that intramuscular application of amygdalin at the dose used in our study affects femoral bone microstructure in rabbits.

  8. Confirmation and phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in free-living rabbits from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Bildt, M. W. G.; van Bolhuis, G. H.; van Zijderveld, F.; van Riel, D.; Drees, J. M.; Osterhaus, A. D. M. E.; Kuiken, T.

    2006-01-01

    The number of free-living European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in the Netherlands has declined dramatically in recent years. Although rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) infection has been implicated as a possible cause of this decline, the definitive diagnosis has not been reported. We

  9. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  10. Experimental arthritis induced by a clinical Mycoplasma fermentans isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giono Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycoplasma fermentans has been associated with rheumatoid arthritis. Recently, it was detected in the joints and blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but it is not clear yet how the bacteria enter the body and reach the joints. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of M. fermentans to induce experimental arthritis in rabbits following inoculation of the bacteria in the trachea and knee joints. Methods P-140 and PG-18 strains were each injected in the knee joints of 14 rabbits in order to evaluate and compare their arthritogenicity. P-140 was also injected in the trachea of 14 rabbits in order to test the ability of the bacteria to reach the joints and induce arthritis. Results M. fermentans produced an acute arthritis in rabbits. Joint swelling appeared first in rabbits injected with P-140, which caused a more severe arthritis than PG-18. Both strains were able to migrate to the uninoculated knee joints and they were detected viable in the joints all along the duration of the experiment. Changes in the synovial tissue were more severe by the end of the experiment and characterized by the infiltration of neutrophils and substitution of adipose tissue by connective tissue. Rabbits intracheally injected with P-140 showed induced arthritis and the bacteria could be isolated from lungs, blood, heart, kidney, spleen, brain and joints. Conclusion M. fermentans induced arthritis regardless of the inoculation route. These findings may help explain why mycoplasmas are commonly isolated from the joints of rheumatic patients.

  11. Mechanism of fever induction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, R; Philipp-Dormston, W K; Radsak, K; Menzel, H

    1976-01-01

    Three exogenous pyrogens (Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid. Newcastle disease virus) were compared with respect to their mechanisms of fever induction in rabbits. All inducers stimulated the production of an endogenous pyrogen demonstrated in the blood as well as prostaglandins of the E group, and of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the cerebrospinal fluid. The concentrations of these compounds were elevated approximately twofold as compared to the controls. Independently of the mode of induction, the fever reaction could be prevented by pretreatment with 5 mg of cycloheximide per kg, although the three fever mediators were induced as in febrile animals. Consequently, at least one additional fever mediator that is sensitive to a 30 to 50% inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide has to be postulated. The comparable reactions of the rabbits after administration of different pyrogens argues for a similar fever mechanism. In contrast to fever induction there was no stimulation of endogenous pyrogen, prostaglandins of the E group, and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in hyperthermia as a consequence of exposure of the animals to exogenous overheating. Furthermore, hyperthermia could not be prevented by cycloheximide. PMID:185148

  12. Purification and partial characterization of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans from cultured rabbit smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabatino, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycans synthesized by cultured rabbit smooth muscle cells were isolated after incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into glycosaminoglycans in the presence or absence of 10% fetal bovine serum. Glycosaminoglycans were quantitated by two-dimensional electrophoresis after proteolytic digestion of the cell layers and media. The results show that the presence of serum has no effect on the chondroitin sulfate, heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate content of the cell layers. The incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into hyaluronic acid of the cell layers was three times higher in the presence of serum. In the medium , the quantity of hyaluronic was two times higher in the presence of serum while the other glycosaminoglycans remained unchanged. The incorporation of [ 3 H]-glucosamine into hyaluronic acid was unaffected by the presence of serum. Specific proteoglycans were isolated from medium after with [ 35 S]-sulfate and [ 3 H]-serine by isopycnic ultracentrifugation and chromatography on Sepharose CL-4B and DEAE-cellulose. Preparations contained a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, a condroitin sulfate-dermatan sulfate proteoglycan and a heparan sulfate proteoglycan. Glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans synthesized by rabbit aorta smooth muscle cells are similar to those from human aorta

  13. Inhibitory Effect of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on the Tonus of the Small Intestine and the Colon of Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Trivic

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is widely used in folk medicine. Patients very often use the plant preparation with no concern for purity. They also tend to increase the dosage by themselves and this may result in certain insufficiently researched acute effects. Due to this extremely widespread application, the aim of this work is an examination of the possible acute effects of Ginkgo bilobaon the motility of the small and the large intestine of rabbits. Тhe effects of Gingium® - a standardized ginkgo biloba extract (GBE [one milliliter preparation contained 8.8–10.8 mg ginkgo flavonol glycoside and 2.0–2.8 mg lactone ring-containing terpenes (ginkgolides and bilobalides], on the tonus of isolated segments of the ileum and the colon of rabbits were examined. The experiments were carried out on isolated bowel incisions according to the Magnus method. Data was registered by physiography (Narco-Bio-System. Our results show that GBE (0.006 g/L, - 0.06 g/L concentration-dependently reduces the tonus of the ileum and the colon of rabbits. Apart from that, GBE reduces the increase of the tonus of the ileum caused by acetylcholine (ACh, but does not change colon tonus intensified by ACh. This indicates that the effects of the used extract in the ileum are predominantly achieved through cholinergic mechanisms, while the relaxant effects in the colon are achieved in some other way.

  14. Cloning the uteroglobin gene promoter from the relic volcano rabbit (Romerolagus diazi) reveals an ancient estrogen-response element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-MontesdeOca, Adriana; Zariñán, Teresa; Macías, Héctor; Pérez-Solís, Marco A; Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Gutiérrez-Sagal, Rubén

    2012-05-01

    To gain further insight on the estrogen-dependent transcriptional regulation of the uteroglobin (UG) gene, we cloned the 5'-flanking region of the UG gene from the phylogenetically ancient volcano rabbit (Romerolagus diazi; Rd). The cloned region spans 812 base pairs (bp; -812/-1) and contains a noncanonical TATA box (TACA). The translation start site is 48 bp downstream from the putative transcription initiation site (AGA), and is preceded by a consensus Kozak box. Comparison of the Rd-UG gene with that previously isolated from rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) showed 93% in sequence identity as well as a number of conserved cis-acting elements, including the estrogen-response element (ERE; -265/-251), which differs from the consensus by two nucleotides. In MCF-7 cells, 17β-estradiol (E(2)) induced transcription of a luciferase reporter driven by the Rd-UG promoter in a similar manner as in an equivalent rabbit UG reporter; the Rd-UG promoter was 30% more responsive to E(2) than the rabbit promoter. Mutagenesis studies on the Rd-ERE confirmed this cis-element as a target of E(2) as two luciferase mutant reporters of the Rd-promoter, one with the rabbit and the other with the consensus ERE, were more responsive to the hormone than the wild-type reporter. Gel shift and super-shift assays showed that estrogen receptor-α indeed binds to the imperfect palindromic sequence of the Rd-ERE. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Comparing rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental toxicity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A database of embryo-fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) studies of 379 pharmaceutical compounds in rat and rabbit was analyzed for species differences based on toxicokinetic parameters of area under the curve (AUC) and maximum concentration (Cmax) at the developmental adverse effect level (dLOAEL). For the vast majority of cases (83% based on AUC of n=283), dLOAELs in rats and rabbits were within the same order of magnitude (less than 10-fold different) when compared based on available data on AUC and Cmax exposures. For 13.5% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 3.5% of compounds the rat was more sensitive when compared based on AUC exposures. For 12% of the compounds the rabbit was more sensitive and for 1.3% of compounds the rat was more sensitive based on Cmax exposures. When evaluated based on human equivalent dose (HED) conversion using standard factors, the rat and rabbit were equally sensitive. The relative extent of embryo-fetal toxicity in the presence of maternal toxicity was not different between species. Overall effect severity incidences were distributed similarly in rat and rabbit studies. Individual rat and rabbit strains did not show a different general distribution of systemic exposure LOAELs as compared to all strains combined for each species. There were no apparent species differences in the occurrence of embryo-fetal variations. Based on power of detection and given differences in the nature of developmental effects betwe

  16. Comparison of rat and rabbit embryo-fetal developmental ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory non-clinical safety testing of human pharmaceutical compounds typically requires embryo fetal developmental toxicity (EFDT) testing in two species, (one rodent and one non-rodent, usually the rat and the rabbit). The question has been raised whether under some conditions EFDT testing could be limited to one species, or whether the need for testing in a second species could be decided on a case by case basis. As part of an RIVM/CBG-MEB/HESI/US EPA consortium initiative, we built and queried a database of 379 EFDT studies conducted for marketed and non-marketed pharmaceutical compounds. The animal models (rat and rabbit) were assessed for their potential for adverse developmental and maternal outcomes. The database was analyzed for the prevalence of EFDT incidence and the nature and severity of adverse findings in the two species. Some manifestation of EFDT in either one or both species (rat and rabbit) was demonstrated for 282 compounds (74%), and EFDT was detected in only one species (rat or rabbit) in almost a third (31%, 118 compounds), with approximately 58% rat and 42% rabbit studies identifying an EFDT signal among the 379 compounds tested. For 24 compounds (6%), fetal malformations were observed in one species (rat or rabbit) in the absence of any EFDT in the second species. In general, growth retardation, fetal variations, and malformations were more prominent in the rat, whereas embryo-fetal death was observed more often in the rabbit. Discor

  17. Impact of Pregnancy on Zonisamide Pharmacokinetics in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal M. Matar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is associated with various physiological changes which may lead to significant alterations in the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. The present study was aimed to investigate the potential effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetic profile of zonisamide (ZNM in the rabbit. Seven female rabbits were used in this study. The pregnant and nonpregnant rabbits received ZNM orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg and blood samples were collected from the animals just before receiving the drug and then serially for up to 24 h. The plasma samples were analyzed using tandem mass spectrometric method. Following a single oral dose of ZNM to the rabbits, the mean values of ZNM plasma concentrations at different times were consistently low in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. The mean values of ZNM’s Cmax and AUC0-∞ were significantly (P<0.05 decreased, whereas the CL/F exhibited substantial increase (P<0.05 in pregnant compared to nonpregnant rabbits. Tmax, t1/2abs, t1/2el, MRT, and Vd/F showed no significant differences between the two groups. The present study demonstrates that pregnancy decreased ZNM plasma concentrations in rabbits and that the decrease could be due to decreased extent of gastrointestinal absorption, induced hepatic metabolism, or enhanced renal elimination of the drug.

  18. Structure determination of the single glycan of rabbit serotransferrin by methylation analysis and 360 MHz /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leger, D; Tordera, V; Spik, G [Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France); Dorland, L; Haverkamp, J; Vliegenthart, J F.G. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1978-09-15

    The glycopeptide fraction of rabbit serotransferrin (STF) has been investigated applying an original method for the determination of glycan primary structure combining monosaccharide determination, permethylation and 360 MHz /sup 1/H NMR. It is concluded that the highly purified rabbit transferrin contains only 1 glycan chain/molecule. A heterogeneity of the glycan moiety in the sialic acid residues was observed on isolation by paper electrophoresis of a disialylglycopeptide G-1 and a monosialylglycopeptide 2. The primary structure of glycopeptide G-1 deduced on the basis of the data of carbohydrate composition, permethylation analysis and 360 MHz /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy is identical to the primary structure of human serotransferrin glycan and the glycopeptide G-2 was shown by /sup 1/H NMR spectroscopy, to be a mixture of two isomeric monosialylglycopeptides.

  19. Structure determination of the single glycan of rabbit serotransferrin by methylation analysis and 360 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, D.; Tordera, V.; Spik, G.; Dorland, L.; Haverkamp, J.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.

    1978-01-01

    The glycopeptide fraction of rabbit serotransferrin (STF) has been investigated applying an original method for the determination of glycan primary structure combining monosaccharide determination, permethylation and 360 MHz 1 H NMR. It is concluded that the highly purified rabbit transferrin contains only 1 glycan chain/molecule. A heterogeneity of the glycan moiety in the sialic acid residues was observed on isolation by paper electrophoresis of a disialylglycopeptide G-1 and a monosialylglycopeptide 2. The primary structure of glycopeptide G-1 deduced on the basis of the data of carbohydrate composition, permethylation analysis and 360 MHz 1 H NMR spectroscopy is identical to the primary structure of human serotransferrin glycan and the glycopeptide G-2 was shown by 1 H NMR spectroscopy, to be a mixture of two isomeric monosialylglycopeptides. (Auth.)

  20. Evaluation of Qualitative Indices of Meat Production in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Dabija

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Meat, in most cases, is a basic production in rabbits. The influence on meat quality and quantity have such factors as breed, age, slaughter gain, sex, etc. By age, adult rabbits have a higher body weight compared with the young, but their meat is more expensive. The most convenient is intensive growth of youth as the age of 3 months to be 2.3 to 2.5 kg body weight, food and labor costs during this period was minimal. It is considered optimal as young rabbits are slaughtered when they reach 50-60% by weight of adult animals. The biological material which was used was represented in two groups of Chinchilla rabbit and Flanders breed, each one consisting of seven rabbits of various sex. Groups of rabbits had the same conditions of maintenance and nutrition. Carcass weight was determined at slaughter, carcass meat, bones, by-products, blood, head, skin of young rabbit. The largest share of the carcass of live weight was obtained at age 4 months - 59%, and meat in the carcass weight at 2 months of life - 71.2% at Chinchilla breed. On average 31.9% had bones, by-products - 6.23%, blood - 3.78% head - 8.21% and skin of young rabbit - 11.9%. Average of carcass weight from live weight was 52.76%, in Flanders breed the highest recorded at age 4 months and 66.78% of the carcass meat, the highest being at 2 months old. The average weight of bones was 33.21%, by-products - 6.25%, blood - 3.53%, the head - 7.86%, and the skin of young rabbit - 11.89%. Slaughter gain ranged from 47% to 59% at Chinchilla breed, and from 47% to 60% in Flanders breed. The highest index was recorded in both breeds at the age of four months.

  1. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (μm2, perimeter (μm, maximum and minimum diameter (μm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  2. Thymus morphometry of New Zealand White Rabbits treated with gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Henrique Magalhães Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphometry of cortical and medullary thymic lobes individualized by determination of area (µm2, perimeter (µm, maximum and minimum diameter (µm and shape factor in New Zealand White rabbits. The spleens of ten rabbits treated with gentamicin and ten control rabbits (males and females were histologically processed. The gentamicin dosage and the time of administration of this aminoglicoside were according to therapeutic recommendation. This antibiotic did not cause any alteration in the morphometry of the spleen, and it seemed not to be an immunosuppressive drug.

  3. (-)-anipamil retards atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1995-01-01

    Calcium antagonists have been reported to limit atherosclerosis in cholesterol fed rabbits. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil on the spontaneous development of atherosclerosis in homozygote WHHL rabbits. From the age of 7 weeks, three groups...... differences were found in serum lipids (i.e., VLDL, IDL, LDL, HDL) in the study period among the three groups. Plasma anipamil at the end of the study was 0.23 +/- 6, and 202 +/- 19 ng/ml, respectively, in the three treatment groups. The degree of atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta was significantly lower...... (p atherosclerosis in the abdominal aorta in WHHL rabbits....

  4. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  5. Trolox reduces the effect of ethanol on acetylcholine-induced contractions and oxidative stress in the isolated rabbit duodenum El Trolox reduce el efecto del etanol sobre las contracciones inducidas a la acetilcolina y el estrés oxidativo en duodeno aislado de conejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego S. Fagundes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Trolox is a hydrophilic analogue of vitamin E and a free radical scavenger. Ethanol diminishes the amplitude of spontaneous contractions and acetylcholine (ACh-induced contractions in rabbit duodenum. The aim of this work was to study the effect of Trolox on the alterations induced by ethanol on contractility and lipid peroxidation in the duodenum. The duodenal contractility studies in vitro were carried out in an organ bath and the levels of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxyalkenals (MDA+4-HAD were measured by spectrophotometry. Trolox increased the reduction induced by ethanol on the amplitude of spontaneous contractions in longitudinal muscle but not in circular muscle. Trolox 4 mM decreased the effects of ethanol on ACh-induced contractions and on MDA+4-HDA concentrations. We conclude that Trolox might prevent oxidative stress induced by ethanol in the duodenum.El Trolox es un análogo hidrofílico de la vitamina E y un agente que secuestra radicales libres. El etanol disminuye la amplitud de las contracciones espontáneas y las contracciones inducidas a la acetilcolina en el duodeno de conejo. El objetivo de este trabajo era estudiar el efecto del Trolox en las alteraciones inducidas por el etanol sobre la contractilidad y la peroxidación lipídica en el duodeno. Los estudios de contractilidad duodenal in vitro se realizaron en un baño de órganos y los niveles de MDA+4-HDA se midieron por espectofotometría. El Trolox aumentó la reducción inducida por el etanol sobre la amplitud de las contracciones espontáneas en el músculo longitudinal pero no en el músculo circular de duodeno. El Trolox 4 mM redujo los efectos del etanol sobre las contracciones inducidas a la acetilcolina y sobre las concentraciones de MDA+4-HDA. Se concluye que el Trolox podría prevenir el estrés oxidativo inducido por el etanol en el duodeno.

