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Sample records for isolated pcl injury

  1. Intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament injury on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringler, Michael D.; Collins, Mark S.; Howe, B.M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shotts, Ezekiel E. [NEA Baptist Clinic, Jonesboro, AR (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Unlike with anterior cruciate ligament injury, little is known about the prevalence of intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury in the knee. The objectives of this study were to characterize and identify the frequency of meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries in these patients, and to see if management might be affected. Altogether, 48 knee MRI exams with isolated PCL tears were evaluated for the presence of: grade and location of PCL tear, meniscal tear, articular chondral lesion, bone bruise, and fracture. Comparisons between PCL tear grade and location, as well as mechanism of injury when known, with the presence of various intra-articular pathologies, were made using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. In all, 69 % of isolated PCL tears occur in the midsubstance, 27 % proximally. Meniscal tears were seen in 25 % of knees, involving all segments of both menisci, except for the anterior horn medial meniscus. Altogether, 23 % had focal cartilage lesions, usually affecting the central third medial femoral condyle and medial trochlea, while 12.5 % of knees had fractures, and 48 % demonstrated bone bruises, usually involving the central to anterior tibiofemoral joint. The presence of a fracture (p = 0.0123) and proximal location of PCL tear (p = 0.0016) were both associated with the hyperextension mechanism of injury. There were no statistically significant associations between PCL tear grade and presence of intra-articular abnormality. Potentially treatable meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries are relatively prevalent, and demonstrable on MRI in patients with isolated acute PCL injury of the knee. (orig.)

  2. MR imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Hospital; Niitsu, Mamoru; Itai, Yuji; Sato, Motohiro; Kujiraoka, Yuka; Ikeda, Kotaro; Kanamori, Akihiro

    2001-07-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are less frequent than anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, but are presumably more common than once thought. Thirty-nine patients with PCL injuries identified on MR images were studied. The criteria for PCL injury were complete tear, partial tear, and avulsion fracture. The approximate site of a partial tear was categorized as proximal, midsubstance, distal, or combination. Fourteen patients (35.9%) had complete tears of the PCL, 21 patients (53.8%) had partial tears, and four patients (10.3%) had avulsion fractures. A total of 12 patients (30.7%) had isolated PCL injuries, while the remaining 27 patients demonstrated evidence of other coexistent knee injuries, such as meniscal tears and ligamentous injuries. Of coexistent knee injuries, meniscal tears (18 patients, 46.2%) were most often seen. (author)

  3. MR imaging of posterior cruciate ligament injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Niitsu, Mamoru; Itai, Yuji; Sato, Motohiro; Kujiraoka, Yuka; Ikeda, Kotaro; Kanamori, Akihiro

    2001-01-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are less frequent than anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, but are presumably more common than once thought. Thirty-nine patients with PCL injuries identified on MR images were studied. The criteria for PCL injury were complete tear, partial tear, and avulsion fracture. The approximate site of a partial tear was categorized as proximal, midsubstance, distal, or combination. Fourteen patients (35.9%) had complete tears of the PCL, 21 patients (53.8%) had partial tears, and four patients (10.3%) had avulsion fractures. A total of 12 patients (30.7%) had isolated PCL injuries, while the remaining 27 patients demonstrated evidence of other coexistent knee injuries, such as meniscal tears and ligamentous injuries. Of coexistent knee injuries, meniscal tears (18 patients, 46.2%) were most often seen. (author)

  4. Photocatalytic antibacterial effect of ZnO nanoparticles into coaxial electrospun PCL fibers to prevent infections from skin injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Prone, G.; Silva-Bermúdez, P.; García-Macedo, J. A.; Almaguer-Flores, A.; Ibarra, C.; Velasquillo-Martínez, C.

    2017-02-01

    Antibacterial studies of inorganic nanoparticles (nps) have become important due to the increased bacterial resistance against antibiotics. We used Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO nps), which possess excellent photocatalytic properties with a wide band gap (Eg), are listed as "generally recognized as safe" by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and have shown antibacterial activity (AA) against many bacterial strains. The AA of ZnO nps is partly attributed to the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) by photocatalysis. When ZnO nps in aqueous media are illuminated with an energy water and Oxygen molecules to generate hydroxyl-radical (OH• ), superoxide-radical (O2 •- ) and hydrogen-peroxide (H2O2). These ROS induce cell membrane damage resulting in cell death. However, the application of inorganic nps in medical treatments is limited due to the possible long-term side effects of nps release. To prevent its release, ZnO nps were dispersed into Polycaprolactone (PCL) fibers obtained by electrospinning technique. To optimize the use of ZnO nps concentration, we developed coreshell coaxial electrospun fibers where the core corresponded to PCL and the shell to a mixture of ZnO nps/PCL. Thus, ZnO nps were only dispersed on the surface of the fibers increasing its superficial contact area. We evaluated the AA against E. coli of different electrospun ZnO nps/PCL fibers under two different conditions: UVA pre-illumination and darkness. Preliminary results suggest that the AA against E. coli is better when electrospun ZnO nps/PCL were preilluminated with UVA than under darkness conditions.

  5. Passive Posterior Tibial Subluxation on Routine Knee MRI as a Secondary Sign of PCL Tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degnan, A.J.; Adam, R.J.; Maldjian, C.; Harner, Ch.D.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior drawer test is an accurate clinical test to diagnose posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), indicating laxity of the PCL that allows posterior tibial translation. This study aimed to determine whether posterior tibial translation relative to the femur on routine MRI could serve as an additional sign of PCL tear. Routine knee MRI in eleven patients (7 males, 4 females) with arthroscopically confirmed isolated PCL tears were reviewed independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Measurements of tibial translation were made in the medial and lateral compartments of patients and controls (10 males, 12 females) without clinical or MRI evidence of ligament injury. Significant medial compartment posterior tibial translation was present in patients with PCL tear compared to controls (+2.93 mm versus +0.03 mm, Ρ=0.002) with excellent interobserver agreement (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.94). No significant difference in lateral compartment tibial translation was observed (+0.17 mm versus -0.57 mm, Ρ=0.366) despite excellent interobserver agreement (ICC = 0.96). Posterior tibial translation in the midmedial compartment may be a secondary sign of isolated PCL tear on routine knee MRI with passive extension without manipulation or weight bearing. Additional work in a larger cohort may better address the accuracy of this finding

  6. Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-26

    May 26, 2015 ... Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Abstract. Isolated traumatic gallbladder rupture subsequent to blunt abdominal injury is rare. Most literatures on the subjects consist of case reports. We reported a rare case of isolated gallbladder rupture and discussed the possible predisposing factors to ...

  7. New thoughts on the origin of Pellegrini-Stieda: the association of PCL injury and medial femoral epicondylar periosteal stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAnally, James L.; Southam, Samuel L.; Mlady, Gary W.

    2009-01-01

    For the past 100 years, Pellegrini-Stieda disease has been described as calcification and ossification within the tibial collateral ligament, although these typical radiographic findings are often located more superior than the most proximal extent of the ligament. In this article, we demonstrate four magnetic resonance imaging cases of knee trauma with complete posterior cruciate ligament tear or avulsion, each demonstrating that injury to the medial collateral ligamentous complex can involve significant stripping of the tissue proximal to the medial epicondyle. Classic radiographic findings of Pellegrini-Stieda calcifications can be caused by stripping of the femoral periosteum proximal to the femoral attachment of the tibial collateral ligament, which appears to be associated with a complete posterior cruciate ligament injury. (orig.)

  8. Successful return to sports in athletes following non-operative management of acute isolated posterior cruciate ligament injuries: medium-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agolley, D; Gabr, A; Benjamin-Laing, H; Haddad, F S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to report the outcome of the non-operative treatment of high-grade posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries, particularly Hughston grade III injuries, which have not previously been described. This was a prospective study involving 46 consecutive patients who were athletes with MRI-confirmed isolated PCL injuries presenting within four weeks of injury. All had Hughston grade II (25 athletes) or III (21 athletes) injuries. Our non-operative treatment regimen involved initial bracing, followed by an individualised rehabilitation programme determined by the symptoms and physical signs. The patients were reviewed until they had returned to sports-specific training, and were reviewed again at a mean of 5.2 years (3 to 9). The mean time to return to sports-specific training was 10.6 weeks and the mean time to return to full competitive sport was 16.4 weeks (10 to 40). A total of 42 patients (91.3%) were playing at the same or higher level of sport two years after the injury, with a mean Tegner activity score of 9 (5 to 10). At five years, 32 patients (69.5%) were playing at the same or higher level of sport, and 38 patients (82.6%) were playing at a competitive level, with a mean Tegner activity score of 9 (5 to 10). Medium-term review of a series of athletes suggests that commencing the non-operative management of isolated, Hughston grade II and III PCL injuries within four weeks of injury gives excellent functional outcomes with a high proportion returning to the same or higher level of sport. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:774-8. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  9. PLDLA/PCL-T Scaffold for Meniscus Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Andrea Rodrigues; Moda, Marlon; Cattani, Silvia Mara de Melo; de Santana, Gracy Mara; Barbieri, Juliana Abreu; Munhoz, Monique Moron; Cardoso, Túlio Pereira; Barbo, Maria Lourdes Peris; Russo, Teresa; D'Amora, Ugo; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi; Duek, Eliana Aparecida de Rezende

    2013-04-01

    The inability of the avascular region of the meniscus to regenerate has led to the use of tissue engineering to treat meniscal injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of fibrochondrocytes preseeded on PLDLA/PCL-T [poly(L-co-D,L-lactic acid)/poly(caprolactone-triol)] scaffolds to stimulate regeneration of the whole meniscus. Porous PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10) scaffolds were obtained by solvent casting and particulate leaching. Compressive modulus of 9.5±1.0 MPa and maximum stress of 4.7±0.9 MPa were evaluated. Fibrochondrocytes from rabbit menisci were isolated, seeded directly on the scaffolds, and cultured for 21 days. New Zealand rabbits underwent total meniscectomy, after which implants consisting of cell-free scaffolds or cell-seeded scaffolds were introduced into the medial knee meniscus; the negative control group consisted of rabbits that received no implant. Macroscopic and histological evaluations of the neomeniscus were performed 12 and 24 weeks after implantation. The polymer scaffold implants adapted well to surrounding tissues, without apparent rejection, infection, or chronic inflammatory response. Fibrocartilaginous tissue with mature collagen fibers was observed predominantly in implants with seeded scaffolds compared to cell-free implants after 24 weeks. Similar results were not observed in the control group. Articular cartilage was preserved in the polymeric implants and showed higher chondrocyte cell number than the control group. These findings show that the PLDLA/PCL-T 90/10 scaffold has potential for orthopedic applications since this material allowed the formation of fibrocartilaginous tissue, a structure of crucial importance for repairing injuries to joints, including replacement of the meniscus and the protection of articular cartilage from degeneration.

  10. Isolated traumatic brain injury and venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gent, Jan-Michael; Bandle, Jesse; Calvo, Richard Y; Zander, Ashley L; Olson, Erik J; Shackford, Steven R; Peck, Kimberly A; Sise, C Beth; Sise, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered an independent risk factor of venous thromboembolism (VTE). However, the role of TBI severity in VTE risk has not been determined. We hypothesized that increased severity of brain injury in patients with isolated TBI (iTBI) is associated with an increased incidence of VTE. The records of patients admitted from June 2006 to December 2011 were reviewed for injury data, VTE risk factors, results of lower extremity surveillance ultrasound, and severity of TBI. Patients were identified by DRG International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev. codes for TBI, and only those with a nonhead Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 1 or lower, indicating minimal associated injury, were included. The association of iTBI and VTE was determined using a case-control design. Among iTBI patients, those diagnosed with VTE (cases) were matched for age, sex, and admission year to those without VTE (controls). Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression. There were 345 iTBI patients: 41 cases (12%) and 304 controls (88%). A total of 151 controls could not be matched to an appropriate case and were excluded. Of the remaining 153 controls, 1 to 16 controls were matched to each of the 41 VTE cases. Compared with the controls, the cases had a higher mean head-AIS score (4.4 vs. 3.9, p = 0.001) and overall Injury Severity Score (20.4 vs. 16.8, p = 0.001). Following adjustment for all factors found to be associated with VTE (ventilator days, central line placement, operative time > 2 hours, chemoprophylaxis, history of VTE, and history of cancer), the cases were significantly more likely to have a greater head injury severity (head-AIS score ≥ 5; odds ratio, 5.25; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-17.30; p = 0.006). The incidence of VTE in iTBI patients was significantly associated with the severity of TBI. VTE surveillance protocols may be warranted in these high-risk patients, as early detection of VTE could guide subsequent therapy

  11. Injury, Interiority, and Isolation in Men's Suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Creighton, Genevieve; Robertson, Steve; Broom, Alex; Jenkins, Emily K; Ogrodniczuk, John S; Ferlatte, Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Men's high suicide rates have been linked to individual risk factors including history of being abused as a child, single marital status, and financial difficulties. While it has also been suggested that the normative influences of hegemonic masculinities are implicated in men's suicide, the gendered experiences of male suicidality are poorly understood. In the current photovoice study, 20 men who previously had suicidal thoughts, plans, and/or attempts were interviewed as a means to better understanding the connections between masculinities and their experiences of suicidality. The study findings revealed injury, interiority, and isolation as interconnected themes characterizing men's suicidality. Injury comprised an array of childhood and/or cumulative traumas that fueled men's ruminating thoughts inhibiting recovery and limiting hopes for improved life quality. In attempting to blunt these traumas, many men described self-injuring through the overuse of alcohol and other drugs. The interiority theme revealed how suicidal thoughts can fuel hopelessness amid summonsing remedies from within. The challenges to self-manage, especially when experiencing muddled thinking and negative thought were evident, and led some participants to summons exterior resources to counter suicidality. Isolation included separateness from others, and was linked to abandonment issues and not having a job and/or partner. Self-isolating also featured as a protection strategy to avoid troubling others and/or reducing exposure to additional noxious stimuli. The study findings suggest multiple intervention points and strategies, the majority of which are premised on promoting men's social connectedness. The destigmatizing value of photovoice methods is also discussed.

  12. Isolated gallbladder injury in a case of blunt abdominal trauma.

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    Birn, Jeffrey; Jung, Melissa; Dearing, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of blunt injury to the gallbladder may constitute a significant challenge to the diagnostician. There is often a delay in presentation with non-specific clinical symptoms. In the absence of reliable clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging becomes an invaluable tool in the rapid identification of gallbladder injury. We present a case of isolated gallbladder injury following blunt abdominal trauma which was diagnosed by computed tomography and subsequently confirmed by cholecystectomy.

  13. Isolated Gallbladder Injury in a Case of Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Birn, Jeffrey; Jung, Melissa; Dearing, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of blunt injury to the gallbladder may constitute a significant challenge to the diagnostician. There is often a delay in presentation with non-specific clinical symptoms. In the absence of reliable clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging becomes an invaluable tool in the rapid identification of gallbladder injury. We present a case of isolated gallbladder injury following blunt abdominal trauma which was diagnosed by computed tomography and subsequently confirmed by cholecystectomy.

  14. Isolated posterior malleolus fracture: A rare injury mechanism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sprain of the ankle is undoubtedly a common injury during athletic activity, and the sprain can be also associated with fracture of the ankle. Isolated posterior malleolus fracture is a very rare condition, which is usually missed. Here, we are presenting a 37 years old female patient, who suffered injury secondary pressing on ...

  15. The effect of a dynamic PCL brace on patellofemoral compartment pressures in PCL-and PCL/PLC-deficient knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Tyler; Keller, Thomas; Maldonado, Ruben; Metzger, Melodie; Mohr, Karen; Kvitne, Ronald

    2017-12-01

    The natural history of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency includes the development of arthrosis in the patellofemoral joint (PFJ). The purpose of this biomechanical study was to evaluate the hypothesis that dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/posterolateral corner (PLC)-deficient knees. Controlled Laboratory Study. Eight fresh frozen cadaveric knees with intact cruciate and collateral ligaments were included. PFJ pressures and force were measured using a pressure mapping system via a lateral arthrotomy at knee flexion angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° in intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL/PLC-deficient knees under a combined quadriceps/hamstrings load of 400 N/200 N. Testing was then repeated in PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees after application of a dynamic PCL brace. Application of a dynamic PCL brace led to a reduction in peak PFJ pressures in PCL-deficient knees. In addition, the brace led to a significant reduction in peak pressures in PCL/PLC-deficient knees at 60°, 90°, and 120° of flexion. Application of the dynamic brace also led to a reduction in total PFJ force across all flexion angles for both PCL- and PCL/PLC-deficient knees. Dynamic bracing reduces PFJ pressures in PCL- and combined PCL/PLC-deficient knees, particularly at high degrees of knee flexion.

  16. The reevaluation of plain roentgenological study in isolated splenic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seong Ihn; Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Kil Jeong; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    1986-01-01

    The spleen is the most common intraabdominal organ injured in blunt trauma. Although physical signs and symptoms, coupled with abdominal paracentesis and peritoneal lavage confirm intraabdominal injury, but isolated splenic injury especially delayed rupture, the diagnosis and clinical course is variable. We are reevaluation of plain roentgenologic findings for the light of early diagnosis of isolated splenic injury. 24 patients of the autopsy and surgically proven isolated splenic injury at Chosun University Hospital in the period from 1980 January to 1986 June were analyzed plain roentgenogram retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Male patients predominate, constitution 87.5%. Incidence has been greatest in second to fourth decade. 2. Mode of trauma causing isolated splenic injury is most common in motor vehicle accident and others are fall down, struck by fist, blow to object, uncertain blunt trauma. 3. Delayed rupture of spleen occurred in 2 cases (8.3%). 4. Common patterns of splenic injury is simple laceration that involves both the capsule and the parenchyma and a laceration that involves the splenic pedicle. 5. Plain chest roentgenographic findings were abnormal in 4 cases (16.7%). The most common plain abdominal roentgenographic findings was the evidence of intaabdominal fluid in 21 cases (87.5%). The others are included in order of frequency; gastric dilatation, prominent mucosal folds on greater curvature of the stomach, evidence of pelvic fluid, displacement of stomach to the right or downward, mass density in the region of spleen. 6. No relationship can be shown between patterns of injury, time lapse after trauma and plain roentgenological findings. But the evidence of intraabdominal fluid is most important in the light of early diagnosis. 7. Diagnosis of splenic injury may be most helpful that in combination with clinical history, clinical symptoms and signs and plain film findings. In delayed rupture, diagnostic value of serial examination

  17. The reevaluation of plain roentgenological study in isolated splenic injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seong Ihn; Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Kil Jeong; Oh, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-10-15

    The spleen is the most common intraabdominal organ injured in blunt trauma. Although physical signs and symptoms, coupled with abdominal paracentesis and peritoneal lavage confirm intraabdominal injury, but isolated splenic injury especially delayed rupture, the diagnosis and clinical course is variable. We are reevaluation of plain roentgenologic findings for the light of early diagnosis of isolated splenic injury. 24 patients of the autopsy and surgically proven isolated splenic injury at Chosun University Hospital in the period from 1980 January to 1986 June were analyzed plain roentgenogram retrospectively. The results were as follows: 1. Male patients predominate, constitution 87.5%. Incidence has been greatest in second to fourth decade. 2. Mode of trauma causing isolated splenic injury is most common in motor vehicle accident and others are fall down, struck by fist, blow to object, uncertain blunt trauma. 3. Delayed rupture of spleen occurred in 2 cases (8.3%). 4. Common patterns of splenic injury is simple laceration that involves both the capsule and the parenchyma and a laceration that involves the splenic pedicle. 5. Plain chest roentgenographic findings were abnormal in 4 cases (16.7%). The most common plain abdominal roentgenographic findings was the evidence of intaabdominal fluid in 21 cases (87.5%). The others are included in order of frequency; gastric dilatation, prominent mucosal folds on greater curvature of the stomach, evidence of pelvic fluid, displacement of stomach to the right or downward, mass density in the region of spleen. 6. No relationship can be shown between patterns of injury, time lapse after trauma and plain roentgenological findings. But the evidence of intraabdominal fluid is most important in the light of early diagnosis. 7. Diagnosis of splenic injury may be most helpful that in combination with clinical history, clinical symptoms and signs and plain film findings. In delayed rupture, diagnostic value of serial examination

  18. Isolated Subclavian Vein Injury: A Rare and High Mortality Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin Iscan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated subclavian vein injuries are rarely seen without concomitant arterial injury, bone fracture, damage to brachial plexus, and thoracal traumas. Our case was brought to the emergency service 6 hours after he had been shot at the shoulder with a firearm. After detection of extravasation from the left axillary and subclavian vein on arteriographic and venographic examinations, he was operated on. An autogenous saphenous vein graft was interposed between subclavian and axillary veins. Cardiac arrest developed twice because of hypovolemia, which was resolved with medical therapy. Subclavian vein injuries have a more mortal course when compared with the injuries to the subclavian arteries. Its most important reason is excessive blood loss and air embolism because of delayed arrival to hospital. As is the case in all vascular injuries, angiography is the most important diagnostic examination. If the general health state of the patient permits, arteriography and venography should be performed in patients potentially exposed to vascular injuries. In patients with extreme blood loss and deteriorated health state, direct surgical exploration of the injury site, containment of the bleeding, and venous repair are life-saving approaches.

  19. Isolated traumatic head injury in children: Analysis of 276 observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahloul Mabrouk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : To determine predictive factors of mortality among children after isolated traumatic brain injury. Materials and Methods : In this retrospective study, we included all consecutive children with isolated traumatic brain injury admitted to the 22-bed intensive care unit (ICU of Habib Bourguiba University Hospital (Sfax, Tunisia. Basic demographic, clinical, biochemical, and radiological data were recorded on admission and during ICU stay. Results : There were 276 patients with 196 boys (71% and 80 girls, with a mean age of 6.7 ± 3.8 years. The main cause of trauma was road traffic accident (58.3%. Mean Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 ± 2, Mean Injury Severity Score (ISS was 23.3 ± 5.9, Mean Pediatric Trauma Score (PTS was 4.8 ± 2.3, and Mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM was 10.8 ± 8. A total of 259 children required mechanical ventilation. Forty-eight children (17.4% died. Multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with a poor prognosis were PRISM > 24 (OR: 10.98, neurovegetative disorder (OR: 7.1, meningeal hemorrhage (OR: 2.74, and lesion type VI according to Marshall tomographic grading (OR: 13.26. Conclusion : In Tunisia, head injury is a frequent cause of hospital admission and is most often due to road traffic injuries. Short-term prognosis is influenced by demographic, clinical, radiological, and biochemical factors. The need to put preventive measures in place is underscored.

  20. (PCL/AA) hydrogel for controlled drug delivery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    applications, (iii) dental applications, (iv) injectable polymers, (v) ... PCL with AA grafted PCL(PCL-g-AA) on the structure ... porosity. Structure, morphology and crystallinity of PCL/ .... X-ray diffraction patterns were recorded, in reflection,.

  1. Double-bundle PCL reconstruction using autologous hamstring tendons: outcome with a minimum 2-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Paula Leite Cury

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To present the outcomes of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL double-bundle reconstruction using autologous hamstring tendons, with a minimum follow-up of two years. METHODS: Evaluation of 16 cases of PCL injury that underwent double-bundle reconstruction with autogenous hamstring tendons, between 2011 and 2013. The final sample consisted of 16 patients, 15 men and one woman, with a mean age of 31 years (21-49. The predominant mechanism was motorcycle accident in half of the cases. There was a mean interval of 15 months between the time of lesion and the surgery (three to 52 months. Five lesions were isolated and 11, associated. Clinical evaluation, application of validated scores, and measurements with use of the KT-1000 were performed. RESULTS: The analysis showed a mean preoperative Lysholm score of 50 points (28-87, progressing to 94 points (85-100 postoperatively. The IKDC score also demonstrated improvement. In the preoperative evaluation, four and 12 patients were respectively classified as C (abnormal and D (very unusual, and in the postoperative evaluation six as A (normal and ten as B (close to normal. In the post-operative evaluation by KT1000 arthrometer, 13 patients showed difference between 0-2 mm and 3 between 3 and 5 mm, when compared with the contralateral side. CONCLUSION: Autologous hamstring tendons are a viable option in double-bundle reconstruction of the PCL, with good clinical results in a minimum follow-up of two years.

  2. Isolated Right Segmental Hepatic Duct Injury Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perini, Rafael F.; Uflacker, Renan; Cunningham, John T.; Selby, J. Bayne; Adams, David

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is the treatment of choice for gallstones. There is an increased incidence of bile duct injuries in LC compared with the open technique. Isolated right segmental hepatic duct injury (IRSHDI) represents a challenge not only for management but also for diagnosis. We present our experience in the management of IRSHDI, with long-term follow-up after treatment by a multidisciplinary approach. Methods. Twelve consecutive patients (9 women, mean age 48 years) were identified as having IRSHDI. Patients' demographics, clinical presentation, management and outcome were collected for analysis. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range 2-90 months). Results. Three patients had the LC immediately converted to open surgery without repair of the biliary injury before referral. Treatments before referral included endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous drainage and surgery, isolated or in combination. The median interval from LC to referral was 32 days. Eleven patients presented with biliary leak and biloma, one with obstruction of an isolated right hepatic segment. Post-referral management of the biliary lesion used a combination of ERCP stenting, percutaneous drainage and stent placement and surgery. In 6 of 12 patients ERCP was the first procedure, and in only one case was IRSHDI identified. In 6 patients, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was performed first and an isolated right hepatic segment was demonstrated in all. The final treatment modality was endoscopic management and/or percutaneous drainage and stenting in 6 patients, and surgery in 6. The mean follow-up was 44 months. No mortality or significant morbidity was observed. Conclusion. Successful management of IRSHDI after LC requires adequate identification of the lesion, and multidisciplinary treatment is necessary. Half of the patients can be treated successfully by nonsurgical procedures

  3. Isolated coronoid fracture: Assessment by magnetic resonance imaging for concomitant injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aashay L Kekatpure

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: LCL injury was consistent in all isolated coronoid fracture. The forces resulting in the injury appear similar to varus distraction forces acting in the knee leading to distraction injuries of the lateral structures of the knee joint. As concurrent osteochondral injuries and ligamentous injuries are not rare, magnetic resonance analysis serves as an excellent tool for analysis of the ligamentous injuries preoperatively and aids in surgical planning.

  4. Vertebral artery injury in patients with isolated transverse process fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonney, Phillip A; Burks, Joshua D; Conner, Andrew K; Glenn, Chad A; Baker, Cordell M; Cheema, Ahmed A; Archer, Jacob B; Buster, Bryan E; Albrecht, Roxie M; Bohnstedt, Bradley N

    2017-07-01

    We sought to assess the rate of CTA-diagnosed vertebral artery injury in patients with isolated transverse process fractures, with and without extension into the transverse foramen, in the blunt-trauma population served by our hospital. We queried our universities trauma registry between January 2009 and July 2014 for ICD-9 codes pertaining to cervical spine fractures. Of 330 patients identified, 45 patients had fractures limited to the transverse process and were selected for the study population. For each patient identified, demographics, injury mechanism, imaging reports, angiography findings, and treatments were recorded. In total, 69 fractures were identified in 45 patients. Of the 45 patients, 15 (33%) had transverse process fractures at multiple cervical levels. 23/45 (51%) patients had at least one fracture extending into TF. Four patients with transverse process fractures and one patient without transverse process fractures were diagnosed with vertebral artery injury by CT angiogram (17.4% vs. 4.5%, p=0.35). The number of transverse process fractures in patients with VAI was greater than those without VAI (3.0 vs. 1.4, p<0.001). None of the 30 patients with any one-level TPF (with or without extension into TF) was diagnosed with VAI (p=0.003). None of 17 patients with isolated C7-level TPFs were diagnosed with VAI (p=0.15). The incidence of cervical VAI was greater in patients with multiple-level TPFs than in patients with single-level TPFs. While patients with a single, isolated TPF have a low probability of VAI, patients with numerous TPF fractures may benefit from CTA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of adverse pancreatic injury at surgical procurement upon islet isolation outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Axel; Kin, Tatsuya; O'Gorman, Doug; Bigam, David; Kneteman, Norman; Senior, Peter; Shapiro, Am James

    2014-11-01

    The consequence of a pancreas injury during the procurement for islet isolation purpose is unknown. The goal of this work was to assess the injuries of the pancreata procured for islet isolation, and to determine their effect on the islet yield. Between January 2007 and October 2013, we prospectively documented every injury of the pancreata processed in our centre for islet isolation. Injuries involving the main duct were classified as major, the others as minor. Donors' characteristics and islet yields were compared between the groups of injuries. A pancreas injury was identified in 42 of 452 pancreata received for islet isolation (9.3%). In 15 cases, the injury was major (3.3% of all pancreata). Although a minor injury did not affect the islet yield, a major injury was significantly associated with unfavourable outcomes (postpurification mean islet equivalent of 364 ± 181, 405 ± 190 and 230 ± 115 × 10(3) for absence of injury, minor injury and major injury, respectively). A major injury was significantly more prevalent in lean and short donors. We recommend assessing the quality of the pancreas in the islet isolation centre before starting the isolation procedure. Each centre should determine its own policy based on its financial resources and on the wait list. © 2014 Steunstichting ESOT.

  6. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury -- aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood vessels. Skiers and people who play basketball, football, or soccer are more likely to have this ... herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any ...

  7. Comparison of isolated and concomitant liver injuries: is hepatic trauma entirely responsible for the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, P; Aydin, U; Sozbilen, M

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine both isolated and concomitant liver injuries to clarify the role of liver trauma on outcome. This retrospective study was a review of all abdominal trauma patients who presented with liver injuries, with or without concomitant injury at Ege University School of Medicine over a 3-year period. Presentation, injury grade, management, and outcomes were analyzed. Patients with isolated hepatic injury (Group A) were compared with patients who had concomitant hepatic injury (liver and spleen/small bowel) (Group B). Significance was set at 95% confidence intervals. Of 368 patients, 80 (21%) presented with liver injury. Of these, the aetiology was as follows: 53 (66.2%) blunt injury, 19 (23%) penetrating injury, and 8 (10%) gun shot trauma. There were 38 patients in Group A and 42 in Group B. Of these 42 patients, 19 were diagnosed with serious types of injury ; eight thoracic, three open long bone fracture, one intra-cardiac, one intracranial. Six additional patients were observed with injuries to large abdominal vessels. Eleven patients (28.9%) with isolated hepatic injury were managed non-operatively. Mortality, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and transfusion requirements were significantly higher in Group B. Only the number of transfused blood units and the grade of liver injury were found to be effective on outcome whereas stepwise regression analysis revealed that injury type (penetrating) and blood transfusion were predictive for mortality. This study highlighted that although isolated liver injury results in good outcome with non-operative management, concomitant injuries to the liver lead to a higher failure and mortality rate. However, liver injury itself is rarely responsible for death.

  8. High-grade renal injuries are often isolated in sports-related trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Darshan P.; Redshaw, Jeffrey D.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Smith, Thomas G.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Majercik, Sarah D.; Gaither, Thomas W.; Craig, James R.; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P.; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M.; Brant, William O.; Myers, Jeremy B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction: Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. Material and methods: We identified patients with AAST grades III...

  9. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your knee is bent also can cause this injury. Risk factors Being in a motor vehicle accident and participating in sports such as football and soccer are the most common risk factors for a PCL injury. Complications In ...

  10. Fresh osteochondral allograft transplantation for isolated patellar cartilage injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracitelli, Guilherme C; Meric, Gokhan; Pulido, Pamela A; Görtz, Simon; De Young, Allison J; Bugbee, William D

    2015-04-01

    The treatment of patellofemoral cartilage injuries can be challenging. Osteochondral allograft (OCA) transplantation has been used as a treatment option for a range of cartilage disorders. To evaluate functional outcomes and survivorship of the grafts among patients who underwent OCA for patellar cartilage injuries. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. An institutional review board-approved OCA database was used to identify 27 patients (28 knees) who underwent isolated OCA transplantation of the patella between 1983 and 2010. All patients had a minimum 2-year follow-up. The mean age of the patients was 33.7 years (range, 14-64 years); 54% were female. Twenty-six (92.9%) knees had previous surgery (mean, 3.2 procedures; range, 1-10 procedures). The mean allograft area was 10.1 cm(2) (range, 4.0-18.0 cm(2)). Patients returned for clinical evaluation or were contacted via telephone for follow-up. The number and type of reoperations were assessed. Any reoperation resulting in removal of the allograft was considered a failure of the OCA transplantation. Patients were evaluated pre- and postoperatively using the modified Merle d'Aubigné-Postel (18-point) scale, the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) pain, function, and total scores, and the Knee Society function (KS-F) score. Patient satisfaction was assessed at latest follow-up. Seventeen of the 28 knees (60.7%) had further surgery after the OCA transplantation; 8 of the 28 knees (28.6%) were considered OCA failures (4 conversions to total knee arthroplasty, 2 conversions to patellofemoral knee arthroplasty, 1 revision OCA, 1 patellectomy). Patellar allografting survivorship was 78.1% at 5 and 10 years and 55.8% at 15 years. Among the 20 knees (71.4%) with grafts in situ, the mean follow-up duration was 9.7 years (range, 1.8-30.1 years). Pain and function improved from the preoperative visit to latest follow-up, and 89% of patients were extremely satisfied or satisfied with the results of the OCA

  11. High-grade renal injuries are often isolated in sports-related trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Darshan P; Redshaw, Jeffrey D; Breyer, Benjamin N; Smith, Thomas G; Erickson, Bradley A; Majercik, Sarah D; Gaither, Thomas W; Craig, James R; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M; Brant, William O; Myers, Jeremy B

    2015-07-01

    Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. We identified patients with AAST grades III-V blunt renal injuries from four level 1 trauma centres across the United States between 1/2005 and 1/2014. Patients were divided into "Sport" or "Non-sport" related groups. Outcomes included rates of hypotension (systolic blood pressure 110bpm), concomitant abdominal injury, and procedural/surgical intervention between sports and non-sports related injury. 320 patients met study criteria. 18% (59) were sports-related injuries with the most common mechanisms being skiing, snowboarding and contact sports (25%, 25%, and 24%, respectively). Median age was 24 years for sports and 30 years for non-sports related renal injuries (p=0.049). Males were more commonly involved in sports related injuries (85% vs. 72%, p=0.011). Median injury severity score was lower for sports related injuries (10 vs. 27, pinjury scale scores. Sports related trauma was more likely to be isolated without other significant injury (69% vs. 39% (psports and non-sports renal injuries (p=0.30). Sports injuries had lower transfusion (7% vs. 47%, psports vs. 18% non-sports, p=0.95). High-grade sports-related blunt renal trauma is more likely to occur in isolation without other abdominal or thoracic injuries and clinicians must have a high suspicion of renal injury with significant blows to the flank during sports activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Severe Juxtahepatic Venous Injury: Survival after Prolonged Hepatic Vascular Isolation Without Shunting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. J. Krige

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival following major juxtahepatic venous injury is rare in blunt liver trauma despite the use of intracaval shunting. Prolonged liver arterial inflow control, total hepatic venous isolation and lobectomy without shunting was used in a patient to repair a combined vena caval and hepatic venous injury after blunt liver injury. An extended period of normothermic hepatic ischemia was tolerated. Early recognition of retrohepatic venous injury and temporary liver packing to control bleeding and correct hypovolemia are essential before caval occlusion. Hepatic vascular isolation without shunting is an effective simple alternative technique allowing major venous repair in complex liver trauma.

  13. Management of isolated splenic injuries after blunt trauma: an institution's experience over 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K K; Chiu, M T; Vijayan, A

    2010-12-01

    Forty-two patients with traumatic blunt splenic injuries were admitted over a six year period. Vehicular-related collisions and fall from height accounted for the injuries in 38 (90.5%) of them. Eleven (26.2%) underwent immediate surgery (7 splenectomy and 4 splenorrhaphy), while the remaining 31 patients were treated nonoperatively of which 3 underwent angio-embolisation. Twenty seven patients had either grade III or IV splenic injuries. Operative management was more likely in patients with lower haemoglobin or with more severe splenic injury. Nonoperative management can be adopted in patients with blunt isolated splenic injuries but operative management is still indispensable in certain instances.

  14. Isolated sternal fracture - a swing-related injury in two children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFriend, D.E.; Franklin, K.

    2001-01-01

    Isolated fracture of the sternum is an uncommon injury in a child. We report two cases of sternal fracture following falls from swings, which illustrate the mechanisms of injury in sternal fracture. One fracture resulted from a flexion compression injury of the thoracic spine, which has very rarely been reported in children. Sternal fracture should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute chest pain in a child where there has been an activity involving hyperflexion force. (orig.)

  15. PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymer-based microspheres mediate cardiovascular differentiation from embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liqing

    Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) based copolymers have received much attention as drug or growth factor delivery carriers and tissue engineering scaffolds due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and tunable biophysical properties. Copolymers of PCL and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) also have shape memory behaviors and can be made into thermoresponsive shape memory polymers for various biomedical applications such as smart sutures and vascular stents. However, the influence of biophysical properties of PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers on stem cell lineage commitment is not well understood. In this study, PDMS was used as soft segments of varying length to tailor the biophysical properties of PCL-based co-polymers. While low elastic modulus (affected cardiovascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells, the range of 60-100 MPa PCL-PDMS-PCL showed little influence on the differentiation. Then different size (30-140 mum) of microspheres were fabricated from PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers and incorporated within embryoid bodies (EBs). Mesoderm differentiation was induced using bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 for cardiovascular differentiation. Differential expressions of mesoderm progenitor marker KDR and vascular markers CD31 and VE-cadherin were observed for the cells differentiated from EBs incorporated with microspheres of different size, while little difference was observed for cardiac marker alpha-actinin expression. Small size of microspheres (30 mum) resulted in higher expression of KDR while medium size of microspheres (94 mum) resulted in higher CD31 and VE-cadherin expression. This study indicated that the biophysical properties of PCL-based copolymers impacted stem cell lineage commitment, which should be considered for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

  16. MR imaging of the combined anterior and posterior cruciate ligament tears: focussing on the ratterns of injuries and associated findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Seon Young; Choi, Chang Lak; Park, Dal Soo; Park, Eun Hee; Lee, Sang Ho; Song, Mun Kab; Lee, Kwang Won; Kwon, Soon Tae

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the patterns of injuries and frequency of associated findings on MR imaging in patients with both anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)tears;to compare the associated findings, as seen on MR imaging, in cases with both ACL and PCL tears with those with ACL or PCL tears. Ten patients with compbined ACL and PCL tears, 16 with ACL tears and 18 with PCL tears, all confirmed by arthroscopy or open surgery, were involved in this study. To identify the associated knee injuries, MR images were retrospectively evaluated. In ten patients with combined ACL and PCL tears, open surgery led to the identification of six complete ACL tears (60%), four partial ACL tears (40%), eitht complete PCL tears (80%) and two partial PCL tears (20%). Injuries associated with these combined tears, and revealed by MR imaging, comprised six medial collateral ligament injuries (60%), six lateral collateral ligament jnjuries (60%), five medial meniscal injuries (50%), three lateral meniscal injuries (30%), nine bony injuries (90%), two posterior capsular injuries (20%), and three popliteus muscle injuries (30%). The frequency of popliteus muscle injury was significantly different (p<0.05, Fisher's exact test) between the group with both ACL and PCL tears and that with ACL or PCL tears. Associated findings in patients with combined ACL and PCL tears are more frequent than in those with ACL or PCL tears. In cases involving combined ACL and PCL tears, associated findings-as seen on MR images-should thus be carefully examined

  17. Isolated syndesmotic injury in acute ankle trauma: Comparison of plain film radiography with 3 T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoennagel, B.P., E-mail: b.schoennagel@uke.uni-hamburg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Karul, M.; Avanesov, M.; Bannas, P.; Gold, G. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Großterlinden, L.G. [Department of Trauma-, Hand- and Reconstructive Surgery, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany); Rupprecht, M. [Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Children' s Hospital Hamburg-Altona, Bleickenallee 38, 22763 Hamburg (Germany); Adam, G.; Yamamura, J. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Martinistraße 52, 20246 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Isolated syndesmotic injury is a frequent finding after acute ankle trauma. • Cut-off values and accuracy of plain film radiograph measurements were determined. • The TFCS and the MCS have the potential to detect isolated syndesmotic injury. • Appropriate cut-off values allow detection of isolated syndesmotic injury. • Only MRI reveals severity of isolated syndesmotic injury and concomitant injuries. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine cut-off values and the accuracy of plain film measurements for the detection of isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma and to investigate MRI findings of concomitant ankle injury. Methods: Eighty-four consecutive patients with absent fracture in plain film radiographs were prospectively evaluated for isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma. The tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), the tibiofibular overlap (TFO), and the medial clear space (MCS) were independently assessed in plain radiographs by two readers. MRI performed at 3 T within 24 h served as the reference standard. MRI was evaluated for syndesmotic injury, using a four-scale grading system (0 = normal syndesmosis, 1a = periligamentous edema, 1b = intraligamentous edema, 2 = partial rupture, 3 = complete rupture), and for concomitant ankle injury. Inter-observer variability for x-ray measurements was assessed using Bland–Altman diagrams. ROC analyses were performed to determine cut-off values and sensitivity and specificity for TFCS, TFO, and MCS. Results: Eleven of 84 patients (13.1%) revealed syndesmotic injury (Grade 2 or 3) according to MRI. Between patients with and without syndesmotic injury significantly different measurements were obtained for TFCS (p = 0.003) and MCS (p = 0.04). ROC derived cut-off values were 5.3 mm for TFCS, 2.8 mm for TFO, and 2.8 mm for MCS. Sensitivity and specificity was 82% and 75% for TFCS, 36% and 78% for TFO, and 73% and 59% for MCS. The bias and limits of agreement were −0.04 mm and [−1

  18. Isolated syndesmotic injury in acute ankle trauma: Comparison of plain film radiography with 3 T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoennagel, B.P.; Karul, M.; Avanesov, M.; Bannas, P.; Gold, G.; Großterlinden, L.G.; