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Sample records for isolated porcine left

  1. Tiamulin resistance in porcine Brachyspira pilosicoli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, M; Landén, A; Franklin, A

    2006-02-01

    There are few studies on antimicrobial susceptibility of Brachyspira pilosicoli, therefore this study was performed to investigate the situation among isolates from pigs. The tiamulin and tylosin susceptibility was determined by broth dilution for 93 and 86 porcine B. pilosicoli isolates, respectively. The isolates came from clinical samples taken in Swedish pig herds during the years 2002 and 2003. The tylosin minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was >16 microg/ml for 50% (n=43) of the isolates tested. A tiamulin MIC >2 microg/ml was obtained for 14% (n=13) of the isolates and these were also tested against doxycycline, salinomycin, valnemulin, lincomycin and aivlosin. For these isolates the susceptibility to salinomycin and doxycycline was high but the MICs for aivlosin varied. The relationship between the 13 tiamulin resistant isolates was analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Among the 13 isolates 10 different PFGE patterns were identified.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates from Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchgässner, Constanze

    2016-01-01

    The anaerobic spirochaete Brachyspira (B.) hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic diarrheal disease in pigs worldwide. Currently, no data for antimicrobial susceptibility of B. hyodysenteriae from Switzerland are available and though antimicrobial treatment is the main therapy, no standardised methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing are established. Therefore, a broth microdilution test was performed for 30 Swiss porcine field isolate...

  3. Secretion of neurotensin from isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Pedersen, J; Knuthsen, S; Bernabei, M

    1988-01-01

    The secretion and molecular nature of immunoreactive neurotensin (NT) was studied following stimulation of an isolated perfused porcine ileal segment with glucose, triglyceride and intra-arterial infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Secreted peptides were separated using gel chromatography...... in doses from 10(-10) to 10(-8) M stimulated NT release in a dose-related manner. Following gel chromatography only the intact peptide and no smaller or larger molecular size immunoreactive components were observed. The study showed that both luminal and humoral stimuli release NT from the isolated pig...

  4. Release of galanin from isolated perfused porcine adrenal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Messell, T

    1991-01-01

    We found a high concentration of galanin in extracts of porcine adrenal glands (114 pmol/g). By immunohistochemistry, galanin was localized to groups of medullary cells previously shown to produce norepinephrine. To study mechanisms for the release of galanin, we developed the following in vitro...... model: isolated perfused porcine adrenals with intact splanchnic nerve supply. When the nerves were electrically stimulated, epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion increased 276- and 291-fold, respectively, and galanin release increased up to 1,300-fold. Acetylcholine at 10(-6) M stimulated galanin...... release, and hexamethonium almost abolished the response to nerve stimulation. Galanin infusions had no effect on epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion in concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M, but increased both cortisol and aldosterone secretion (P less than 0.05). Splanchnic nerve stimulation...

  5. Isolation and purification of porcine LH for radioimmunoassay and radioreceptor assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziecik, A.; Goralska, M.; Krzymowski, T.; Pogorzelski, K.

    1979-01-01

    The procedure of isolation and purification of LH from porcine pituitary glands is described. From 1 kg of pituitary glands 150 mg of LH GPZ-1 preparation of high purity were obtained. Immunization of rabbits with the prepared hormone gave homogeneous antibodies against porcine LH with high affinity and low cross-reactions with FSH. Radioreceptor assay with the use of the prepared porcine LH demonstrated the high capacity of cell membrane receptors of the boar tests for binding this hormone. (author)

  6. Development of left ventricular hypertrophy in a novel porcine model of mitral regurgitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Nathja; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Moesgaard, Sophia Gry

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a porcine model for chronic nonischemic mitral regurgitation (MR) to investigate left ventricular (LV) enlargement and eccentric hypertrophy. DESIGN: Nonischemic MR was induced in 30 pigs by open-chest immobilization of the posterior mitral leaflet by transannular...... (LVIDd) from baseline to follow-up was significantly higher in the sMR group compared to that of the control group (P = 0.0017). Furthermore, LV weight was significantly increased in the mMR (P = 0.047) and the sMR (P = 0.0087) groups compared to that of the control group. CONCLUSIONS: A new model...

  7. Isolation and culture of porcine neural progenitor cells from embryos and pluripotent stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mikkel Aabech; Hall, Vanessa Jane; Hyttel, Poul

    2013-01-01

    from porcine embryos or induced pluripotent stem cells is presented. The neural induction is performed in coculture and the isolation of rosette structures is carried out manually to ensure a homogenous population of NPCs. Using this method, multipotent NPCs can be obtained in approximately 1 month......The isolation and culture of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) from pluripotent stem cells has facilitated in vitro mechanistic studies of diseases related to the nervous system, as well as discovery of new medicine. In addition, NPCs are envisioned to play a crucial role in future cell replacement...... therapy. The pig has become recognized as an important large animal model and establishment of in vitro-derived porcine NPCs would allow for preclinical safety testing by transplantation in a porcine biomedical model. In this chapter, a detailed method for isolation and in vitro culture of porcine NPCs...

  8. Left ventricular mass regression after porcine versus bovine aortic valve replacement: a randomized comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Rakesh M; Zehr, Kenton J; Sundt, Thoralf M; Dearani, Joseph A; Daly, Richard C; Oh, Jae K; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2009-10-01

    It is unclear whether small differences in transprosthetic gradient between porcine and bovine biologic aortic valves translate into improved regression of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy after aortic valve replacement. We investigated transprosthetic gradient, aortic valve orifice area, and LV mass in patients randomized to aortic valve replacement with either the Medtronic Mosaic (MM) porcine or an Edwards Perimount (EP) bovine pericardial bioprosthesis. One hundred fifty-two patients with aortic valve disease were randomly assigned to receive either the MM (n = 76) or an EP prosthesis. There were 89 men (59%), and the mean age was 76 years. Echocardiograms from preoperative, postoperative, predismissal, and 1-year time points were analyzed. Baseline characteristics and preoperative echocardiograms were similar between the two groups. The median implant size was 23 mm for both. There were no early deaths, and 10 patients (7%) died after dismissal. One hundred seven of 137 patients (78%) had a 1-year echocardiogram, and none required aortic valve reoperation. The mean aortic valve gradient at dismissal was 19.4 mm Hg (MM) versus13.5 mm Hg (EP; p regression of LV mass index (MM, -32.4 g/m(2) versus EP, -27.0 g/m(2); p = 0.40). Greater preoperative LV mass index was the sole independent predictor of greater LV mass regression after surgery (p regression of LV mass during the first year after aortic valve replacement.

  9. Possibilities of microscopic detection of isolated porcine proteins in model meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Petrášová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, various protein additives intended for manufacture of meat products have increasing importance in the food industry. These ingredients include both, plant-origin as well as animal-origin proteins. Among animal proteins, blood plasma, milk protein or collagen are used most commonly. Collagen is obtained from pork, beef, and poultry or fish skin. Collagen does not contain all the essential amino acids, thus it is not a full protein in terms of essential amino acids supply for one's organism. However, it is rather rich in amino acids of glycine, hydroxyproline and proline which are almost absent in other proteins and their synthesis is very energy intensive. Collagen, which is added to the soft and small meat products in the form of isolated porcine protein, significantly affects the organoleptic properties of these products. This work focused on detection of isolated porcine protein in model meat products where detection of isolated porcine protein was verified by histological staining and light microscopy. Seven model meat products from poultry meat and 7 model meat products from beef and pork in the ratio of 1:1, which contained 2.5% concentration of various commercially produced isolated porcine proteins, were examined. These model meat products were histologically processed by means of cryosections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin staining, toluidine blue staining and Calleja. For the validation phase, Calleja was utilized. To determine the sensitivity and specificity, five model meat products containing the addition of isolated porcine protein and five model meat products free of it were used. The sensitivity was determined for isolated porcine protein at 1.00 and specificity was determined at 1.00. The detection limit of the method was at the level of 0.001% addition. Repeatability of the method was carried out using products with addition as well as without addition of isolated porcine protein and detection was repeated

  10. Isolation and partial characterization of two porcine spleen ferritin fractions with different electrophoretic mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Van Gelder (Carin); M.I.E. Huijskes-Heins (M. I E); D. Klepper (D.); W.L. van Noort (W.); M.I. Cleton-Soeteman (Maud); H.G. van Eijk (Henk)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractFerritin isolated from porcine spleen could routinely be separated in two fractions on nondenaturating gradient gels. Both fractions could be isolated with a purity of 96% when applied to two serially linked columns, each 200 cm in length, packed respectively with Sepharose 4B and

  11. Isolated Left Pulmonary Artery Agenesis: A Case Report

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    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis without any cardiovascular malformation is a rare anomaly. We present the imaging findings of a patient who was diagnosed as isolated left pulmonary artery agenesis. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital due to dyspnea during exercise for five years. Chest X-ray revealed minimally small left pulmonary hilum and left lung. She was admitted to our clinic with the suspicion of pulmonary artery pathology. Absent perfusion of the left lung with normal ventilation was visualized on scintigraphy. MDCT angiography of pulmonary arteries showed absent left main pulmonary artery with systemic collaterals around left hemithorax. Pulmonary artery agenesis can be asymptomatic and isolated until adulthood. Both scintigraphy and CT angiography images of pulmonary artery agenesis of a patient are rare in the literature. Pulmonary ventilation- perfusion scintigraphy can be used not only for pulmonary embolism but also pathologies involving pulmonary artery and its branches. (MIRT 2012;21:80-83

  12. Isolation and identification of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valícek, L; Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Kubalíková, R; Kosinová, E

    1997-10-01

    Three strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) were isolated in porcine lung macrophage (PLM) cultures from three swine herds. This has been the first successful isolation of PRRSV in the Czech Republic and the strains received the designations CAPM V-501, CAPM V-502 and CAPM V-503, respectively. All the three isolates in PLM were identified by immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase tests and the strain CAPM V-502 also by electron microscopy using the ultrathin section technique. The strain CAPM V-502 has been adapted to the cell line MARC-145. Viral RNA in PLM cultures infected with any of the isolated PRRSV strains was demonstrated by RT-PCR targeted to the more conserved ORF 7 genomic region encoding the nucleocapsid protein. The assessment of PCR products in agarose gel revealed a uniform size of 394 bp in all the three isolates and the European prototype strain Lelystad used as positive control.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Porcine Parvovirus N Strain Isolated from Guangxi, China

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety.

  14. Virulence-associated gene pattern of porcine and human Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 4 isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, M; Brodard, I; Overesch, G

    2015-04-02

    Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 is the most important human pathogenic bioserotype in Europe and the predominant pathogenic bioserotype in slaughter pigs. Although many studies on the virulence of Y. enterocolitica strains have showed a broad spectrum of detectable factors in pigs and humans, an analysis based on a strict comparative approach and serving to verify the virulence capability of porcine Y. enterocolitica as a source for human yersiniosis is lacking. Therefore, in the present study, strains of biotype (BT) 4 isolated from Swiss slaughter pig tonsils and feces and isolates from human clinical cases were compared in terms of their spectrum of virulence-associated genes (yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA, ystB and myfA). An analysis of the associated antimicrobial susceptibility pattern completed the characterization. All analyzed BT 4 strains showed a nearly similar pattern, comprising the known fundamental virulence-associated genes yadA, virF, ail, inv, rovA, ymoA, ystA and myfA. Only ystB was not detectable among all analyzed isolates. Importantly, neither the source of the isolates (porcine tonsils and feces, humans) nor the serotype (ST) had any influence on the gene pattern. From these findings, it can be concluded that the presence of the full complement of virulence genes necessary for human infection is common among porcine BT 4 strains. Swiss porcine BT 4 strains not only showed antimicrobial susceptibility to chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, tetracycline and trimethoprim but also showed 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin. The human BT 4 strains revealed comparable results. However, in addition to 100% antibiotic resistance to ampicillin, 2 strains were resistant to chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid. Additionally, 1 of these strains was resistant to sulfamethoxazole. The results demonstrated that Y. enterocolitica BT 4

  15. Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of the Two Porcine Salmonella Typhimurium Isolates

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    Kemal METİNER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to detect the presence of the Salmonella species in swine with diarrhea, and to investigate their antimicrobial resistance and extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL and/or AmpC β-lactamase production. For this purpose, stool samples from three commercial pig farms in Istanbul and Tekirdag were collected and processed for Salmonella isolation by culture and isolates were identified by biochemical activity tests. Salmonella isolates were confirmed by PCR then serotyped. Antimicrobial resistance and ESBL and AmpC production of the isolates were determined according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI standard. In the study, two hundred and thirty eight stool samples were examined. Salmonella spp. were obtained from 2 samples, and the isolation rate was determined as 0.8%. Both of the isolates were defined as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (serotype 1, 4, [5], 12: I: 1, 2 by serotyping. Both of them were resistant to cefaclor, cloxacillin and lincomycin (100%. Multidrug resistance (resistance ≥3 antimicrobials observed in all isolates. ESBL and AmpC production were not detected in any of the isolates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of S. Typhimurium in pigs with diarrhea in Turkey. This study also represents the first report of multi-drug resistant S. Typhimurium isolates from pig stools in Turkey.

  16. Isolation and open reading frame 5 gene analysis of porcine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ARL

    2012-11-08

    Nov 8, 2012 ... viral RNA of fourth generation, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR based on open reading frame 5 (ORF5) ... fourth generation. TCID50 of isolate measured by Reed-Muench method was 10-3.6/0.1 ml. Genetic evolution of ORF5 indicated that the two isolated strains were in a .... generation of the virus culture.

  17. Complete genome sequence of porcine parvovirus N strain isolated from guangxi, china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qian-Lian; Li, Bin; Zhao, Wu; Liang, Jia-Xing; He, Ying; Qin, Yi-Bin; Lu, Bing-Xia

    2015-01-08

    We report here the complete genomic sequence of the porcine parvovirus (PPV) N strain, isolated in 1989 from the viscera of a stillborn fetus farrowed by a gilt in Guangxi, southern China. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the PPV-N strain is closely related to attenuated PPV NADL-2 strains. The PPV-N strain has good immunogenicity, genetic stability, and safety. Copyright © 2015 Su et al.

  18. Left atrial isolation associated with mitral valve operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A; Pagani, F; Minzioni, G; Salerno, J; Viganò, M

    1992-12-01

    Surgical isolation of the left atrium was performed for the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation secondary to valvular disease in 100 patients who underwent mitral valve operations. From May 1989 to September 1991, 62 patients underwent mitral valve operations (group I); 19, mitral valve operations and DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty (group II); 15, mitral and aortic operations (group III); and 4, mitral and aortic operations and DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty (group IV). Left atrial isolation was performed, prolonging the usual left paraseptal atriotomy toward the left fibrous trigone anteriorly and the posteromedial commissure posteriorly. The incision was conducted a few millimeters apart from the mitral valve annulus, and cryolesions were placed at the edges to ensure complete electrophysiological isolation of the left atrium. Operative mortality accounted for 3 patients (3%). In 79 patients (81.4%) sinus rhythm recovered and persisted until discharge from the hospital. No differences were found between the groups (group I, 80.7%; group II, 68.5%; group III, 86.7%; group IV, 75%; p = not significant). Three late deaths (3.1%) were registered. Long-term results show persistence of sinus rhythm in 71% of group I, 61.2% of group II, 85.8% of group III, and 100% of group IV. The unique risk factor for late recurrence of atrial fibrillation was found to be preoperative atrial fibrillation longer than 6 months. Due to the satisfactory success rate in recovering sinus rhythm, we suggest performing left atrial isolation in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation undergoing valvular operations.

  19. Isolation, culture and biological characteristics of multipotent porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jinjuan; Liu, Hao; Wang, Kunfu; Li, Lu; Yuan, Hongyi; Liu, Xueting; Liu, Yingjie; Guan, Weijun

    2017-12-01

    Skeletal muscle has a huge regenerative potential for postnatal muscle growth and repair, which mainly depends on a kind of muscle progenitor cell population, called satellite cell. Nowadays, the majority of satellite cells were obtained from human, mouse, rat and other animals but rarely from pig. In this article, the porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. The expression of surface markers of satellite cells was detected by immunofluorescence and RT-PCR assays. The differentiation capacity was assessed by inducing satellite cells into adipocytes, myoblasts and osteoblasts. The results showed that satellite cells isolated from porcine tibialis anterior were subcultured up to 12 passages and were positive for Pax7, Myod, c-Met, desmin, PCNA and NANOG but were negative for Myogenin. Satellite cells were also induced to differentiate into adipocytes, osteoblasts and myoblasts, respectively. These findings indicated that porcine satellite cells possess similar biological characteristics of stem cells, which may provide theoretical basis and experimental evidence for potential therapeutic application in the treatment of dystrophic muscle and other muscle injuries.

  20. Isolation, transplantation, and functional studies of adult porcine islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Buschmann; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2002-01-01

    that was only partially increased by additional challenge with arginine. More than 50% of DNA and 90% of the insulin content was lost during a one-week culture period. With some batch-to-batch variation, in 15 of 25 cases, 4,000 to 7,000 porcine islets cured streptozotocin diabetic nude mice within three weeks......Transplantation of islets of Langerhans is a possible treatment for type-I diabetes mellitus. However, there is a shortage of donors for such transplantations and the pig may be an alternative source of donor organs. The aims of the study reported here were to establish a method for adult porcine...... following transplantation. In conclusion, it is possible to isolate viable islets from adult pigs, using a semiautomatic set-up. With batch-to-batch variation, the islets are able to revert diabetes mellitus when transplanted to diabetic nude mice....

  1. Isolation, Genome Phylogenetic Analysis and In vitro Rescue of a Newly Emerging Porcine Circovirus Type 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijuan Zhu and Xiaofeng Ren*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 is the major causative agent of post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS. Infection by PCV2 may cause heavy losses in pig industry. In this study, we report the isolation of a newly emerging PCV2 from northeastern China. The complete genome of the PCV2 isolate named PCV2-LJR contains 1766 nucleotides and was compared with reference sequences published in GenBank followed by topology analysis of the resulting phylogenetic tree. The data indicated that the prevalent PCV2 isolates in the northeastern China had close relationship, although various genotypes of PCV2 existed. In addition, by gene recombination and transfection techniques, the PCV2 infectious clone was achieved and was able to rescue virus in vitro determined by indirect immunofluorescence assay and PCR. The obtained biological materials may be used for biological characterization of PCV2.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis isolates associated with porcine pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pasteurella multocida and Haemophilus parasuis pig isolates obtained in the Czech Republic were tested for their susceptibility against selected antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution method between 2008 and 2011. A low degree of resistance was observed for ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, tulathromycin, tilmicosin, florfenicol and enrofloxacin in 20 (6.0%, 15 (4.5 %, 2 (0.6%, 8 (2.4%, 13 (3.9%, 5 (1.5% and 5 (1.5% P. multocida isolates as well as for tiamulin, gentamicin, tulathromycin, tilmicosin and ampicillin in 2 (2.4%, 2 (2.4%, 3 (3.6%, 3 (3.6% and 6 (7.2% H. parasuis isolates. In addition, moderate level of resistance to tiamulin was found in 60 (18.1% P. multocida isolates and high level of resistance for tetracycline was detected in 107 (32.2 % P. multocida isolates and in 23 (27.7 % H. parasuis isolates. Differences between resistance rates of P. multocida and H. parasuis were significant (P ≤ 0.5 only for tiamulin. These data confirmed that antimicrobial resistance is not very widespread among current porcine P. multocida and H. parasuis isolates in the Czech Republic.

  3. Isolated left-sided pulmonary artery agenesis with left lung hypoplasia: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Govindaraj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral absence of pulmonary artery or pulmonary artery agenesis (UAPA is a rare congenital malformation that can present as an isolated lesion or in association with other cardiac anomalies. Though congenital, presentation in adults are also reported. Most common presentation in adults is of exercise intolerance. The developing lung on the affected side is hypoplastic. Diagnosis of UAPA is established by imaging methods like CT and MRI . There is no specific treatment for this condition. Treatment depends on patients symptomatology, presence of pulmonary hypertension and collateral circulation. Presence of pulmonary hypertension carries a bad prognosis. We present two adult patients with isolated left sided unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis with ipsilateral lung hypoplasia. The diagnosis was confirmed by CT chest and perfusion scan.

  4. Pathogenicity of a strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis isolated from a pig with porcine colitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, N A; Lysons, R J

    1994-07-16

    A strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (NCTC 12718), isolated from a seven-week-old pig suffering from an ulcerative typhlocolitis, was inoculated orally into 16 growing pigs in two separate experiments. At necropsy 10 days later, typhlocolitis was present in nine of the pigs, and it was accompanied by diarrhoea in four cases. In both the original case and in the experimental pigs, the typhlocolitis was characterised by microabscesses of the lamina propria, frequently involving ulceration or erosion of the surface epithelium. The organism was of serotype IIa, which has not been isolated previously from pigs in the United Kingdom. Y pseudotuberculosis may be the aetiological agent responsible in some cases of porcine colitis syndrome.

  5. The effect of percutaneous transmyocardial laser revascularization on left ventricular function in a porcine model of hibernating myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeda, Francis Q.; Glock, Dana; Sandelski, Joanne; Ibrahim, Osama; Macioch, James E.; Allen, Trisha; Dainauskas, John R.; Parrillo, Joseph E.; Snell, R. Jeffrey; Schaer, Gary L.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Hibernating myocardium is defined as a state of persistently impaired myocardial function at rest due to reduced coronary blood flow that can partially or completely be restored to normal if the myocardial oxygen supply/demand relationship is favorably altered. Percutaneous laser revascularization (PMR) is an emerging catheter-based technique that involves creating channels in the myocardium, directly through a percutaneous approach with a laser delivery system, and has been shown to reduce symptoms in patients with severe refractory angina; however, its effect on improving regional wall motion abnormalities in hibernating myocardium has not been clearly established. We sought to determine the effect of PMR using the Eclipse System (Cardiogenesis) on left ventricular function in a porcine model of hibernating myocardium. Methods: A model of hibernating myocardium was created by placement of an ameroid constrictor in the proximal left anterior descending artery of a 35 kg male Yorkshire pig. The presence of hibernating myocardium was confirmed with dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and defined as severe hypocontractility at rest, with an improvement in systolic wall thickening with low-dose dobutamine in myocardial regions with a subsequent deterioration in function at peak stress (biphasic response). After the demonstration of hibernating myocardium, PMR was performed in the area of hypocontractile function, and the serial echocardiography was performed. The echocardiograms were reviewed by an experienced echocardiologist blinded to the results, and regional wall motion was assessed using the American Society of Echocardiography Wall Motion Score. Six weeks after PMR, the animal was sacrificed and the heart sent for histopathologic studies. Results: A comparison of the regional wall motion function of the area distal to the ameroid constrictor and in the contralateral wall at baseline, post-ameroid placement, and post-PMR was performed

  6. Isolation and molecular characterization of porcine calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and its endocrine effects in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Bersani, M; Schmidt, P

    1998-01-01

    was found in the two tissues. The adrenal peptide was sequenced and found to differ from human alpha-CGRP at six positions and from human beta-CGRP at three positions. By immunohistochemistry, CGRP was found in nerve fibers in the pancreatic ganglia. A synthetic replica of the porcine peptide was infused...... significantly by 10(-8) M CGRP. In immunoneutralization studies (n = 6) using a high-affinity somatostatin antibody, the inhibitory effect of CGRP at 10(-8) M was reversed to a significant stimulation of insulin and glucagon secretion. Insulin secretion in response to square-wave increases in glucose...

  7. Functional study and regional mapping of 44 hormono-regulated genes isolated from a porcine granulosa cell library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatey François

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract cDNA clones from a pig granulosa cell cDNA library were isolated by differential hybridisation for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH regulation in granulosa cells in a previous study. The clones that did not match any known sequence were studied for their expression in granulosa cells (treated or not by FSH and in fresh isolated ovarian follicles mainly by comparative RT-PCR analysis. These results give functional data on genes that may be implicated in follicular growing. These ESTs have been localised on the porcine genome, using a somatic cell hybrid panel, providing new type I markers on the porcine map and information on the comparative map between humans and pigs.

  8. Genetic Characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 isolated from different pig-farms in Croatia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudan, Nevenka; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Dupont, Kitt

    2009-01-01

    Histopathological fifi ndings in 25 pig tissue samples, which indicated PCVD (porcine circovirus diseases), were studied. Pig tissue samples originated from 5 different pig-farms in the north-west part of Croatia. Histopathological lesions showed two clinical pictures of the disease: porcine...

  9. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang

    2009-01-01

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  10. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2009-08-15

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging: a tool to monitor and optimize enzyme distribution during porcine pancreas distention for islet isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E; Weegman, Bradley P; Balamurugan, Appakalai N; Ferrer-Fabrega, Joana; Anazawa, Takayuki; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Hammer, Bruce E; Matsumoto, Shuchiro; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Maynard, Kristen S; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is emerging as a potential alternative for allogeneic clinical islet transplantation. Optimization of porcine islet isolation in terms of yield and quality is critical for the success and cost-effectiveness of this approach. Incomplete pancreas distention and inhomogeneous enzyme distribution have been identified as key factors for limiting viable islet yield per porcine pancreas. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool to investigate the homogeneity of enzyme delivery in porcine pancreata. Traditional and novel methods for enzyme delivery aimed at optimizing enzyme distribution were examined. Pancreata were procured from Landrace pigs via en bloc viscerectomy. The main pancreatic duct was then cannulated with an 18-g winged catheter and MRI performed at 1.5-T. Images were collected before and after ductal infusion of chilled MRI contrast agent (gadolinium) in physiological saline. Regions of the distal aspect of the splenic lobe and portions of the connecting lobe and bridge exhibited reduced delivery of solution when traditional methods of distention were utilized. Use of alternative methods of delivery (such as selective re-cannulation and distention of identified problem regions) resolved these issues, and MRI was successfully utilized as a guide and assessment tool for improved delivery. Current methods of porcine pancreas distention do not consistently deliver enzyme uniformly or adequately to all regions of the pancreas. Novel methods of enzyme delivery should be investigated and implemented for improved enzyme distribution. MRI serves as a valuable tool to visualize and evaluate the efficacy of current and prospective methods of pancreas distention and enzyme delivery. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Localisation and neural control of the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from the isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    was abolished by infusion of hexamethonium (3x10(-5) M). Infusion of capsaicin (10(-5) M) caused a significant increase in the release of CGRP-LI to 485+/-82% of basal output (n=5). Our results suggest a dual origin of CGRP innervation of the porcine ileum (intrinsic and extrinsic). The intrinsic CGRP neurons...... extracts, CGRP-LI corresponded entirely to porcine CGRP plus smaller amounts of oxidised CGRP. Using isolated vascularly perfused segments of the ileum, we studied the release of CGRP-LI in response to electrical stimulation of the mixed extrinsic periarterial nerves and to infusion of different...... receive excitatory input by parasympathetic, possibly vagal, preganglionic fibres, via release of acetylcholine acting on nicotinic receptors. The stimulatory effect of capsaicin suggests that CGRP is also released from extrinsic sensory neurons....

  13. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound induces angiogenesis and ameliorates left ventricular dysfunction in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Hanawa

    Full Text Available Although a significant progress has been made in the management of ischemic heart disease (IHD, the number of severe IHD patients is increasing. Thus, it is crucial to develop new, non-invasive therapeutic strategies. In the present study, we aimed to develop low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS therapy for the treatment of IHD.We first confirmed that in cultured human endothelial cells, LIPUS significantly up-regulated mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF with a peak at 32-cycle (P<0.05. Then, we examined the in vivo effects of LIPUS in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (n = 28. The heart was treated with either sham (n = 14 or LIPUS (32-cycle with 193 mW/cm2 for 20 min, n = 14 at 3 different short axis levels. Four weeks after the treatment, LVEF was significantly improved in the LIPUS group (46±4 to 57±5%, P<0.05 without any adverse effects, whereas it remained unchanged in the sham group (46±5 to 47±6%, P = 0.33. Capillary density in the ischemic region was significantly increased in the LIPUS group compared with the control group (1084±175 vs. 858±151/mm2, P<0.05. Regional myocardial blood flow was also significantly improved in the LIPUS group (0.78±0.2 to 1.39±0.4 ml/min/g, P<0.05, but not in the control group (0.84±0.3 to 0.97±0.4 ml/min/g. Western blot analysis showed that VEGF, eNOS and bFGF were all significantly up-regulated only in the LIPUS group.These results suggest that the LIPUS therapy is promising as a new, non-invasive therapy for IHD.

  14. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.E.; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  15. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.E., E-mail: Richard.roberts@nottingham.ac.uk; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H., E-mail: steve.alexander@nottingham.ac.uk

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  16. Characterization of Pasteurella multocida associated with ovine pneumonia using multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence-associated gene profile analysis and comparison with porcine isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez, Andrés; Vela, Ana Isabel; San Martín, Elvira; Chaves, Fernando; Fernández-Garayzábal, José Francisco; Lucas, Domínguez; Cid, Dolores

    2017-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a pathogen causing disease in a wide range of hosts including sheep and pigs. Isolates from ovine pneumonia were characterized by MLST (Multi-host and RIRDC databases) and virulence-associated gene (VAG) typing and compared with porcine isolates. Ovine and porcine isolates did not share any STs as determined by both schemes and exhibited different VAG profiles. With the Multi-host database, sixteen STs were identified among 43 sheep isolates with two STs (ST50 and ST19) comprising 53.5% of the isolates, and seven MLST genotypes (ST3, ST11 and ST62 included 75% of the isolates) among the 48 pig isolates. The most frequent VAG profile among sheep isolates was tbpA+/toxA+ (69.8% of isolates) and pfhA+ (62.5%) and hgbB+ (33.3%) among pig isolates. Representative ovine and porcine isolates of those STs identified by the Multi-host scheme were further typed using the RIRDC scheme. Seven STs were identified among the ovine isolates (ST95 RIRDC , ST131 RIRDC , ST203 RIRDC , ST320 RIRDC , ST324 RIRDC , ST321 RIRDC , and ST323 RIRDC ), with the latter four sequence types being new STs identified in this study, and six STs (ST9 RIRDC , ST13 RIRDC , ST27 RIRDC , ST50 RIRDC , and ST74 RIRDC and a new sequence type ST322 RIRDC ) among the porcine isolates. STs identified among ovine isolates have been detected exclusively in small ruminants, suggesting an adaptation to these hosts, while the genotypes identified among pig isolates have been previously identified in multiple hosts and therefore they are not restricted to pigs. The differences in genotypes and VAG profiles between ovine and pig isolates suggest they could represent different subpopulations of P. multocida. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Improve Left Ventricular Function, Perfusion, and Remodeling in a Porcine Model of Chronic Myocardial Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Bin; Huang, He; Sun, Ping; Ma, Shi-Ze; Liu, An-Heng; Xue, Jian; Fu, Jin-Hui; Liang, Yu-Qian; Liu, Bing; Wu, Dong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has emerged as a new strategy for treatment of ischemic heart disease. Although umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have been used preferentially in the acute ischemia model, data for the chronic ischemia model are lacking. In this study, we investigated the effect of UC-MSCs originated from Wharton’s jelly in the treatment of chronic myocardial ischemia in a porcine model induced by ameroid constrictor. Four weeks after ameroid constrictor placement, the surviving animals were divided randomly into two groups to undergo saline injection (n = 6) or UC-MSC transplantation (n = 6) through the left main coronary artery. Two additional intravenous administrations of UC-MSCs were performed in the following 2 weeks to enhance therapeutic effect. Cardiac function and perfusion were examined just before and at 4 weeks after intracoronary transplantation. The results showed that pigs with UC-MSC transplantation exhibited significantly greater left ventricular ejection fraction compared with control animals (61.3% ± 1.3% vs. 50.3% ± 2.0%, p UC-MSC treatment improves left ventricular function, perfusion, and remodeling in a porcine model with chronic myocardial ischemia. Significance Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Many patients with chronic myocardial ischemia are not suitable for surgery and have no effective drug treatment; they are called “no-option” patients. This study finds that umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells transplanted by intracoronary delivery combined with two intravenous administrations was safe and could significantly improve left ventricular function, perfusion, and remodeling in a large-animal model of chronic myocardial ischemia, which provides a new choice for the no-option patients. In addition, this study used clinical-grade mesenchymal stem cells with delivery and assessment methods commonly used clinically to facilitate further clinical transformation. PMID

  18. Incisional left atrial isolation for ablation of atrial fibrillation in mitral valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Angelo; Branzoli, Stefano; Sinelli, Stefano; Vigano, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The renewed interest in surgical techniques for atrial fibrillation (AF) limited to the left atrium has risen the importance of the original technique of left atrial isolation by means of surgical incision. Transmurality of lesions and cost containment are strong elements to be appreciated in this technique.

  19. Isolated left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onan, İsmihan Selen; Sen, Onur; Gökalp, Selman; Onan, Burak

    2017-09-01

    Isolated left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection with intact interatrial septum is a rare diagnosis in childhood. In these cases, a vertical vein drains the left upper pulmonary lobe into the brachiocephalic vein and finally to the right atrium. Surgical treatment is performed to prevent right ventricular failure and pulmonary artery disease in advanced age. In this report, the rare entity of isolated left-sided anomalous pulmonary venous connection in a 14-year-old girl and successful minimally invasive surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass are described.

  20. Endosulfine, endogenous ligand for the sulphonylurea receptor: isolation from porcine brain and partial structural determination of the alpha form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virsolvy-Vergine, A; Salazar, G; Sillard, R; Denoroy, L; Mutt, V; Bataille, D

    1996-02-01

    Anti-diabetic sulphonylureas act via high affinity binding sites coupled to K-ATP channels. Endosulfine, an endogenous ligand for these binding sites, was shown to exist in two molecular forms, alpha and beta, in both the pancreas and the central nervous system. We describe here the isolation, and partial structural characterization of alpha endosulfine derived from porcine brains by means of a series of chromatography runs and gel electrophoresis. Porcine alpha endosulfine is a protein with a molecular mass of 13,196 daltons as determined by mass spectrometry and which is N-terminally blocked. Tryptic digestion followed by separation of the fragments by HPLC and automated Edman degradation yielded a total of 72 amino acids in four partial sequences. Comparison of these sequences with that present in the National Biomedical Research Foundation protein data bank indicated a 82% identity with a 112-amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 12,353 daltons called "cyclic AMP-regulated phosphoprotein-19', isolated from the bovine brain as a substrate for protein kinase A.

  1. Isolated persistent left superior vena cava: A case report and its clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarjit Bisoyi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The venous anomaly of a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC affects 0.3%-0.5% of the general population. PLSVC with absent right superior vena cava, also termed as "isolated PLSVC," is an extremely rare venous anomaly. Almost half of the patients with isolated PLSVC have cardiac anomalies in the form of atrial septal defect, endocardial cushion defects, or tetralogy of Fallot. Isolated PLSVC is usually innocuous. Its discovery, however, has important clinical implications. It can pose clinical difficulties with central venous access, cardiothoracic surgeries, and pacemaker implantation. When it drains to the left atrium, it may create a right to left shunt. In this case report, we present the incidental finding of isolated PLSVC in a patient who underwent aortic valve replacement. Awareness about this condition and its variations is important to avoid complications.

  2. Androgen receptor-mediated non-genomic effects of vinclozolin on porcine ovarian follicles and isolated granulosa cells: Vinclozolin and non-genomic effects in porcine ovarian follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartalski, Kamil; Knet-Seweryn, Malgorzata; Hoja-Lukowicz, Dorota; Tabarowski, Zbigniew; Duda, Malgorzata

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the influence of the androgen receptor (AR) agonists testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and vinclozolin (Vnz), a fungicide with antiandrogenic activity, on non-genomic signal transduction within ovarian follicles. Porcine granulosa cells (GCs) isolated from mature follicles were cultured for 48h. For the last 24h of culture, they were exposed to T (10(-7)M), DHT (10(-7)M), Vnz (1.4×10(-5)M), T and Vnz (T+Vnz), or DHT and Vnz (DHT+Vnz) at the same concentrations. To better imitate in vivo conditions, whole follicles (4-6mm in diameter) were incubated (24h) in an organ culture system with the same factors. Expression of AR mRNA and protein was determined by real-time PCR and western blot analyses. To demonstrate AR localization in cultured GCs and whole follicles, immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry were performed, respectively. To elucidate the possible non-genomic action of Vnz in GCs, protein expression and the activity of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases were determined by western blot and ELISA analyses. The immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry results showed that exposure of GCs and follicles to Vnz resulted in cytoplasmic and perinuclear AR localization. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis showed that AR mRNA and protein expression increased (P≤0.001) in GC cultures after combined treatment with an androgen and Vnz. In whole follicles, such treatment also increased AR mRNA with a decrease in the respective protein expression (P≤0.001). Moreover, addition of T or DHT with Vnz increased the activity of ERK1/2 and Akt kinases in cultured GCs (P≤0.001). The results suggest a novel mechanism for Vnz action in porcine ovarian follicles on both AR mRNA and protein levels. Thus, this environmental antiandrogen activates non-genomic signaling pathways, as indicated by the increased activity of both investigated kinases observed within minutes of Vnz addition. Given the widespread presence of Vnz in the

  3. Effects of extracellular matrices and growth factors on the development of isolated porcine blastomeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, S; Niemann, H

    1991-05-01

    The effects of extracellular matrices and growth factors on the development of isolated blastomeres derived from intact 4-, 8-, and 16-cell porcine embryos (termed, respectively, 1/4, 1/8, and 1/16 blastomeres) were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Blastomeres were incubated in extracellular matrix components fibronectin (FIN) or swine skin gelatin (SSG)-precoated culture dishes containing either modified Krebs' Ringer Bicarbonate solution (mKRB) supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated lamb serum, or Hanks' solution supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated newborn calf serum (NBCS) or Waymouth medium supplemented with 10% NBCS or in noncoated dishes in mKRB supplemented with either insulin (10, 100, or 1,000 micrograms/ml), transferrin (10, 100, or 1,000 micrograms/ml), or cAMP (0.2 or 2.0 micrograms/ml). Cultures observed at 24-h intervals and morphological development was recorded. Blastomeres were classified into three categories according to their morphology: (1) regular blastocysts, (2) trophectodermal vesicles, or (3) no development. After 96 h, culture was determined; the overall diameter of the blastocysts was determined and the nuclei were counted. Blastomeres/blastocysts did not adhere to the bottom of the culture dishes coated with extracellular matrices. Blastocyst formation rate was highest when FIN/mKRB was used and reached 44.3%, 41.8%, and 36.5% for 1/4, 1/8, and 1/16 blastomeres, respectively. The respective blastocysts contained an average of 31.2 +/- 5.8, 58.2 +/- 8.4, and 18.5 +/- 3.5 nuclei and had an overall diameter of 250.0 +/- 10.1, 235.0 +/- 12.8, and 172.5 +/- 13.7 microns, 1/8 blastomeres displayed a better (p less than 0.05) growth rate than 1/4 and 1/16 blastomeres, and 1/8 blastomeres in FIN/mKRB grew better (p less than 0.01) when cultured in an open system than in a microdrop under oil (35.5% vs. 5.0% blastocysts). Neither cAMP nor transferrin had a significant stimulating effect on blastocyst development of 1/8 blastomeres when m

  4. Genetic diversity, virulotyping and antimicrobial resistance susceptibility of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from pigs and porcine products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Kwai Lin; Tan, Lai Kuan; Ooi, Peck Toung

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine the antimicrobial resistance, virulotypes and genetic diversity of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from uncooked porcine food and live pigs in Malaysia. Thirty-two non-repeat Y. enterocolitica strains of three bioserotypes (3 variant/O:3, n = 27; 1B/O:8, n = 3; 1A/O:5, n = 2) were analysed. Approximately 90% of strains were multidrug-resistant with a multiple antibiotic resistance index Yersinia enterocolitica could be distinguished distinctly into three clusters by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, with each belonging to a particular bioserotype. Strains of 3 variant/O:3 were more heterogeneous than others. Eleven of the 15 virulence genes tested (hreP, virF, rfbC, myfA, sat, inv, ail, ymoA, ystA, tccC, yadA) and pYV virulence plasmid were present in all the bioserotpe 3 variant/03 strains. The occurrence of virulent strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs and porcine products reiterated that pigs are important reservoirs for Y. enterocolitica. The increasing trend of multidrug resistant strains is a public health concern. This is the first report on the occurrence of potential pathogenic and resistant strains of Y. enterocolitica in pigs in Malaysia. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Complete Genome Sequences of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Strains JSLS-1/2015 and JS-2/2015 Isolated from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Jie; Li, Benqiang; Zhang, Chunling; Liu, Huili

    2016-11-10

    Two porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) strains, JSLS-1/2015 and JS-2/2015, were isolated from piglets with watery diarrhea in South China. Two genomic sequences were highly homologous to the attenuated DR13 strain. Furthermore, JSLS-1/2015 contains a 24-amino-acid deletion in open reading frame 1b, which was first reported in PEDV isolates. Copyright © 2016 Tao et al.

  6. Generation of an infectious clone of VR-2332, a highly virulent North American type isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H.S.; Liu, G.; Nielsen, Jens

    2003-01-01

    A full-length cDNA clone of the prototypical North American porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolate VR-2332 was assembled in the plasmid vector pOK(12). To rescue infectious virus, capped RNA was transcribed in vitro from the pOK(12) clone and transfected into BHK-21C...... cells. The supernatant from transfected monolayers were serially passaged on Marc-145 cells and porcine pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Infectious PRRSV was recovered on Marc-145 cells as well as porcine pulmonary macrophages; thus, the cloned virus exhibited the same cell tropism as the parental VR......-2332 strain. However, the cloned virus was clearly distinguishable from the parental VR-2332 strain by an engineered marker, a BstZ171 restriction site. The full-length cDNA clone had 11 nucleotide changes, 2 of which affected coding, compared to the parental VR-2332 strain. Additionally...

  7. Effect of increased left ventricle mass on ischemia assessment in electrocardiographic signals: rabbit isolated heart study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ronzhina, M.; Olejníčková, Veronika; Stračina, T.; Nováková, M.; Janoušek, O.; Hejč, J.; Kolářová, J.; Hlaváčová, M.; Paulová, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, Aug 4 (2017), č. článku 216. ISSN 1471-2261 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : myocardial ischemia detection * increased left ventricular mass * electrogram * ROC analysis * isolated heart * rabbit Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Diseases incl. Cardiotharic Surgery OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 1.832, year: 2016

  8. Left ventricular mass regression is independent of gradient drop and effective orifice area after aortic valve replacement with a porcine bioprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sádaba, Justo Rafael; Herregods, Marie-Christine; Bogaert, Jan; Harringer, Wolfgang; Gerosa, Gino

    2012-11-01

    The question of whether left ventricular mass (LVM) regression following aortic valve replacement (AVR) is affected by the prosthesis indexed effective orifice area (IEOA) and transprosthetic gradient has not been fully elucidated. Data from a prospective, core-laboratory-reviewed echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study was used to determine if the degree of LVM regression following AVR with two types of porcine bioprosthesis in patients suffering from predominant aortic valve stenosis (AS) was related to the prosthesis IEOA and transprosthetic gradient. Over a two-year period, 149 patients enrolled at eight centers received either an Epic or an Epic Supra aortic bioprosthesis (St. Jude Medical, MN, USA). Preoperative valve dysfunction was pure AS in 54 patients (36%) and mixed valve disease (primarily stenosis) in 95 patients (64%). LVM was determined preoperatively and at six months postoperatively, using MRI. The prosthesis IEOA and transprosthetic gradient were calculated at six months by means of echocardiography. Data were available for 111 patients at both enrolment and six months postoperatively. The LVM at enrolment and at follow up was 154.96 +/- 42.50 g and 114.83 +/- 29.20 g, respectively (p regression methods, showed LVM regression to be independent of the mean systolic pressure gradient, peak systolic pressure and prosthesis IEOA at six months (p = 0.53, 0.43, and 0.15, respectively). At six months after AVR with a porcine bioprosthesis to treat AS, there was a significant LVM regression that was independent of the prosthesis IEOA and the mean systolic pressure gradient and peak systolic pressure.

  9. Segmentation of left ventricle myocardium in porcine cardiac cine MR images using a hybrid of fully convolutional neural networks and convolutional LSTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongqing; Icke, Ilknur; Dogdas, Belma; Parimal, Sarayu; Sampath, Smita; Forbes, Joseph; Bagchi, Ansuman; Chin, Chih-Liang; Chen, Antong

    2018-03-01

    In the development of treatments for cardiovascular diseases, short axis cardiac cine MRI is important for the assessment of various structural and functional properties of the heart. In short axis cardiac cine MRI, Cardiac properties including the ventricle dimensions, stroke volume, and ejection fraction can be extracted based on accurate segmentation of the left ventricle (LV) myocardium. One of the most advanced segmentation methods is based on fully convolutional neural networks (FCN) and can be successfully used to do segmentation in cardiac cine MRI slices. However, the temporal dependency between slices acquired at neighboring time points is not used. Here, based on our previously proposed FCN structure, we proposed a new algorithm to segment LV myocardium in porcine short axis cardiac cine MRI by incorporating convolutional long short-term memory (Conv-LSTM) to leverage the temporal dependency. In this approach, instead of processing each slice independently in a conventional CNN-based approach, the Conv-LSTM architecture captures the dynamics of cardiac motion over time. In a leave-one-out experiment on 8 porcine specimens (3,600 slices), the proposed approach was shown to be promising by achieving average mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) of 0.84, Hausdorff distance (HD) of 6.35 mm, and average perpendicular distance (APD) of 1.09 mm when compared with manual segmentations, which improved the performance of our previous FCN-based approach (average mean DSC=0.84, HD=6.78 mm, and APD=1.11 mm). Qualitatively, our model showed robustness against low image quality and complications in the surrounding anatomy due to its ability to capture the dynamics of cardiac motion.

  10. Long-acting beneficial effect of percutaneously intramyocardially delivered secretome of apoptotic peripheral blood cells on porcine chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavo, Noemi; Zimmermann, Matthias; Pils, Dietmar; Mildner, Michael; Petrási, Zsolt; Petneházy, Örs; Fuzik, János; Jakab, András; Gabriel, Christian; Sipos, Wolfgang; Maurer, Gerald; Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2014-04-01

    The quantity of cells with paracrine effects for use in myocardial regeneration therapy is limited. This study investigated the effects of catheter-based endomyocardial delivery of secretome of 2.5 × 10(9) apoptotic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (APOSEC) on porcine chronic post-myocardial infarction (MI) left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and on gene expression. Closed-chest reperfused MI was induced in pigs by 90-min occlusion followed by reperfusion of the mid-LAD (day 0). At day 30, animals were randomized to receive porcine APOSEC (n = 8) or medium solution (control; n = 8) injected intramyocardially into the MI border zone using 3D NOGA guidance. At day 60, cardiac MRI with late enhancement and diagnostic NOGA (myocardial viability) were performed. Gene expression profiling of the infarct core, border zone, and normal myocardium was performed using microarray analysis and confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. Injection of APOSEC significantly decreased infarct size (p < 0.05) and improved cardiac index and myocardial viability compared to controls. A trend towards higher LV ejection fraction was observed in APOSEC vs. controls (45.4 ± 5.9% vs. 37.4 ± 8.9%, p = 0.052). Transcriptome analysis revealed significant downregulation of caspase-1, tumor necrosis factor and other inflammatory genes in APOSEC-affected areas. rtPCR showed higher expression of myogenic factor Mefc2 (p < 0.05) and downregulated caspase genes (p < 0.05) in APOSEC-treated pigs. In conclusion, overexpression of MEF2c and repression of caspase was related to decreased infarct size and improved cardiac function in secretome-treated animals. Altered gene expression 1-month post-APOSEC treatment proved the long-acting effects of cell-free therapy with paracrine factors. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Left atrial electric isolation in the treatment of atrial fibrillation secondary to rheumatic valvular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A; Pagani, F; Minzioni, G; Salerno, J; Viganò, M

    1992-08-01

    Surgical isolation of the left atrium was performed for the treatment of chronic atrial fibrillation secondary to valvular disease in 100 patients who underwent valve surgery. From May 1989 to September 1991, 62 patients underwent mitral valve surgery (Group I), 19 underwent mitral valve surgery and DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty (Group II), 15 underwent mitral and aortic surgery (Group III), and 4 patients underwent mitral and aortic surgery and DeVega tricuspid annuloplasty (Group IV). Left atrial isolation was performed prolonging the usual left paraseptal atriotomy towards the left fibrous trigone anteriorly, and the postero-medial commissure posteriorly. The incision was conducted a few millimeters apart from the mitral valve annulus, and cryolesion were placed at the edges to ensure complete electrophysiological isolation of the left atrium. Operative mortality accounted for 3 cases (3%). In 79 patients (81.4%) sinus rhythm recovered and persisted until discharge from the hospital. No differences were found between the groups (Group I: 80.7%; Group II: 68.5%; Group III 86.7%, Group IV 75% - p = N.S.). Three cases of late mortality (3.1%) were registered. long-term results showed persistence of SR in 71% of Group I, 61.2% of Group II, 85.8% of Group III, and 100% of Group IV. The unique risk factor for late recurrency of atrial fibrillation was found to be a duration of preoperative AF longer than 6 months. Due to the high success rate in recovering the sinus rhythm, we suggest left atrial isolation in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation undergoing valvular surgery.

  12. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Agent Isolated from Medicinal Herb and Inhibition Kinetics of Extracts from Eleusine indica (L. Gaertner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Ling Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleusine indica (Linnaeus Gaertner is a traditional herb known to be depurative, febrifuge, and diuretic and has been reported with the highest inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL among thirty two plants screened in an earlier study. This study aims to isolate and identify the active components that may possess high potential as an antiobesity agent. Of the screened solvent fractions of E. indica, hexane fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity of 27.01±5.68% at 100 μg/mL. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded three compounds from the hexane fraction of E. indica, namely, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lutein. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral techniques. Lutein showed an outstanding inhibitory activity against PPL (55.98±1.04%, with activity 60% higher than that of the reference drug Orlistat. The other compounds isolated and identified were β-sitosterol (2.99±0.80% and stigmasterol (2.68±0.38%. The enzyme kinetics of E. indica crude methanolic extract on PPL showed mixed inhibition mechanism.

  13. Porcine Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Agent Isolated from Medicinal Herb and Inhibition Kinetics of Extracts from Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Siew Ling; Mah, Siau Hui; Lai, How Yee

    2016-01-01

    Eleusine indica (Linnaeus) Gaertner is a traditional herb known to be depurative, febrifuge, and diuretic and has been reported with the highest inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) among thirty two plants screened in an earlier study. This study aims to isolate and identify the active components that may possess high potential as an antiobesity agent. Of the screened solvent fractions of E. indica , hexane fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity of 27.01 ± 5.68% at 100  μ g/mL. Bioactivity-guided isolation afforded three compounds from the hexane fraction of E. indica , namely,  β -sitosterol, stigmasterol, and lutein. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using spectral techniques. Lutein showed an outstanding inhibitory activity against PPL (55.98 ± 1.04%), with activity 60% higher than that of the reference drug Orlistat. The other compounds isolated and identified were  β -sitosterol (2.99 ± 0.80%) and stigmasterol (2.68 ± 0.38%). The enzyme kinetics of E. indica crude methanolic extract on PPL showed mixed inhibition mechanism.

  14. Tissue ablation accelerated by peripheral scanning mode with high-intensity focused ultrasound: a study on isolated porcine liver perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Rui; Yin, Li; Yang, Han; Wang, Qi; Wu, Feng; Zou, Jian Zhong

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of accelerated tissue ablation using a peripheral scanning mode with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to explore the effect of flow rate on total energy consumption of the target tissues. Using a model of isolated porcine liver perfusion via the portal vein and hepatic artery, we conducted a scanning protocol along the periphery of the target tissues using linear-scanned HIFU to carefully adjust the varying focal depth, generator power, scanning velocity and line-by-line interval over the entire ablation range. Porcine livers were divided into four ablation groups: group 1, n = 12, with dual-vessel perfusion; group 2, n = 11, with portal vein perfusion alone; group 3, n = 10, with hepatic artery perfusion alone; and group 4, n = 11, control group with no-flow perfusion. The samples were cut open consecutively at a thickness of 3 mm, and the actual ablation ranges were calculated along the periphery of the target tissues after triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Total energy consumption was calculated as the sum of the energy requirements at various focal depths in each group. On the basis of the pre-supposed scanning protocol, the peripheral region of the target tissue formed a complete coagulation necrosis barrier in each group with varying dose combinations, and the volume of the peripheral necrotic area did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). Furthermore, total energy consumption in each group significantly decreased with the corresponding decrease in flow rate (p Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolated left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy associated with polymorphous ventricular tachycardia mimicking torsades de pointes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Dickinson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC cardiomyopathy is a rare congenital disorder, classified by the American Heart Association as a primary genetic cardiomyopathy and characterized by multiple trabeculations within the left ventricle. LVNC cardiomyopathy has been associated with 3 major clinical manifestations: heart failure, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic events, including stroke. In this case report, we describe a female patient with apparently isolated LVNC in whom pause-dependent polymorphic ventricular tachycardia suggesting torsades de pointes occurred in the presence of a normal QT interval.

  16. Brain Abscess Associated with Isolated Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Left Atrium in the Absence of Coronary Sinus and Atrial Septal Defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erol, Ilknur; Cetin, I. Ilker; Alehan, Fuesun; Varan, Birguel; Ozkan, Sueleyman; Agildere, A. Muhtesem; Tokel, Kursad

    2006-01-01

    A previously healthy 12-year-old girl presented with severe headache for 2 weeks. On physical examination, there was finger clubbing without apparent cyanosis. Neurological examination revealed only papiledema without focal neurologic signs. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed the characteristic features of brain abscess in the left frontal lobe. Cardiologic workup to exclude a right-to-left shunt showed an abnormality of the systemic venous drainage: presence of isolated left superior vena cava draining into the left atrium in the absence of coronary sinus and atrial septal defect. This anomaly is rare, because only a few other cases have been reported

  17. Recurrence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma isolated to the right masticator and left psoas muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, S.E.J.; Chavda, S.V.; West, R.

    2000-01-01

    We present the clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a patient who, following treatment for pancreatic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), relapsed with apparently isolated involvement of the right masticator space and left psoas muscles. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising from the masticator space muscles is very rare. In addition, simultaneous lymphomatous involvement of multiple discrete skeletal muscle sites, in the absence of disease elsewhere, has previously only been reported in the limb or limb girdle muscles. Lymphoma should be considered as a cause of isolated enlarged skeletal muscles, even when involving such distant sites. (orig.)

  18. Lyme carditis with isolated left bundle branch block and myocarditis successfully treated with oral doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Elyasi, Maekal; Singh, Prince; Jimada, Ismail

    2018-01-01

    Lyme disease may present with a variety of cardiac manifestations ranging from first degree to third degree heart block. Cardiac involvement with Lyme disease may be asymptomatic, or symptomatic. Atrioventrical conduction abnormalities are the most common manifestation of Lyme carditis. Less common, are alternating right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left bundle branch block (LBBB). We present an interesting case of a young male whose main manifestation of Lyme carditis was isolated LBBB. He also had mild Lyme myocarditis. The patient was successfully treated with oral doxycycline, and his isolated LBBB and myocarditis rapidly resolved.

  19. Further characterization of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, M; Aspán, A; Landén, A; Franklin, A

    2004-04-01

    Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is the causative agent of swine dysentery, a severe diarrhoeal disease in pigs. Few drugs are available to treat the disease, owing to both antimicrobial resistance and withdrawal of drugs authorized for use in pigs. Tiamulin is the drug of choice in many countries, but isolates with decreased susceptibility have recently been reported. The mechanism of tiamulin resistance in B. hyodysenteriae is not known and this facet is essential to understand the dissemination of the trait. To study the resistance epidemiology of B. hyodysenteriae, further characterization of a set of isolates from Germany (n = 16) and the UK (n = 6) with decreased susceptibility to tiamulin was performed. The relatedness between the isolates was studied by comparing PFGE patterns, and the in vitro susceptibility to five other antimicrobials (aivlosin, doxycycline, salinomycin, chloramphenicol and avilamycin) was also determined. For comparison of the antimicrobial-susceptibility pattern, Swedish (n = 20) and British (n = 4) tiamulin-susceptible isolates were tested. The German isolates represented several different PFGE patterns, indicating that tiamulin usage has been sufficient to select clones with decreased tiamulin susceptibility at different farms in Germany. The PFGE pattern for the six British isolates with decreased tiamulin susceptibility was identical to that of the German isolates, and they had a similar antimicrobial-susceptibility pattern, except for resistance to aivlosin, which was only found in a few German isolates. No other co-resistance with tiamulin was found.

  20. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: antigenic and molecular diversity of British isolates and implications for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Jean-Pierre; Fearnley, Catherine; Naidu, Brindha; Errington, Jane; Westcott, David G; Drew, Trevor W

    2012-08-17

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an endemic disease of pigs, caused by PRRS virus, a member of the Arteriviridae family. First seen in Britain in 1991, the disease continues to be a significant economic and welfare problem for pig producers. To date, only PRRSV genotype 1 has been found in Britain. At the genetic level, a considerable increase has been reported in the diversity of PRRS viruses isolated in Britain between 2003 and 2007, versus the early 1990 s. In this study, the diversity has been shown to extend to the antigenic level too, with potential consequences for diagnostic methods. Antigenic diversity was assessed using a panel of twelve monoclonal antibodies, only one of which reacted with all isolates tested. Nine diverse viruses were compared as potential antigens in immunoperoxidase monolayer assays, where each one produced quite different results for a common panel of sera. As a single virus is used in each diagnostic assay, results must therefore be interpreted cautiously. For a real-time RT-PCR assay, published oligonucleotide primer and probe sequences were evaluated against available genetic sequences of British and European viruses, and were re-designed where considerable mismatches were found. The multiplex assay incorporating these modified primers to detect genotype 1 and 2 PRRS viruses was then validated for use with diagnostic sera and tissues. As the increasing degree of diversity exhibited by British strains is mirrored in other countries, PRRSV will continue to provide an ongoing challenge to diagnosis at a global, as well as national level. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Remodelling of cardiac sympathetic re-innervation with thoracic spinal cord stimulation improves left ventricular function in a porcine model of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Song-Yan; Liu, Yuan; Zuo, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuelin; Yue, Wensheng; Au, Ka-Wing; Lai, Wing-Hon; Wu, Yangsong; Shuto, Chika; Chen, Peter; Siu, Chung-Wah; Schwartz, Peter J; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2015-12-01

    Thoracic spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to improve left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in heart failure (HF). Nevertheless, the optimal duration (intermittent vs. continuous) of stimulation and the mechanisms of action remain unclear. We performed chronic thoracic SCS at the level of T1-T3 (50 Hz, pulse width 0.2 ms) in 30 adult pigs with HF induced by myocardial infarction and rapid ventricular pacing for 4 weeks. All the animals were treated with daily oral metoprolol succinate (25 mg) plus ramipril (2.5 mg), and randomized to a control group (n = 10), intermittent SCS (4 h ×3, n = 10) or continuous SCS (24 h, n = 10) for 10 weeks. Serial measurements of LVEF and +dP/dt and serum levels of norepinephrine and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured. After sacrifice, immunohistological studies of myocardial sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve sprouting and innervation were performed. Echocardiogram revealed a significant increase in LVEF and +dP/dt at 10 weeks in both the intermittent and continuous SCS group compared with controls (P < 0.05). In both SCS groups, there was diffuse sympathetic nerve sprouting over the infarct, peri-infarct, and normal regions compared with only the peri-infarct and infarct regions in the control group. In addition, sympathetic innervation at the peri-infarct and infarct regions was increased following SCS, but decreased in the control group. Myocardium norepinephrine spillover and serum BNP at 10 weeks was significantly decreased only in the continuous SCS group (P < 0.05). In a porcine model of HF, SCS induces significant remodelling of cardiac sympathetic innervation over the peri-infarct and infarct regions and is associated with improved LV function and reduced myocardial norepinephrine spillover. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Gender differences in left ventricular function in patients with isolated aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favero, Luca; Giordan, Massimo; Tarantini, Giuseppe; Ramondo, Angelo Bruno; Cardaioli, Paolo; Isabella, Giambattista; Chioin, Raffaello; Lupia, Mario; Razzolini, Renato

    2003-05-01

    Hypertrophic response of the left ventricle to systolic overload in aortic stenosis appears to be gender-dependent. To examine gender-related differences in left ventricular (LV) function in patients with isolated severe aortic stenosis, 145 patients (65 women, 80 men; mean age 66 +/- 8 years; range: 50 to 89 years) with aortic valve area 199 mmHg, the mass:volume ratio was increased in men compared with women; of note, the mass:volume ratio in women was not increased in this subgroup compared with the general population. LV pump function in this subgroup was normal and did not differ between men and women. Although no clear-cut difference in hemodynamic parameters was seen, there was a trend towards a less compensatory increase in LV mass in females.