  6. In vivo behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin on intravenous injection into rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, H.J.; Esmon, N.L.; Bang, N.U.

    1990-01-01

    Thrombomodulin is a thrombin endothelial cell membrane receptor. The thrombomodulin-thrombin complex rapidly activates protein C resulting in anticoagulant activity. We investigated the anticoagulant effects and pharmacokinetic behavior of detergent-solubilized purified rabbit thrombomodulin labeled with iodine 125 when intravenously injected into rabbits. Thrombomodulin half-life (t1/2) was determined by tracking the 125I-radiolabeled protein and the biologic activity as determined by the prolongation of the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin clotting time (TCT). When 200 micrograms/kg 125I-thrombomodulin was injected into rabbits, the APTT and TCT were immediately prolonged, whereas no effect on the prothrombin time was seen. In vitro calibration curves enabled us to convert the prolongations of the clotting times into micrograms per milliliter thrombomodulin equivalents. The best fit (r greater than 0.99) for the disappearance curves was provided by a two-compartment model with mean t1/2 alpha (distribution phase) of 18 minutes for 125I, 12 minutes for APTT, and 20 minutes for TCT, and mean t1/2 beta (elimination phase) of 385 minutes for 125I, 460 for APTT, and 179 for TCT. The administration of two doses of endotoxin (50 micrograms/kg) 24 hours apart did not accelerate the turnover rate of 125I-thrombomodulin as measured by the disappearance of 125I from the circulation. Thus, detergent-solubilized purified thrombomodulin administered intravenously circulates in a biologically active form for appreciable time periods

  7. Cell factory-derived bioactive molecules with polymeric cryogel scaffold enhance the repair of subchondral cartilage defect in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Bhat, Sumrita; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Gupta, Kailash C; Tägil, Magnus; Zheng, Ming Hao; Kumar, Ashok; Lidgren, Lars

    2017-06-01

    We have explored the potential of cell factory-derived bioactive molecules, isolated from conditioned media of primary goat chondrocytes, for the repair of subchondral cartilage defects. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirms the presence of transforming growth factor-β1 in an isolated protein fraction (12.56 ± 1.15 ng/mg protein fraction). These bioactive molecules were used alone or with chitosan-agarose-gelatin cryogel scaffolds, with and without chondrocytes, to check whether combined approaches further enhance cartilage repair. To evaluate this, an in vivo study was conducted on New Zealand rabbits in which a subchondral defect (4.5 mm wide × 4.5 mm deep) was surgically created. Starting after the operation, bioactive molecules were injected at the defect site at regular intervals of 14 days. Histopathological analysis showed that rabbits treated with bioactive molecules alone had cartilage regeneration after 4 weeks. However, rabbits treated with bioactive molecules along with scaffolds, with or without cells, showed cartilage formation after 3 weeks; 6 weeks after surgery, the cartilage regenerated in rabbits treated with either bioactive molecules alone or in combinations showed morphological similarities to native cartilage. No systemic cytotoxicity or inflammatory response was induced by any of the treatments. Further, ELISA was done to determine systemic toxicity, which showed no difference in concentration of tumour necrosis factor-α in blood serum, before or after surgery. In conclusion, intra-articular injection with bioactive molecules alone may be used for the repair of subchondral cartilage defects, and bioactive molecules along with chondrocyte-seeded scaffolds further enhance the repair. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Knowledge and attitudes of 52 UK pet rabbit owners at the point of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, J L; Mullan, S M

    2011-04-02

    The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitudes of pet rabbit owners at the time of buying their rabbit(s) and to investigate factors influencing the planned husbandry and housing of their rabbit(s). A questionnaire was used to assess the impact of demographics, knowledge and attitudes on the likelihood that respondents would neuter their rabbit(s), feed them an appropriate diet, house them in appropriately sized housing and provide them with an appropriate companion. Knowledge and attitudes were significant factors in whether respondents planned to neuter their rabbit(s) and provide them with an appropriate companion. The attribution of secondary emotions to rabbits was associated with plans to feed a mix-type diet. The majority of owners had carried out prior research into pet rabbits, but owners had a limited knowledge of the needs of rabbits, particularly with respect to their diet and social needs. Respondents who had decided to purchase a rabbit on the day were less likely to intend to get their rabbit neutered than those who had taken more time to decide to buy a rabbit.

  9. Synthesis of endogenous pyrogen by rabbit leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D M; Murphy, P A; Chesney, P J; Wood, W B

    1973-05-01

    Rabbit ieukocytes from peritoneal exudates and from blood were stimulated to form leukocyte pyrogen in the presence of radiolabeled amino acids. The stimuli used were endotoxin, phagocytosis, and tuberculin. The crude leukocyte pyrogen samples were purified; pyrogen from exudate cells was rendered homogeneous; pyrogen from blood cells was still contaminated with other proteins. All the purified pyrogens were radioactive; and for all it was shown that radioactivity and pyrogenic activity coincided on electrophoresis at pH 3.5 and pH 9 in acrylamide and on isoelectric focusing in acrylamide. Furthermore, pyrogens obtained from exudate cells stimulated in different ways, or from blood cells and exudate cells stimulated with endotoxin, appeared to be identical. These results suggest that leukocyte pyrogen was synthesized de novo from amino acid precursors and that leukocytes made the same pyrogen whatever the stimulus used to activate them.

  10. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers Across Isolated Human Intestinal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Dallin; Enda, Michael; Bond, Tanner; Moghaddam, Seyyed Pouya Hadipour; Conarton, Josh; Scaife, Courtney; Volckmann, Eric; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2015-11-02

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown transepithelial transport across intestinal epithelial barrier in rats and across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Caco-2 models innately lack mucous barriers, and rat isolated intestinal tissue has been shown to overestimate human permeability. This study is the first report of transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated human intestinal epithelium. It was observed that FITC labeled G4-NH2 and G3.5-COOH PAMAM dendrimers at 1 mM concentration do not have a statistically higher permeability compared to free FITC controls in isolated human jejunum and colonic tissues. Mannitol permeability was increased at 10 mM concentrations of G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 dendrimers. Significant histological changes in human colonic and jejunal tissues were observed at G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 concentrations of 10 mM implying that dose limiting toxicity may occur at similar concentrations in vivo. The permeability through human isolated intestinal tissue in this study was compared to previous rat and Caco-2 permeability data. This study implicates that PAMAM dendrimer oral drug delivery may be feasible, but it may be limited to highly potent drugs.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied sparfloxacin in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satia Milan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents that have a broad spectrum of activity and are widely used against many of the ocular pathogens, responsible for conjunctivitis, blepharitis, corneal ulcers etc. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ocular pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin (0.3% w/v in the aqueous humour of rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of topically administered sparfloxacin were determined after a single application of 50 µl topically. The aqueous humour samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 hours after instillation. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic method was used to analyse the drug concentration in the aqueous humour samples. RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after the instillation of 50 µl of sparfloxacin 0.3% solution, the mean concentration in aqueous humour was found to be 1.4 µg/ml, which reaches the peak level of 3.7 µg/ml after 1.3 hours. At 6 hours, the sparfloxacin aqueous levels were 0.562 µg/ml. The clinical efficacy was predicted based on the Maximum Concentration (Cmax: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Area Under the Concentration-time curve (AUC:MIC ratios. CONCLUSION: The sparfloxacin levels in aqueous humour of rabbits are sufficiently high up to the 6 hours after instillation in the conjunctival sac to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Both Cmax:MIC and AUC:MIC ratios are high enough to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Sparfloxacin (0.3% ophthalmic preparation has excellent penetration through cornea.

  12. Effect of monocular deprivation on rabbit neural retinal cell densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  13. Group B Streptococcal Colonization and Bacteremia in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Lembet

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We evaluated the effect of maternal administration of ampicillin/sulbactam on colonization and bacteremia in newborn rabbits after intracervical inoculation of mothers with group B streptococci (GBS.

  14. Natural immunity factors in Polish mixed breed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarz-Deptuła, B; Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, P; Adamiak, M; Hukowska-Szematowicz, B; Trzeciak-Ryczek, A; Deptuła, W

    2015-01-01

    Mixed-breed rabbits in Poland are widely used for diagnostic and scientific research and as utility animals, therefore there is a need to know their immunological status, as well as their haematological status. In this study natural immunity factors were analyzed in Polish mixed-breed rabbits and Polish mixed-breed rabbits with addition of blood of meet-breed, considering the impact of sex and season of the year (spring, summer, autumn, winter) using measurement of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity parameters in peripheral blood. The study has revealed that there is a variety between the two commonly used mixed-breed types of rabbits, especially when sex and season is concerned, which is crucial for using these animals in experiments.

  15. Analysis of the genetic diversity of four rabbit genotypes using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Ola

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... consumption and low cost, it has been widely utilized in genetics analysis in ... isozyme variation among the selected individuals within each rabbit genotype. ... with different embryo survival (Bolet and Theau-Clement, 1994).

  16. Rabbit defensin (NP-1) genetic engineering of plant | Ting | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabbit defensin (NP-1) genetic engineering of plant. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... defensin genetic engineering of plant in recent years, and also focuses on the existing problems and new strategies in this area.

  17. Physiological response of rabbit bucks to prolonged feeding of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-03-15

    Mar 15, 2012 ... meal on performance of rabbits have been documented. (Taha et ..... Interaction effect of long-term feeding of cottonseed cake and vitamin E supplementation on the haematological ..... disorders as well as exposure to drug.

  18. THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT OF SARCOPTIC MANGE IN RABBIT WITH IVERMECTIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoptic mange infected non-descriptive rabbits were successfully treated with Ivermectin @ 400 µg / kg body weight sub-cutaneously once weekly for 4 weeks resulted complete recovery within a month in Kalyani area, West Bengal, India.

  19. The role of rabbit meat as functional food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, Antonella; Szendro, Zsolt

    2011-07-01

    Increasing consumer knowledge of the link between diet and health has raised the awareness and demand for functional food ingredients. Meat and its derivatives may be considered functional foods to the extent that they contain numerous compounds thought to be functional. This review will attempt to outline the excellent nutritional and dietetic properties of rabbit meat and offer an overview of the studies performed on the strategies adopted to improve the functional value of rabbit meat. Dietary manipulation has been seen to be very effective in increasing the levels of essential FA, EPA, DHA, CLA, branched chain FA, vitamin E, and selenium in rabbit meat. Dietary fortification with vitamin E or natural products such as oregano essential oil, chia seed oil, and Spirulina platensis microalga seem promising in improving the oxidative stability of rabbit meat while also adding functional ingredients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Teratogenic effects of Khat (Catha edulis in New Zealand rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aref Saleh Abdul-Mughni

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Prenatal exposure of Khat in rabbit induces harmful effects in defferent visceral organs including liver, kidney, brain, spinal cord, spleen, intestine, heart and lung. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 25-36

  1. Rabbit defensin (NP-1) genetic engineering of plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-22

    Aug 22, 2011 ... rabbit defensin has a significant toxic effect on mouse tumor cells .... Disease is one of the important factors which lead to decrease of .... Transgenic Nitrate Reductase Deficient Mutant of Chlorella ellipsoide. J. Agric.

  2. effect of photoperiod on ovarian endocrine function in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zaher, H.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    The present work was carried out at rabbit colony established in Endocrinology Research Unit, Applied Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt. The hormonal radioimmunological assays were performed in the laboratories of the same Research Unit. It was planned to point out the effect of treating adult does subjected to three regimes of photoperiodicity 8 hrs D/16 hrs L, 12 hrs D/12 hrs L and 16 hrs D/8 hrs L , with different hormonal treatments including HCG and pharmaceutical preparations including Melatonin, Serotonin, Bromocriptine (anti prolactin), Indomethacin (anti prostaglandins) alone or in combined with HCG. A total number of 300 young adult female New Zealand white does aged 3-4 months and weighed 2-3 Kg were individually caged and kept in an environmental chamber under 0 controlled ambient temperature of 25 degree C, isolated from outdoors day light and well ventilated This work was accomplished in two separate experiments spaced with two weeks rest to adapt the animals for the photoperiod regime, does subjected to study were kept under these condition for pre-experimental period leaved two weeks then divided into three groups (photoperiods) each of 100 does. The first experiment: was planned and conducted to detect the possibility for improving the reproductive performance of does by magnifying the hormonal coordination related to productive activity with relation to different lighting regimes tested, to fulfill this aim applying human chorionic gonadotropin as well as other chemical compounds that thought to have considerable effect on hormonal regulation of reproduction (Melatonin, Serotonin, Bromocriptine (anti prolactin) and indomethacin (anti prostaglandin)).

  3. Beta adrenoreceptors in the rabbit bladder detrusor muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, G.F.; Marks, B.H.

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the beta adrenergic receptors of the rabbit detrusor smooth muscle, employing [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) as a ligand for the binding of beta adrenergic receptors. Saturation binding experiments on the isolated membrane fraction yielded a KD for ICYP of 14.7 pM and a maximum binding of 147.6 fmol/mg of protein. Displacement of labeled ICYP by a series of beta adrenergic agents yielded the following KD values for the combined high and low affinity binding sites: I-propranolol, 0.76 nM; ICI 118,551, 1.7 nM; zinterol, 38.0 nM; metoprolol, 3.5 microM; and practolol, 61.4 microM. When these displacement experimental results were compared to KD values from other reported binding studies with ICYP for beta adrenoreceptors, both the order of potency and the KD values indicated primarily beta-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes. Computer program Scatfit analysis of the displacement curves indicated a single slope and affinity constant for all five beta adrenergic agents. Hofstee plots for zinterol, ICI 118,551 and metoprolol, however, were not linear and indicated that minor populations of beta-1 adrenoreceptors were also present as both high and low affinity binding sites could be defined. It is concluded that the primary receptor population is beta-2 and that this tissue is heterogenous with a small population of beta-1 adrenoreceptors representing approximately 13 to 23% of the total beta adrenoreceptor population

  4. Beta adrenoreceptors in the rabbit bladder detrusor muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, G.F.; Marks, B.H.

    1984-02-01

    This study examines the beta adrenergic receptors of the rabbit detrusor smooth muscle, employing (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopindolol (ICYP) as a ligand for the binding of beta adrenergic receptors. Saturation binding experiments on the isolated membrane fraction yielded a KD for ICYP of 14.7 pM and a maximum binding of 147.6 fmol/mg of protein. Displacement of labeled ICYP by a series of beta adrenergic agents yielded the following KD values for the combined high and low affinity binding sites: I-propranolol, 0.76 nM; ICI 118,551, 1.7 nM; zinterol, 38.0 nM; metoprolol, 3.5 microM; and practolol, 61.4 microM. When these displacement experimental results were compared to KD values from other reported binding studies with ICYP for beta adrenoreceptors, both the order of potency and the KD values indicated primarily beta-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes. Computer program Scatfit analysis of the displacement curves indicated a single slope and affinity constant for all five beta adrenergic agents. Hofstee plots for zinterol, ICI 118,551 and metoprolol, however, were not linear and indicated that minor populations of beta-1 adrenoreceptors were also present as both high and low affinity binding sites could be defined. It is concluded that the primary receptor population is beta-2 and that this tissue is heterogenous with a small population of beta-1 adrenoreceptors representing approximately 13 to 23% of the total beta adrenoreceptor population.

  5. Pharmacokinetics of pirfenidone after topical administration in rabbit eye

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Guoying; Lin, Xianchai; Zhong, Hua; Yang, Yangfan; Qiu, Xuan; Ye, Chengtian; Wu, Kaili; Yu, Minbin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Pirfenidone (5-methyl-1-phenyl-2-[1H]-pyridone) is a new, broad-spectrum agent that has an inhibition effect on the proliferation, migration, and collagen contraction of human Tenon’s fibroblasts, and thus modulating the wound healing process of glaucoma filtering surgical site. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of topically administered pirfenidone (0.5%) in rabbit eyes. Methods Pirfenidone solution (50 μl) was instilled into the rabbit’s conjunctival sac. The rabbits were...

  6. Evaluation of developmental toxicity of coniine to rats and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, C S; Frank, A A

    1993-07-01

    Conium maculatum (poison hemlock, CM) is teratogenic in several domestic species, presumably due to its piperidine alkaloids, including coniine, which has been verified to be teratogenic in cattle. Coniine/CM teratogenicity culminates in production of arthrogryposis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate coniine-induced teratogenicity in two laboratory animal species, Sprague-Dawley rats and New Zealand white rabbits. Pregnant rats were given coniine (25 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 16-18. Pregnant rabbits were given coniine (40 mg/kg body weight) by oral gavage at 8-hour intervals on gestation days 20-24. Rats were killed on day 19 and rabbits on day 29. Fetuses were immediately removed, weighed, and examined for external abnormalities. Alternate fetuses were either stained for skeletal examinations with alizarin red-S or fixed in Bouin's solution for visceral examination. Symptoms of maternal intoxication due to coniine administration were observed in both the rat and the rabbit, and higher doses were uniformly lethal. Rabbits treated with coniine appeared to lose more weight and eat less than controls, but there was no statistically significant difference between groups. Fetal weights were significantly lower in coniine-exposed rat and rabbit fetuses indicating fetotoxicity. The only statistically significant treatment-related visceral or skeletal malformation was a reduction of cranial ossification of rabbit fetuses, probably related to maternal toxicity. Coniine-exposed rabbit litters tended to be affected by arthrogryposis (no bony deformities noted on skeletal exam) more than controls (2/6 vs. 0/9).

  7. Rabbit meat processing: historical perspective to future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In past centuries, because rabbits are relatively small, animals slaughtered for consumption were generally eaten immediately. However, since a single rabbit would offer little more product than could be consumed at one sitting, little effort was devoted to developing preserved rabbit products (such as salted or dried meat, sausages, etc.. For this reason, although there is a rich history of recipes using rabbit meat in the Mediterranean area, there are few traditional further-processed products. Nowadays, even though the processing industry is pushing more and more towards the introduction of more attractive products (i.e. ready meals, ready-to-cook, etc. for consumers with little time for meal preparation, most rabbit meat worldwide is still sold as whole carcass or cut-up parts. This review analyses the main strength and weakness factors regarding the use of rabbit meat to manufacture further processed products. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the more promising processing technologies for raw meat materials to obtain added-value products (marinated, formed, emulsified, coated, etc. by exploiting rabbit meat’s intrinsic characteristics, such as high protein/low fat content coupled with a balanced n-6 to n-3 PUFA ratio, low cholesterol and heme-iron content. Major trends in meat product formulation (modulation of lipid content and composition, use of novel antioxidants and salt reduction are also discussed by highlighting strategies to provide healthier meat products meeting current nutritional needs. Finally, major packaging solutions for rabbit meat and meat products (ordinary and modified atmosphere, vacuum are considered.

  8. Rabbit articular cartilage defects treated by allogenic chondrocyte transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Boopalan, P. R. J. V. C.; Sathishkumar, Solomon; Kumar, Senthil; Chittaranjan, Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Articular cartilage defects have a poor capacity for repair. Most of the current treatment options result in the formation of fibro-cartilage, which is functionally inferior to normal hyaline articular cartilage. We studied the effectiveness of allogenic chondrocyte transplantation for focal articular cartilage defects in rabbits. Chondrocytes were cultured in vitro from cartilage harvested from the knee joints of a New Zealand White rabbit. A 3 mm defect was created in the articular cartilag...

  9. HARMONIZATION OF CRITERIA AND TERMINOLOGY IN RABBIT MEAT RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco Mateu, Agustín; Ouhayoun, J.; Masoero, G.

    1993-01-01

    [EN] The harmonization of rabbit carcass criteria is a result of an international work. lts task was to specify the main traits to be considerad from the birth of the animal to carcass analysis, to define these traits with enough accuracy and to propose a common terminology. Work on harmonization has been initialized by the Mediterranean Rabbit Group Conference (BLASCO, OUHAYOUN and MASOERO, 1992), completad by several research teams and, finally, discussed during a round...

  10. Advances in research on poultry and rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main force and weakness points of poultry and rabbit production chains are presented and meat quality discussed in relation to nutritional and technological issues. An analysis of the most important poultry and rabbit meat quality traits and their major relationships with production factors (genotype, feeding, housing, pre-slaughter handling, slaughtering, and processing is provided. Most recent research advancements are presen- ted in view of the consumer’s demand for healthy and safe products obtained respecting animal welfare.

  11. The use of rabbits in atherosclerosis research. Diet and drug intervention in different rabbit models exposed to selected dietary fats and the calcium antagonist (-)-anipamil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Alicja

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in atherosclerosis research. One of the most popular laboratory animal species in this field of research is the rabbit. The rabbit fulfils most of the criteria for an animal model for human atherosclerosis. Three rabbit models were established...

  12. Blastema from rabbit ear contains progenitor cells comparable to marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have the capacity to regenerate holes in their ears by forming a blastema, a tissue that is made up of a group of undifferentiated cells. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and characterize blastema progenitor cells and compare them with marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. A 2-mm hole was created in the animal ears. After 4 days, the blastema ring formed in the periphery of the hole was removed and cultivated. The cells were expanded through several subcultures and compared with the MSCs derived from the marrow of same animal in terms of in vitro differentiation capacity, growth kinetics and culture requirements for optimal proliferation. The primary cultures from both cells tended to be heterogeneous. Fibroblastic cells became progressively dominant with advancing passages. Similar to MSCs blastema passaged-3 cells succeeded to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose cell lineages. Even lineage specific genes tended to express in higher level in blastema cells compared to MSCs (p < 0.05. Moreover blastema cells appeared more proliferative; producing more colonies (p < 0.05. While blastema cells showed extensive proliferation in 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS, MSCs displayed higher expansion rate at 10% FBS. In conclusion, blastema from rabbit ear contains a population of fibroblastic cells much similar in characteristic to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the two cells were different in the level of lineage-specific gene expression, the growth curve characteristics and the culture requirements.

  13. Mechanical Characterization and Material Modeling of Diabetic Aortas in a Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jianhua; Yang, F; Li, X; Xu, X; Wang, G X

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes has been recognized as a major risk factor to cause macrovascular diseases and plays a key role in aortic wall remodeling. However, the effects of diabetes on elastic properties of aortas remain largely unknown and quantitative mechanical data are lacking. Thirty adult rabbits (1.6-2.2 kg) were collected and the type 1 diabetic rabbit model was induced by injection of alloxan. A total of 15 control and 15 diabetic rabbit (abdominal) aortas were harvested. Uniaxial and biaxial tensile tests were performed to measure ultimate tensile strength and to characterize biaxial mechanical behaviors of the aortas. A material model was fitted to the biaxial experimental data to obtain constitutive parameters. Histological and mass fraction analyses were performed to investigate the underlying microstructure and dry weight percentages of elastin and collagen in the control and the diabetic aortas. No statistically significant difference was found in ultimate tensile strength between the control and the diabetic aortas. Regarding biaxial mechanical responses, the diabetic aortas exhibited significantly lower extensibility and significantly higher tissue stiffness than the control aortas. Notably, tissue stiffening occurred in both circumferential and axial directions for the diabetic aortas; however, mechanical anisotropy does not change significantly. The material model was able to fit biaxial experimental data very well. Histology showed that a number of isolated foam cells were embedded in the diabetic aortas and hyperplasia of collagen was identified. The dry weight percentages of collagen within the diabetic aortas increased significantly as compared to the control aortas, whereas no significant change was found for that of elastin. Our data suggest that the diabetes impairs elastic properties and alters microstructure of the aortas and consequently, these changes may further contribute to complex aortic wall remodeling.

  14. Effects of genipin corneal crosslinking in rabbit corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Marcel Y; Narvaez, Mauricio; Castañeda, Juan P

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of genipin, a natural crosslinking agent, in rabbit eyes. Department of Ophthalmology, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Centro de Tecnologia Oftalmica, Bogotá, Colombia. Experimental study. Ex vivo rabbit eyes (16; 8 rabbits) were treated with genipin 1.00%, 0.50%, and 0.25% for 5 minutes with a vacuum device to increase corneal permeability. Penetration was evaluated using Scheimpflug pachymetry (Pentacam). In the in vivo model (20 rabbits; 1 eye treated, 1 eye with vehicle), corneas were crosslinked with genipin as described. Corneal curvature, corneal pachymetry, and intraocular pressure (IOP) assessments as well as slitlamp examinations were performed 0, 7, 30, and 60 days after treatment. In the ex vivo model, Scheimpflug pachymetry showed deep penetration in the rabbit corneas with an increase in corneal density and a dose-dependent relationship. Corneal flattening was observed in treated eyes (mean 4.4 diopters ± 0.5 [SD]) compared with the control eyes. Pachymetry and IOP were stable in all evaluations. No eye showed toxicity in the anterior chamber or in the lens. Corneal crosslinking induced by genipin produced significant flattening of the cornea with no toxicity in rabbit eyes. This crosslinking could be useful in the treatment of corneal ectasia and in the modification of corneal curvature. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health survey of 167 pet rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkitaipale, J; Harcourt-Brown, F M; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, O

    2015-10-24

    Only a limited amount of information is available about health status of pet rabbits. The aim of this study was to obtain data about the health status of pet rabbits considered healthy by the owners in Finland. Physical examination and lateral abdominal and lateral skull radiography were performed on 167 pet rabbits of which 118 (70.7 per cent) had abnormal findings in at least one examination. The most common findings were acquired dental disease (n=67, 40.1 per cent), vertebral column deformities and degenerative lesions (n=52, 31.1 per cent), skin disorders (n=28, 16.8 per cent) and eye disorders (n=12, 7.2 per cent). Vertebral column angulating deformities were significantly more common in dwarf lop rabbits (P≤0.001). The prevalence of health disorders was significantly higher in rabbits over three years of age of which 51 (82.3 per cent) had findings in at least one examination (Phealth problems. Because of the high prevalence of clinical and radiological findings in apparently healthy pet rabbits, regular physical examinations are advised, especially for animals over three years old. British Veterinary Association.

  16. Deliberate introduction of the European rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus, into Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, F

    2010-04-01

    The European rabbit was brought to Australia as a companion animal by early settlers. It sometimes escaped, but failed to survive in the Australian bush. In 1879 wild rabbits were deliberately sent to Victoria to provide game for wealthy settlers to shoot. They soon spread all over Australia, except in the tropics, and became Australia's major animal pest. After careful testing in Australian wildlife and in humans, control by myxoma virus was introduced at various sites between 1937 and 1950, spreading all over the Murray-Darling Basin in 1950. Within one year mutations in the virus had led to slightly less virulence, and these continued for the next 50 years. In the early 21st Century testing viruses obtained from wild rabbits showed that the majority of these viruses were more virulent than the virus used to initiate the epidemic. In 1995 another virus specific for European rabbits, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus, escaped from areas in which field trials were being carried out and spread around Australia. It was more successful than myxomatosis for rabbit control in arid regions.

  17. Sex effect in mutual olfactory relationships of individually caged rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Finzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess the sex influence on sniffing behavior of rabbits, sets of three rabbits each were located for seven days in contiguous cages divided by a metal wall with holes that prevented the neighboring rabbits to see each other. A buck was located in the central cage, with a doe at each side. Rabbit behavior was video recorded to observe animals sniffing with the muzzle near the wall. The bucks displayed an olfactory preference towards one of the two does, which decreased in few days. The significance was p  0.05. The interest of bucks towards the does was also characterized by a frenetic scratching of the separation wall, contemporary with intense sniffing, displayed only for the first 35 min of the first day. The sniffing behavior of does at the central cage housing the male was not so marked as in bucks, and it progressively changed across the trial (p < 0.01. In conclusion, rabbits establish a transitory sex-oriented olfactory relationship with the conspecifics housed in contiguous cages, which looks no longer necessary once the rabbits have recognized each other.

  18. Development and partial metabolic characterization of a dietary cholesterol-resistant colony of rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, M.L.; Smith, S.A.; Hewett-Emmett, D.; Loose-Mitchell, D.S.; Soma, M.R.; Gotto, A.M. Jr.; Morrisett, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A colony of New Zealand white rabbits has been developed which, when fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet, exhibit unusual resistance to hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis, disorders usually observed in normal cholesterol-fed rabbits. When resistant rabbits (RT) were fed a normal low cholesterol diet (ND), their plasma lipoprotein patterns were significantly different from those of normal rabbits (NR) fed the same diet. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)/high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) ratio and LDL-c/very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) ratio were lower in the resistant rabbits. The hydrated density of HDL of the normal-responsive rabbits was greater than that of the resistant rabbits. LDL from resistant rabbits contained a lower proportion of esterified cholesterol and protein than LDL from normal rabbits. Peripheral mononuclear cells from resistant rabbits bound about 30% more 125 I-labeled rabbit LDL than mononuclear cells from normal rabbits. These results demonstrate that the plasma cholesterol levels of these animals is at least partly under genetic control and that compositional differences exist between the major plasma lipoprotein classes of normal and resistant rabbits even during the ingestion of low-cholesterol diet. The results indicate that at least a part of the difference in the cholesterolemic responses between the two rabbit groups is due to an enhanced LDL uptake by the mononuclear cells, and presumably by other somatic cells of the resistant group

  19. A Probability Analysis of Historical Pregnancy and Fetal Data from Dutch Belted and New Zealand White Rabbit Strains from Embryo-Fetal Development Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posobiec, Lorraine M; Cox, Estella M; Solomon, Howard M; Lewis, Elise M; Wang, Kai-fen; Stanislaus, Dinesh

    2016-04-01

    Embryo-fetal development (EFD) studies, typically in pregnant rats and rabbits, are conducted prior to enrolling females of reproductive age in clinical trials. Common rabbit strains used are the New Zealand White (NZW) and Dutch Belted (DB). As fetal abnormalities can occur in all groups, including controls, Historical Control Data (HCD) is compiled using data from control groups of EFD studies, and is used along with each study's concurrent control group to help determine whether fetal abnormalities are caused by the test article or are part of background incidences. A probability analysis was conducted on 2014 HCD collected at Charles River Inc., Horsham PA on Covance NZW, Covance DB, and Charles River (CR) NZW rabbits. The analysis was designed to determine the probability of 2 or 3 out of a group of 22 does aborting their litter or of having a fetal abnormality by chance. Results demonstrate that pregnancy parameters and fetal observations differ not only between strains, but between sources of rabbits of the same strain. As a result the probability of these observations occurring by chance in two or three litters was drastically different. Although no one single strain is perfect, this analysis highlights the need to appreciate the inherent differences in pregnancy and fetal abnormalities between strains, and points out that an apparent isolated increased incidence of an observation in one strain will not necessarily be test-article related in another strain. A robust HCD is critical for interpretation of EFD rabbit studies, regardless of the rabbit strain used. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An Experimental Study for Radiation Nephritis in Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Jae [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Experimental radiation nephritis was produced in 15 rabbits by X-irradiation. About 2, 000gamma(tissue doses) were given to both kidneys of a rabbit in 5 days. Other tissues and organs except both kidneys were protected with 2 mm thickened lead plates. 5 weeks after the last irradiation, blood pictures, blood pressures, B.U.N., serum creatinine, Ca, Mg, Fe levels and serum erythropoietin activity of the irradiated rabbits were studied. After finishing above studies, rabbits were sacrificed and both kidneys were removed and examined histopathologically. Same laboratory and pathological studies were performed in 6 control rabbits. In this study, the author obtained following results. 1) Both kidneys of rabbits with experimental radiation nephritis showed marked histopathological changes, i.e.: renal tubules showed diffuse cloudy swelling, impacted intraluminal hyaline casts and focal precipitations of lime salts on the tubular epithelium. Diffuse interstitial fatty necrosis and various degrees of fibrotic infiltrations on the interstitium were also seen in association with focal lymphocytic infiltrations. Hyaline degenerations were observed on the glomeruli and small vessels. 2) Experimental radiation nephritis rabbits showed marked lowering in R.B.C. counts, decreased hemoglobin levels, low hematocrit values and leucopenia in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P<0.01). (Table 1 and 2). 3) Mild proteinuria were observed in experimental radiation nephritis in rabbits. 4) The levels of B.U.N. and serum creatinine increased in experimental radiation nephritis. (P<0.01). (Table 1, 3 and 4). 5) The levels of serum Ca and Mg Showed no statistical difference in comparison with those of control rabbits. (P>0.05). (Table 3 and 4). 6) No statistical correlations were observable between the levels of B.U.N. and Hb. values. (gamma=-0. 223). No close correlations (gamma=-0.338) were noticed between the levels of B.U.N. and serum iron levels. 7) Erythropoietin activity (R

  1. A Modified Rabbit Ulna Defect Model for Evaluating Periosteal Substitutes in Bone Engineering: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Backly, Rania M. [DIMES, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); IRCCS AOU San Martino–IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy); Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt); Chiapale, Danilo [IRCCS AOU San Martino–IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy); Muraglia, Anita [Biorigen S.R.L., Genova (Italy); Tromba, Giuliana [Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.P.A., Trieste (Italy); Ottonello, Chiara [Biorigen S.R.L., Genova (Italy); Santolini, Federico [IRCCS AOU San Martino–IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy); Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena, E-mail: maddalena.mastrogiacomo@unige.it [DIMES, University of Genova, Genova (Italy); IRCCS AOU San Martino–IST Istituto Nazionale per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy)

    2015-01-06

    The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm) were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane) scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia) or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib). For group II, an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) (GORE-TEX{sup ®}) membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa) or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb). Animals were euthanized after 12–16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (μCT), and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX{sup ®}) membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute.

  2. A Modified Rabbit Ulna Defect Model for Evaluating Periosteal Substitutes in Bone Engineering: A Pilot Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Backly, Rania M.; Chiapale, Danilo; Muraglia, Anita; Tromba, Giuliana; Ottonello, Chiara; Santolini, Federico; Cancedda, Ranieri; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    The present work defines a modified critical size rabbit ulna defect model for bone regeneration in which a non-resorbable barrier membrane was used to separate the radius from the ulna to create a valid model for evaluation of tissue-engineered periosteal substitutes. Eight rabbits divided into two groups were used. Critical defects (15 mm) were made in the ulna completely eliminating periosteum. For group I, defects were filled with a nanohydroxyapatite poly(ester urethane) scaffold soaked in PBS and left as such (group Ia) or wrapped with a tissue-engineered periosteal substitute (group Ib). For group II, an expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) (GORE-TEX ® ) membrane was inserted around the radius then the defects received either scaffold alone (group IIa) or scaffold wrapped with periosteal substitute (group IIb). Animals were euthanized after 12–16 weeks, and bone regeneration was evaluated by radiography, computed microtomography (μCT), and histology. In the first group, we observed formation of radio-ulnar synostosis irrespective of the treatment. This was completely eliminated upon placement of the e-PTFE (GORE-TEX ® ) membrane in the second group of animals. In conclusion, modification of the model using a non-resorbable e-PTFE membrane to isolate the ulna from the radius was a valuable addition allowing for objective evaluation of the tissue-engineered periosteal substitute.

  3. Alloxan-induced diabetes reduces sarcolemmal Na+-K+ pump function in rabbit ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter S; Clarke, Ronald J; Buhagiar, Kerrie A; Hamilton, Elisha; Garcia, Alvaro; White, Caroline; Rasmussen, Helge H

    2007-03-01

    The effect of diabetes on sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump function is important for our understanding of heart disease associated with diabetes and design of its treatment. We induced diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia but no other major metabolic disturbances in rabbits. Ventricular myocytes isolated from diabetic rabbits and controls were voltage clamped and internally perfused with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. Electrogenic Na(+)-K(+) pump current (I(p), arising from the 3:2 Na(+)-to-K(+) exchange ratio) was identified as the shift in holding current induced by Na(+)-K(+) pump blockade with 100 micromol/l ouabain in most experiments. There was no effect of diabetes on I(p) recorded when myocytes were perfused with pipette solutions containing 80 mmol/l Na(+) to nearly saturate intracellular Na(+)-K(+) pump sites. However, diabetes was associated with a significant decrease in I(p) measured when pipette solutions contained 10 mmol/l Na(+). The decrease was independent of membrane voltage but dependent on the intracellular concentration of K(+). There was no effect of diabetes on the sensitivity of I(p) to extracellular K(+). Pump inhibition was abolished by restoration of euglycemia or by in vivo angiotensin II receptor blockade with losartan. We conclude that diabetes induces sarcolemmal Na(+)-K(+) pump inhibition that can be reversed with pharmacological intervention.

  4. Evidence of Leishmania infantum Infection in Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus in a Natural Area in Madrid, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea García

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is one of the most important neglected zoonosis and remains endemic in at least 88 developing countries in the world. In addition, anthropogenic environmental changes in urban areas are leading to its emergency world wide. Zoonotic leishmaniasis control might only be achieved by an integrated approach targeting both the human host and the animal reservoirs, which in certain sylvatic cycles are yet to be identified. Recently, hares have been pointed out as competent reservoirs of Leishmania infantum in Spain, but the role of other lagomorphs has not been clarified. Here, 69 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus from a natural area in Madrid in which a high density was present were analyzed using indirect (immunofluorescence antibody test, IFAT and direct (PCR, culture techniques. Fifty-seven (82.6% of the animals were positive to at least one technique, with IFAT yielding the highest proportion of positive samples. L. infantum was isolated in 13% animals demonstrating the occurrence of infection in this setting. Our results suggest that rabbits could play a role of competent reservoir of L. infantum and demonstrate that the prevalence of infection is high in the analyzed area.

  5. Osteogenic capability of autologous rabbit adipose-derived stromal cells in repairing calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shao-Wen; Lin, Zhong-Qin; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Kou, Dong-Quan; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Chen, Qing-Yu; Shen, Yue; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Peng, Lei; Lv, Chuan-Zhu

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo osteogenic capability of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs). ASCs were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits and determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, von Kossa staining and alizarin red staining. Some specific markers of osteogenic differentiation, including ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN) were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In vivo, demineralized bone matrix (DBM)-ASCs composites were implanted into the rabbit calvarial defects created at each side of the longitudinal midline. After 6 weeks, histologic properties of the transplants were analyzed. ASCs were successfully induced into osteogenesis. ALP staining, von Kossa staining and alizarin red staining showed positive results. The expressions of ALP, OCN and OPN were detected in ASCs after cultivation in osteogenic medium. Extensive new bone was observed in the defects transplanted with DBM-ASCs composites. ASCs have the potential to differentiate into osteogenic lineage and DBM-ASCs constructs are a promising method for regeneration in bone defects.

  6. Osteogenic capability of autologous rabbit adipose-derived stromal cells in repairing calvarial defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Shao-wen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To evaluate the in vitro and in vivo osteogenic capability of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs. Methods: ASCs were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits and determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP staining, von Kossa staining and alizarin red staining. Some specific markers of osteogenic differentiation, including ALP, osteocalcin (OCN, osteopontin (OPN were examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In vivo, demineralized bone matrix (DBM-ASCs composites were implanted into the rabbit calvarial defects created at each side of the longitudinal midline. After 6 weeks, histologic properties of the transplants were analyzed. Results: ASCs were successfully induced into osteogenesis. ALP staining, von Kossa staining and alizarin red staining showed positive results. The expressions of ALP, OCN and OPN were detected in ASCs after cultivation in osteogenic medium. Extensive new bone was observed in the defects transplanted with DBM-ASCs composites. Conclusion: ASCs have the potential to differentiate into osteogenic lineage and DBM-ASCs constructs are a promising method for regeneration in bone defects. Key words: Adipose tissue; Bone regeneration; Osteogenesis

  7. Agmatine ameliorates atherosclerosis progression and endothelial dysfunction in high cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Awady, Mohammed S; Suddek, Ghada M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work was to explore possible effects of agmatine, an endogenous inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), against hypercholesterolemia-induced lipid profile changes and endothelial dysfunction. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by feeding rabbits with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD, 0.5%) for 8 weeks. Another HCD-fed group was orally administered agmatine (10 mg/kg/day) during weeks 5 through 8. Serum lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. Aorta was isolated to analyse vascular reactivity, atherosclerotic lesions and intima/media (I/M) ratio. HCD induced a significant increase in serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Agmatine administration significantly decreased HCD-induced elevations in serum TC and LDL-C, MDA, LDH and NO while significantly increased HDL-C levels. Additionally, agmatine significantly protected against HCD-induced attenuation of rabbit aortic endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine. HCD and agmatine did not significantly influence aortic endothelium-independent relaxation to sodium nitroprusside. Moreover, agmatine significantly reduced the elevation in aortic atherosclerotic lesion area and I/M ratio. This study is the first to reveal that agmatine has the ability to ameliorate hypercholesterolemia-induced lipemic-oxidative and endothelial function injuries possibly by its antioxidant potential and/or iNOS inhibition. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Transgenic rabbits as a model organism for production of human clotting factor VIII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasicek, D.; Chrenek, P.; Makarevich, A.; Bauer, M.; Jurcik, R.; Suvegova, K.; Rafay, J.; Bulla, J.; Hetenyi, L.; Erickson, J.; Paleyanda, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Human clotting factor VIII (hFVIII) is a very complex and large protein whose expression is difficult, as hFVIII requires extensive post-translational modification to be biologically active. This paper reports the generation of transgenic rabbits as a model species for testing the expression of hFVIII in the mammary gland. For micro-injection, a fusion gene construct was used, consisting of 2.5 kb murine whey acidic protein (mWAP) promoter, 7.2 kb cDNA of hFVIII, and 4.6 kb of 3' flanking sequences of the mWAP gene. from 130 micro-injected zygotes transferred into recipients, 30 offspring were delivered. The pups were screened for the transgene by PCR, using DNA isolated from the ear, and results were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. The transgene was identified in one female founder animal, and it was transmitted to the offspring in a Mendelian fashion, thus demonstrating stable integration of the gene construct into the germline of the transgenic rabbits. (author)

  9. Littermate presence enhances motor development, weight gain and competitive ability in newborn and juvenile domestic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolás, Leticia; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Hudson, Robyn; Bautista, Amando

    2011-01-01

    Interest has been growing in the influence siblings may have on individual development. While mammalian research has tended to emphasize competition among siblings for essential but often limited resources such as the mother's milk, there is also evidence of mutual benefits to be had from sibling presence, most notably for altricial young in enhanced thermoregulatory efficiency. In the present study we asked whether littermates of an altricial mammal, the domestic rabbit, might gain other developmental benefits from sibling presence. From postnatal days 1 to 25 we raised rabbit pups either together with their littermates or alone except for the brief, once daily nursing characteristic of this species, while controlling for litter size and ambient nest box temperature. At weaning on Day 25 the young were then transferred to individual cages. Before weaning, we found that pups raised separately from their littermates obtained less milk, and showed lower weight gain and slower development of the ability to maintain body equilibrium than their litter-raised sibs. This was the case even though the two groups did not differ in birth weight or in the ratio of converting milk into body mass in their temperature-controlled nest boxes. Postweaning, the isolation-raised animals were also less successful in competing for food and water when tested after deprivation than their litter-raised sibs. The present study adds to the growing evidence of the influence, in this case positive, that sibs (or half sibs) may have in shaping one another's development. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Determining the pharmacological activity of Physalis peruviana fruit juice on rabbit eyes and fibroblast primary cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Juan Manuel; Fontanilla, Marta Raquel; Ospina, Luis Fernando; Espinosa, Lady

    2008-07-01

    The pharmacologic activity of compounds isolated from Physalis peruviana has been demonstrated. The use of this fruit juice for treating pterygium has been reported in Colombian traditional medicine. However, studies demonstrating the fruit juice's pharmacologic activity when used in this disease have not been published to date. In the present study the anti-inflammatory and cytostatic activities of P. peruviana fruit juice in a rabbit eye inflammatory model were investigated. A novel rabbit eye inflammation model was developed for studying the juice's anti-inflammatory activity (based on an adaptation of the Draize test). Cytostatic activity was evaluated by measuring and comparing growth rates of cultured fibroblasts exposed and not exposed to various fruit juice concentrations. P. peruviana fruit juice exhibited a mild anti-inflammatory activity compared with methylprednisolone, a known anti-inflammatory drug. An interesting dose-dependent cytostatic effect on cultured fibroblasts was also established. The data found suggest that the P. peruviana fruit juice anti-pterygium effect described in traditional medicine may be related to its inhibiting fibroblast growth. The present study contributes to the pharmacologic knowledge regarding a remedy commonly used in Colombian traditional medicine.

  11. Failure of rabbit neutrophils to secrete endogenous pyrogen when stimulated with staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D F; Murphy, P A; Windle, B E

    1980-06-01

    Cells obtained from acute peritoneal exudates in rabbits were separated into neutrophil and mononuclear populations by centrifugation on colloidal silica gradients. When these populations were separately incubated in tissue culture medium in the presence of opsonized Staphylococcus epidermidis, endogenous pyrogen was secreted only by the adherent cells of the mononuclear population. Pyrogen production by neutrophils could not have amounted to as much as 1% of the pyrogen produced by macrophages. When mononuclear cells were added back to purified neutrophils, no pyrogen was produced that could not be accounted for by the number of macrophages added. Rabbit blood cells were similarly fractionated on colloidal silica gradients. Again, endogenous pyrogen was made only by the adherent mononuclear population. The neutrophils isolated on these gradients appeared to be morphologically normal and were 85% viable as judged by dye exclusion. They showed normal random motility. Both blood and exudate neutrophils responded chemotactically to N-formyl Met-Leu-Phe, and blood neutrophils responded chemotactically to zymosan-activated serum. Both kinds of neutrophils phagocytosed zymosan particles and both killed opsonized S. epidermidis in a roller tube system. Both blood and exudate neutrophils showed normal superoxide production when stimulated with opsonized zymosan particles. This evidence suggests that macrophages are the only source of endogenous pyrogens, and that pyrogens secreted by cell populations that are rich in neutrophils are to be attributed to the monocytes or macrophages that they contain.

  12. Biochemical investigation of cypermethrin toxicity in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahamna, S; Harzallah, D; Guemache, A; Sekfali, N

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroids are the most frequently used pesticides in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, hospitals public health, homes and textile industry. Cypermethrin, a composite pyrethroid is moderately toxic to mammals. Exposure to the pyrethroids occurs by inhalation, dermal and oral routes both accidentally as well as from the environment. Cypermethrin and DDT have been detected in human breast milk from malaria endemic area in South Africa. The WHO has recommended that the level of permethrin in drinking water not exceed 20 micrograms per liter (microg/L). The effects of exposure to any hazardous substance depend on the dose, the duration, how you are exposed, personal traits, habits and whether other chemicals are present. Pyrethroids are often combined commercially with other chemicals called synergists, which enhance the insecticidal activity of the pyrethrins and pyrethroids. The synergists prevent some enzymes from breaking down the pyrethrins and pyrethroids, thus increasing their toxicity. Because these compounds are broken down in the body quickly, there are several ways to measure the metabolites of these chemicals in human blood and urine. In this study the pyrethroid cypermethrin Sherpa 25% (active substance 250 g/l cypermethrin) was used, rabbits (1 kg weight), were gavaged by 1/20 LD50 for 3 weeks (one dose every week). Blood was collected before dosing and after 24, 72, 144 hours after the treatment. Enzyme activities were assayed in the plasma samples obtained. GOT, GPT, ALPH, CREA, GGT, Glucose and Total Pro were measured. Rabbits showed depression, decrease in feed intake, body weight and loose faeces. Livers exhibited fatty change, necrosis, lesions in kidney included tubular necrosis and pink homogeneous tubular casts. Serum ALT and creatinine concentrations increased while those of total proteins, albumin, serum cholesterol and triglycerides decreased.The results showed a decrease in RBC; WBC and Hb. This probably explained by the effect of

  13. Is the repair of articular cartilage lesion by costal chondrocyte transplantation donor age-dependent? An experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Popko

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The repair of chondral injuries is a very important problem and a subject of many experimental and clinical studies. Different techniques to induce articular cartilage repair are under investigation. In the present study, we have investigated whether the repair of articular cartilage folowing costal chondrocyte transplantation is donor age-dependent. Transplantation of costal chondrocytes from 4- and 24-week old donors, with artificially induced femoral cartilage lesion, was performed on fourteen 20-week-old New Zealand White male rabbits. In the control group, the lesion was left without chondrocyte transplantation. The evaluation of the cartilage repair was performed after 12 weeks of transplantation. We analyzed the macroscopic and histological appearance of the newly formed tissue. Immunohistochemistry was also performed using monoclonal antibodies against rabbit collagen type II. The newly formed tissue had a hyaline-like appearance in most of the lesions after chondrocyte transplantation. Positive immunohistochemical reaction for collagen II was also observed in both groups with transplanted chondrocytes. Cartilage from adult donors required longer isolation time and induced slightly poorer repair. However, hyaline-like cartilage was observed in most specimens from this group, in contrast to the control group, where fibrous connective tissue filled the lesions. Rabbit costal chondrocytes seem to be a potentially useful material for inducing articular cartilage repair and, even more important, they can also be derived from adult, sexually mature animals.

  14. Detection of the new emerging rabbit haemorrhagic disease type 2 virus (RHDV2) in Sicily from rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and Italian hare (Lepus corsicanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarda, A; Pugliese, N; Cavadini, P; Circella, E; Capucci, L; Caroli, A; Legretto, M; Mallia, E; Lavazza, A

    2014-12-01

    Rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV), a member of the genus Lagovirus, causes rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD), a fatal hepatitis of rabbits, not previously reported in hares. Recently, a new RHDV-related virus emerged, called RHDV2. This lagovirus can cause RHD in rabbits and disease and mortality in Lepus capensis (Cape hare). Here we describe a case of RHDV2 infection in another hare species, Lepus corsicanus, during a concurrent RHD outbreak in a group of wild rabbits. The same RHDV2 strain infected rabbits and a hare, also causing a RHD-like syndrome in the latter. Our findings confirmed the capability of RHDV2 to infect hosts other than rabbits and improve the knowledge about the epidemiology and the host range of this new lagovirus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction of rabbit lung cytochrome P450 prostaglandin in omega-hyroxylase during pregnancy: evidence for regulation at the genetic level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Master, B.S.S.; Muerhoff, A.S.; Jackson, V.; Williams, D.E.; Waterman, M.R.; Johnson, E.F.

    1986-01-01

    The induction of a cytochrome P450 prostaglandin omega-hydroxylase (P450/sub PG omega/) isolated from pregnant rabbit lung has been shown by Western blots to be concomitant with an increase in the amount of P450 protein. Peaks in enzyme activity and P450/sub PG omega/ protein occur between the 20th and 28th days of gestation with increases of more than 100-fold compared to nonpregnant rabbits. To elucidate the mechanisms controlling induction, total cellular RNA was extracted from rabbit lungs at various days of gestation, translated in vitro using 35 S-met, and the newly synthesized P450/sub PG omega/ immunoprecipitated from the lysate. Utilizing an immunopurified goat IgG to P450/sub PG omega/, immunopellets of in vitro translation reactions charged with RNA from lungs at 6,11,19,22,25, or 28-days gestation were isolated. A single band corresponding to P450/sub PG omega/ was seen in autoradiographs of SDS-PAGE gels containing these immunopellets, but no band was visible in lanes containing immunopellets from reactions charged with RNA from nonpregnant or 1-day post-partum animals. The gestational time-dependent increase in in vitro-translated P450/sub PG omega/ suggests that control of its induction during pregnancy is at the transcriptional level. A monoclonal antibody to the P450/sub PG omega/ has been produced for the isolation of the P450/sub PG omega/ mRNA for cDNA production

  16. Mass transport properties of the rabbit aortic wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Bailey

    Full Text Available Uptake of circulating macromolecules by the arterial wall may be a critical step in atherogenesis. Here we investigate the age-related changes in patterns of uptake that occur in the rabbit. In immature aortas, uptake was elevated in a triangle downstream of branch ostia, a region prone to disease in immature rabbits and children. By 16-22 months, uptake was high lateral to ostia, as is lesion prevalence in mature rabbits and young adults. In older rabbits there was a more upstream pattern, similar to the disease distribution in older people. These variations were predominantly caused by the branches themselves, rather than reflecting larger patterns within which the branches happened to be situated (as may occur with patterns of haemodynamic wall shear stress. The narrow streaks of high uptake reported in some previous studies were shown to be post mortem artefacts. Finally, heparin (which interferes with the NO pathway had no effect on the difference in uptake between regions upstream and downstream of branches in immature rabbits but reversed the difference in older rabbits, as does inhibiting NO synthesis directly. Nevertheless, examination of uptake all around the branch showed that changes occurred at both ages and that they were quite subtle, potentially explaining why inhibiting NO has only minor effects on lesion patterns in mature rabbits and contradicting the earlier conclusion that mechanotransduction pathways change with age. We suggest that recently-established changes in the patterns of haemodynamic forces themselves are more likely to account for the age-dependence of uptake patterns.

  17. Rabbit Model for Human EBV-Associated Hemophagocytic Syndrome (HPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Jin, Zaishun; Onoda, Sachiyo; Joko, Hiromasa; Teramoto, Norihiro; Ohara, Nobuya; Oda, Wakako; Tanaka, Takehiro; Liu, Yi-Xuan; Koirala, Tirtha Raj; Oka, Takashi; Kondo, Eisaku; Yoshino, Tadashi; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Akagi, Tadaatsu

    2003-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome (EBV-AHS) is often associated with fatal infectious mononucleosis or T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD). To elucidate the true nature of fatal LPD observed in Herpesvirus papio (HVP)-induced rabbit hemophagocytosis, reactive or neoplastic, we analyzed sequential development of HVP-induced rabbit LPD and their cell lines. All of the seven Japanese White rabbits inoculated intravenously with HVP died of fatal LPD 18 to 27 days after inoculation. LPD was also accompanied by hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) in five of these seven rabbits. Sequential autopsy revealed splenomegaly and swollen lymph nodes, often accompanied by bleeding, which developed in the last week. Atypical lymphoid cells infiltrated many organs with a “starry sky” pattern, frequently involving the spleen, lymph nodes, and liver. HVP-small RNA-1 expression in these lymphoid cells was clearly demonstrated by a newly developed in situ hybridization (ISH) system. HVP-ISH of immunomagnetically purified lymphoid cells from spleen or lymph nodes revealed HVP-EBER1+ cells in each CD4+, CD8+, or CD79a+ fraction. Hemophagocytic histiocytosis was observed in the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus. HVP-DNA was detected in the tissues and peripheral blood from the infected rabbits by PCR or Southern blot analysis. Clonality analysis of HVP-induced LPD by Southern blotting with TCR gene probe revealed polyclonal bands, suggesting polyclonal proliferation. Six IL-2-dependent rabbit T-cell lines were established from transplanted scid mouse tumors from LPD. These showed latency type I/II HVP infection and had normal karyotypes except for one line, and three of them showed tumorigenicity in nude mice. These data suggest that HVP-induced fatal LPD in rabbits is reactive polyclonally in nature. PMID:12707056

  18. Reliability In A White Rabbit Network

    CERN Document Server

    Lipiński, M; Wlostowski, T; Prados, C

    2011-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a time-deterministic, low-latency Ethernet-based network which enables transparent, subns accuracy timing distribution. It is being developed to replace the General Machine Timing (GMT) system currently used at CERN and will become the foundation for the control system of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. High reliability is an important issue inWR’s design, since unavailability of the accelerator’s control system will directly translate into expensive downtime of the machine. A typical WR network is required to lose not more than a single message per year. Due toWR’s complexity, the translation of this real-world-requirement into a reliability-requirement constitutes an interesting issue on its own – a WR network is considered functional only if it provides all its services to all its clients at any time. This paper defines reliability in WR and describes how it was addressed by dividing it into sub-domains: deterministic packet delivery, data resilience...

  19. Effects of gamma radiation on rabbit lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordahl, J.N.; Gorthy, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Eyes of young New Zealand white rabbits were irradiated with 2000 rads of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) and the eyes removed at 2, 8, 16, and 30 days post-irradiation for electron microscopic analysis. Lenses were treated histochemically for acid phosphatase localization to examine the role of lysosomal enzymes in the early development of radiation cataracts. Intercellularly located acid phosphatase reaction product, noted in the epithelium and subjacent cortex, was more prevalent after irradiation, especially in central and transitional epithelial zones. In the central zone small vesicles typically were most numerous in areas of extensive intercellular reaction product. The occurrence of discrete packets of reaction product within the vesicles and the adjoining intercellular space, plus the resemblance of the peripheral vesicles to small Golgi vesicles also containing reaction product, suggested an exocytotic release of the enzyme. These appearances suggest that lysosomal hydrolases are released extracellularly by a secretory mechanism accelerated by radiation and that these hydrolases may play a role in both physiological and pathological functions of the lens. (author)

  20. Challenges in the rabbit haemorrhagic disease 2 (RHDV2) molecular diagnosis of vaccinated rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C L; Duarte, E L; Monteiro, M; Botelho, A; Albuquerque, T; Fevereiro, M; Henriques, A M; Barros, S S; Duarte, Margarida Dias

    2017-01-01

    Molecular methods are fundamental tools for the diagnosis of viral infections. While interpretation of results is straightforward for unvaccinated animals, where positivity represents ongoing or past infections, the presence of vaccine virus in the tissues of recently vaccinated animals may mislead diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the interference of RHDV2 vaccination in the results of a RT-qPCR for RHDV2 detection, and possible associations between mean Cq values of five animal groups differing in age, vaccination status and origin (domestic/wild). Viral sequences from vaccinated rabbits that died of RHDV2 infection (n=14) were compared with the sequences from the commercial vaccines used in those animals. Group Cq means were compared through Independent t-test and One-way ANOVA. We proved that RHDV2 vaccine-RNA is not detected by the RT-qPCR as early as 15days post-vaccination, an important fact in assisting results interpretation for diagnosis. Cq values of vaccinated and non-vaccinated infected domestic adults showed a statistically significant difference (pRHDV2-victimised rabbits. Although the reduced number of vaccinated young animals analysed hampered a robust statistical analysis, this occurrence suggests that passively acquired maternal antibodies may inhibit the active immune response to vaccination, delaying protection and favouring disease progression. Our finding emphasises the importance of adapting kitten RHDV2 vaccination schedules to circumvent this interference phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transplantation of autologous bone marrow stem cells via hepatic artery for the treatment of acute hepatic injury: an experimental study in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yinghe; Han Jinling; Liu Yanping; Gao Jue; Xu Ke; Zhang Xitong; Ding Guomin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the transplantation of autologous bone marrow stem cells via hepatic artery in treating acute hepatic injury in experimental rabbit models and to clarify the synergistic effect of hepatocyte growth-promoting factor (pHGF) in stem cell transplantation therapy for liver injury. Methods Acute hepatic injury models were established in 15 experimental rabbits by daily subcutaneous injection of CCl 4 olive oil solution with the dose of 0.8 ml/kg for 4 days in succession. The experimental rabbits were randomly and equally divided into three groups: study group A (stem cell transplant, n = 5), study group B (stem cell transplant + pFHG, n = 5), and control group (n = 5). Bone marrow of 5 ml was drawn from the tibia in all rabbits of both study groups, from which bone marrow stem cells were isolated by using density gradient centrifugation, and 5 ml cellular suspension was prepared. Under fluoroscopic guidance, catheterization through the femoral artery was performed and the cellular suspension was infused into the liver via the hepatic artery. Only injection of saline was carried out in the rabbits of control group. For the rabbits in group B, pFHG (2.0 mg/kg) was administered intravenously every other day for 20 days. At 2, 4 and 8 weeks after stem cell transplantation, hepatic function was determined. Eight weeks after the transplantation all the rabbits were sacrificed and the liver specimens were collected and sent for pathological examination. Results After stem cell transplantation, the hepatic function was gradually improved.Eight weeks after the transplantation, the activity of AST, ALT and the content of ALB, TBIL were significantly lower than that before the procedure, while the content of GOLB was markedly increased in all rabbits. In addition, the difference in the above parameters between three groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Pathologically, the hepatocyte degeneration and the fiberous hyperplasia in the study groups

  2. Morphologic and quantitative study of the myenteric neurons of the jejunum of malnourished rats (Rattus norvegicus Estudo morfológico e quantitativo dos neurônios mientéricos do jejuno de ratos desnutridos (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCÍLIO HUBNER DE MIRANDA NETO

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of maternal proteic desnutrition on the neurons of the myenteric plexus of the jejunum of rats from Rattus norvegicus species. It was used litters of female rats which received diet with normal proteic level during gestation and lactation (group NN, normal diet during gestation and hypoproteic diet during lactation (group ND; hypoproteic diet during gestation and normal diet during lactation (group DN; hypoproteic diet during both gestation and lactation (group DD. After weaning all the animals received diet of normal proteic level until the 60th day of age, when they were killed. The jejunum of the animals was subjected to whole-mount preparations stained by the method of Giemsa and used for the morphologic and quantitative analyses of the neurons of the myenteric plexus. We verified that maternal proteic malnutrition does not cause decrease on the number of myenteric neurons per unit area of jejunum in rats, but elicits mechanisms which assure that, when the animal again receives normal proteic level diet (22% there occurs storage of proteic material on the cytoplasm of the neurons, thus rendering them larger and strongly basophylic.Estudamos os efeitos da desnutrição protéica materna sobre os neurônios do plexo mientérico do jejuno de ratos da espécie norvegicus. Utilizamos filhotes de ratas que receberam dieta com teor protéico normal durante a gestação e a lactação (grupo NN, dieta normoprotéica durante a gestação e hipoprotéica durante a lactação (grupo ND; dieta hipoprotéica durante a gestação e normoprotéica durante a lactação (grupo DN; dieta hipoprotéica durante a gestação e lactação (grupo DD. Após o desmame todos os animais receberam dieta com teor protéico normal até os 60 dias de vida ocasião em que foram sacrificados. Preparados de membrana do jejuno foram corados pelo método de Giemsa e foram utilizados para análises morfológicas e quantitativas dos neurônios do plexo

  3. Receptors for Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus: characterization by using rabbit antiviral antiserum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, N.; Cuesta, A.

    1988-01-01

    An immunological assay was developed to characterize the binding of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus to BHK-21 cell receptors. After absorption of the virus and formaldehyde fixation, rabbit antibodies and Staphylococcus aureus protein A labeled with 125 I formed a specific complex on the surfaces of the cells. The optimal multiplicity of infection in this system was 10 PFU per cell. The virus was internalized at 33 and 37 0 C, but internalization did not take place at 25 or 4 0 C. The binding was proportional to the number of cells and was significant within 30 s. Cell surface receptors were still active after fixation, and only intact viruses were bound, as demonstrated by the lack of binding of the purified, isolated virion proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3

  4. Nuclear thyroid hormone receptors in rabbit heart: reduced triiodothyronine binding in atrium compared with ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, S.K.; Ulrich, J.M.; Kaldor, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radiolabeled triiodothyronine (T3) binding to isolated nuclei was measured to compare the binding characteristics of the nuclear receptors in rabbit ventricular and atrial muscle cells. Scatchard analysis of the binding data yielded a maximum binding capacity of 170 +/- 20 fmol per mg DNA and apparent dissociation constant of 525 +/- 100 pM for ventricular nuclei. The binding capacity and the dissociation constant for the atrial muscle cell nuclei were 55 +/- 10 fmol per mg DNA and 500 +/- 75 pM, respectively. The results suggest that the binding capacity for T3 receptor in the atrium is considerably lower than that found in the ventricle. The reduced binding capacity of the T3 receptor in the atrium might reflect differences in the nuclear T3 receptors between ventricle and atrium

  5. Role of the paraventricular nucleus in the reflex diuresis to pulmonary lymphatic obstruction in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rishabh Charan; Sharma, Ravindra Kumar; Gulati, Kavita; Ravi, Krishnan

    2016-01-01

    The changes in urine flow and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) due to pulmonary lymphatic obstruction (PLO) were examined in anesthetized, artificially ventilated New Zealand white rabbits. PLO was produced by pressurizing an isolated pouch created in the right external jugular vein at the points of entry of the right lymphatic ducts. During this maneuver, urine flow increased from 8.5 ± 0.3 mL/10 min to 12 ± 0.5 mL/10 min (P acid microinjections into the PVN. The results show that (i) neurons in the PVN are an important relay site in the reflex arc, which is activated by PLO; and (ii) this activation is regulated by glutamatergic and partly by GABAergic input to the PVN.

  6. Abstratcs of the 5th American Rabbit Congress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    5th American Rabbit Congress Toluca, Estado de México, Mexico, September 8-11, 2014

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The 5th American Rabbit Congress was held in Toluca, Mexico State, Mexico from September 8th to the 11th, 2014. Research works representing 14 countries were accepted to take part at the congress, including papers from Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, Egypt, France, Hungary, Italy, México, Uruguay, the USA and Venezuela. These research works highlight the enormous interest, effort and commitment of the scientific community that bonds the trinomium of Research+Innovation+Technology Transfer, in favour of the integral development of rabbit rearing as an important primary activity that generates permanent employment, as well as healthy and nutritive meals for their respective countries for the XXI Century World. One major impact at this 5th American Rabbit Congress was the participation of Argentina, Brazil and China. The latter country’s report was presented by Laping Wu and Dong Wang (2014, showing that from 2005 to 2010, meat production of swine, beef and poultry underwent average growth of 2.6%, whereas rabbit meat production reported an annual average growth of 6.29%, reaching an annual volume of 761 000 tons, positioning China as the world’s main rabbit meat producer. This data highlights the great potential of rabbit production, both as an economic activity and a key strategy in the fight against hunger and poverty in many countries all over the world. During the congress, scientific works were presented related with the fields of Ethology, Housing & Welfare; Genetics; Reproduction; Digestive Physiology and Basic Nutrition; Feed Evaluation and Feeding; Pathology & Hygiene, Meat Quality, Safety & Dining; Management, Social & Economy. Furthermore, the meeting of the AB-WRSA chaired by the AB-WRSA founder, Dr. Steven Lukefahr, also took place at this congress, in which the new board of the American Branch was elected and the proposal put forward for the next American Rabbit Congress to be held in Costa

  7. Study on phototherapeutic keratotomy for bacterial corneal lesions in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhou

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the effect of phototherapeutic keratectomy(PTKon rabbit bacterial corneal ulcer model and explore the clinical potential of this method. METHODS: Totally 48 eyes from all the 24 New Zealand rabbits were inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus and bacterial corneal ulcer model was established successfully. At 1d after inoculation, 48 eyes were given levofloxacin eye drops when corneal ulcer was confirmed. Then slit lamp inspection and optical coherence tomography(OCTwere performed to measure the central corneal ulcer depth. All the rabbits right eyes were treated with PTK, as an observation group, left eyes were not treated as a control group. The eye section were observed by slit lamp and central thickness of corneal ulcer was measured by OCT at 3 and 7d after this operation. Rabbits were sacrificed and the cornea was removed for pathological section 7d later. RESULTS: The corneal ulcers in both groups had a tendency to heal, showing a decrease in ulcer area and smoothness of the surface. There was no significant difference in the depth of corneal ulcer between the observation group and the control group before PTK(t=0.706, P=0.484. The difference between the two groups of eyes at 3 and 7d after PTK was obviously(PCONCLUSION: PTK can effectively cure rabbit Staphylococcus aureus corneal ulcer and promote ulcer wound healing, which may be used for clinical treatment of patients with bacterial corneal lesions.

  8. Establishment and characterization of CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ri-ichi; Kuramochi, Takashi; Aoyagi, Kazuki; Hashimoto, Shu; Miyoshi, Ichiro; Kasai, Noriyuki; Hakamata, Yoji; Kobayashi, Eiji; Ueda, Masatsugu

    2007-02-01

    Cell marking is a very important procedure for identifying donor cells after cell and/or organ transplantation in vivo. Transgenic animals expressing marker proteins such as enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in their tissues are a powerful tool for research in fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The purpose of this study was to establish transgenic rabbit lines that ubiquitously express EGFP under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/beta-actin promoter (CAG) to provide a fluorescent transgenic animal as a bioresource. We microinjected the EGFP expression vector into 945 rabbit eggs and 4 independent transgenic candidate pups were obtained. Two of them died before sexual maturation and one was infertile. One transgenic male candidate founder rabbit was obtained and could be bred by artificial insemination. The rabbit transmitted the transgene in a Mendelian manner. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, we detected the transgene at 7q11 on chromosome 7 as a large centromeric region in two F1 offspring (one female and one male). Eventually, one transgenic line was established. Ubiquitous EGFP fluorescence was confirmed in all examined organs. There were no gender-related differences in fluorescence. The established CAG/EGFP transgenic rabbit will be an important bioresource and a useful tool for various studies in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  9. Flagella-induced immunity against experimental cholera in adult rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancey, R J; Willis, D L; Berry, L J

    1979-07-01

    The adult rabbit ligated ileal loop model was used to evaluate the prophylactic potential of a crude flagellar (CF) vaccine produced from the classical. Inaba strain CA401. A greater than 1,000-fold increase in the challenge inoculum was required to induce an intestinal fluid response in actively immunized adult rabbits equivalent to that produced in unimmunized animals. Similar protection was afforded against challenge with classical and El Tor biotypes of both Inaba and Ogawa serotypes. Highly virulent 35S-labeled vibrios were inhibited in their ability to associated with the intestinal mucosa of CF-immunized rabbits. The protection conferred by CF immunization was found to be superior to that of a commercial bivalent vaccine and also to that of glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid. The critical immunogenic component of CF appears to be a flagella-derived protein. The immunogenicity of CF was destroyed by heat treatment, and absorption of CF-immune serum with aflagellated mutant vibrios did not diminish its ability to confer a high level of passive protection. The intestinal protection of CF-immunized rabbits was completely reversed by the introduction of both goat anti-rabbit immunoglobulins A and G, but by neither alone.

  10. Creating a Long-Term Diabetic Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianpu Wang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to create a long-term rabbit model of diabetes mellitus for medical studies of up to one year or longer and to evaluate the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on damage of major organs. A single dose of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg was given intravenously to 20 young New Zealand White rabbits. Another 12 age-matched normal rabbits were used as controls. Hyperglycemia developed within 48 hours after treatment with alloxan. Insulin was given daily after diabetes developed. All animals gained some body weight, but the gain was much less than the age-matched nondiabetic rabbits. Hyperlipidemia, higher blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were found in the diabetic animals. Histologically, the pancreas showed marked beta cell damage. The kidneys showed significantly thickened afferent glomerular arterioles with narrowed lumens along with glomerular atrophy. Lipid accumulation in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes appeared as vacuoles. Full-thickness skin wound healing was delayed. In summary, with careful management, alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits can be maintained for one year or longer in reasonably good health for diabetic studies.

  11. Placental transfer of radioactive salts in the pregnant rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachner, E.; Shani, J.; Shechtman, M.; Pfeiffer, Y.

    1985-01-01

    The risks of radionuclidic contamination due to the easy transfer of water-soluble ions from the circulation of the pregnant woman to her fetus, encouraged us to study whether the ease of penetration of such ions is size-dependent. Three radiochemicals--/sup 22/NaCl, /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/Na and /sup 201/TlCl were injected i.v. into pregnant rabbits on the 16th day of their pregnancy, and the rabbits were killed 15, 30, 60 or 120 min later. From each rabbit the blood, heart, kidney, liver and muscle were sampled and counted as well as placenta, amniotic fluid and some fetuses. At 15 and 60 min hearts and livers were excised from selected fetuses and blood clearance, organ-to-muscle and fetus-to-placenta ratios were calculated. The results indicate that the transplacental transfer of the small radionuclide /sup 22/Na+ is faster than that of 99mTcO4- and /sup 201/Tl+, reaching equilibrium about 3 h after its injection to the pregnant rabbit. /sup 201/Tl+ demonstrated a high localization in the pregnant rabbits' and fetuses' heart and kidneys, with a similar myocardial retention in both groups. Due to the concentration of /sup 201/Tl+, in spite of its large diameter, into the fetuses' heart muscle, careful consideration should be taken when injecting /sup 201/TlCl into pregnant women for myocardial imaging.

  12. Intrinsic connectivity of neural networks in the awake rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Matthew P; Weiss, Craig; Procissi, Daniel; Disterhoft, John F; Wang, Lei

    2016-04-01

    The way in which the brain is functionally connected into different networks has emerged as an important research topic in order to understand normal neural processing and signaling. Since some experimental manipulations are difficult or unethical to perform in humans, animal models are better suited to investigate this topic. Rabbits are a species that can undergo MRI scanning in an awake and conscious state with minimal preparation and habituation. In this study, we characterized the intrinsic functional networks of the resting New Zealand White rabbit brain using BOLD fMRI data. Group independent component analysis revealed seven networks similar to those previously found in humans, non-human primates and/or rodents including the hippocampus, default mode, cerebellum, thalamus, and visual, somatosensory, and parietal cortices. For the first time, the intrinsic functional networks of the resting rabbit brain have been elucidated demonstrating the rabbit's applicability as a translational animal model. Without the confounding effects of anesthetics or sedatives, future experiments may employ rabbits to understand changes in neural connectivity and brain functioning as a result of experimental manipulation (e.g., temporary or permanent network disruption, learning-related changes, and drug administration). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A practical method for quantifying atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C; Zheng, H; Yu, Q; Yang, P; Li, Y; Cheng, F; Fan, J; Liu, E

    2010-01-01

    The rabbit has been widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis; however, the method for analysis of the atherosclerotic lesions has not been standardized between laboratories. The present study reports a practical method for quantifying the changes that occur in aortic atherosclerosis of rabbits. Male Japanese white rabbits were fed with either a standard chow or a diet containing 10% fat and 0.3% cholesterol for 16 weeks. Plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein were measured. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assessed in quantitative fashion using an image analysis system that measured (1) the gross area of the entire aorta affected by atherosclerosis as defined by Sudan IV staining, (2) the microscopical intimal lesion defined by the elastic van Gieson stain and (3) the infiltration of macrophages and smooth muscle cell proliferation as determined immunohistochemically. The rabbits developed severe aortic atherosclerosis without apparent abnormality of glucose metabolism. The quantitative method described here will be useful for the further investigation of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In vivo determination of arterial collagen synthesis in atherosclerotic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opsahl, W.P.; DeLuca, D.J.; Ehrhart, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Collagen and non-collagen protein synthesis rates were determined in vivo in tissues from rabbits fed a control or atherogenic diet supplemented with 2% peanut oil and 0.25% cholesterol for 4 months. Rabbits received a bolus intravenous injection of L-[ 3 H]-proline (1.0 mCi/kg) and unlabeled L-proline (7 mmoles/kg) in 0.9% NaCl. Plasma proline specific activity decreased only 20% over 5 hr and was similar to the specific activity of free proline in tissues. Thoracic aortas from atherosclerotic rabbits exhibited raised plaques covering at least 75% of the surface. Thoracic intima plus a portion of the media (TIM) was separated from the remaining media plus adventitia (TMA). Dry delipidated weight, total collagen content, and collagen as a percent of dry weight were increased significantly in the TIM of atherosclerotic rabbits. Collagen synthesis rates and collagen synthesis as a percent of total protein synthesis were likewise increased both in the TIM and in the abdominal aortas. No differences from controls either in collagen content or collagen synthesis rates were observed in the TMA, lung or skin. These results demonstrate for the first time in vivo that formation of atherosclerotic plaques is associated with increased rates of collagen synthesis. Furthermore, as previously observed with incubations in vitro, collagen synthesis was elevated to a greater extent than noncollagen protein synthesis in atherosclerotic aortas from rabbits fed cholesterol plus peanut oil

  15. Fattening and slaughter traits of four rabbit genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvester Zgur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth rate of 4 genotypes, two lines of Slovene SIKA meat rabbit (maternal line A and sire line C, both 50 rabbits, hybrid AxC (50 rabbits and crossbred AxCal (A and Californian, 38 rabbits was recorded from weaning (35 days of age to slaughter (93 days. Growth performance and slaughter traits of AxC were different from line A (live weight at 91st day: A 2720, C 3158, AxC 3043 g (P£0.05, heterosis effect (H +3.38%; carcass weight: A 1490, C 1787, AxC 1716 g (P£0.05, H +5.65%; dressing percentage: A 54.1, C 55.6, AxC 55.5% (P£0.05; H +1.26%. Weaning weight of AxCal was significantly lower than of AxC (AxCal 843, AxC 1050 g, P£0.05, but at the end of the experiment the weight of AxCal rabbits was very close to AxC (AxCal 2958, AxC 3043 g, P>0.05. Other growth and slaughter traits did not differ between AxC and AxCal group.

  16. The distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, H.Y.; In, J.W.; Min, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    For clinical application of radioreceptor assay, we studied preliminarily the distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit by a dextran-charcoal method using 6,7- 3 H-es-tradiol. The results were expressed as binding index, which is the ratio of specific estradiol receptor binding radioactivity to total radioactivity. The materials consist of 5 female rabbits and 3 male rabbits. For female rabbits the binding index was highest in the uterine tissue. This binding index of the uterine tissue was 9.4 times that of the liver, 21.9 times that of the kidney, 24.6 times that of the brain, 28.1 times that of the lung and 65.7 times that of the muscle. For male rabbits the binding index was highest in the liver and decreased in the order of the kidney, the testis, the lung, the brain and the muscle. It is suggested that the estrogen receptor is not confined to any specific target organ but is widely distributed in the various organs, to a different degree. (author)

  17. The Distribution of Estrogen Receptor in Various Organs of Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Ho Young; In, Jae Whan; Min, Byong Sok

    1978-01-01

    For clinical application of radioreceptor assay, we studied preliminarily the distribution of estrogen receptor in various organs of rabbit by a dextran-charcoal method using 6, 7- 3 H-estradiol. The results were expressed as binding index, which is the ratio of specific estradiol receptor binding radioactivity to total radioactivity. The materials consist of 5 female rabbits and 3 male rabbits. The results were as follows: 1) Female rabbits. The binding index was highest in the uterine tissue. This binding index of the uterine tissue was 9.4 times that of the liver, 21.9 times that of the kidney, 24.6 times that of the brain, 28.1 times that of the lung and 65.7 times that of the muscle. 2) Male rabbits. The binding index was highest in the liver and decreased in the order of the kidney, the testis, the lung, the brain and the muscle. It is suggested that the estrogen receptor is not confined to any specific target organ but is widely distributed in the various organs, to a different degree.

  18. Accumulation of low density lipoprotein associated cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions correlates with intimal thickening in thoracic aortas of juvenile rabbits fed a supplemental cholesterol diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Culley Nathan C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown that calcifying vesicles play an important role in aortic calcification and that cholesterol content in the isolated vesicle fraction is increased when rabbits are fed supplemental cholesterol diets. Whether lipoprotein-associated cholesterols and other lipids are also increased in the vesicle fraction and whether the increase correlates with atherosclerosis remain unknown. Results Fourteen juvenile male rabbits fed an atherogenic diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 2% peanut oil for 3 months developed varying degrees of hypercholesterolemia and intimal thickening in the ascending thoracic aorta. The correlation between these two parameters was insignificant, and likely attributable to the use of small numbers of rabbits in this study. Despite this lack of correlation, we demonstrate that the accumulation of cholesterol in calcifying vesicle fractions obtained from the collagenase-digested aorta fragments correlates well with intimal thickening (r2 = 0.98, p Conclusion When limited numbers of rabbits are used, LDL-C accumulation in calcifying vesicle fractions is a better biomarker for atherosclerosis than LDL-C levels in the serum. The close association of LDL-C with calcifying vesicles may play an important role in atherosclerosis and calcification.

  19. * Comparison of Autologous, Allogeneic, and Cell-Free Scaffold Approaches for Engineered Tendon Repair in a Rabbit Model-A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Deng, Dan; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Guangdong; Zhang, WenJie; Cao, Yilin; Zhang, Peihua; Liu, Wei

    2017-08-01

    Tendons are subjected to high strength dynamic mechanical forces in vivo. Mechanical strength is an essential requirement for tendon scaffold materials. A composite scaffold was used in this study to provide mechanical strength, which was composed of an inter part of nonwoven polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers and an outer part of the net knitted with PGA and polylactic acid (PLA) fibers in a ratio of 4:2. This study compared three different approaches for in vivo tendon engineering, that is, cell-free scaffold and allogeneic and autologous cell seeded scaffolds, using a rabbit Achilles tendon repair model. Dermal fibroblasts were, respectively, isolated from the dermis of regular rabbits or green fluorescence protein transgenic rabbits as the autologous and the allogeneic cell sources, respectively. The cell scaffolds and cell-free scaffolds were implanted to bridge a partial segmental defect of rabbit Achilles tendon. The engineered tendons were harvested at 7 and 13 months postsurgery for various examinations. The results showed that all three groups could achieve in vivo tendon regeneration similarly with slightly better tissue formation in autologous group than in other two groups, including better scaffold degradation and relatively thicker collagen fibrils. There were no statistically significant differences in mechanical parameters among three groups. This work demonstrated that allogeneic fibroblasts and scaffold alone are likely to be used for tendon tissue engineering.

  20. The importance of subcutaneous abscess infection by Pasteurella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous abscesses are lesions frequently reported in commercial rabbits. Both at farm and slaughterhouse level, these lesions are responsible for economic losses and a potential decrease in meat quality. The present study was devised to identify the main causes of meat condemnation in slaughtered commercial rabbits and assess the importance of abscess lesions in this domain. For these purposes, 281423 rabbits were evaluated during meat inspection at the slaughterhouse. The results achieved showed that subcutaneous abscesses were the major cause of condemnation, being responsible for the rejection of 1355 (0.48% rabbit carcasses. The main affected area was the hind limbs (31.37%, followed by the cervical area (23.10%. Microbiological analyses of 27 abscess samples indicated Pasteurella spp. as the bacteria mostly isolated (59.3%, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (25.9%. These results enable us to advise the industry on the significance of abscesses as an important cause of economic losses, due to meat condemnation during post mortem inspection, and highlight the importance of implementing monitoring plans as a way to control this pathological problem.

  1. Methods Development for the Isolation and Culture of Primary Corneal Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    a cell population particularly suitable for low serum propagation, provided that appropriate growth factors are available. A low serum medium...of MGK. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cornea, chemical warfare agent, corneal endothelial cell, endothelium, growth , isolation, mouse, rabbit, porcine, in...with corneal SM exposure.2 A primary requirement in achieving this goal is to develop methods that enable the isolation of a pure CEC population and

  2. Isolation of an iridovirus from pike-perch Stizostedion lucioperca

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tapiovaara, H.; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Linden, J.

    1998-01-01

    We have isolated a large virus from pike-perch Stizostedion lucioperca fingerlings with no signs of disease. The biochemical, structural, and serological properties of this newly isolated virus suggest that it belongs to the family Iridoviridae. The virus multiplied and was cytopathogenic...... fish iridoviruses. It is an enveloped icosahedral DNA virus. The diameter of the nucleocapsid in thin sections was 127 +/- 3 nm; in negatively stained preparates the size of the enveloped virus varied from 147 to 187 nm. In immunofluorescence the virus was stained by rabbit antisera against EHN...

  3. Effect of aguamiel (agave sap) on hematic biometry in rabbits and its antioxidant activity determination

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Silos-Espino; José Luis Moreno Hernández-Duque; Fidel Guevara-Lara; Juan Florencio Gómez-Leyva; Luis Lorenzo Valera-Montero; Alejandro Nava-Cedillo; Catarino Perales-Segovia; Clara Lourdes Tovar-Robles

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we analysed the effect of aguamiel (sap from Agave salmiana) on haematic biometry in rabbits as well as its antioxidant activity with the objective of determining its nutritional value. Nine male Landrace 55-day-old rabbits were sorted into three groups of three rabbits each, which had access to fresh aguamiel, boiled aguamiel and water instead of aguamiel. Commercial rabbit food was supplied ad libitum to each experimental unit. Fresh aguamiel promoted weight increases of about...

  4. The development of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in wild rabbits in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J.; Sanders, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    The presence of genetic resistance to myxomatosis in a sample of wild rabbits from one area in England was reported in 1977. Rabbits from three other areas in Great Britain have been tested subsequently, and all cases showed similar resistance to a moderately virulent strain of myxoma virus. Rabbits from one area also showed a significant degree of resistance to a fully virulent strain of virus. It is concluded that genetic resistance to myxomatosis is widespread in wild rabbit populations in...

  5. Rabbit Production in Selected Urban Areas of Southern Ghana: Status and Implications for Policy and Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DY Osei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to elicit information on rabbit keeping in 26 urban areas of southern Ghana. The average age of the rabbit keepers was 44.3 years, and 95.5% of the keepers had formal education. Most of the producers got into rabbit keeping for money to meet urgent family needs, while household consumption was a major factor influencing the decision for rearing rabbits. Personal savings was the main source of income for the establishment of the rabbit enterprises. The major breeds of rabbits kept were the California White, New Zealand White and crossbreds of varied genetic variations. Backyard, small-scale and medium-scale commercial rabbit holdings were held by 18.2, 51.7 and 30.2% of the keepers respectively. The average rabbit population per farm was 77.8, with an average of 8.4 bucks, 21.6 does. Young rabbits formed 70.0% of the rabbit population. Owners of rabbitries usually cared for their animals as hired labour was expensive and often not available. High cost of feed was the most significant constraint to rabbit keeping, and mange was the most common disease affecting the rabbits. Marketing of rabbits was not organized, and this served as a disincentive to expanding the holdings. The rabbits were mostly sold either life or as fresh carcasses at the farm gate. To ensure a rapid growth of the rabbit industry, research should be undertaken to address the identified constraints to production while appropriate policies are put in place to enhance the growth of the industry. Keywords: rabbit keeping, socio-economic characteristics, farming technologies   Animal Production 14(2:131-139

  6. Comparison of efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Baghdad Khiati; Moussa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of unheated and heat-treated Sahara honey on wound healing in rabbits on the basis of macroscopic observation changes. Methods: Eight female rabbits were used. Using aseptic surgical technique, a 3 cm incision was made on the back of each rabbit and two rabbits with injuries in each group were treated daily with a topical application of unheated and heated honey, sulfadiazine and sterile saline, respectively. Results: The unheated...

  7. Malignant neoplasms of decidual origin (deciduosarcomas) induced by estrogen-progestin-releasing intravaginal devices in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Zook, B. C.; Spiro, I.; Hertz, R.

    1987-01-01

    A combination of estrogen and levonorgestrel was continuously delivered to 23 adult rabbits for up to 2 years via a Silastic ring device sutured into the vagina. Twenty-one control rabbits were given similar rings devoid of drugs. A marked decidual reaction of the endometrium occurred in 16 of 23 test rabbits. In 14 test rabbits (61%) malignant tumors developed of decidual type cells not heretofore described. The deciduosarcomas were composed of anaplastic cells that invaded the uterine walls...

  8. Economic weights in rabbit meat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cartuche

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A profit function was designed for an industrial commercial rabbitry with the most common management in industrial rabbit production. The incomes, costs, and profit function were calculated and economic weights of the traits were estimated. The variable costs (feeding, artificial insemination, health and replacement represented 62% of the total costs, and the fixed costs (labour, utilities, amortisation and administration represented 38% of the total costs. Major costs were feeding of fattening kits and labour cost, at 26% and 18% of the total cost, respectively. The economic weights were feed conversion rate during fattening (–20.2 €/[g feed/g liveweight], number of kits born alive (15.7 €/kit, pregnancy rate (1.7 €/percentage unit, weaning survival (1.7 €/percentage unit, fattening survival (2.0 €/percentage unit, daily feed intake (–0.50 €/(g feed/d, daily gain during fattening (1.33 €/(g weight/d, and replacement rate (–0.29 €/percentage unit. When varying the prices of kg of fattening feed and kg of liveweight, only the economic weights of feed conversion rate during fattening in the first case and the number of kits born alive in the second case changed considerably. Changes in labour cost produced appreciable changes in the whole production cost. Although economic weights are robust to changes in prices, these weights should be recalculated after some generations of selection, because changes in the mean of the traits due to selection can also change economic weights.

  9. Experimental microangiographic study in normal rabbit liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Gyoo; Park, Jong Yeon; Han, Kook Sang; Moon, Ki Ho; Choi, Chang Ho; Han, Koon Taek; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1994-01-01

    Microangiography is an experimental radiologic technique for evaluation of the morphology and the function of small vessels. The purpose of this study is to introduce a good microangiographic technique and to present the microangiographic appearance of normal hepatic vascular pattern. Five white rabbits weighing 2.5-2.9Kg were objected. Polyethylene catheters were inserted in portal vein and then in IVC. Heparin mixed normal saline (2cc/1000cc) was infused through portal vein and blood was drained to IVC. Barium suspension was infused via the catheter placed in portal vein until the liver surface showed satisfactory finding in barium filling. The liver was removed and this preparation was fixed in 10% formaline for 7 days. After fixation, the liver was sectioned on 1-2mm thickness. The slices were radiographed on high resolution plate using Faxitron. H-E staining of liver tissue was also done. The microbrium was well distributed in all small vessels without filling defect. And we could find the hexagonal shaped classic liver lobule, in which the central vein was located at central portion and portal vein at periphery. The enlargement was showed numerous sinusoids, but there was less dye in the central portion of lobule, but the central vein was well filled by microbarium. The peripheral portion of lobule was well filled with microbarium. So, we could find diamond shaped liver acinus, in which central vein was located at priperal portion and the center of liver acinus was terminal portal vein that growed out from a small portal space. The three acini made the complex acinus and acinar agglomerate was composed of three or four complex acini. It is considered that the liver acinus pattern of Rapparport is more acceptable on microangiography than the classic concept of hepatic lobule

  10. Effects of myxoma virus and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus on the physiological condition of wild European rabbits: Is blood biochemistry a useful monitoring tool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacios-Palma, Isabel; Santoro, Simone; Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) are the major viral diseases that affect the wild European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). These diseases arrived in Europe within the last decades and have caused wild rabbit populations to decline dramatically. Both viruses are currently considered to be endemic in the Iberian Peninsula; periodic outbreaks that strongly impact wild populations regularly occur. Myxoma virus (MV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) alter the physiology of infected rabbits, resulting in physical deterioration. Consequently, the persistence and viability of natural populations are affected. The main goal of our study was to determine if blood biochemistry is correlated with serostatus in wild European rabbits. We carried out seven live-trapping sessions in three wild rabbit populations over a two-year period. Blood samples were collected to measure anti-MV and anti-RHDV antibody concentrations and to measure biochemical parameters related to organ function, protein metabolism, and nutritional status. Overall, we found no significant relationships between rabbit serostatus and biochemistry. Our main result was that rabbits that were seropositive for both MV and RHDV had low gamma glutamyltransferase concentrations. Given the robustness of our analyses, the lack of significant relationships may indicate that the biochemical parameters measured are poor proxies for serostatus. Another explanation is that wild rabbits might be producing attenuated physiological responses to these viruses because the latter are now enzootic in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of rabbit Haemorrhagic disease virus 2 during the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) eradication from the Berlengas archipelago, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abade Dos Santos, F A; Carvalho, C; Nuno, Oliveira; Correia, J J; Henriques, M; Peleteiro, M C; Fevereiro, M; Duarte, M D

    2017-11-15

    In the regular wildlife monitoring action carried out in the summer of the past few years at the Berlenga Island, wild rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) have been repeatedly found dead. However, the origin of those deaths was never investigated. Our aim was to investigate the cause of death of 11 rabbits collected between April and May 2016. While screening samples from rabbit carcasses for the major viral rabbit pathogens, five tested positive to RHDV2 but all were negative for RHDV and myxoma virus (MYXV). For six RHDV2-negative specimens, emaciation and parasitism were considered the most probable cause of death. Lesions identified in the RHDV2-positive rabbits included non-suppurative diffuse hepatic necrosis and pulmonary lesions varying from congestion and oedema of the lungs to interstitial pneumonia. Sequencing analysis of the vp60 gene obtained from two specimens showed identical vp60 sequences. Comparison with other known RHDV2 strains from public databases through BLAST analysis revealed a closer similarity with strains from Alentejo collected during 2013. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis showed that the 2016 strains from the archipelago have a higher resemblance with a group of strains mostly collected in the South of Portugal between 2013 and 2014. The results suggest that RHDV2 may have been introduced on the Berlenga Island a few years ago, having evolved separately from mainland strains due to insularity.

  12. Cutaneous lesions in pet rabbits following subcutaneous administration of a novel bivalent vaccine against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola; Vögtlin, Andrea; Fileccia, Ivan; Hoop, Richard; Bongiovanni, Laura

    2014-12-01

    A novel bivalent vaccine to protect against myxomatosis and rabbit haemorrhagic disease is commercially available for pet rabbits. To describe the appearance of cutaneous lesions arising in pet rabbits positive for myxoma virus (MV) by RT-PCR evaluation shortly after vaccination. Four pet rabbits presenting with papular, crusting skin lesions ~10 days after vaccination. Histological evaluation of formalin-fixed skin biopsies obtained from lesional skin (case 1). Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) evaluation of paraffin-embedded tissue from skin biopsies (case 1) and crusts obtained from the lesion surface (cases 2-4) for myxoma virus are reported as cycle threshold (Ct ) values. Lesions affecting the ear pinna, dorsal aspect of the nose, vulva and/or conjunctiva are reported. Histopathological findings included severe ulcerative, necrotizing dermatitis and intralesional cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in myxoma cells. DNA was amplified from all the paraffin-embedded skin biopsies (Ct  = 34-35) and crusts (Ct  = 20-24). Although a wild virus challenge cannot be definitively excluded, veterinarians and pet-owners should be aware that cutaneous lesions have been observed after vaccination with this novel vaccine in low numbers of rabbits. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Immune response in rabbit ovaries following infection of a recombinant myxoma virus expressing rabbit zona pellucida protein B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Wenyi; Holland, Michael; Janssens, Peter; Seamark, Robert; Kerr, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the autoimmune response in rabbit ovaries following infection with a recombinant myxoma virus expressing rabbit zona pellucida protein B (MV-ZPB). A specific IgG antibody response to ZPB was elicited in the serum of infected rabbits and the antibody strongly bound to the zona pellucida of oocytes in secondary and tertiary follicles. T cell infiltration in the ovary was detected in a small proportion of the infected rabbits. In spite of this, the mean number of preovulatory and tertiary follicles in the ovary was significantly reduced at 30 days postinfection compared with that of the infected and uninfected controls. Histological analysis revealed that the cortex and medulla of these ovaries had accumulated a large number of probably luteinized cells and there were no follicles in these areas, indicating the ovaries were in a severe pathological condition. The data suggest that the delivery of ZP antigens using a recombinant myxoma virus is a prospective way to develop immunocontraceptive vaccines for rabbit population control, but that more understanding of the kinetics of the autoimmune response induced by viral delivery is needed

  14. Dissociative anesthetic combination reduces intraocular pressure (IOP in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of three anesthetic combinations, ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam, on IOP in rabbits. In a experimental, blind, randomized, crossover study, six rabbits were anesthetized with each of 3 treatments in random order. Groups KM (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + midazolam, 1 mg/kg; KX (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + xylazine, 3 mg/kg; and TZ (tiletamine + zolazepam, 20 mg/kg. The drugs were mixed in the same syringe injected intramuscularly (IM into the quadriceps muscle. IOP was measured before drug administration (baseline and at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The data were analyzed by a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test. All groups had significant decreases in IOP compared to baseline (p 0.05. Administration of either ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine, or tiletamine-zolazepam similarly decrease IOP in rabbits within 30 minutes of injection.

  15. Dietary Niacin Supplementation Suppressed Hepatic Lipid Accumulation in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of niacin supplementation on hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits. Rex Rabbits (90 d, n = 32 were allocated to two equal treatment groups: Fed basal diet (control or fed basal diet with additional 200 mg/kg niacin supplementation (niacin. The results show that niacin significantly increased the levels of plasma adiponectin, hepatic apoprotein B and hepatic leptin receptors mRNA (p0.05. However, niacin treatment significantly inhibited the hepatocytes lipid accumulation compared with the control group (p<0.05. In conclusion, niacin treatment can decrease hepatic fatty acids synthesis, but does not alter fatty acids oxidation and triacylglycerol export. And this whole process attenuates lipid accumulation in liver. Besides, the hormones of insulin, leptin and adiponectin are associated with the regulation of niacin in hepatic lipid metabolism in rabbits.

  16. Development and homology of the incisor teeth in the rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muylle, S.; Simoens, P.; Lauwers, H.

    1996-01-01

    The morphology and development of the incisors were investigated stercomicroscopically, radiographically and by means of serial histologic sections in fetal, juvenile and adult New Zealand White rabbits. A vestigial and a major incisor develop on both sides of the upper and of the lower jaw, while a diphyodont minor incisor is located caudal to the major incisor on both sides of the upper jaw. The present study describes a unique case of incisor polyodontia in an adult wild rabbit, that exhibited all the characteristics of a typical atavistic dentition. From these observations it was deduced that the vestigial and the major incisors in the rabbit are monophyodont and correspond to the first and second incisors respectively, while the minor diphyodont incisor in the upper jaw is homologous with the third incisor

  17. Two independent anion transport systems in rabbit mandibular salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1986-01-01

    Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion in the foll......Cholinergically stimulated Cl and HCO3 transport in perfused rabbit mandibular glands has been studied with extracellular anion substitution and administration of transport inhibitors. In glands perfused with HCO3-free solutions, replacement of Cl with other anions supported secretion...... stimulated secretion by about 30%, but when infused in addition to furosemide (0.1 mmol/l), it inhibited by about 20%. Amiloride (1.0 mmol/l) caused no inhibition. The results suggest that there are at least three distinct carriers in the rabbit mandibular gland. One is a furosemide-sensitive Na-coupled Cl...

  18. The effect of transport on the quality of rabbit meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Składanowska-Baryza, Joanna; Ludwiczak, Agnieszka; Pruszyńska-Oszmałek, Ewa; Kołodziejski, Paweł; Bykowska, Marta; Stanisz, Marek

    2018-04-01

    The analyzed material included 40 hybrid rabbits slaughtered at the age of 90 days. The control group was transported directly after weaning, while the transport group was transported directly prior to slaughter. The experiment was designed to assess the transport stress, carcass and meat quality implications, taking into account the muscle type and sex. The transported animals were characterized by a higher level of blood cortisol, glucose and triglycerides (P meat were affected by the transport (P meat from the control group was characterized by greater plasticity compared to the transport group (P = 0.003). The chemical composition of rabbit meat was not changed by the effect of transport (P = 0.643-0.979). To conclude, the quality traits of meat from the transported hybrid rabbits clearly indicated the development of dark firm and dry-like lower quality of meat. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. The rabbit as an experimental model in laryngology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro, Christiano de Giacomo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the research in laryngology we normally use animal models. The animal experimentation may also contribute largely for this evolution, mainly for the easy access compared to human larynxes and for they are more easily controlled. Objective: The objective of this work is to analyze the laryngofissure with vocal cords graft as an experimental surgical technique in male adult rabbits. Method: We studied 46 New Zealand albino rabbits submitted to microsurgery in both vocal cords with autologous unilateral or bilateral graft of fat or fascia. Results: There were 4 losses of 3 animals until the first week of the postoperative period and another after 19 days after surgery. In the subsequent animals there were no infection, hematoma or sutures dehiscence. Conclusion: The study enables the conclusion that the experimental laryngofissure in rabbits is a safe method that may be used for laryngological studies.

  20. Rabbit models for biomedical research revisited via genome editing approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    HONDA, Arata; OGURA, Atsuo

    2017-01-01

    Although the laboratory rabbit has long contributed to many paradigmatic studies in biology and medicine, it is often considered to be a “classical animal model” because in the last 30 years, the laboratory mouse has been more often used, thanks to the availability of embryonic stem cells that have allowed the generation of gene knockout (KO) animals. However, recent genome-editing strategies have changed this unrivaled condition; so far, more than 10 mammalian species have been added to the list of KO animals. Among them, the rabbit has distinct advantages for application of genome-editing systems, such as easy application of superovulation, consistency with fertile natural mating, well-optimized embryo manipulation techniques, and the short gestation period. The rabbit has now returned to the stage of advanced biomedical research. PMID:28579598

  1. Post-splenectomy β-amyloid level changes in Rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Xueli; Yu Jiwei; Ji Zhe; Zhou Zhengzhong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of splenectomy on serum β-amyloid (Aβ) levels in rabbit. Methods: Thirty 3yr-old rabbits underwent splenectomy and fifteen others underwent a sham-operation of laparectomy only. Serum Aβ levels were determined with RIA before and at regular intervals after operation. Results: In the splenectomy group, the Aβ levels were increased greatly after the operation and reached the peak at 5 th week. The levels then gradually declined but remained significantly higher than the pre-operative value at 6 th month. In the sham operation group, the value was no drastically changed but increased slowly (as an aging process). Conclusion: Splenectomy in rabbit would markedly increase the serum Aβ level, possibly due to a hypoimmune state impairing clearance of the substance

  2. Differential Decomposition Among Pig, Rabbit, and Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautartas, Angela; Kenyhercz, Michael W; Vidoli, Giovanna M; Meadows Jantz, Lee; Mundorff, Amy; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2018-03-30

    While nonhuman animal remains are often utilized in forensic research to develop methods to estimate the postmortem interval, systematic studies that directly validate animals as proxies for human decomposition are lacking. The current project compared decomposition rates among pigs, rabbits, and humans at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility across three seasonal trials that spanned nearly 2 years. The Total Body Score (TBS) method was applied to quantify decomposition changes and calculate the postmortem interval (PMI) in accumulated degree days (ADD). Decomposition trajectories were analyzed by comparing the estimated and actual ADD for each seasonal trial and by fuzzy cluster analysis. The cluster analysis demonstrated that the rabbits formed one group while pigs and humans, although more similar to each other than either to rabbits, still showed important differences in decomposition patterns. The decomposition trends show that neither nonhuman model captured the pattern, rate, and variability of human decomposition. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  3. The site of action of corticosteroid antipyresis in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willies, G H; Woolf, C J

    1980-01-01

    1. The antipyretic effects of corticosteroids on the fevers produced by bacterial and endogenous pyrogens in the rabbit were investigated. 2. Intravenous infusions of hydrocortisone and methyl prednisolone, when administered simultaneously with bacterial or endogenous pyrogens, failed to produce an antipyresis. 3. Pretreatment of rabbits with methyl prednisolone for 3 days diminished the febrile effect of both bacterial and endogenous pyrogens. 4. The fever produced by intrahypothalamic micro-injections of endogenous pyrogen was significantly attenuated by the simultaneous micro-injection of methyl prednisolone. 5. These results indicate that the antipyretic effect of steroids in the rabbit is the result not of a peripheral inhibition of endogenous pyrogen production, but rather of an action on the central nervous system. PMID:7381781

  4. Development of a Zealand white rabbit deposition model to study inhalation anthrax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-28

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits.

  5. Does myxomatosis still regulate numbers of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, R C; Ross, J; Fox, A P

    1993-03-01

    Myxomatosis now kills a much smaller proportion of rabbit populations than in the past, while remaining an important regulatory factor, as shown experimentally. On two separate occasions, experimental reduction of the prevalence of the disease (by reducing infestations of the main vector, the rabbit flea) led to significant increases in numbers of rabbits surviving the winter.

  6. The effects of Vitamin C on Xylazine anaesthesia in rabbits | Kisani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of vitamin C on zylazine anaesthesia in rabbits. Ten apparently healthy rabbits of both sexes, aged 6 months and weighing 0.8-1.3 kg were grouped into two of five each. Xylazine at a dose of 4 mg/kg was administered intramuscularly to rabbits in both groups. Ten minutes ...

  7. Development of a Zealand White Rabbit Deposition Model to Study Inhalation Anthrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Kabilan, Senthil; Jacob, Richard E.; Einstein, Daniel R.; Kuprat, A.P.; Corley, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite using rabbits in several inhalation exposure experiments to study diseases such as anthrax, there is a lack of understanding regarding deposition characteristics and fate of inhaled particles (bio-aerosols and viruses) in the respiratory tracts of rabbits. Such information allows dosimetric extrapolation to humans to inform human outcomes. The lung geometry of the New Zealand white rabbit (referred to simply as rabbits throughout the article) was constructed using recently acquired scanned images of the conducting airways of rabbits and available information on its acinar region. In addition, functional relationships were developed for the lung and breathing parameters of rabbits as a function of body weight. The lung geometry and breathing parameters were used to extend the existing deposition model for humans and several other species to rabbits. Evaluation of the deposition model for rabbits was made by comparing predictions with available measurements in the literature. Deposition predictions in the lungs of rabbits indicated smaller deposition fractions compared to those found in humans across various particle diameter ranges. The application of the deposition model for rabbits was demonstrated by extrapolating deposition predictions in rabbits to find equivalent human exposure concentrations assuming the same dose-response relationship between the two species. Human equivalent exposure concentration levels were found to be much smaller than those for rabbits. PMID:26895308

  8. Contrasting effects of climate change on rabbit populations through reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablado, Zulima; Revilla, Eloy

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is affecting many physical and biological processes worldwide. Anticipating its effects at the level of populations and species is imperative, especially for organisms of conservation or management concern. Previous studies have focused on estimating future species distributions and extinction probabilities directly from current climatic conditions within their geographical ranges. However, relationships between climate and population parameters may be so complex that to make these high-level predictions we need first to understand the underlying biological processes driving population size, as well as their individual response to climatic alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence that climate change may have on species population dynamics through altering breeding season. We used a mechanistic model based on drivers of rabbit reproductive physiology together with demographic simulations to show how future climate-driven changes in breeding season result in contrasting rabbit population trends across Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula, where rabbits are a native species of high ecological and economic value, breeding seasons will shorten and become more variable leading to population declines, higher extinction risk, and lower resilience to perturbations. Whereas towards north-eastern countries, rabbit numbers are expected to increase through longer and more stable reproductive periods, which augment the probability of new rabbit invasions in those areas. Our study reveals the type of mechanisms through which climate will cause alterations at the species level and emphasizes the need to focus on them in order to better foresee large-scale complex population trends. This is especially important in species like the European rabbit whose future responses may aggravate even further its dual keystone/pest problematic. Moreover, this approach allows us to predict not only distribution shifts but also future

  9. Contrasting effects of climate change on rabbit populations through reproduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulima Tablado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is affecting many physical and biological processes worldwide. Anticipating its effects at the level of populations and species is imperative, especially for organisms of conservation or management concern. Previous studies have focused on estimating future species distributions and extinction probabilities directly from current climatic conditions within their geographical ranges. However, relationships between climate and population parameters may be so complex that to make these high-level predictions we need first to understand the underlying biological processes driving population size, as well as their individual response to climatic alterations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate the influence that climate change may have on species population dynamics through altering breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a mechanistic model based on drivers of rabbit reproductive physiology together with demographic simulations to show how future climate-driven changes in breeding season result in contrasting rabbit population trends across Europe. In the Iberian Peninsula, where rabbits are a native species of high ecological and economic value, breeding seasons will shorten and become more variable leading to population declines, higher extinction risk, and lower resilience to perturbations. Whereas towards north-eastern countries, rabbit numbers are expected to increase through longer and more stable reproductive periods, which augment the probability of new rabbit invasions in those areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study reveals the type of mechanisms through which climate will cause alterations at the species level and emphasizes the need to focus on them in order to better foresee large-scale complex population trends. This is especially important in species like the European rabbit whose future responses may aggravate even further its dual keystone/pest problematic. Moreover

  10. Ultrasound features of kidneys in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Dimitrov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the normal sonographic features of rabbit kidneys with regard to their use in diagnostic imaging of renal lesions in this species. Materials: Twelve sexually mature clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits weighing 2.8 kg to 3.2 kg were examined after anaesthesia. Methods: A diagnostic ultrasound system with microconvex multifrequency 6.5 MHz probe was used. The animals were positioned in dorsal recumbency. The transabdominal paravertebral imaging approach was used. Longitudinal and transverse scans of the kidneys were obtained. Six rabbits were sacrificed, their kidneys removed and studied in isotonic liquid medium. Results: The shape of kidneys was elliptical. The fibrous capsule was visualized as a straight hyperechoic band. The fatty capsule was hyperechoic and with irregular borders. The cortex exhibited a heterogeneous echogenicity. The acoustic density of the cortex was lower than that of the liver. The echoicity of the medulla was lower as compared to the cortex and the structures of the kidney pelvis. The latter appeared as a centrally located hyperechoic structure. The post mortem examination showed that kidneys were oval and hyperechoic. The kidney pelvis was seen as a centrally located longitudinal finding, and the renal hilum – as a centrally located hyperechoic finding. Conclusions: The transabdominal paravertebral approach was a good method for visualization of rabbit kidneys. The dorsal recumbency of the subjects allowed the visualization. The in vivo results corresponded to those from the post mortem study. The rabbit kidney was oval in shape. The hypoechoic peripheral zone is occupied by the cortex and the medulla, while the hyperechoic central zone – by the kidney pelvis. The cortex was less echoic than the liver parenchyma. The kidney pelvic cavity had a lower acoustic density than its walls, due to the presence of peripelvic adipose tissue. The present results could be used in the interpretation

  11. Characterization of serotonergic receptors in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Helen C; Alvarez, Lawrence J; Candia, Oscar A; Bernstein, Audrey M

    2003-10-01

    To characterize the serotonin (5-HT) receptors linked to the modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae. Serotonin receptor-subtype expression was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and receptor subtype-specific polyclonal antibodies for the immunofluorescent labeling of conjunctival cryosections. In addition, measurements of the effects of serotonergics on the short-circuit current (I(sc)) across rabbit and porcine conjunctivae were contrasted. RT-PCR assays indicated the expression of 5-HT(1B ) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, subtypes negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, in the rabbit conjunctiva. This approach also suggested the co-expression of 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(1F), 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) mRNA's in the porcine conjunctiva, and 5-HT( 1D), 5-HT(1F) and 5-HT(7) in the human conjunctiva. Since the 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) receptors are positively linked to adenylyl cyclase, these results implied that the porcine and human tissues exhibited subtypes both positively and negatively linked to the enzyme. However, immunohistochemical observations, using currently available antibodies solely localized the 5-HT(7) moiety in the porcine and human epithelia, suggested that the 1B/1D forms may be minor elements. Consistent with this prospect, 5-HT was a stimulant of the transepithelial I(sc) across the porcine conjunctiva, an opposite response from earlier findings that demonstrated inhibitory effects by 5-HT on the rabbit I(sc), which are now explained by the localization of the 1B/1D receptors in the rabbit stratified epithelium. The 5-HT receptors expressed by mammalian conjunctivae are not identical. In terms of 5-HT receptor expression, the porcine tissue may be a more appropriate model for human, than is the rabbit, in that 5-HT may serve as a secretagogue in the human epithelium.

  12. Intravitreal docosahexaenoic acid in a rabbit model: preclinical safety assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Dolz-Marco

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the retinal toxicity of a single dose of intravitreal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in rabbit eyes over a short-term period. METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand albino rabbits were selected for this pre-clinical study. Six concentrations of DHA (Brudy Laboratories, Barcelona, Spain were prepared: 10 mg/50 µl, 5 mg/50 µl, 2'5 mg/50 µl, 50 µg/50 µl, 25 µg/50 µl, and 5 µg/50 µl. Each concentration was injected intravitreally in the right eye of two rabbits. As a control, the vehicle solution was injected in one eye of four animals. Retinal safety was studied by slit-lamp examination, and electroretinography. All the rabbits were euthanized one week after the intravitreal injection of DHA and the eyeballs were processed to morphologic and morphometric histological examination by light microscopy. At the same time aqueous and vitreous humor samples were taken to quantify the concentration of omega-3 acids by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 21.0. RESULTS: Slit-lamp examination revealed an important inflammatory reaction on the anterior chamber of the rabbits injected with the higher concentrations of DHA (10 mg/50 µl, 5 mg/50 µl, 2'5 mg/50 µ Lower concentrations showed no inflammation. Electroretinography and histological studies showed no significant difference between control and DHA-injected groups except for the group injected with 50 µg/50 µl. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that administration of intravitreal DHA is safe in the albino rabbit model up to the maximum tolerated dose of 25 µg/50 µl. Further studies should be performed in order to evaluate the effect of intravitreal injection of DHA as a treatment, alone or in combination, of different retinal diseases.

  13. In vitro confocal imaging of the rabbit cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, B R; Paddock, S

    1990-05-01

    We were able to observe in vitro the fine structure of the rabbit cornea using a laser scanning confocal microscope, especially in the regions between Descemet's membrane and the epithelial basal lamina. We observed submicrometre filaments throughout the stroma with high concentrations adjacent to Descemet's membrane, and found extensive interconnecting processes between stromal keratocytes. There are numerous regions containing nerve plexuses in the stroma. We found a deeply convoluted basal lamina adjacent to the epithelium, and observed regions containing junctions between endothelial cells in fluorescent images of rabbit corneas stained with the actin-specific compound fluorescein phalloidin.

  14. Chondromalacia induced by patellar subluxation in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, B.N.; Møller-Larsen, F.; Frich, Lars Henrik

    1989-01-01

    A unilateral patellar malalignment was induced in 20 young and 20 mature rabbits by lateral displacement of the tibial tuberosity, the other knee serving as osteotomized in situ control. At 6 weeks, all the knees appeared macroscopically normal, but histologically definite cartilage degeneration...... was found on the experimental side. At 3 months, macroscopic changes occurred in 5 of 10 mature rabbits, and histologic cartilage degeneration was found in all the experimental knees, most pronounced in mature animals, and particularly in joint facets submitted to high pressure. This experimental model...

  15. Lithium absorption by the rabbit gall-bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    1991-01-01

    Lithium (Li+) absorption across the low-resistance epithelium of the rabbit gall-bladder was studied in order to elucidate possible routes and mechanisms of Li+ transfer. Li+ at a concentration of 0.4 mM in both mucosal and serosal media did not affect isosmotic mucosa-to-serosa fluid absorption...... was elicited from the mucosal side and was not accounted for by compensatory Li+ absorption; water and Na+ absorption rates decreased nearly in parallel. The effects of 0.4 mM amiloride and of substitution with 20 mM Li+ were only partly additive. It is concluded that Li+ absorption in the rabbit gall...

  16. Characterisation of wild rabbit commercial game farms in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro González-Redondo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to characterise the wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus commercial game farms in Spain using variables related to structure, management and marketing. To this end, a structured survey was administered in 2009 to 21 privately-owned farms. This subsector was an average age of 13. The average size of the breeding stock of the farms was 431 does and 64 bucks. Eighty-five percent of the farms kept all or part of the breeding stock in cages and 38.1% used artificial insemination. All the farms carried out breeder self-replacement, 4.8% by buying wild rabbits from other farms, whereas 38.1% captured wild rabbits for this purpose. Nineteen percent of the wild rabbit game farms also produced other game species, mainly red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa, pheasant (Phasianus colchicus and quail (Coturnix coturnix. Fourteen percent of the farms supplied wild rabbits to be used as prey to be released in programmes for the conservation of endangered predators, and 38.1% supplied breeding rabbits to be used by other farms to replace culled animals. Eighty-six percent of the farms offered the service of transporting the animals from the farm to the hunting grounds to their clients, and 14.3% advised customers on how to successfully release and restock hunting grounds. Seventy-six percent of the farms marketed their products throughout Spain, and 38.1% exported wild rabbits to neighbouring countries, mainly Portugal and France. Forty-three percent of the farms advertised themselves in hunting magazines, 19.1% promoted themselves by attending livestock and game fairs, and 38.1% had their own websites. In conclusion, this alternative rabbit production system constitutes a well-established subsector in Spain, despite being only 2 decades old. It also seems that it has not yet reached its development maturity. It shows wide diversity in terms of farm size and structure, as well as marketing and promotional activities.

  17. Alternatives to Autograft Evaluated in a Rabbit Segmental Bone Defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    mesenchymal stem cells for off-the-shelf bone tissue engineering application. Biomaterials 33(9):2656–2672. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2011.12.025 14...segmental bone defects in the rabbit with vascularized tissue engineered bone . Biomaterials 31(6):1171– 1179. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.10.043 International Orthopaedics (SICOT) ...ORIGINAL PAPER Alternatives to autograft evaluated in a rabbit segmental bone defect Jennifer S. McDaniel1 & Marcello Pilia1 & Vivek Raut2 & Jeffrey

  18. Phase separation of X-irradiated lenses of rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.I.; Giblin, F.J.; Reddy, V.N.; Benedek, G.B.

    1982-01-01

    The phase separation temperature (Tcat) was studied as a function of time (age) after the administration of a single dose of radiation (2000 rad), which induces cataract in the rabbit lens. In the normal unirradiated lens, Tcat decreases linearly with age at a rate (DTcat/dt) approximately 2.2 degrees/week. In the irradiated lens, Tcat initially decreases with age much less than the normal lens, then rises sharply with age at the time of the appearance of opacity in the living rabbit eye. We suggest that the phase separation temperature may serve as a sensitive and early indicator of cataractogenic processes in the lens

  19. Atheroprotective potentials of curcuminoids against ginger extract in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, M M; Younis, N N; Elswefy, S E; Abdallah, F R; El-Dahmy, S I; Elnagar, G; Kassem, H M

    2015-01-01

    The anti-atherogenic potentials of total ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract (TGE) or curcuminoids extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), members of family Zingiberaceae, were compared in hypercholesterolaemia. Rabbits were fed either normal or atherogenic diet. The rabbits on atherogenic diet received treatments with TGE or curcumenoids and placebo concurrently for 6 weeks (n = 6). The anti-atherogenic effects of curcuminoids and ginger are mediated via multiple mechanisms. This effect was correlated with their ability to lower cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity. Ginger extract exerted preferential effects on plasma lipids, reverse cholesterol transport, cholesterol synthesis and inflammatory status. Curcuminoids, however, showed superior antioxidant activity.

  20. SEMEN QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBIT BUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Błaszczyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used QuickPhoto Micro system. Received data were statistically analyzed. Our research showed decrease of semen parameters value after one hour storage in 37°C. Correlation analysis showed negative correlation between presence of spermatozoa with separated flagellum and CASA parameters value e.g. motility, progressive motility, DAP, DCL, DSL, VAP, VCL, VSL, ALH and BCF. From among 3000 analyzed spermatozoa 14.2% posed abnormal forms. We observed negative influence of semen storage on its quality. Also negative correlations between all types of tail defect and motility of spermatozoa were detectedRabbits have been extensively used as a model for large animals and humans. All the reproduction techniques employed with farm animals can be performed with the low-cost rabbit model, and certain placental membrane characteristics make them especially relevant for studies of human teratology. The purpose of this study was to assess semen quality of New Zealand White rabbits. The material represents semen samples collected from adult rabbits (n=30. The semen was obtained by means of artificial vagina. All samples were analyzed using CASA Sperm VisionTM system. To assessed spermatozoa morphology (the length and the width of head and tail; presence of abnormal spermatozoa we used Quick