  3. Late Ratchet syndrome involving isolated left ventricular lead dislodgement post-cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator generator change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Vern Hsen; Wong, Kelvin

    2018-04-01

    Lead dislodgement following cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) generator change is rare. We report a case including the postulate mechanism of an isolated left ventricular lead dislodgement 3 months after cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator pulse generator change.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both species (in total 906 isolates) were compiled and analyzed and wild type cut off values for B. hyodysenteriae proposed. Methods The MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, doxycycline and lincomycin were determined by broth dilution in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Results The compiled MICs from the broth dilution tests of the B. hyodysenteriae type strain, B78T (ATCC® 27164T), showed that the method yields reproducible results. In an international perspective the frequencies of isolates with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility were low among both B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. However, in B. pilosicoli a constant level of 10-15% isolates with tiamulin MICs >4 μg/ml was detected between 2002 and 2010 and in B. hyodysenteriae a gradual increase in tiamulin MICs was seen between 1990 and 2003 although this increase has ceased during the last years. The wild type cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae are: tiamulin >0.25 μg/ml, valnemulin >0.125 μg/ml, tylosin >16 μg/ml, tylvalosin >1 μg/ml, lincomycin >1 μg/ml and doxycycline >0.5 μg/ml. Conclusions The broth dilution method used in this study has over the years generated tightly grouped MIC populations for the field isolates and reproducible results for the control strain B78T and is therefore a suitable antimicrobial susceptibility test method for monitoring of Brachyspira spp. Here we propose wild type cutoff values for six antimicrobial agents for B. hyodysenteriae

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Märit; Landén, Annica; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Molander, Benedicta; Bengtsson, Björn

    2012-09-21

    The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both species (in total 906 isolates) were compiled and analyzed and wild type cut off values for B. hyodysenteriae proposed. The MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, doxycycline and lincomycin were determined by broth dilution in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. The compiled MICs from the broth dilution tests of the B. hyodysenteriae type strain, B78T (ATCC® 27164T), showed that the method yields reproducible results. In an international perspective the frequencies of isolates with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility were low among both B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. However, in B. pilosicoli a constant level of 10-15% isolates with tiamulin MICs >4 μg/ml was detected between 2002 and 2010 and in B. hyodysenteriae a gradual increase in tiamulin MICs was seen between 1990 and 2003 although this increase has ceased during the last years. The wild type cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae are: tiamulin >0.25 μg/ml, valnemulin >0.125 μg/ml, tylosin >16 μg/ml, tylvalosin >1 μg/ml, lincomycin >1 μg/ml and doxycycline >0.5 μg/ml. The broth dilution method used in this study has over the years generated tightly grouped MIC populations for the field isolates and reproducible results for the control strain B78T and is therefore a suitable antimicrobial susceptibility test method for monitoring of Brachyspira spp. Here we propose wild type cutoff values for six antimicrobial agents for B. hyodysenteriae tested by broth dilution based on MIC

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of porcine Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli isolated in Sweden between 1990 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pringle Märit

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic spirochetes Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Brachyspira pilosicoli cause diarrheal diseases in pigs. Their fastidious nature has hampered standardization of methods for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. For monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility wild type cutoff values are needed to define where the wild type distribution of MICs ends and no approved cutoffs are available for Brachyspira spp. In this study antimicrobial susceptibility data for both species (in total 906 isolates were compiled and analyzed and wild type cut off values for B. hyodysenteriae proposed. Methods The MICs of tiamulin, valnemulin, tylosin, tylvalosin, doxycycline and lincomycin were determined by broth dilution in brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. Results The compiled MICs from the broth dilution tests of the B. hyodysenteriae type strain, B78T (ATCC® 27164T, showed that the method yields reproducible results. In an international perspective the frequencies of isolates with decreased antimicrobial susceptibility were low among both B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli. However, in B. pilosicoli a constant level of 10-15% isolates with tiamulin MICs >4 μg/ml was detected between 2002 and 2010 and in B. hyodysenteriae a gradual increase in tiamulin MICs was seen between 1990 and 2003 although this increase has ceased during the last years. The wild type cutoff values proposed for B. hyodysenteriae are: tiamulin >0.25 μg/ml, valnemulin >0.125 μg/ml, tylosin >16 μg/ml, tylvalosin >1 μg/ml, lincomycin >1 μg/ml and doxycycline >0.5 μg/ml. Conclusions The broth dilution method used in this study has over the years generated tightly grouped MIC populations for the field isolates and reproducible results for the control strain B78T and is therefore a suitable antimicrobial susceptibility test method for monitoring of Brachyspira spp. Here we propose wild type cutoff values for six antimicrobial

  7. Occurrence of mannose resistant hemagglutinins in Escherichia coli strains isolated from porcine colibacillosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truszczyński, M; Osek, J

    1987-01-01

    Three-hundred and fifty-eight E. coli strains isolated from piglets were tested for the presence of hemagglutinins by the use of the active hemagglutination test with or without mannose. Additionally 86 strains from the mentioned number of strains were investigated for the presence of common fimbriae using the same method but growing the strains in media especially suited for the development of this kind of fimbriae. These 358 strains and additionally 202 E. coli strains were tested using antisera for 987P and K88 antigens. It was found, using the active hemagglutination test, that 51.4% of the strains were hemagglutinating. The hemagglutinating strains carried the K88 antigen. All these strains were isolated from new-born and weaned piglets with enterotoxic form of colibacillosis, called also E. coli diarrhea. From cases of this form of colibacillosis originated also 26.7% of the strains in which common fimbriae (type 1) were detected. This result was obtained when the BHI medium was used for cultivation. In case of TSA medium only 2.3% of strains were positive. No specific or common fimbriae were found in strains recovered from septic form of colibacillosis and oedema disease (called also enterotoxaemic form of colibacillosis). No strain of 560 examined showed the presence of fimbrial 987P antigen.

  8. Whole genome characterization of a novel porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 1 isolate: Genetic evidence for recombination between Amervac vaccine and circulating strains in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nanhua; Liu, Qiaorong; Qiao, Mingming; Deng, Xiaoyu; Chen, Xizhao; Sun, Ming

    2017-10-01

    Genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV 1) have been continuously isolated in China in recent years. Complete genome sequences of these isolates are important to investigate the prevalence and evolution of Chinese PRRSV 1. Herein, we describe the isolation of a novel PRRSV 1 isolate, denominated HLJB1, in the Heilongjiang province of China. Complete genome sequencing of HLJB1 showed that it shares 90.66% and 58.21% nucleotide identities with PRRSV 1 and 2 prototypic strains Lelystad virus and ATCC VR-2332, respectively. HLJB1 has a unique 5-amino-acid insertion in nsp2, which has never been described in other PRRSV 1 isolates. Whole genome-based phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Chinese PRRSV 1 isolates are clustered in pan-European subtype 1 and can be divided into four subgroups. HLJB1 resides in the subgroup of BJEU06-1-like isolates but is also closely related to the Amervac-like isolates. Additionally, recombination analyses suggested that HLJB1 is a recombinant from the Amervac vaccine and the BJEU06-1 isolate. To our best knowledge, our results provide the first genetic evidence for recombination between Amervac vaccine and circulating strains. These findings are also beneficial for studying the origin and evolution of PRRSV 1 in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Experimental inoculation of late term pregnant sows with a field isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome vaccine-derived virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens; Bøtner, Anette; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foctuses, stillborn pigs, and dead: piglets, indicating that the l......The use of a live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vaccine in piglets has been associated with reproductive disorders in non-vaccinated sows. Vaccine-derived virus (VDV) has been isolated from foctuses, stillborn pigs, and dead: piglets, indicating...... than 99.6% identity to the attenuated vaccine virus, originated from the lungs of a stillborn pig from a swine herd with a sudden high level of stillborn pigs and increased piglet mortality in the nursing period. Intranasal inoculation of sows with the virus isolate resulted in congenital infection......, foetal death, and preweaning pig mortality. As such, the present study showed that vaccine-derived PRRSV can cause disease in swine consistent with PRRS....

  10. Mycotoxin production by Fusarium avenaceum strains isolated from Norwegian grain and the cytotoxicity of rice culture extracts to porcine kidney epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ellen; Kosiak, Barbara; Ritieni, Alberto; Aastveit, Are H; Uhlig, Silvio; Bernhoft, Aksel

    2002-05-08

    The secondary metabolites of 24 isolates of Fusarium avenaceum from Norwegian cereals and grown on rice have been characterized. Moniliformin (MON), enniatins (ENNs), and beauvericin (BEA) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Porcine kidney epithelial cells (PK15, American Type Culture Collection) were used to study the cytotoxicity of MON in the extracts. The following metabolites were produced by all isolates, ranked by concentration in rice cultures: ENN-B, MON, ENN-B1, and ENN-A. BEA was produced by eight isolates. The productions of BEA and ENN-A were significantly correlated, as was the case with ENN-B and ENN-B1. MON production was correlated neither to any of the other toxins nor to toxicity.

  11. Demonstration that Australian Pasteurella multocida isolates from sporadic outbreaks of porcine pneumonia are non-toxigenic (toxA-) and display heterogeneous DNA restriction endonuclease profiles compared with toxigenic isolates from herds with progressive atrophic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, S P; Eamens, G J; Ha, H; Walker, M J; Chin, J C

    1998-08-01

    Capsular types A and D of Pasteurella multocida cause economic losses in swine because of their association with progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) and enzootic pneumonia. There have been no studies comparing whole-cell DNA profiles of isolates associated with these two porcine respiratory diseases. Twenty-two isolates of P. multocida from diseased pigs in different geographic localities within Australia were characterised genotypically by restriction endonuclease analysis (REA) with the enzyme CfoI. Seven of 12 P. multocida isolates from nasal swabs from pigs in herds where PAR was either present or suspected displayed a capsular type D phenotype. These were shown to possess the toxA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern hybridisation, and further substantiated by production of cytotoxin in vitro. The CfoI profile of one of these seven isolates, which was from the initial outbreak of PAR in Australia (in Western Australia, WA), was identical with profiles of all six other toxigenic isolates from sporadic episodes in New South Wales (NSW). The evidence suggests that the strain involved in the initial outbreak was responsible for the spread of PAR to the eastern states of Australia. Another 10 isolates, representing both capsular types A and D, were isolated exclusively from porcine lung lesions after sporadic outbreaks of enzootic pneumonia in NSW and WA. CfoI restriction endonuclease profiles of these isolates revealed considerable genomic heterogeneity. Furthermore, none of these possessed the toxA gene. This suggests that P. multocida strains with the toxA gene do not have a competitive survival advantage in the lower respiratory tract or that toxin production does not play a role in the pathology of pneumonic lesions, or both. REA with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining was found to be a practical and discriminatory tool for epidemiological tracing of P. multocida outbreaks associated with PAR or pneumonia in pigs.

  12. Extrinsic control of the release of galanin and VIP from intrinsic nerves of isolated, perfused, porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messell, T; Harling, H; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1992-01-01

    By immunohistochemistry galanin-like immunoreactivity and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-like immunoreactivity were found in nerve cell bodies mostly in the submucous plexus and in nerve fibres in the mucosa, submucosa and muscularis including the myenteric plexus of the porcine ileum an...... was not influenced by atropine. Our results suggest that the galanin- and VIP-producing intrinsic neurons receive inhibitory signals by noradrenergic nerve fibers and stimulatory signals mediated by cholinergic nerves, possibly via a cholinergic interneuron....

  13. Physiologic capacity of well-developed collaterals in patients with isolated left anterior descending artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Kazuyuki; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ono, Norihisa; Ohtani, Seiji; Mori, Noriko; Yokoyama, Shoichi; Hoshino, Tsuneo; Kaburagi, Tsuneo; Kurata, Chinori.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the physiologic significance of well-developed collaterals, 34 patients, with isolated left anterior descending artery disease (LAD) and without overt prior myocardial infarction, underwent cardiac catheterization and exercise thallium-201 emission computed tomography. The patients were divided into 3 groups: 11 patients with 90% stenosis of the proximal LAD and without collaterals (group 1), 11 with 99% stenosis of the proximal LAD, and without collaterals (group 2) and 12 with a total occlusion of the proximal LAD which was completely filled by well-developed collaterals (group 3). On left ventriculography, shortening fractions of the anterior wall were significantly reduced in group 2 as compared to groups 1 and 3 (group 1 vs group 2: p<0.01, group 2 vs group 3: p<0.05), which reflected the lower ejection fraction of group 2 (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). The perfusion defects of the anterior wall on both the initial and the delayed images were severer in groups 2 and 3 than in group 1 (group 1 vs group 2 and group 1 vs group 3 on the initial image: p<0.01, for both, group 1 vs group 2 and group 1 vs group 3 on the delayed image: p<0.05, for both). However, recovery of the perfusion defects from the initial image to the delayed image was better in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2 (group 1 vs group 2 and group 1 vs group 3: p<0.05, for both). Therefore, coronary blood flow through well-developed collaterals was considered to be comparable to the flow through a diseased vessel with 90% stenosis at rest. During maximal exercise, blood flow through well-developed collaterals was considered to be comparable to the flow through a diseased vessel with 99% stenosis, although the blood flow through well-developed collaterals was considered to be better than that through 99% stenosis during the recovery period. These findings suggest that patients with well-developed collaterals must be treated like those with severe stenosis. (author)

  14. Study of the virulence and cross-neutralization capability of recent porcine parvovirus field isolates and vaccine viruses in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeuw, E J L; Leinecker, N; Herwig, V; Selbitz, H-J; Truyen, U

    2007-02-01

    The pathogenicity of two recent German field isolates of Porcine parvovirus (PPV-27a and PPV-143a) and two vaccine viruses [PPV-NADL-2 and PPV-IDT (MSV)], which are used for the production of inactivated vaccines, was investigated by inoculation of pregnant sows at day 40 of gestation. Post-infection sera of these sows as well as antisera prepared in rabbits by immunization with the four above-mentioned PPV isolates and with the virulent strain PPV-Challenge (Engl.) were tested for their homologous and heterologous neutralization activities. All antisera had high neutralization activity against the vaccine viruses, the PPV-Challenge (Engl.) virus and PPV-143a, but much lower activity against PPV-27a. These results suggest that PPV-27a represents a new antigenic variant or type of PPV and vaccines based on the established vaccine viruses may not be fully protective against this field isolate. PPV-27a has been characterized based on the amino acid sequences of the capsid protein as a member of a new and distinct PPV cluster (Zimmermann et al., 2006). Interestingly, the homologous neutralizing antibody titres of the sera of all three pigs and both rabbits inoculated or immunized with PPV-27a were 100- to 1000-fold lower than the heterologous titres against any of the other viruses. The low homologous neutralizing antibody titres suggest a possible, yet undefined, immune escape mechanism of this PPV isolate.

  15. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance findings in a pediatric population with isolated left ventricular non-compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uribe Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isolated Left Ventricular Non-compaction (LVNC is an uncommon disorder characterized by the presence of increased trabeculations and deep intertrabecular recesses. In adults, it has been found that Ejection Fraction (EF decreases significantly as non-compaction severity increases. In children however, there are a few data describing the relation between anatomical characteristics of LVNC and ventricular function. We aimed to find correlations between morphological features and ventricular performance in children and young adolescents with LVNC using Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (CMR. Methods 15 children with LVNC (10 males, mean age 9.7 y.o., range 0.6 - 17 y.o., underwent a CMR scan. Different morphological measures such as the Compacted Myocardial Mass (CMM, Non-Compaction (NC to the Compaction (C distance ratio, Compacted Myocardial Area (CMA and Non-Compacted Myocardial Area (NCMA, distribution of NC, and the assessment of ventricular wall motion abnormalities were performed to investigate correlations with ventricular performance. EF was considered normal over 53%. Results The distribution of non-compaction in children was similar to published adult data with a predilection for apical, mid-inferior and mid-lateral segments. Five patients had systolic dysfunction with decreased EF. The number of affected segments was the strongest predictor of systolic dysfunction, all five patients had greater than 9 affected segments. Basal segments were less commonly affected but they were affected only in these five severe cases. Conclusion The segmental pattern of involvement of non-compaction in children is similar to that seen in adults. Systolic dysfunction in children is closely related to the number of affected segments.

  16. Effect of Australian propolis from stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria on pre-contracted human and porcine isolated arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia C Massaro

    Full Text Available Bee propolis is a mixture of plant resins and bee secretions. While bioactivity of honeybee propolis has been reported previously, information is limited on propolis from Australian stingless bees (Tetragonula carbonaria. The aim of this study was to investigate possible vasomodulatory effects of propolis in KCl-precontracted porcine coronary arteries using an ex vivo tissue bath assay. Polar extracts of propolis produced a dose-dependent relaxant response (EC50=44.7±7.0 μg/ml, which was unaffected by endothelial denudation, suggesting a direct effect on smooth muscle. Propolis markedly attenuated a contractile response to Ca(2+ in vessels that were depolarised with 60 mM KCl, in Ca(2+-free Krebs solution. Propolis (160 µg/ml reduced vascular tone in KCl pre-contracted vessels to near-baseline levels over 90 min, and this effect was partially reversible with 6 h washout. Some loss in membrane integrity, but no loss in mitochondrial function was detected after 90 min exposure of human cultured umbilical vein endothelial cells to 160 µg/ml propolis. We conclude that Australian stingless bee (T. carbonaria propolis relaxes porcine coronary artery in an endothelial-independent manner that involves inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels. This effect is partially and slowly reversible upon washout. Further studies are required to determine the therapeutic potential of Australian stingless bee propolis for conditions in which vascular supply is compromised.

  17. Characterization and Evaluation of Neuronal Trans-Differentiation with Electrophysiological Properties of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Porcine Endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Baregundi Subbarao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal cells (EMSCs obtained from porcine uterus (n = 6 were positive for mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD29, CD44 and CD90, and negative for epithelial marker CD9 and hematopoietic markers CD34, CD45 analyzed by flow cytometry. Further the cells were positive for expression of mesenchymal markers, CD105, CD140b, and CD144 by PCR. Pluripotent markers OCT4, SOX2, and NANOG were positively expressed in EMSCs analyzed by Western blotting and PCR. Further, differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes was confirmed by cytochemical staining and lineage specific gene expression by quantitative realtime-PCR. Adipocyte (FABP, LPL, AP2 and osteocyte specific genes (ON, BG, RUNX2 in differentiated EMSCs showed significant (p < 0.05 increase in expression compared to undifferentiated control cells. Neurogenic transdifferentiation of EMSCs exhibited distinctive dendritic morphology with axon projections and neuronal specific genes, NFM, NGF, MBP, NES, B3T and MAP2 and proteins, B3T, NFM, NGF, and TRKA were positively expressed in neuronal differentiated cells. Functional analysis of neuronal differentiated EMSCs displayed voltage-dependence and kinetics for transient outward K+ currents (Ito, at holding potential of −80 mV, Na+ currents and during current clamp, neuronal differentiated EMSCs was more negative than that of control EMSCs. Porcine EMSCs is a suitable model for studying molecular mechanism of transdifferentiation, assessment of electrophysiological properties and their efficiency during in vivo transplantation.

  18. Isolation of the Left Innominate Artery with a Right Aortic Arch in a 76 year-old Man: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick; Bae, Won Kyung [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Isolation of the left innominate artery is a rare anomaly and is usually combined with a right side aortic arch. Most patients are neonates or children with congenital heart disease. We report the MDCT findings of a right aortic arch and isolation of the left innominate artery in a 76-year-old man without congenital heart disease

  19. Crude extract and purified components isolated from the stems of Tinospora crispa exhibit positive inotropic effects on the isolated left atrium of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praman, Siwaporn; Mulvany, Michael J.; Williams, David E.

    2013-01-01

    of 5 bioactive compounds: higenamine, salsolinol, tyramine, adenosine and uridine. Higenamine, salsolinol (at low concentration) and tyramine acted via the adrenergic receptors to increase the force of the atrial contraction, whereas a high concentration of salsolinol acted indirectly by stimulating...... an increase in the force of contraction of the electrical field stimulated left atrium. This effect was inhibited by propranolol, atenolol, ICI-118,551, phentolamine and atropine. The positive inotropic effect on the reserpenized isolated left atrium of the Tinospora crispa extract was significantly inhibited...... by propranolol, atenolol and ICI-118,551. Phentolamine, on the other hand, caused potentiation and the effect was inhibited when propranolol was also added. Higenamine caused an increase in the force of contraction of the electrical field stimulated left atrium and this effect was significantly inhibited by ICI...

  20. Isolated persistent left-sided superior vena cava, giant coronary sinus, atrial tachycardia and heart failure in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja Moorthy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Persistence of a left-sided superior vena cava (PLSVC with absent right superior vena cava (isolated PLSVC is a very rare venous malformation and commonly associated with congenital heart disease or alterations of the cardiac situs. We describe an unusual case of a young boy presenting with persistent atrial tachycardia and congestive heart failure. He was detected to have unexplained grossly dilated right atrium, right ventricle with systolic dysfunction and a giant coronary sinus (CS. The dilated CS closely mimicked a pseudo cor-triatriatum on echocardiography. Contrast echocardiography from both arms revealed opacification of the CS before the right atrium. Bilateral upper limb venography confirmed the presence of absent right SVC and isolated persistent left SVC draining into the giant coronary sinus.

  1. Characterization of three porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates from a single swine farm bearing strong homology to a vaccine strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-feng; Xia, Tian-qi; Zhou, Yan-jun; Yu, Ling-xue; Yang, Shen; Huang, Qin-feng; Li, Li-wei; Gao, Fei; Qu, Ze-hui; Tong, Wu; Tong, Guang-zhi

    2015-09-30

    Three porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses (PRRSV), NT1, NT2, and NT3, were isolated from three dying piglets from a single pig farm in Jiangsu Province, China. Whole genome sequencing revealed that the three isolates share the highest homology with JXA1-P80, an attenuated vaccine strain developed by serial passage of highly pathogenic PRRSV JXA1 in MARC-145 cells. More than ten amino acids residues in ORF1a, ORF1b, GP4, and GP5 that were thought to be unique to JXA1 attenuated on MARC-145 cells were each found in the corresponding locations of NT1, NT2, and NT3. In virulence assays, piglets infected with NT1, NT2, or NT3 exhibited clinical signs of disease, including high fever, anorexia, and respiratory distress, leading to the death of the majority of the piglets within two weeks. Collectively, these data indicate that NT1, NT2, and NT3 are highly pathogenic PRRSVs and they are likely to be revertants of the vaccine strain JXA1-P80. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental reproduction of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in pigs in Sweden and Denmark with a Swedish isolate of porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasslung, F.; Wallgren, P.; Hansen, Anne-Sofie Ladekjær

    2005-01-01

    An experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). A Swed......An experimental model using 3-day-old snatch-farrowed colostrum-deprived piglets co-infected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) is at present one of the best methods to study factors affecting development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS...

  3. The determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected antimicrobials for porcine Haemophilus parasuis isolates from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus parasuis isolates obtained from pigs in the Czech Republic were tested for their susceptibility to amoxicillin, penicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, and tulathromycin by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations using the broth microdilution method. The H. parasuis isolates were mostly susceptible to majority of tested antimicrobials (amoxicillin 90%, penicillin 73.3%, enrofloxacin 83.3%, and tulathromycin 83.3%. All isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur. On the other hand, no isolate was susceptible to tetracycline, 30% of tested isolates were intermediately susceptible, and 70% were resistant. These findings indicate that tested antimicrobials with the exception of tetracycline should be the preferred option used for the treatment of infection caused by H. parasuis but due to the potential transmission of resistance from animals to humans, the use of ceftiofur is considered as a last resort option in antimicrobial treatment of animals.

  4. Cell culture isolation and sequence analysis of genetically diverse US porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains including a novel strain with a large deletion in the spike gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Tomoichiro; Saif, Linda J; Marthaler, Douglas; Esseili, Malak A; Meulia, Tea; Lin, Chun-Ming; Vlasova, Anastasia N; Jung, Kwonil; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qiuhong

    2014-10-10

    The highly contagious and deadly porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) first appeared in the US in April 2013. Since then the virus has spread rapidly nationwide and to Canada and Mexico causing high mortality among nursing piglets and significant economic losses. Currently there are no efficacious preventive measures or therapeutic tools to control PEDV in the US. The isolation of PEDV in cell culture is the first step toward the development of an attenuated vaccine, to study the biology of PEDV and to develop in vitro PEDV immunoassays, inactivation assays and screen for PEDV antivirals. In this study, nine of 88 US PEDV strains were isolated successfully on Vero cells with supplemental trypsin and subjected to genomic sequence analysis. They differed genetically mainly in the N-terminal S protein region as follows: (1) strains (n=7) similar to the highly virulent US PEDV strains; (2) one similar to the reportedly US S INDEL PEDV strain; and (3) one novel strain most closely related to highly virulent US PEDV strains, but with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. Representative strains of these three genetic groups were passaged serially and grew to titers of ∼5-6log10 plaque forming units/mL. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation in cell culture of an S INDEL PEDV strain and a PEDV strain with a large (197aa) deletion in the S protein. We also designed primer sets to detect these genetically diverse US PEDV strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Low pulmonary artery flush perfusion pressure combined with high positive end-expiratory pressure reduces oedema formation in isolated porcine lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Stefan; Schließmann, Stephan J; Wagner, Giskard; Goebel, Ulrich; Priebe, Hans-Joachim; Guttmann, Josef; Kirschbaum, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Flush perfusion of the pulmonary artery with organ protection solution is a standard procedure before lung explantation. However, rapid flush perfusion may cause pulmonary oedema which is deleterious in the lung transplantation setting. In this study we tested the hypotheses that high pulmonary perfusion pressure contributes to the development of pulmonary oedema and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) counteracts oedema formation. We expected oedema formation to increase weight and decrease compliance of the lungs on the basis of a decrease in alveolar volume as fluid replaces alveolar air spaces. The pulmonary artery of 28 isolated porcine lungs was perfused with a low-potassium dextrane solution at low (mean 27 mmHg) or high (mean 40 mmHg) pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during mechanical ventilation at low (4 cmH 2 O) or high (8 cmH 2 O) PEEP, respectively. Following perfusion and storage, relative increases in lung weight were smaller (p < 0.05) during perfusion at low PAP (62 ± 32% and 42 ± 26%, respectively) compared to perfusion at high PAP (133 ± 54% and 87 ± 30%, respectively). Compared to all other PAP–PEEP combinations, increases in lung weight were smallest (44 ± 9% and 27 ± 12%, respectively), nonlinear intratidal lung compliance was largest (46% and 17% respectively, both p < 0.05) and lung histology showed least infiltration of mononuclear cells in the alveolar septa, and least alveolar destruction during the combination of low perfusion pressure and high PEEP. The findings suggest that oedema formation during pulmonary artery flush perfusion in isolated and ventilated lungs can be reduced by choosing low perfusion pressure and high PEEP. PAP–PEEP titration to minimize pulmonary oedema should be based on lung mechanics and PAP monitoring

  6. An inactivated vaccine made from a U.S. field isolate of porcine epidemic disease virus is immunogenic in pigs as demonstrated by a dose-titration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Emily A; Anbalagan, Srivishnupriya; Okda, Faten; Batman, Ron; Nelson, Eric; Hause, Ben M

    2015-03-15

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a highly pathogenic and transmissible virus in swine, was first detected in the U.S. in May, 2013, and has caused tremendous losses to the swine industry. Due to the difficulty in isolating and growing this virus in cell culture, few vaccine studies using cell culture propagated PEDV have been performed on U.S. strains in pigs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the humoral immune response to the selected inactivated PEDV vaccine candidate in a dose-titration manner. PEDV was isolated from a pig with diarrhea and complete genome sequencing found >99% nucleotide identity to other U.S. PEDV. Inactivated adjuvanted monovalent vaccines were administered intramuscularly to five week old pigs in a dose titration experimental design, ranging from 6.0-8.0 log10 tissue culture infective dose (TCID50/mL), to evaluate immunogenicity using a fluorescent foci neutralization assay (FFN), fluorescent microsphere immunoassay (FMIA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on sera. Pigs vaccinated with 8.0 log10 TCID50/mL inactivated virus showed significantly higher FFN titers as well as FMIA and ELISA values than 6.0 log10 TCID50/mL vaccinates and the negative controls. These results demonstrate the immunogenicity of a PEDV inactivated viral vaccine with a U.S. strain via dose-titration. A future vaccination-challenge study would illustrate the efficacy of an inactivated vaccine and help evaluate protective FFN titers and ELISA and FMIA responses.

  7. Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. isolated from the internal organs of spontaneous porcine abortions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and possible significance of campylobacteria in pig abortions in Denmark, Surface-cauterised liver and kidney samples from 55 aborted pig fetuses submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory were taken and a sensitive isolation procedure used...

  8. The effect of social isolation, gender and familiarity with the experimental procedure on tests of porcine nociceptive thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Giminiani, Pierpaolo; Stausholm, Julie S.; Viitasaari, Eliina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of habituation and isolation on mechanical nociceptive thresholds in pigs at the pelvic limbs and at the tail. Study design Prospective randomized multifactorial study. Animals Thirty-two healthy castrated male (experiment 1), and 12 castrated male and 12 female...

  9. Porcine circovirus 2 in the North Eastern region of India: Disease prevalence and genetic variation among the isolates from areas of intensive pig rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Priyanka; Karam, Amarjit; Barkalita, Luit; Borah, Prabodh; Chakraborty, Amit Kr; Das, Samir; Puro, Kekungo; Sanjukta, Rajkumari; Ghatak, Sandeep; Shakuntala, Ingudam; Laha, Ram Gopal; Sen, Arnab; Sharma, Indu

    2018-06-01

    Porcine Circovirus type-2 (PCV-2) is considered as a major threat to the piggery sector in India. To ascertain the epidemiological status and infection level of PCV2, a pilot study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of PCV2 in swine population by ELISA and PCR in the interior and border areas of Meghalaya which includes the area where accessibility and medical aid is a rare phenomenon. A total of 249 serum samples were collected from October 2014 to February 2016 from three divisions of Meghalaya: Khasi, Jaintia and Garo Hills Divisions. The mean positivity of PCV-2 antibodies in suspected sera was 83.93% whereas 62.25% of the suspected samples respectively were found to contain PCV2 as detected by PCR. Additional 190 tissue samples were collected during necropsy from both symptomatic and asymptomatic animals following reported outbreak in this region, which indicated a mean positivity of 18.94% (36/190); out of which 13 samples were subjected to sequencing to find out the genetic diversity of PCV2 amongst the field isolates. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of PCV2 isolates based on cap gene depicted genetic diversity among the strains in pig population of Meghalaya as the isolates belonged to PCV2a, PCV2b-1c and PCV2d genotypes; identification of the PCV2d genotype is probably the first report from Meghalaya. Four isolates forming an outlier group in the phylogenetic tree were arising out of natural inter-genotypic recombination between PCV2a and PCV2b. PCV2 being immunosuppressive in nature impairs the host immune response increasing the susceptibility to other co-infections leading to disease severity and high mortality in pig population. This baseline data gives a brief epidemiological status of PCV2 infection and circulating PCV2 genotype in this region which will be useful in the formulation of control and eradication programs in remotes areas of Meghalaya where accessibility is less and vaccination is a rare practice. Copyright

  10. Tachykinins in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, P T; Tornøe, K; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    2000-01-01

    The localization, release, and effects of substance P and neurokinin A were studied in the porcine pancreas and the localization of substance P immunoreactive nerve fibers was examined by immunohistochemistry. The effects of electrical vagus stimulation and capsaicin infusion on tachykinin release...... and the effects of substance P and neurokinin A infusion on insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and exocrine secretion were studied using the isolated perfused porcine pancreas with intact vagal innervation. NK-1 and NK-2 receptor antagonists were used to investigate receptor involvement. Substance P immunoreactive...

  11. Differences in left ventricular remodelling in patients with aortic stenosis treated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement with corevalve prostheses compared to surgery with porcine or bovine biological prostheses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngo, Thuc Anh; Hassager, Christian; Thyregod, Hans Gustav Hørsted

    2018-01-01

    Aims: Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) can be considered for treatment with either transcatheter (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). The purpose of this study was to compare left ventricular (LV) remodeling in patients with AS after treatment with TAVR or SAVR. Methods...... were randomized to TAVR and 112 to SAVR. From baseline to 12 months post-procedure, aortic valve area (AVA) increased in both groups, but with a larger increase in the TAVR group (0.65 ± 0.04 cm2 vs. 1.02 ± 0.05 cm2 for SAVR and TAVR group, P regression was more.......0001). Paravalvular leakage (PVL) and pacemaker implantations were more common in patients treated with TAVR, which was associated with an increase in EDV (P regression at 1 year compared with patients undergoing TAVR, which may be due to increasing...

  12. Isolated and painless (? atrophy of the infraspinatus muscle: left handed versus right handed volleyball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago D. Gonçalves Côelho

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The suprascapular nerve originates from the upper trunk of the brachial plexus or less frequently from the root of C5. It runs a short way and crosses the suprascapular notch. It innervates the supraspinatus muscle and the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Then, it crosses the lateral edge of the spine of the scapula passing through the spinoglenoid notch, and innervates the infraspinatus muscle. These are potential sites of injury to the suprascapular nerve. Three cases of suprascapular nerve entrapment causing an isolated infraspinatus muscle atrophy in volleyball players were studied. It is suggested the hypothesis that the nature of the smash, in which the athlete uses the arm violently, more than does in volleyball service or in the art of reception, is the key to the pathogenesis of the lesion in volleyball players.

  13. Genomic analysis and pathogenic characteristics of Type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nsp2 deletion strains isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hwan-Won; Nam, Eeuri; Lee, Yoo Jin; Noh, Yun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Chul; Yoon, In-Joong; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kang, Shien-Young; Choi, Young-Ki; Lee, Changhee

    2014-06-04

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a globally ubiquitous swine virus that exhibits genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity among isolates. The present study was conducted to determine the complete genome sequence and pathogenicity of two Korean type 2 PRRSV nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) deletion mutants, CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4. The full-length genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 were determined to be 15,018 and 15,019 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, respectively, which were 393- or 392-nucleotide shorter than that of the type 2 NA prototype strain VR-2332 due to the presence of notable large deletions within the nsp2 gene. The genomes of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 consisted of a 189- or 190-nucleotide 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 14,677-nucleotide protein-coding region, and a 151-nucleotide 3' UTR. Whole genome evaluation revealed that the nucleotide sequences of CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 are most similar to each other (10.7% sequence divergence), and then to the Korean strain CA-1 (11.3% sequence divergence) and the US strain MN184C (13.1% sequence divergence), respectively. To evaluate the in vitro immunity of nsp2 deletion variants, we sought to explore alteration of inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression in PAM-pCD163 cells infected with each virus strain using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Cytokine genes including IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α, and chemokines such as MCP-1 and RANTES were found to be significantly elevated in nsp2 deletion virus-infected PAM cells. In contrast, expression of interferons (IFN-β, γ, and λ) and antiviral genes including ISG-15, -54, and -56 were unchanged or down-regulated in PAM cells infected with the nsp2 deletion mutants. Animal studies to assess the pathogenicity of nsp2 deletion PRRSVs demonstrated that both CA-2 and KNU-12-KJ4 strains notably produce weight loss in infected pigs. Furthermore, the nsp2 deletion mutants replicated well in pigs with significantly increased and prolonged

  14. Properties of Fiber Cell Plasma Membranes Isolated from the Cortex and Nucleus of the Porcine Eye Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija; O’Brien, William J.; Subczynski, Witold K.

    2012-01-01

    The organization and physical properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from the eyes lenses of two-year-old pigs were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-labeling. Membrane fluidity, hydrophobicity, and the oxygen transport parameter (OTP) were assessed from the EPR spectra of precisely positioned spin labels. Intact cortical and nuclear membranes, which include membrane proteins, were found to contain three distinct lipid environments. These lipid environments were termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain (lipids in protein aggregates). The amount of boundary and trapped lipids was greater in intact nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. The properties of intact membranes were compared with the organization and properties of lens lipid membranes made of the total lipid extracts from the lens cortex or nucleus. In cortical lens lipid membranes, only one homogenous environment was detected, which was designated as a bulk lipid domain (phospholipid bilayer saturated with cholesterol). Lens lipid membranes prepared from the lens nucleus possessed two domains, assigned as a bulk lipid domain and a cholesterol bilayer domain (CBD). In intact nuclear membranes, it was difficult to discriminate the CBD, which was clearly detected in nuclear lens lipid membranes because the OTP measured in the CBD is the same as in the domain formed by trapped lipids. The two domains unique to intact membranes—namely, the domain formed by boundary lipids and the domain formed by trapped lipids—were most likely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins. It is concluded that formation of rigid and practically impermeable domains is enhanced in the lens nucleus, indicating changes in membrane composition that may help to maintain low oxygen concentration in this lens region. PMID:22326289

  15. Three dimensional endo-cardiovascular volume-rendered cine computed tomography of isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia; A case report and literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sun Hwa; Kim, Yang Min; Lee, Hyun Jong [Sejong General Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    We report multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) findings of a 34-year-old female with isolated left ventricular apical hypoplasia. The MDCT and CMR scans displayed a spherical left ventricle (LV) with extensive fatty infiltration within the myocardium at the apex, interventricular septum and inferior wall, anteroapical origin of the papillary muscle, right ventricle wrapping around the deficient LV apex, and impaired systolic function. MDCT visualized morphologic and also functional findings of this unique cardiomyopathy.

  16. Comparative performance of fetal goat tongue cell line ZZ-R 127 and fetal porcine kidney cell line LFBK-αvβ6 for Foot-and-mouth disease virus isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, Katsuhiko; Morioka, Kazuki; Yamada, Manabu; Nishi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kitano, Rie; Yamazoe, Reiko; Kanno, Toru

    2015-07-01

    The fetal goat tongue cell line ZZ-R 127 and the fetal porcine kidney cell line LFBK-α(v)β(6) have been reported to have high sensitivity to various Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains. The suitability of ZZ-R 127 cells for FMDV isolation not only from epithelial suspensions but also from other clinical samples has already been confirmed in a previous study. However, to our knowledge, the suitability of LFBK-α(v)β(6) cells has not been evaluated using clinical samples other than epithelial materials. In addition, both cell lines have never been compared, in terms of use for FMDV isolation, under the same conditions. Therefore, in the current study, the virus isolation rates of both cell lines were compared using clinical samples collected from animals infected experimentally with FMDV. Viruses were successfully isolated from clinical samples other than epithelial suspensions for both cell lines. The virus isolation rates for the 2 cell lines were not significantly different. The Cohen kappa coefficients between the virus isolation results for both cell lines were significantly high. Taken together, these results confirmed the suitability of LFBK-α(v)β(6) cells for FMDV isolation from clinical samples other than epithelial suspensions. The levels of susceptibility of both cell lines to FMDV isolation were also confirmed to be almost the same. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on motility and on the release of substance P, neurokinin A, somatostatin and gastrin in the isolated perfused porcine antrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    increased by 154 +/- 15% in response to CGRP at 10(-8) mol L(-1). The release of gastrin was unaffected by pCGRP. In conclusion, pCGRP increases contractile activity in the porcine antrum, an effect that involves cholinergic mechanisms but is independent of the release of substance P and neurokinin A...

  18. Assessment of hemodynamic significance of isolated stenoses of the left anterior descending coronary artery using thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalff, V.; Kelly, M.J.; Soward, A.; Harper, R.W.; Currie, P.J.; Lim, Y.L.; Pitt, A.

    1985-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that the results of stress thallium-201 myocardial perfusion scans (TI-201) are related to the mean transstenotic pressure gradient of coronary stenoses independent of the percent luminal diameter narrowing seen at angiography. The 22 study patients (20 men, 2 women, mean age 47 years, range 30 to 62) had no previous myocardial infarction. Each underwent a symptom-limited, erect bicycle TI-201 test off antianginal therapy, shortly before percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty for isolated left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. The percent narrowing, mean gradient at percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and presence of a visually apparent TI-201 defect were independently evaluated and results compared. All 4 patients with 90% or greater diameter narrowing had positive TI-201 responses, and the mean gradient was 72 +/- 11 mm Hg. Among the 18 patients with less than 90% diameter narrowing, the mean gradient was higher (p less than 0.001) in the 11 with a positive TI-201 (63 +/- 15 mm Hg) than in the 7 with a negative TI-201 (33 +/- 20 mm Hg), but their percent narrowing did not differ significantly (72 +/- 14% vs 66 +/- 19%). Multiple regression analysis showed that the presence of a TI-201 defect was a strong (p . 0.003) and percent narrowing (p . 0.048) a weak independent predictor for gradient. When the mean gradient was normalized for the prestenotic pressure, both percent narrowing (p . 0.003) and TI-201 defects (p . 0.006) were significant independent predictors

  19. Allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura M

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Amniotic membrane contains a multipotential stem cell population and is expected to possess the machinery to regulate immunological reactions. We investigated the safety and efficacy of allogeneic amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (AMSC transplantation in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia as a preclinical trial. Methods. Porcine AMSCs were isolated from amniotic membranes obtained by cesarean section just before delivery and were cultured to increase their numbers before transplantation. Chronic myocardial ischemia was induced by implantation of an ameroid constrictor around the left circumflex coronary artery. Four weeks after ischemia induction, nine swine were assigned to undergo either allogeneic AMSC transplantation or normal saline injection. Functional analysis was performed by echocardiography, and histological examinations were carried out by immunohistochemistry 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Results. Echocardiography demonstrated that left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly improved and left ventricular dilatation was well attenuated 4 weeks after AMSC transplantation. Histological assessment showed a significant reduction in percentage of fibrosis in the AMSC transplantation group. Injected allogeneic green fluorescent protein (GFP-expressing AMSCs were identified in the immunocompetent host heart without the use of any immunosuppressants 4 weeks after transplantation. Immunohistochemistry revealed that GFP colocalized with cardiac troponin T and cardiac troponin I. Conclusions. We have demonstrated that allogeneic AMSC transplantation produced histological and functional improvement in the impaired myocardium in a porcine model of chronic myocardial ischemia. The transplanted allogeneic AMSCs survived without the use of any immunosuppressants and gained cardiac phenotype through either their transdifferentiation or cell fusion.

  20. Bacteriospermia in extended porcine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Gary C; Lu, Kristina G

    2005-01-15

    Bacteriospermia is a frequent finding in freshly extended porcine semen and can result in detrimental effects on semen quality and longevity if left uncontrolled. The primary source of bacterial contamination is the boar. Other sources that have been identified include environment, personnel, and the water used for extender preparation. A 1-year retrospective study was performed on submissions of extended porcine semen for routine quality control bacteriological screening at the University of Pennsylvania. Out of 250 sample submissions, 78 (31.2%) tested positive for bacterial contamination. The most popular contaminants included Enterococcus spp. (20.5%), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (15.4%), Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (10.3%), Serratia marcescens (10.3%), Acinetobacter lwoffi (7.7%), Escherichia coli (6.4%), Pseudomonas spp. (6.4%), and others (23.0%). Prudent individual hygiene, good overall sanitation, and regular monitoring can contribute greatly in controlling bacterial load. Strategies that incorporate temperature-dependent bacterial growth and hyperthermic augmentation of antimicrobial activity are valuable for effective control of susceptible bacterial loads. Aminoglycosides remain the most popular antimicrobial class used in porcine semen extenders, with beta-lactam and lincosamide use increasing. With the advent of more novel antimicrobial selection and semen extender compositions in swine, prudent application and understanding of in vitro pharmacodynamics are becoming paramount to industry success in the use of this breeding modality.

  1. Analysis of ORF5 and Full-Length Genome Sequences of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Isolates of Genotypes 1 and 2 Retrieved Worldwide Provides Evidence that Recombination Is a Common Phenomenon and May Produce Mosaic Isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martín-Valls, G. E.; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine; Tello, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recombination is currently recognized as a factor for high genetic diversity, but the frequency of such recombination events and the genome segments involved are not well known. In the present study, we initially focused on the detection of recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrom...

  2. Isolated Non-Compaction of the Left Ventricle in a Patient with New-Onset Heart Failure: Morphologic and Functional Evaluation with Cardiac Multidetector Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Heon [Soonchuhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok Yeon [Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Schoepf, U. Joseph [Medical University of South Carolina, SC (United States)

    2012-03-15

    We describe a case of new-onset heart failure in a patient in whom cardiac CT enabled the non-invasive diagnosis of isolated non-compaction and associated functional abnormalities of the left ventricle with the concomitant evaluation of coronary arteries. This case highlights the utility of cardiac CT for the morphological and functional evaluation of the heart as a single imaging modality.

  3. Perspectives on the Evolution of Porcine Parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Woo-Taek; Kim, Ri-Yeon; Nguyen, Van-Giap; Chung, Hee-Chun; Park, Bong-Kyun

    2017-07-26

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is one of the main causes of porcine reproductive failure. It is important for swine industries to understand the recent trends in PPV evolution. Previous data show that PPV has two genetic lineages originating in Germany. In this study, two more genetic lineages were defined, one of which was distinctly Asian. Additionally, amino acid substitutions in European strains and Asian strains showed distinct differences in several regions of the VP2 gene. The VP1 gene of the recent PPV isolate (T142_South Korea) was identical to that of Kresse strain isolated in the USA in 1985, indicating that modern PPV strains now resemble the original strains (Kresse and NADL-2). In this study, we compared strains isolated in the 20th century to recent isolates and confirmed the trend that modern strains are becoming more similar to previous strains.

  4. Congenital pulmonary steal associated with Tetralogy of Fallot, right aortic arch and an isolated left carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tozzi, R.; Kiley, R.; Doyle, E.; Hernanz-Schulman, M.; Genieser, N.; Ambrosino, M.; Pinto, R.

    1989-07-01

    In patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, collateral supply to the pulmonary artery from systemic arterial sources is frequently encountered. However, collateral blood flow arising from the cerebral circulation has, to our knowledge, not been reported in this condition. We describe a patient with Tetralogy of Fallot in whom the left pulmonary artery filled directly via retrograde flow from the left carotid artery. Review of the literature in search of a similar case was unrevealing. A theoretical embryologic basis for this anomaly is discussed. (orig.).

  5. Congenital pulmonary steal associated with Tetralogy of Fallot, right aortic arch and an isolated left carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozzi, R.; Kiley, R.; Doyle, E.; Hernanz-Schulman, M.; Genieser, N.; Ambrosino, M.; Pinto, R.

    1989-01-01

    In patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, collateral supply to the pulmonary artery from systemic arterial sources is frequently encountered. However, collateral blood flow arising from the cerebral circulation has, to our knowledge, not been reported in this condition. We describe a patient with Tetralogy of Fallot in whom the left pulmonary artery filled directly via retrograde flow from the left carotid artery. Review of the literature in search of a similar case was unrevealing. A theoretical embryologic basis for this anomaly is discussed. (orig.)

  6. [Bioelectrical activity of the myocardium in children born to parents irradiated during the Chernobyl disaster with isolated abnormal chords of the left ventricle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashova, V H

    2010-01-01

    A total 156 children of the main group (children born to parents irradiated during the Chernobyl disaster), who according to echocardiography revealed a different number of isolated abnormal chords of the left ventricle, 20 healthy children, 24 children of nosological control group and 50 children of referent group have been observed. It was found that isolated AHLV in children born to irradiated parents, was associated with changes in standard ECG, reflecting the presence of arrhythmias or predictors of their development. No significant differences in subgroups of children with different number of isolated AHLV have been established. Children with isolated AHLV born to parents irradiated during the Chernobyl accident, as all patients with minor structural anomalies of the heart, should be refered to a risk group in connection with the possibility of the development, in the first place, ventricular extrasystoles, paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia. Early diagnosis of isolated AHLV will allow to assess the outlook for further course of the disease and develop a plan of treatment and preventive measures.

  7. Growth Patterns of Fetal Lung Volumes in Healthy Fetuses and Fetuses With Isolated Left-Sided Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano, Rodrigo; Britto, Ingrid Schwach Werneck; Sananes, Nicolas; Lee, Wesley; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Deter, Russell L

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate fetal lung growth using 3-dimensional sonography in healthy fetuses and those with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Right and total lung volumes were serially evaluated by 3-dimensional sonography in 66 healthy fetuses and 52 fetuses with left-sided CDH between 20 and 37 weeks' menstrual age. Functions fitted to these parameters were compared for 2 groups: (1) healthy versus those with CDH; and (2) fetuses with CHD who survived versus those who died. Fetal right and total lung volumes as well as fetal observed-to-expected right and total lung volume ratios were significantly lower in fetuses with CDH than healthy fetuses (Pvolume ratios did not vary with menstrual age in healthy fetuses or in those with CDH (independent of outcome). Lung volume rates were lower in fetuses with left-sided CDH compared to healthy fetuses, as well as in fetuses with CDH who died compared to those who survived. The observed-to-expected right and total lung volume ratios were relatively constant throughout menstrual age in fetuses with left-sided CDH, suggesting that the origin of their lung growth abnormalities occurred before 20 weeks and did not progress. The observed-to-expected ratios may be useful in predicting the outcome in fetuses with CDH independent of menstrual age. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Experimental inoculation of swine at various stages of gestation with a Danish isolate of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kranker, Søren; Nielsen, Jens; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1998-01-01

    phase varied considerably, from one day to four weeks, for both darns and their offspring. Most frequently, PRRSV was isolated from lung and/or tonsil tissues from dead and euthanized piglets younger than 14 days of age. Histopathological investigations of piglets typically revealed focal nonsuppurative...

  9. Gastrin-releasing peptide in the porcine pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1987-01-01

    to consist of one main form, namely the 27-amino acid peptide originally extracted from porcine stomach, and small amounts of a C-terminal fragment identical with the C-terminal 10-amino acid peptide. Gastrin-releasing peptide-like immunoreactivity released from the isolated perfused porcine pancreas during...... electrical vagal stimulation was shown by gel filtration to consist of the same two forms. By use of immunocytochemical techniques employing an antiserum directed against its N terminus, GRP was localized to varicose nerve fibers in close association with the exocrine tissue of the porcine pancreas...... in particular. Some fibers were found penetrating into pancreatic islets also. Immunoreactive nerve cell bodies as well as fibers were found within intrapancreatic ganglia. The potency of GRP in stimulating exocrine as well as endocrine secretion from the porcine pancreas, its presence in close contact...

  10. Isolation of Yersinia from raw meat (pork and chicken) and precooked meat (porcine tongues and sausages) collected from commercial establishments in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, E I; Vázquez-Salinas, C; Rodas-Suárez, O R; Pedroche, F F

    2000-04-01

    A total of 160 meat product samples were collected from commercial outlets in Mexico City to investigate the presence of different species of Yersinia by the 4 degrees C enrichment method after 1, 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation using alkaline treatment and isolating in cefsulodin-Irgasan-novobiocin and MacConkey agars with Tween 80. Overall, Yersinia spp. were isolated from 27% of the samples analyzed, whereas 40% of the raw and only 13% of the precooked samples were contaminated. Although 2,970 colonies showed Yersinia characteristics, only 706 (24%) actually corresponded to this genus: 49% were Yersinia enterocolitica, 25% Yersinia kristensenii, 15% Yersinia intermedia, 9% Yersinia frederiksenii, and 2% Yersinia aldovae; 10% corresponded to biotype 2, 2% to biotype 3, and 4% to biotype 4. The presence of Yersinia in raw and cooked meat products represents a health risk for consumers in Mexico, where further clinical studies are needed to assess the epidemiological importance of this pathogen.

  11. Different clinical, virological, serological and tissue tropism outcomes of two new and one old Belgian type 1 subtype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSV) isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydas, Ilias S.; Trus, Ivan; Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    in the highest respiratory disease scores and longest period of fever. Gross lung lesions were more pronounced for 13V091 (13%), than for 13V117 (7%) and 07V063 (11%). The nasal shedding and viremia was also most extensive with 13V091. The 13V091 group showed the highest virus replication in conchae, tonsils......In this study, the pathogenic behavior of PRRSV 13V091 and 13V117, isolated in 2013 from two different Belgian farms with enzootic respiratory problems shortly after weaning in the nursery, were compared with the Belgian strain 07V063 isolated in 2007. Full-length genome sequencing was performed....... It can be concluded that (i) 13V091 is a highly pathogenic type 1 subtype 1 PRRSV strain that replicates better than 07V063 and 13V117 and has a strong tropism for sialoadhesin-cells and (ii) despite the close genetic relationship between 13V117 and 07V063, 13V117 has an increased nasal replication...

  12. Porcine SLITRK1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila

    2014-01-01

    The membrane protein SLITRK1 functions as a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and variants in this gene have been implicated in Tourette syndrome. In the current study we have cloned and characterized the porcine SLITRK1 gene. The genomic organization of SLITRK1 lacks...

  13. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences...

  14. Comparison of exercise ECG and radionuclide ventriculography in the assessment of myocardial ischemia in patients with isolated stenoses of the left anterior descending artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepzig, H. Jr.; Mildenberger, D.; Kaltenbach, M.; Standke, R.; Baum, R.P.; Tezak, S.; Maul, F.D.; Hoer, G.

    1988-01-01

    21 patients with LAD-stenoses of at least 70% and 21 patients with LAD-stenoses and additional intramural anterior wall infarctions were studied. 20 patients without heart disease or after successful transluminal coronary angioplasty and 18 patients with intramural anterior wall infarction after successful transluminal dilatation of the LAD (remaining stenosis maximal 30%) served as controls. The normal range of global and regional left ventricular ejection fraction response to exercise was defined based on the data of 25 further patients without relevant coronary heart disease. Thus, a decrease in global ejection fraction and regional wall motion abnormalities were judged pathological. All patients were comparable with respect to age, ejection fraction at rest and work load. Myocardial ischemia could be detected by the exercise ECG in 81% of all patients without infarction and in 71% of patients with infarction. The corresponding values for global left ventricular ejection fraction were 76% and 81%, respectively, and for regional ejection fraction 95% in both groups. No false-positive exercise ECGs were observed in the healthy controls and 2(11%) in the corresponding group with intramural infaction. The global ejection fraction was pathological in 1(5%) healthy subject without infarction and in 3(17%) corresponding patients with infarction. Sectorial analysis revealed 5 and 22%, respectively. Our findings suggest that the exercise ECG has a limited sensitivity to detect myocardial ischemia in patients with isolated LAD-stenoses and intramural myocardial infarction. Radionuclide ventriculography yields pathological values more often; however, false-positive results also occur more frequently. (orig.) [de

  15. Great heterogeneity of commercial fruit juices to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations in isolated porcine coronary arteries: role of the phenolic content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Cyril; Pollet, Brigitte; Arnold, Cécile; Marx, Céline; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2015-01-01

    Since polyphenol-rich products such as red wine, grape juice, and grape extracts have been shown to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, we have evaluated whether commercial fruit juices such as those from berries are also able to induce endothelium-dependent relaxations of isolated coronary arteries and, if so, to determine whether this effect is related to their phenolic content. Among the 51 fruit juices tested, 2/12 grape juices, 3/7 blackcurrant juices, 4/5 cranberry juices, 1/6 apple juices, 0/5 orange juices, 2/6 red fruit and berry juices, 3/6 blends of red fruit juices, and 0/4 non-red fruit juices were able to induce relaxations achieving more than 50% at a volume of 1%. The active fruit juices had phenolic contents ranging from 0.31 to 1.86 g GAE/L, which were similar to those of most of the less active juices with the exception of one active grape juice (2.14 g GAE/L) and one active blend of red fruit juices (3.48 g GAE/L). Altogether, these findings indicate that very few commercial fruit juices have the ability to induce potent endothelium-dependent relaxations, and that this effect is not related to their quantitative phenolic content, but rather to their qualitative phenolic composition.

  16. Treatment and prevention of porcine proliferative enteropathy with oral tiamulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McOrist, S; Smith, S H; Shearn, M F; Carr, M M; Miller, D J

    The effect of an oral treatment or prevention programme, incorporating the antibiotic tiamulin, on the development of proliferative enteropathy in experimentally challenged pigs was studied. Twenty weaner pigs were challenged orally with a virulent inoculum of Lawsonia intracellularis strain LR189/5/83, a British isolate of the causative agent of porcine proliferative enteropathy, and seven control pigs were dosed with a buffer solution. Seven of the 20 challenged pigs were left untreated; they gained less weight than the controls and three of them developed mild to moderate diarrhoea two weeks after the challenge. All seven developed lesions, six visible grossly, of proliferative enteropathy, and numerous intracellular L intracellularis were detected in sections of the intestines examined three weeks after the challenge. To test a 'prevention' dosing strategy for tiamulin, six of the challenged pigs were dosed orally with 50 ppm tiamulin, incorporated in a 2 per cent stabilised premix, given from two days before the challenge until they were euthanased. To test a 'treatment' strategy, the remaining group of seven challenged pigs were dosed orally with 150 ppm tiamulin given in the premix from seven days after challenge until they were euthanased. All the control pigs and the 13 pigs treated with tiamulin, either before or after challenge, remained clinically normal and had no specific lesions of proliferative enteropathy in sections of the intestines examined post mortem.

  17. Genome sequence of Chinese porcine parvovirus strain PPV2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Wang, Xin; Ren, Yudong; Cui, Shangjin; Li, Guangxing; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2012-02-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) isolate PPV2010 has recently emerged in China. Herein, we analyze the complete genome sequence of PPV2010. Our results indicate that the genome of PPV2010 bears mixed characteristics of virulent PPV and vaccine strains. Importantly, PPV2010 has the potential to be a naturally attenuated candidate vaccine strain.

  18. Genome Sequence of Chinese Porcine Parvovirus Strain PPV2010

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Jin; Wang, Xin; Ren, Yudong; Cui, Shangjin; Li, Guangxing; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) isolate PPV2010 has recently emerged in China. Herein, we analyze the complete genome sequence of PPV2010. Our results indicate that the genome of PPV2010 bears mixed characteristics of virulent PPV and vaccine strains. Importantly, PPV2010 has the potential to be a naturally attenuated candidate vaccine strain.

  19. Porcine circovirus diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristoski Trpe

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 belongs on the family Circoviridae. This virus family includes small, non-enveloped viruses, with a circular, single-standed DNA genome.This virus causes mainly subclinical infections, but a number of diseases have been linked to it (porcine circovirus diseases, PCVD. The most economically important PCVD is postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS, which mainly affects pigs of 2 to 5 months of age, with progressive wasting, diarrhea and respiratory disorders. Main PMWS lesions are found in lymphoid tissues, which are characterized by lymphocyte depletion with granulomatous (histiocytic and multinucleate giant cell infiltration. PMWS is considered as multifactorial disease, with a number of infectious and non-infectious factors able to act as disease triggering in PCV2 infected pigs. PCVDs are worldwide distributed, and PMWS was diagnosed in Macedonia in 2007.

  20. Porcine lung surfactant protein B gene (SFTPB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2008-01-01

    The porcine surfactant protein B (SFTPB) is a single copy gene on chromosome 3. Three different cDNAs for the SFTPB have been isolated and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison revealed six nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), four synonymous SNPs and an in-frame deletion of 69...... bp in the region coding for the active protein. Northern analysis showed lung-specific expression of three different isoforms of the SFTPB transcript. The expression level for the SFTPB gene is low in 50 days-old fetus and it increases during lung development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain...

  1. Concise classification of the genomic porcine endogenous retroviral gamma1 load to defined lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymiuk, Nikolai; Wolf, Eckhard; Aigner, Bernhard

    2008-02-05

    We investigated the infection history of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) gamma1 by analyzing published env and LTR sequences. PERV sequences from various breeds, porcine cell lines and infected human primary cells were included in the study. We identified a considerable number of retroviral lineages indicating multiple independent colonization events of the porcine genome. A recent boost of the proviral load in an isolated pig herd and exclusive occurrence of distinct lineages in single studies indicated the ongoing colonization of the porcine genome with endogenous retroviruses. Retroviral recombination between co-packaged genomes was a general factor for PERV gamma1 diversity which indicated the simultaneous expression of different proviral loci over a period of time. In total, our detailed description of endogenous retroviral lineages is the prerequisite for breeding approaches to minimize the infectious potential of porcine tissues for the subsequent use in xenotransplantation.

  2. Long-term follow-up of patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and severe left atrial scarring: comparison between pulmonary vein antrum isolation only or pulmonary vein isolation combined with either scar homogenization or trigger ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Sanghamitra; Mohanty, Prasant; Di Biase, Luigi; Trivedi, Chintan; Morris, Eli Hamilton; Gianni, Carola; Santangeli, Pasquale; Bai, Rong; Sanchez, Javier E; Hranitzky, Patrick; Gallinghouse, G Joseph; Al-Ahmad, Amin; Horton, Rodney P; Hongo, Richard; Beheiry, Salwa; Elayi, Claude S; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya; Madhu Reddy, Yaruva; Viles Gonzalez, Juan F; Burkhardt, J David; Natale, Andrea

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial (LA) scarring, a consequence of cardiac fibrosis is a powerful predictor of procedure-outcome in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients undergoing catheter ablation. We sought to compare the long-term outcome in patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF) and severe LA scarring identified by 3D mapping, undergoing pulmonary vein isolation (PVAI) only or PVAI and the entire scar areas (scar homogenization) or PVAI+ ablation of the non-PV triggers. Totally, 177 consecutive patients with PAF and severe LA scarring were included. Patients underwent PVAI only (n = 45, Group 1), PVAI+ scar homogenization (n = 66, Group 2) or PVAI+ ablation of non-PV triggers (n = 66, Group 3) based on operator's choice. Baseline characteristics were similar across the groups. After first procedure, all patients were followed-up for a minimum of 2 years. The success rate at the end of the follow-up was 18% (8 pts), 21% (14 pts), and 61% (40 pts) in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Cumulative probability of AF-free survival was significantly higher in Group 3 (overall log-rank P homogenization. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  4. Porcine prion protein amyloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Per; Nyström, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian prions are composed of misfolded aggregated prion protein (PrP) with amyloid-like features. Prions are zoonotic disease agents that infect a wide variety of mammalian species including humans. Mammals and by-products thereof which are frequently encountered in daily life are most important for human health. It is established that bovine prions (BSE) can infect humans while there is no such evidence for any other prion susceptible species in the human food chain (sheep, goat, elk, deer) and largely prion resistant species (pig) or susceptible and resistant pets (cat and dogs, respectively). PrPs from these species have been characterized using biochemistry, biophysics and neurobiology. Recently we studied PrPs from several mammals in vitro and found evidence for generic amyloidogenicity as well as cross-seeding fibril formation activity of all PrPs on the human PrP sequence regardless if the original species was resistant or susceptible to prion disease. Porcine PrP amyloidogenicity was among the studied. Experimentally inoculated pigs as well as transgenic mouse lines overexpressing porcine PrP have, in the past, been used to investigate the possibility of prion transmission in pigs. The pig is a species with extraordinarily wide use within human daily life with over a billion pigs harvested for human consumption each year. Here we discuss the possibility that the largely prion disease resistant pig can be a clinically silent carrier of replicating prions.

  5. Xenotransplantation of neonatal porcine liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garkavenko, O; Emerich, D F; Muzina, M; Muzina, Z; Vasconcellos, A V; Ferguson, A B; Cooper, I J; Elliott, R B

    2005-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine liver cell types may provide a means of overcoming the shortage of suitable donor tissues to treat hepatic diseases characterized by inherited inborn errors of metabolism or protein production. Here we report the successful isolation, culture, and xenotransplantation of liver cells harvested from 7- to 10-day-old piglets. Liver cells were isolated and cultured immediately after harvesting. Cell viability was excellent (>90%) over the duration of the in vitro studies (3 weeks) and the cultured cells continued to significantly proliferate. These cells also retained their normal secretory and metabolic capabilities as determined by continued release of albumin, factor 8, and indocyanin green (ICG) uptake. After 3 weeks in culture, porcine liver cells were loaded into immunoisolatory macro devices (Theracyte devices) and placed into the intraperitoneal cavity of immunocompetant CD1 mice. Eight weeks later, the devices were retrieved and the cells analyzed for posttransplant determinations of survival and function. Post mortem analysis confirmed that the cell-loaded devices were biocompatible, and were well-tolerated without inducing any notable inflammatory reaction in the tissues immediately surrounding the encapsulated cells. Finally, the encapsulated liver cells remained viable and functional as determined by histologic analyses and ICG uptake/release. The successful harvesting, culturing, and xenotransplantation of functional neonatal pig liver cells support the continued development of this approach for treating a range of currently undertreated or intractable hepatic diseases.

  6. Pathology and biofilm formation in a porcine model of staphylococcal osteomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, L K; Koch, J; Frees, D

    2012-01-01

    A porcine model was used to examine the potential of human and porcine Staphylococcus aureus isolates to induce haematogenously spread osteomyelitis. Pigs were inoculated in the right femoral artery with one of the following S. aureus strains: S54F9 (from a porcine lung abscess; n = 3 animals), N...... dependent on the strain of bacteria inoculated and on the formation of a biofilm....... with colonies of S. aureus as demonstrated immunohistochemically. By peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization bacterial aggregates were demonstrated to be embedded in an opaque matrix, indicating that the bacteria had formed a biofilm. Development of experimental osteomyelitis was therefore...

  7. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Nagano, Takatoshi; Hu, Jan Cc; Yamakoshi, Fumiko; Simmer, James P

    2011-02-03

    Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp), the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp), is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB) and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG) attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were tentatively assigned at Thr200, Thr216 and Thr

  8. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Fumiko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp, the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp, is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. Results To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were

  9. Myostatin inhibits porcine intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, W X; Dodson, M V; Jiang, Z H; Yu, S G; Chu, W W; Chen, J

    2016-04-01

    This study assessed the effect of myostatin on adipogenesis by porcine intramuscular preadipocytes. Intramuscular preadipocytes were isolated from the longissimus dorsi muscle of newborn pigs. Myostatin inhibited intramuscular preadipocyte differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. Myostatin treatment during preadipocyte differentiation significantly (P Myostatin also significantly (P myostatin acts as an extrinsic regulatory factor in regulating intramuscular adipogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pathogenicity of porcine intestinal spirochetes in gnotobiotic pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Neef, N A; Lysons, R J; Trott, D J; Hampson, D J; Jones, P W; Morgan, J H

    1994-01-01

    Twelve intestinal spirochete strains of porcine origin were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic properties, by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and by pathogenicity testing in gnotobiotic pigs. The spirochetes used included two strains of Serpulina hyodysenteriae (B204 and P18A), two strains of Serpulina innocens (B256 and 4/71), one strain from the proposed new genus and species "Anguillina coli" (P43/6/78), and seven non-S. hyodysenteriae strains recently isolated from United K...

  11. Molecular characterization and analysis of the porcine NURR1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knud Larsen

    2016-12-01

    Here we report the isolation and characterization of porcine NURR1 cDNA. The NURR1 cDNA was RT-PCR cloned using NURR1-specific oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences. The porcine NURR1 cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 598 amino acids, displaying a very high similarity with bovine, human and mouse (99% NURR1 protein. Expression analysis revealed a differential NURR1 mRNA expression in various organs and tissues. NURR1 transcripts could be detected as early as at 60 days of embryo development in different brain tissues. A significant increase in NURR1 transcript in the cerebellum and a decrease in NURR1 transcript in the basal ganglia was observed during embryo development. The porcine NURR1 gene was mapped to chromosome 15. Two missense mutations were found in exon 3, the first coding exon of NURR1. Methylation analysis of the porcine NURR1 gene body revealed a high methylation degree in brain tissue, whereas methylation of the promoter was very low. A decrease in DNA methylation in a discrete region of the NURR1 promoter was observed in pig frontal cortex during pig embryo development. This observation correlated with an increase in NURR1 transcripts. Therefore, methylation might be a determinant of NURR1 expression at certain time points in embryo development.

  12. Secretion of pancreastatins from the porcine digestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerglum Jensen, T.D.; Holst, J.J.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    1994-01-01

    Pancreastatin, a 49-amino acid peptide with a COOH-terminal glycine amide, was originally isolated from porcine pancreas, but pancreastatin immunoreactivity has been found in several neuroendocrine tissues. There are strong indications that pancreastatin is derived from chromogranin A, since the amino acid sequence 240-288 in porcine chromogranin A corresponds to pancreastatin flanked by typical signals for proteolytic processing. The authors studied the effect of electric stimulation of the nervous supply to perfused porcine pancreas, antrum, nonantral stomach, and small intestine on the release of immunoreactive pancreastatin, and they have characterized the molecular nature of the secreted immunoreactivity by using a radioimmunoassay specific for the COOH-terminal glycine amide of porcine pancreastatin in combination with chromatography. In all tissues nerve stimulation significantly increased the release of immunoreactive pancreastatin. The secreted immunoreactive pancreastatin was heterogeneous, consisting of pancreastatin itself, a COOH-terminal pancreastatin fragment, and NH 2 -terminally extended pancreastatin forms. Pancreastatin predominated in the perfusate from pancreas and antrum, whereas mainly NH 2 -terminally extended molecular forms were secreted from the antrectomized stomach and small intestine. The different molecular forms of pancreastatin were secreted from the perfused organs in the same molar ratio as they occur in extracts of the corresponding tissues. Thus, pancreastatin and other chromogranin A-derived peptides in organ-specific proportions regularly accompany the secretion of the peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tissues on appropriate stimulation. 40 refs., 5 figs

  13. A porcine astrocyte/endothelial cell co-culture model of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeliazkova-Mecheva, Valentina V; Bobilya, Dennis J

    2003-10-01

    A method for the isolation of porcine atrocytes as a simple extension of a previously described procedure for isolation of brain capillary endothelial cells from adolescent pigs [Methods Cell Sci. 17 (1995) 2] is described. The obtained astroglial culture purified through two passages and by the method of the selective detachment was validated by a phase contrast microscopy and through an immunofluorescent assay for the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Porcine astrocytes were co-cultivated with porcine brain capillary endothelial cells (PBCEC) for the development of an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model. The model was visualized by an electron microscopy and showed elevated transendothellial electrical resistance and reduced inulin permeability. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the establishment of a porcine astrocyte/endothelial cell co-culture BBB model, which avoids interspecies and age differences between the two cell types, usually encountered in the other reported co-culture BBB models. Considering the availability of the porcine brain tissue and the close physiological and anatomical relation between the human and pig brain, the porcine astrocyte/endothelial cell co-culture system can serve as a reliable and easily reproducible model for different in vitro BBB studies.

  14. Molecular and ultrastructural characterization of porcine hippurate-negative Brachyspira pilosicoli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fossi, M.; Pohjanvirta, T.; Sukura, A.

    2004-01-01

    be classified as B. pilosicoli. 16S ribosomal DNA was partially sequenced from eight hippurate-negative and two hippurate-positive B. pilosicoli-like isolates from seven herds. The differences in nucleotide sequence with B. pilosicoli P43/6/78 type strain were not associated with hippurate cleavage. In 877 bp......Brachyspira pilosicoli, the causative agent of porcine intestinal spirochetosis, usually has hippurate-cleaving capacity. We have regularly isolated hippurate-negative R pilosicoli from cases of porcine diarrhea. In this study, we show that these biochemically atypical B. pilosicoli isolates can......, the hippurate-negative isolates had a similarity of 98.63 to 100% to the type strain, with the corresponding figures for the two hippurate-positive isolates being 98.86 and 100%. The nucleotide sequences of hippurate-positive isolates were identical to the respective sequences of hippuratenegative isolates from...

  15. Re-evaluation of lung to thorax transverse area ratio immediately before birth in predicting postnatal short-term outcomes of fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia: A single center analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Saki; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Sato, Yuka; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Miyoshi, Kina; Nagata, Kouji; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Kato, Kiyoko

    2018-05-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the lung-to-thorax transverse area ratio (LTR) immediately before birth is of diagnostic value for the prediction of postnatal short-term outcomes in cases of isolated left-sided congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We retrospectively reviewed the cases of fetal isolated left-sided CDH managed at our institution between April 2008 and July 2016. We divided the patients into two groups based on LTR immediately before birth, using a cut-off value of 0.08. We compared the proportions of subjects within the two groups who survived until discharge using Fisher's exact test. Further, using Spearman's rank correlation, we assessed whether LTR was correlated with length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, and supplemental oxygen. Twenty-nine subjects were included (five with LTR < 0.08, and 24 with LTR ≥ 0.08). The proportion of subjects surviving until discharge was 40% (2/5) for patients with LTR < 0.08, as compared with 96% (23/24) for those with LTR ≥ 0.08. LTR measured immediately before birth was negatively correlated with the postnatal length of stay (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, rs = -0.486), and the duration of supplemental oxygen (rs = -0.537). Further, the duration of mechanical ventilation was longer in patients with a lower LTR value. LTR immediately before birth is useful for the prediction of postnatal short-term outcomes in fetuses with isolated left-sided CDH. In particular, patients with prenatal LTR value less than 0.08 are at increased risk of postnatal death. © 2017 Japanese Teratology Society.

  16. 7 CFR 1230.611 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.611 Section 1230.611 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.611 Porcine animal. The term Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised: (a) As a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  17. Growth hormone-specific induction of the nuclear localization of porcine growth hormone receptor in porcine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, H N; Hong, P; Li, R N; Shan, A S; Zheng, X

    2017-10-01

    The phenomenon of nuclear translocation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in human, rat, and fish has been reported. To date, this phenomenon has not been described in a domestic animal (such as pig). In addition, the molecular mechanisms of GHR nuclear translocation have not been thoroughly elucidated. To this end, porcine hepatocytes were isolated and used as a cell model. We observed that porcine growth hormone (pGH) can induce porcine GHR's nuclear localization in porcine hepatocytes. Subsequently, the dynamics of pGH-induced pGHR's nuclear localization were analyzed and demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear localization occurs in a time-dependent manner. Next, we explored the mechanism of pGHR nuclear localization using different pGHR ligands, and we demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear translocation is GH(s)-dependent. We also observed that pGHR translocates into cell nuclei in a pGH dimerization-dependent fashion, whereas further experiments indicated that IMPα/β is involved in the nuclear translocation of the pGH-pGHR dimer. The pGH-pGHR dimer may form a pGH-GHR-JAK2 multiple complex in cell nuclei, which would suggest that similar to its function in the cell membrane, the nuclear-localized pGH-pGHR dimer might still have the ability to signal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. First identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in North America by viral metagenomic sequencing of serum from pigs infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirtzinger, Erin E; Suddith, Andrew W; Hause, Benjamin M; Hesse, Richard A

    2015-10-16

    Currently, eight species in four genera of parvovirus have been described that infect swine. These include ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (classical porcine parvovirus, PPV), ungulate tetraparvovirus 2 (PPV3), ungulate tetraparvovirus 3 (which includes PPV2, porcine hokovirus, porcine partetravirus and porcine PARV4), ungulate copiparvovirus 2 (which includes PPV4 and PPV5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 2 (which includes porcine bocavirus 1, 2 and 6), ungulate bocaparvovirus 3 (porcine bocavirus 5), ungulate bocaparvovirus 4 (porcine bocavirus 7) and ungulate bocaparvovirus 5 (porcine bocavirus 3, 4-1 and 4-2). PPV6, the most recently described porcine parvovirus, was first identified in China in late 2014 in aborted pig fetuses. Prevalence of PPV6 in China was found to be similar in finishing age pigs from farms with and without evidence of swine reproductive failure. Porcine parvovirus 6 (PPV6) was detected by sequence-independent single primer amplification (SISPA) and confirmed by overlapping and real-time PCR in the serum of porcine reproductive and respiratory virus (PRRSv) positive samples. Seven nearly complete genomes of PPV6 were identified in PRRSv genotype 2 positive serum samples submitted to state veterinary diagnostic laboratories in 2014. Further testing using overlapping and real-time PCR determined PPV6 to be present in 13.2 % of the serums tested. Additionally, PPV6 was present in samples from all of the geographic locations sampled encompassing nine states in the United States and one state in Mexico. The presence of PPV6 in serum indicates that the PPV6 infection is disseminated and not localized to a specific tissue type. Alignments of the near full length genomes, NS1, and capsid genes identified one of the five PPV6 isolates from China (98.6-99.5 % identity with the North American strains) to be the North American strains nearest relative. These results are the first to report the presence of PPV6 in North America and demonstrate that the virus is

  19. Clinical correlations, lactate extraction, coronary venous bloodflow and Thallium-201 myocardial imaging in patients with isolated left anterior descending muscle brigdes: Normal variant or obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, H.; Kupper, W.; Hanrath, P.; Mathey, D.; Montz, R.; Buecking, J.; Hamburg Univ.; Hamburg Univ.

    1980-01-01

    In 848 coronary arteriograms performed in a two-years period 21 patients (2.5%) showed a myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending artery. Resting- and/or stress-ECG were abnormal in half of the patients. Regional lactate-metabolism measured in the great cardiac vein at rest and during maximal atrial pacing was normal (29 +- 12 resp. 24 +- 9%). Thermodilution of great cardiac vein bloodflow at rest and during atrial pacing also demonstrated normal values (94 +- 33 resp. 138 +- 30 ml/min). Biphasic 201-Thallium myocardial imaging revealed no case of reversible perfusion defect, but surprisingly frequent (5 of 16 patients) clearly irreversible defects limited to the interventricular septum. We conclude that muscle bridges do not cause myocardial ischemia at rest or during exercice. (orig.) [de

  20. Proglucagon processing in porcine and human pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Bersani, M; Johnsen, A H

    1994-01-01

    In the pancreas proglucagon (PG), a peptide precursor of 160 amino acids is cleaved to produce glucagon and a 30-amino acid N-terminal flanking peptide, but the fate of the C-terminal flanking peptide (99 amino acids) is incompletely known. We subjected acid ethanol extracts of human and porcine...... pancreases to gel filtration and analyzed the fractions with specific radioimmunoassays for the following regions of proglucagon: PG 62-69, PG 72-81, PG 78-87, PG 98-107 amide, PG 126-134, and PG 149-158. Based on these assays and successive purifications by high performance liquid chromatography we isolated...... PG 72-158 = 9971) was isolated from human pancreas together with small amounts of a peptide corresponding to PG 72-107 amide. Thus, the pancreatic processing of the C-terminal flanking peptide in proglucagon includes the formation of equimolar (to glucagon) amounts of PG 64-69 and PG 72-158 (major...

  1. Effects of Enrofloxacin on Porcine Phagocytic Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoevers, E. J.; van Leengoed, L. A. M. G.; Verheijden, J. H. M.; Niewold, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between enrofloxacin and porcine phagocytes was studied with clinically relevant concentrations of enrofloxacin. Enrofloxacin accumulated in phagocytes, with cellular concentration/extracellular concentration ratios of 9 for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and 5 for alveolar macrophages (AMs). Cells with accumulated enrofloxacin brought into enrofloxacin-free medium released approximately 80% (AMs) to 90% (PMNs) of their enrofloxacin within the first 10 min, after which no further release was seen. Enrofloxacin affected neither the viability of PMNs and AMs nor the chemotaxis of PMNs at concentrations ranging from 0 to 10 μg/ml. Enrofloxacin (0.5 μg/ml) did not alter the capability of PMNs and AMs to phagocytize fluorescent microparticles or Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Pasteurella multocida, and Staphylococcus aureus. Significant differences in intracellular killing were seen with enrofloxacin at 5× the MIC compared with that for controls not treated with enrofloxacin. PMNs killed all S. aureus isolates in 3 h with or without enrofloxacin. Intracellular S. aureus isolates in AMs were less susceptible than extracellular S. aureus isolates to the bactericidal effect of enrofloxacin. P. multocida was not phagocytosed by PMNs. AMs did not kill P. multocida, and similar intra- and extracellular reductions of P. multocida isolates by enrofloxacin were found. Intraphagocytic killing of A. pleuropneumoniae was significantly enhanced by enrofloxacin at 5× the MIC in both PMNs and AMs. AMs are very susceptible to the A. pleuropneumoniae cytotoxin. This suggests that in serologically naive pigs the enhancing effect of enrofloxacin on the bactericidal action of PMNs may have clinical relevance. PMID:10471554

  2. Safety and protective efficacy of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome recombinant virus vaccines in young pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheije, M.H.; Kroese, M.V.; Linden, van der I.F.A.; Boer-Luijtze, de E.A.; Rijn, van P.A.; Pol, J.M.A.; Meulenberg, J.J.M.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Three porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) recombinants, generated by mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone of the Lelystad virus (LV) isolate, were tested for their safety and protective efficacy as potential PRRSV vaccines in pigs. Recombinant vABV688 contains two amino

  3. Temperature profiles of different cooling methods in porcine pancreas procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Scott, William E; Ferrer Fábrega, Joana; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Anazawa, Takayuki; O'Brien, Timothy D; Rizzari, Michael D; Karatzas, Theodore; Jie, Tun; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is a promising alternative to human islet allotransplantation. Porcine pancreas cooling needs to be optimized to reduce the warm ischemia time (WIT) following donation after cardiac death, which is associated with poorer islet isolation outcomes. This study examines the effect of four different cooling Methods on core porcine pancreas temperature (n = 24) and histopathology (n = 16). All Methods involved surface cooling with crushed ice and chilled irrigation. Method A, which is the standard for porcine pancreas procurement, used only surface cooling. Method B involved an intravascular flush with cold solution through the pancreas arterial system. Method C involved an intraductal infusion with cold solution through the major pancreatic duct, and Method D combined all three cooling Methods. Surface cooling alone (Method A) gradually decreased core pancreas temperature to <10 °C after 30 min. Using an intravascular flush (Method B) improved cooling during the entire duration of procurement, but incorporating an intraductal infusion (Method C) rapidly reduced core temperature 15-20 °C within the first 2 min of cooling. Combining all methods (Method D) was the most effective at rapidly reducing temperature and providing sustained cooling throughout the duration of procurement, although the recorded WIT was not different between Methods (P = 0.36). Histological scores were different between the cooling Methods (P = 0.02) and the worst with Method A. There were differences in histological scores between Methods A and C (P = 0.02) and Methods A and D (P = 0.02), but not between Methods C and D (P = 0.95), which may highlight the importance of early cooling using an intraductal infusion. In conclusion, surface cooling alone cannot rapidly cool large (porcine or human) pancreata. Additional cooling with an intravascular flush and intraductal infusion results in improved core porcine pancreas temperature profiles during procurement and

  4. Experimental Airborne Transmission of Porcine Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C. S.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Vestergaard, K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to investigate if porcine postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) could be induced in healthy pigs following contact with air from pigs with clinical signs of PMWS. The pigs were housed in different units. Either 31 (study I) or 25 (study II) pigs with...... typical of PMWS. Sequence analysis revealed that the PCV2 isolate belonged to genotype 2b. In conclusion, the present study showed that PMWS can be induced in pigs from a PMWS-free herd by airborne contact with pigs from a PMWS-affected herd....

  5. Ultrasound functional imaging in an ex vivo beating porcine heart platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, Niels J.; Fixsen, Louis S.; Rutten, Marcel C. M.; Pijls, Nico H. J.; van de Vosse, Frans N.; Lopata, Richard G. P.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, novel ultrasound functional imaging (UFI) techniques have been introduced to assess cardiac function by measuring, e.g. cardiac output (CO) and/or myocardial strain. Verification and reproducibility assessment in a realistic setting remain major issues. Simulations and phantoms are often unrealistic, whereas in vivo measurements often lack crucial hemodynamic parameters or ground truth data, or suffer from the large physiological and clinical variation between patients when attempting clinical validation. Controlled validation in certain pathologies is cumbersome and often requires the use of lab animals. In this study, an isolated beating pig heart setup was adapted and used for performance assessment of UFI techniques such as volume assessment and ultrasound strain imaging. The potential of performing verification and reproducibility studies was demonstrated. For proof-of-principle, validation of UFI in pathological hearts was examined. Ex vivo porcine hearts (n  =  6, slaughterhouse waste) were resuscitated and attached to a mock circulatory system. Radio frequency ultrasound data of the left ventricle were acquired in five short axis views and one long axis view. Based on these slices, the CO was measured, where verification was performed using flow sensor measurements in the aorta. Strain imaging was performed providing radial, circumferential and longitudinal strain to assess reproducibility and inter-subject variability under steady conditions. Finally, strains in healthy hearts were compared to a heart with an implanted left ventricular assist device, simulating a failing, supported heart. Good agreement between ultrasound and flow sensor based CO measurements was found. Strains were highly reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficients  >0.8). Differences were found due to biological variation and condition of the hearts. Strain magnitude and patterns in the assisted heart were available for different pump action, revealing

  6. 7 CFR 1230.18 - Porcine animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Porcine animal. 1230.18 Section 1230.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... animal. Porcine animal means a swine, that is raised as (a) a feeder pig, that is, a young pig sold to...

  7. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R., E-mail: pdumpala@rixd.org [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States); Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Smith, Barry H. [The Rogosin Institute, 505 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021 (United States); NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, 1300 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (United States); Gazda, Lawrence S. [The Rogosin Institute – Xenia Division, 740 Birch Road, Xenia, OH 45385 (United States)

    2016-08-05

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  8. Retention of gene expression in porcine islets after agarose encapsulation and long-term culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumpala, Pradeep R.; Holdcraft, Robert W.; Martis, Prithy C.; Laramore, Melissa A.; Parker, Thomas S.; Levine, Daniel M.; Smith, Barry H.; Gazda, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Agarose encapsulation of porcine islets allows extended in vitro culture, providing ample time to determine the functional capacity of the islets and conduct comprehensive microbiological safety testing prior to implantation as a treatment for type 1 diabetes mellitus. However, the effect that agarose encapsulation and long-term culture may have on porcine islet gene expression is unknown. The aim of the present study was to compare the transcriptome of encapsulated porcine islets following long-term in vitro culture against free islets cultured overnight. Global gene expression analysis revealed no significant change in the expression of 98.47% of genes. This indicates that the gene expression profile of free islets is highly conserved following encapsulation and long-term culture. Importantly, the expression levels of genes that code for critical hormones secreted by islets (insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin) as well as transcripts encoding proteins involved in their packaging and secretion are unchanged. While a small number of genes known to play roles in the insulin secretion and insulin signaling pathways are differentially expressed, our results show that overall gene expression is retained following islet isolation, agarose encapsulation, and long-term culture. - Highlights: • Effect of agarose encapsulation and 8 week culture on porcine islets was analyzed. • Transcriptome analysis revealed no significant change in a majority (98%) of genes. • Agarose encapsulation allows for long-term culture of porcine islets. • Islet culture allows for functional and microbial testing prior to clinical use.

  9. New stepwise cooling system for short-term porcine islet preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Noguchi, Hirofumi; Fujita, Yasutaka; Takita, Morihito; Shimoda, Masayuki; Sugimoto, Koji; Jackson, Andrew; Naziruddin, Bashoo; Shimada, Mitsuo; Levy, Marlon F; Matsumoto, Shinichi

    2010-10-01

    Porcine islets are the most suitable for xeno-islet transplantation. However, it is necessary to establish an effective preservation method against its fragility. Recently, we developed a new cooling and preservation (Keep and Fresh [KFC]; FUJIYA Co, Tokushima, Japan) system, which can maintain viability of hepatocyte. In this study, we examined the KFC for porcine islet preservation. Isolated porcine islets were preserved in CMRL 1066 culture media with bovine serum at 37°C, 22°C, and 4°C and KFC for 24, 48, and 72 hours. Islet recovery rate, purity, and viability were evaluated. After 24-hour preservation, the recovery rate was the highest in the KFC, but no significant difference was found. After 48-hour preservation, the recovery rate by the KFC was 73.9% ± 17.3%, which was significantly higher than the other groups (48.7% ± 28.6% at 37°C, P KFC group, purities and viabilities were the highest among the groups after 24-, 48-, and 72-hour preservation. The KFC system significantly improved porcine islet preservation; therefore, the KFC might be useful for porcine islet preservation.

  10. Biology of Porcine Parvovirus (Ungulate parvovirus 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Mészáros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcine parvovirus (PPV is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on the evolution and immunology of PPV, revealing that the virus is much more diverse than it was earlier anticipated, and that some of the “new” highly virulent isolates cannot be neutralized effectively by antisera raised against “old” PPV vaccine strains. These findings revitalized PPV research that led to significant advancements in the understanding of early and late viral processes during PPV infection. Our review summarizes the recent results of PPV research and aims to give a comprehensive update on the present understanding of PPV biology.

  11. Biology of Porcine Parvovirus (Ungulate parvovirus 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, István; Olasz, Ferenc; Cságola, Attila; Tijssen, Peter; Zádori, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on the evolution and immunology of PPV, revealing that the virus is much more diverse than it was earlier anticipated, and that some of the “new” highly virulent isolates cannot be neutralized effectively by antisera raised against “old” PPV vaccine strains. These findings revitalized PPV research that led to significant advancements in the understanding of early and late viral processes during PPV infection. Our review summarizes the recent results of PPV research and aims to give a comprehensive update on the present understanding of PPV biology. PMID:29261104

  12. Incidental retroaortic left innominate vein in adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Semionov, MD, PhD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Retro-aortic left innominate vein is a rare vascular abnormality, usually associated with congenital heart disease. Here we report a case of isolated retro-aortic left innominate vein in an adult female.

  13. Antimicrobial compounds of porcine mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenkova, E. A.; Lukinova, E. A.; Fedulova, L. V.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate porcine oral cavity mucosa (OCM), nasal cavity mucosa (NCM), rectal mucosa (RM) and tongue mucosa (TM) as sources of antimicrobial compounds. Ultrafiltrates with MW >30 kDa, MW 5-30 kDa and MW 30 kDa, the zone of microbial growth inhibition was 7.5 mm, for the MW<5 kDa fraction, it was 7 mm, and for MW 5-30 kDa fraction, it was 4.5 mm. No significant differences were found in high molecular weight proteomic profile, while qualitative and quantitative differences were observed in the medium and low molecular weight areas, especially in OCM and NCM. HPLC showed 221 tissue-specific peptides in OCM, 156 in NCM, 225 in RM, but only 5 in TM. The results observed confirmed porcine mucous tissues as a good source of antimicrobial compounds, which could be an actual alternative for reduction of microbial spoilage of foods.

  14. Occurance of apoptosis during ischemia in porcine pancreas islet cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, V; Schaffellner, S; Iberer, F; Lackner, C; Liegl, B; Zink, B; Kniepeiss, D; Tscheliessnigg, K H

    2003-03-01

    Pancreas islet transplantation is a potential treatment of diabetes mellitus and porcine organs provide an easily available source of cells. Unfortunately quality and quantity of isolated islets are still not satisfactory. Apoptosis occurs in freshly isolated islets and plays a significant role in early graft loss. We evaluated the influence of four storage solutions on porcine pancreas islets. After warm ischemia of 15-20 minutes 12 organs were stored in 4 cold preservation solutions: Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate solution (HTK), Hank's buffered saline solution (HBSS), University of Wisconsin (UW) solution and Ringer-Lactate (R). After cold ischemia for 100 minutes, organs were fixed in 3% formalin. Apoptotic cells were counted on hematocylin-eosin stainings. Most apoptotic cells were found in organs stored in R. Low numbers were found in the other groups. The difference between organs stored in R and organs stored in UW, HTK, or HBSS was highly significant. No significant difference could be found between UW, HTK and HBSS. Cold and warm ischemia of the pancreas seems to induce apoptosis in islet cells. Preservation solutions cause less apoptosis than electrolyte solution. No significant differences could be found among the preservation solutions.

  15. Porcine head response to blast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharani, Jay K; Wood, Garrett W; Panzer, Matthew B; Capehart, Bruce P; Nyein, Michelle K; Radovitzky, Raul A; Bass, Cameron R 'dale'

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the frequency of traumatic brain injuries related to blast exposure. However, the mechanisms that cause blast neurotrauma are unknown. Blast neurotrauma research using computational models has been one method to elucidate that response of the brain in blast, and to identify possible mechanical correlates of injury. However, model validation against experimental data is required to ensure that the model output is representative of in vivo biomechanical response. This study exposes porcine subjects to primary blast overpressures generated using a compressed-gas shock tube. Shock tube blasts were directed to the unprotected head of each animal while the lungs and thorax were protected using ballistic protective vests similar to those employed in theater. The test conditions ranged from 110 to 740 kPa peak incident overpressure with scaled durations from 1.3 to 6.9 ms and correspond approximately with a 50% injury risk for brain bleeding and apnea in a ferret model scaled to porcine exposure. Instrumentation was placed on the porcine head to measure bulk acceleration, pressure at the surface of the head, and pressure inside the cranial cavity. Immediately after the blast, 5 of the 20 animals tested were apneic. Three subjects recovered without intervention within 30 s and the remaining two recovered within 8 min following respiratory assistance and administration of the respiratory stimulant doxapram. Gross examination of the brain revealed no indication of bleeding. Intracranial pressures ranged from 80 to 390 kPa as a result of the blast and were notably lower than the shock tube reflected pressures of 300-2830 kPa, indicating pressure attenuation by the skull up to a factor of 8.4. Peak head accelerations were measured from 385 to 3845 G's and were well correlated with peak incident overpressure (R(2) = 0.90). One SD corridors for the surface pressure, intracranial pressure (ICP), and head acceleration are

  16. Appraisal of the porcine kidney autotransplantation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Ivo C. J. H.; Dirkes, Marcel C.; Heger, Michal; van Loon, Johannes P. A. M.; Swildens, Bas; Huijzer, Goos M.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    Animal models are extensively used for transplantation related research, especially kidney transplantation. Porcine autotransplantation models are considered to be favorable regarding translatability to the human setting. The key determinants for translatability of the model are discussed,

  17. Substitution of porcine small intestinal submucosa for rabbit Achilles tendon, an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yan; Dai, Kerong

    2002-09-25

    To study the effect of substitution of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) for rabbit Achilles tendon. Porcine SIS was taken out and processed. Part of Achilles tendons of 20 rabbits' right legs were removed and substituted by porcine SIS and the Achilles tendon of the left legs were used as controls. One, four, eight, twelve, and sixteen weeks after the operation 4 rabbits were killed and their right Achilles tendons were taken out to be examined histologically and their maximum load was tested. One week after the operation, the porcine SIS was already fused with the remaining part of rabbit Achilles tendon. Sixteen weeks after all the Achilles tendons looked like normal one. The maximum load of experimental Achilles tendon was 48 N +/- 9 N one week after the operation, and increased gradually. In the 16th week after the operation, the maximum load was 178 N +/- 6 N for the experimental Achilles tendon and 174 N +/- 10 N for the control tendon. The differences of maximum load between different weeks after operation, except that between one week and 4 weeks after, were statistically significant (P Achilles tendon is effective, thus proving the feasibility of in vivo tissue engineering technology.

  18. Genomic Relatedness of Chlamydia Isolates Determined by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meijer, Adam; Morré, Servaas A.; Van Den Brule, Adriaan J. C.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Ossewaarde, Jacobus M.

    1999-01-01

    The genomic relatedness of 19 Chlamydia pneumoniae isolates (17 from respiratory origin and 2 from atherosclerotic origin), 21 Chlamydia trachomatis isolates (all serovars from the human biovar, an isolate from the mouse biovar, and a porcine isolate), 6 Chlamydia psittaci isolates (5 avian isolates and 1 feline isolate), and 1 Chlamydia pecorum isolate was studied by analyzing genomic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprints. The AFLP procedure was adapted from a previously...

  19. The effect of magnesium sulfate concentration on the effective concentration of rocuronium, and sugammadex-mediated reversal, in isolated left phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm preparations from the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Choon-Kyu; Sung, Tae-Yun; Choi, Seok-Jun; Choi, Hey-Ran; Kim, Yong Beom; Lee, Jung-Un; Yang, Hong-Seuk

    2018-05-30

    Perioperative magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) is used for analgesic, anti-arrhythmic, and obstetric purposes. The effects of MgSO4 on the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) induced by rocuronium, and the sugammadex reversal thereof, have not been clearly quantified. We investigated the effect increase concentrations of MgSO4 on the NMB by rocuronium, and sugammadex reversal, in isolated left phrenic nerve hemi-diaphragm (PNHD) preparations from the rat. Rat PNHD preparations were randomly allocated to one of four groups varying in terms of MgSO4 concentration (1, 2, 3, and 4 mM, each n = 10, in Krebs solution). The train-of-four (TOF) and twitch height responses were recorded mechanomyographically. The preparations were treated with incrementally increasing doses of rocuronium and each group's effective concentration (EC)50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium were calculated via nonlinear regression. Then, sugammadex was administered in doses equimolar to rocuronium. The recovery index, time to T1 height >95% of control, and the time to a TOF ratio (TOFR) >0.9 after sugammadex administration were measured. The EC50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium fell significantly as the magnesium level increased. The EC50, EC90, and EC95 of rocuronium did not differ between the 3 and 4 mM groups. The recovery index, time to T1 height >95% of control, and time to a TOFR >0.9 after sugammadex administration did not differ among the four groups. Increases in the magnesium concentration in rat PNHD preparations proportionally enhanced the NMB induced by rocuronium but did not affect reversal by equimolar amounts of sugammadex.

  20. The survey of porcine teschoviruses, sapeloviruses and enteroviruses B infecting domestic pigs and wild boars in the Czech Republic between 2005 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodělalová, Jana

    2012-10-01

    This study presents results of epidemiological survey and genetic characterisation of porcine enteric picornaviruses belonging to the genera Teschovirus, Sapelovirus, and Porcine enterovirus B. Faecal or gut content samples from domestic pigs (Sus scrofa f. domestica) and the cecal content of wild boars (Sus scrofa) of different ages (collected between 2005 and 2011) were analysed by molecular methods. Porcine enterovirus B was the most prevalent virus detected in both domestic pigs and wild boars (50.2% and 69.4%, respectively), followed by Porcine teschovirus and Porcine sapelovirus. The majority of positive domestic pigs (69.4%) and wild boars (64.3%) were infected with two or three tested viruses. There was no significant difference in prevalences of teschoviruses, sapeloviruses, and enteroviruses among healthy and diarrhoeic pigs. Results of epidemiological survey demonstrated that all target viral genera are common in Czech farms producing pigs and wild boars. Amplified nucleotide fragments of VP2 region obtained from randomly selected both historical and recent Teschovirus isolates were sequenced. Based on sequence data, historical Porcine teschovirus isolate CAPM V-180, previously determined as serotype 1 was reclassified into serotype 11. Moreover, another recent Porcine teschovirus isolate OH264/2010 was described and classified into serotype 11. Four nontypeable PTV strains (historical isolate CAPM V-182/1976 and recent isolates JA247/2010, NI429/2010, and BR1576/2007) identified in this study might represent novel serotypes. To the best of our knowledge, our study represents the first description of this serotype in the Czech Republic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette S.; Oleksiewicz, Martin B; Forsberg, R

    2001-01-01

    A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates was sequen......A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates...... in the vaccine virus sequence during cell-culture adaptation. Evaluation of the remaining mutations in the ORF1 sequence revealed stronger selective pressure for amino acid conservation during spread in pigs than during vaccine production. Furthermore, it was found that the selective pressure did not change...

  2. Reversion of a live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccine investigated by parallel mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette S.; Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Forsberg, R.

    2001-01-01

    A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates was sequen......A live attenuated porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) vaccine virus has been shown to revert to virulence under field conditions. In order to identify genetic virulence determinants, ORF1 from the attenuated vaccine virus and three Danish vaccine-derived field isolates...... in the vaccine virus sequence during cell-culture adaptation. Evaluation of the remaining mutations in the ORF1 sequence revealed stronger selective pressure for amino acid conservation during spread in pigs than during vaccine production. Furthermore, it was found that the selective pressure did not change...

  3. Effect of simvastatin on vascular tone in porcine coronary artery: Potential role of the mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almukhtar, H.; Garle, M.J.; Smith, P.A.; Roberts, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    Statins induce acute vasorelaxation which may contribute to the overall benefits of statins in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The mechanism underlying this relaxation is unknown. As statins have been shown to alter mitochondrial function, in this study we investigated the role of mitochondria in the relaxation to simvastatin. Relaxation of porcine coronary artery segments by statins was measured using isolated tissue baths. Mitochondrial activity was determined by measuring changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were determined in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells with Fluo-4 using standard epifluorescent imaging techniques. Simvastatin, but not pravastatin, produced a slow relaxation of the coronary artery, which was independent of the endothelium. The relaxation was attenuated by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone (10 μM) and the complex III inhibitor myxothiazol (10 μM), or a combination of the two. The complex III inhibitor antimycin A (10 μM) produced a similar time-dependent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery, which was attenuated by rotenone. Changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence showed that simvastatin (10 μM) depolarized the membrane potential of mitochondria in both isolated mitochondria and intact blood vessels. Simvastatin and antimycin A both inhibited calcium-induced contractions in isolated blood vessels and calcium influx in smooth muscle cells and this inhibition was prevented by rotenone. In conclusion, simvastatin produces an endothelium-independent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery which is dependent, in part, upon effects on the mitochondria. The effects on the mitochondria may lead to a reduction in calcium influx and hence relaxation of the blood vessel. - Highlights: • Simvastatin produces a relaxation of the porcine coronary artery. • This relaxation is inhibited by mitochondrial complex inhibitors. • Simvastatin alters mitochondrial membrane potential

  4. Effect of simvastatin on vascular tone in porcine coronary artery: Potential role of the mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almukhtar, H.; Garle, M.J.; Smith, P.A.; Roberts, R.E., E-mail: richard.roberts@nottingham.ac.uk

    2016-08-15

    Statins induce acute vasorelaxation which may contribute to the overall benefits of statins in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. The mechanism underlying this relaxation is unknown. As statins have been shown to alter mitochondrial function, in this study we investigated the role of mitochondria in the relaxation to simvastatin. Relaxation of porcine coronary artery segments by statins was measured using isolated tissue baths. Mitochondrial activity was determined by measuring changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence. Changes in intracellular calcium levels were determined in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells with Fluo-4 using standard epifluorescent imaging techniques. Simvastatin, but not pravastatin, produced a slow relaxation of the coronary artery, which was independent of the endothelium. The relaxation was attenuated by the mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone (10 μM) and the complex III inhibitor myxothiazol (10 μM), or a combination of the two. The complex III inhibitor antimycin A (10 μM) produced a similar time-dependent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery, which was attenuated by rotenone. Changes in rhodamine 123 fluorescence showed that simvastatin (10 μM) depolarized the membrane potential of mitochondria in both isolated mitochondria and intact blood vessels. Simvastatin and antimycin A both inhibited calcium-induced contractions in isolated blood vessels and calcium influx in smooth muscle cells and this inhibition was prevented by rotenone. In conclusion, simvastatin produces an endothelium-independent relaxation of the porcine coronary artery which is dependent, in part, upon effects on the mitochondria. The effects on the mitochondria may lead to a reduction in calcium influx and hence relaxation of the blood vessel. - Highlights: • Simvastatin produces a relaxation of the porcine coronary artery. • This relaxation is inhibited by mitochondrial complex inhibitors. • Simvastatin alters mitochondrial membrane potential

  5. [Molecular-genetic analysis of the genomes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2 circulating in the area of Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgakov, A D; Grebennikova, T V; Iuzhakov, A G; Aliper, T I; Nepoklonov, E A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular genetic analysis of the genomes of the virus of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome (VPRRS) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) circulating in the area of the Russian Federation was discussed. The results of this work showed the circulation of the strains of the European genotype VPRRS similar to those found in France and Denmark from 1998 to 2001. The homology of the fragment of one of the genes between the Russian isolates and the vaccine strain Porcilis PRRS (Intervet) was found. It requires further study. The strains representing the North American genotype VPRRS were not found. The PCV-2 genomes fall into three separate goups. One (genotype 2b) is formed by isolates in Malaysia, Brazil, Switzerland, China, Slovakia, UK, USA, isolated during the period from 2004 to the present time. The second group consists of sequences of the viruses isolated in 2000-2012 in Canada, the U.S., China, and South Korea (genotype 2a). The third group is formed by highly pathogenic isolates in 2013 from China (highly pathogenic genotype 2c). The circulation of all three known genotypes of PCV-2: 2a, 2b, and 2c in Russian Federation was demonstrated.

  6. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Bozidar; Milicevic, Vesna; Jakic-Dimic, Dobrila; Bojkovski, Jovan; Prodanovic, Radisa; Kureljusic, Branislav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Savic, Borivoje

    2012-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the main causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). To characterize and determine the genetic diversity of PCV2 in the porcine population of Serbia, nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the open reading frame 2 (ORF2) of PCV2 collected from the tissues of pigs that either had died as a result of PMWS or did not exhibit disease symptoms were analyzed. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed considerable diversity among PCV2 ORF2 sequences and the existence of two main PCV2 genotypes, PCV2b and PCV2a, with at least three clusters, 1A/B, 1C and 2D. In order to provide further proof that the 1C strain is circulating in the porcine population, the whole viral genome of one PCV2 isolate was sequenced. Genotyping and phylogenetic analysis using the entire viral genome sequences confirmed that there was a PMWS-associated 1C strain emerging in Serbia. Our analysis also showed that PCV2b is dominant in the porcine population, and that it is exclusively associated with PMWS occurrences in the country. These data constitute a useful basis for further epidemiological studies regarding the heterogeneity of PCV2 strains on the European continent.

  7. Quantification of Porcine Vocal Fold Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly A; Thomson, Scott L; Jetté, Marie E; Thibeault, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify porcine vocal fold medial surface geometry and three-dimensional geometric distortion induced by freezing the larynx, especially in the region of the vocal folds. The medial surface geometries of five excised porcine larynges were quantified and reported. Five porcine larynges were imaged in a micro-CT scanner, frozen, and rescanned. Segmentations and three-dimensional reconstructions were used to quantify and characterize geometric features. Comparisons were made with geometry data previously obtained using canine and human vocal folds as well as geometries of selected synthetic vocal fold models. Freezing induced an overall expansion of approximately 5% in the transverse plane and comparable levels of nonuniform distortion in sagittal and coronal planes. The medial surface of the porcine vocal folds was found to compare reasonably well with other geometries, although the compared geometries exhibited a notable discrepancy with one set of published human female vocal fold geometry. Porcine vocal folds are qualitatively geometrically similar to data available for canine and human vocal folds, as well as commonly used models. Freezing of tissue in the larynx causes distortion of around 5%. The data can provide direction in estimating uncertainty due to bulk distortion of tissue caused by freezing, as well as quantitative geometric data that can be directly used in developing vocal fold models. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lentiviral Vector Gene Transfer to Porcine Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick L Sinn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated lentiviral vector development and transduction efficiencies in well-differentiated primary cultures of pig airway epithelia (PAE and wild-type pigs in vivo. We noted gene transfer efficiencies similar to that observed for human airway epithelia (HAE. Interestingly, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV-based vectors transduced immortalized pig cells as well as pig primary cells more efficiently than HIV-1–based vectors. PAE express TRIM5α, a well-characterized species-specific lentiviral restriction factor. We contrasted the restrictive properties of porcine TRIM5α against FIV- and HIV-based vectors using gain and loss of function approaches. We observed no effect on HIV-1 or FIV conferred transgene expression in response to porcine TRIM5α overexpression or knockdown. To evaluate the ability of GP64-FIV to transduce porcine airways in vivo, we delivered vector expressing mCherry to the tracheal lobe of the lung and the ethmoid sinus of 4-week-old pigs. One week later, epithelial cells expressing mCherry were readily detected. Our findings indicate that pseudotyped FIV vectors confer similar tropisms in porcine epithelia as observed in human HAE and provide further support for the selection of GP64 as an appropriate envelope pseudotype for future preclinical gene therapy studies in the porcine model of cystic fibrosis (CF.

  9. Similarities in the immunoglobulin response and VH gene usage in rhesus monkeys and humans exposed to porcine hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borie Dominic C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of porcine cells and organs as a source of xenografts for human patients would vastly increase the donor pool; however, both humans and Old World primates vigorously reject pig tissues due to xenoantibodies that react with the polysaccharide galactose α (1,3 galactose (αGal present on the surface of many porcine cells. We previously examined the xenoantibody response in patients exposed to porcine hepatocytes via treatment(s with bioartficial liver devices (BALs, composed of porcine cells in a support matrix. We determined that xenoantibodies in BAL-treated patients are predominantly directed at porcine αGal carbohydrate epitopes, and are encoded by a small number of germline heavy chain variable region (VH immunoglobulin genes. The studies described in this manuscript were designed to identify whether the xenoantibody responses and the IgVH genes encoding antibodies to porcine hepatocytes in non-human primates used as preclinical models are similar to those in humans. Adult non-immunosuppressed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta were injected intra-portally with porcine hepatocytes or heterotopically transplanted with a porcine liver lobe. Peripheral blood leukocytes and serum were obtained prior to and at multiple time points after exposure, and the immune response was characterized, using ELISA to evaluate the levels and specificities of circulating xenoantibodies, and the production of cDNA libraries to determine the genes used by B cells to encode those antibodies. Results Xenoantibodies produced following exposure to isolated hepatocytes and solid organ liver grafts were predominantly encoded by genes in the VH3 family, with a minor contribution from the VH4 family. Immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene (VH cDNA library screening and gene sequencing of IgM libraries identified the genes as most closely-related to the IGHV3-11 and IGHV4-59 germline progenitors. One of the genes most similar to IGHV3-11, VH3-11cyno, has

  10. Porcine model of hemophilia A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Kashiwakura

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8. Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.

  11. Immunobiotic Lactobacillus strains augment NLRP3 expression in newborn and adult porcine gut-associated lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohno, Masanori; Shimosato, Takeshi; Aso, Hisashi; Kitazawa, Haruki

    2011-12-15

    We isolated cDNA encoding porcine nucleotide-binding domain-like receptor family, pryin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) from Peyer's patches. The complete nucleotide open reading frame of porcine NLRP3 contains 3108-bp encoding a deduced polypeptide of 1036-amino acid residues. The porcine NLRP3 amino acid sequence is more similar to the longest isoform of human than the mouse counterpart. The predicted amino acid sequence of porcine NLRP3 presented nine C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domains. In newborn swine, the expression of NLRP3 was detected at higher levels in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes, while lower levels were observed in intestinal tissues. In adult swine, NLRP3 was strongly expressed in Peyer's patches and the mesenteric lymph nodes, and the expression level in the lower intestinal tissues was comparable to that in spleen. Toll-like receptor and nucleotide-binding domain ligands, as well as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Lactobacillus gasseri, enhanced NLRP3 expression in gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) of newborn and adult swine. Our results should aid in understanding the intestinal immunoregulatory mechanisms underlying NLRP3 activation and the priming ability of immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria in porcine GALT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeted Porcine Genome Engineering with TALENs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Golas, Mariola Monika

    2015-01-01

    confers precisely editing (e.g., mutations or indels) or insertion of a functional transgenic cassette to user-designed loci. Techniques for targeted genome engineering are growing dramatically and include, e.g., zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs......, including construction of sequence-specific TALENs, delivery of TALENs into primary porcine fibroblasts, and detection of TALEN-mediated cleavage, is described. This chapter is useful for scientists who are inexperienced with TALEN engineering of porcine cells as well as of other large animals....

  13. Interlaboratory testing of porcine sera for antibodies to porcine circovirus type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNair, I.; Marshall, M.; McNeilly, F.

    2004-01-01

    A panel of 20 porcine sera was distributed to 5 laboratories across Europe and Canada. Each center was requested to test the sera for the presence of porcine circovirus type 2 antibodies using the routine assays, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect immunoperoxidase monolayer assa...... than did IFA, and paraformaldehyde gave higher titers than did acetone or ethyl alcohol. This report highlights the need for standardized procedures and biologicals for this virus....

  14. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  15. Porcine Circovirus Diseases: A review of PMWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baekbo, P.; Kristensen, C. S.; Larsen, L. E.

    2012-01-01

    Porcine Circo Virus type 2 have been coming on the market and many studies have shown great benefits of these to control PMWS. Today, sow vaccines as well as piglet vaccines are available in most countries. An extensive meta‐analysis of many of the vaccines has shown a comparable good efficacy...

  16. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvisgaard, Lise Kirstine

    This PhD thesis presents the diversity of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome viruses (PRRSV) circulating in the Danish pig population. PRRS is a disease in pigs caused by the PRRS virus resulting in reproductive failures in sows and gilts and respiratory diseases in pigs . Due to genetic...

  17. In Vitro and In Vivo Study of a Novel Porcine Collagen Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisner Salamanca

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For years, in order to improve bone regeneration and prevent the need of a second stage surgery to remove non-resorbable membranes, biological absorbable membranes have gradually been developed and applied in guided tissue regeneration (GTR. The present study’s main objective was to achieve space maintenance and bone regeneration using a new freeze-dried developed porcine collagen membrane, and compare it with an already commercial collagen membrane, when both were used with a bovine xenograft in prepared alveolar ridge bone defects. Prior to surgery, the membrane’s vitality analysis showed statistically significant higher cell proliferation in the test membrane over the commercial one. In six beagle dogs, commercial bone xenograft was packed in lateral ridge bone defects prepared in the left and right side and then covered with test porcine collagen membrane or commercial collagen membrane. Alveolar height changes were measured. Histomorphometric results, in vitro and in vivo properties indicated that the new porcine collagen membrane is biocompatible, enhances bone xenograft osteoconduction, and reduces the alveolar ridge height reabsorption rate.

  18. Anatomic relationship between left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Torri, Federica; Ferraris, Federico; Calò, Leonardo; Castagno, Davide; Gili, Sebastiano; Rovera, Chiara; Giustetto, Carla; Gaita, Fiorenzo

    2017-07-01

    Atrial fibrillation transcatheter ablation (TCA) is, within available atrial fibrillation rhythm control strategies, one of the most effective. To potentially improve ablation outcome in case of recurrent atrial fibrillation after a first procedure or in presence of structural myocardial disease, isolation of the pulmonary veins may be associated with extensive lesions within the left atrium. To avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications, thorough knowledge and assessment of left atrium anatomy and its relation to structures in close proximity are, therefore, mandatory. Aim of the present study is to describe, by cardiac computed tomography, the anatomic relationship between aortic root, left coronary artery and left atrium in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation TCA. The cardiac computed tomography scan of 21 patients affected by atrial fibrillation was elaborated to segment left atrium, aortic root and left coronary artery from the surrounding structures and the following distances measured: left atrium and aortic root; left atrium roof and aortic root; left main coronary artery and left atrium; circumflex artery and left atrium appendage; and circumflex artery and mitral valve annulus. Above all, the median distance between left atrium and aortic root (1.9, 1.5-2.1 mm), and between circumflex artery and left atrium appendage ostium (3.0, 2.1-3.4 mm) were minimal (≤3 mm). None of measured distances significantly varied between patients presenting paroxysmal versus persistent atrial fibrillation. The anatomic relationship between left atrium and coronary arteries is extremely relevant when performing atrial fibrillation TCA by extensive lesions. Therefore, at least in the latter case, preablation imaging should be recommended to avoid rare, but potentially life-threatening, complications with the aim of an as well tolerated as possible procedure.

  19. Mouse oocytes nucleoli rescue embryonic development of porcine enucleolated oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovic, Martin; Strejcek, Frantisek; Nakagawa, Shoma; Deshmukh, Rahul S; Murin, Matej; Benc, Michal; Fulka, Helena; Kyogoku, Hirohisa; Pendovski, Lazo; Fulka, Josef; Laurincik, Jozef

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that nucleoli of fully grown mammalian oocytes are indispensable for embryonic development. Therefore, the embryos originated from previously enucleolated (ENL) oocytes undergo only one or two cleavages and then their development ceases. In our study the interspecies (mouse/pig) nucleolus transferred embryos (NuTE) were produced and their embryonic development was analyzed by autoradiography, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and immunofluorescence (C23 and upstream binding factor (UBF)). Our results show that the re-injection of isolated oocyte nucleoli, either from the pig (P + P) or mouse (P + M), into previously enucleolated and subsequently matured porcine oocytes rescues their development after parthenogenetic activation and some of these develop up to the blastocyst stage (P + P, 11.8%; P + M, 13.5%). In nucleolus re-injected 8-cell and blastocyst stage embryos the number of nucleoli labeled with C23 in P + P and P + M groups was lower than in control (non-manipulated) group. UBF was localized in small foci within the nucleoli of blastocysts in control and P + P embryos, however, in P + M embryos the labeling was evenly distributed in the nucleoplasm. The TEM and autoradiographic evaluations showed the formation of functional nucleoli and de novo rRNA synthesis at the 8-cell stage in both, control and P + P group. In the P + M group the formation of comparable nucleoli was delayed. In conclusion, our results indicate that the mouse nucleolus can rescue embryonic development of enucleolated porcine oocytes, but the localization of selected nucleolar proteins, the timing of transcription activation and the formation of the functional nucleoli in NuTE compared with control group show evident aberrations.

  20. Functional characterization of the ER stress induced X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp-1 in the porcine system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Dong-Il

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The unfolded protein response (UPR is an evolutionary conserved adaptive reaction for increasing cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress conditions. X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp1 is a key transcription factor of UPR that activates genes involved in protein folding, secretion, and degradation to restore ER function. The UPR induced by ER stress was extensively studied in diseases linked to protein misfolding and aggregations. However, in the porcine system, genes in the UPR pathway were not investigated. In this study, we isolated and characterized the porcine Xbp1 (pXbp1 gene in ER stress using porcine embryonic fibroblast (PEF cells and porcine organs. ER stress was induced by the treatment of tunicamycin and cell viability was investigated by the MTT assay. For cloning and analyzing the expression pattern of pXbp1, RT-PCR analysis and Western blot were used. Knock-down of pXbp1 was performed by the siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Results We found that the pXbp1 mRNA was the subject of the IRE1α-mediated unconventional splicing by ER stress. Knock-down of pXbp1 enhanced ER stress-mediated cell death in PEF cells. In adult organs, pXbp1 mRNA and protein were expressed and the spliced forms were detected. Conclusions It was first found that the UPR mechanisms and the function of pXbp1 in the porcine system. These results indicate that pXbp1 plays an important role during the ER stress response like other animal systems and open a new opportunity for examining the UPR pathway in the porcine model system.

  1. [Surgical angioplasty of the left main coronary artery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranes, Mile; Velinović, Milos; Kocica, Mladen; Mikić, Aleksandar; Velimirović, Dusan; Djukić, Petar

    2010-01-01

    The conventional treatment for isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery is bypass surgery (myocardial revascularization). However, the process of atherosclerosis is not arrested by myocardial revascularization and it will lead to the occlusion of the left main coronary artery. Revascularization will establish retrograde perfusion for 50-70% of the myocardium of the left ventricle. Direct surgical angioplasty of the left main coronary artery enables normal physiological perfusion of the whole myocardium and better myocardial function. The aim of our study is to point out a new surgical approach of treating left main coronary artery stenosis. Between October 2002 and October 2003, direct surgical angioplasty of the main left coronary artery was performed on three patients with isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery using the anterior approach and the pericardium as a patch. The procedure was performed under total endotracheal anaesthesia and standard cardiopulmonary circulation, moderate hypothermia, anterograde St. Tomas cardioplegia and local cooling. Patients were followed clinically, echocardiographically and by load-tests. All three patients were without complications. In postoperative follow-up (54-68 months) neither angina pectoris nor electrocardiographically registered ischaemic changes were found. Load-tests performed every six months on all three patients were negative. Surgical angioplasty of isolated stenosis of the left main coronary artery is a preferred method for treating this type of coronary disease. Contraindications for this type of treatment are stenosis of the left main coronary artery with bifurcation and advanced calcification of the left main coronary artery.

  2. Monoclonal antibodies specific to heat-treated porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Nhari, Raja Mohd Hafidz; Hamid, Muhajir; Rasli, Nurmunirah Mohamad; Omar, Abdul Rahman; El Sheikha, Aly Farag; Mustafa, Shuhaimi

    2016-05-01

    Porcine blood is potentially being utilized in food as a binder, gelling agent, emulsifier or colorant. However, for certain communities, the usage of animal blood in food is strictly prohibited owing to religious concerns and health reasons. This study reports the development of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against heat-treated soluble proteins (HSPs) of autoclaved porcine blood; characterization of MAbs against blood, non-blood and plasma from different animal species using qualitative indirect non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); and immunoblotting of antigenic components in HSPs of porcine blood. Fifteen MAbs are specific to heat-treated and raw porcine blood and not cross-reacted with other animal blood and non-blood proteins (meat and non-meat). Twelve MAbs are specific to porcine plasma, while three MAbs specific to porcine plasma are cross-reacted with chicken plasma. Immunoblotting revealed antigenic protein bands (∼60, ∼85-100 and ∼250 kDa) in porcine blood and plasma recognized by the MAbs. Selection of MAbs that recognized 60 kDa HSPs of porcine blood and plasma as novel monoclonal antibodies would be useful for detection of porcine plasma in processed food using the immunoassay method. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Specific detection of the genus Serpulina, S-hyodysenteriae and S-pilosicoli in porcine intestines by fluorescent rRNA in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Mette; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    , for the detection of Serpulina isolates at genus level as well as for specific detection of S. hyodysenteriae and S. pilosicoli in formalin-fixed colon tissue sections from pigs suffering from swine dysentery and porcine colonic spirochaetosis, respectively. Tissue sections were also used from pigs without any...

  4. cDNA cloning of porcine brain prolyl endopeptidase and identification of the active-site seryl residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rennex, D.; Hemmings, B.A.; Hofsteenge, J.; Stone, S.R. (Friedrich Miescher-Institut, Basel (Switzerland))

    1991-02-26

    Prolyl endopeptidase is a cytoplasmic serine protease. The enzyme was purified from porcine kidney, and oligonucleotides based on peptide sequences from this protein were used to isolate a cDNA clone from a porcine brain library. This clone contained the complete coding sequence of prolyl endopeptidase and encoded a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 80751 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of prolyl endopeptidase showed no sequence homology with other known serine proteases. ({sup 3}H)Diisopropyl fluorophosphate was used to identify the active-site serine of prolyl endopeptidase. One labeled peptide was isolated and sequenced. The sequence surrounding the active-site serine was Asn-Gly-Gly-Ser-Asn-Gly-Gly. This sequence is different from the active-site sequences of other known serine proteases. This difference and the lack of overall homology with the known families of serine proteases suggest that prolyl endopeptidase represents a new type of serine protease.

  5. Effects of Enrofloxacin on Porcine Phagocytic Function

    OpenAIRE

    Schoevers, E. J.; van Leengoed, L. A. M. G.; Verheijden, J. H. M.; Niewold, T. A.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction between enrofloxacin and porcine phagocytes was studied with clinically relevant concentrations of enrofloxacin. Enrofloxacin accumulated in phagocytes, with cellular concentration/extracellular concentration ratios of 9 for polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and 5 for alveolar macrophages (AMs). Cells with accumulated enrofloxacin brought into enrofloxacin-free medium released approximately 80% (AMs) to 90% (PMNs) of their enrofloxacin within the first 10 min, after which no...

  6. Biology of Porcine Parvovirus (Ungulate parvovirus 1)

    OpenAIRE

    István Mészáros; Ferenc Olasz; Attila Cságola; Peter Tijssen; Zoltán Zádori

    2017-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) is among the most important infectious agents causing infertility in pigs. Until recently, it was thought that the virus had low genetic variance, and that prevention of its harmful effect on pig fertility could be well-controlled by vaccination. However, at the beginning of the third millennium, field observations raised concerns about the effectiveness of the available vaccines against newly emerging strains. Subsequent investigations radically changed our view on t...

  7. The ontogeny of the porcine immune system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šinkora, Marek; Butler, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 3 (2009), s. 273-283 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/07/0087; GA ČR GA523/07/0088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : ontogeny of the porcine immune system * swine adaptive immunity * development of alpha beta and gamma delta T cells Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.290, year: 2009

  8. Left heart ventricular angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels. These x-ray pictures create a "movie" of the left ventricle as it contracts rhythmically. ... 22578925 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22578925 . Review Date 9/26/2016 Updated by: Michael A. ...

  9. Left heart catheterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catheterization - left heart ... to help guide the catheters up into your heart and arteries. Dye (sometimes called "contrast") will be ... in the blood vessels that lead to your heart. The catheter is then moved through the aortic ...

  10. Establishment and characterization of a differentiated epithelial cell culture model derived from the porcine cervix uteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miessen Katrin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cervical uterine epithelial cells maintain a physiological and pathogen-free milieu in the female mammalian reproductive tract and are involved in sperm-epithelium interaction. Easily accessible, differentiated model systems of the cervical epithelium are not yet available to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms within these highly specialized cells. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish a cell culture of the porcine cervical epithelium representing in vivo-like properties of the tissue. Results We tested different isolation methods and culture conditions and validated purity of the cultured cells by immunohistochemistry against keratins. We could reproducibly culture pure epithelial cells from cervical tissue explants. Based on a morphology score and the WST-1 Proliferation Assay, we optimized the growth medium composition. Primary porcine cervical cells performed best in conditioned Ham's F-12, containing 10% FCS, EGF and insulin. After cultivation in an air-liquid interface for three weeks, the cells showed a discontinuously multilayered phenotype. Finally, differentiation was validated via immunohistochemistry against beta catenin. Mucopolysaccharide production could be shown via alcian blue staining. Conclusions We provide the first suitable protocol to establish a differentiated porcine epithelial model of the cervix uteri, based on easily accessible cells using slaughterhouse material.

  11. Establishment of an attenuated strain of porcine parvovirus by serial passage at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisaki, Y; Murakami, Y; Suzuki, H

    1982-01-01

    To prepare a live virus vaccine strain for the prevention of porcine parvovirus infection, the 90HS strain, isolated from the brain of a stillborn porcine fetus, was subjected to the first 45 serial passages in swine kidney established (ESK) cells of porcine kidney origin at 30-35 degrees C and to the 46th and later serial passages in the same cells as these at 32 degrees C. When swine were inoculated with the strain at the 38th passage level possessing such properties as expressed with rct/37+ and rct/40-, they presented viremia, virus discharge, and the transmission of virus to other swine. When swine were inoculated with the strain at the 54th and 55th passage level possessing such properties as expressed with rct/37- and rct/40-, they failed to exhibit viremia, virus discharge, and the transmission of virus to other swine, but retained for a long time hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody which had been produced after inoculation. A low virulent variant strain was obtained after 54 serial passages at low temperature. It was called the HT- strain.

  12. Establishment and characterization of a differentiated epithelial cell culture model derived from the porcine cervix uteri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miessen, Katrin; Einspanier, Ralf; Schoen, Jennifer

    2012-03-19

    Cervical uterine epithelial cells maintain a physiological and pathogen-free milieu in the female mammalian reproductive tract and are involved in sperm-epithelium interaction. Easily accessible, differentiated model systems of the cervical epithelium are not yet available to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms within these highly specialized cells. Therefore, the aim of the study was to establish a cell culture of the porcine cervical epithelium representing in vivo-like properties of the tissue. We tested different isolation methods and culture conditions and validated purity of the cultured cells by immunohistochemistry against keratins. We could reproducibly culture pure epithelial cells from cervical tissue explants. Based on a morphology score and the WST-1 Proliferation Assay, we optimized the growth medium composition. Primary porcine cervical cells performed best in conditioned Ham's F-12, containing 10% FCS, EGF and insulin. After cultivation in an air-liquid interface for three weeks, the cells showed a discontinuously multilayered phenotype. Finally, differentiation was validated via immunohistochemistry against beta catenin. Mucopolysaccharide production could be shown via alcian blue staining. We provide the first suitable protocol to establish a differentiated porcine epithelial model of the cervix uteri, based on easily accessible cells using slaughterhouse material.

  13. Microencapsulation of porcine thyroid cell organoids within a polymer microcapsule construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yipeng; Opara, Emmanuel C; Liu, Yingbin; Atala, Anthony; Zhao, Weixin

    2017-02-01

    Hypothyroidism is a common condition of hormone deficiency, and oral administration of thyroid hormones is currently the only available treatment option. However, there are some disadvantages with this treatment modality including compliance challenges to patients. Therefore, a physiologically based alternative therapy for hypothyroidism with little or no side-effects is needed. In this study, we have developed a method for microencapsulating porcine thyroid cells as a thyroid hormone replacement approach. The hybrid wall of the polymer microcapsules permits thyroid hormone release while preventing immunoglobulin antibodies from entry. This strategy could potentially enable implantation of the microcapsule organoids containing allogeneic or xenogeneic thyroid cells to secret hormones over time without the need for immunosuppression of recipients. Porcine thyroid cells were isolated and encapsulated in alginate-poly-L-ornithine-alginate microcapsules using a microfluidic device. The porcine thyroid cells formed three-dimensional follicular spheres in the microcapsules with decent cell viability and proliferation. Thyroxine release from the encapsulated cells was higher than from unencapsulated cells ( P 28 days). These results suggest that the microencapsulated thyroid cell organoids may have the potential to be used for therapy and/or drug screening.

  14. Tissue Sampling Guides for Porcine Biomedical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albl, Barbara; Haesner, Serena; Braun-Reichhart, Christina; Streckel, Elisabeth; Renner, Simone; Seeliger, Frank; Wolf, Eckhard; Wanke, Rüdiger; Blutke, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    This article provides guidelines for organ and tissue sampling adapted to porcine animal models in translational medical research. Detailed protocols for the determination of sampling locations and numbers as well as recommendations on the orientation, size, and trimming direction of samples from ∼50 different porcine organs and tissues are provided in the Supplementary Material. The proposed sampling protocols include the generation of samples suitable for subsequent qualitative and quantitative analyses, including cryohistology, paraffin, and plastic histology; immunohistochemistry;in situhybridization; electron microscopy; and quantitative stereology as well as molecular analyses of DNA, RNA, proteins, metabolites, and electrolytes. With regard to the planned extent of sampling efforts, time, and personnel expenses, and dependent upon the scheduled analyses, different protocols are provided. These protocols are adjusted for (I) routine screenings, as used in general toxicity studies or in analyses of gene expression patterns or histopathological organ alterations, (II) advanced analyses of single organs/tissues, and (III) large-scale sampling procedures to be applied in biobank projects. Providing a robust reference for studies of porcine models, the described protocols will ensure the efficiency of sampling, the systematic recovery of high-quality samples representing the entire organ or tissue as well as the intra-/interstudy comparability and reproducibility of results. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Porcine endogenous retroviral nucleic acid in peripheral tissues is associated with migration of porcine cells post islet transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binette, Tanya M; Seeberger, Karen L; Lyon, James G; Rajotte, Ray V; Korbutt, Gregory S

    2004-07-01

    Porcine islets represent an alternative source of insulin-producing tissue, however, porcine endogenous retrovirus (PERV) remains a concern. In this study, SCID mice were transplanted with nonencapsulated (non-EC), microencapsulated (EC) or macroencapsulated (in a TheraCyte trade mark device) neonatal porcine islets (NPIs), and peripheral tissues were screened for presence of viral DNA and mRNA. To understand the role of an intact immune system in PERV incidence, mice with established NPI grafts were reconstituted with splenocytes. Peripheral tissues were screened for PERV and porcine DNA using PCR. Tissues with positive DNA were analyzed for PERV mRNA using RT-PCR. No significant difference was observed between non-EC and EC transplants regarding presence of PERV or porcine-specific DNA or mRNA. In reconstituted animals, little PERV or porcine DNA, and no PERV mRNA was detected. No PERV or porcine-specific DNA was observed in animals implanted with a TheraCyte trade mark device. In conclusion, an intact immune system significantly lowered the presence of PERV. Microencapsulation of islets did not alter PERV presence, however, macroencapsulation in the TheraCyte device did. Lower PERV incidence coincided with lower porcine DNA in peripheral tissues, linking the presence of PERV to migration of porcine cells.

  16. Mortality Due to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in Immunocompromised G?ttingen Minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica)

    OpenAIRE

    Pils, Marina C; Dreckmann, Karla; Jansson, Katharina; Glage, Silke; Held, Nadine; Sommer, Wiebke; L?nger, Florian; Avsar, Murat; Warnecke, Gregor; Bleich, Andr?

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection was diagnosed in 6 G?ttingen minipigs (Sus scrofa domestica) with severe interstitial pneumonia. The virus was defined as a North American (NA) subtype virus, which is common in the commercial pig population and might be derived from a widely used attenuated live-virus vaccine in Europe. The ORF5 sequence of the isolated PRRSV was 98% identical to the vaccine virus. The affected pigs were part of a lung transplantation mode...

  17. A Triple Culture Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Porcine Brain Endothelial cells, Astrocytes and Pericytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Burkhart, Annette; Moos, Torben

    2015-01-01

    In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on primary brain endothelial cells (BECs) cultured as monoculture or in co-culture with primary astrocytes and pericytes are useful for studying many properties of the BBB. The BECs retain their expression of tight junction proteins and efflux transporters leading to high trans-endothelial electric resistance (TEER) and low passive paracellular permeability. The BECs, astrocytes and pericytes are often isolated from small rodents. Larger species as cows and pigs however, reveal a higher yield, are readily available and have a closer resemblance to humans, which make them favorable high-throughput sources for cellular isolation. The aim of the present study has been to determine if the preferable combination of purely porcine cells isolated from the 6 months old domestic pigs, i.e. porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs) in co-culture with porcine astrocytes and pericytes, would compare with PBECs co-cultured with astrocytes and pericytes isolated from newborn rats with respect to TEER value and low passive permeability. The astrocytes and pericytes were grown both as contact and non-contact co-cultures as well as in triple culture to examine their effects on the PBECs for barrier formation as revealed by TEER, passive permeability, and expression patterns of tight junction proteins, efflux transporters and the transferrin receptor. This syngenic porcine in vitro BBB model is comparable to triple cultures using PBECs, rat astrocytes and rat pericytes with respect to TEER formation, low passive permeability, and expression of hallmark proteins signifying the brain endothelium (tight junction proteins claudin 5 and occludin, the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (PgP) and breast cancer related protein (BCRP), and the transferrin receptor).

  18. A Triple Culture Model of the Blood-Brain Barrier Using Porcine Brain Endothelial cells, Astrocytes and Pericytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza Bohn Thomsen

    Full Text Available In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB models based on primary brain endothelial cells (BECs cultured as monoculture or in co-culture with primary astrocytes and pericytes are useful for studying many properties of the BBB. The BECs retain their expression of tight junction proteins and efflux transporters leading to high trans-endothelial electric resistance (TEER and low passive paracellular permeability. The BECs, astrocytes and pericytes are often isolated from small rodents. Larger species as cows and pigs however, reveal a higher yield, are readily available and have a closer resemblance to humans, which make them favorable high-throughput sources for cellular isolation. The aim of the present study has been to determine if the preferable combination of purely porcine cells isolated from the 6 months old domestic pigs, i.e. porcine brain endothelial cells (PBECs in co-culture with porcine astrocytes and pericytes, would compare with PBECs co-cultured with astrocytes and pericytes isolated from newborn rats with respect to TEER value and low passive permeability. The astrocytes and pericytes were grown both as contact and non-contact co-cultures as well as in triple culture to examine their effects on the PBECs for barrier formation as revealed by TEER, passive permeability, and expression patterns of tight junction proteins, efflux transporters and the transferrin receptor. This syngenic porcine in vitro BBB model is comparable to triple cultures using PBECs, rat astrocytes and rat pericytes with respect to TEER formation, low passive permeability, and expression of hallmark proteins signifying the brain endothelium (tight junction proteins claudin 5 and occludin, the efflux transporters P-glycoprotein (PgP and breast cancer related protein (BCRP, and the transferrin receptor.

  19. Presence of pathogenicity island genes in Enterococcus faecalis isolates from pigs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shankar, Nathan; Baghdayan, Arto S.; Willems, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis isolates of porcine origin were screened for the presence of a previously identified pathogenicity island (PAI). By using the esp gene as a genetic marker for the presence of this PAI, 9 esp-positive and 10 esp-negative isolates of porcine origin were investigated by use...... of a designed oligonucleotide array. The results indicated the clustering of esp-positive strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), but surprisingly, all strains investigated contained parts of the PAL None of the strains of animal origin investigated belonged to previously identified MLST complex 2, where...... most isolates from patients cluster. Five of the nine esp-positive E. faecalis isolates of animal origin belonged to the same PAI complex as human isolate MMH594 but differed in their sequence types, which strongly indicates the horizontal transfer of the PAI between enterococci of porcine and human...

  20. cAMP Stimulates Transepithelial Short-Circuit Current and Fluid Transport Across Porcine Ciliary Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Angela King-Wah; Civan, Mortimer M; To, Chi-Ho; Do, Chi-Wai

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of cAMP on transepithelial electrical parameters and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium. Transepithelial electrical parameters were determined by mounting freshly isolated porcine ciliary epithelium in a modified Ussing chamber. Similarly, fluid movement across intact ciliary body was measured with a custom-made fluid flow chamber. Addition of 1, 10, and 100 μM 8-Br-cAMP (cAMP) to the aqueous side (nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, NPE) induced a sustained increase in short-circuit current (Isc). Addition of niflumic acid (NFA) to the aqueous surface effectively blocked the cAMP-induced Isc stimulation. The administration of cAMP to the stromal side (pigmented ciliary epithelium, PE) triggered a significant stimulation of Isc only at 100 μM. No additive effect was observed with bilateral application of cAMP. Likewise, forskolin caused a significant stimulation of Isc when applied to the aqueous side. Concomitantly, cAMP and forskolin increased fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium, and this stimulation was effectively inhibited by aqueous NFA. Depleting Cl- in the bathing solution abolished the baseline Isc and inhibited the subsequent stimulation by cAMP. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) blockers (H89/KT5720) significantly inhibited the cAMP- and forskolin-induced Isc responses. Our results suggest that cAMP triggers a sustained stimulation of Cl- and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium; Cl- channels in the NPE cells are potentially a cellular site for this PKA-sensitive cAMP-mediated response.

  1. A Simultaneous Analytical Method for Duplex Identification of Porcine and Horse in the Meat Products by EvaGreen based Real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Sakalar, Erg?n; Erg?n, Seyma ?z?irak; Akar, Emine

    2015-01-01

    A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of porcine and horse meat in sausages was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. Primers were selected from mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes which are powerful regions for identification of horse and porcine meat. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted using the GIDAGEN? Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks...

  2. Progress, problems and prospects of porcine pluripotent stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning WANG,Yangli PEI,Ning LI,Jianyong HAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs and induced PSCs (iPSCs, can differentiate into cells of the three germ layers, suggesting that PSCs have great potential for basic developmental biology research and wide applications for clinical medicine. Genuine ESCs and iPSCs have been derived from mice and rats, but not from livestock such as the pig─an ideal animal model for studying human disease and regenerative medicine due to similarities with human physiologic processes. Efforts to derive porcine ESCs and iPSCs have not yielded high-quality PSCs that can produce chimeras with germline transmission. Thus, exploration of the unique porcine gene regulation network of preimplantation embryonic development may permit optimization of in vitro culture systems for raising porcine PSCs. Here we summarize the recent progress in porcine PSC generation as well as the problems encountered during this progress and we depict prospects for generating porcine naive PSCs.

  3. A Simultaneous Analytical Method for Duplex Identification of Porcine and Horse in the Meat Products by EvaGreen based Real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakalar, Ergün; Ergün, Seyma Özçirak; Akar, Emine

    2015-01-01

    A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based assay for the detection of porcine and horse meat in sausages was designed by using EvaGreen fluorescent dye. Primers were selected from mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes which are powerful regions for identification of horse and porcine meat. DNA from reference samples and industrial products was successfully extracted using the GIDAGEN® Multi-Fast DNA Isolation Kit. Genomes were identified based on their specific melting peaks (Mp) which are 82.5℃ and 78℃ for horse and porcine, respectively. The assay used in this study allowed the detection of as little as 0.0001% level of horse meat and 0.001% level of porcine meat in the experimental admixtures. These findings indicate that EvaGreen based duplex real-time PCR is a potentially sensitive, reliable, rapid and accurate assay for the detection of meat species adulterated with porcine and horse meats.

  4. No Community Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) generally overlooks--or looks past--what may be the most fundamental flaw in that legislation. As the law is now written, decisions regarding what the young should know and be able to do are removed from the hands of parents and local community leaders and turned over to officials…

  5. The Children Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Sarah A.; Gillard, Sharlett

    2012-01-01

    This article explores some of the deficits in our educational system in regard to non-hearing students. It has become agonizingly clear that non-hearing students are being left out of the gallant sweep to enrich our children's educations. The big five areas of literacy, at best, present unique challenges for non-hearing students and, in some…

  6. Left atrial appendage occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Left atrial appendage (LAA occlusion is a treatment strategy to prevent blood clot formation in atrial appendage. Although, LAA occlusion usually was done by catheter-based techniques, especially percutaneous trans-luminal mitral commissurotomy (PTMC, it can be done during closed and open mitral valve commissurotomy (CMVC, OMVC and mitral valve replacement (MVR too. Nowadays, PTMC is performed as an optimal management of severe mitral stenosis (MS and many patients currently are treated by PTMC instead of previous surgical methods. One of the most important contraindications of PTMC is presence of clot in LAA. So, each patient who suffers of severe MS is evaluated by Trans-Esophageal Echocardiogram to rule out thrombus in LAA before PTMC. At open heart surgery, replacement of the mitral valve was performed for 49-year-old woman. Also, left atrial appendage occlusion was done during surgery. Immediately after surgery, echocardiography demonstrates an echo imitated the presence of a thrombus in left atrial appendage area, although there was not any evidence of thrombus in pre-pump TEE. We can conclude from this case report that when we suspect of thrombus of left atrial, we should obtain exact history of previous surgery of mitral valve to avoid misdiagnosis clotted LAA, instead of obliterated LAA. Consequently, it can prevent additional evaluations and treatments such as oral anticoagulation and exclusion or postponing surgeries including PTMC.

  7. Survey on porcine trichinellosis in Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chávez-Larrea, M. A.; Dorny, P.; Møller, L. N.

    2004-01-01

    A survey on porcine trichinellosis was organised in Ecuador between 2000 and 2003. Blood samples were taken in slaughterhouses (study 1, n = 2000; study 2, n = 331) and in a remote village where pigs are free roaming (study 3, n = 646) and examined by ELISA using excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens...... that Trichinella is present in Ecuador; however, prevalence and parasite burdens are likely to be very low. The likelihood of detecting trichinellosis are higher in traditional settings than in pigs raised on improved farms...

  8. Fetal Diagnosis of Abnormal Origin of the Left Pulmonary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretter, Justin T; Tretter, Eric M; Rafii, Daniela Y; Anderson, Robert H; Bhatla, Puneet

    2016-08-01

    Isolated anomalies of the branch pulmonary arteries are rare, more often occurring in the setting of complex congenital heart disease. These isolated anomalies are often not identified in the prenatal period. We describe two cases of isolated anomalies of the left pulmonary artery which were identified on fetal echocardiography and confirmed postnatally, an anomalous left pulmonary artery arising from the base of the left-sided brachiocephalic artery in the setting of a right-sided aortic arch, and a left pulmonary artery sling. These two cases support our current understanding of normal and abnormal development of the extrapericardial arterial vessels and highlight the importance of meticulous attention when sweeping from the three-vessel tracheal view. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  10. Detection and phylogenetic analyses of spike genes in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus strains circulating in China in 2016-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoling; Liu, Xinsheng; Fang, Yuzhen; Zhou, Peng; Wang, Yonglu; Zhang, Yongguang

    2017-10-10

    Large-scale outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have re-emerged in China in recent years. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of field strains of PED virus (PEDV) in China in 2016-2017. To address this issue, in this study, 116 diarrhea samples were collected from pig farms in 6 Chinese provinces in 2016-2017 and were detected using PCR for main porcine enteric pathogens, including PEDV, porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) and porcine kobuvirus (PKV). In addition, the complete S genes from 11 representative PEDV strains were sequenced and analyzed. PCR detection showed that 52.6% (61/116) of these samples were positive for PEDV. Furthermore, sequencing results for the spike (S) genes from 11 of the epidemic PEDV strains showed 93-94% nucleotide identity and 92-93% amino acid identity with the classical CV777 strain. Compared with the CV777 vaccine strain, these strains had an insertion (A 133 ), a deletion (G 155 ), and a continuous 4-amino-acid insertion ( 56 NNTN 59 ) in the S1 region. Phylogenetic analysis based on the S gene indicated that the 11 assessed PEDV strains were genetically diverse and clustered into the G2 group. These results demonstrate that the epidemic strains of PEDV in China in 2016-2017 are mainly virulent strains that belong to the G2 group and genetically differ from the vaccine strain. Importantly, this is the first report that the samples collected in Hainan Province were positive for PEDV (59.2%, 25/42). To our knowledge, this article presents the first report of a virulent PEDV strain isolated from Hainan Island, China. The results of this study will contribute to the understanding of the epidemiology and genetic characteristics of PEDV in China.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Douglas James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-27

    The mission of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is to demonstrate the safe, environmentally sound, cost effective, permanent disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste left from production of nuclear weapons.

  12. Thiouracil-Forming Bacteria Identified and Characterized upon Porcine In Vitro Digestion of Brassicaceae Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiebooms, Julie A. L.; Wauters, Jella; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Houf, Kurt; De Vos, Paul; Van Trappen, Stefanie; Cleenwerck, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the frequent detection of the banned thyreostat thiouracil (TU) in livestock urine has been related to endogenous TU formation following digestion of glucosinolate-rich Brassicaceae crops. Recently, it was demonstrated that, upon in vitro digestion of Brassicaceae, fecal bacteria induce TU detection in livestock (porcine livestock > bovines). Therefore, the present study was intended to isolate and identify bacteria involved in this intestinal TU formation upon Brassicaceae digestion and to gain more insight into the underlying mechanism in porcine livestock. Twenty porcine fecal inocula (gilts and multiparous sows) were assessed through static in vitro colonic-digestion simulations with rapeseed. After derivatization and extraction of the fecal suspensions, TU was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS2). On average, lower TU concentrations were observed in fecal colonic simulations in gilts (8.35 ng g−1 rapeseed ± 3.42 [mean ± standard deviation]) than in multiparous sows (52.63 ng g−1 ± 16.17), which correlates with maturation of the gut microbial population with age. Further exploration of the mechanism showed cell-dependent activity of the microbial conversion and sustained TU-forming activity after subjection of the fecal inoculum to moderate heat over a time span of up to 30 min. Finally, nine TU-producing bacterial species were successfully isolated and identified by a combination of biochemical and molecular techniques as Escherichia coli (n = 5), Lactobacillus reuteri (n = 2), Enterococcus faecium (n = 1), and Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae (n = 1). This report demonstrates that endogenous formation of TU is Brassicaceae induced and occurs under colonic conditions most likely through myrosinase-like enzyme activity expressed by different common intestinal bacterial species. PMID:25261511

  13. Detection of porcine circovirus type 2 in pigs imported from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokaran, Gayathri; Lin, Yueh-Nuo; Soh, Moi-Lien; Lim, Elizabeth Ai-Sim; Lim, Chee-Wee; Tan, Boon-Huan

    2008-11-25

    We have detected the presence of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 in Indonesian pigs imported to Singapore for food consumption. A total of three viral isolates were identified, and to genetically characterise them further, their full genomes were sequenced. Each genome showed a typical organization of PCV type 2, with the three isolates sharing similar genome lengths of 1767 nucleotide (nt) at high nt identities of 99.8-100%, further indicating that the viral isolates were quite homogeneous. Sequence analysis further revealed that the ORF2 genes contain the nt sequence CCCCGC (from nt position 262 to 267) that was previously reported to be associated with PCV type 2, group 1C. The phylogenetic tree was constructed for the ORF2 genes, and the PCV type 2 isolates distributed into two distinctive groups. The Indonesian PCV type 2 clustered tightly with one China isolate, accession number AY035820, as a sub-cluster in group 1C. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses both confirmed that the three Indonesian PCV type 2 isolates belong to group 1C, and that the genetic changes for the three Indonesian isolates were very stable, possibly due to the low-scale evolution.

  14. Genetic diversity of ORF3 and spike genes of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeeyasen, Gun; Srijangwad, Anchalee; Tripipat, Thitima; Tipsombatboon, Pavita; Piriyapongsa, Jittima; Phoolcharoen, Waranyoo; Chuanasa, Taksina; Tantituvanont, Angkana; Nilubol, Dachrit

    2014-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) has become endemic in the Thai swine industry, causing economic losses and repeated outbreaks since its first emergence in 2007. In the present study, 69 Thai PEDV isolates were obtained from 50 swine herds across Thailand during the period 2008-2012. Both partial and complete nucleotide sequences of the spike (S) glycoprotein and the nucleotide sequences of ORF3 genes were determined to investigate the genetic diversity and molecular epidemiology of Thai PEDV. Based on the analysis of the partial S glycoprotein genes, the Thai PEDV isolates were clustered into 2 groups related to Korean and Chinese field isolates. The results for the complete spike genes, however, demonstrated that both groups were grouped in the same cluster. Interestingly, both groups of Thai PEDV isolates had a 4-aa (GENQ) insertion between positions 55 and 56, a 1-aa insertion between positions 135 and 136, and a 2-aa deletion between positions 155 and 156, making them identical to the Korean KNU series and isolates responsible for outbreaks in China in recent years. In addition to the complete S sequences, the ORF3 gene analyses suggested that the isolates responsible for outbreaks in Thailand are not vaccine related. The results of this study suggest that the PEDV isolates responsible for outbreaks in Thailand since its emergence represent a variant of PEDV that was previously reported in China and Korea. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. On the calculation of principle curvatures of the left-ventricular surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Piet; Choi, Hon Fai; D'hooge, Jan; Rademakers, Frank E

    2008-01-01

    A local description of the shape of the left ventricle is relevant in assessing the process of adverse ventricular remodeling, associated with most cardiac pathologies, and in monitoring reverse remodeling by therapy. To quantify local shape of the left ventricle, one can calculate the curvature of its epicardial or endocardial surface. The 3D geometry of the heart and especially the ventricles, can typically be described using finite element meshes. From a mathematical point of view these meshes provide a local parametrization of the surface in the 3-dimensional space. We discuss the analytic derivation of the principle curvatures of the left-ventricular surfaces given their smooth finite-element meshes and apply this derivation to assess the regional shape of the normal porcine left ventricle.

  16. Pathogenicity of porcine intestinal spirochetes in gnotobiotic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neef, N A; Lysons, R J; Trott, D J; Hampson, D J; Jones, P W; Morgan, J H

    1994-06-01

    Twelve intestinal spirochete strains of porcine origin were characterized on the basis of their phenotypic properties, by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and by pathogenicity testing in gnotobiotic pigs. The spirochetes used included two strains of Serpulina hyodysenteriae (B204 and P18A), two strains of Serpulina innocens (B256 and 4/71), one strain from the proposed new genus and species "Anguillina coli" (P43/6/78), and seven non-S. hyodysenteriae strains recently isolated from United Kingdom pig herds with a history of nonspecific diarrhea and typhlocolitis. By multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, five of these were identified as S. innocens, one was identified as an unspecified Serpulina sp., and one was identified as "A. coli." S. hyodysenteriae B204 and P18A, "A. coli" P43/6/78 and 2/7, and three (22/7, P280/1, and 14/5) of the five S. innocens field isolates induced mucoid feces and typhlocolitis in gnotobiotic pigs. None of the other spirochetes produced clinical signs or large intestinal pathology in this model. The "A. coli" strains induced a more watery diarrhea, with lesions present more proximally in the large intestine, than did the other pathogenic spirochetes. S. innocens 22/7 was also tested for pathogenicity in hysterotomy-derived pigs that had previously been artificially colonized with a spirochete-free intestinal flora and shown to be susceptible to swine dysentery. Despite effective colonization, strain 22/7 did not produce any disease, nor was there any exacerbation of large intestinal pathology or clinical signs when pigs with an experimentally induced existing colitis caused by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis were superinfected with strain 22/7. Certain non-S. hyodysenteriae spirochetes are therefore capable of inducing disease in gnotobiotic pigs, but their role as primary or opportunistic pathogens in conventional pigs remains equivocal.

  17. Left Ventricular Assist Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuansiri Narajeenron

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The audience for this classic team-based learning (cTBL session is emergency medicine residents, faculty, and students; although this topic is applicable to internal medicine and family medicine residents. Introduction: A left ventricular assist device (LVAD is a mechanical circulatory support device that can be placed in critically-ill patients who have poor left ventricular function. After LVAD implantation, patients have improved quality of life.1 The number of LVAD patients worldwide continues to rise. Left-ventricular assist device patients may present to the emergency department (ED with severe, life-threatening conditions. It is essential that emergency physicians have a good understanding of LVADs and their complications. Objectives: Upon completion of this cTBL module, the learner will be able to: 1 Properly assess LVAD patients’ circulatory status; 2 appropriately resuscitate LVAD patients; 3 identify common LVAD complications; 4 evaluate and appropriately manage patients with LVAD malfunctions. Method: The method for this didactic session is cTBL.

  18. Porcine UCHL1: genomic organization, chromosome localization and expression analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Bendixen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    to and protection from Parkinson’s disease. Here we report cloning, characterization, expression analysis and mapping of porcine UCHL1. The UCHL1 cDNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using oligonucleotide primers derived from in silico sequences. The porcine cDNA codes...... in developing porcine embryos. UCHL1 transcript was detected as early as 40 days of gestation. A significant decrease in UCHL1 transcript was detected in basal ganglia from day 60 to day 115 of gestation...

  19. Sequence conservation between porcine and human LRRK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2009-01-01

     Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a member of the ROCO protein superfamily (Ras of complex proteins (Roc) with a C-terminal Roc domain). Mutations in the LRRK2 gene lead to autosomal dominant Parkinsonism. We have cloned the porcine LRRK2 cDNA in an attempt to characterize conserved...... and expression patterns are conserved across species. The porcine LRRK2 gene was mapped to chromosome 5q25. The results obtained suggest that the LRRK2 gene might be of particular interest in our attempt to generate a transgenic porcine model for Parkinson's disease...

  20. Selective Retrograde Venous Revascularization of the Myocardium when PCI or CABG Is Impossible: Investigation in a Porcine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Christian H; Nørgaard, Martin A; Gøtze, Jens P

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the possibility of nourishing the myocardium through selective retrograde coronary venous bypass grafting (CVBG) with an off-pump technique and evaluated various methods of monitoring the physiological effects of this procedure. In a porcine model, the left internal mammary artery...... tension decreased, but with time some recovery was seen. Cardiac troponin T was elevated. Histological analysis showed ischemic changes. In control pigs, microdialysis was performed for 1.5 hours up to LAD artery ligation, after which all pigs died in ventricular fibrillation arrest. No increase...

  1. Development of porcine model of chronic tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslawska, Urszula; Gajek, Jacek; Kiczak, Liliana; Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Skrzypczak, Piotr; Bania, Jacek; Tomaszek, Alicja; Zacharski, Maciej; Sambor, Izabela; Dziegiel, Piotr; Zysko, Dorota; Banasiak, Waldemar; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2011-11-17

    There are few experimental models of heart failure (HF) in large animals, despite structural and functional similarities to human myocardium. We have developed a porcine model of chronic tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy. Homogenous siblings of White Large breed swine (n=6) underwent continuous right ventricular (RV) pacing at 170 bpm; 2 subjects served as controls. In the course of RV pacing, animals developed a clinical picture of HF and were presented for euthanasia at subsequent stages: mild, moderate and end-stage HF. Left ventricle (LV) sections were analyzed histologically and relative ANP, BNP, phospholamban and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a transcript levels in LV were quantified by real time RT-PCR. In the course of RV pacing, animals demonstrated reduced exercise capacity (time of running until being dyspnoeic: 6.6 ± 0.5 vs. 2.4 ± 1.4 min), LV dilatation (LVEDD: 4.9 ± 0.4 vs. 6.7 ± 0.4 cm), impaired LV systolic function (LVEF: 69 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 7 %), (all baseline vs. before euthanasia, all p<0.001). LV tissues from animals with moderate and end-stage HF demonstrated local foci of interstitial fibrosis, congestion, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and atrophy, which was not detected in controls and mild HF animals. The up-regulation of ANP and BNP and a reduction in a ratio of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2a and phospholamban in failing myocardium were observed as compared to controls. In pigs, chronic RV pacing at relatively low rate can be used as an experimental model of HF, as it results in a gradual deterioration of exercise tolerance accompanied by myocardial remodeling confirmed at subcellular level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging of two new subgenotypes of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses in Southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiaoya; Xu, Xiaojie; You, Shumei; Li, Yufeng; Wang, Haiyan; Bai, Juan; Jiang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is one of the leading swine pathogens and causes major economic loss to the global swine industry. In this study, a total of 49 PRRSV isolates were collected from different swine herds in seven provinces in Southeast China from 2014 to 2015. All the ORF5 genes and some Nsp2 genes were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis showed that all the isolates belonged to the North America genotype. Among them, five isolates formed a new subgenotype IV derived from highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV). Six isolates formed subgenotype III, which were closely related to the NADC30 strain in the US. These isolates formed 13 putative N-linked glycosylation site (NGS) patterns based on N30, 33, 34, 35, 44 and 51. There were fewer NGSs of isolates in subgenotype IV than in subgenotype III. This indicates that the two new subgenotypes of PRRSV strains with different NGS patterns were spreading in those regions of China. The genetic diversity should be considered for the control and prevention of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of atypical Streptococcus species from porcine clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Matajira, Carlos E C; Gomes, Vasco T M; Silva, Ana Paula S; Mesquita, Renan E; Christ, Ana Paula G; Sato, Maria Inês Z; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-10-01

    The Streptococcus species present broad phenotypic variation, making identification difficult using only traditional microbiological methods. Even though Streptococcus suis is the most important species for the worldwide swine industry, other Streptococcus species appear to be able to cause disease in swine and could represent a higher underestimated risk for porcine health. The aim of this study was to identify Streptococcus-like isolates by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing and further molecular and antibiotic susceptibility characterization of the atypical Streptococcus species capable of causing disease in swine. Fifty presumptive Streptococcus isolates from diseased pigs isolated from different Brazilian States between 2002 and 2014 were evaluated. Among the studied isolates, 26% were identified as Streptococcus hyovaginalis, 24% as Streptococcus plurianimalium, 12% as Streptococcus alactolyticus, 10% as Streptococcus hyointestinalis, and the remaining isolates belonged to Streptococcus henryi (6%), Streptococcus thoraltensis (6%), Streptococcus gallolyticus (6%), Streptococcus gallinaceus (4%), Streptococcus sanguinis (4%), and Streptococcus mitis (2%). The Streptococcus isolates were successfully identified by spectral cluster analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing with 96% of concordance between the techniques. The SE-AFLP analysis also supported Streptococcus species distinction and enabled further observation of higher genetic heterogeneity intra-species. The identified Streptococcus species presented variable MIC values to β-lactams, enrofloxacin and florfenicol, and high resistance rates to tetracyclines and macrolides, which appear to be directly related to the industry's antimicrobial usage and resistance selection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Distribution and chemical coding of neurons in intramural ganglia of the porcine urinary bladder trigone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Pidsudko

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the distribution and chemical coding of neurons in the porcine intramural ganglia of the urinary bladder trigone (IG-UBT demonstrated using combined retrograde tracing and double-labelling immunohistochemistry. Retrograde fluorescent tracer Fast Blue (FB was injected into the wall of both the left and right side of the bladder trigone during laparotomy performed under pentobarbital anaesthesia. Ten-microm-thick cryostat sections were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence with antibodies against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH, neuropeptide Y (NPY, somatostatin (SOM, galanin (GAL, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP, nitric oxide synthase (NOS, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, substance P (SP, Leu5-enkephalin (LENK and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT. IG-UBT neurons formed characteristic clusters (from a few to tens neuronal cells found under visceral peritoneum or in the outer muscular layer. Immunohistochemistry revealed four main populations of IG-UBT neurons: SOM- (ca. 35%, SP- (ca. 32%, ChAT- and NPY- immunoreactive (-IR (ca. 23% as well as non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerve cells (ca. 6%. This study has demonstrated a relatively large population of differently coded IG-UBT neurons, which constitute an important element of the complex neuro-endocrine system involved in the regulation of the porcine urogenital organ function.

  5. Insights into coronary collateral formation from a novel porcine semiacute infarction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krackhardt, Florian; Harnoss, Jonathan M; Waliszewski, Matthias W; Ritter, Zully; Granzow, Susanne; Felsenberg, Dieter; Neumann, Konrad; Lerman, Lilian O; Hillmeister, Philipp; Gebker, Rolf; Paetsch, Ingo; Riediger, Fabian; Bramlage, Peter; Buschmann, Ivo R

    2018-03-01

    For patients with severe ischemic heart disease, complete revascularization by a percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting is often not achieved and may still cause residual angina. In case of progressive coronary artery occlusions, therapeutic arteriogenesis constitutes a promising strategy for increasing blood supply to the ischemic myocardium. Whether the formation of collaterals in the hypofused myocardium is angiogenetic in nature or based on preformed coronary artery anastomoses remains debatable. The objectives of this research were (i) the development of an appropriate research methodology to study a humanoid animal semiacute infarction model with low mortality and (ii) to answer the question of whether collateral revascularization follows a pre-existing 'blueprint'. A porcine model was chosen in which a step-wise vessel occlusion was performed by implantation of a copper stent into the distal left anterior descending artery. Vessel occlusion and collateral development were confirmed in vivo every 14 days up to day 56 by repeated coronary angiography and myocardial perfusion measurement using cardiac MRI. After the completion of the in-vivo imaging studies, animals were euthanized and collateral growth was evaluated using microcomputer tomography. Our porcine model of semiacute noninvasive coronary artery occlusion confirmed the existence of preformed coronary anastomoses and the proliferation of functional vessels in hypoperfused myocardium. Repetitive intra-animal MRIs showed the functional impact of these growing collaterals. The confirmation of preformed coronary anastomoses during the process of collateralization (natural bypasses) offers a preclinical avenue to carry out arteriogenetic pharmaceutical research in patients with ischemic heart disease.

  6. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Lv, Xiaonan [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); CAS Key Lab for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Beijing 100090 (China); Herrler, Georg [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Enjuanes, Luis [Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Campus Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Zhou, Xingdong [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Qu, Bo [Faculty of Life Sciences, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Meng, Fandan [Institute for Virology, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover D-30559 (Germany); Cong, Chengcheng [College Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110161 (China); Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing [College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs.

  7. Porcine aminopeptidase N mediated polarized infection by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cong, Yingying; Li, Xiaoxue; Bai, Yunyun; Lv, Xiaonan; Herrler, Georg; Enjuanes, Luis; Zhou, Xingdong; Qu, Bo; Meng, Fandan; Cong, Chengcheng; Ren, Xiaofeng; Li, Guangxing

    2015-01-01

    Infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells by porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was characterized. Indirect immunofluorescence assay, real-time PCR, and transmission electron microscopy confirmed PEDV can be successfully propagated in immortalized swine small intestine epithelial cells (IECs). Infection involved porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN), a reported cellular receptor for PEDV, transient expression of pAPN and siRNA targeted pAPN increased and decreased the infectivity of PEDV in IECs, respectively. Subsequently, polarized entry into and release from both Vero E6 and IECs was analyzed. PEDV entry into polarized cells and pAPN grown on membrane inserts occurs via apical membrane. The progeny virus released into the medium was also quantified which demonstrated that PEDV is preferentially released from the apical membrane. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pAPN, the cellular receptor for PEDV, mediates polarized PEDV infection. These results imply the possibility that PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in intestinal epithelial cells. - Highlights: • PEDV infection of polarized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) was characterized. • Porcine aminpeptidase N (pAPN) facilitated PEDV infection in IECs. • PEDV entry into and release from polarized cell via its apical membrane. • PEDV infection may proceed by lateral spread of virus in IECs

  8. Left regular bands of groups of left quotients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Qallali, A.

    1988-10-01

    A semigroup S which has a left regular band of groups as a semigroup of left quotients is shown to be the semigroup which is a left regular band of right reversible cancellative semigroups. An alternative characterization is provided by using spinned products. These results are applied to the case where S is a superabundant whose set of idempotents forms a left normal band. (author). 13 refs

  9. Presence of antiseptic resistance genes in porcine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T Z; Zhang, M; O'Donoghue, M; Boost, M

    2013-03-23

    Numerous studies have documented the presence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in meat-producing animals, which has led to concern about its spread into the community. Disinfectants play an important role in reduction of contamination in both animal husbandry and food-preparation, helping control spread of organisms from foodstuffs, including raw meat. Plasmid-borne antiseptic resistance (AR) genes increasing tolerance to several disinfectants have been reported in S. aureus of human origin (qacA/B and smr) and from bovine, equine, and caprine staphylococcal isolates (qacG, qacH, and qacJ). This study investigated the presence of AR genes in porcine MRSA isolates. Plasmid DNA from 100 MRSA ST9 strains isolated from pig carcasses was amplified for the presence of AR genes. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) to benzalkonium chloride (BC) and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) were determined in AR gene-positive isolates. qacG was present in 45 strains, eight of which also harbored smr. No strains carried qacA/B, qacH or qacJ. Presence of smr increased MICs to both BC and CHX and MBCs of CHX, but qacG presence only resulted in elevated MBC for CHX. This is the first report of AR genes from a porcine source. AR gene positivity has previously been associated with methicillin resistance and AR gene presence in these strains may increase their ability to persist in the environment. Improved implementation of hygiene measures during transportation and pre- and post-slaughter should be considered to prevent spread in the community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Why Dora Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgård, Judy

    2017-01-01

    The question of why Dora left her treatment before it was brought to a satisfactory end and the equally important question of why Freud chose to publish this problematic and fragmentary story have both been dealt with at great length by Freud’s successors. Dora has been read by analysts, literary...... problem toward femininity, both Dora’s and his own. In Dora, it is argued, Freud took a new stance toward the object of his investigation, speaking from the position of the master. Freud presents himself as the one who knows, in great contrast to the position he takes when unraveling the dream. Here he...

  11. Neutrosophic Left Almost Semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we extend the theory of neutrosophy to study left almost semigroup shortly LAsemigroup. We generalize the concepts of LA-semigroup to form that for neutrosophic LA-semigroup. We also extend the ideal theory of LA-semigroup to neutrosophy and discuss different kinds of neutrosophic ideals. We also find some new type of neutrosophic ideal which is related to the strong or pure part of neutrosophy. We have given many examples to illustrate the theory of neutrosophic LA-semigroup and display many properties of neutrosophic LA-semigroup in this paper.

  12. Cloning and expression of porcine SRPK1 gene

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic Journals

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... different porcine tissue and skeletal muscle repair processes. ... Biology Engineering Technology Service Co., Ltd; while ethanol, agarose gel DNA ..... muscle fiber regeneration after bupivacaine hydrochloride-and acid.

  13. Immunological half-life of porcine proinsulin C-peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, H; Horino, M; Matsumura, S [Kawasaki Medical Coll., Kurashiki (Japan). Div. of Endocrinology; Kobayshi, K; Suetsugu, N [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-11-01

    Immunological half-lifes of injected porcine C-peptide and insulin with RIA were studied and calculated as 9.8 and 8.0 minutes. Higher circulating levels of C-peptide as compared to insulin in normal young swines lead to speculation about a longer half-life of C-peptide. This hypothesis was verified in this study. Immunological half-lifes of porcine proinsulin and insulin in the pig were 20 and 6 minutes, respectively.

  14. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter

    2015-01-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial...... insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used...... to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets...

  15. Mechanical characterization of porcine abdominal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsutaka; Omori, Kiyoshi; Miki, Kazuo; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2002-11-01

    Typical automotive related abdominal injuries occur due to contact with the rim of the steering wheel, seatbelt and armrest, however, the rate is less than in other body regions. When solid abdominal organs, such as the liver, kidneys and spleen are involved, the injury severity tends to be higher. Although sled and pendulum impact tests have been conducted using cadavers and animals, the mechanical properties and the tissue level injury tolerance of abdominal solid organs are not well characterized. These data are needed in the development of computer models, the improvement of current anthropometric test devices and the enhancement of our understanding of abdominal injury mechanisms. In this study, a series of experimental tests on solid abdominal organs was conducted using porcine liver, kidney and spleen specimens. Additionally, the injury tolerance of the solid organs was deduced from the experimental data.

  16. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Denner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas technology.

  17. Structural characterization on in vitro porcine skin treated by ablative fractional laser using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kairui; Zhou, Kanheng; Ling, Yuting; O'Mahoney, Paul; Ewan, Eadie; Ibbotson, Sally H.; Li, Chunhui; Huang, Zhihong

    2018-02-01

    Ablative fractional skin laser is widely applied for various skin conditions, especially for cosmetic repairing and promoting the located drug delivery. Although the influence of laser treatment over the skin has been explored before in means of excision and biopsy with microscopy, these approaches are invasive, only morphological and capable of distorting the skin. In this paper the authors use fresh porcine skin samples irradiated by the lasers, followed by detected by using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). This advanced optical technique has the ability to present the high resolution structure image of treated sample. The results shows that laser beams can produce holes left on the surface after the irradiation. The depth of holes can be affected by changes of laser energy while the diameter of holes have no corresponding relation. Plus, OCT, as a valuable imaging technology, is capable of monitoring the clinical therapy procedure and assisting the calibration.

  18. Phylodynamic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2: Methodological approach and datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Franzo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description, PCV2 has emerged as one of the most economically relevant diseases for the swine industry. Despite the introduction of vaccines effective in controlling clinical syndromes, PCV2 spread was not prevented and some potential evidences of vaccine immuno escape have recently been reported (“Complete genome sequence of a novel porcine circovirus type 2b variant present in cases of vaccine failures in the United States” (Xiao and Halbur, 2012 [1], “Genetic and antigenic characterization of a newly emerging porcine circovirus type 2b mutant first isolated in cases of vaccine failure in Korea” (Seo et al., 2014 [2]. In this article, we used a collection of PCV2 full genomes, provided in the present manuscript, and several phylogentic, phylodynamic and bioinformatic methods to investigate different aspects of PCV2 epidemiology, history and evolution (more thoroughly described in “PHYLODYNAMIC ANALYSIS of PORCINE CIRCOVIRUS TYPE 2 REVEALS GLOBAL WAVES of EMERGING GENOTYPES and the CIRCULATION of RECOMBINANT FORMS” [3]. The methodological approaches used to consistently detect recombiantion events and estimate population dymanics and spreading patterns of rapidly evolving ssDNA viruses are herein reported. Programs used are described and original scripts have been provided. Ensembled databases used are also made available. These consist of a broad collection of complete genome sequences (i.e. 843 sequences; 63 complete genomes of PCV2a, 310 of PCV2b, 4 of PCV2c, 217 of PCV2d, 64 of CRF01, 140 of CRF02 and 45 of CRF03., divided in differnt ORF (i.e. ORF1, ORF2 and intergenic regions, of PCV2 genotypes and major Circulating Recombinat Forms (CRF properly annotated with respective collection data and country. Globally, all of these data can be used as a starting point for further studies and for classification purpose.

  19. Effect of pre-rigor stretch and various constant temperatures on the rate of post-mortem pH fall, rigor mortis and some quality traits of excised porcine biceps femoris muscle strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vada-Kovács, M

    1996-01-01

    Porcine biceps femoris strips of 10 cm original length were stretched by 50% and fixed within 1 hr post mortem then subjected to temperatures of 4 °, 15 ° or 36 °C until they attained their ultimate pH. Unrestrained control muscle strips, which were left to shorten freely, were similarly treated. Post-mortem metabolism (pH, R-value) and shortening were recorded; thereafter ultimate meat quality traits (pH, lightness, extraction and swelling of myofibrils) were determined. The rate of pH fall at 36 °C, as well as ATP breakdown at 36 and 4 °C, were significantly reduced by pre-rigor stretch. The relationship between R-value and pH indicated cold shortening at 4 °C. Myofibrils isolated from pre-rigor stretched muscle strips kept at 36 °C showed the most severe reduction of hydration capacity, while paleness remained below extreme values. However, pre-rigor stretched myofibrils - when stored at 4 °C - proved to be superior to shortened ones in their extractability and swelling.

  20. Distribution of sulfonamide resistance genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from swine and chickens at abattoirs in Ontario and Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Gosia K; Pearl, David L; Parkman, Julia; Reid-Smith, Richard J; Deckert, Anne; Boerlin, Patrick

    2009-09-01

    Sulfonamide-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from pigs and chickens in Ontario and Québec were screened for sul1, sul2, and sul3 by PCR. Each sul gene was distributed differently across populations, with a significant difference between distribution in commensal E. coli and Salmonella isolates and sul3 restricted mainly to porcine E. coli isolates.

  1. Distribution of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Escherichia coli and Salmonella Isolates from Swine and Chickens at Abattoirs in Ontario and Québec, Canada ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Gosia K.; Pearl, David L.; Parkman, Julia; Reid-Smith, Richard J.; Deckert, Anne; Boerlin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonamide-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates from pigs and chickens in Ontario and Québec were screened for sul1, sul2, and sul3 by PCR. Each sul gene was distributed differently across populations, with a significant difference between distribution in commensal E. coli and Salmonella isolates and sul3 restricted mainly to porcine E. coli isolates. PMID:19633109

  2. A recombinant E1-deleted porcine adenovirus-3 as an expression vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakhartchouk, Alexander; Zhou Yan; Tikoo, Suresh Kumar

    2003-01-01

    Replication-defective E1-deleted porcine adenoviruses (PAVs) are attractive vectors for vaccination. As a prerequisite for generating PAV-3 vectors containing complete deletion of E1, we transfected VIDO R1 cells (fetal porcine retina cells transformed with E1 region of human adenovirus 5) with a construct containing PAV-3 E1B large coding sequences under the control of HCMV promoter. A cell line named VR1BL could be isolated that expressed E1B large of PAV-3 and also complemented PAV214 (E1A+E1B small deleted). The VR1BL cells could be efficiently transfected with DNA and allowed the rescue and propagation of recombinant PAV507 containing a triple stop codon inserted in the E1B large coding sequence. In addition, recombinant PAV227 containing complete deletion of E1 (E1A+E1B small + E1B large ) could be successfully rescued using VR1BL cell line. Recombinant PAV227 replicated as efficiently as wild-type in VR1BL cells but not in VIDO R1 cells, suggesting that E1B large was essential for replication of PAV-3. Next, we constructed recombinant PAV219 by inserting green fluorescent (GFP) protein gene flanked by a promoter and a poly(A) in the E1 region of the PAV227 genome. We demonstrated that PAV219 was able to transduce and direct expression of GFP in some human cell lines

  3. Emergence of a virulent porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV 1 strain in Lower Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie J Sinn

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In spring 2015, an outbreak of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS struck Lower Austria caused by a PRRS virus (PRRSV strain spreading rapidly among both previously PRRSV negative and vaccinated pig herds. This case report describes the first well-documented emergence of the PRRSV strain responsible for this outbreak. Case presentation A PRRSV seronegative piglet-producing farm in Lower Austria encountered losses in foetuses and suckling piglets of up to 90 %; clinical signs in sows and nursery piglets included fever and reduced feed intake. Additionally, high percentages of repeat breeders and losses of up to 40 % in nursery piglets occurred. An infection with PRRSV was suggested by the detection of antibodies by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and confirmed by quantitative real time PCR. The underlying PRRSV strain, termed AUT15-33, was isolated by passage on porcine alveolar macrophages, partially sequenced (ORF2-7 and grouped as PRRSV-1, subtype 1. In phylogenetic analysis of the genome region coding for the structural proteins, ORF2-7, AUT15-33 clustered with Belgian strains but identities were as low as 88 %. In contrast, analysis of ORF7 sequences revealed a close relationship to Croatian strains from 2012 with an identity of 94 – 95 %. Conclusions In the year following the outbreak, the same PRRSV strain was identified repeatedly in different regions of Austria. It can be speculated that the new strain has novel advantageous properties.

  4. Immunobiotic Bifidobacteria Strains Modulate Rotavirus Immune Response in Porcine Intestinal Epitheliocytes via Pattern Recognition Receptor Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Ishizuka

    Full Text Available In this work, we aimed to characterize the antiviral response of an originally established porcine intestinal epithelial cell line (PIE cells by evaluating the molecular innate immune response to rotavirus (RVs. In addition, we aimed to select immunomodulatory bacteria with antiviral capabilities. PIE cells were inoculated with RVs isolated from different host species and the infective titers and the molecular innate immune response were evaluated. In addition, the protection against RVs infection and the modulation of immune response by different lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains was studied. The RVs strains OSU (porcine and UK (bovine effectively infected PIE cells. Our results also showed that RVs infection in PIE cells triggered TLR3-, RIG-I- and MDA-5-mediated immune responses with activation of IRF3 and NF-κB, induction of IFN-β and up-regulation of the interferon stimulated genes MxA and RNase L. Among the LAB strains tested, Bifidobacterium infantis MCC12 and B. breve MCC1274 significantly reduced RVs titers in infected PIE cells. The beneficial effects of both bifidobacteria were associated with reduction of A20 expression, and improvements of IRF-3 activation, IFN-β production, and MxA and RNase L expressions. These results indicate the value of PIE cells for studying RVs molecular innate immune response in pigs and for the selection of beneficial bacteria with antiviral capabilities.

  5. Congenital infection with atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) is associated with disease and viral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Lukas; Riedel, Christiane; Högler, Sandra; Sinn, Leonie J; Voglmayr, Thomas; Wöchtl, Bettina; Dinhopl, Nora; Rebel-Bauder, Barbara; Weissenböck, Herbert; Ladinig, Andrea; Rümenapf, Till; Lamp, Benjamin

    2017-01-06

    In 2013, several Austrian piglet-producing farms recorded outbreaks of action-related repetitive myoclonia in newborn piglets ("shaking piglets"). Malnutrition was seen in numerous piglets as a complication of this tremor syndrome. Overall piglet mortality was increased and the number of weaned piglets per sow decreased by more than 10% due to this outbreak. Histological examination of the CNS of affected piglets revealed moderate hypomyelination of the white substance in cerebellum and spinal cord. We detected a recently discovered pestivirus, termed atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) in all these cases by RT-PCR. A genomic sequence and seven partial sequences were determined and revealed a 90% identity to the US APPV sequences and 92% identity to German sequences. In confirmation with previous reports, APPV genomes were identified in different body fluids and tissues including the CNS of diseased piglets. APPV could be isolated from a "shaking piglet", which was incapable of consuming colostrum, and passaged on different porcine cells at very low titers. To assess the antibody response a blocking ELISA was developed targeting NS3. APPV specific antibodies were identified in sows and in PCR positive piglets affected by congenital tremor (CT). APPV genomes were detected continuously in piglets that gradually recovered from CT, while the antibody titers decreased over a 12-week interval, pointing towards maternally transmitted antibodies. High viral loads were detectable by qRT-PCR in saliva and semen of infected young adults indicating a persistent infection.

  6. Porcine circovirus type 2 ORF4 protein binds heavy chain ferritin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Porcine circovirus type 2 ORF4 protein binds heavy chain ferritin. Qizhuang Lv Kangkang Guo Tao Wang ... Keywords. Cellular protein; FHC; ORF4 protein; porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2); yeast two-hybrid ... Journal of Biosciences | News ...

  7. Preservation of enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Lisanne M.; Koopmans, Steven A.

    PURPOSE: To design a method to preserve enucleated porcine eyes for use in a wet laboratory. SETTING: Laboratory of Experimental Ophthalmology, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Experimental study. METHODS: Porcine eyes were preserved using 15 methods including salt

  8. Protectant activity of defibrotide in cardioplegia followed by ischemia/reperfusion injury in the isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, G; Pompilio, G; Biglioli, P; Alamanni, F; Tartara, P; Rona, P; Porqueddu, M; Berti, F

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that defibrotide, a polydeoxyribonucleotide obtained by depolymerization of DNA from porcine tissues, has important protective effects on myocardial ischemia, which may be associated with a prostacyclin-related mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct effects of defibrotide (given in cardioplegia or after ischemia) on a model of rat heart recovery after cardioplegia followed by ischemia/reperfusion injury. Isolated rat hearts, undergoing 5 minutes of warm cardioplegic arrest followed by 20 minutes of global ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion, were studied using the modified Langendorff model. The cardioplegia consisted of St. Thomas' Hospital solution augmented with defibrotide (50, 100, and 200 microg/mL) or without defibrotide (controls). Left ventricular mechanical function and the levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha (6-keto-PGF1alpha; the stable metabolite of prostacyclin) were measured during preischemic and reperfusion periods. After global ischemia, hearts receiving defibrotide in the cardioplegic solution (n = 8) manifested in a concentration-dependent fashion lower left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (p defibrotide in the cardioplegic solution also had, in a dose-dependent way, lower levels of creatine-kinase (p defibrotide was given alone to the hearts at the beginning of reperfusion (n = 7), the recovery of postischemic left ventricular function was inferior (p defibrotide was given in cardioplegia. Defibrotide confers to conventional crystalloid cardioplegia a potent concentration-dependent protective effect on the recovery of isolated rat heart undergoing ischemia/reperfusion injury. The low cost and the absence of contraindications (cardiac toxicity and hemodynamic effects) make defibrotide a promising augmentation to cardioplegia.

  9. Characterization of serotonergic receptors in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Helen C; Alvarez, Lawrence J; Candia, Oscar A; Bernstein, Audrey M

    2003-10-01

    To characterize the serotonin (5-HT) receptors linked to the modulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in rabbit, porcine and human conjunctivae. Serotonin receptor-subtype expression was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and receptor subtype-specific polyclonal antibodies for the immunofluorescent labeling of conjunctival cryosections. In addition, measurements of the effects of serotonergics on the short-circuit current (I(sc)) across rabbit and porcine conjunctivae were contrasted. RT-PCR assays indicated the expression of 5-HT(1B ) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, subtypes negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, in the rabbit conjunctiva. This approach also suggested the co-expression of 5-HT(1B), 5-HT(1D), 5-HT(1F), 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) mRNA's in the porcine conjunctiva, and 5-HT( 1D), 5-HT(1F) and 5-HT(7) in the human conjunctiva. Since the 5-HT(4) and 5-HT(7) receptors are positively linked to adenylyl cyclase, these results implied that the porcine and human tissues exhibited subtypes both positively and negatively linked to the enzyme. However, immunohistochemical observations, using currently available antibodies solely localized the 5-HT(7) moiety in the porcine and human epithelia, suggested that the 1B/1D forms may be minor elements. Consistent with this prospect, 5-HT was a stimulant of the transepithelial I(sc) across the porcine conjunctiva, an opposite response from earlier findings that demonstrated inhibitory effects by 5-HT on the rabbit I(sc), which are now explained by the localization of the 1B/1D receptors in the rabbit stratified epithelium. The 5-HT receptors expressed by mammalian conjunctivae are not identical. In terms of 5-HT receptor expression, the porcine tissue may be a more appropriate model for human, than is the rabbit, in that 5-HT may serve as a secretagogue in the human epithelium.

  10. Acute retinal ischemia caused by controlled low ocular perfusion pressure in a porcine model. Electrophysiological and histological characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Warfvinge, Karin; Scherfig, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, and characterize a porcine model of acute, controlled retinal ischemia. The controlled retinal ischemia was produced by clamping the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in the left eye to 5 mm Hg for 2 h. The OPP was defined as mean arterial blood pressure...... of the amplitudes obtained in the experimental, left eye, and the control, right eye. Quantitative histology was performed to measure the survival of ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells 2-6 weeks after the ischemic insult. An OPP of 5 mm Hg for 2h induced significant reductions in the amplitudes...... the ischemic insult. This model seems to be suitable for investigations of therapeutic initiatives in diseases involving acute retinal ischemia....

  11. Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Gustavo; Castano, Rafael; Marmol, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Non-compact left ventricle/hypertrabeculated left ventricle is a myocardiopatie produced by an arrest of the normal left ventricular compaction process during the early embryogenesis. It is associated to cardiac anomalies (congenital cardiopaties) as well as to extracardial conditions (neurological, facial, hematologic, cutaneous, skeletal and endocrinological anomalies). This entity is frequently unnoticed, being diagnosed only in centers with great experience in the diagnosis and treatment of myocardiopathies. Many cases of non-compact left ventricle have been initially misdiagnosed as hypertrophic myocardiopatie, endocardial fibroelastosis, dilated cardiomyopatie, restrictive cardiomyopathy and endocardial fibrosis. It is reported the case of a 74 years old man with a history of chronic arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus, prechordial chest pain and mild dyspnoea. An echocardiogram showed signs of non-compact left ventricle with prominent trabeculations and deep inter-trabecular recesses involving left ventricular apical segment and extending to the lateral and inferior walls. Literature on this topic is reviewed

  12. Porcine neonatal blood dendritic cells, but not monocytes, are more responsive to TLRs stimulation than their adult counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gael Auray

    Full Text Available The neonatal immune system is often considered as immature or impaired compared to the adult immune system. This higher susceptibility to infections is partly due to the skewing of the neonatal immune response towards a Th2 response. Activation and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs play an important role in shaping the immune response, therefore, DCs are a target of choice for the development of efficient and protective vaccine formulations able to redirect the neonatal immune response to a protective Th1 response. As pigs are becoming more important for vaccine development studies due to their similarity to the human immune system, we decided to compare the activation and maturation of a subpopulation of porcine DCs in adult and neonatal pigs following stimulation with different TLR ligands, which are promising candidates for adjuvants in vaccine formulations. Porcine blood derived DCs (BDCs were directly isolated from blood and consisted of a mix of conventional and plasmacytoid DCs. Following CpG ODN (TLR9 ligand and imiquimod (TLR7 ligand stimulation, neonatal BDCs showed higher levels of expression of costimulatory molecules and similar (CpG ODN or higher (imiquimod levels of IL-12 compared to adult BDCs. Another interesting feature was that only neonatal BDCs produced IFN-α after TLR7 or TLR9 ligand stimulation. Stimulation with CpG ODN and imiquimod also induced enhanced expression of several chemokines. Moreover, in a mixed leukocyte reaction assay, neonatal BDCs displayed a greater ability to induce lymphoproliferation. These findings suggest that when stimulated via TLR7 or TLR9 porcine DCs display similar if not better response than adult porcine DCs.

  13. A note on isolate domination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Sahul Hamid

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A set $S$ of vertices of a graph $G$ such that $\\left\\langle S\\right\\rangle$ has an isolated vertex is called an \\emph{isolate set} of $G$. The minimum and maximum cardinality of a maximal isolate set are called the \\emph{isolate number} $i_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate number} $I_0(G$ respectively. An isolate set that is also a dominating set (an irredundant set is an $\\emph{isolate dominating set} \\ (\\emph{an isolate irredundant set}$. The \\emph{isolate domination number} $\\gamma_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate domination number} $\\Gamma_0(G$ are respectively the minimum and maximum cardinality of a minimal isolate dominating set while the \\emph{isolate irredundance number} $ir_0(G$ and the \\emph{upper isolate irredundance number} $IR_0(G$ are the minimum and maximum cardinality of a maximal isolate irredundant set of $G$. The notion of isolate domination was introduced in \\cite{sb} and the remaining were introduced in \\cite{isrn}. This paper further extends a study of these parameters.   

  14. [Left-handedness and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenković, Sanja; Belojević, Goran; Kocijancić, Radojka

    2010-01-01

    Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome), developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering) and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about "anomalous" cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance.

  15. Porcine respiratory disease complex: Interaction of vaccination and porcine circovirus type 2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Chanhee

    2016-06-01

    Porcine respiratory disease is a multifactorial and complex disease caused by a combination of infectious pathogens, environmental stressors, differences in production systems, and various management practices; hence the name porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) is used. Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae are considered to be the most important pathogens that cause PRDC. Although interactions among the three major respiratory pathogens are well documented, it is also necessary to understand the interaction between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. PRRSV and M. hyopneumoniae are well known to potentiate PCV2-associated lesions; however, PRRSV and mycoplasmal vaccines can both enhance PCV2 viraemia regardless of the effects of the actual PRRSV or M. hyopneumoniae infection. On the other hand, M. hyopneumoniae potentiates the severity of pneumonia induced by PRRSV, and vaccination against M. hyopneumoniae alone is also able to decrease PRRSV viraemia and PRRSV-induced lung lesions in dually infected pigs. This review focuses on (1) interactions between PCV2, PRRSV, and M. hyopneumoniae; and (2) interactions between vaccines and the three major respiratory pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Functional verification of a porcine myostatin propeptide mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dezun; Jiang, Shengwang; Gao, Pengfei; Qian, Lili; Wang, Qingqing; Cai, Chunbo; Xiao, Gaojun; Yang, Jinzeng; Cui, Wentao

    2015-10-01

    Myostatin is a member of TGF-β superfamily that acts as a key negative regulator in development and growth of embryonic and postnatal muscles. In this study, the inhibitory activities of recombinant porcine myostatin propeptide and its mutated form (at the cleavage site of metalloproteinases of BMP-1/TLD family) against murine myostatin was evaluated in vivo by intraperitoneal injection into mice. Results showed that both wild type and mutated form of porcine propeptide significantly inhibited myostatin activity in vivo. The average body weight of mice receiving wild type propeptide or its mutated form increased by 12.5 % and 24.14%, respectively, compared to mice injected with PBS, implying that the in vivo efficacy of porcine propeptide mutant is greater than its wild type propeptide. Transgenic mice expressing porcine myostatin propeptide mutant were generated to further verify the results obtained from mice injected with recombinant porcine propeptide mutant. Compared with wild type (non-transgenic) mice, relative weight of gastrocnemius, rectusfemoris, and tibialis anterior increased by 22.14 %, 34.13 %, 25.37%, respectively, in transgenic male mice, and by 19.90 %, 42.47 %, 45.61%, respectively, in transgenic female mice. Our data also demonstrated that the mechanism by which muscle growth enhancement is achieved by these propeptides is due to an increase in fiber sizes, not by an increase in number of fiber cells.

  17. Isolation and characterisation of circoviruses from pigs with wasting syndromes in Spain, Denmark and Northern Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, G.M.; Mc Neilly, F.; Meehan, B.M.

    1999-01-01

    previously isolated PCVs. A rapid and convenient PCR-based test was developed and used for the genotyping of these PCV isolates. These PCV isolates were found to be antigenically and genomically similar to previously reported isolates of PCV from pigs with wasting disease (PCV2), but distinct from......A porcine circovirus (PCV) was isolated from tissues of pigs with wasting syndromes from Spain, Denmark and N. Ireland. The antigenic profiles of these viruses were determined by indirect immunofluorescence assays using polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) prepared against...... the isolate of PCV from continuous PK/15 cell cultures (PCV1)....

  18. Irradiation of porcine plasma protein powder, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Saito, Masayoshi; Todoroki, Setsuko; Tajima, Makoto; Biagio, R.

    1987-01-01

    Recently interest in the use of animal blood protein as a food ingradient has been increasing. A study was conducted on the decontamination effect of gamma rays and electrons beam on plasma protein powder prepared from slaughtered porcine blood. Non irradiated sample was mainly contaminated with heat-resistant becterial spores (B. subtilis) and the total mocrobial count was 9.6 x 10 3 per 1 g of dried powder. The D 10 values of total microbial count for gamma rays and electrons beam were 0.82 kGy and 1.06 kGy, respectively. For B. subtilis, the D 10 values obtained under aerobic condition were 1.40 kGy for gamma rays and 1.45 kGy for electrons beam, with the survival curve for electrons beam showing a shoulder until 0.1 kGy. From these results, both types of irradiation were effective for the decotamination of plasma proteins. (author)

  19. Picosecond laser ablation of porcine sclera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Góra, Wojciech S.; Harvey, Eleanor M.; Dhillon, Baljean; Parson, Simon H.; Maier, Robert R. J.; Hand, Duncan P.; Shephard, Jonathan D.

    2013-03-01

    Lasers have been shown to be successful in certain medical procedures and they have been identified as potentially making a major contribution to the development of minimally invasive procedures. However, the uptake is not as widespread and there is scope for many other applications where laser devices may offer a significant advantage in comparison to the traditional surgical tools. The purpose of this research is to assess the potential of using a picosecond laser for minimally invasive laser sclerostomy. Experiments were carried out on porcine scleral samples due to the comparable properties to human tissue. Samples were prepared with a 5mm diameter trephine and were stored in lactated Ringer's solution. After laser machining, the samples were fixed in 3% glutaraldehyde, then dried and investigated under SEM. The laser used in the experiments is an industrial picosecond TRUMPF TruMicro laser operating at a wavelength of 1030nm, pulse length of 6ps, repetition rate of 1 kHz and a focused spot diameter of 30μm. The laser beam was scanned across the samples with the use of a galvanometer scan head and various ablation patterns were investigated. Processing parameters (pulse energy, spot and line separation) which allow for the most efficient laser ablation of scleral tissue without introducing any collateral damage were investigated. The potential to create various shapes, such as linear incisions, square cavities and circular cavities was demonstrated.

  20. Porcine E. coli: virulence-associated genes, resistance genes and adhesion and probiotic activity tested by a new screening method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierack, Peter; Rödiger, Stefan; Kuhl, Christoph; Hiemann, Rico; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Li, Ganwu; Weinreich, Jörg; Berger, Enrico; Nolan, Lisa K; Nicholson, Bryon; Römer, Antje; Frömmel, Ulrike; Wieler, Lothar H; Schröder, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2) and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars. Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of all tested genes and showed great diversity in gene patterns. Adhesions varied with a maximum of 18.3 or 24.2 mean bacteria adherence per epithelial cell after 2 or 6 hours respectively. Most isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars showed low adherence, with no correlation between adhesion/probiotic activity and E. coli genes or gene clusters. The gene sfa/foc, encoding for a subunit of F1C fimbriae did show a positive correlative association with adherence and probiotic activity; however E. coli isolates from wild boars with the sfa/foc gene showed less adhesion and probiotic activity than E. coli with the sfa/foc gene isolated from domestic pigs after 6 hour incubation. In conclusion, screening porcine E. coli for virulence associated genes genes, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and probiotic activity revealed a single important adhesion factor, several probiotic candidates, and showed important differences between E. coli of domestic pigs and wild boars.

  1. Porcine E. coli: virulence-associated genes, resistance genes and adhesion and probiotic activity tested by a new screening method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schierack

    Full Text Available We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC. 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars. Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of all tested genes and showed great diversity in gene patterns. Adhesions varied with a maximum of 18.3 or 24.2 mean bacteria adherence per epithelial cell after 2 or 6 hours respectively. Most isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars showed low adherence, with no correlation between adhesion/probiotic activity and E. coli genes or gene clusters. The gene sfa/foc, encoding for a subunit of F1C fimbriae did show a positive correlative association with adherence and probiotic activity; however E. coli isolates from wild boars with the sfa/foc gene showed less adhesion and probiotic activity than E. coli with the sfa/foc gene isolated from domestic pigs after 6 hour incubation. In conclusion, screening porcine E. coli for virulence associated genes genes, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and probiotic activity revealed a single important adhesion factor, several probiotic candidates, and showed important differences between E. coli of domestic pigs and wild boars.

  2. Cirurgia do arco aórtico com perfusão cerebral bilateral pelo isolamento do tronco braquiocefálico e da artéria carótida esquerda Aortic arch surgery with bilateral cerebral perfusion by isolation of brachiocephalic trunk and left carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdo José Carreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os resultados da técnica descrita por Carreira et al. com utilização de perfusão cerebral seletiva bilateral (PCSAB pelo isolamento do tronco braquiocefálico e artéria carótida esquerda. MÉTODOS: Quinze pacientes foram operados consecutivamente entre de junho de 2005 e setembro de 2007. Os dados foram analisados por programa informatizado Epi Info e significância estatística com p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica de PCSAB é reprodutível e apresenta resultados semelhantes aos da literatura mundial. A excelente evolução neurológica e o fácil controle de sangramentos nas linhas de sutura podem ter contribuído com os resultados obtidos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of a technique described by Carreira et al. using bilateral antegrade selective cerebral perfusion by isolating the brachiocephalic trunk and the left carotid artery. METHODS: Fifteen patients were operated between June 2005 and September 2007. Data analysis were performed using Epi Info and statistical significance was set at p0.05. CONCLUSION: The technique of bilateral selective cerebral perfusion described by Carreira et al. can be performed by others and presents similar results to the international literature. The excellent neurological outcome and easy bleeding control on surgical sutures lines are the major advantages of this new procedure.

  3. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M.; Tabbara, Khalid F.; Tabbarah, Zuhair

    2015-01-01

    We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation. PMID:26483675

  4. Isolated Optic Disc Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a healthy male subject who developed progressive visual loss in the left eye initially diagnosed as optic neuritis. Upon suspicion of infectious etiology, testing was positive for tuberculosis. There were no signs or symptoms of active systemic tuberculosis infection. The patient responded swiftly to antimycobacterial therapy with return of vision and resolution of disc swelling. Positive purified protein derivative skin test, negative chest radiograph, negative systemic workup, negative workup for other causes of unilateral optic neuritis and quick response to mycobacterial therapy reaffirm the entity of isolated optic disc tuberculosis similar to isolated choroidal tuberculosis without systemic manifestation.

  5. Spatial clustering of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena A Ngowi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Porcine cysticercosis is caused by a zoonotic tapeworm, Taenia solium, which causes serious disease syndromes in human. Effective control of the parasite requires knowledge on the burden and pattern of the infections in order to properly direct limited resources. The objective of this study was to establish the spatial distribution of porcine cysticercosis in Mbulu district, northern Tanzania, to guide control strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study is a secondary analysis of data collected during the baseline and follow-up periods of a randomized community trial aiming at reducing the incidence rate of porcine cysticercosis through an educational program. At baseline, 784 randomly selected pig-keeping households located in 42 villages in 14 wards were included. Lingual examination of indigenous pigs aged 2-12 (median 8 months, one randomly selected from each household, were conducted. Data from the control group of the randomized trial that included 21 of the 42 villages were used for the incidence study. A total of 295 pig-keeping households were provided with sentinel pigs (one each and reassessed for cysticercosis incidence once or twice for 2-9 (median 4 months using lingual examination and antigen ELISA. Prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was computed in Epi Info 3.5. The prevalence and incidence of porcine cysticercosis were mapped at household level using ArcView 3.2. K functions were computed in R software to assess general clustering of porcine cysticercosis. Spatial scan statistics were computed in SatScan to identify local clusters of the infection. The overall prevalence of porcine cysticercosis was 7.3% (95% CI: 5.6, 9.4; n = 784. The K functions revealed a significant overall clustering of porcine cysticercosis incidence for all distances between 600 m and 5 km from a randomly chosen case household based on Ag-ELISA. Lingual examination revealed clustering from 650 m to 6 km and between 7.5 and 10 km

  6. A porcine model of haematogenous brain infectionwith staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Lærke Boye; Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Nielsen, Ole Lerberg

    2012-01-01

    A PORCINE MODEL OF HAEMATOGENOUS BRAIN INFECTION WITH STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS Astrup Lærke1, Agerholm Jørgen1, Nielsen Ole1, Jensen Henrik1, Leifsson Páll1, Iburg Tine2. 1: Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark boye@life.ku.dk 2: National Veterinary Institute......, Uppsala, Sweden Introduction Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) is a common cause of sepsis and brain abscesses in man and a frequent cause of porcine pyaemia. Here we present a porcine model of haematogenous S. aureus-induced brain infection. Materials and Methods Four pigs had two intravenous catheters...... thromboemboli (two pigs). The venous catheter was used for blood sampling before, during and after inoculation. The pigs were euthanized either 24 or 48 hours after inoculation. The brains were collected and examined histologically. Results We describe unifocal suppurative encephalitis 48 hours after...

  7. Surgical induction of choroidal neovascularization in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassota, Nathan; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a reproducible surgical technique for the induction of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in the subretinal space of porcine eyes and to analyse the resulting CNV clinically and histologically. METHODS: Two different modifications of a surgical technique previously described...... were compared with the original method. In ten porcine eyes retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells were removed using a silicone tipped cannula, in ten porcine eyes Bruch's membrane was perforated once with a retinal perforator without prior RPE removal and in ten eyes RPE removal was followed...... by a single perforation of Bruch's membrane. Fifteen of the eyes, five from each group, were enucleated 30 minutes after surgery, while the remaining eyes were enucleated after 14 days. Prior to enucleation, at day 14, fundus photographs and fluorescein angiograms were obtained. Eyes were examined by light...

  8. Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthelot, Emmanuelle; Bailly, Minh Tam; Hatimi, Safwane El; Robard, Ingrid; Rezgui, Hatem; Bouchachi, Amir; Montani, David; Sitbon, Olivier; Chemla, Denis; Assayag, Patrick

    Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart disease, also known as group 2 pulmonary hypertension according to the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society classification, is the most common cause of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left heart disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension favours right heart dysfunction, which has a major impact on disease severity and outcome. Over the past few years, this condition has been considered more frequently. However, epidemiological studies of group 2 pulmonary hypertension are less exhaustive than studies of other causes of pulmonary hypertension. In group 2 patients, pulmonary hypertension may be caused by an isolated increase in left-sided filling pressures or by a combination of this condition with increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with an abnormally high pressure gradient between arteries and pulmonary veins. A better understanding of the conditions underlying pulmonary hypertension is of key importance to establish a comprehensive diagnosis, leading to an adapted treatment to reduce heart failure morbidity and mortality. In this review, epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnostic approaches are reviewed; then, treatment options and future approaches are considered. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Live porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus vaccines: Current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M

    2015-08-07

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by PRRS virus (PRRSV) was reported in the late 1980s. PRRS still is a huge economic concern to the global pig industry with a current annual loss estimated at one billion US dollars in North America alone. It has been 20 years since the first modified live-attenuated PRRSV vaccine (PRRSV-MLV) became commercially available. PRRSV-MLVs provide homologous protection and help in reducing shedding of heterologous viruses, but they do not completely protect pigs against heterologous field strains. There have been many advances in understanding the biology and ecology of PRRSV; however, the complexities of virus-host interaction and PRRSV vaccinology are not yet completely understood leaving a significant gap for improving breadth of immunity against diverse PRRS isolates. This review provides insights on immunization efforts using infectious PRRSV-based vaccines since the 1990s, beginning with live PRRSV immunization, development and commercialization of PRRSV-MLV, and strategies to overcome the deficiencies of PRRSV-MLV through use of replicating viral vectors expressing multiple PRRSV membrane proteins. Finally, powerful reverse genetics systems (infectious cDNA clones) generated from more than 20 PRRSV isolates of both genotypes 1 and 2 viruses have provided a great resource for exploring many innovative strategies to improve the safety and cross-protective efficacy of live PRRSV vaccines. Examples include vaccines with diminished ability to down-regulate the immune system, positive and negative marker vaccines, multivalent vaccines incorporating antigens from other porcine pathogens, vaccines that carry their own cytokine adjuvants, and chimeric vaccine viruses with the potential for broad cross-protection against heterologous strains. To combat this devastating pig disease in the future, evaluation and commercialization of such improved live PRRSV vaccines is a shared goal among PRRSV researchers, pork

  10. Prevalence, complete genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of porcine deltacoronavirus in South Korea, 2014-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, G; Lee, K-K; Kim, S-H; Lee, C

    2017-10-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a newly emerged enterotropic swine coronavirus that causes enteritis and diarrhoea in piglets. Here, a nested reverse transcription (RT)-PCR approach for the detection of PDCoV was developed to identify and characterize aetiologic agent(s) associated with diarrhoeal diseases in piglets in South Korea. A PCR-based method was applied to investigate the presence of PDCoV in 683 diarrhoeic samples collected from 449 commercial pig farms in South Korea from January 2014 to December 2016. The molecular-based survey indicated a relatively high prevalence of PDCoV (19.03%) in South Korea. Among those, the monoinfection of PDCoV (9.66%) and co-infection of PDCoV (6.30%) with porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PEDV) were predominant in diarrhoeal samples. The full-length genomes or the complete spike genes of the most recent strains identified in 2016 (KNU16-07, KNU16-08 and KNU16-11) were sequenced and analysed to characterize PDCoV currently prevalent in South Korea. We found a single insertion-deletion signature and dozens of genetic changes in the spike (S) genes of the KNU16 isolates. Phylogenetic analysis based on the entire genome and spike protein sequences of these strains indicated that they are most closely related to other Korean isolates grouped with the US strains. However, Korean PDCoV strains formed different branches within the same cluster, implying continuous evolution in the field. Our data will advance the understanding of the molecular epidemiology and evolutionary characteristics of PDCoV circulating in South Korea. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Deciphering the porcine intestinal microRNA transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Andreas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While more than 700 microRNAs (miRNAs are known in human, a comparably low number has been identified in swine. Because of the close phylogenetic distance to humans, pigs serve as a suitable model for studying e.g. intestinal development or disease. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are key regulators of intestinal development and their aberrant expression leads to intestinal malignancy. Results Here, we present the identification of hundreds of apparently novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine. MiRNAs were first identified by means of deep sequencing followed by miRNA precursor prediction using the miRDeep algorithm as well as searching for conserved miRNAs. Second, the porcine miRNAome along the entire intestine (duodenum, proximal and distal jejunum, ileum, ascending and transverse colon was unraveled using customized miRNA microarrays based on the identified sequences as well as known porcine and human ones. In total, the expression of 332 intestinal miRNAs was discovered, of which 201 represented assumed novel porcine miRNAs. The identified hairpin forming precursors were in part organized in genomic clusters, and most of the precursors were located on chromosomes 3 and 1, respectively. Hierarchical clustering of the expression data revealed subsets of miRNAs that are specific to distinct parts of the intestine pointing to their impact on cellular signaling networks. Conclusions In this study, we have applied a straight forward approach to decipher the porcine intestinal miRNAome for the first time in mammals using a piglet model. The high number of identified novel miRNAs in the porcine intestine points out their crucial role in intestinal function as shown by pathway analysis. On the other hand, the reported miRNAs may share orthologs in other mammals such as human still to be discovered.

  12. Circovirose suína Porcine circovirosis: a review

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    Ticiana do Nascimento França

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de revisão da literatura pertinente foram coligidos e são apresentados os principais dados relativos aos aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos, anátomo e histopatológicos observados na infecção por Circovírus Porcino tipo 2 (PCV-2 em suínos. São abordados a Síndrome Definhante Multissistêmica dos Suínos Desmamados (SDMDS, o Tremor Congênito Suíno (TCS, a Síndrome da Nefropatia e Dermatite Porcina (SNDP, bem como outras enfermidades associadas ou correlatas, a Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Porcina (SRRP, a Pneumonia Necrotizante Proliferativa (PNP e as falhas reprodutivas. Uma vez que a SDMSD já foi registrada na Região Sul do Brasil e no Estado do Rio de Janeiro esse estudo objetiva chamar a atenção para o especial significado dessa virose para a suinocultura brasileira, em função dos prejuízos econômicos por ela determinados.The literature of Porcine Circovirosis, including the main data on epidemiology and clinical, macroscopic and microscopic alterations of the infection of swine by Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV-2, is reviewed. There are various forms of infection: the [Porcine] Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS, Porcine Congenital Tremor, Porcine Dermatitis and Nephropathy Syndrome, and other associated or correlated diseases as the Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome, Proliferative Necrotizing Pneumonia, and reproductive disorders. As PMWS already has been reported from southern Brazil and from the state of Rio de Janeiro, the objective of this review is to draw attention to the implications of this virosis for swine production in Brazil and its economical importance.

  13. Left-handedness and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand dominance is defined as a proneness to use one hand rather than another in performing the majority of activities and this is the most obvious example of cerebral lateralization and an exclusive human characteristic. Left-handed people comprise 6-14% of the total population, while in Serbia, this percentage is 5-10%, moving from undeveloped to developed environments, where a socio-cultural pressure is less present. There is no agreement between investigators who in fact may be considered a left-handed person, about the percentage of left-handers in the population and about the etiology of left-handedness. In the scientific literature left-handedness has been related to health disorders (spine deformities, immunological disorders, migraine, neurosis, depressive psychosis, schizophrenia, insomnia, homosexuality, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, sleep apnea, enuresis nocturna and Down Syndrome, developmental disorders (autism, dislexia and sttutering and traumatism. The most reliable scientific evidences have been published about the relationship between left-handedness and spinal deformities in school children in puberty and with traumatism in general population. The controversy of other results in up-to-now investigations of health aspects of left-handedness may partly be explained by a scientific disagreement whether writing with the left hand is a sufficient criterium for left-handedness, or is it necessary to investigate other parameters for laterality assessment. Explanation of health aspects of left-handedness is dominantly based on Geschwind-Galaburda model about 'anomalous' cerebral domination, as a consequence of hormonal disbalance. .

  14. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging: detection of ischemia in a porcine model with FFR verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, Rachid; Eck, Brendan L.; Vembar, Mani; Bezerra, Hiram G.; Wilson, David L.

    2014-03-01

    Dynamic cardiac CT perfusion (CTP) is a high resolution, non-invasive technique for assessing myocardial blood ow (MBF), which in concert with coronary CT angiography enable CT to provide a unique, comprehensive, fast analysis of both coronary anatomy and functional ow. We assessed perfusion in a porcine model with and without coronary occlusion. To induce occlusion, each animal underwent left anterior descending (LAD) stent implantation and angioplasty balloon insertion. Normal ow condition was obtained with balloon completely de ated. Partial occlusion was induced by balloon in ation against the stent with FFR used to assess the extent of occlusion. Prospective ECG-triggered partial scan images were acquired at end systole (45% R-R) using a multi-detector CT (MDCT) scanner. Images were reconstructed using FBP and a hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose4, Philips Healthcare). Processing included: beam hardening (BH) correction, registration of image volumes using 3D cubic B-spline normalized mutual-information, and spatio-temporal bilateral ltering to reduce partial scan artifacts and noise variation. Absolute blood ow was calculated with a deconvolutionbased approach using singular value decomposition (SVD). Arterial input function was estimated from the left ventricle (LV) cavity. Regions of interest (ROIs) were identi ed in healthy and ischemic myocardium and compared in normal and occluded conditions. Under-perfusion was detected in the correct LAD territory and ow reduction agreed well with FFR measurements. Flow was reduced, on average, in LAD territories by 54%.

  15. Determination of 5 '-leader sequences from radically disparate strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals the presence of highly conserved sequence motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    We determined the untranslated 5'-leader sequence for three different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenic European- and American-types, as well as an American-type vaccine strain. 5'-leader from European- and American-type PRRSV differed in length...... (220 and 190 nt, respectively), and exhibited only approximately 50% nucleotide homology. Nevertheless, highly conserved areas were identified in the leader of all 3 PRRSV isolates, which constitute candidate motifs for binding of protein(s) involved in viral replication. These comparative data provide...

  16. EFSA AHAW Panel (EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare), 2014. Scientific Opinion on porcine epidemic diarrhoea and emerging pig deltacoronavirus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtner, Anette

    In the last decade, many porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) outbreaks have been reported by several countries in Asia whereas only a few Member States of the European Union (EU) have reported PED clinical cases and/or PED virus (PEDV)-seropositive animals. This alphacoronavirus was first reported...... in the USA in May 2013, followed by rapid spread throughout the country and outbreaks reported by several countries in the Americas. The recent PEDV-EU isolates have high level of sequence identity to PEDV-Am isolates. Based on nucleotide sequencing, multiple variants of PEDV are circulating in Europe...

  17. Diagnostic investigation of porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome: lack of compelling evidence linking to common porcine pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanyun; Gauvreau, Henry; Harding, John

    2012-01-01

    Porcine periweaning failure-to-thrive syndrome (PFTS), an increasingly recognized syndrome in the swine industry of North America, is characterized by the anorexia of nursery pigs noticeable within 1 week of weaning, and progressive loss of body condition and lethargy during the next 1-2 weeks. Morbidity caused by PFTS is moderate, but case fatality is high. The etiology of PFTS is presently unknown and may include infectious agent(s), noninfectious factors, or both. PFTS was identified in a high health status farm with good management in early 2007. A diagnostic investigation was undertaken to identify the pathological lesions of, and infectious agents associated with, pigs demonstrating typical clinical signs. Affected (PFTS-SICK) and unaffected (PFTS-HLTHY) pigs from an affected farm, and unaffected pigs from 2 unaffected farms, were examined. The most prevalent lesions in PFTS-SICK pigs were superficial lymphocytic fundic gastritis, atrophic enteritis, superficial colitis, lymphocytic and neutrophilic rhinitis, mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, and thymic atrophy. Rotavirus A and Betacoronavirus 1 (Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus) were identified only in PFTS-SICK pigs, but the significance of the viruses is uncertain because PFTS is not consistent with the typical presentation following infection by these pathogens. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, Porcine circovirus-2, Influenza A virus, Alphacoronavirus 1 (Transmissible gastroenteritis virus), Torque teno virus 1, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, and Brachyspira pilosicoli were not identified in PFTS-SICK pigs. Suid herpesvirus 2 (Porcine cytomegalovirus), Porcine enteric calicivirus, Torque teno virus 2, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and coccidia were detected in both PFTS-SICK and PFTS-HLTHY pigs. It was concluded that there is a lack of compelling evidence that PFTS is caused by any of these pathogens.

  18. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Bordetella bronchiseptica Isolates from Swine and Companion Animals and Detection of Resistance Genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Prüller

    Full Text Available Bordetella bronchiseptica causes infections of the respiratory tract in swine and other mammals and is a precursor for secondary infections with Pasteurella multocida. Treatment of B. bronchiseptica infections is conducted primarily with antimicrobial agents. Therefore it is essential to get an overview of the susceptibility status of these bacteria. The aim of this study was to comparatively analyse broth microdilution susceptibility testing according to CLSI recommendations with an incubation time of 16 to 20 hours and a longer incubation time of 24 hours, as recently proposed to obtain more homogenous MICs. Susceptibility testing against a panel of 22 antimicrobial agents and two fixed combinations was performed with 107 porcine isolates from different farms and regions in Germany and 43 isolates obtained from companion animals in Germany and other European countries. Isolates with increased MICs were investigated by PCR assays for the presence of resistance genes. For ampicillin, all 107 porcine isolates were classified as resistant, whereas only a single isolate was resistant to florfenicol. All isolates obtained from companion animals showed elevated MICs for β-lactam antibiotics and demonstrated an overall low susceptibility to cephalosporines. Extension of the incubation time resulted in 1-2 dilution steps higher MIC50 values of porcine isolates for seven antimicrobial agents tested, while isolates from companion animals exhibited twofold higher MIC50/90 values only for tetracycline and cefotaxime. For three antimicrobial agents, lower MIC50 and MIC90 values were detected for both, porcine and companion animal isolates. Among the 150 isolates tested, the resistance genes blaBOR-1 (n = 147, blaOXA-2, (n = 4, strA and strB (n = 17, sul1 (n = 10, sul2 (n = 73, dfrA7 (n = 3 and tet(A (n = 8 were detected and a plasmid localisation was identified for several of the resistance genes.

  19. Erythrocyte and porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids recognized by F4 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddens, Annelies; Valis, Erik; Benktander, John; Ångström, Jonas; Breimer, Michael E; Cox, Eric; Teneberg, Susann

    2011-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic F4-fimbriated Escherichia coli is associated with diarrheal disease in neonatal and postweaning pigs. The F4 fimbriae mediate attachment of the bacteria to the pig intestinal epithelium, enabling an efficient delivery of diarrhea-inducing enterotoxins to the target epithelial cells. There are three variants of F4 fimbriae designated F4ab, F4ac and F4ad, respectively, having different antigenic and adhesive properties. In the present study, the binding of isolated F4ab, F4ac and F4ad fimbriae, and F4ab/ac/ad-fimbriated E. coli, to glycosphingolipids from erythrocytes and from porcine small intestinal epithelium was examined, in order to get a comprehensive view of the F4-binding glycosphingolipids involved in F4-mediated hemagglutination and adhesion to the epithelial cells of porcine intestine. Specific interactions between the F4ab, F4ac and F4ad fimbriae and both acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids were obtained, and after isolation of binding-active glycosphingolipids and characterization by mass spectrometry and proton NMR, distinct carbohydrate binding patterns were defined for each fimbrial subtype. Two novel glycosphingolipids were isolated from chicken erythrocytes, and characterized as GalNAcα3GalNAcß3Galß4Glcß1Cer and GalNAcα3GalNAcß3Galß4GlcNAcß3Galß4Glcß1Cer. These two compounds, and lactosylceramide (Galß4Glcß1Cer) with phytosphingosine and hydroxy fatty acid, were recognized by all three variants of F4 fimbriae. No binding of the F4ad fimbriae or F4ad-fimbriated E. coli to the porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids occurred. However, for F4ab and F4ac two distinct binding patterns were observed. The F4ac fimbriae and the F4ac-expressing E. coli selectively bound to galactosylceramide (Galß1Cer) with sphingosine and hydroxy 24:0 fatty acid, while the porcine intestinal glycosphingolipids recognized by F4ab fimbriae and the F4ab-fimbriated bacteria were characterized as galactosylceramide, sulfatide (SO(3)-3Galß1Cer), sulf

  20. Distinction between porcine circovirus type 2 enteritis and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Vigre, Håkan; Svensmark, B.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) was studied immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded samples of intestinal tissue from 80 pigs with a clinical history suggestive of Lawsonia intracellularis-associated diarrhoea. Histopathologically, enteritis of varying...... in the submucosa, lamina propria and crypt epithelium, as well as in the lymphoid tissue of the ileum and colon. Multinucleated giant cells, however, were seen in both infections. PCV2 was about three times more likely to be detected in L. intracellularis-negative than in L. intracellularis-positive samples (P ... intensity was diagnosed in 64 of the pigs. Of these 64 animals, 34 (18%) were infected with both PCV2 and L. intracellularis. Of the remaining 30 cases of enteritis, 23 (77%) were attributed to PCV2 infection alone. The PCV2-associated enteritis cases showed necrotizing ileitis and colitis...

  1. Reactomes of porcine alveolar macrophages infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Jiang

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS has devastated pig industries worldwide for many years. It is caused by a small RNA virus (PRRSV, which targets almost exclusively pig monocytes or macrophages. In the present study, five SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression libraries derived from 0 hour mock-infected and 6, 12, 16 and 24 hours PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs produced a total 643,255 sequenced tags with 91,807 unique tags. Differentially expressed (DE tags were then detected using the Bayesian framework followed by gene/mRNA assignment, arbitrary selection and manual annotation, which determined 699 DE genes for reactome analysis. The DAVID, KEGG and REACTOME databases assigned 573 of the DE genes into six biological systems, 60 functional categories and 504 pathways. The six systems are: cellular processes, genetic information processing, environmental information processing, metabolism, organismal systems and human diseases as defined by KEGG with modification. Self-organizing map (SOM analysis further grouped these 699 DE genes into ten clusters, reflecting their expression trends along these five time points. Based on the number one functional category in each system, cell growth and death, transcription processes, signal transductions, energy metabolism, immune system and infectious diseases formed the major reactomes of PAMs responding to PRRSV infection. Our investigation also focused on dominant pathways that had at least 20 DE genes identified, multi-pathway genes that were involved in 10 or more pathways and exclusively-expressed genes that were included in one system. Overall, our present study reported a large set of DE genes, compiled a comprehensive coverage of pathways, and revealed system-based reactomes of PAMs infected with PRRSV. We believe that our reactome data provides new insight into molecular mechanisms involved in host genetic complexity of antiviral activities against PRRSV and

  2. Isolation and removal of proteolytic enzymes with magnetic cross-linked erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarik, I. Ivo; Safarikova, Mirka

    2001-01-01

    New magnetic adsorbents for batch isolation and removal of various proteolytic enzymes were prepared by glutaraldehyde cross-linking of bovine, porcine and human erythrocytes in the presence of fine magnetic particles. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, alkaline bacterial protease and proteases present in various commercial enzyme preparations were efficiently adsorbed on these adsorbents; on the contrary, proteins without proteolytic activity were not adsorbed

  3. Alkaline stabilization of manure slurry inactivates porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    The porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv) outbreak in North America has substantially impacted swine production since it causes nearly 100% mortality in infected pre-weaned piglets. The PED virus is transmitted via the fecal oral route and manure may remain a source of reinfection; therefore, prop...

  4. [Characteristics of porcine thoracic arteries fixed with polyepoxy compound].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xi-Xun; Chen, Huai-Qing

    2005-09-01

    To investigate the characteristics of porcine thoracic arteries fixed with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EX-810) and to provide the proper scaffold materials for tissue-engineered blood vessel. The porcine thoracic arteries were respectively treated with 40 ml/L EX-810 and 6.25 g/L glutaraldehyde, and then they were examined with naked-eye, light microscope and scanning electron microscope. The fixation index determination, the amino acid analysis and the biomechanics test were also performed. The antigenicity of vascular tissues can be diminished by EX-810 through getting rid of cell in the vascular tissues or reducing the level of free amino groups in the vascular tissues. The structural integrity of vascular tissues can be preserved after treatment with EX-810. It was also found that the EX-810-fixed porcine vascular tissues appeared more similar to the natural vascular tissues in color and mechanical properties, and were more pliable than the glutaraldehyde-fixed tissues. The EX-810-fixed porcine thoracic arteries with low cytotoxicity and low antigenicity showed favorable characteristic similar to those of natural vessel, and it should be a promising material for fabricating scaffold of tissue-engineered blood vessel.

  5. Characterization of the porcine carboxypeptidase E cDNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hreidarsdôttir, G.E.; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2007-01-01

    the sequence of the cDNA for the porcine CPE gene including all the coding region and the 3'-UTR region was generated. Comparisons with bovine, human, mouse, and rat CPE cDNA sequences showed that the coding regions of the gene are highly conserved both at the nucleotide and at the amino acid level. A very low...

  6. Porcine cluster of differentiation (CD) Markers 2017 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are a major source of food worldwide; preventing and treating their infectious diseases is essential, requiring a thorough understanding of porcine immunity. The use of pigs as models for human physiology is a growing area; progress in this area has been limited because the immune toolkit is no...

  7. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus among Farmed Pigs, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastjerdi, Akbar; Carr, John; Ellis, Richard J; Steinbach, Falko; Williamson, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea occurred in the summer of 2014 in Ukraine, severely affecting piglets <10 days of age; the mortality rate approached 100%. Full genome sequencing showed the virus to be closely related to strains reported from North America, showing a sequence identity of up to 99.8%.

  8. Developmental features of porcine haemal nodes: a histological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result demonstrated progressive changes in the structure of porcine haemal nodes. The capsule and trabeculae of piglet haemal nodes exhibited dense irregular connective tissues with reticular cells and smooth muscle cells. The cortex was more central while the medulla was peripheral with poorly defined boundaries ...

  9. Detection of a Novel Porcine Parvovirus in Chinese Swine Herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether the recently reported novel porcine parvovirus type 4 (PPV4) is prevalent in China, a set of PPV4 specific primers were designed and used for the molecular survey of PPV4 among clinical samples. The results indicated a positive detection for PPV4 in Chinese swine herds of 1.84% ...

  10. Factors influencing transmission of porcine cysticercosis in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Wendy, Harrison; Magnussen, Pascal

    Understanding the factors contributing to the transmission of Taenia solium in sub-Saharan Africa is essential for control. This study aimed to elucidate factors concerning the transmission of porcine cysticercosis in an endemic area. A longitudinal study composed of three cross-sectional surveys...

  11. Sulfated N-linked carbohydrate chains in porcine thyroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Kamerling, J.P.; Rijkse, I.; Maas, A.A.M.; Kuik, J.A. van

    1988-01-01

    N-linked carbohydrate chains of porcine thyroglobulin were released by the hydrazinolysis procedure. The resulting mixture of oligosaccharide-alditols was fractionated by high-voltage paper electrophoresis, the acidic fractions were further separated by high-performance liquid chromatography on

  12. Assessment of risk factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by Taenia solium is a neglected parasite causing great economic losses to pig farmers and public health risks in endemic countries. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence, risk factors for PC transmission and pig welfare in Nyasa District. To establish the prevalence of PC, ...

  13. Optimal developmental stage for vitrification of parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rong; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the optimal developmental stage to vitrify in-vitro cultured porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos. Embryos were vitrified by Cryotop on Day 4, 5 or 6 after oocyte activation (Day 0), and immediately after warming they were either time...

  14. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  15. Porcine circovirus: transcription and rolling-circle DNA replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review summarizes the molecular studies pertaining to porcine circovirus (PCV) transcription and DNA replication. The genome of PCV is circular, single-stranded DNA and contains 1759-1768 nucleotides. Both the genome-strand (packaged in the virus particle) and the complementary-strand (synthesi...

  16. Short communication Identification of gene variation within porcine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    characteristics and possible biological function of porcine PRDM16 gene have been less reported. ... included the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, brain, longissimus dorsi muscle, interior fat, stomach, small ... al., 2008), and the copy number of PRDM16 molecules of patients with osteosarcoma was .... BMC Cancer 4, 45.

  17. Pancreas specific expression of oncogenes in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Martin Fogtmann; Callesen, Morten Møbjerg; Østergaard, Tanja Stenshøj

    2017-01-01

    crucial for successful treatment. However, pancreatic cancer is difficult to detect in its earliest stages and once symptoms appear, the cancer has often progressed beyond possibility for curing. Research into the disease has been hampered by the lack of good models. We have generated a porcine m...

  18. Cryptosporidium parvum: infectivity and pathogenicity of the 'porcine' genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Ahrens, Peter; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2003-01-01

    mild clinical signs in piglets despite the excretion of high numbers of oocysts. Concomitant infection with rotavirus, however, caused a dramatic aggravation of the clinical signs, and 5 of 6 experimentally infected piglets died. CPP-13 appeared to be adapted to porcine hosts as illustrated by the lack...

  19. Intrauterine Idiopathic Amputation of the Head of a Porcine Foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J. S.; Garoussi, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Contents An anencephalic full-term porcine foetus accompanied by a mummified head was submitted for examination. The neck almost entirely lacked skin and was covered by granulation tissue as were the exposed parts of the spine and spinal cord. The case represents a rare case of intrauterine...

  20. Association between the porcine Escherichia coli F18 receptor genotype and phenotype and susceptibility to colonisation and postweaning diarrhoea caused by E-coli O138 : F18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendahl, K.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2003-01-01

    Porcine postweaning Escherichia coli enteritis is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in pigs worldwide, and effective prevention remains an unsolved problem. This study examined the correlation between susceptibility of pigs to experimental infection with an E. coli F18 strain...... and the porcine intestinal F18 receptor genotypes. Thirty-one pigs classified as either belonging to the susceptible or the resistant genotype were inoculated with cultures of an E. coli 0138:F18 isolated from a pig with postweaning diarrhoea. Susceptibility to colonisation and diarrhoea was assessed by clinical...... and heterozygotic susceptible pigs. Faecal shedding of the challenge strain correlated with the genetic receptor profile. Twenty pigs examined immunohistochemically revealed focal to extensive small intestinal mucosal colonisation by E. coli O138:F18 in nine of 10 susceptible and three of 10 resistant pigs. Results...

  1. Characterisation of an in vitro blood-brain barrier model based on primary porcine capillary endothelial cells in monoculture or co-culture with primary rat or porcine astrocytes and pericytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louiza Bohn; Larsen, Annette Burkhart; Moos, Torben

    to in vivo such as efflux transporters, tight junction proteins, and high transendothelial electric resistance (TEER). Primary BCECs are isolated from a variety of mammals such as rats, mice, cattle and pigs. Often bovine and porcine BCECs are cultured in monoculture or in co-culture with rat astrocytes......In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models based on primary brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) in monoculture or in co-culture with primary astrocytes and pericytes are often applied for studying physiology of the BBB. Primary BCECs retain many morphological and biochemical properties similar...... obtained from neonatal rats which have been shown to strengthen the barrier properties of the BCECs. In this study, brain endothelial cells (PBECs), astrocytes and pericytes are isolated from pig brains donated by the local abattoir. The brains are from 6 month old domestic pigs. The availability and high...

  2. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  3. Producing The New Regressive Left

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Christine

    members, this thesis investigates a growing political trend and ideological discourse in the Arab world that I have called The New Regressive Left. On the premise that a media outlet can function as a forum for ideology production, the thesis argues that an analysis of this material can help to trace...... the contexture of The New Regressive Left. If the first part of the thesis lays out the theoretical approach and draws the contextual framework, through an exploration of the surrounding Arab media-and ideoscapes, the second part is an analytical investigation of the discourse that permeates the programmes aired...... becomes clear from the analytical chapters is the emergence of the new cross-ideological alliance of The New Regressive Left. This emerging coalition between Shia Muslims, religious minorities, parts of the Arab Left, secular cultural producers, and the remnants of the political,strategic resistance...

  4. Left main percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teirstein, Paul S; Price, Matthew J

    2012-10-23

    The introduction of drug-eluting stents and advances in catheter techniques have led to increasing acceptance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) as a viable alternative to coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) for unprotected left main disease. Current guidelines state that it is reasonable to consider unprotected left main PCI in patients with low to intermediate anatomic complexity who are at increased surgical risk. Data from randomized trials involving patients who are candidates for either treatment strategy provide novel insight into the relative safety and efficacy of PCI for this lesion subset. Herein, we review the current data comparing PCI with CABG for left main disease, summarize recent guideline recommendations, and provide an update on technical considerations that may optimize clinical outcomes in left main PCI. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, N.; Tai, J.; Soofi, A.

    2007-01-01

    The transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, is characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction in the absence of obstructive epicardial coronary disease. Although the syndrome has been reported in Japan since 1990, it is rare in other regions. Rapid recognition of the syndrome can modify the diagnostic and therapeutic attitude i.e. avoiding thrombolysis and performing catheterization in the acute phase. (author)

  6. Apraxia in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2013-08-01

    In typical right-handed patients both apraxia and aphasia are caused by damage to the left hemisphere, which also controls the dominant right hand. In left-handed subjects the lateralities of language and of control of the dominant hand can dissociate. This permits disentangling the association of apraxia with aphasia from that with handedness. Pantomime of tool use, actual tool use and imitation of meaningless hand and finger postures were examined in 50 consecutive left-handed subjects with unilateral hemisphere lesions. There were three aphasic patients with pervasive apraxia caused by left-sided lesions. As the dominant hand is controlled by the right hemisphere, they constitute dissociations of apraxia from handedness. Conversely there were also three patients with pervasive apraxia caused by right brain lesions without aphasia. They constitute dissociations of apraxia from aphasia. Across the whole group of patients dissociations from handedness and from aphasia were observed for all manifestations of apraxia, but their frequency depended on the type of apraxia. Defective pantomime and defective tool use occurred rarely without aphasia, whereas defective imitation of hand, but not finger, postures was more frequent after right than left brain damage. The higher incidence of defective imitation of hand postures in right brain damage was mainly due to patients who had also hemi-neglect. This interaction alerts to the possibility that the association of right hemisphere damage with apraxia has to do with spatial aptitudes of the right hemisphere rather than with its control of the dominant left hand. Comparison with data from right-handed patients showed no differences between the severity of apraxia for imitation of hand or finger postures, but impairment on pantomime of tool use was milder in apraxic left-handers than in apraxic right-handers. This alleviation of the severity of apraxia corresponded with a similar alleviation of the severity of aphasia as

  7. Right colon cancer: Left behind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervaz, P; Usel, M; Rapiti, E; Chappuis, P; Neyroud-Kaspar, I; Bouchardy, C

    2016-09-01

    Prognosis of colon cancer (CC) has steadily improved during the past three decades. This trend, however, may vary according to proximal (right) or distal (left) tumor location. We studied if improvement in survival was greater for left than for right CC. We included all CC recorded at the Geneva population-based registry between 1980 and 2006. We compared patients, tumor and treatment characteristics between left and right CC by logistic regression and compared CC specific survival by Cox models taking into account putative confounders. We also compared changes in survival between CC location in early and late years of observation. Among the 3396 CC patients, 1334 (39%) had right-sided and 2062 (61%) left-sided tumors. In the early 1980s, 5-year specific survival was identical for right and left CCs (49% vs. 48%). During the study period, a dramatic improvement in survival was observed for patients with left-sided cancers (Hazard ratio [HR]: 0.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.62, p colon cancer patients, those with right-sided lesions have by far the worse prognosis. Change of strategic management in this subgroup is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aminopeptidase-N-independent entry of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus into Vero or porcine small intestine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chun-Miao; Wang, Bin; Zhou, Jiyong; Huang, Yao-Wei

    2018-04-01

    A monkey cell line Vero (ATCC CCL-81) is commonly used for porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) propagation in vitro. However, it is still controversial whether the porcine aminopeptidase N (pAPN) counterpart on Vero cells (Vero-APN) confers PEDV entry. We found that endogenous expression of Vero-APN was undetectable in the mRNA and the protein levels in Vero cells. We cloned the partial Vero-APN gene (3340-bp) containing exons 1 to 9 from cellular DNA and subsequently generated two APN-knockout Vero cell lines by CRISPR/Cas9 approach. PEDV infection of two APN-knockout Vero cells had the same efficiency as the Vero cells with or without neuraminidase treatment. A Vero cells stably expressing pAPN did not increase PEDV production. SiRNA-knockdown of pAPN in porcine jejunum epithelial cells had no effects on PEDV infection. The results suggest that there exists an additional cellular receptor on Vero or porcine jejunal cells independent of APN for PEDV entry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The kinetics of interaction of porcine - alpha-, and porcine - beta -trypsin with intact and modified soybean trypsin inhibitor (kunitz)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The association of porcine trypsin with soybean trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz) resulted in characteristic changes in absorption spectrum, indicating an alteration of the micro environments of the enzyme chromophores as a consequence of the interaction. The rates of formation of the stable trypsin - inhibitor complexes from porcine - alpha - trypsin and soybean trypsin inhibitor and from porcine - beta - trypsin and either intact or modified soybean trypsin inhibitor were measured by mixing the equimolar concentration of the reactants in a Stopped - Flow apparatus at pH (4.5 to 10.0). The reaction of trypsin with soybean trypsin inhibitor was of first order with respect to the concentration of the reactants used. The rates of dissociation of the stable complexes, alpha - trypsin - soybean trypsin inhibitor, beta -trypsin - soybean trypsin inhibitor and beta -trypsin modified soybean trypsin inhibitor were also measured at pH (1.92 to 3.58). The values of first order rate constant, k/sub D/ obtained for the dissociation of all the three complexes were identical with one another. The kinetics results obtained for the porcine trypsin were compared with those of bovine trypsin system and it was suggested that the reaction mechanisms in both these systems were identical. (author)

  10. Long-term culture and differentiation of porcine red bone marrow hematopoietic cells co-cultured with immortalized mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garba, Abubakar; Acar, Delphine D; Roukaerts, Inge D M; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; Devriendt, Bert; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2017-09-01

    Mesenchymal cells are multipotent stromal cells with self-renewal, differentiation and immunomodulatory capabilities. We aimed to develop a co-culture model for differentiating hematopoietic cells on top of immortalized mesenchymal cells for studying interactions between hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, useful for adequately exploring the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal cells. In this study, we investigated the survival, proliferation and differentiation of porcine red bone marrow hematopoietic cells co-cultured with immortalized porcine bone marrow mesenchymal cells for a period of five weeks. Directly after collection, primary porcine bone marrow mesenchymal cells adhered firmly to the bottom of the culture plates and showed a fibroblast-like appearance, one week after isolation. Upon immortalization, porcine bone marrow mesenchymal cells were continuously proliferating. They were positive for simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and the mesenchymal cell markers CD44 and CD55. Isolated red bone marrow cells were added to these immortalized mesenchymal cells. Five weeks post-seeding, 92±6% of the red bone marrow hematopoietic cells were still alive and their number increased 3-fold during five weekly subpassages on top of the immortalized mesenchymal cells. The red bone marrow hematopoietic cells were originally small and round; later, the cells increased in size. Some of them became elongated, while others remained round. Tiny dendrites appeared attaching hematopoietic cells to the underlying immortalized mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, weekly differential-quick staining of the cells indicated the presence of monoblasts, monocytes, macrophages and lymphocytes in the co-cultures. At three weeks of co-culture, flow cytometry analysis showed an increased surface expression of CD172a, CD14, CD163, CD169, CD4 and CD8 up to 37±0.8%, 40±8%, 41±4%, 23±3% and 19±5% of the hematopoietic cells, respectively. In conclusion, continuous mesenchymal cell

  11. Reliable porcine coronary model of chronic total occlusion using copper wire stents and bioabsorbable levo-polylactic acid polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Doo Sun; Jeong, Myung Ho; Cha, Kyoung Rae; Park, Suk Ho; Park, Jong Oh; Shin, Young Min; Shin, Heungsoo; Hong, Young Joon; Ahn, Youngkeun; Schwartz, Robert S; Kang, Jung Chaee

    2012-12-01

    Chronic total occlusion (CTO) remains a challenge in interventional cardiology. We investigated the feasibility and reliability of copper wire stents and levo-polylactic acid (l-PLA) as a means of CTO induction in a porcine model. In one group of 20 swine, copper stents were crimped on a 3.0mm angioplasty balloon and inserted into the mid-left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). In the other group of 20 swine, l-PLA was wrapped on a guidewire and pushed into the distal LAD with a 3.0mm balloon catheter to induce embolization. Of 20 swine which underwent copper stent implantation, 13 died of stent thrombosis. In the remaining 7 swine, total or near total occlusion with collateral circulation was observed at 5 weeks. Of 20 swine which underwent l-PLA embolization, 4 died of ventricular fibrillation during or shortly after the procedure. Serial histopathologic studies showed complete absorption of the polymer with replacement by fibrotic tissue approximately 4 weeks following the polymer implantation. CTO could be reliably induced in porcine coronary arteries by copper stents and l-PLA. These models may support investigation of new percutaneous devices to facilitate CTO interventions. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Added soft tissue contrast using signal attenuation and the fractal dimension for optical coherence tomography images of porcine arterial tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueraru, C; Mao, Y; Chang, S; Popescu, D P; Sowa, M G

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of left-descending coronary tissues harvested from three porcine specimens were acquired with a home-build swept-source OCT setup. Despite the fact that OCT is capable of acquiring high resolution circumferential images of vessels, many distinct histological features of a vessel have comparable optical properties leading to poor contrast in OCT images. Two classification methods were tested in this report for the purpose of enhancing contrast between soft-tissue components of porcine coronary vessels. One method involved analyzing the attenuation of the OCT signal as a function of light penetration into the tissue. We demonstrated that by analyzing the signal attenuation in this manner we were able to differentiate two media sub-layers with different orientations of the smooth muscle cells. The other classification method used in our study was fractal analysis. Fractal analysis was implemented in a box-counting (fractal dimension) image-processing code and was used as a tool to differentiate and quantify variations in tissue texture at various locations in the OCT images. The calculated average fractal dimensions had different values in distinct regions of interest (ROI) within the imaged coronary samples. When compared to the results obtained by using the attenuation of the OCT signal, the method of fractal analysis demonstrated better classification potential for distinguishing amongst the tissue ROI.

  13. Aphasia following left thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makishita, Hideo; Miyasaka, Motomaro; Tanizaki, Yoshio; Yanagisawa, Nobuo; Sugishita, Morihiro.

    1984-01-01

    We reported 7 patients with left thalamic hemorrhage in the chronic stage (from 1.5 months to 4.5 months), and described language disorders examined by Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) and measured cerebral blood flow by single photon emission CT. Examination of language by WAB revealed 4 aphasics out of 7 cases, and 3 patients had no language deficit. The patient with Wernicke's aphasia showed low density area only in the left posterior thalamus in X-ray CT, and revealed severe low blood flow area extending to left temporal lobe in emission CT. In the case with transcortical sensory aphasia, although X-ray CT showed no obvious low density area, emission CT revealed moderate low flow area in watershed area that involved the territory between posterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries in the left temporooccipital region in addition to low blood flow at the left thalamus. In one of the two patients classified as anomic aphasia, whose score of repetition (8.4) was higher than that of comprehension (7.4), emission CT showed slight low flow area at the temporo-occipital region similarly as the case with transcortical sensory aphasia. In another case with anomic aphasia, scored 9 on both fluensy and comprehension subtests and 10 on repetition, there was wide low density area all over the left thalamus and midline shift to the right in X-ray CT, and emission CT showed severe low blood flow in the same region spreading widely toward the cerebral surface. On the other hand, in all of the 3 patients without aphasia, emission CT showed low flow region restricted to the left thalamus. (J.P.N.)

  14. Quantitative study of the microvasculature and its endothelial cells in the porcine iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongfang; Yu, Paula K; Cringle, Stephen J; Sun, Xinghuai; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2015-03-01

    The roles of the iris microvasculature have been increasingly recognised in the pathogenesis of glaucoma and cataract; however limited information exists regarding the iris microvasculature and its endothelium. This study quantitatively assessed the iris microvascular network and its endothelium using intra-luminal micro-perfusion, fixation, and staining of the porcine iris. The temporal long posterior ciliary artery of 11 isolated porcine eyes was cannulated, perfusion-fixed and labelled using silver nitrate. The iris microvasculature was studied for its distribution, orders and endothelial morphometrics. The density of three layers of microvasculature was measured. Endothelial cell length and width were measured for each vessel order. The iris has an unusual vascular distribution which consisted of abundant large vessels in the middle of the iris stroma, branching over a relatively short distance to the microvasculature located in the superficial and deep stroma as well as the pupil edge. The average vascular density of the middle, superficial, and deep layers were 38.9 ± 1.93%, 10.9 ± 1.61% and 8.0 ± 0.79% respectively. Multiple orders of iris vessels (capillary, 6 orders of arteries, and 4 orders of veins) with relatively large capillary and input arteries (319.5 ± 25.6 μm) were found. Significant heterogeneity of vascular diameter and shape of the endothelia was revealed in different orders of the iris vasculature. Detailed information of topography and endothelium of the iris microvasculature combined with unique structural features of the iris may help us to further understand the physiological and pathogenic roles of the iris in relevant ocular diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Field investigations of bacterial contaminants and their effects on extended porcine semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, G C; Kuster, C E; Clark, S G; Weisiger, R M

    2000-03-15

    Field investigations (n=23) were made over a 3-yr period at North American boar studs and farms in which the primary complaint was sperm agglutination in association with decreased sperm longevity of extended semen, and increased regular returns to estrus and/or vaginal discharges across parity. Microscopic examination of extended semen from these units revealed depressed gross motility (usually semen collection and processing regardless of the semen extender used. The extended semen exhibited a high number of induced acrosome abnormalities (>20%). Sample pH was acidic (5.7 to 6.4) in 93% of the submitted samples. Aerobic culture yielded a variety of bacteria from different genera. A single bacterial contaminant was obtained from 66% of the submitted samples (n=37 doses); 34% contained 2 or more different bacterial genera. The most frequently isolated contaminant bacteria from porcine extended semen were Alcaligenes xylosoxydans (n=3), Burkholderia cepacia (n=6), Enterobacter cloacae (n=6), Escherichia coli (n=6), Serratia marcescens (n=5), and Stenotrophomonas [Xanthomonas] maltophilia (n=6); these 6 bacteria accounted for 71% of all contaminated samples, and were spermicidal when re-inoculated and incubated in fresh, high quality extended semen. All contaminant bacteria were found to be resistant to the aminoglycoside gentamicin, a common preservative antibiotic used in commercial porcine semen extenders. Eleven genera were spermicidal in conjunction with an acidic environment, while 2 strains (E. coli, S. maltophilia) were spermicidal without this characteristic acidic environment. Bacteria originated from multiple sources at the stud/farm, and were of animal and nonanimal origin. A minimum contamination technique (MCT) protocol was developed to standardize hygiene and sanitation. This protocol focused on MCT's during boar preparation, semen collection, semen processing and laboratory sanitation. Implementation of the MCT, in addition to specific recommendations

  16. Bone response to hydroxyapatites with open porosity of animal origin (porcine [OsteoBiol mp3] and bovine [Endobon]): a radiological and histomorphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Fernández, MaPiedad; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio; Maté-Sánchez Del Val, José Eduardo; Vicente-Ortega, Vicente; Meseguer-Olmos, Luis

    2011-07-01

    To carry out a radiological and histomorphometric evaluation of bone response to two xenografts of animal origin, one porcine, and the other bovine, inserted in rabbits' tibiae. Twenty New Zealand rabbits weighing 3900-4500 g were used. Twenty bovine bone grafts (Endobon) in granulated form of 500-1000 μm granulometry were inserted in the proximal metaphyseal area of the animals' right tibia, and 20 porcine bone grafts (OsteoBiol mp3) in granulated form of 600-1000 μm granulometry were inserted in the proximal metaphyseal area of the animals' left tibia. Following graft insertion, the animals were sacrificed in four groups of five, after 1, 2, 3 and 4 months, respectively. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were taken. Samples were processed for observation under light microscopy. Histomorphometric measurements were presented as mean values ± standard deviations. At 4 months after treatment, the bone defects displayed radiological images that showed complete repair of osseous defects. Histomorphometric evaluation showed that for the porcine xenograft, the study averages for newly formed bone represented 22.8 ± 1.8%, for residual graft material 23.6 ± 3% and for connective tissue 53.5 ± 2.5%, while for the bovine xenograft newly formed bone represented 23.1 ± 1.8%, residual graft material 39.4 ± 3% and non-mineralized connective tissue 37.5 ± 2.5%. The biomaterials assessed in the study were shown to be biocompatible and osteoconductive. Collagenized porcine xenografts proved more resorbable than bovine xenografts. Both can be used as possible bone substitutes without interfering with normal reparative bone processes. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Isolation and amino acid sequence of corticotropin-releasing factor from pig hypothalami.

    OpenAIRE

    Patthy, M; Horvath, J; Mason-Garcia, M; Szoke, B; Schlesinger, D H; Schally, A V

    1985-01-01

    A polypeptide was isolated from acid extracts of porcine hypothalami on the basis of its high ability to stimulate the release of corticotropin from superfused rat pituitary cells. After an initial separation by gel filtration on Sephadex G-25, further purification was carried out by reversed-phase HPLC. The isolated material was homogeneous chromatographically and by N-terminal sequencing. Based on automated gas-phase sequencing of the intact and CNBr-cleaved peptide and on carboxypeptidase ...

  18. Methods Development for the Isolation and Culture of Primary Corneal Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    a cell population particularly suitable for low serum propagation, provided that appropriate growth factors are available. A low serum medium...of MGK. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cornea, chemical warfare agent, corneal endothelial cell, endothelium, growth , isolation, mouse, rabbit, porcine, in...with corneal SM exposure.2 A primary requirement in achieving this goal is to develop methods that enable the isolation of a pure CEC population and

  19. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  20. Intracoronary infusion of Wharton’ jelly derived mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of chronic ischemia cardiomyopathy in porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-kun ZHANG

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the safety and efficacy of transplantation of allogeneic Wharton' jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs in a porcine model of chronic ischemia cardiomyopathy. Methods Cardiomyopathy models (CIMP were reproduced in 25 minipigs out of 29 by left anterior descending coronary artery balloon occlusion, and the 4 remains served as sham group. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF was detected by echocardiography, and the value ≤45% was defined as successful modeling. Of that 25 minipigs, 5 died, 3 failed of modeling and 17 remains were successfully modelled. The dose safety experiment of WJMSCs transplantation was firstly performed in 3 successful models and 3 failed models. Three doses were teste d in turn at 6×106, 1×107 and 2×107 with 1 successful and 1 failed model for each dose, and TIMI 3 was considered safety dosage. The remainder 14 CIMP models were randomly assigned to transplantation group and control group (7 each, and given 2×107 WJMSCs intracoronary infusion or equal amounts of normal saline respectively. Echocardiography, histopathology and immunofluorescence tests were performed 8 weeks after WJMSCs transplantation. Results LVEF increased by 11.6% (P<0.01 and the left ventricular end systolic volume decreased by 4.1ml (P<0.05 in CIMP models 8 weeks after WJMSCs transplantation, while in control group the ventricular function further deteriorated (LVEF decreased from 42.8% to 35.9%, P<0.01 and the left ventricular further expanded [left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV increased from 42.8±1.2ml to 46.7±1.3ml (P<0.05]. Histopathological assessment showed that the ventricular wall in the infarction area was significantly thickening and the vascular density in the border zone was obviously increased in transplantation group. Immunofluorescence test revealed that the injected Myc-WJMSCs survived in the immunocompetent host heart, and colocalized with cardiac troponin T, α-actin and

  1. Expression of early transcription factors Oct-4, Sox-2 and Nanog by porcine umbilical cord (PUC matrix cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schultz Bruce

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three transcription factors that are expressed at high levels in embryonic stem cells (ESCs are Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox-2. These transcription factors regulate the expression of other genes during development and are found at high levels in the pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass. The downregulation of these three transcription factors correlates with the loss of pluripotency and self-renewal, and the beginning of subsequent differentiation steps. The roles of Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox-2 have not been fully elucidated. They are important in embryonic development and maintenance of pluripotency in ESCs. We studied the expression of these transcription factors in porcine umbilical cord (PUC matrix cells. Methods Cells were isolated from Wharton's jelly of porcine umbilical cords (PUC and histochemically assayed for the presence of alkaline phosphatase and the presence of Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox-2 mRNA and protein. PCR amplicons were sequenced and compared with known sequences. The synthesis of Oct-4 and Nanog protein was analyzed using immunocytochemistry. FACS analysis was utilized to evaluate Hoechst 33342 dye-stained cells. Results PUC isolates were maintained in culture and formed colonies that express alkaline phosphatase. FACS analysis revealed a side population of Hoechst dye-excluding cells, the Hoechst exclusion was verapamil sensitive. Quantitative and non-quantitative RT-PCR reactions revealed expression of Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox-2 in day 15 embryonic discs, PUC cell isolates and porcine fibroblasts. Immunocytochemical analysis detected Nanog immunoreactivity in PUC cell nuclei, and faint labeling in fibroblasts. Oct-4 immunoreactivity was detected in the nuclei of some PUC cells, but not in fibroblasts. Conclusion Cells isolated from PUC express three transcription factors found in pluripotent stem cell markers both at the mRNA and protein level. The presence of these transcription factors, along with the other

  2. Adenosine concentration in the porcine coronary artery wall and A2A receptor involvement in hypoxia-induced vasodilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frøbert, Ole; Haink, Gesine; Simonsen, Ulf; Gravholt, Claus H; Levin, Max; Deussen, Andreas

    2006-01-15

    We tested whether hypoxia-induced coronary artery dilatation could be mediated by an increase in adenosine concentration within the coronary artery wall or by an increase in adenosine sensitivity. Porcine left anterior descendent coronary arteries, precontracted with prostaglandin F(2alpha) (10(-5) M), were mounted in a pressure myograph and microdialysis catheters were inserted into the tunica media. Dialysate adenosine concentrations were analysed by HPLC. Glucose, lactate and pyruvate were measured by an automated spectrophotometric kinetic enzymatic analyser. The exchange fraction of [(14)C]adenosine over the microdialysis membrane increased from 0.32 +/- 0.02 to 0.46 +/- 0.02 (n = 4, P lactate/pyruvate ratio was significantly increased in hypoxic arteries but did not correlate with adenosine concentration. We conclude that hypoxia-induced coronary artery dilatation is not mediated by increased adenosine produced within the artery wall but might be facilitated by increased adenosine sensitivity at the A(2A) receptor level.

  3. Sunlight-induced inactivation of human Wa and porcine OSU rotaviruses in the presence of exogenous photosensitizers

    KAUST Repository

    Romero-Maraccini, Ofelia C.

    2013-10-01

    Human rotavirus Wa and porcine rotavirus OSU solutions were irradiated with simulated solar UV and visible light in the presence of different photosensitizers dissolved in buffered solutions. For human rotavirus, the exogenous effects were greater than the endogenous effects under irradiation with full spectrum and UVA and visible light at 25 C. For porcine rotavirus, the exogenous effects with UVA and visible light irradiation were only observed at high temperatures, >40 C. The results from dark experiments conducted at different temperatures suggest that porcine rotavirus has higher thermostability than human rotavirus. Concentrations of 3′-MAP excited triplet states of 1.8 fM and above resulted in significant human rotavirus inactivation. The measured excited triplet state concentrations of ≤0.45 fM produced by UVA and visible light irradiation of natural dissolved organic matter solutions were likely not directly responsible for rotavirus inactivation. Instead, the linear correlation for human rotavirus inactivation rate constant (kobs) with the phenol degradation rate constant (kexp) found in both 1 mM NaHCO3 and 1 mM phosphate-buffered solutions suggested that OH radical was a major reactive species for the exogenous inactivation of rotaviruses. Linear correlations between rotavirus kobs and specific UV254 nm absorbance of two river-dissolved organic matter and two effluent organic matter isolates indicated that organic matter aromaticity may help predict formation of radicals responsible for rotavirus inactivation. The results from this study also suggested that the differences in rotavirus strains should be considered when predicting solar inactivation of rotavirus in sunlit surface waters. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  4. Epithelialization and stromalization of porcine follicular granulosa cells during real-time proliferation - a primary cell culture approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesiółka, S; Bryja, A; Budna, J; Kranc, W; Chachuła, A; Bukowska, D; Piotrowska, H; Porowski, L; Antosik, P; Bruska, M; Brüssow, K P; Nowicki, M; Zabel, M; Kempisty, B

    2016-01-01

    The process of oocyte growth and development takes place during long stages of folliculogenesis and oogenesis. This is accompanied by biochemical and morphological changes, occurring from the preantral to antral stages during ovarian follicle differentiation. It is well known that the process of follicle growth is associated with morphological modifications of theca (TCs) and granulosa cells (GCs). However, the relationship between proliferation and/or differentiation of porcine GCs during long-term in vitro culture requires further investigation. Moreover, the expression of cytokeratins and vimentin in porcine GCs, in relation to real-time cell proliferation, has yet to be explored. Utilizing confocal microscopy, we analyzed cytokeratin 18 (CK18), cytokeratin 8 + 18 + 19 (panCK), and vimentin (Vim) expression, as well as their protein distribution, within GCs isolated from slaughtered ovarian follicles. The cells were cultured for 168 h with protein expression and cell proliferation index analyzed at 24-h intervals. We found the highest expression of CK18, panCK, and Vim occurred at 120 h of in vitro culture (IVC) as compared with other experimental time intervals. All of the investigated proteins displayed cytoplasmic distribution. Analysis of real-time cell proliferation revealed an increased cell index after the first 24 h of IVC. Additionally, during each period between 24-168 h of IVC, a significant difference in the proliferation profile, expressed as the cell index, was also observed. We concluded that higher expression of vimentin at 120 h of in vitro proliferation might explain the culmination of the stromalization process associated with growth and domination of stromal cells in GC culture. Cytokeratin expression within GC cytoplasm confirms the presence of epithelial cells as well as epithelial-related GC development during IVC. Moreover, expression of both cytokeratins and vimentin during short-term culture suggests that the process of GC proliferation

  5. Pig Pancreas Anatomy: Implications for Pancreas Procurement, Preservation, and Islet Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Joana; Scott, William E; Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2009-01-01

    Background Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. The limited human islet supply from cadavers and poor islet yield and quality remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Use of porcine islets holds great promise for large-scale application of islet transplantation. Consistent isolation of porcine islets is dependent on advances in pancreas procurement and preservation, and islet isolation requiring detailed knowledge of the porcine pancreatic anatomy. The primary aim of this study was to describe the vascular and ductal anatomy of the porcine pancreas in order to guide and improve organ preservation and enzyme perfusion. Methods Pancreata were removed by en bloc viscerectomy from 65 female Landrace pigs. Results 15% of organs exhibited inconsistent vascular branching from the celiac trunk. All organs had uniform patterns of branching at the superior mesenteric artery. The superior and inferior mesenteric veins (IMV) merged to become the portal vein in all but one case in which the IMV drained into the splenic vein. 97% of pancreata had three lobes: duodenal (DL), connecting (CL), and splenic (SL); 39% demonstrated ductal communication between the CL and the other two lobes; 50% had ductal communication only between the CL and DL; and 11% presented other types of ductal delineation. Conclusions Accounting for the variations in vascular and ductal anatomy, as detailed in this study, will facilitate development of protocols for preservation, optimal enzyme administration, and pancreas distention and digestion, and ultimately lead to substantial improvements in isolation outcomes. PMID:19077881

  6. Biocide Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus CC398 and CC30 Isolates from Pigs and Identification of the Biocide Resistance Genes, qacG and qacC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seier-Petersen, Maria Amalie; Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Ingmer, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), in particular clonal complex (CC) 398, is increasingly found in livestock. Recently, MRSA CC30 was identified in Danish pigs. We determined the susceptibility of porcine S. aureus isolates of CC398 and CC30 to disinfectants used in pig......)-encoding virulence factors were investigated. Methods: Susceptibilities to biocides and antimicrobial agents of 79 porcine S. aureus isolates were determined by the microdilution method. Isolates comprised 21 methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 40 MRSA isolates belonging to CC398 and 13 MSSA and 5 MRSA...... isolates belonging to CC30. The presence of quaternary ammonium compound (QAC) resistance efflux pumps was analyzed using an ethidium bromide accumulation assay. The presence of qac resistance genes in active efflux pump positive isolates was determined by whole-genome sequencing data. All isolates were...

  7. Pathotyping and antibiotic resistance of porcine enterovirulent Escherichia coli strains from Switzerland (2014-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P; Gobeli, S; Perreten, V

    2017-07-01

    A total of 131 porcine E. coli were isolated in 2014 and 2015 from the gut of 115 pigs raised in Switzerland and suffering from diarrhea. The isolates were tested for antibiotic resistance, serotypes, virulence factors and genetic diversity. Serotypes were assigned by agglutination tests and virulence genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiotic resistance profile was determined by the measurement of the MIC of 14 antibiotics and by the detection of the corresponding genes using microarray and PCR approaches. Genetic diversity was determined by repetitive palindromic PCR (rep- PCR) revealing a heterogenous population. Half of the E. coli isolates possessing virulence factors could not be assigned to any of the 19 serotypes tested, but contained toxins and adhesins similarly to the sero-typable E. coli isolates. The most prevalent E. coli serotypes found were K88ac (18%), O139:K82 (6%), O141:K85ac (5%), O108:K`V189` (5%), O119:K`V113` (3%) and O157:K`V17` (2%). The combination of toxins EAST-1, STb and LT-I and adhesin F4 characterizing ETEC was the most frequent. The shigatoxin Stx2e (STEC) and intimin Eae (EPEC) were also detected, but less frequently. Seventy percent of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 29% were resistant to more than 3 antibiotics. Isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline (50%) associated to resistance genes tet(A), tet(B) and tet(C), sulfamethoxazole (49%) [sul1, sul2 and sul3], trimethoprim (34%) [dfr], nalidixic acid (29%), ampicillin (26%) [blaTEM-1], gentamicin (17%) [aac(3) -IIc, aac(3) -IVa and aac(3) -VIa], chloramphenicol (17%) [catAI and catAIII], and ciprofloxacin (8%) [mutations in GyrA (S83L) and ParC (S80I)]. All isolates were susceptible to 3rd generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, colistin and tigecycline. Pathogenic E. coli isolates from pigs in Switzerland could frequently not be assigned to a known serotype even if they contained diarrhea-causing virulence factors. They

  8. Discovery of a novel Parvovirinae virus, porcine parvovirus 7, by metagenomic sequencing of porcine rectal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinski, Rachel M; Mitra, Namita; Hause, Ben M

    2016-08-01

    Parvoviruses are a diverse group of viruses containing some of the smallest known species that are capable of infecting a wide range of animals. Metagenomic sequencing of pooled rectal swabs from adult pigs identified a 4103-bp contig consisting of two major open reading frames encoding proteins of 672 and 469 amino acids (aa) in length. BLASTP analysis of the 672-aa protein found 42.4 % identity to fruit bat (Eidolon helvum) parvovirus 2 (EhPV2) and 37.9 % to turkey parvovirus (TuPV) TP1-2012/HUN NS1 proteins. The 469-aa protein had no significant similarity to known proteins. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses suggest that PPV7, EhPV2, and TuPV represent a novel genus in the family Parvoviridae. Quantitative PCR screening of 182 porcine diagnostic samples found a total of 16 positives (8.6 %). Together, these data suggest that PPV7 is a highly divergent novel parvovirus prevalent within the US swine.

  9. Isolated Cardiac Hydatid Cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakil, U.; Rehman, A. U.; Shahid, R.

    2015-01-01

    Hydatid cyst disease is common in our part of the world. Cardiac hydatid cyst is its rare manifestation. We report this case of 48-year male having isolated cardiac hydatid cyst, incidentally found on computed tomography. This patient presented in medical OPD of Combined Military Hospital, Lahore with one month history of mild retrosternal discomfort. His general physical and systemic examinations as well as ECG were unremarkable. Chest X-ray showed an enlarged cardiac shadow with mildly irregular left heart border. Contrast enhanced CT scan of the chest showed a large well defined multiloculated non-enhancing cystic lesion with multiple daughter cysts involving wall of left ventricle and overlying pericardium. Serology for echinococcus confirmed the diagnosis of hydatid cyst. Patient was offered the surgical treatment but he opted for medical treatment only. Albendezol was prescribed. His follow-up echocardiography after one month showed no significant decrease in size of the cyst. (author)

  10. Continuous Quadrupole Magnetic Separation of Islets during Digestion Improves Purified Porcine Islet Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Bradley P; Kumar Sajja, Venkata Sunil; Suszynski, Thomas M; Rizzari, Michael D; Scott Iii, William E; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Mueller, Kate R; Hanley, Thomas R; Kennedy, David J; Todd, Paul W; Balamurugan, Appakalai N; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2016-01-01

    Islet transplantation (ITx) is an emerging and promising therapy for patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. The islet isolation and purification processes require exposure to extended cold ischemia, warm-enzymatic digestion, mechanical agitation, and use of damaging chemicals for density gradient separation (DG), all of which reduce viable islet yield. In this paper, we describe initial proof-of-concept studies exploring quadrupole magnetic separation (QMS) of islets as an alternative to DG to reduce exposure to these harsh conditions. Three porcine pancreata were split into two parts, the splenic lobe (SPL) and the combined connecting/duodenal lobes (CDL), for paired digestions and purifications. Islets in the SPL were preferentially labeled using magnetic microparticles (MMPs) that lodge within the islet microvasculature when infused into the pancreas and were continuously separated from the exocrine tissue by QMS during the collection phase of the digestion process. Unlabeled islets from the CDL were purified by conventional DG. Islets purified by QMS exhibited significantly improved viability (measured by oxygen consumption rate per DNA, p < 0.03) and better morphology relative to control islets. Islet purification by QMS can reduce the detrimental effects of prolonged exposure to toxic enzymes and density gradient solutions and substantially improve islet viability after isolation.

  11. Continuous Quadrupole Magnetic Separation of Islets during Digestion Improves Purified Porcine Islet Viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley P. Weegman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Islet transplantation (ITx is an emerging and promising therapy for patients with uncontrolled type 1 diabetes. The islet isolation and purification processes require exposure to extended cold ischemia, warm-enzymatic digestion, mechanical agitation, and use of damaging chemicals for density gradient separation (DG, all of which reduce viable islet yield. In this paper, we describe initial proof-of-concept studies exploring quadrupole magnetic separation (QMS of islets as an alternative to DG to reduce exposure to these harsh conditions. Three porcine pancreata were split into two parts, the splenic lobe (SPL and the combined connecting/duodenal lobes (CDL, for paired digestions and purifications. Islets in the SPL were preferentially labeled using magnetic microparticles (MMPs that lodge within the islet microvasculature when infused into the pancreas and were continuously separated from the exocrine tissue by QMS during the collection phase of the digestion process. Unlabeled islets from the CDL were purified by conventional DG. Islets purified by QMS exhibited significantly improved viability (measured by oxygen consumption rate per DNA, p<0.03 and better morphology relative to control islets. Islet purification by QMS can reduce the detrimental effects of prolonged exposure to toxic enzymes and density gradient solutions and substantially improve islet viability after isolation.

  12. Testing Danegaptide Effects on Kidney Function after Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in a New Porcine Two Week Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Amdisen

    Full Text Available Ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R-I is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI and is associated with increased mortality. Danegaptide is a selective modifier of the gap junction protein connexion 43. It has cytoprotective as well as anti-arrhythmic properties and has been shown to reduce the size of myocardial infarct in pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the ischemia-protective effect of Danegaptide in a porcine renal I/R-I model with two weeks follow up.Unilateral renal I/R-I was induced in pigs by clamping the left renal artery over a two hour period. The model allowed examination of renal blood flow by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and the measurement of single kidney GFR two weeks after injury. Eleven animals were randomized to Danegaptide-infusion while nine animals received placebo. Kidney histology and urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL excretion were included as markers of AKI.Unilateral kidney I/R-I resulted in an immediate ~50% GFR reduction, associated with a four-fold increase in urinary NGAL-excretion. Fourteen days after I/R-I, the total GFR was ~75% of baseline with a significantly lower GFR in the injured left kidney compared to the right kidney. No differences in GFR were observed between the treated and non-treated animals immediately after I/R-I or at Day 14. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the urinary excretion of NGAL, renal blood flow or other markers of renal function.As expected this porcine renal I/R-I model was associated with reduced GFR two weeks after injury. Danegaptide did not improve renal function after I/R-I.

  13. The majority of atypical cpb2 genes in Clostridium perfringens isolates of different domestic animal origin are expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircanski, Jasmina; Parreira, Valeria R; Whiteside, Samantha; Pei, Yanlong; Prescott, John F

    2012-10-12

    This study examined the prevalence and expression of the "consensus" and the "atypical"cpb2 genes in Clostridium perfringens isolates from cattle, chickens, dogs, goats, horses, pigs and sheep using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Western blotting. Almost all porcine isolates (12/14) carried and expressed the consensus form of cpb2 but, when present in 108 non-porcine isolates, the gene was usually the atypical form (40 atypical versus 9 consensus). Western blotting showed expression in 30 of 40 (75%) atypical cpb2-positive isolates, considerably more frequently than reported previously. CPB2 was expressed by almost all (20/21) the consensus cpb2-positive isolates, regardless of source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. An Investigation of the Pathology and Pathogens Associated with Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Sif; Pors, S. E.; Jensen, H. E.

    2010-01-01

    ), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (both European and US type), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine respiratory coronavirus, porcine cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and Mycoplasma hyorhinis. All cases had cranioventral lobular bronchopneumonia consistent with PRDC....... There was a broad range of microscopical lesions and the cases were characterized as acute (n=10), subacute (n=24) or chronic (n=114) bronchopneumonia. Five bacterial species, five viruses and two Mycoplasma spp. were detected in different combinations. PCV2, M. hyopneumoniae, M. hyorhinis and Pasteurella multocida...

  15. Left hand polydactyly: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumoli, Nicola; Gandini, Daniele; Wamala, Edris Kalanzi; Cei, Marco

    2008-11-24

    Polydactyly is a congenital anomaly with a wide range of manifestations that occurs in many forms, ranging from varying degrees of mere splitting to completely duplicated thumb. When duplication occurs alone, it is usually unilateral and sporadic. In this case report we describe an otherwise healthy 19-year-old woman of Tibetan heritage with isolated left hand preaxial polydactyly. She experienced working related difficulties in her daily yak's milking. She subsequently underwent surgical correction, and the over number thumb was removed with associated meticulous skeletal and soft tissue reconstruction. Polydactyly is the most common congenital digital anomaly of the hand and foot. It can occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome. Surgery is necessary to create a single, functioning thumb and is indicated to improve cosmesis. Skin, nail, bone, ligament, and musculoskeletal elements must be combined to reconstruct an optimal digit. In this case (Tibetan society is almost exclusively a sheep-breeding one) surgery was necessary to leave a single, functioning thumb for her work as yak milkmaid.

  16. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Honggang; Larsen, Martin Røssel; Palmisano, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    in meat quality development, a quantitative mass spectrometry-based phosphoproteomic study was performed to analyze the porcine muscle within 24h PM using dimethyl labeling combined with the TiSH phosphopeptide enrichment strategy. In total 305 unique proteins were identified, including 160...... phosphorylation levels in muscle within 24 h PM. The high phosphorylation level of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in early PM may be an adaptive response to slaughter stress and protect muscle cell from apoptosis, as observed in the serine 84 of HSP27. This work indicated that PM muscle proteins underwent significant...... and rigor mortis development in PM muscle. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The manuscript describes the characterization of postmortem (PM) porcine muscle within 24 h postmortem from the perspective of protein phosphorylation using advanced phosphoproteomic techniques. In the study, the authors employed...

  17. Cloning and prokaryotic expression of the porcine lipasin gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M M; Geng, J; Guo, Y J; Jiao, X Q; Lu, W F; Zhu, H S; Wang, Y Y; Yang, G Y

    2015-11-23

    Lipasin has recently been demonstrated to be involved in lipid metabolism. In this study, two specific primers were used to amplify the lipasin open reading frame from porcine liver tissue. The polymerase chain reaction product was cloned to a pGEM®-T Easy Vector, digested by SalI and NotI, and sequenced. The lipasin fragment was then cloned to a pET21(b) vector and digested by the same restriction enzyme. The recombinant plasmid was transferred to Escherichia coli (BL21), and the lipasin protein was induced with isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside. The protein obtained was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and western blotting. A pET-lipasin prokaryotic recombinant expression vector was successfully constructed, and a 25.2-kDa protein was obtained. This study provides a basis for further research on the biological function of porcine lipasin.

  18. Cardiac Dysfunction in a Porcine Model of Pediatric Malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabiansen, Christian; Lykke, Mikkel; Hother, Anne-Louise

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half a million children die annually of severe acute malnutrition and cardiac dysfunction may contribute to the mortality. However, cardiac function remains poorly examined in cases of severe acute malnutrition. OBJECTIVE: To determine malnutrition-induced echocardiographic disturbances...... and longitudinal changes in plasma pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and cardiac troponin-T in a pediatric porcine model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Five-week old piglets (Duroc-x-Danish Landrace-x-Yorkshire) were fed a nutritionally inadequate maize-flour diet to induce malnutrition (MAIZE, n = 12) or a reference diet...... groups. The myocardial performance index was 86% higher in MAIZE vs AGE-REF (pMalnutrition associates with cardiac dysfunction in a pediatric porcine model by increased myocardial performance index and pro-atrial natriuretic peptide...

  19. Investigation of SNPs in the porcine desmoglein 1 gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, L.; Andresen, Lars Ole; Fredholm, M.

    2007-01-01

    epidermitis were diagnosed clinically as affected or unaffected. Two regions of the desmoglein I gene were sequenced and genotypes of the SNPs were established. Seven SNPs (823T>C, 828A>G, 829A>G, 830A>T, 831A>T, 838A>C and 1139C>T) were found in the analysed sequences and the allele frequencies were...... the location of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the porcine desmoglein I gene (PIG)DSGI in correlation to the cleavage site as well as if the genotype of the SNPs is correlated to susceptibility or resistance to the disease. Results: DNA from 32 affected and 32 unaffected piglets with exudative...... the genotypes of two out of seven SNPs found in the porcine desmoglein I gene and the susceptibility to exudative epidermitis....

  20. [TSA improve transgenic porcine cloned embryo development and transgene expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing-Ran; Zhu, Jiang; Huang, Bo; Huan, Yan-Jun; Wang, Feng; Shi, Yong-Qian; Liu, Zhong-Feng; Wu, Mei-Ling; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2011-07-01

    Uncompleted epigenetic reprogramming is attributed to the low efficiency of producing transgenic cloned animals. Histone modification associated with epigenetics can directly influence the embryo development and transgene expression. Trichostatin A (TSA), as an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can change the status of histone acetylation, improve somatic cell reprogramming, and enhance cloning efficiency. TSA prevents the chromatin structure from being condensed, so that transcription factor could binds to DNA sequence easily and enhance transgene expression. Our study established the optimal TSA treatment on porcine donor cells and cloned embryos, 250 nmol/L, 24 h and 40 nmol/L, 24 h, respectively. Furthermore, we found that both the cloned embryo and the donor cell treated by TSA resulted in the highest development efficiency. Meanwhile, TSA can improve transgene expression in donor cell and cloned embryo. In summary, TSA can significantly improve porcine reconstructed embryo development and transgene expression.

  1. Porcine platelet lysate as a supplement for animal cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldén, Anna; Gonzalez, Lorena; Persson, Anna; Christensson, Kerstin; Holmqvist, Olov

    2007-01-01

    A novel supplementation of cell growth media based on a porcine platelet lysate was developed for culture of animal-derived cells. The platelet lysate was produced from porcine blood and contained lysate of platelets and plasma components. It showed satisfactory microbiological integrity and it carried only low amount of endotoxins (platelet lysate supported well proliferation of Vero (African green monkey transformed kidney epithelial cells), Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and hybridoma cells comparable to fetal bovine serum (FBS). Platelet lysate shows promise as a viable choice over FBS as it can be produced in large quantities, high lot-to-lot consistency and with an attractive price structure. Furthermore it is a strong alternative to FBS for ethical reasons. It is expected that it can be used as a general supplementation for most animal cells for research studies on the proliferation of cells and their expression of products. PMID:19002989

  2. Systolic left ventricular function according to left ventricular concentricity and dilatation in hypertensive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Casper; Gerdts, Eva; Aurigemma, Gerard P

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy [LVH, high left ventricular mass (LVM)] is traditionally classified as concentric or eccentric based on left ventricular relative wall thickness. We evaluated left ventricular systolic function in a new four-group LVH classification based on left ventricular dilatation...... [high left ventricular end-diastolic volume (EDV) index and concentricity (LVM/EDV)] in hypertensive patients....

  3. Chimeric infectious DNA clones, chimeric porcine circoviruses and uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to infectious DNA clones, infectious chimeric DNA clones of porcine circovirus (PCV), vaccines and means of protecting pigs against viral infection or postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) caused by PCV2. The new chimeric infectious DNA clone and its derived, avirulent chimeric virus are constructed from the nonpathogenic PCV1 in which the immunogenic ORF gene of the pathogenic PCV2 replaces a gene of the nonpathogenic PCV1, preferably in the same pos...

  4. Patologie da Porcine Circovirus tipo 2 (PCV2) nel suino

    OpenAIRE

    Fusaro, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The main work involved the PMWS (Post-weaning multisystemic Wasting Syndrome), caused by PCV-2 (Porcine Circovirus type 2) that involved post-weaned pigs. Merial Italy has funded a study activity in which groups of 3-5 animals were sampled for lungs, tracheo-bronchial and superficial inguinal lymph nodes, ileum and tonsils. The protocol applied can be identified as a more diagnostic potential on the individual than on the group. PNP. Another investigation has been conducted to study prolif...

  5. Frequency of aneuploidy related to age in porcine oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horňák, M.; Jeseta, M.; Musilová, P.; Pavlok, Antonín; Kubelka, Michal; Motlík, Jan; Rubeš, J.; Anger, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 4 (2011), s. 1-5 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/0743; GA AV ČR IAA501620801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : porcine * oocytes * aneuploidy Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011 http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0018892

  6. Porcine cluster of differentiation (CD) markers 2018 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Harry D; Lunney, Joan K

    2018-06-01

    Pigs are a major source of food worldwide; preventing and treating their infectious diseases is essential, requiring a thorough understanding of porcine immunity. The use of pigs as models for human physiology is a growing area; progress in this area has been limited because the immune toolkit is not robust. The international community has established cluster of differentiation (CD) markers for assessing cells involved in immunity as well as characterizing numerous other cells like stem cells. Overall, for humans 419 proteins have been designated as CD markers, each reacting with a defined set of antibodies (Abs). This paper summarizes current knowledge of swine CD markers and identifies 359 corresponding CD proteins in pigs. A broad-based literature and vendor search was conducted to identify defined sets of monoclonal (mAbs) and polyclonal Abs (pAbs) reacting with porcine CD markers along with other reagents (fusion proteins, ELISAs, PCR assays, and gene edited cell and pig models). This process identified over 800 reagents that are reportedly reactive with 266 pig CD markers. Despite this number, there is a great need to develop and characterize additional CD marker reagents, particularly mAbs, for pig research. There are numerous high priority targets: reagents for the characterization of porcine innate lymphoid cells, polarized macrophages and T regulatory cells and for the detection of porcine CD45 isoforms. Overall, improved technologies and genomics have contributed to dramatic increases in our knowledge of the pig, its immune system, disease and vaccine responses, and utility as a biomedical model. The development of more CD reagents will clearly advance these initiatives. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A Bacterial Glycoengineered Antigen for Improved Serodiagnosis of Porcine Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, María E; Balzano, Rodrigo E; Rey Serantes, Diego A; Caillava, Ana J; Elena, Sebastián; Ferreira, A C; Nicola, Ana M; Ugalde, Juan E; Comerci, Diego J; Ciocchini, Andrés E

    2016-06-01

    Brucellosis is a highly zoonotic disease that affects animals and human beings. Brucella suis is the etiological agent of porcine brucellosis and one of the major human brucellosis pathogens. Laboratory diagnosis of porcine brucellosis mainly relies on serological tests, and it has been widely demonstrated that serological assays based on the detection of anti O-polysaccharide antibodies are the most sensitive tests. Here, we validate a recombinant glycoprotein antigen, an N-formylperosamine O-polysaccharide-protein conjugate (OAg-AcrA), for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis. An indirect immunoassay based on the detection of anti-O-polysaccharide IgG antibodies was developed coupling OAg-AcrA to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay plates (glyco-iELISA). To validate the assay, 563 serum samples obtained from experimentally infected and immunized pigs, as well as animals naturally infected with B. suis biovar 1 or 2, were tested. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed, and based on this analysis, the optimum cutoff value was 0.56 (relative reactivity), which resulted in a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 99.7%, respectively. A cutoff value of 0.78 resulted in a test sensitivity of 98.4% and a test specificity of 100%. Overall, our results demonstrate that the glyco-iELISA is highly accurate for diagnosis of porcine brucellosis, improving the diagnostic performance of current serological tests. The recombinant glycoprotein OAg-AcrA can be produced in large homogeneous batches in a standardized way, making it an ideal candidate for further validation as a universal antigen for diagnosis of "smooth" brucellosis in animals and humans. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. ''Natural'' left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Pati, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    It is remarked that left-right symmetry of the starting gauge interactions is retained as a ''natural'' symmetry if it is broken in no way except possibly by mass terms in the Lagrangian. The implications of this result for the unification of coupling constants and for parity nonconservation at low and high energies are stressed

  9. Experimental porcine cysticercosis using infected beetles with Taenia solium eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Garcia, Hector H; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2018-07-01

    Beetles are intermediate hosts for human and animal parasites, and several beetle species have been shown to carry Taenia eggs. An experimental porcine cysticercosis infection model was developed using beetles (Ammophorus rubripes) infected with Taenia solium eggs and then using these beetles for oral pig challenge. A total of 18 three months-old Landrace pigs were divided in four groups. Pigs from groups 1, 2, and 3 (n = 6 pigs per group) were challenged with one, three, and six beetles infected with T. solium eggs, containing approximately 52, 156 or 312 eggs respectively. Pigs were necropsied 12 weeks after infection to assess the presence of T. solium metacestode. Porcine cysticercosis by T. solium was produced in 17 out of 18 pigs (94.4%) challenged with infected beetles, all infected pigs had viable cysts. Only one pig from group 1 was negative to the presence of cysts. The median number of metacestodes per pig in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 2 (range 0-71), 26 (range 5-33) and 40 cysts (range 4-111), respectively. Experimental porcine cysticercosis infection is consistently obtained using beetles as mechanical vectors for T. solium eggs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enteric porcine viruses in farmed shellfish in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krog, J S; Larsen, L E; Schultz, A C

    2014-09-01

    Bivalve shellfish are at constant risk of being exposed to pathogens as a consequence of contamination of the shellfish beds with human or animal waste originating from sewage treatment plants or slurry fertilized fields. Consumption of contaminated oysters and mussels are frequently reported as causes of disease outbreaks caused by norovirus or hepatitis A virus. Other zoonotic pathogens such as hepatitis E virus (HEV), rotavirus (RV) and Salmonella from livestock may also be transmitted to shellfish via this route. In this study, 29 pooled samples from commercial Danish blue mussels were tested for porcine pathogens and indicator bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). All samples tested negative for HEV, RV and Salmonella, whereas E. coli and the highly stable porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) were detected in eight and 12 samples, respectively. This is the first study to report the detection of PCV2 in commercial mussels. Based on the detection of PCV2 in clean areas with low prevalence of the normally applied fecal indicator E. coli, testing for PCV2 may be a more sensitive and robust specific porcine waste indicator in shellfish harvesting areas. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. First identification of porcine parvovirus 7 in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiulin; Zhou, Han; Tong, Ling; Chen, Yao; Sun, Yankuo; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Guihong

    2018-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) are small, non-enveloped and single-stranded DNA viruses, taxonomically classifiable within the family Parvoviridae. Seven PPV genotypes (PPV1 to PPV7) have been identified to date. PPV7, the most recently discovered PPV genotype, was first reported in US pigs in 2016. To explore PPV7 status in Chinese pig populations a total of 64 serum samples collected from two commercial farms in Guangdong province in 2014 were analyzed. PPV7 DNA was detected in 32.8% (21/64) of tested samples. On the porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) positive farm, the prevalence rate of PPV7 was 65.5% (19/29) which was significantly higher than that on the PCV2 negative farm (2/35, 5.7%), indicating a possible association between PCV2 and PPV7 infections. The sequences of three PPV7 strains were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the identified PPV7 strains circulating in China shared 98.7%-99.7% nucleotide homology with the US strain. Further sequence comparison analysis indicated that GD-2014-2 and GD-2014-3 possess a consecutive 9-nt deletion in the VP gene. This is the first report of the existence of PPV7 in China and this finding will strengthen understanding of the epidemiology of porcine parvovirus in Chinese pigs.

  12. Characterization of porcine eyes based on autofluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ana; Breunig, Hans Georg; Uchugonova, Aisada; Morgado, António Miguel; König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    Multiphoton microscopy is a non-invasive imaging technique with ideal characteristics for biological applications. In this study, we propose to characterize three major structures of the porcine eye, the cornea, crystalline lens, and retina using two-photon excitation fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2PE-FLIM). Samples were imaged using a laser-scanning microscope, consisting of a broadband sub-15 femtosecond (fs) near-infrared laser. Signal detection was performed using a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) detector (PML-16PMT). Therefore, spectral analysis of the fluorescence lifetime data was possible. To ensure a correct spectral analysis of the autofluorescence lifetime data, the spectra of the individual endogenous fluorophores were acquired with the 16-channel PMT and with a spectrometer. All experiments were performed within 12h of the porcine eye enucleation. We were able to image the cornea, crystalline lens, and retina at multiple depths. Discrimination of each structure based on their autofluorescence intensity and lifetimes was possible. Furthermore, discrimination between different layers of the same structure was also possible. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that 2PE-FLIM was used for porcine lens imaging and layer discrimination. With this study we further demonstrated the feasibility of 2PE-FLIM to image and differentiate three of the main components of the eye and its potential as an ophthalmologic technique.

  13. Purification, characterization and immunolocalization of porcine surfactant protein D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, C.M.; Nielsen, Ove Lilholm; Willis, A.

    2005-01-01

    in a dose and Ca2+-dependent manner with a saccharide specificity similar to rat and human SP-D. The purified protein was used for the production of a monoclonal anti-pSP-D antibody. The antibody reacted specifically with pSP-D in the reduced and unreduced state when analysed by Western blotting......Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collectin believed to play an important role in innate immunity. SP-D is characterized by having a collagen-like domain and a carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD), which has a specific Ca2+-dependent specificity for saccharides and thus the ability to bind complex...... glycoconjugates on micro-organisms. This paper describes the tissue immunolocalization of porcine SP-D (pSP-D) in normal slaughter pigs using a monoclonal antibody raised against purified pSP-D. Porcine SP-D was purified from porcine bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) by maltose-agarose and immunoglobulin M affinity...

  14. EFFECT OF NATURAL PLANT EXTRACTS ON PORCINE OVARIAN FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Kádasi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This report provides information about the impact of chosen natural plant extracts on basic ovarian functions. This article summarizes our results concerning the effect of selected plant extracts on proliferation, apoptosis and hormone secretion – release of progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and leptin (L on porcine granulosa cells (GC, We analyzed effects of ginkgo (GB, rooibos (RB, flaxseed (FL, green tea polyphenols (GTPP, green tea - epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, resveratrol (RSV and curcumin (CURC (0; 1; 10 and 100 μg.ml-1 on markers of proliferation, apoptosis and secretory activity of porcine ovarian granulosa cells by using immunocytochemistry and EIA. It was demonstrated, that all these natural plants and plant molecules inhibited the accumulation of proliferation-related peptide (PCNA and apoptosis-associated peptide (Bax in cultured. Furthermore, it was observed that natural plant extracts altered progesterone, testosterone and leptin release in porcine ovarian cells. It is concluded, that GB, RB, FL, RSV, CURC, GTPP and EGCG can directly affect ovarian cells and therefore they could potentially influence ovarian functions.

  15. Dioxin exposure and porcine reproductive hormonal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregoraszczuk Ewa L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD during both the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, the direct effect of TCDD was investigated in vitro using a system of primary monolayer cell culture. Granulosa and theca cells were collected from the preovulatory follicles and cultured as a co-culture, thus resembling follicles in vivo. Luteal cells were isolated from the corpora lutea collected during the midluteal phase. In both cases cells were isolated from the ovaries of animals exhibiting natural estrus cycle. Results of these experiments suggest that TCDD decreases estradiol secretion by follicular cells and progesterone secretion by luteal cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was also shown that TCDD disrupts steroidogenesis through its influence on the activity of enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis cascade. In luteal cells, its action is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR and is probably independent of estrogen receptor (ER stimulation. Endocrine disruptors that interfere with estradiol production in the follicles can act as ovulatory disruptors, and while interfering with progesterone production by luteal cells they can act as abortifacients.

  16. Left ventricular filling under elevated left atrial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Manikantam; Samaee, Milad; Santhanakrishnan, Arvind

    2017-11-01

    Left atrial pressure (LAP) is elevated in diastolic dysfunction, where left ventricular (LV) filling is impaired due to increase in ventricular stiffness. The impact of increasing LAP and LV stiffness on intraventricular filling hemodynamics remains unclear. We conducted particle image velocimetry and hemodynamics measurements in a left heart simulator (LHS) under increasing LAP and LV stiffness at a heart rate of 70 bpm. The LHS consisted of a flexible-walled LV physical model fitted within a fluid-filled chamber. LV wall motion was generated by a piston pump that imparted pressure fluctuations in the chamber. Resistance and compliance elements in the flow loop were adjusted to obtain bulk physiological hemodynamics in the least stiff LV model. Two LV models of increasing stiffness were subsequently tested under unchanged loop settings. LAP was varied between 5-20 mm Hg for each LV model, by adjusting fluid level in a reservoir upstream of the LV. For constant LV stiffness, increasing LAP lowered cardiac output (CO), while ejection fraction (EF) and E/A ratio were increased. For constant LAP, increasing LV stiffness lowered CO and EF, and increased E/A ratio. The implications of these altered hemodynamics on intraventricular filling vortex characteristics will be presented.

  17. Infrared laser sealing of porcine vascular tissues using a 1,470 nm diode laser: Preliminary in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilip, Christopher M; Kerr, Duane; Latimer, Cassandra A; Rosenbury, Sarah B; Giglio, Nicholas C; Hutchens, Thomas C; Nau, William H; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2017-04-01

    Infrared (IR) lasers are being explored as an alternative to radiofrequency (RF) and ultrasonic (US) devices for rapid hemostasis with minimal collateral zones of thermal damage and tissue necrosis. Previously, a 1,470 nm IR laser sealed and cut ex vivo porcine renal arteries of 1-8 mm diameter in 2 seconds, yielding burst pressures greater than 1,200 mmHg and thermal coagulation zones less than 3 mm. This preliminary study describes in vivo testing of a handheld laser probe in a porcine model. A handheld prototype with vessel/tissue clasping mechanism was tested on 73 blood vessels less than 6 mm diameter using 1,470 nm laser power of 35 W for 1-5 seconds. Device power settings, irradiation time, tissue type, vessel diameter, and histology sample number were recorded for each procedure. The probe was evaluated for hemostasis after sealing isolated and bundled arteriole/venous (A/V) vasculature of porcine abdomen and hind leg. Sealed vessel samples were collected for histological analysis of lateral thermal damage. Hemostasis was achieved in 57 of 73 seals (78%). The probe consistently sealed vasculature in small bowel mesentery, mesometrium, and gastrosplenic and epiploic regions. Seal performance was less consistent on hind leg vasculature including saphenous arteries/bundles and femoral and iliac arteries. Collagen denaturation averaged 1.6 ± 0.9 mm in eight samples excised for histologic examination. A handheld laser probe sealed porcine vessels, in vivo. Further probe development and laser parameter optimization is necessary before infrared lasers may be evaluated as an alternative to RF and US vessel sealing devices. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:366-371, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Methods for the detection and serum depletion of porcine galectin-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliaz, Isaac; Patil, Aarti; Navarro-Alvarez, Nalu; Wang, Zhirui; Eliaz, Amity; Weil, Elaine; Wilk, Barry; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A

    2017-10-01

    Circulating galectin-3 (Gal-3) is elevated in systemic inflammatory disorders, fibrotic diseases, and in cancers. Gal-3 is a promising cancer target where it promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis, as well as in renal, pulmonary, hepatic, and cardiovascular diseases, because of its role as a driver of fibrotic remodeling. This reports goal was to establish methods for the detection and removal of porcine Gal-3 that will enable further studies of the therapeutic potential of Gal-3 depletion by apheresis in porcine disease models. The long-term aim is to develop a safe, effective method of removing Gal-3 via apheresis as a standalone therapeutic tool and as an adjuvant to other therapies. Purified recombinant porcine Gal-3 was prepared and used as the standard for development of a porcine Gal-3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Different affinity column matrices that incorporated either a rat IgG2a anti-Gal-3 monoclonal antibody or carbohydrate ligand were assessed for depletion of Gal-3 from porcine serum. A porcine Gal-3 ELISA with a linear range from 0.3 to 20 ng/mL was able to detect native porcine Gal-3 in both fetal (∼150-200 ng/mL) and juvenile (∼5-15 ng/mL) porcine serum samples. Use of an anti-Gal-3 monoclonal antibody affinity column depleted Gal-3 from porcine serum to at least 313 pg/mL, the limit of ELISA detection. Methods have been developed for the detection and depletion of porcine Gal-3. These methods will be used to study the specific effects of Gal-3 depletion via apheresis in porcine models of disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Interlaboratory ring trial to evaluate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dauber, Malte

    2012-01-01

    To compare the real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays used for the diagnosis of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a Europe-wide interlaboratory ring trial was conducted. A variety of PRRSV strains including North American...... (NA) and European (EU) genotype isolates were analyzed by the participants. Great differences regarding qualitative diagnostics as well as analytical sensitivity were observed between the individual RT-qPCR systems, especially when investigating strains from the EU genotype. None of the assays...

  20. Left Activism, Succour and Selfhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, Celia Penelope

    2014-01-01

    At the height of mass activity on the Left, the ascendancy of the women's liberation movement (WLM), and the beginnings of real social and personal change for men and women, the 1970s are increasingly seen as the decade when sixties permissiveness began to be truly felt in Britain. This article...... draws upon a personal archive of correspondence from this turbulent decade, between two revolutionary women, Di Parkin and Annie Howells. It argues that the women's letters form an important contribution to new understandings about the construction of the post-war gendered self. The letters represent...... an interchange of motherhood, domesticity, far-left politics, and close female friendship. The article will show how the women's epistolary friendship offers intimate insight into female self-fashioning at a breakthrough social and political moment in 1970s Britain. As they reflected on some of the key political...

  1. Time left in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Sara; King, Adam Philip; Gallistel, C R

    2007-02-22

    Evidence suggests that the online combination of non-verbal magnitudes (durations, numerosities) is central to learning in both human and non-human animals [Gallistel, C.R., 1990. The Organization of Learning. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA]. The molecular basis of these computations, however, is an open question at this point. The current study provides the first direct test of temporal subtraction in a species in which the genetic code is available. In two experiments, mice were run in an adaptation of Gibbon and Church's [Gibbon, J., Church, R.M., 1981. Time left: linear versus logarithmic subjective time. J. Exp. Anal. Behav. 7, 87-107] time left paradigm in order to characterize typical responding in this task. Both experiments suggest that mice engaged in online subtraction of temporal values, although the generalization of a learned response rule to novel stimulus values resulted in slightly less systematic responding. Potential explanations for this pattern of results are discussed.

  2. In Vitro Evaluation of Swine-Derived Lactobacillus reuteri: Probiotic Properties and Effects on Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cells Challenged with Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhilin; Wang, Li; Chen, Zhuang; Ma, Xianyong; Yang, Xuefen; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Zongyong

    2016-06-28

    Probiotics are considered as the best effective alternatives to antibiotics. The aim of this study was to characterize the probiotic potential of lactobacilli for use in swine farming by using in vitro evaluation methods. A total of 106 lactic acid bacterial isolates, originating from porcine feces, were first screened for the capacity to survive stresses considered important for putative probiotic strains. Sixteen isolates showed notable acid and bile resistance, antibacterial activity, and adherence to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-1). One isolate, LR1, identified as Lactobacillus reuteri, was selected for extensive study of its probiotic and functional properties in IPEC-1 cell models. L. reuteri LR1 exhibited good adhesion to IPEC-1 cells and could inhibit the adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to IPEC-1 cells. L. reuteri LR1 could also modulate transcript and protein expression of cytokines involved in inflammation in IPEC-1 cells; the Lactobacillus strain inhibited the ETEC-induced expression of proinflammatory transcripts (IL-6 and TNF-α) and protein (IL-6), and increased the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). Measurement of the permeation of FD-4 showed that L. reuteri LR1 could maintain barrier integrity in monolayer IPEC-1 cells exposed to ETEC. Immunolocalization experiments showed L. reuteri LR1 could also prevent ETEC-induced tight junction ZO-1 disruption. Together, these results indicate that L. reuteri LR1 exhibits desirable probiotic properties and could be a potential probiotic for use in swine production.

  3. Enhanced proliferation and progesterone production by porcine granulosa cells cultured with pseudorabies virus growth factor (PRGF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekło, R; Gregoraszczuk, E L; Lesko, J; Golais, F; Stokłosowa, S

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this research was to study possible interactions of pseudorabies virus growth factor (PRGF) with ovarian tissue. Granulosa cells isolated from porcine ovaries were cultured as monolayers for 6 days in a control medium without PRGF and in medium supplemented with different doses of this agent. Increased population density and change towards more fibroblastic-like shape of cells cultured with 10(9) I.U PRGF was observed when compared with control culture. The cells divided significantly faster during 6 days of culture under the influence of 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), 10(8) and 10(9) I.U./ml of PRGF at a dose dependent manner. PRGF in a dose 10(9) I.U. added to cultured cells isolated from small and medium follicles did not influence progesterone secretion . An increase of progesterone secretion under the influence of PRGF in all investigated days of cultures was observed in cells isolated from large preovulatory follicles. The marked increase in progesterone content in PRGF treated culture in doses of 0.5x10(7), 0.5x10(8), 0.5x10(9) I.U. was observed during 4 and 6 days of culture. The rise of progesterone content was not connected with increased number of secretory cells, but with a stimulation of production per cell. PRGF exerted no visible effect on progesterone secretion by granulosa cells from small and medium follicles cultured for 6 days. The presented in vitro data provide evidence for a local action of PRGF in the follicle depending on the stage of follicular development and duration of exposure. Precise relevance of the interaction of PRGF with follicular development requires further study.

  4. Automatic segmentation of left ventricle in cardiac cine MRI images based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Icke, Ilknur; Dogdas, Belma; Parimal, Sarayu; Sampath, Smita; Forbes, Joseph; Bagchi, Ansuman; Chin, Chih-Liang; Chen, Antong

    2017-02-01

    In developing treatment of cardiovascular diseases, short axis cine MRI has been used as a standard technique for understanding the global structural and functional characteristics of the heart, e.g. ventricle dimensions, stroke volume and ejection fraction. To conduct an accurate assessment, heart structures need to be segmented from the cine MRI images with high precision, which could be a laborious task when performed manually. Herein a fully automatic framework is proposed for the segmentation of the left ventricle from the slices of short axis cine MRI scans of porcine subjects using a deep learning approach. For training the deep learning models, which generally requires a large set of data, a public database of human cine MRI scans is used. Experiments on the 3150 cine slices of 7 porcine subjects have shown that when comparing the automatic and manual segmentations the mean slice-wise Dice coefficient is about 0.930, the point-to-curve error is 1.07 mm, and the mean slice-wise Hausdorff distance is around 3.70 mm, which demonstrates the accuracy and robustness of the proposed inter-species translational approach.

  5. Identification of the porcine homologous of human disease causing trinucleotide repeat sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Thomsen, Bo; Sølvsten, Christina Ane Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    in this paper the identification of porcine noncoding and polyglutamine-encoding TNR regions and the comparison to the homologous TNRs from human, chimpanzee, dog, opossum, rat, and mouse. Several of the porcine TNR regions are highly polymorphic both within and between different breeds. The TNR regions...

  6. Prevention of primary vascular graft infection with silver-coated polyester graft in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, H; Sandermann, J; Prag, J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model.......To evaluate the efficacy of a silver-coated vascular polyester graft in the prevention of graft infection after inoculation with Staphylococcus aureus in a porcine model....

  7. Development, DNA fragmentation and cell death in porcine embryos afer 24 h storage under different conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubio Pomar, F.J.; Ducro-Steverink, D.W.B.; Hazeleger, W.; Teerds, K.J.; Colenbrander, B.; Bevers, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    For practical applications of porcine embryo transfer (ET) it is important to develop feasible embryo storage conditions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of short-term storage (24 h) on the quality of in vivo produced porcine embryos. Three temperatures 18, 25 and 38 degreesC

  8. Molecular characterization of the porcine surfactant, pulmonary-associated protein C gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera, S.; Nygård, A.B.; Jensen, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    The surfactant, pulmonary-associated protein C (SFTPC) is a peptide secreted by the alveolar type II pneumocytes of the lung. We have characterized the porcine SFTPC gene at genomic, transcriptional, and protein levels. The porcine SFTPC is a single-copy gene on pig chromosome 14. Two transcripts...

  9. A high-resolution comparative RH map of porcine chromosome (SSC) 2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rattink, A.P.; Faivre, M.; Jungerius, B.J.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Harlizius, B.

    2001-01-01

    A high-resolution comparative map was constructed for porcine Chromosome (SSC) 2, where a QTL for back fat thickness (BFT) is located. A radiation hybrid (RH) map containing 33 genes and 25 microsatellite markers was constructed for this chromosome with a 3000-rad porcine RH panel. In total, 16

  10. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  11. Reflex vocal fold adduction in the porcine model: the effects of stimuli delivered to various sensory nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jeong-Soo; Hundal, Jagdeep S; Sasaki, Clarence T; Abdelmessih, Mikhail W; Kelleher, Stephen P

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify a panel of sensory nerves capable of eliciting an evoked glottic closure reflex (GCR) and to quantify the glottic closing force (GCF) of these responses in a porcine model. In 5 pigs, the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (iSLN) and the trigeminal, pharyngeal plexus, glossopharyngeal, radial, and intercostal nerves were surgically isolated and electrically stimulated. During stimulation of each nerve, the GCR was detected by laryngeal electromyography and the GCF was measured with a pressure transducer. The only nerve that elicited the GCR in the 5 pigs was the iSLN. The average GCF was 288.9 mm Hg. This study demonstrates that the only afferent nerve that elicits the GCR in pigs is the iSLN, and that it should remain the focus of research for the rehabilitation of patients with absent or defective reflex vocal fold adduction.

  12. Verification of a computational cardiovascular system model comparing the hemodynamics of a continuous flow to a synchronous valveless pulsatile flow left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohean, Jeffrey R; George, Mitchell J; Pate, Thomas D; Kurusz, Mark; Longoria, Raul G; Smalling, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to use a computational model to compare a synchronized valveless pulsatile left ventricular assist device with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices at the same level of device flow, and to verify the model with in vivo porcine data. A dynamic system model of the human cardiovascular system was developed to simulate the support of a healthy or failing native heart from a continuous flow left ventricular assist device or a synchronous pulsatile valveless dual-piston positive displacement pump. These results were compared with measurements made during in vivo porcine experiments. Results from the simulation model and from the in vivo counterpart show that the pulsatile pump provides higher cardiac output, left ventricular unloading, cardiac pulsatility, and aortic valve flow as compared with the continuous flow model at the same level of support. The dynamic system model developed for this investigation can effectively simulate human cardiovascular support by a synchronous pulsatile or continuous flow ventricular assist device.

  13. Creating Porcine Biomedical Models Through Recombineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence B. Schook

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genomics provide genetic information from humans and other mammals (mouse, rat, dog and primates traditionally used as models as well as new candidates (pigs and cattle. In addition, linked enabling technologies, such as transgenesis and animal cloning, provide innovative ways to design and perform experiments to dissect complex biological systems. Exploitation of genomic information overcomes the traditional need to choose naturally occurring models. Thus, investigators can utilize emerging genomic knowledge and tools to create relevant animal models. This approach is referred to as reverse genetics. In contrast to ‘forward genetics’, in which gene(s responsible for a particular phenotype are identified by positional cloning (phenotype to genotype, the ‘reverse genetics’ approach determines the function of a gene and predicts the phenotype of a cell, tissue, or organism (genotype to phenotype. The convergence of classical and reverse genetics, along with genomics, provides a working definition of a ‘genetic model’ organism (3. The recent construction of phenotypic maps defining quantitative trait loci (QTL in various domesticated species provides insights into how allelic variations contribute to phenotypic diversity. Targeted chromosomal regions are characterized by the construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC contigs to isolate and characterize genes contributing towards phenotypic variation. Recombineering provides a powerful methodology to harvest genetic information responsible for phenotype. Linking recombineering with gene-targeted homologous recombination, coupled with nuclear transfer (NT technology can provide ‘clones’ of genetically modified animals.

  14. Rebuilding the US Health Left

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor W. Sidel, MD

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With this issue Social Medicine begins a series of invited papers on the topic: “Rebuilding the US Health Left.” In this editorial we will outline our vision for this series. We undertake this project aware that our good friend and mentor, Dr. Walter Lear, one of the leading health activists of the 20th century, lies critically ill. Walter was the creator and custodian of the US Health Left Archives, a collection that is now with the University of Pennsylvania library. The collection reminds us of the important role left health care workers played in US history throughout the 20th century. They advocated for a national health program (Committee on the Costs of Medical Care, Physicians Forum, Medical Care Section/APHA, HealthPAC, Physicians for a National Health Program, National Physicians Alliance, provided international solidarity (American Soviet Medical Society, international brigades during the Spanish Civil War, Central American Solidarity Movement, Committee to Help Chilean Health Workers, Doctors for Global Health, traced the connections between disease and social class (Sigerist Circle, Spirit of 1848, APHA, fought for workers’ health (Councils for Occupational Safety and Health; Occupational Health and Safety Section, APHA participated in anti-war movements (Medical Committee for Human Rights, Physicians for Social Responsibility, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, created new models of health care delivery (Health Cooperatives, Prepaid Health Maintenance Organizations, Community Health Centers, National Health Service Corps, Free Clinics, were central to the struggle for women’s rights (Planned Parenthood, Physicians for Reproductive Choice and Health, supported the civil rights movement both in medicine and in the broader society (National Medical Association, Medical Committee for Human Rights, played key roles in the movement for gay rights (ACT-UP, Gay & Lesbian Medical Association, Lesbian, Gay

  15. Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153

  16. In vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelsberger, Jan; Eicker, Sven; Siasios, Ioannis; Hänggi, Daniel; Kirsch, Matthias; Horn, Peter; Winkler, Peter; Signoretti, Stefano; Fountas, Kostas; Dufour, Henry; Barcia, Juan A; Sakowitz, Oliver; Westermaier, Thomas; Sabel, Michael; Heese, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental education is desirable for neurosurgical training, and the use of human cadaver specimen and virtual reality models is routine. An in vivo porcine training model for cranial neurosurgery was introduced in 2005, and our recent experience with this unique model is outlined here. For the first time, porcine anatomy is illustrated with particular respect to neurosurgical procedures. The pros and cons of this model are described. The aim of the course was to set up a laboratory scenery imitating an almost realistic operating room in which anatomy of the brain and neurosurgical techniques in a mentored environment free from time constraints could be trained. Learning objectives of the course were to learn about the microsurgical techniques in cranial neurosurgery and the management of complications. Participants were asked to evaluate the quality and utility of the programme via standardized questionnaires by a grading scale from A (best) to E (worst). In total, 154 residents have been trained on the porcine model to date. None of the participants regarded his own residency programme as structured. The bleeding and complication management (97%), the realistic laboratory set-up (89%) and the working environment (94%) were favoured by the vast majority of trainees and confirmed our previous findings. After finishing the course, the participants graded that their skills in bone drilling, dissecting the brain and preserving cerebral vessels under microscopic magnification had improved to level A and B. In vivo hands-on courses, fully equipped with microsurgical instruments, offer an outstanding training opportunity in which bleeding management on a pulsating, vital brain represents a unique training approach. Our results have shown that education programmes still lack practical training facilities in which in vivo models may act as a complementary approach in surgical training.

  17. The zinc-myoglobin relationships in porcine muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogd Joergensen, P.; Wegger, I.

    1976-01-01

    Zinc and myoglobin content in muscles from pigs were studied under various conditions. Zinc concentration was considerably higher in red than in white muscles. In muscles, where the metabolic pattern changes from glycolytic to oxidative during the period from birth to weaning, a simultaneous increase in zinc content was seen. A significant positive correlation exists between myoglobin and zinc content under normal conditions. However, while myoglobin concentration decreases due to iron deficiency anaemia no changes occur in zinc content. It is concluded that no functional link seems to exist between zinc metabolism and myoglobin synthesis in porcine muscles. (author)

  18. Staphylococcus hyicus exfoliative toxins selectively digest porcine desmoglein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fudaba, Y.; Nishifuji, K.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2005-01-01

    . Recently, genes for ExhA, ExhB, ExhC and ExhD were cloned. Exfoliative toxins produced by S. aureus have been shown to selectively cleave human or mouse desmoglein 1, a desmosomal adhesion molecule, that when inactivated results in blisters. In this study, we attempted to identify the molecular target...... that Exh selectively degrade porcine desmoglein 1. In vitro incubation of the recombinant extracellular domains of desmoglein I and desmoglein 3 of human, mouse or canine origin demonstrated that only mouse desmogleins 1 alpha and 1 beta were cleaved by ExhA and ExhC at high concentration. Furthermore...

  19. MicroRNA expression profiling of the porcine developing brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podolska, Agnieszka; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Busk, Peter Kamp

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in the control of developmental and physiological processes. In particular, the developing brain contains an impressive diversity of microRNAs. Most micro...... and the growth curve when compared to humans. Considering these similarities, studies examining microRNA expression during porcine brain development could potentially be used to predict the expression profile and role of microRNAs in the human brain....

  20. The effect of subretinal viscoelastics on the porcine retinal function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Fischer; Ejstrup, Rasmus; Svahn, Thøger Frøsig

    2012-01-01

    pharmaceutical therapy is needed, and can only be tested in a suitable animal model. The porcine model is promising and the mfERG is well validated in this model. RD was induced in 18 pigs by vitrectomy and healon injection of various concentrations. Preoperatively and 6 weeks postoperatively eight animals were...... examined by mfERG. The major component P1 was analyzed statistically. Indirect ophthalmoscopy and bilateral color fundus photography (FP) were performed. Selected animals underwent high-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT). Examination by ophthalmoscopy and FP showed that the RDs remained detached...

  1. Porcine models of biofilm infections with focus on pathomorphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Kruse; Johansen, Anne Sofie Boyum; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2017-01-01

    , and reproducible animal models of the infections. In this review, the advantages of in vivo studies are compared to in vitro studies of biofilm formation in infectious diseases. The pig is the animal of choice when developing and applying large animal models of infectious diseases due to its similarity of anatomy......, physiology, and immune system to humans. Furthermore, conventional pigs spontaneously develop many of the same chronic bacterial infections as seen in humans. Therefore, in this review porcine models of five different infectious diseases all associated with biofilm formation and chronicity in humans...

  2. Generation of insulin-producing cells from gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sung Ho; Heo, Young Tae [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Uhm, Sang Jun [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hoon Taek, E-mail: htl3675@konkuk.ac.kr [Department of Animal Biotechnology, Bio-Organ Research Center, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-09

    A major problem in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the limited availability of alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for islet transplantation. In this study, we investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) treatments of gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells (gSDSCs) on their reprogramming and subsequent differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We isolated SDSCs from the ear skin of a gnotobiotic pig. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed stem-cell markers Oct-4, Sox-2, and CD90; nestin expression also increased significantly. The cells could differentiate into IPCs after treatments with activin-A, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and nicotinamide. After 15 days in the differentiation medium, controlled gSDSCs began expressing endocrine progenitor genes and proteins (Ngn3, Neuro-D, PDX-1, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, and insulin). The IPCs showed increased insulin synthesis after glucose stimulation. The results indicate that stem cells derived from the skin of gnotobiotic pigs can differentiate into IPCs under the appropriate conditions in vitro. Our three-stage induction protocol could be applied without genetic modification to source IPCs from stem cells in the skin of patients with diabetes for autologous transplantation.

  3. Tracking the Origin and Deciphering the Phylogenetic Relationship of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Barrera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, new Chinese strains of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, clinically more severe than the classical strains, emerged. These strains were spread to United States in 2013 through an intercontinental transmission from China with further spreading across the world, evidencing the emergent nature of these strains. In the present study, an analysis of PEDV field sequences from Ecuador was conducted by comparing all the PEDV S gene sequences available in the GenBank database. Phylogenetic comparisons and Bayesian phylogeographic inference based on complete S gene sequences were also conducted to track the origin and putative route of PEDV. The sequence from the PED-outbreak in Ecuador was grouped into the clade II of PEDV genogroup 2a together with other sequences of isolates from Mexico, Canada, and United States. The phylogeographic study revealed the emergence of the Chinese PEDV strains, followed by spreading to US in 2013, from US to Korea, and later the introduction of PEDV to Canada, Mexico, and Ecuador directly from the US. The sources of imports of live swine in Ecuador in 2014 were mainly from Chile and US. Thus, this movement of pigs is suggested as the main way for introducing PEDV to Ecuador.

  4. Generation of insulin-producing cells from gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Sung Ho; Heo, Young Tae; Uhm, Sang Jun; Lee, Hoon Taek

    2010-01-01

    A major problem in the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus is the limited availability of alternative sources of insulin-producing cells for islet transplantation. In this study, we investigated the effect of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) treatments of gnotobiotic porcine skin-derived stem cells (gSDSCs) on their reprogramming and subsequent differentiation into insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We isolated SDSCs from the ear skin of a gnotobiotic pig. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed stem-cell markers Oct-4, Sox-2, and CD90; nestin expression also increased significantly. The cells could differentiate into IPCs after treatments with activin-A, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and nicotinamide. After 15 days in the differentiation medium, controlled gSDSCs began expressing endocrine progenitor genes and proteins (Ngn3, Neuro-D, PDX-1, NKX2.2, NKX6.1, and insulin). The IPCs showed increased insulin synthesis after glucose stimulation. The results indicate that stem cells derived from the skin of gnotobiotic pigs can differentiate into IPCs under the appropriate conditions in vitro. Our three-stage induction protocol could be applied without genetic modification to source IPCs from stem cells in the skin of patients with diabetes for autologous transplantation.

  5. Penicillin G-Induced Chlamydial Stress Response in a Porcine Strain of Chlamydia pecorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory Ann Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia pecorum causes asymptomatic infection and pathology in ruminants, pigs, and koalas. We characterized the antichlamydial effect of the beta lactam penicillin G on Chlamydia pecorum strain 1710S (porcine abortion isolate. Penicillin-exposed and mock-exposed infected host cells showed equivalent inclusions numbers. Penicillin-exposed inclusions contained aberrant bacterial forms and exhibited reduced infectivity, while mock-exposed inclusions contained normal bacterial forms and exhibited robust infectivity. Infectious bacteria production increased upon discontinuation of penicillin exposure, compared to continued exposure. Chlamydia-induced cell death occurred in mock-exposed controls; cell survival was improved in penicillin-exposed infected groups. Similar results were obtained both in the presence and in the absence of the eukaryotic protein translation inhibitor cycloheximide and at different times of initiation of penicillin exposure. These data demonstrate that penicillin G induces the chlamydial stress response (persistence and is not bactericidal, for this chlamydial species/strain in vitro, regardless of host cell de novo protein synthesis.

  6. First update of the International Xenotransplantation Association consensus statement on conditions for undertaking clinical trials of porcine islet products in type 1 diabetes--Chapter 5: recipient monitoring and response plan for preventing disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Joachim; Tönjes, Ralf R; Takeuchi, Yasu; Fishman, Jay; Scobie, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Xenotransplantation of porcine cells, tissues, and organs may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms to the human recipient. A previous, 2009, version of this consensus statement focused on strategies to prevent transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs). This version addresses potential transmission of all porcine microorganisms including monitoring of the recipient and provides suggested approaches to the monitoring and prevention of disease transmission. Prior analyses assumed that most microorganisms other than the endogenous retroviruses could be eliminated from donor animals under appropriate conditions which have been called "designated pathogen-free" (DPF) source animal production. PERVs integrated as proviruses in the genome of all pigs cannot be eliminated in that manner and represent a unique risk. Certain microorganisms are by nature difficult to eliminate even under DPF conditions; any such clinically relevant microorganisms should be included in pig screening programs. With the use of porcine islets in clinical trials, special consideration has to be given to the presence of microorganisms in the isolated islet tissue to be used and also to the potential use of encapsulation. It is proposed that microorganisms absent in the donor animals by sensitive microbiological examination do not need to be monitored in the transplant recipient; this will reduce costs and screening requirements. Valid detection assays for donor and manufacturing-derived microorganisms must be established. Special consideration is needed to preempt potential unknown pathogens which may pose a risk to the recipient. This statement summarizes the main achievements in the field since 2009 and focus on issues and solutions with microorganisms other than PERV. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Left ventricular noncompaction: Clinical-echocardiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC is a disorder in endomyocardial morphogenesis, seen either isolated (in the absence of other cardiac anomalies or in association with congenital heart disease and some neuromuscular diseases. Intrauterine arrest of the compaction of myocardial fibers is postulated to be the reason of LVNC. Recognition of this condition is extremely important due to its high mortality and morbidity that lead to progressive heart failure, ventricular arrhythmias and thromboembolic events. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of LVNC among consecutive outpatients according to clinical and echocardiographyic findings. Methode. A total of 3,854 consecutive patients examined at the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases within a period January 2006 - January 2007 were included in the study. All the patients underwent echocardiographic examination using the same equipment (Vivid 7, GE Medical System. Echocardiographic parameters and clinical presentation in patients with echocardiographic criteria for LVNC were analyzed. Results. Analyzing 3,854 consecutive outpatients, using two-dimensional Color Doppler echocardiography from January 2006 to January 2007, 12 patients met the criteria for LVNC. Seven of them were male. The mean age at diagnosis was 45 ± 15 years. Analyzing clinical manifestation of LVNC it was found that seven patients had signs of heart failure, six had arrhythmias with no embolic events. Conclusion. Our results suggest that the real prevalence of LVNC may be higher than expected. New studies have to be done to solve this problem.

  8. Large Diversity of Porcine Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 in Eight European Countries Assessed by Multiple-Locus Variable-Number Tandem-Repeat Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakurtti, Sini; Keto-Timonen, Riikka; Virtanen, Sonja; Martínez, Pilar Ortiz; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Korkeala, Hannu

    2016-06-01

    A total of 253 multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) types among 634 isolates were discovered while studying the genetic diversity of porcine Yersinia enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates from eight different European countries. Six variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were used to study the isolates from 82 farms in Belgium (n = 93, 7 farms), England (n = 41, 8 farms), Estonia (n = 106, 12 farms), Finland (n = 70, 13 farms), Italy (n = 111, 20 farms), Latvia (n = 66, 3 farms), Russia (n = 60, 10 farms), and Spain (n = 87, 9 farms). Cluster analysis revealed mainly country-specific clusters, and only one MLVA type consisting of two isolates was found from two countries: Russia and Italy. Also, farm-specific clusters were discovered, but same MLVA types could also be found from different farms. Analysis of multiple isolates originating either from the same tonsils (n = 4) or from the same farm, but 6 months apart, revealed both identical and different MLVA types. MLVA showed a very good discriminatory ability with a Simpson's discriminatory index (DI) of 0.989. DIs for VNTR loci V2A, V4, V5, V6, V7, and V9 were 0.916, 0.791, 0.901, 0.877, 0.912, and 0.785, respectively, when studying all isolates together, but variation was evident between isolates originating from different countries. Locus V4 in the Spanish isolates and locus V9 in the Latvian isolates did not differentiate (DI 0.000), and locus V9 in the English isolates showed very low discriminatory power (DI 0.049). The porcine Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were diverse, but the variation in DI demonstrates that the well discriminating loci V2A, V5, V6, and V7 should be included in MLVA protocol when maximal discriminatory power is needed.

  9. Sodium nitroprusside enhanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves short term survival in a porcine model of ischemic refractory ventricular fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannopoulos, Demetris; Bartos, Jason A; George, Stephen A; Sideris, George; Voicu, Sebastian; Oestreich, Brett; Matsuura, Timothy; Shekar, Kadambari; Rees, Jennifer; Aufderheide, Tom P

    2017-01-01

    Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) enhanced CPR (SNPeCPR) demonstrates increased vital organ blood flow and survival in multiple porcine models. We developed a new, coronary occlusion/ischemia model of prolonged resuscitation, mimicking the majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests presenting with shockable rhythms. SNPeCPR will increase short term (4-h) survival compared to standard 2015 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines in an ischemic refractory ventricular fibrillation (VF), prolonged CPR model. Sixteen anesthetized pigs had the ostial left anterior descending artery occluded leading to ischemic VF arrest. VF was untreated for 5min. Basic life support was performed for 10min. At minute 10 (EMS arrival), animals received either SNPeCPR (n=8) or standard ACLS (n=8). Defibrillation (200J) occurred every 3min. CPR continued for a total of 45min, then the balloon was deflated simulating revascularization. CPR continued until return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or a total of 60min, if unsuccessful. SNPeCPR animals received 2mg of SNP at minute 10 followed by 1mg every 5min until ROSC. Standard ACLS animals received 0.5mg epinephrine every 5min until ROSC. Primary endpoints were ROSC and 4-h survival. All SNPeCPR animals (8/8) achieved sustained ROSC versus 2/8 standard ACLS animals within one hour of resuscitation (p=0.04). The 4-h survival was significantly improved with SNPeCPR compared to standard ACLS, 7/8 versus 1/8 respectively, p=0.0019. SNPeCPR significantly improved ROSC and 4-h survival compared with standard ACLS CPR in a porcine model of prolonged ischemic, refractory VF cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isolation and characterization of porcine mannan-binding proteins of different size and ultrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, P; Nielsen, EH; Andersen, Ove

    1996-01-01

    microscopy of pMBP-27 showed dimer and trimer molecules; the trimers without distinct stalk regions. The N-terminal 26(pMBP-27) and 24(MBP-28) amino acid residues showed 54% and 58% identity with human MBP.pMBP-28 showed a higher degree of sequence similarity to rat and mouse MBP-A (60% identity) than...

  11. Relation between injected volume and optical parameters in refilled isolated porcine lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Haitjema, HJ; Deuring, H; van Aarle, S; Kooijman, AC

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to elucidate the correlation between added lens refill material and enhanced lens power as well as the correlation between lens refilling volume and accommodative amplitude as determined by equatorial stretching of ex vivo refilled pigs' lenses. Methods: Nine

  12. Normothermic extracorporeal perfusion of isolated porcine liver after warm ischaemia: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Suzuki, Satoshi; Marino, Bruno; Starkey, Graeme K; Chambers, Brenton; Fink, Michael A; Wang, Bao Zhong; Houston, Shane; Eastwood, Glenn; Calzavacca, Paolo; Glassford, Neil; Skene, Alison; Jones, Daryl A; Jones, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is a major life-saving procedure, and donation after cardiac death (DCD) has increased the pool of potential liver donors. However, DCD livers are at increased risk of primary graft dysfunction and biliary tract ischaemia. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) may increase the ability to protect, evaluate and, in future, transplant DCD livers. We conducted proof-of-concept experiments using a DCD model in the pig to assess the short-term (4 hours) feasibility and functional efficacy of NELP. Using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, parenteral nutrition, separate hepatic artery and portal vein perfusion, and physiological perfusion pressures, we achieved NELP and evidence of function (bile production, paracetamol removal, maintenance of normal ammonia and lactate levels) for 4 hours in pig livers subjected to 15 and 30 minutes of cardiac arrest before explantation. Our experiments justify further investigations of the feasibility and efficacy of human DCD liver preservation by ex-vivo perfusion.

  13. Isolation of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium avium from porcine lymph nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingen, van J.; Wisselink, H.J.; Solt-Smits, van C.B.; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D.

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium causes lymphadenitis in pigs. This presents an economical burden, as these pigs meat is considered inappropriate for consumption. In humans, lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) primarily affects children and is caused by a variety of NTM, though M. avium

  14. Isolation of mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium avium from porcine lymph nodes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingen, J. van; Wisselink, H.J.; Solt-Smits, C.B. van; Boeree, M.J.; Soolingen, D. van

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium causes lymphadenitis in pigs. This presents an economical burden, as these pigs meat is considered inappropriate for consumption. In humans, lymphadenitis due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) primarily affects children and is caused by a variety of NTM, though M. avium

  15. An in-depth comparison of the porcine, murine and human inflammasomes; lessons from the porcine genome and transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Harry D; Smith, Allen D; Chen, Celine; Urban, Joseph F

    2017-04-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that swine are a scientifically acceptable intermediate species between rodents and humans to model immune function relevant to humans. The swine genome has recently been sequenced and several preliminary structural and functional analysis of the porcine immunome have been published. Herein we provide an expanded in silico analysis using an improved assembly of the porcine transcriptome that provides an in depth analysis of genes that are related to inflammasomes, responses to Toll-like receptor ligands, and M1 macrophage polarization and Escherichia coli as a model organism. Comparisons of the expansion or contraction of orthologous gene families indicated more similar rates and classes of genes in humans and pigs than in mice; however several novel porcine or artiodactyl-specific paralogs or pseudogenes were identified. Conservation of homology and structural motifs of orthologs revealed that the overall similarity to human proteins was significantly higher for pigs compared to mouse. Despite these similarities, two out of four canonical inflammasome pathways, Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) and NLR family and CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4), were found to be missing in pigs. Pig M1 Mφ polarization in response to interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was assessed, via the transcriptome, using next generation sequencing. Our analysis revealed predominantly human-like responses however some, mouse-like responses were observed, as well as induction of numerous pig or artiodactyl-specific genes. This work supports using swine to model both human immunological and inflammatory responses to infection. However, caution must be exercised as pigs differ from humans in several fundamental pathways. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Anatomy and bronchoscopy of the porcine lung. A model for translational respiratory medicine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Judge, Eoin P

    2014-09-01

    The porcine model has contributed significantly to biomedical research over many decades. The similar size and anatomy of pig and human organs make this model particularly beneficial for translational research in areas such as medical device development, therapeutics and xenotransplantation. In recent years, a major limitation with the porcine model was overcome with the successful generation of gene-targeted pigs and the publication of the pig genome. As a result, the role of this model is likely to become even more important. For the respiratory medicine field, the similarities between pig and human lungs give the porcine model particular potential for advancing translational medicine. An increasing number of lung conditions are being studied and modeled in the pig. Genetically modified porcine models of cystic fibrosis have been generated that, unlike mouse models, develop lung disease similar to human cystic fibrosis. However, the scientific literature relating specifically to porcine lung anatomy and airway histology is limited and is largely restricted to veterinary literature and textbooks. Furthermore, methods for in vivo lung procedures in the pig are rarely described. The aims of this review are to collate the disparate literature on porcine lung anatomy, histology, and microbiology; to provide a comparison with the human lung; and to describe appropriate bronchoscopy procedures for the pig lungs to aid clinical researchers working in the area of translational respiratory medicine using the porcine model.

  17. Porcine pluripotency cell signaling develops from the inner cell mass to the epiblast during early development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Christensen, Josef; Gao, Yu

    2009-01-01

      The signaling mechanisms regulating pluripotency in porcine embryonic stem cells and embryos are unknown. In this study, we characterize cell signaling in the in-vivo porcine inner cell mass and later-stage epiblast. We evaluate expression of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, genes within the JAK/STAT pathway...... pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells is detectable in the porcine epiblast, but not in the inner cell mass. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.......  The signaling mechanisms regulating pluripotency in porcine embryonic stem cells and embryos are unknown. In this study, we characterize cell signaling in the in-vivo porcine inner cell mass and later-stage epiblast. We evaluate expression of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, genes within the JAK/STAT pathway...... (LIF, LIFR, GP130), FGF pathway (bFGF, FGFR1, FGFR2), BMP pathway (BMP4), and downstream-activated genes (STAT3, c-Myc, c-Fos, and SMAD4). We discovered two different expression profiles exist in the developing porcine embryo. The D6 porcine blastocyst (inner cell mass stage) is devoid...

  18. An anatomical study of porcine peripheral nerve and its potential use in nerve tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilic, Leyla; Garner, Philippa E; Yu, Tong; Roman, Sabiniano; Haycock, John W; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Current nerve tissue engineering applications are adopting xenogeneic nerve tissue as potential nerve grafts to help aid nerve regeneration. However, there is little literature that describes the exact location, anatomy and physiology of these nerves to highlight their potential as a donor graft. The aim of this study was to identify and characterise the structural and extracellular matrix (ECM) components of porcine peripheral nerves in the hind leg. Methods included the dissection of porcine nerves, localisation, characterisation and quantification of the ECM components and identification of nerve cells. Results showed a noticeable variance between porcine and rat nerve (a commonly studied species) in terms of fascicle number. The study also revealed that when porcine peripheral nerves branch, a decrease in fascicle number and size was evident. Porcine ECM and nerve fascicles were found to be predominately comprised of collagen together with glycosaminoglycans, laminin and fibronectin. Immunolabelling for nerve growth factor receptor p75 also revealed the localisation of Schwann cells around and inside the fascicles. In conclusion, it is shown that porcine peripheral nerves possess a microstructure similar to that found in rat, and is not dissimilar to human. This finding could extend to the suggestion that due to the similarities in anatomy to human nerve, porcine nerves may have utility as a nerve graft providing guidance and support to regenerating axons. PMID:26200940

  19. Transient Beneficial Effects of Excitatory Theta Burst Stimulation in a Patient with Phonological Agraphia after Left Supramarginal Gyrus Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Zuccoli, Giulio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient showing isolated phonological agraphia after an ischemic stroke involving the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). In this patient, we investigated the effects of focal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) given as theta burst stimulation (TBS) over the left SMG, corresponding to the Brodmann area (BA) 40. The patient…

  20. Identification of a Novel Recombinant Type 2 Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of NADC30-like porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in China in 2013, PRRSVs have undergone rapid evolution. In this study, a novel variant of PRRSV strain (designated SCcd17 was successfully isolated from piglets with clinical signs in Sichuan Province in China in 2017, and the complete genomic sequence was determined. The genome of this new isolate was 15,015 nucleotides (nt long, and comparative analysis revealed that SCcd17 exhibited 90.2%, 85.2%, 84.9%, and 84.0% nucleotide similarity to PRRSVs NADC30, JXA1, CH-1a, and VR-2332, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SCcd17 strain was classified into the NADC30-like sub-genotype, in which all the strains contained the unique discontinuous 131-amino acid deletion in nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2 when compared to VR-2332-like viruses. Notably, extensive amino acid substitutions were observed in nsp2 and a unique single amino acid deletion at position 33 of the GP5 is being described for the first time. Strikingly, recombination analysis revealed that SCcd17 was the result of recombination between the NADC30-like, JXA1-like, and VR-2332-like strains at five recombination breakpoints: nsp1α (nt 641, nsp3 (nt 5141, nsp10 (nt 9521, open reading frame 3 (ORF3 (nt 12,581, and ORF4 (nt 13,021. The genomic data of SCcd17 will be helpful for understanding the role of genomic recombination in the evolution of PRRSV.

  1. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus as a Novel Type of Pestivirus in Pigs in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin; Han, Zhiyong; Li, Jun; Huang, Yunzhen; Yang, Jiongfeng; Ding, Hongxing; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhu, Mengjiao; Zhang, Yangyi; Liao, Jiedan; Zhao, Mingqiu; Chen, Jinding

    2017-01-01

    Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses. A growing number of novel pestiviruses has been discovered in domestic and wild species in the last two decades. Recently, a novel atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV) linked with the development of congenital tremor (CT) in neonatal pigs was described in Europe and the Americas. Here, the first Asian APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence was assembled from serum samples from newborn piglets affected with CT in Southern China, and termed APPV_GD. 14 organ samples from affected piglets were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) to investigate the tissue tropism of APPV, and 135 serum samples from pigs from 10 farms were used for identifying APPV in adult pigs. The highest genome loads were found in submaxillary lymph nodes, and PCR-based detection showed that APPV genomes were present in seven samples from five farms. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the full-length genomes of the pestiviruses, and APPV_GD appeared on a new branch with another newly discovered APPV. Nucleotide identity analysis demonstrated that APPV_GD shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity with a German APPV. Bayesian inference was performed using 25 partial sequences of the APPV NS5B gene (528 bp) isolated from four countries in recent years. According to this analysis, the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of the current APPV strains might have emerged in Germany and then diversified and spread to Asia, the Americas, and other countries in Europe. However, the result of bayesian inference could change when more APPV strains are isolated in the future. The present study is the first to report APPV in China and infers the origin and dissemination of the current strains of the virus. PMID:28553280

  2. Atypical Porcine Pestivirus as a Novel Type of Pestivirus in Pigs in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yuan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pestiviruses are highly variable RNA viruses. A growing number of novel pestiviruses has been discovered in domestic and wild species in the last two decades. Recently, a novel atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV linked with the development of congenital tremor (CT in neonatal pigs was described in Europe and the Americas. Here, the first Asian APPV complete polyprotein coding sequence was assembled from serum samples from newborn piglets affected with CT in Southern China, and termed APPV_GD. 14 organ samples from affected piglets were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to investigate the tissue tropism of APPV, and 135 serum samples from pigs from 10 farms were used for identifying APPV in adult pigs. The highest genome loads were found in submaxillary lymph nodes, and PCR-based detection showed that APPV genomes were present in seven samples from five farms. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the full-length genomes of the pestiviruses, and APPV_GD appeared on a new branch with another newly discovered APPV. Nucleotide identity analysis demonstrated that APPV_GD shared the highest nucleotide sequence identity with a German APPV. Bayesian inference was performed using 25 partial sequences of the APPV NS5B gene (528 bp isolated from four countries in recent years. According to this analysis, the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA of the current APPV strains might have emerged in Germany and then diversified and spread to Asia, the Americas, and other countries in Europe. However, the result of bayesian inference could change when more APPV strains are isolated in the future. The present study is the first to report APPV in China and infers the origin and dissemination of the current strains of the virus.

  3. Porcine Cysticercosis and Risk Factors in The Gambia and Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arss Secka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During a stratified cross-sectional survey, 1705 pigs were sampled from 279 randomly selected households, 63 randomly selected communities and villages, from four study areas in The Gambia and Senegal during the period October 2007 to January 2008. Porcine cysticercosis prevalence detected by tongue inspection at animal level per study area ranged from 0.1% to 1.0%. Using an antigen-detection ELISA the seroprevalence of cysticercosis at both community/village and animal levels for the four selected study areas is: Western region 80.0% (95%CI: 52.4%–93.6% and 4.8% (95%CI: 3.4%–6.5%, Bignona 86.7% (95%CI: 59.8%–96.6% and 8.9% (95%CI: 5.0%–15.5%, Kolda 82.4% (95%CI: 46.8%–96.1% and 13.2% (95%CI: 10.8%–16.0%, and Ziguinchor 81.3% (95%CI: 43.5%–96.1% and 6.4% (95%CI: 4.0%–10.1%, respectively. No risk factors for cysticercosis were found significant in this study. This study proved that porcine cysticercosis is endemic and distributed widely in the study areas though its incidence might be suppressed by the generalised use of toilets and latrines in the study areas.

  4. Frequency of aneuploidy related to age in porcine oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Hornak

    Full Text Available It is generally accepted that mammalian oocytes are frequently suffering from chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I, which have severe consequences, including pregnancy loss, developmental disorders and mental retardation. In a search for physiologically more relevant model than rodent oocytes to study this phenomenon, we have employed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH, combined with whole genome amplification (WGA, to study the frequency of aneuploidy in porcine oocytes, including rare cells obtained from aged animals. Using this method, we were able to analyze segregation pattern of each individual chromosome during meiosis I. In contrast to the previous reports where conventional methods, such as chromosome spreads or FISH, were used to estimate frequency of aneuploidy, our results presented here show, that the frequency of this phenomenon was overestimated in porcine oocytes. Surprisingly, despite the results from human and mouse showing an increase in the frequency of aneuploidy with advanced maternal age, our results obtained by the most accurate method currently available for scoring the aneuploidy in oocytes indicated no increase in the frequency of aneuploidy even in oocytes from animals, whose age was close to the life expectancy of the breed.

  5. Porcine induced pluripotent stem cells produce chimeric offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Franklin D; Terlouw, Steve L; Kwon, Dae Jin; Mumaw, Jennifer L; Dhara, Sujoy K; Hasneen, Kowser; Dobrinsky, John R; Stice, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Ethical and moral issues rule out the use of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in chimera studies that would determine the full extent of their reprogrammed state, instead relying on less rigorous assays such as teratoma formation and differentiated cell types. To date, only mouse iPSC lines are known to be truly pluripotent. However, initial mouse iPSC lines failed to form chimeric offspring, but did generate teratomas and differentiated embryoid bodies, and thus these specific iPSC lines were not completely reprogrammed or truly pluripotent. Therefore, there is a need to address whether the reprogramming factors and process used eventually to generate chimeric mice are universal and sufficient to generate reprogrammed iPSC that contribute to chimeric offspring in additional species. Here we show that porcine mesenchymal stem cells transduced with 6 human reprogramming factors (POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4, LIN28, and C-MYC) injected into preimplantation-stage embryos contributed to multiple tissue types spanning all 3 germ layers in 8 of 10 fetuses. The chimerism rate was high, 85.3% or 29 of 34 live offspring were chimeras based on skin and tail biopsies harvested from 2- to 5-day-old pigs. The creation of pluripotent porcine iPSCs capable of generating chimeric offspring introduces numerous opportunities to study the facets significantly affecting cell therapies, genetic engineering, and other aspects of stem cell and developmental biology.

  6. Endoluminal MR imaging of porcine gastric structure in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshinaka, Hayato; Morita, Yoshinori; Matsuoka, Yuichiro

    2010-01-01

    Recently, several new endoscopic instruments have been developed. However, even with the full use of current modalities, the safety of endoscopic surgery is not guaranteed. Information regarding factors such as fibrosis and the blood vessels under the mucosa is very important for avoiding procedure-related complications. The aim of this study was to define the detailed anatomy of the gastric wall structure in vivo using original endoluminal radiofrequency coils for safer endoscopic therapy. Swine were used as the subjects and controlled with general anesthesia. Anatomical images were obtained with T1-weighted fast spin echo (T1FSE) and T2-weighted fast spin echo (T2FSE). Dynamic magnetic resonance (MR) angiography was also obtained with three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled acquisition in the steady state (3D-DMRA) following the injection of hyaluronic acid sodium into the submucosal layer. Porcine gastric wall structure was visualized, and four layers were discriminated in the T1FSE and T2FSE images. The vascular structure was clearly recognized in the submucosa on 3D-DMRA. Endoluminal MR imaging was able to visualize the porcine stomach with similar quality to endoscopic ultrasonography imaging. Additionally, it was possible to visualize the vascular structures in the submucosal layer. This is the first report to show that blood vessels under the gastric mucosa can be depicted in vivo. (author)

  7. First identification of porcine parvovirus 6 in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jin; Fan, Jinghui; Gerber, Priscilla F; Biernacka, Kinga; Stadejek, Tomasz; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2017-02-01

    Porcine parvovirus type 1 is a major causative agent of swine reproductive failure. During the past decade, several new parvoviruses have been discovered in pigs. Porcine parvovirus type 6 (PPV6), recently identified, has been reported in pigs in China and in the USA while the PPV6 status in the European pig population remains undetermined. In the present study, PPV6 DNA was identified in serum samples collected from domestic pigs in Poland. In investigated herds, the prevalence of PPV6 was 14.9 % (15/101 samples). Sequencing was conducted, and 11 nearly complete PPV6 genomes were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PPV6 sequences cluster into four distinct groups, and the Polish PPV6 strains from three individual farms were present in three of these four groups. In addition, the Polish PPV6 strain P15-1 was identified as a putative recombination of an ORF1 from US stains and an ORF2 from Chinese strains. This is the first identification of PPV6 in Europe, and this finding will encourage future epidemiological studies on parvoviruses in European pigs.

  8. Infection Barriers to Successful Xenotransplantation Focusing on Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tönjes, Ralf R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Xenotransplantation may be a solution to overcome the shortage of organs for the treatment of patients with organ failure, but it may be associated with the transmission of porcine microorganisms and the development of xenozoonoses. Whereas most microorganisms may be eliminated by pathogen-free breeding of the donor animals, porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) cannot be eliminated, since these are integrated into the genomes of all pigs. Human-tropic PERV-A and -B are present in all pigs and are able to infect human cells. Infection of ecotropic PERV-C is limited to pig cells. PERVs may adapt to host cells by varying the number of LTR-binding transcription factor binding sites. Like all retroviruses, they may induce tumors and/or immunodeficiencies. To date, all experimental, preclinical, and clinical xenotransplantations using pig cells, tissues, and organs have not shown transmission of PERV. Highly sensitive and specific methods have been developed to analyze the PERV status of donor pigs and to monitor recipients for PERV infection. Strategies have been developed to prevent PERV transmission, including selection of PERV-C-negative, low-producer pigs, generation of an effective vaccine, selection of effective antiretrovirals, and generation of animals transgenic for a PERV-specific short hairpin RNA inhibiting PERV expression by RNA interference. PMID:22491774

  9. Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses in Xenotransplantation—Molecular Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena C. Kimsa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the shortage of organs and other tissues for use in human transplantation, xenotransplantation procedures with material taken from pigs have come under increased consideration. However, there are unclear consequences of the potential transmission of porcine pathogens to humans. Of particular concern are porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs. Three subtypes of PERV have been identified, of which PERV-A and PERV-B have the ability to infect human cells in vitro. The PERV-C subtype does not show this ability but recombinant PERV-A/C forms have demonstrated infectivity in human cells. In view of the risk presented by these observations, the International Xenotransplantation Association recently indicated the existence of four strategies to prevent transmission of PERVs. This article focuses on the molecular aspects of PERV infection in xenotransplantation and reviews the techniques available for the detection of PERV DNA, RNA, reverse transcriptase activity and proteins, and anti-PERV antibodies to enable carrying out these recommendations. These methods could be used to evaluate the risk of PERV transmission in human recipients, enhance the effectiveness and reliability of monitoring procedures, and stimulate discussion on the development of improved, more sensitive methods for the detection of PERVs in the future.

  10. Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses in Xenotransplantation—Molecular Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsa, Magdalena C.; Strzalka-Mrozik, Barbara; Kimsa, Malgorzata W.; Gola, Joanna; Nicholson, Peter; Lopata, Krzysztof; Mazurek, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the shortage of organs and other tissues for use in human transplantation, xenotransplantation procedures with material taken from pigs have come under increased consideration. However, there are unclear consequences of the potential transmission of porcine pathogens to humans. Of particular concern are porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs). Three subtypes of PERV have been identified, of which PERV-A and PERV-B have the ability to infect human cells in vitro. The PERV-C subtype does not show this ability but recombinant PERV-A/C forms have demonstrated infectivity in human cells. In view of the risk presented by these observations, the International Xenotransplantation Association recently indicated the existence of four strategies to prevent transmission of PERVs. This article focuses on the molecular aspects of PERV infection in xenotransplantation and reviews the techniques available for the detection of PERV DNA, RNA, reverse transcriptase activity and proteins, and anti-PERV antibodies to enable carrying out these recommendations. These methods could be used to evaluate the risk of PERV transmission in human recipients, enhance the effectiveness and reliability of monitoring procedures, and stimulate discussion on the development of improved, more sensitive methods for the detection of PERVs in the future. PMID:24828841

  11. Chlamydiaceae family, Parachlamydia spp., and Waddlia spp. in porcine abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschwanez, Maria; Meli, Marina; Vögtlin, Andrea; Greub, Gilbert; Sidler, Xaver; Handke, Martin; Sydler, Titus; Kaiser, Carmen; Pospischil, Andreas; Borel, Nicole

    2012-09-01

    At present, despite extensive laboratory investigations, most cases of porcine abortion remain without an etiological diagnosis. Due to a lack of recent data on the abortigenic effect of order Chlamydiales, 286 fetuses and their placentae of 113 abortion cases (1-5 fetuses per abortion case) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for family Chlamydiaceae and selected Chlamydia-like organisms such as Parachlamydia acanthamoebae and Waddlia chondrophila. In 0.35% of the cases (1/286 fetuses), the Chlamydiaceae real-time PCR was positive. In the Chlamydiaceae-positive fetus, Chlamydia abortus was detected by a commercial microarray and 16S ribosomal RNA PCR followed by sequencing. The positive fetus had a Porcine circovirus-2 coinfection. By the Parachlamydia real-time PCR, 3.5% (10/286 fetuses of 9 abortion cases) were questionable positive (threshold cycle values: 35.0-45.0). In 2 of these 10 cases, a confirmation by Chlamydiales-specific real-time PCR was possible. All samples tested negative by the Waddlia real-time PCR. It seems unlikely that Chlamydiaceae, Parachlamydia, and Waddlia play an important role as abortigenic agents in Swiss sows.

  12. Porcine CD38 exhibits prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Kai Yiu; Leung, Christina F P; Graeff, Richard M; Lee, Hon Cheung; Hao, Quan; Kotaka, Masayo

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) mobilizes intracellular Ca(2+) stores and activates Ca(2+) influx to regulate a wide range of physiological processes. It is one of the products produced from the catalysis of NAD(+) by the multifunctional CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase superfamily. After elimination of the nicotinamide ring by the enzyme, the reaction intermediate of NAD(+) can either be hydrolyzed to form linear ADPR or cyclized to form cADPR. We have previously shown that human CD38 exhibits a higher preference towards the hydrolysis of NAD(+) to form linear ADPR while Aplysia ADP-ribosyl cyclase prefers cyclizing NAD(+) to form cADPR. In this study, we characterized the enzymatic properties of porcine CD38 and revealed that it has a prominent secondary NAD(+) cyclase activity producing cADPR. We also determined the X-ray crystallographic structures of porcine CD38 and were able to observe conformational flexibility at the base of the active site of the enzyme which allow the NAD(+) reaction intermediate to adopt conformations resulting in both hydrolysis and cyclization forming linear ADPR and cADPR respectively. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  13. Effect of Kaempferol on in vitro Maturation of Porcine Oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Orlovschi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of kaempferol on porcine oocytes in vitro maturation. Kaempferol is one the most studied flavonoids and is in research attention on animal cells until 1979. Flavonoids are known as polyphenolic compounds synthesized by the plants. Cumulus-oocyte complexes aspirated from the ovaries were maturated in vitro, fertilized and embryos were cultured in a defined conditioned medium with 5, 15, 25, 35 µg/ml or without kaempferol supplementation. During in vitro maturation with highest kaempferol concentration (35 µg/ml distinct significantly increase the rate of cumulus cell expansion in grad 4 (42.74 vs. 50.96%, p<0.01. The same, addition of 5 µg/ml kaempferol to the in vitro maturation medium increase significantly the rate of expansion compared to 25 µg/ml (42.20 vs. 48.67%, p<0.05 and increase distinct significantly the rate of expansion compared to 35 µg/ml (42.20 vs. 50.96%, p<0.01. Kaempferol supplementation (15 µg/ml vs. 35 µg/ml of the in vitro fertilization medium led to a significant increase in the rate of 4-8 cells formation (0.69 vs. 4.96%, p<0.05. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that supplementation with kaempferol during in vitro maturation improved the developmental competence of porcine oocytes.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of porcine acylaminoacyl peptidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Helena [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Kiss, András L.; Szeltner, Zoltán; Polgár, László [Institute of Enzymology, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1518 Budapest 112, PO Box 7 (Hungary); Fülöp, Vilmos, E-mail: vilmos@globin.bio.warwick.ac.uk [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2005-10-01

    Acylaminoacyl peptidase from porcine liver has been crystallized. Data were collected to 3.4 Å from native crystals and a search for heavy-atom derivatives is in progress. Acylaminoacyl peptidase (also known as acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme or acylpeptide hydrolase; EC 3.4.19.1) is an unusual member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family catalysing the hydrolysis of an N-acylated peptide to an acylamino acid and a peptide with a free N-terminus. Acylaminoacyl peptidase purified from porcine liver has been crystallized in mother liquor containing 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 7.0, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000, 50 mM MgCl{sub 2} and 1%(w/v) CHAPS using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. A full data set to 3.4 Å resolution was collected at ESRF beamline ID14-4 and space group C222 was assigned, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.8, b = 421.1, c = 212.0 Å and four molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  15. Characterization of a porcine model of chronic superficial varicose veins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Gregory T; Grant, Mark W; Thomson, Ian A; Hill, B Geraldine; van Rij, André M

    2009-06-01

    Previous animal models of venous disease, while inducing venous hypertension and valvular insufficiency, do not produce superficial varicose veins. In this study, we aimed to develop and characterize a pig-based model of superficial varicose veins. Right femoral arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) were surgically fashioned in young adult pigs. Animals were examined at postoperative times up to 15 weeks to determine the development of varicose veins and measurement of both blood pressure and flow velocities within the superficial thigh veins. Histology and vascular corrosion casts were used to characterize the resulting structural venous alterations. Porcine pathophysiological features were compared with those of human primary superficial varicose veins. Gross superficial varicosities developed over the ipsilateral medial thigh region after an initial lag period of 1-2 weeks. Veins demonstrated retrograde filling with valvular incompetence, and a moderate, non-pulsatile, venous hypertension, which was altered by changes in posture and Valsalva. Venous blood flow velocities were elevated to 15-30 cm/s in varicose veins. Structurally, pig varicose veins were enlarged, tortuous, had valvular degeneration, and regions of focal medial atrophy with or without overlying intimal thickening. The superficial varicose veins, which developed within this model, have a pathophysiology that is consistent with that observed in humans. The porcine femoral AVF model is proposed as a suitable experimental model to evaluate the pathobiology of superficial venous disease. It may also be suitable for the evaluation of treatment interventions including drug therapy.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of porcine acylaminoacyl peptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Helena; Kiss, András L.; Szeltner, Zoltán; Polgár, László; Fülöp, Vilmos

    2005-01-01

    Acylaminoacyl peptidase from porcine liver has been crystallized. Data were collected to 3.4 Å from native crystals and a search for heavy-atom derivatives is in progress. Acylaminoacyl peptidase (also known as acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme or acylpeptide hydrolase; EC 3.4.19.1) is an unusual member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family catalysing the hydrolysis of an N-acylated peptide to an acylamino acid and a peptide with a free N-terminus. Acylaminoacyl peptidase purified from porcine liver has been crystallized in mother liquor containing 0.1 M Tris–HCl pH 7.0, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000, 50 mM MgCl 2 and 1%(w/v) CHAPS using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. A full data set to 3.4 Å resolution was collected at ESRF beamline ID14-4 and space group C222 was assigned, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.8, b = 421.1, c = 212.0 Å and four molecules in the asymmetric unit

  17. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min; Wang, Shujie; Li, Linxi; Lei, Liancheng; Liu, Yonggang; Shi, Wenda; Wu, Jiabin; Li, Liqin; Rong, Fulong; Xu, Mingming; Sun, Guangli; Xiang, Hua; Cai, Xuehui

    2010-08-09

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS) outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7) have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS) disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV)-infected pigs (4/12) and the coinfected pigs (8/10); however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10) than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12) and SS7-infected pigs (0/10). The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.

  18. Secondary infection with Streptococcus suis serotype 7 increases the virulence of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Min

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV and Streptococcus suis are common pathogens in pigs. In samples collected during the porcine high fever syndrome (PHFS outbreak in many parts of China, PRRSV and S. suis serotype 7 (SS7 have always been isolated together. To determine whether PRRSV-SS7 coinfection was the cause of the PHFS outbreak, we evaluated the pathogenicity of PRRSV and/or SS7 in a pig model of single and mixed infection. Results Respiratory disease, diarrhea, and anorexia were observed in all infected pigs. Signs of central nervous system (CNS disease were observed in the highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV-infected pigs (4/12 and the coinfected pigs (8/10; however, the symptoms of the coinfected pigs were clearly more severe than those of the HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The mortality rate was significantly higher in the coinfected pigs (8/10 than in the HP-PRRSV- (2/12 and SS7-infected pigs (0/10. The deceased pigs of the coinfected group had symptoms typical of PHFS, such as high fever, anorexia, and red coloration of the ears and the body. The isolation rates of HP-PRRSV and SS7 were higher and the lesion severity was greater in the coinfected pigs than in monoinfected pigs. Conclusion HP-PRRSV infection increased susceptibility to SS7 infection, and coinfection of HP-PRRSV with SS7 significantly increased the pathogenicity of SS7 to pigs.

  19. Flavoured Dark Matter moving left

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanke, Monika; Das, Satrajit; Kast, Simon

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the phenomenology of a simplified model of flavoured Dark Matter (DM), with a dark fermionic flavour triplet coupling to the left-handed SU(2) L quark doublets via a scalar mediator. The DM-quark coupling matrix is assumed to constitute the only new source of flavour and CP violation, following the hypothesis of Dark Minimal Flavour Violation. We analyse the constraints from LHC searches, from meson mixing data in the K, D, and B d,s meson systems, from thermal DM freeze-out, and from direct detection experiments. Our combined analysis shows that while the experimental constraints are similar to the DMFV models with DM coupling to right-handed quarks, the multitude of couplings between DM and the SM quark sector resulting from the SU(2) L structure implies a richer phenomenology and significantly alters the resulting impact on the viable parameter space.

  20. Entry of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus into porcine alveolar macrophages via receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nauwynck, H J; Duan, X; Favoreel, H W; Van Oostveldt, P; Pensaert, M B

    1999-02-01

    Porcine alveolar macrophages (AMphi) are the dominant cell type that supports the replication of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in vivo and in vitro. In order to determine the characteristics of the virus-receptor interaction, the attachment of PRRSV to cells was examined by using biotinylated virus in a series of flow cytometric assays. PRRSV bound specifically to AMphi in a dose-dependent manner. Binding of PRRSV to AMphi increased gradually and reached a maximum within 60 min at 4 degrees C. By confocal microscopy, it was shown that different degrees of PRRSV binding exist and that entry is by endocytosis. Virus uptake in vesicles is a clathrin-dependent process, as it was blocked by the addition of cytochalasin D and co-localization of PRRSV and clathrin was found. Furthermore, by the use of two weak bases, NH4Cl and chloroquine, it was demonstrated that PRRSV uses a low pH-dependent entry pathway. In the presence of these reagents, input virions accumulated in large vacuoles, indicating that uncoating was prevented. These results indicate that PRRSV entry into AMphi involves attachment to a specific virus receptor(s) followed by a process of endocytosis, by which virions are taken into the cell within vesicles by a clathrin-dependent pathway. A subsequent drop in pH is required for proper virus replication.

  1. Culture of porcine luteal cells as a substrate for in vitro maturation of porcine cumulus oocyte complexes. Establishment and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teplitz MA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish and characterize the porcine luteal cells (PLC culture for the subsequent coculture with porcine COC. The final purpose is to promote the oocyte maturation. The PLC was established using corpora lutea obtained from slaughterhouse ovaries. Corpora lutea were dissected and luteal tissue submitted to a mechanical and enzymatic digestion with collagenase IV. The cell suspension was filtered and centrifuged and the cells obtained were diluted in 15 mL of DMEM-F12 supplemented media. Diluted cells were seeded in 3 culture flasks T25, staying in a controlled environment and changing the medium every 2 days. For the analysis and characterization, the cells were assessed by the Nile red staining to detect intracellular lipids, immunocytochemistry (ICC for 3β-hydroxy steroid dehidrogenase (3β-HSD and ELISA for P4 determination. We observed the presence of lipid intracellular droplets. Also, we observed an increase of P4 concentration at 48, 96 y 144 h of primary culture and almost all the cells were positive to the ICC evaluation for 3β-HSD, showing the steroidogenic capacity of the culture cells.

  2. Comparison of commercial and experimental porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines using a triple challenge with PCV2, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and porcine parvovirus (PPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H G; Beach, N M; Huang, Y W; Halbur, P G; Meng, X J; Opriessnig, T

    2010-08-23

    The efficacies of commercial porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccines and a live PCV1-2a chimeric vaccine were compared in conventional, PCV2-positive piglets using a PCV2-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-porcine parvovirus (PPV) coinfection challenge model. Seventy-three, 2-week-old pigs were randomized into seven groups including five vaccinated and two control groups. Pigs in the vaccinated groups were vaccinated at 3 weeks (one dose) or at 3 and 6 weeks (two dose) of age. All vaccine regimens tested were effective in reducing naturally occurring PCV2 viremia at 16 weeks of age and after PCV2 challenge, demonstrating the capability of the products to induce a lasting protective immunity despite the presence of PCV2 viremia at the time of vaccination. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An elusive persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Soward; F.J. ten Cate (Folkert); P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); J.R.T.C. Roelandt (Jos)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractA case report of a persistent left superior vena cava draining into left atrium with a fibromuscular left ventricular outflow tract obstruction and a small atrial septal defect. The anomalous vessel escaped detection during two right and left heart catheterizations from the right arm and

  4. Persistency of the left superior caval vein. Diagnosis and its prenatal importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo, Juan F; Estrada Perea, Mercy H; Muriel, Yina Y

    2010-01-01

    Certain heart fetal planes must be realized during a routine obstetric ultrasound in order to identify a group of anomalies such as the persistency of the left superior caval vein. When an isolated left superior venal vein is identified without any other anomaly of the fetal heart, it does not have any perinatal repercussion. Its importance lies in the fact that a considerable number of these cases are associated with a high incidence of congenital heart diseases and anatomic and chromosomal abnormalities. This article reports nine cases of persistency of the left superior caval vein as well as the associated heart abnormalities and the extra-cardiac alterations found.

  5. Heart valve bioprosthesis durability: a challenge to the new generation of porcine valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, M; Minarini, M; Maizza, A F; Bortolotti, U; Thiene, G

    1992-01-01

    Long-term experience with first generation porcine valve xenografts enabled identification of the major limitations to their durability: (1) prosthetic-ventricular mismatch due to the high profile of the stent in patients with mitral stenosis and a small left ventricle; (2) high-pressure fixation with loss of natural collagen crimping in the fibrosa, and wash-out of proteoglycans in the spongiosa; (3) xenograft tissue autolysis, due to the long interval between animal slaughter and aortic valve removal fixation; (4) muscle shelf in the right coronary cusp, which created a gradient and could undergo accelerated calcification and/or spontaneous perforation with time; (5) a flexible polypropylene stent, which could creep or even fracture with consequent inward bending of the stent; (6) progressive time-related dystrophic calcification; (7) host fibrous tissue ingrowth. An awareness of these limitations stimulated technical modifications, which frequently brought about distinct improvements: (1) the reduction of the stent profile eliminated the problem of mismatch, but resulted in a higher tendency towards cusp prolapse and earlier commissural tearing; (2) natural collagen waviness, proteoglycans and cusp extensibility were preserved by employing low or even zero pressure during the fixation process; (3) earlier valve fixation enabled preservation of cell integrity; (4) a new orifice for small valves was designed by replacing the right muscular cusp, thus achieving less gradient and avoiding muscle-shelf-related complications; (5) polypropylene was replaced by Delrin as stent material; (6) calcium-retarding agents like T6 and toluidine blue were applied during commercial processing and storage in order to mitigate tissue mineralization.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Gradient changes in porcine renal arterial vascular anatomy and blood flow after cryoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerveld, Brunolf W; van Horssen, Pepijn; Laguna, M Pilar; van den Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M; Siebes, Maria; Wijkstra, Hessel; de la Rosette, Jean J M C H; Spaan, Jos A E

    2011-08-01

    We quantified temporal changes in vascular structure and blood flow after cryosurgery of the porcine kidney in vivo. We studied 5 groups of 4 kidneys each with a survival time of 20 minutes, 4 hours, 2 days, and 1 and 2 weeks after cryoablation, respectively. Before harvesting the kidneys, fluorescently labeled microspheres were administrated in the descending aorta. After harvest the kidney and its vasculature were casted with fluorescently dyed elastomer, frozen and processed in an imaging cryomicrotome to reveal the 3-dimensional arterial branching structure and microsphere distribution. In regions of interest vessels were segmented by image analysis software and histograms were constructed to reveal the total summed vessel length as a function of diameter. A characteristic diameter of the ablated area was measured. The 20-minute survival group histograms showed a significant shift of the peak to larger diameters (p<0.002), indicating that smaller vessels were destroyed. Microsphere density was decreased to 2% in the ablated region but not in the nonablated border zone, depending on the remaining crater crossing larger vessels. After 2 weeks neither vessels nor microspheres were left in the ablated area, which had shrunk by about 40% in diameter. Study limitations are the lack of histological confirmation and the use of normal rather than cancerous tissue. Larger vessels remain patent just after ablation and transport blood to the border of the ablation crater but perfusion within the crater is halted instantly. Characteristic crater diameter increases initially but decreases thereafter. Destruction of vessels and tissue is complete 2 weeks after cryoablation. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Regional and depth variability of porcine meniscal mechanical properties through biaxial testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlon, A; Hurtig, M B; Gordon, K D

    2015-01-01

    The menisci in the knee joint undergo complex loading in-vivo resulting in a multidirectional stress distribution. Extensive mechanical testing has been conducted to investigate the tissue properties of the knee meniscus, but the testing conditions do not replicate this complex loading regime. Biaxial testing involves loading tissue along two different directions simultaneously, which more accurately simulates physiologic loading conditions. The purpose of this study was to report mechanical properties of meniscal tissue resulting from biaxial testing, while simultaneously investigating regional variations in properties. Ten left, fresh porcine joints were obtained, and the medial and lateral menisci were harvested from each joint (twenty menisci total). Each menisci was divided into an anterior, middle and posterior region; and three slices (femoral, deep and tibial layers) were obtained from each region. Biaxial and constrained uniaxial testing was performed on each specimen, and Young's moduli were calculated from the resulting stress strain curves. Results illustrated significant differences in regional mechanical properties, with the medial anterior (Young's modulus (E)=11.14 ± 1.10 MPa), lateral anterior (E=11.54 ± 1.10 MPa) and lateral posterior (E=9.0 ± 1.2 MPa) regions exhibiting the highest properties compared to the medial central (E=5.0 ± 1.22 MPa), medial posterior (E=4.16 ± 1.13 MPa) and lateral central (E=5.6 ± 1.20 MPa) regions. Differences with depth were also significant on the lateral meniscus, with the femoral (E=12.7 ± 1.22 MPa) and tibial (E=8.6 ± 1.22 MPa) layers exhibiting the highest Young's moduli. This data may form the basis for future modeling of meniscal tissue, or may aid in the design of synthetic replacement alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Concomitant Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava and Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Jaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC and horseshoe kidney (HSK are common congenital abnormalities; however presence of both in the same person is extremely rare. A patient with hepatitis C cirrhosis awaiting transplant presented with worsening liver dysfunction, diagnosed with acute renal failure secondary to hepatorenal syndrome, and required X-ray fluoroscopy guided tunneled venous catheter placement for hemodialysis. Review of imaging studies demonstrated coexistence of PLSVC and HSK. PLSVC in adulthood is usually incidental with the most common drainage pattern being without physiologic dysfunction. Isolated horseshoe kidney is still the most common of renal fusion anomalies; however etiology of coexistent PLSVC remains unknown.

  9. Left Ventricle Non compaction: Physiopathology and Findings by Magnetic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra R, Rodrigo; Cadavid Lina

    2009-01-01

    A Left ventricular non compaction (LVNC) has recently been classified as a primary cardiomyopathy with a genetic origin. It is morphologically characterized by numerous prominent trabeculations and deep inter trabecular recesses. LVNC is probably secondary to an arrest in the normal process of myocardial compaction during fetal life. LVNC may be an isolated finding in the absence of any coexisting cardiac anomaly or may be associated with other congenital heart anomalies or neuromuscular disorders. LVNC includes both asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with severe heart failure, systemic embolism, arrhythmia or sudden death. Diagnosis has moved from autopsy to recognition during life by non-invasive means: echocardiography and more recently cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. Putative porcine embryonic stem cell lines derived from aggregated four-celled cloned embryos produced by oocyte bisection cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriboon, Chawalit; Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Kere, Michel; Chen, Chun-Da; Chen, Lih-Ren; Chen, Chien-Hong; Tu, Ching-Fu; Lo, Neng-Wen; Ju, Jyh-Cherng

    2015-01-01

    We attempted to isolate ES cell lines using inner cell masses from high-quality cloned porcine blastocysts. After being seeded onto feeders, embryos had better (P cloned embryos (62.8, 42.6 and 12.8% vs. 76.2, 55.2 and 26.2%, respectively) compared to the non-aggregated group (41.6, 23.4 and 3.9%). Effects of feeder types (STO vs. MEF) and serum sources (FBS vs. KSR) on extraction of cloned embryo-derived porcine ES cells were examined. More (17.1%) ntES cell lines over Passage 3 were generated in the MEF/KSR group. However, ntES cells cultured in KSR-supplemented medium had a low proliferation rate with defective morphology, and eventually underwent differentiation or apoptosis subsequently. Approximately 26.1, 22.7 and 35.7% of primary colonies were formed after plating embryos in DMEM, DMEM/F12 and α-MEM media, respectively. Survival rates of ntES cells cultured in α-MEM, DMEM and DMEM/F12 were 16.7, 4.3 and 6.8%, respectively (P > 0.05). We further examined the beneficial effect of TSA treatment of 3× aggregated cloned embryos on establishment of ntES cell lines. Primary colony numbers and survival rates of ntES cells beyond passage 3 were higher (P cells, remaining undifferentiated over 25 passages, had alkaline phosphatase activity and expressed ES specific markers Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, and Rex01. Moreover, these ntES cells successfully differentiated into embryoid bodies (EBs) that expressed specific genes of all three germ layers after being cultured in LIF-free medium. In conclusion, we have successfully derived putative porcine ntES cells with high efficiency from quality cloned embryos produced by embryo aggregation, and optimized the ES cell culture system suitable for establishing and maintaining ntES cell lines in undifferentiated state.

  11. Covalent immobilization of porcine pancreatic lipase on carboxyl-activated magnetic nanoparticles: Characterization and application for enzymatic inhibition assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yuan-Ting; Ren, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Yi-Ming; Wei, Ying; Qing, Lin-Sen; Liao, Xun

    2014-01-01

    Using carboxyl functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carrier, a novel immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was prepared through the 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling reaction. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the synthesized nanoparticles (Fe 3 O 4 –SiO 2 ) possessed three dimensional core–shell structures with an average diameter of ∼ 20 nm. The effective enzyme immobilization onto the nanocomposite was confirmed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. Results from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Bradford protein assay, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that PPL was covalently attached to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles with a PPL immobilization yield of 50 mg enzyme/g MNPs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis revealed that the MNPs-PPL nanocomposite had a high saturation magnetization of 42.25 emu·g −1 . The properties of the immobilized PPL were investigated in comparison with the free enzyme counterpart. Enzymatic activity, reusability, thermo-stability, and storage stability of the immobilized PPL were found significantly superior to those of the free one. The K m and the V max values (0.02 mM, 6.40 U·mg −1 enzyme) indicated the enhanced activity of the immobilized PPL compared to those of the free enzyme (0.29 mM, 3.16 U·mg −1 enzyme). Furthermore, at an elevated temperature of 70 °C, immobilized PPL retained 60% of its initial activity. The PPL-MNPs nanocomposite was applied in the enzyme inhibition assays using orlistat, and two natural products isolated from oolong tea (i.e., EGCG and EGC) as the test compounds. - Highlights: • Porcine pancreatic lipase was firstly covalently immobilized onto carboxylated MNPs. • Immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was characterized by various techniques. • MNPs-PPL showed higher activity, reusability, and thermo-stability than

  12. Covalent immobilization of porcine pancreatic lipase on carboxyl-activated magnetic nanoparticles: Characterization and application for enzymatic inhibition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yuan-Ting [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ren, Xiao-Yun [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Yi-Ming [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch St., Jackson, MS 39217 (United States); Wei, Ying [Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi 046000 (China); Qing, Lin-Sen [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liao, Xun, E-mail: liaoxun@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Using carboxyl functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carrier, a novel immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was prepared through the 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling reaction. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the synthesized nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–SiO{sub 2}) possessed three dimensional core–shell structures with an average diameter of ∼ 20 nm. The effective enzyme immobilization onto the nanocomposite was confirmed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. Results from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Bradford protein assay, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that PPL was covalently attached to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles with a PPL immobilization yield of 50 mg enzyme/g MNPs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis revealed that the MNPs-PPL nanocomposite had a high saturation magnetization of 42.25 emu·g{sup −1}. The properties of the immobilized PPL were investigated in comparison with the free enzyme counterpart. Enzymatic activity, reusability, thermo-stability, and storage stability of the immobilized PPL were found significantly superior to those of the free one. The K{sub m} and the V{sub max} values (0.02 mM, 6.40 U·mg{sup −1} enzyme) indicated the enhanced activity of the immobilized PPL compared to those of the free enzyme (0.29 mM, 3.16 U·mg{sup −1} enzyme). Furthermore, at an elevated temperature of 70 °C, immobilized PPL retained 60% of its initial activity. The PPL-MNPs nanocomposite was applied in the enzyme inhibition assays using orlistat, and two natural products isolated from oolong tea (i.e., EGCG and EGC) as the test compounds. - Highlights: • Porcine pancreatic lipase was firstly covalently immobilized onto carboxylated MNPs. • Immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was characterized by various techniques. • MNPs-PPL showed higher activity

  13. Reproducible simulation of respiratory motion in porcine lung explants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Dept. of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Plathow, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Dept. of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Schoebinger, M.; Meinzer, H.P. [Dept. of Medical and Biological Informatics, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Tetzlaff, R.; Puderbach, M.; Zaporozhan, J.; Kauczor, H.U. [Dept. of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Bolte, H.; Heller, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a model for exactly reproducible respiration motion simulations of animal lung explants inside an MR-compatible chest phantom. Materials and Methods: The materials included a piston pump and a flexible silicone reconstruction of a porcine diaphragm and were used in combination with an established MR-compatible chest phantom for porcine heart-lung preparations. The rhythmic inflation and deflation of the diaphragm at the bottom of the artificial thorax with water (1-1.5 L) induced lung tissue displacement resembling diaphragmatic breathing. This system was tested on five porcine heart-lung preparations using 1.5T MRI with transverse and coronal 3D-GRE (TR/TE=3.63/1.58, 256 x 256 matrix, 350 mm FOV, 4 mm slices) and half Fourier T2-FSE (TR/TE=545/29, 256 x 192, 350 mm, 6 mm) as well as multiple row detector CT (16 x 1 mm collimation, pitch 1.5, FOV 400 mm, 120 mAs) acquired at five fixed inspiration levels. Dynamic CT scans and coronal MRI with dynamic 2D-GRE and 2D-SS-GRE sequences (image frequencies of 10/sec and 3/sec, respectively) were acquired during continuous 'breathing' (7/minute). The position of the piston pump was visually correlated with the respiratory motion visible through the transparent wall of the phantom and with dynamic displays of CT and MR images. An elastic body splines analysis of the respiratory motion was performed using CT data. Results: Visual evaluation of MRI and CT showed three-dimensional movement of the lung tissue throughout the respiration cycle. Local tissue displacement inside the lung explants was documented with motion maps calculated from CT. The maximum displacement at the top of the diaphragm (mean 26.26 [SD 1.9] mm on CT and 27.16 [SD 1.5] mm on MRI, respectively [p=0.25; Wilcoxon test]) was in the range of tidal breathing in human patients. Conclusion: The chest phantom with a diaphragmatic pump is a promising platform for multi-modality imaging studies of the effects of respiratory lung

  14. Reproducible simulation of respiratory motion in porcine lung explants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Plathow, C.; Schoebinger, M.; Meinzer, H.P.; Tetzlaff, R.; Puderbach, M.; Zaporozhan, J.; Kauczor, H.U.; Bolte, H.; Heller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model for exactly reproducible respiration motion simulations of animal lung explants inside an MR-compatible chest phantom. Materials and Methods: The materials included a piston pump and a flexible silicone reconstruction of a porcine diaphragm and were used in combination with an established MR-compatible chest phantom for porcine heart-lung preparations. The rhythmic inflation and deflation of the diaphragm at the bottom of the artificial thorax with water (1-1.5 L) induced lung tissue displacement resembling diaphragmatic breathing. This system was tested on five porcine heart-lung preparations using 1.5T MRI with transverse and coronal 3D-GRE (TR/TE=3.63/1.58, 256 x 256 matrix, 350 mm FOV, 4 mm slices) and half Fourier T2-FSE (TR/TE=545/29, 256 x 192, 350 mm, 6 mm) as well as multiple row detector CT (16 x 1 mm collimation, pitch 1.5, FOV 400 mm, 120 mAs) acquired at five fixed inspiration levels. Dynamic CT scans and coronal MRI with dynamic 2D-GRE and 2D-SS-GRE sequences (image frequencies of 10/sec and 3/sec, respectively) were acquired during continuous 'breathing' (7/minute). The position of the piston pump was visually correlated with the respiratory motion visible through the transparent wall of the phantom and with dynamic displays of CT and MR images. An elastic body splines analysis of the respiratory motion was performed using CT data. Results: Visual evaluation of MRI and CT showed three-dimensional movement of the lung tissue throughout the respiration cycle. Local tissue displacement inside the lung explants was documented with motion maps calculated from CT. The maximum displacement at the top of the diaphragm (mean 26.26 [SD 1.9] mm on CT and 27.16 [SD 1.5] mm on MRI, respectively [p=0.25; Wilcoxon test]) was in the range of tidal breathing in human patients. Conclusion: The chest phantom with a diaphragmatic pump is a promising platform for multi-modality imaging studies of the effects of respiratory lung motion. (orig.)

  15. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO_2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.

    2016-01-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO_2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  16. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  17. Ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity in soft biological tissue: Porcine aortic walls revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, T.; Hummel,R.; Katsouras,I.; Groen, W.A.; Nijemeisland, M.; Ruemmler,R.; Schäfer, M.K.E.; Leeuw, D.M. de

    2017-01-01

    Recently reported piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) measurements have proposed that porcine aortic walls are ferroelectric. This finding may have great implications for understanding biophysical properties of cardiovascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis. However, the complex anatomical

  18. Ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity in soft biological tissue : Porcine aortic walls revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, Thomas; Hummel, Regina; Katsouras, Ilias; Groen, W.A.; Nijemeisland, M.; Ruemmler, Robert; Schäfer, Michael K.E.; de Leeuw, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    Recently reported piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) measurements have proposed that porcine aortic walls are ferroelectric. This finding may have great implications for understanding biophysical properties of cardiovascular diseases such as arteriosclerosis. However, the complex anatomical

  19. Porcine cadaver organ or virtual-reality simulation training for laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruwaene, Siska; Schijven, Marlies P.; Napolitano, Daniel; de Win, Gunter; Miserez, Marc

    2015-01-01

    As conventional laparoscopic procedural training requires live animals or cadaver organs, virtual simulation seems an attractive alternative. Therefore, we compared the transfer of training for the laparoscopic cholecystectomy from porcine cadaver organs vs virtual simulation to surgery in a live

  20. Acellular porcine xenodermis as a temporary wound cover and substratum for cultured keratinocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušková, Eva; Stehlíček, P.; Veselý, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2002), s. 83-85 ISSN 1473-2262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : wound healing * cultured keratinocytes * dried porcine dermis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  1. Enzyme immunoassay for the detection of porcine gelatine in edible bird's nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukiran, Nur Azira; Ismail, Amin; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Hamid, Muhajir

    2015-01-01

    Porcine gelatine is a common adulterant found in edible bird's nests (EBNs) used to increase the net weight prior to sale. This study aimed to develop indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for porcine gelatine adulteration using anti-peptide polyclonal antibodies. Three indirect ELISAs were developed (PAB1, 2 and 3), which had limits of detection (LODs) of 0.12, 0.10 and 0.11 µg g(-1), respectively. When applied to standard solutions of porcine gelatine, the inter- and intra-assays showed coefficients of variation (CVs) less than 20% and were able to detect at least 0.5 ng µg(-1) (0.05%) porcine gelatine in spiked samples. The proposed ELISA offers attractions for quality control in the EBN industry.

  2. Emerging technologies to create inducible and genetically defined porcine cancer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence B Schook

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging need for new animal models that address unmet translational cancer research requirements. Transgenic porcine models provide an exceptional opportunity due to their genetic, anatomic and physiological similarities with humans. Due to recent advances in the sequencing of domestic animal genomes and the development of new organism cloning technologies, it is now very feasible to utilize pigs as a malleable species, with similar anatomic and physiological features with humans, in which to develop cancer models. In this review, we discuss genetic modification technologies successfully used to produce porcine biomedical models, in particular the Cre-loxP System as well as major advances and perspectives the CRISPR/Cas9 System. Recent advancements in porcine tumor modeling and genome editing will bring porcine models to the forefront of translational cancer research.

  3. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenesis and interaction with the immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review addresses important issues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection, immunity, pathogenesis and control. Worldwide PRRS is the most economically important infectious disease of pigs. We highlight the latest information on viral genome structure, pathogenic...

  4. In vitro measurements of optical properties of porcine brain using a novel compact device

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yavari, N

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available describes measurements of the optical properties of porcine brain tissue using novel instrumentation for simultaneous absorption and scattering characterisation of small turbid samples. Integrating sphere measurements are widely used as a reference method...

  5. Elevated NaCl concentration improves cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, L; Du, Y; Liu, Y

    2009-01-01

    High hydrostatic pressure has been reported to improve the fertilizing or developmental ability of mammalian spermatozoa, oocytes and embryos. This study investigated the effect of another stress, temporarily increased NaCl concentration, on cryotolerance and developmental competence of porcine...

  6. Emerging Technologies to Create Inducible and Genetically Defined Porcine Cancer Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schook, Lawrence B; Rund, Laurie; Begnini, Karine R; Remião, Mariana H; Seixas, Fabiana K; Collares, Tiago

    2016-01-01

    There is an emerging need for new animal models that address unmet translational cancer research requirements. Transgenic porcine models provide an exceptional opportunity due to their genetic, anatomic, and physiological similarities with humans. Due to recent advances in the sequencing of domestic animal genomes and the development of new organism cloning technologies, it is now very feasible to utilize pigs as a malleable species, with similar anatomic and physiological features with humans, in which to develop cancer models. In this review, we discuss genetic modification technologies successfully used to produce porcine biomedical models, in particular the Cre-loxP System as well as major advances and perspectives the CRISPR/Cas9 System. Recent advancements in porcine tumor modeling and genome editing will bring porcine models to the forefront of translational cancer research.

  7. Discovery of a novel putative atypical porcine pestivirus in pigs in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Peddireddi, Lalitha; Yuan, Fangfeng; Chen, Zhenhai; Hesse, Richard A; Gauger, Phillip C; Clement, Travis; Fang, Ying; Anderson, Gary

    2015-10-01

    Pestiviruses are some of the most significant pathogens affecting ruminants and swine. Here, we assembled a 11 276 bp contig encoding a predicted 3635 aa polyprotein from porcine serum with 68 % pairwise identity to that of a recently partially characterized Rhinolophus affinis pestivirus (RaPV) and approximately 25-28 % pairwise identity to those of other pestiviruses. The virus was provisionally named atypical porcine pestivirus (APPV). Metagenomic sequencing of 182 serum samples identified four additional APPV-positive samples. Positive samples originated from five states and ELISAs using recombinant APPV Erns found cross-reactive antibodies in 94 % of a collection of porcine serum samples, suggesting widespread distribution of APPV in the US swine herd. The molecular and serological results suggest that APPV is a novel, highly divergent porcine pestivirus widely distributed in US pigs.

  8. No evidence of enteric viral involvement in the new neonatal porcine diarrhoea syndrome in Danish pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goecke, Nicole Bakkegård; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane; Kongsted, H.

    2017-01-01

    .7% of the animals tested positive by reverse transcription qPCR (RT-qPCR) for porcine kobuvirus 1 (PKV-1) while 9% and 3% were found to be positive for rotavirus A and porcine teschovirus (PTV), respectively. The overall prevalence of porcine astrovirus (PAstV) was 75% with 69.8% of the PAstV positive pigs infected...... with PAstV type 3. No animals tested positive for rotavirus C, coronavirus (TGEV, PEDV and PRCV), sapovirus, enterovirus, parechovirus, saffoldvirus, cosavirus, klassevirus or porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Microarray analyses performed on a total of 18 animals were all negative, as were eight animals...... examined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Using Next Generation de novo sequencing (de novo NGS) on pools of samples from case animals within all herds, PKV-1 was detected in four herds and rotavirus A, rotavirus C and PTV were detected in one herd each. Our detailed analyses of piglets from...

  9. Electron spin relaxation enhancement measurements of interspin distances in human, porcine, and Rhodobacter electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF QO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Alistair J.; Usselman, Robert J.; Watmough, Nicholas; Simkovic, Martin; Frerman, Frank E.; Eaton, Gareth R.; Eaton, Sandra S.

    2008-02-01

    Electron transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a membrane-bound electron transfer protein that links primary flavoprotein dehydrogenases with the main respiratory chain. Human, porcine, and Rhodobacter sphaeroides ETF-QO each contain a single [4Fe-4S] 2+,1+ cluster and one equivalent of FAD, which are diamagnetic in the isolated enzyme and become paramagnetic on reduction with the enzymatic electron donor or with dithionite. The anionic flavin semiquinone can be reduced further to diamagnetic hydroquinone. The redox potentials for the three redox couples are so similar that it is not possible to poise the proteins in a state where both the [4Fe-4S] + cluster and the flavoquinone are fully in the paramagnetic form. Inversion recovery was used to measure the electron spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S] + between 8 and 18 K and for semiquinone between 25 and 65 K. At higher temperatures the spin-lattice relaxation rates for the [4Fe-4S] + were calculated from the temperature-dependent contributions to the continuous wave linewidths. Although mixtures of the redox states are present, it was possible to analyze the enhancement of the electron spin relaxation of the FAD semiquinone signal due to dipolar interaction with the more rapidly relaxing [4Fe-4S] + and obtain point-dipole interspin distances of 18.6 ± 1 Å for the three proteins. The point-dipole distances are within experimental uncertainty of the value calculated based on the crystal structure of porcine ETF-QO when spin delocalization is taken into account. The results demonstrate that electron spin relaxation enhancement can be used to measure distances in redox poised proteins even when several redox states are present.

  10. Differences in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in vitro of islets from human, nonhuman primate, and porcine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kate R; Balamurugan, A N; Cline, Gary W; Pongratz, Rebecca L; Hooper, Rebecca L; Weegman, Bradley P; Kitzmann, Jennifer P; Taylor, Michael J; Graham, Melanie L; Schuurman, Henk-Jan; Papas, Klearchos K

    2013-01-01

    Porcine islet xenotransplantation is considered a potential cell-based therapy for type 1 diabetes. It is currently being evaluated in diabetic nonhuman primates (NHP) to assess safety and efficacy of the islet product. However, due to a variety of distinct differences between the respective species, including the insulin secretory characteristics of islets, the suitability and predictive value of the preclinical model in the extrapolation to the clinical setting remain a critical issue. Islets isolated from human (n = 3), NHP (n = 2), adult pig (AP, n = 3), and juvenile pig (JP, n = 4) pancreata were perifused with medium at basal glucose (2.5 mm) followed by high glucose (16.7 mm) concentrations. The total glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was calculated from generated insulin secretion profiles. Nonhuman primate islets exhibited GSIS 3-fold higher than AP islets, while AP and JP islets exhibited GSIS 1/3 and 1/30 of human islets, respectively. The insulin content of NHP and AP islets was similar to that of human islets, whereas that of JP islets was 1/5 of human islets. Despite the fact that human, NHP, and AP islets contain similar amounts of insulin, the much higher GSIS for NHP islets than for AP and JP islets suggests the need for increased dosing of islets from JP and AP in pig-to-NHP transplantation. Porcine islet xenotransplantation to humans may require significantly higher dosing given the lower GSIS of AP islets compared to human islets. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Cryptotanshinone Regulates Androgen Synthesis through the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 Pathway in Porcine Granulosa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danfeng Ye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate the molecular mechanism behind androgen reduction in porcine granulosa cells (pGCs with Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge extract cryptotanshinone. PGCs were isolated from porcine ovaries and identified. Androgen excess model of the pGCs was induced with the MAPK inhibitor PD98059 and then treated with cryptotanshinone. The testosterone level was measured by radioimmunoassay in the culture media. The protein levels of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17 in the cells were measured by western blot. Cryptotanshinone decreased the concentration of testosterone and the protein level of CYP17 and increased the protein levels of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos in the androgen excess mode. After the c-Fos gene was silenced by infection with c-Fos shRNA lentivirus, we measured the mRNA expression by quantitative RT-PCR and protein level by western blot of P-ERK1/2, c-Fos, and CYP17. This showed that the mRNA expression and protein level of P-ERK1/2 and c-Fos were significantly reduced in the shRNA–c-Fos group compared to the scrambled group, while those of CYP17 were significantly increased. So we concluded that cryptotanshinone can significantly reduce the androgen excess induced by PD98059 in pGCs. The possible molecular mechanism for this activity is regulating the ERK/c-Fos/CYP17 pathway.

  12. Effects of Lactobacillus johnsonii and Lactobacillus reuteri on gut barrier function and heat shock proteins in intestinal porcine epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao-Yu; Roos, Stefan; Jonsson, Hans; Ahl, David; Dicksved, Johan; Lindberg, Jan Erik; Lundh, Torbjörn

    2015-04-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a set of highly conserved proteins that can serve as intestinal gate keepers in gut homeostasis. Here, effects of a probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), and two novel porcine isolates, Lactobacillus johnsonii strain P47-HY and Lactobacillus reuteri strain P43-HUV, on cytoprotective HSP expression and gut barrier function, were investigated in a porcine IPEC-J2 intestinal epithelial cell line model. The IPEC-J2 cells polarized on a permeable filter exhibited villus-like cell phenotype with development of apical microvilli. Western blot analysis detected HSP expression in IPEC-J2 and revealed that L. johnsonii and L. reuteri strains were able to significantly induce HSP27, despite high basal expression in IPEC-J2, whereas LGG did not. For HSP72, only the supernatant of L. reuteri induced the expression, which was comparable to the heat shock treatment, which indicated that HSP72 expression was more stimulus specific. The protective effect of lactobacilli was further studied in IPEC-J2 under an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) challenge. ETEC caused intestinal barrier destruction, as reflected by loss of cell-cell contact, reduced IPEC-J2 cell viability and transepithelial electrical resistance, and disruption of tight junction protein zonula occludens-1. In contrast, the L. reuteri treatment substantially counteracted these detrimental effects and preserved the barrier function. L. johnsonii and LGG also achieved barrier protection, partly by directly inhibiting ETEC attachment. Together, the results indicate that specific strains of Lactobacillus can enhance gut barrier function through cytoprotective HSP induction and fortify the cell protection against ETEC challenge through tight junction protein modulation and direct interaction with pathogens. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  13. Repeated subretinal surgery and removal of subretinal decalin is well tolerated - evidence from a porcine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Nina Buus; Klemp, Kristian; Kjær, Troels Wesenberg; Heegaard, Steffen; la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2017-09-01

    Subretinal perfluorocarbon liquid (PFCL) is a serious complication that can occur after retinal detachment repair. It is possible to remove the PFCL surgically, but retinal damage related to the procedure is unknown. Also, increasing interest in subretinal treatment makes it relevant to examine the functional and morphological consequences of repeated subretinal manipulation. We hypothesized that PFCL in a porcine model can be injected in the subretinal space and removed with minimal effect on retinal structure and function. The left eyes of ten healthy three-month-old female domestic pigs were included. Multifocal electroretinograms (mfERG) were recorded before surgery. Following vitrectomy, a PFCL bleb (decalin) was injected subretinally using a 41G cannula. After 14 days the decalin was removed through a 41G cannula in combination with a 2 ml syringe and an intermediate flexible tube. Two weeks after removal, a control mfERG was recorded, the pigs were enucleated and sacrificed and eyes were examined histologically. All statistics were carried out with a paired t-test in SAS Enterprise Guide 7.1® (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). There was no significant difference in mfERG amplitude ratio (left/right eye) between baseline and recordings two weeks after removal of decalin (P1 (M = 0.26, SD = 0.80, p = 0.39), second order kernel (M = -0.18, SD = 0.86, p = 0.57), Direct Response (M = 0.39, SD = 0.61, p = 0.12) or Induced Component (M = -0.03, SD = 0.40, p = 0.80)). Histologically, the photoreceptor outer segments were minimally affected. Otherwise the retina was normal 14 days after removal of decalin. In four pigs the subretinal decalin displaced inferiorly and was no longer accessible for removal. Subretinal decalin can be removed within 14 days without lasting retinal damage. Decalin is a heavy liquid where the risk of displacement is high. Future studies using PFCLs to control duration of an experimental retinal separation

  14. Deoxynivalenol exposure induces autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modification changes during porcine oocyte maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yu [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung [Department of Animal Science, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Shao-Chen, E-mail: sunsc@njau.edu.cn [College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin which contaminates agricultural staples and elicits a complex spectrum of toxic effects on humans and animals. It has been shown that DON impairs oocyte maturation, reproductive function and causes abnormal fetal development in mammals; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigate the possible reasons of the toxic effects of DON on porcine oocytes. Our results showed that DON significantly inhibited porcine oocyte maturation and disrupted meiotic spindle by reducing p-MAPK protein level, which caused retardation of cell cycle progression. In addition, up-regulated LC3 protein expression and aberrant Lamp2, LC3 and mTOR mRNA levels were observed with DON exposure, together with Annexin V-FITC staining assay analysis, these results indicated that DON treatment induced autophagy/apoptosis in porcine oocytes. We also showed that DON exposure increased DNA methylation level in porcine oocytes through altering DNMT3A mRNA levels. Histone methylation levels were also changed showing with increased H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 protein levels, and mRNA levels of their relative methyltransferase genes, indicating that epigenetic modifications were affected. Taken together, our results suggested that DON exposure reduced porcine oocytes maturation capability through affecting cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle, autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modifications. - Highlights: • DON exposure disrupted meiotic spindle by reducing p-MAPK expression. • DON exposure caused retardation of cell cycle progression in porcine oocytes. • DON triggered autophagy and early-apoptosis in porcine oocytes. • DON exposure led to aberrant epigenetic modifications in porcine oocytes.

  15. Stoichiometric iodination and purification of porcine insulin with chloramine T for radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Giannella Neto, D.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Stoichiometric iodination and purification of porcine insulin was performed to the general method of Hunter and Greenwood (classical chloramine T) with modifications recommended by Roth (chloramine T is added in limiting amounts in multiple small additions). Satisfactory specific activity of the labeled hormone was obtained and the characteristics of the radioimmunoassay, based on the competition of the 125-I labeled porcine and cold insulin for specific antibody were studied. (Author) [pt

  16. Deoxynivalenol exposure induces autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modification changes during porcine oocyte maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jun; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Zhu, Cheng-Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Yu; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a widespread trichothecene mycotoxin which contaminates agricultural staples and elicits a complex spectrum of toxic effects on humans and animals. It has been shown that DON impairs oocyte maturation, reproductive function and causes abnormal fetal development in mammals; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigate the possible reasons of the toxic effects of DON on porcine oocytes. Our results showed that DON significantly inhibited porcine oocyte maturation and disrupted meiotic spindle by reducing p-MAPK protein level, which caused retardation of cell cycle progression. In addition, up-regulated LC3 protein expression and aberrant Lamp2, LC3 and mTOR mRNA levels were observed with DON exposure, together with Annexin V-FITC staining assay analysis, these results indicated that DON treatment induced autophagy/apoptosis in porcine oocytes. We also showed that DON exposure increased DNA methylation level in porcine oocytes through altering DNMT3A mRNA levels. Histone methylation levels were also changed showing with increased H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 protein levels, and mRNA levels of their relative methyltransferase genes, indicating that epigenetic modifications were affected. Taken together, our results suggested that DON exposure reduced porcine oocytes maturation capability through affecting cytoskeletal dynamics, cell cycle, autophagy/apoptosis and epigenetic modifications. - Highlights: • DON exposure disrupted meiotic spindle by reducing p-MAPK expression. • DON exposure caused retardation of cell cycle progression in porcine oocytes. • DON triggered autophagy and early-apoptosis in porcine oocytes. • DON exposure led to aberrant epigenetic modifications in porcine oocytes.

  17. Targeted DNA Methylation Analysis by High Throughput Sequencing in Porcine Peri-attachment Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    MORRILL, Benson H.; COX, Lindsay; WARD, Anika; HEYWOOD, Sierra; PRATHER, Randall S.; ISOM, S. Clay

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of a next-generation sequencing-based method for DNA methylation analysis in porcine embryonic samples. Fourteen discrete genomic regions were amplified by PCR using bisulfite-converted genomic DNA derived from day 14 in vivo-derived (IVV) and parthenogenetic (PA) porcine embryos as template DNA. Resulting PCR products were subjected to high-throughput sequencing using the Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx plat...

  18. Generation of neutralising antibodies against porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaulitz, Danny; Fiebig, Uwe; Eschricht, Magdalena; Wurzbacher, Christian; Kurth, Reinhard; Denner, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies neutralising porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) were induced in different animal species by immunisation with the transmembrane envelope protein p15E. These antibodies recognised epitopes, designated E1, in the fusion peptide proximal region (FPPR) of p15E, and E2 in the membrane proximal external region (MPER). E2 is localised in a position similar to that of an epitope in the transmembrane envelope protein gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), recognised by the monoclonal antibody 4E10 that is broadly neutralising. To detect neutralising antibodies specific for PERV, a novel assay was developed, which is based on quantification of provirus integration by real-time PCR. In addition, for the first time, highly effective neutralising antibodies were obtained by immunisation with the surface envelope protein of PERV. These data indicate that neutralising antibodies can be induced by immunisation with both envelope proteins.

  19. An ultrasound needle insertion guide in a porcine phantom model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, S; Lethbridge, G; Kim, C; Keon Cohen, Z; Ng, I

    2013-08-01

    We compared nerve blockade with and without the Infiniti(TM) needle guide in an ultrasound in-plane porcine simulation. We recruited 30 anaesthetists with varying blockade experience. Using the guide, the needle tip was more visible (for a median (IQR [range]) of 67 (56-100]) % of the time; and invisible for 2 (1-4 [0-19]) s) than when the guide was not used (respectively 23 (13-43 [0-80]) % and 25 (9-52 [1-198]) s; both p < 0.001). The corresponding block times were 8 (6-10 [3-28]) s and 32 (15-67 [5-225]) s, respectively; p < 0.001. The needle guide reduced the block time and the time that the needle was invisible, irrespective of anaesthetist experience. Anaesthesia © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Screening of supports for immobilization of commercial porcine pancreatic lipase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robison Scherer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to report the performance of different supports for the immobilization of commercial porcine pancreatic lipase. The immobilization tests were carried out in several types of Accurel, activated alumina, kaolin, montmorillonite, ion exchange resins and zeolites. The characterization of the supports showed differences in terms of specific area and morphology. The characteristics of the supports influenced the amount of enzyme adsorbed, yield of immobilization and esterification activity of the resulting immobilized catalyst. The clays KSF and natural and pillared montmorillonites presented potential for use as support for lipase immobilization in terms of yield and esterification activity. Yields of immobilization of 76.32 and 52.01% were achieved for clays KSF and natural montmorillonite, respectively. Esterification activities of 754.03, 595.51, 591.88 and 515.71 U.g-1 were obtained for lipases immobilized in Accurel MP-100, Amberlite XAD-2, mordenite and pillared montmorillonite, respectively.

  1. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  2. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...... either by parthenogenetic activation (PA) or handmade cloning (HMC). Results showed that the developmental competence of chimeric embryos, evaluated based on their blastocyst rate and total cell number per blastocyst, was increased when two whole 2-cell stage embryos (PA or HMC) were aggregated....... In comparison, when two blastomeres were aggregated, the developmental competence of the chimeric embryos decreased if the blastomeres were either from PA or from HMC embryos, but not if they were from different sources, i.e. one PA and one HMC blastomere. To evaluate the cell contribution in embryo formation...

  3. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of porcine acylaminoacyl peptidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Helena; Kiss, András L; Szeltner, Zoltán; Polgár, László; Fülöp, Vilmos

    2005-10-01

    Acylaminoacyl peptidase (also known as acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme or acylpeptide hydrolase; EC 3.4.19.1) is an unusual member of the prolyl oligopeptidase family catalysing the hydrolysis of an N-acylated peptide to an acylamino acid and a peptide with a free N-terminus. Acylaminoacyl peptidase purified from porcine liver has been crystallized in mother liquor containing 0.1 M Tris-HCl pH 7.0, 10%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 8000, 50 mM MgCl2 and 1%(w/v) CHAPS using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique. A full data set to 3.4 A resolution was collected at ESRF beamline ID14-4 and space group C222 was assigned, with unit-cell parameters a = 84.8, b = 421.1, c = 212.0 A and four molecules in the asymmetric unit.

  4. Pharmacokinetics of a porcine insulin zinc suspension in diabetic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, P A; Nash, A S; McKellar, Q A

    1997-10-01

    Ten dogs with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus were injected with a highly purified porcine insulin zinc suspension at a dose according to their expected requirement. Plasma insulin and glucose concentrations were measured at two-hourly intervals over 24 hours following injection. There were either one or two peaks in plasma insulin concentration: one at about four hours (mean 4.3 +/- 1.3 [SD]) and another at about 11 hours (mean 11 +/- 1.85) after the injection. The second insulin peak was seen in only eight dogs. Persistence of elevated plasma insulin concentrations ranged from 14 to 24 hours (mean 17.4 +/- 3.65). These results compare favourably with those published for other intermediate-acting insulin preparations used to treat canine diabetes mellitus and suggest that this preparation has useful properties for the successful management of many canine diabetics.

  5. Separation of empty microcapsules after microencapsulation of porcine neonatal islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soojeong; Yoo, Young Je

    2013-12-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation is used to treat diabetes mellitus that has minimal complications and avoids hypoglycemic shock. Conformal microencapsulation of pancreatic islets improves their function by blocking immunogenic molecules while protecting fragile islets. However, production of empty alginate capsules during microencapsulation causes enlargement of the transplantation volume of the encapsulated islets and interferes with efficient transfer of nutrients and insulin. In this study, empty alginate capsules were separated after microencapsulation of neonatal porcine islet-like cell clusters (NPCC) using density-gradient centrifugation. Densities of NPCC and alginate capsules were determined using Percoll. Encapsulation products following alginate removal were 97 % of products, with less than 10 % of the capsules remaining empty. The viability of this process compared with manually-selected encapsulated islets indicates the separation process does not harm islets.

  6. Enzymatic engineering of the porcine genome with transposons and recombinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlson Daniel F

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swine is an important agricultural commodity and biomedical model. Manipulation of the pig genome provides opportunity to improve production efficiency, enhance disease resistance, and add value to swine products. Genetic engineering can also expand the utility of pigs for modeling human disease, developing clinical treatment methodologies, or donating tissues for xenotransplantation. Realizing the full potential of pig genetic engineering requires translation of the complete repertoire of genetic tools currently employed in smaller model organisms to practical use in pigs. Results Application of transposon and recombinase technologies for manipulation of the swine genome requires characterization of their activity in pig cells. We tested four transposon systems- Sleeping Beauty, Tol2, piggyBac, and Passport in cultured porcine cells. Transposons increased the efficiency of DNA integration up to 28-fold above background and provided for precise delivery of 1 to 15 transgenes per cell. Both Cre and Flp recombinase were functional in pig cells as measured by their ability to remove a positive-negative selection cassette from 16 independent clones and over 20 independent genomic locations. We also demonstrated a Cre-dependent genetic switch capable of eliminating an intervening positive-negative selection cassette and activating GFP expression from episomal and genome-resident transposons. Conclusion We have demonstrated for the first time that transposons and recombinases are capable of mobilizing DNA into and out of the porcine genome in a precise and efficient manner. This study provides the basis for developing transposon and recombinase based tools for genetic engineering of the swine genome.

  7. Porosity of porcine bladder acellular matrix: impact of ACM thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Walid; Chen, Jun; Erdeljan, Petar; Shemtov, Oren; Courtman, David; Khoury, Antoine; Yeger, Herman

    2003-12-01

    The objectives of this study are to examine the porosity of bladder acellular matrix (ACM) using deionized (DI) water as the model fluid and dextran as the indicator macromolecule, and to correlate the porosity to the ACM thickness. Porcine urinary bladders from pigs weighing 20-50 kg were sequentially extracted in detergent containing solutions, and to modify the ACM thickness, stretched bladders were acellularized in the same manner. Luminal and abluminal ACM specimens were subjected to fixed static DI water pressure (10 cm); and water passing through the specimens was collected at specific time interval. While for the macromolecule porosity testing, the diffusion rate and direction of 10,000 MW fluoroescein-labeled dextrans across the ACM specimens mounted in Ussing's chambers were measured. Both experiments were repeated on the thin stretched ACM. In both ACM types, the fluid porosity in both directions did not decrease with increased test duration (3 h); in addition, the abluminal surface was more porous to fluid than the luminal surface. On the other hand, when comparing thin to thick ACM, the porosity in either direction was higher in the thick ACM. Macromolecule porosity, as measured by absorbance, was higher for the abluminal thick ACM than the luminal side, but this characteristic was reversed in the thin ACM. Comparing thin to thick ACM, the luminal side in the thin ACM was more porous to dextran than in the thick ACM, but this characteristic was reversed for the abluminal side. The porcine bladder ACM possesses directional porosity and acellularizing stretched urinary bladders may increase structural density and alter fluid and macromolecule porosity. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 970-974, 2003

  8. Impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea on performance of growing pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alvarez

    Full Text Available The impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv infection on the US pork industry has mainly been attributed to the mortality that it causes in suckling piglets, and, consequently, much effort has been invested in the quantification of its effect in sow farms. However, no information on the performance of surviving pigs that were exposed to the PEDv as piglets is available. Here, a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv infection on growing pigs' performance, as indicated by mortality, average daily gain (ADG, average daily feed intake (ADFI, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was performed using production records from weaned pigs in nursery and wean-to-finish sites from sow farms that became PEDv-infected between May 2013 and June 2014. Production records from the first batch of growing pigs weaned in infected flows after the PEDv outbreak ("infected batches" were compared with those from pigs weaned within the previous 14 to 120 days ("control batches". Performance records from infected and control batches, paired by flow, were compared using non-parametric paired tests. Mortality, ADG and FCR were significantly different in PEDv-positive (infected compared with PEDv-negative (control batches, with a mean increase of mortality and FCR of 11% and 0.5, respectively, and a decrease of ADG of 0.16 lb/day. Our results demonstrate a poorer performance of growing pigs weaned after a PEDv outbreak compared with those weaned within the previous 14-120 days, suggesting that in addition to the mortality induced by PEDv in suckling pigs, the disease also impairs the performance of surviving pig. These findings help to quantify the impact of PEDv infection in the US and, ultimately, contribute to efforts to quantify the cost-effectiveness of disease prevention and control measures.

  9. Effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on porcine nasal cavity dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yumeng; Hu, Weiwei; Wei, Yanna; Feng, Zhixin; Yang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) is the primary etiological agent responsible for swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that cause tremendous economic losses all over the swine industry. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most effective antigen-presenting cells, are widely distributed beneath respiratory epithelium. DCs uptake and present antigens to T cells, to initiate protective immune responses or generate immune-mediated pathology in different infections. In this study, we investigated the changes in the different DCs subpopulations, T cells and SIgA positive cells counts in porcine nasal cavity after long time Mhp infection. We further evaluated the role of porcine DCs in Mhp exposure. Our results showed that the number of SLA-II-DR + SWC3a + DCs, SLA-II-DR + CD11b + DCs, T cells, SIgA positive cells in nasal cavity were decreased after Mhp 28 days infection in vivo experiment. The antigen presenting ability of DCs were inhibited by Mhp exposure. DCs couldn't activate T-cell proliferation by down-regulating the antigen presenting molecule CD1a expression and promoting high level of IL-10 production. Further more, the expression levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ in DCs were decreased, suggesting that DCs favour for Th2 immune response development after Mhp exposure in vitro. Taken together, Mhp infection impairs the immune function which allows the persistence of Mhp and cause predispose pigs to secondary infections. The decline of DCs presentation ability is the reason why dysfunction and persistence in Mhp infection. These findings are benefit for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms of Mhp in pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Molecular characterization, sequence analysis and tissue expression of a porcine gene – MOSPD2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The full-length cDNA sequence of a porcine gene, MOSPD2, was amplified using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method based on a pig expressed sequence tag sequence which was highly homologous to the coding sequence of the human MOSPD2 gene. Sequence prediction analysis revealed that the open reading frame of this gene encodes a protein of 491 amino acids that has high homology with the motile sperm domain-containing protein 2 (MOSPD2 of five species: horse (89%, human (90%, chimpanzee (89%, rhesus monkey (89% and mouse (85%; thus, it could be defined as a porcine MOSPD2 gene. This novel porcine gene was assigned GeneID: 100153601. This gene is structured in 15 exons and 14 introns as revealed by computer-assisted analysis. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the porcine MOSPD2 gene has a closer genetic relationship with the MOSPD2 gene of horse. Tissue expression analysis indicated that the porcine MOSPD2 gene is generally and differentially expressed in the spleen, muscle, skin, kidney, lung, liver, fat and heart. Our experiment is the first to establish the primary foundation for further research on the porcine MOSPD2 gene.

  11. Isolation World

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Martín, Eugeni

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.

  12. Epizootiological and diagnostic significance of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Biljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a new viral disease in swine, designated exclusively under the acronym PRRS by the European Commission in 1991. The cause of this disease was isolated and determined in 1991 at the Lelystad Institute in The Netherlands as Lelystad aretrivirus. The PRRSV is an RNA virus of the order Nidovirales, the family Arteriviridae, the genus Arterivirus (Cavanaugh, 1997. Different genomic and pheriotypic varieties of the virus are significant. It is replicated in macrophages, it induces permanent viraemia, causes the creation of antibodies, and leads to persistent and latent infections. It is isolated from tonsil tissue, alveolar macrophages, the uterus, and fetal homogenate composed of different tissues (Wills et al., 1997. All production categories of swine can contract PRRS, but pregnant sows, suckling piglets and fattening swine are considered endangered categories. Morbidity and mortapty is between 8-80%, which also depends on the animal category. Economic damages are substantial when one considers the high percentage of still-born piglets, mummified fetuses and suckling piglets. Irregular successive cycles in sows are also expressed. In fattening swine, in addition to a respiratory form of the clinical picture, the time period until animals reach abattoir weight is extended even up to 30 days, which is also a considerable economic loss. Costs of treating possible secondary bacterial infections, diagnostics and immunoprophylaxis are not negligible. The OIE placed PRRS on the B list in 1992 as a contagious disease of swine which incurs economic losses in almost all countries of the world. Diagnosis is made by isolating and determining the virus and/or by serodiagnostics (ELISA and PCR. Certain countries have already made up protocols for the implementation of constant diagnostics and suggested eradication measures (Dee S.A. et al., 2000. In our country, the first clinical cases of PRRS were

  13. Anti-restenotic effect of copper-62 liquid-filled balloon in porcine coronary arteries: novel use of a short half-life positron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Rosanna C.; Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Bhargava, Balram; Collins, Sara D.; Cates, Pamela; Cottin, Yves; Kollum, Marc; Yang, Nathan; Haynes, Neal G.; Martin, Christopher S.; Nayak, Nisha; Vodovotz, Yoram; Kim, Han-Soo; Waksman, Ron

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of the use of copper-62, a positron emitter with a half-life of 9.7 minutes, as an intracoronary brachytherapy (IRBT) source in the prevention of neointima formation (NF) following overstretch balloon injury (BI) in the porcine model. Methods and Materials: Sixteen swine were treated after BI to their left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), and/or right coronary artery (RCA). Twelve of the injured arteries received placebo and 10 received 25 Gy, delivered to 0.5 mm from the surface of the treatment balloon filled with liquid 62 Cu. Dosimetry was based on Monte Carlo calculations. Two weeks after treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and the treated coronaries were perfusion-fixed and stained. Intimal area (IA) and medial fracture length (FL) were analyzed by computer-aided histomorphometry. Results: The ( 62 Zn/ 62 Cu) generator, together with a rapid concentration process, was successful in delivering the short-lived 62 Cu at the high concentration required for intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT). The fracture length in the two groups was similar (2.10 ± 0.57; 2.02 ± 0.77; p = NS). Arteries studied showed significant reduction in NF (IA: 0.23 ± 0.47 mm 2 vs. 1.08 ± 0.57 mm 2 ; p 62 Cu as an IVBT source is safe and feasible. All 16 swine tolerated the treatment well with no radiation-induced side effects or symptoms throughout the 2-week period. The isotope delivered the dose necessary to inhibit NF in the porcine coronary BI model

  14. The Relationship between Left Atrial Mechanical Function and Functional Capacity in Mitral Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mücahit Yetim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, left atrial functions of patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis and sinus rhythm, which was determined by transthorasic echocardiography, was compared with those of healhty subjects and the association of left atrial functions with functional capacity was investigated in subgroup analyses.   Material and methods: 32 patients with isolated rheumatic mitral stenosis (median age was 39.1±11  (group 1 and 20 patients in the control group ( median age was 37±8,2 (group 2 were enrolled to study. The average mitral valve area of patients was 1.1±0,3 cm2. When patients were divided according to New York Heart Association (NYHA classification ; 16 patients were NYHA 2 (Grup A and 16 patients were NYHA 3 (Grup B. There were not any asymptomatic patients and no patients were NYHA 4. Left atrium diameters, left atrium volume, left atrium fractional area change and left atrium ejection fractions  of patients in these groups were calculated.   Results: The demographic characteristics of patients is shown in table 1. Left atrium ejection fraction (LAEF and left atrium fractional area change (LAFAC that were determined echocardiographycally were significantly lower in patients with mitral stenosis (32 ± 5, 44 ± 3; p<0.001- 25 ± 11, 32 ± 6; p< 0.02.  When patients were divided according to New York Heart Association (NYHA classification ; 16 patients were NYHA 2 (Grup A and 16 patients were NYHA 3 (Grup B. There were not any asymptomatic patients and no patients were NYHA 4. The clinical and echocardiographic data of patients are shown in table 2. Despite of similar mitral valve area and average mitral gradient ,systolic pulmonary artery pressure was found to be higher in symptomatic group. But there was no difference between left atrial functions of the two groups.   Discussion: In this study we have shown that left atrial functions determined echocardiographically  can decline in patients with mitral stenosis but the

  15. Chromosomal abnormalities and copy number variations in fetal left-sided congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Fenna A R; Hoffer, Mariette J V; van Velzen, Christine L; Plati, Stephani Klingeman; Rijlaarsdam, Marry E B; Clur, Sally-Ann B; Blom, Nico A; Pajkrt, Eva; Bhola, Shama L; Knegt, Alida C; de Boer, Marion A; Haak, Monique C

    2016-02-01

    To demonstrate the spectrum of copy number variants (CNVs) in fetuses with isolated left-sided congenital heart defects (CHDs), and analyse genetic content. Between 2003 and 2012, 200 fetuses were identified with left-sided CHD. Exclusion criteria were chromosomal rearrangements, 22q11.2 microdeletion and/or extra-cardiac malformations (n = 64). We included cases with additional minor anomalies (n = 39), such as single umbilical artery. In 54 of 136 eligible cases, stored material was available for array analysis. CNVs were categorized as either (likely) benign, (likely) pathogenic or of unknown significance. In 18 of the 54 isolated left-sided CHDs we found 28 rare CNVs (prevalence 33%, average 1.6 CNV per person, size 10.6 kb-2.2 Mb). Our interpretation yielded clinically significant CNVs in two of 54 cases (4%) and variants of unknown significance in three other cases (6%). In left-sided CHDs that appear isolated, with normal chromosome analysis and 22q11.2 FISH analysis, array analysis detects clinically significant CNVs. When counselling parents of a fetus with a left-sided CHD it must be taken into consideration that aside from the cardiac characteristics, the presence of extra-cardiac malformations and chromosomal abnormalities influence the treatment plan and prognosis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A D-Shaped Bileaflet Bioprosthesis which Replicates Physiological Left Ventricular Flow Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Guo-Dong Tan

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that in a healthy heart, there exist a large asymmetric vortex structure that aids in establishing a steady flow field in the left ventricle. However, the implantation of existing artificial heart valves at the mitral position is found to have a negative effect on this physiological flow pattern. In light of this, a novel D-shaped bileaflet porcine bioprosthesis (GD valve has been designed based on the native geometry mitral valve, with the hypothesis that biomimicry in valve design can restore physiological left ventricle flow patterns after valve implantation. An in-vitro experiment using two dimensional particle velocimetry imaging was carried out to determine the hemodynamic performance of the new bileaflet design and then compared to that of the well-established St. Jude Epic valve which functioned as a control in the experiment. Although both valves were found to have similar Reynolds shear stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy levels, the novel D-shape valve was found to have lower turbulence intensity and greater mean kinetic energy conservation.

  17. A D-Shaped Bileaflet Bioprosthesis which Replicates Physiological Left Ventricular Flow Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sean Guo-Dong; Kim, Sangho; Hon, Jimmy Kim Fatt; Leo, Hwa Liang

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies have shown that in a healthy heart, there exist a large asymmetric vortex structure that aids in establishing a steady flow field in the left ventricle. However, the implantation of existing artificial heart valves at the mitral position is found to have a negative effect on this physiological flow pattern. In light of this, a novel D-shaped bileaflet porcine bioprosthesis (GD valve) has been designed based on the native geometry mitral valve, with the hypothesis that biomimicry in valve design can restore physiological left ventricle flow patterns after valve implantation. An in-vitro experiment using two dimensional particle velocimetry imaging was carried out to determine the hemodynamic performance of the new bileaflet design and then compared to that of the well-established St. Jude Epic valve which functioned as a control in the experiment. Although both valves were found to have similar Reynolds shear stress and Turbulent Kinetic Energy levels, the novel D-shape valve was found to have lower turbulence intensity and greater mean kinetic energy conservation. PMID:27258099

  18. Effects of transferrin on aromatase activity in porcine granulosa cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Duda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating cells have an absolute requirement for iron, which is delivered by transferrin with subsequent intracellular transport via the transferrin receptor. Recent studies have reported that transferrin plays a crucial role in the local regulation of ovarian function, apart from its iron-binding characteristic. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the possible role of transferrin in porcine granulosa cells function by examining its influence on aromatase activity, the most important indicator of follicular cell differentiation. In the first series of studies, pig granulosa cells isolated from small, immature follicles were cultured in the presence of transferrin alone (10 microg/ml or 100 microg/ml or with the addition of FSH (100ng/ml. The second series of studies was undertaken to determine transferrin-stimulated granulosa cells ability to aromatize exogenous testosterone (1x10(-7M. One hour after the establishment of cultures an aromatase inhibitor CGS16949A was added to test its influence on estradiol production. After 48 hours, cultures were terminated and cells were processed for immunocytochemical staining of aromatase. Media were frozen for further estradiol level analysis. Positive immunostaining for aromatase was found in all granulosa cell cultures. The intensity of immunostaining was always stronger in cultures supplemented with FSH whereas the addition of transferrin had no effect. Granulosa cells in vitro synthesized the highest amount of estradiol after the addition of FSH and exogenous testosterone as measured radioimmunologically. Concomitant treatment with FSH and transferrin caused an inhibition of FSH-stimulated aromatase activity. The production of estradiol also declined in the presence of FSH, testosterone and transferrin. This study demonstrates that transferrin had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on FSH-stimulated aromatase activity, which was confirmed by radioimmunoassay. Our results indicate

  19. Unexpected detection of porcine rotavirus C strains carrying human origin VP6 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattoor, Jobin Jose; Saurabh, Sharad; Malik, Yashpal Singh; Sircar, Shubhankar; Dhama, Kuldeep; Ghosh, Souvik; Bányai, Krisztián; Kobayashi, Nobumichi; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Rotavirus C (RVC), a known etiological agent of diarrheal outbreaks, mainly inflicts swine population globally with sporadic incidence in human, cattle, ferret, mink and dog. To demonstrate the presence of RVC in Indian swine population and characterization of its selected structural (VP6) and non-structural (NSP4 and NSP5) genes. A total of 108 diarrheic samples from different regions of India were used. Isolated RNA was loaded onto polyacrylamide gel to screen for the presence of RVs through the identification of specific electrophoretic genomic migration pattern. To characterize the RVC strains, VP6 gene and NSP4 and NSP5 genes were amplified, sequenced and analyzed. Based on VP6 gene specific diagnostic RT-PCR, the presence of RVC was confirmed in 12.0% (13/108) piglet fecal specimens. The nucleotide sequence analysis of VP6 gene, encoding inner capsid protein, from selected porcine RVC (PoRVC) strains revealed more than 93% homologies to human RVC strains (HuRVC) of Eurasian origin. These strains were distant from hitherto reported PoRVCs and clustered with HuRVCs, owning I2 genotype. However, the two non-structural genes, i.e. NSP4 and NSP5, of these strains were found to be of swine type, signifying a re-assortment event that has occurred in the Indian swine population. The findings indicate the presence of human-like RVC in Indian pigs and division of RVC clade with I2 genotype into further sub-clades. To the best of our knowledge, this appears to be the first report of RVC in Indian swine population. Incidence of human-like RVC VP6 gene in swine supports its subsequent zoonotic prospective.

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Brazilian Haemophilus parasuis field isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Miani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Haemophilus parasuis is the etiological agent of Glässer’s disease (GD, an ubiquitous infection of swine characterized by systemic fibrinous polyserositis, polyarthritis and meningitis. Intensive use of antimicrobial agents in swine husbandries during the last years triggered the development of antibiotic resistances in bacterial pathogens. Thus, regular susceptibility testing is crucial to ensure efficacy of different antimicrobial agents to this porcine pathogen. In this study, 50 clinical isolates from South Brazilian pig herds were characterized and analyzed for their susceptibility to commonly used antibiotic. The identification and typing of clinical isolates was carried out by a modified indirect hemagglutination assay combined with a multiplex PCR. The susceptibility of each isolate was analyzed by broth microdilution method against a panel of 21 antimicrobial compounds. We found that field isolates are highly resistance to gentamycin, bacitracin, lincomycin and tiamulin, but sensitive to ampicillin, clindamycin, neomycin, penicillin, danofloxacin and enrofloxacin. Furthermore, an individual susceptibility analysis indicated that enrofloxacin is effective to treat clinical isolates with the exception of those classified as serovar 1. The results presented here firstly demonstrate the susceptibility of Brazilian clinical isolates of H. parasuis to antimicrobials widely used by swine veterinary practitioners and strengthen the need to perform susceptibility test prior to antibiotic therapy during GD outbreaks. In addition, because only six antimicrobial drugs (28.6% were found effective against field isolates, a continuous surveillance of the susceptibility profile should be of major concern to the swine industry.

  1. Intracavitary ultrasound impairs left ventricular performance: presumed role of endocardial endothelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillebert, T. C.; de Hert, S. G.; Andries, L. J.; Jageneau, A. H.; Brutsaert, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    Irradiation of isolated cardiac muscle by high-power, high-frequency, continuous wave ultrasound selectively damages endocardial endothelium (EE). We evaluated this ultrasound effect in vivo on the performance of the intact ejecting canine left ventricle (LV). A cylindrical ultrasound probe (0.9

  2. Differential effects of the transient outward K(+) current activator NS5806 in the canine left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calloe, Kirstine; Soltysinska, Ewa; Jespersen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    To examine the electrophysiological and molecular properties of the transient outward current (I(to)) in canine left ventricle using a novel I(to) activator, NS5806, I(to) was measured in isolated epicardial (Epi), midmyocardial (Mid) and endocardial (Endo) cells using whole-cell patch-clamp tech...

  3. Left Paraduodenal Hernia: An Autopsy Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Silje Haukali; Hougen, Hans Petter

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of a left paraduodenal hernia diagnosed at autopsy. A left paraduodenal hernia is an internal hernia of congenital origin due to the abnormal rotation of the midgut during embryonic development. Internal hernias are a rare cause of intestinal obstruction, with the paraduodenal...

  4. Basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancar, B.

    2007-01-01

    A 91-year-old female patient was treated with irradiation for histologically confirmed basal cell carcinoma on the left cheek. The tumour, measuring 3 x 3 cm, with the depth of 2 cm, was extending up to the lower lid of the left eye. (author)

  5. Pure Left Neglect for Arabic Numerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Albanese, Silvia; Meneghello, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Arabic numerals are diffused and language-free representations of number magnitude. To be effectively processed, the digits composing Arabic numerals must be spatially arranged along a left-to-right axis. We studied one patient (AK) to show that left neglect, after right hemisphere damage, can selectively impair the computation of the spatial…

  6. Knock-in of Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein or/and Human Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 Gene into β-Casein Gene Locus in the Porcine Fibroblasts to Produce Therapeutic Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Ji Woo; Jeong, Young-Hee; Kim, Se Eun; Kim, Yeong Ji; Moon, Seung Ju; Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Keun-Jung; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kang, Man-Jong

    2014-11-01

    Transgenic animals have become important tools for the production of therapeutic proteins in the domestic animal. Production efficiencies of transgenic animals by conventional methods as microinjection and retrovirus vector methods are low, and the foreign gene expression levels are also low because of their random integration in the host genome. In this study, we investigated the homologous recombination on the porcine β-casein gene locus using a knock-in vector for the β-casein gene locus. We developed the knock-in vector on the porcine β-casein gene locus and isolated knock-in fibroblast for nuclear transfer. The knock-in vector consisted of the neomycin resistance gene (neo) as a positive selectable marker gene, diphtheria toxin-A gene as negative selection marker, and 5' arm and 3' arm from the porcine β-casein gene. The secretion of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was more easily detected in the cell culture media than it was by western blot analysis of cell extract of the HC11 mouse mammary epithelial cells transfected with EGFP knock-in vector. These results indicated that a knock-in system using β-casein gene induced high expression of transgene by the gene regulatory sequence of endogenous β-casein gene. These fibroblasts may be used to produce transgenic pigs for the production of therapeutic proteins via the mammary glands.

  7. Congenital Absence of Left Circumflex Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ansari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of left circumflex artery is a rare congenitalanomaly of the coronary arteries. The prevalence of theanomaly in different studies ranges from 0.6% to 1.3%. Ofthese, 80% are benign and asymptomatic and 20% are clinicallyimportant. We report a 56-year-old man presented withacute resting chest pain who was diagnosed as having acuteanterolateral infarction accompanied by electrocardiographicchanges and elevated cardiac enzymes. Coronary angiographyin different views was conducted, however, no left circumflexartery was found. The territory supplied by the artery had beenperfused by the super dominant right coronary artery. Therewas no left circumflex coronary artery with anomalous origin.Sever stenosis of left anterior ascending artery superimposedto the absent left circumflex artery was presented as acute anterolateralinfarction. Although absence of the artery is mostlyconsidered as a benign condition, atherosclerotic lesions maybe more important in such cases because of diminished compensatingmechanisms.

  8. Isolation, characterization, and evaluation of wild isolates of Lactobacillus reuteri from pig feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deog Yong; Seo, Yeon-Soo; Rayamajhi, Nabin; Kang, Mi Lan; Lee, Su In; Yoo, Han Sang

    2009-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a well-used probiotics for health improvements in both humans and animals. Despite of several benefits, non-host-specific LAB showed poor probiotics effects due to difficulty in colonization and competition with normal flora. Therefore, the feasibility of porcine LAB isolates was evaluated as a probiotics. Ten of 49 Lactobacillus spp. isolates harbored 2 approximately 10 kb plasmid DNA. Seven strains were selected based on the safety test, such as hemolytic activity, ammonia, indole, and phenylalanine production. After safety test, five strains were selected again by several tests, such as epithelial adherence, antimicrobial activity, tolerance against acid, bile, heat, and cold-drying, and production of acid and hydrogen peroxide. Then, enzyme profiles (ZYM test) and antibiotics resistance were analyzed for further characterization. Five Lactobacillus reuteri isolates from pig feces were selected by safety and functional tests. The plasmid DNA which was able to develop vector system was detected in the isolates. Together with these approaches, pig-specific Lactobacillus spp. originated from pigs were selected. These strains may be useful tools to develop oral delivery system.

  9. VARIATION IN THE OPENINGS (OSTIA OF LEFT PULMONARY VEINS INTO THE LEFT ATRIUM: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sesi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During early embryonic development, absorption of pulmonary venous network by the left primitive atrial chamber results in opening of four pulmonary veins which drain independently into its chamber. The extent of absorption and hence, the number of pulmon ary veins which open into the left atrium, may vary. Here we report a variation in the opening of the Left upper (superior pulmonary vein into the Left atrium. A total of six openings observed

  10. Repair of aorto-left ventricular tunnel arising from the left sinus of valsalva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezafati, Mohammad Hassan; Maleki, Mahmood Hosseinzadeh; Javan, Hadi; Zirak, Nahid

    2010-05-01

    Aortico-left ventricular tunnel (ALVT) is a rare congenital cardiac defect that bypasses the aortic valve via a para-valvular connection from the left ventricle to the aorta. In most cases, the tunnel arises from the right aortic sinus. In this case report, we are presenting a case of ALVT, of which the aortic orifice arose from the left aortic sinus, requiring special attention to avoid the left coronary artery injury at the time of surgical repair.

  11. Left Atrial Decompression by Percutaneous Left Atrial Venting Cannula Insertion during Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Eun Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Patients with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO frequently suffer from pulmonary edema due to left ventricular dysfunction that accompanies left heart dilatation, which is caused by left atrial hypertension. The problem can be resolved by left atrium (LA decompression. We performed a successful percutaneous LA decompression with an atrial septostomy and placement of an LA venting cannula in a 38-month-old child treated with venoarterial ECMO for acute myocarditis.

  12. “Positive Regulation of RNA Metabolic Process” Ontology Group Highly Regulated in Porcine Oocytes Matured In Vitro: A Microarray Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Celichowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs growth and development during folliculogenesis and oogenesis are accompanied by changes involving synthesis and accumulation of large amount of RNA and proteins. In this study, the transcriptomic profile of genes involved in “oocytes RNA synthesis” in relation to in vitro maturation in pigs was investigated for the first time. The RNA was isolated from oocytes before and after in vitro maturation (IVM. Interactions between differentially expressed genes/proteins belonging to “positive regulation of RNA metabolic process” ontology group were investigated by STRING10 software. Using microarray assays, we found expression of 12258 porcine transcripts. Genes with fold change higher than 2 and with corrected p value lower than 0.05 were considered as differentially expressed. The ontology group “positive regulation of RNA metabolic process” involved differential expression of AR, INHBA, WWTR1, FOS, MEF2C, VEGFA, IKZF2, IHH, RORA, MAP3K1, NFAT5, SMARCA1, EGR1, EGR2, MITF, SMAD4, APP, and NR5A1 transcripts. Since all of the presented genes were downregulated after IVM, we suggested that they might be significantly involved in regulation of RNA synthesis before reaching oocyte MII stage. Higher expression of “RNA metabolic process” related genes before IVM indicated that they might be recognized as important markers and specific “transcriptomic fingerprint” of RNA template accumulation and storage for further porcine embryos growth and development.

  13. Efficiency recovery determination of microorganisms in the assurance of the sterility in radioactive sterile porcine xenograft in the stage of microbiological counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnier Joost, Camila

    2016-01-01

    Use of porcine xenografts as a temporary dressing for treating burns may generate a risk of infection in patients who require due to the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms. Porcine xenografts reach the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission to be radiosterilized. To accomplish this, a process that ensures sterility of these tissues, called Test of sterility assurance, comprising several stages is performed. In this work the efficiency of its stages, which is the microbiological count (Bioburden) was measured. According to the protocols established by the ISO 1137 standard and the current conditions of the laboratory where this is done. Staphylococcus aureus strain was isolated from pig skins and confirmed in the laboratory of microbiology at the Santo Tomas University. A polluting inoculum to later make an artificial contamination of skin samples was performed previously radioesterilized pig. The bioburden count technique was used in 7 groups with 6 individual repetitions, and in parallel the BAM (Bacteriological Analytical Manual) method was performed to have a benchmark for the Bioburden. It was determined that the average concentration of contaminant inoculum was 4.35 ± 0.13 LOG (cfu/mL), with a recovery of 3.71 ± 0.1 LOG (cfu/g) by the method Bioburden, equivalent at an efficiency of 84 ± 3% recovery of microorganisms, falling within the optimal range for these tests established by the ISO 11137 standard (author)

  14. Comparison of the convergent receptor utilization of a retargeted feline leukemia virus envelope with a naturally-occurring porcine endogenous retrovirus A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazari, Peter M; Argaw, Takele; Valdivieso, Leonardo; Zhang, Xia; Marcucci, Katherine T; Salomon, Daniel R; Wilson, Carolyn A; Roth, Monica J

    2012-06-05

    In vitro screening of randomized FeLV Envelope libraries identified the CP isolate, which enters cells through HuPAR-1, one of two human receptors utilized by porcine endogenous retrovirus-A (PERV-A), a distantly related gammaretrovirus. The CP and PERV-A Envs however, share little amino acid homology. Their receptor utilization was examined to define the common receptor usage of these disparate viral Envs. We demonstrate that the receptor usage of CP extends to HuPAR-2 but not to the porcine receptor PoPAR, the cognate receptor for PERV-A. Reciprocal interference between virus expressing CP and PERV-A Envs was observed on human cells. Amino acid residues localized to within the putative second extracellular loop (ECL-2) of PAR-1 and PAR-2 are found to be critical for CP envelope function. Through a panel of receptor chimeras and point mutations, this area was also found to be responsible for the differential usage of the PoPAR receptor between CP and PERV-A. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Whole genome detection of rotavirus mixed infections in human, porcine and bovine samples co-infected with various rotavirus strains collected from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyaga, Martin M; Jere, Khuzwayo C; Esona, Mathew D; Seheri, Mapaseka L; Stucker, Karla M; Halpin, Rebecca A; Akopov, Asmik; Stockwell, Timothy B; Peenze, Ina; Diop, Amadou; Ndiaye, Kader; Boula, Angeline; Maphalala, Gugu; Berejena, Chipo; Mwenda, Jason M; Steele, A Duncan; Wentworth, David E; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are among the main global causes of severe diarrhea in children under the age of 5years. Strain diversity, mixed infections and untypeable RVA strains are frequently reported in Africa. We analysed rotavirus-positive human stool samples (n=13) obtained from hospitalised children under the age of 5years who presented with acute gastroenteritis at sentinel hospital sites in six African countries, as well as bovine and porcine stool samples (n=1 each), to gain insights into rotavirus diversity and evolution. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis and genotyping with G-(VP7) and P-specific (VP4) typing primers suggested that 13 of the 15 samples contained more than 11 segments and/or mixed G/P genotypes. Full-length amplicons for each segment were generated using RVA-specific primers and sequenced using the Ion Torrent and/or Illumina MiSeq next-generation sequencing platforms. Sequencing detected at least one segment in each sample for which duplicate sequences, often having distinct genotypes, existed. This supported and extended the PAGE and RT-PCR genotyping findings that suggested these samples were collected from individuals that had mixed rotavirus infections. The study reports the first porcine (MRC-DPRU1567) and bovine (MRC-DPRU3010) mixed infections. We also report a unique genome segment 9 (VP7), whose G9 genotype belongs to lineage VI and clusters with porcine reference strains. Previously, African G9 strains have all been in lineage III. Furthermore, additional RVA segments isolated from humans have a clear evolutionary relationship with porcine, bovine and ovine rotavirus sequences, indicating relatively recent interspecies transmission and reassortment. Thus, multiple RVA strains from sub-Saharan Africa are infecting mammalian hosts with unpredictable variations in their gene segment combinations. Whole-genome sequence analyses of mixed RVA strains underscore the considerable diversity of rotavirus sequences and

  16. TMS over the Left Angular Gyrus Impairs the Ability to Discriminate Left from Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirnstein, Marco; Bayer, Ulrike; Ellison, Amanda; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The underlying cognitive and neural mechanisms of the ability to discriminate left from right are hardly explored. Clinical studies from patients with impairments of left-right discrimination (LRD) and neuroimaging data suggest that the left angular gyrus is particularly involved in LRD. Moreover, it is argued that the often reported sex…

  17. Inhibition of NF-κB promotes autophagy via JNK signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Hui; Lin, Lu; Haq, Ihtesham Ul; Zeng, Shen-ming

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays an important role in diverse processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of NF-κB in porcine follicle development is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased the level of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein and promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p65, indicating that FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB by FSH or another specific inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could activate JNK signaling and enhance autophagic activity in porcine granulosa cells. Knockdown of RelA (p65) Subunit of NF-κB by RNA interference abrogated the activation of JNK signaling pathway and the increase of autophagic protein expression by FSH. Meanwhile, the functional significance of FSH or PDTC-mediated autophagy were further investigated. Our results demonstrated that the increased autophagy promoted progesterone secretion in porcine granulosa cells. Blockage of autophagy by chloroquine obviated the FSH or PDTC-induced progesterone production. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB increased autophagy via JNK signaling, and promote steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells. Our results provide new insights into the regulation and function of autophagy in mammalian follicle development. - Highlights: • FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine primary granulosa cells. • Inhibition of NF-κB by FSH promotes autophagy via JNK signaling in granulosa cells. • Increased autophagy contributes to progesterone production in granulosa cells. • This is the first report against beclin1 regulation in porcine granulosa cells.

  18. Sequence and expression analyses of porcine ISG15 and ISG43 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiangnan; Zhao, Shuhong; Zhu, Mengjin; Wu, Zhenfang; Yu, Mei

    2009-08-01

    The coding sequences of porcine interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) and the interferon-stimulated gene (ISG43) were cloned from swine spleen mRNA. The amino acid sequences deduced from porcine ISG15 and ISG43 genes coding sequence shared 24-75% and 29-83% similarity with ISG15s and ISG43s from other vertebrates, respectively. Structural analyses revealed that porcine ISG15 comprises two ubiquitin homologues motifs (UBQ) domain and a conserved C-terminal LRLRGG conjugating motif. Porcine ISG43 contains an ubiquitin-processing proteases-like domain. Phylogenetic analyses showed that porcine ISG15 and ISG43 were mostly related to rat ISG15 and cattle ISG43, respectively. Using quantitative real-time PCR assay, significant increased expression levels of porcine ISG15 and ISG43 genes were detected in porcine kidney endothelial cells (PK15) cells treated with poly I:C. We also observed the enhanced mRNA expression of three members of dsRNA pattern-recognition receptors (PRR), TLR3, DDX58 and IFIH1, which have been reported to act as critical receptors in inducing the mRNA expression of ISG15 and ISG43 genes. However, we did not detect any induced mRNA expression of IFNalpha and IFNbeta, suggesting that transcriptional activations of ISG15 and ISG43 were mediated through IFN-independent signaling pathway in the poly I:C treated PK15 cells. Association analyses in a Landrace pig population revealed that ISG15 c.347T>C (BstUI) polymorphism and the ISG43 c.953T>G (BccI) polymorphism were significantly associated with hematological parameters and immune-related traits.

  19. Inhibition of NF-κB promotes autophagy via JNK signaling pathway in porcine granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hui; Lin, Lu; Haq, Ihtesham Ul; Zeng, Shen-ming, E-mail: zengshenming@gmail.com

    2016-04-22

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) plays an important role in diverse processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of NF-κB in porcine follicle development is not clearly elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) increased the level of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) protein and promoted the cytoplasmic localization of p65, indicating that FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB by FSH or another specific inhibitor of NF-κB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), could activate JNK signaling and enhance autophagic activity in porcine granulosa cells. Knockdown of RelA (p65) Subunit of NF-κB by RNA interference abrogated the activation of JNK signaling pathway and the increase of autophagic protein expression by FSH. Meanwhile, the functional significance of FSH or PDTC-mediated autophagy were further investigated. Our results demonstrated that the increased autophagy promoted progesterone secretion in porcine granulosa cells. Blockage of autophagy by chloroquine obviated the FSH or PDTC-induced progesterone production. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of NF-κB increased autophagy via JNK signaling, and promote steroidogenesis in porcine granulosa cells. Our results provide new insights into the regulation and function of autophagy in mammalian follicle development. - Highlights: • FSH inhibits the activation of NF-κB in porcine primary granulosa cells. • Inhibition of NF-κB by FSH promotes autophagy via JNK signaling in granulosa cells. • Increased autophagy contributes to progesterone production in granulosa cells. • This is the first report against beclin1 regulation in porcine granulosa cells.

  20. Pulmonary hypertension associated with left-sided heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Micha Tobias; Schoch, Otto D; Kleiner, Rebekka; Joerg, Lucas; Weilenmann, Daniel; Swiss Society For Pulmonary Hypertension

    2017-01-19

    Pulmonary hypertension associated with left-sided heart disease (PH-LHD) is the most common type of pulmonary hypertension. In patients with left-sided heart disease, the presence of pulmonary hypertension is typically a marker of more advanced disease, more severe symptoms, and worse prognosis. In contrast to pulmonary arterial hypertension, PH-LHD is characterised by an elevated pulmonary artery wedge pressure (postcapillary pulmonary hypertension) without or with an additional precapillary component (isolated postcapillary versus combined postcapillary and precapillary pulmonary hypertension). Transthoracic echocardiography is the primary nonin-vasive imaging tool to estimate the probability of pulmonary hypertension and to establish a working diagnosis on the mechanism of pulmonary hyperten-sion. However, right heart catheterisation is always required if significant pulmonary hypertension is sus-pected and exact knowledge of the haemodynamic constellation is necessary. The haemodynamic con-stellation (mean pulmonary artery pressure, mean pulmonary artery wedge pressure, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure) in combination with clinical infor-mation and imaging findings (mainly echocardiog-raphy, coronary angiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging) will usually allow the exact mech-anism underlying PH-LHD to be defined, which is a prerequisite for appropriate treatment. The general principle for the management of PH-LHD is to treat the underlying left-sided heart disease in an optimal man-ner using drugs and/or interventional or surgical ther-apy. There is currently no established indication for pulmonary arterial hypertension-specific therapies in PH-LHD, and specific therapies may even cause harm in patients with PH-LHD.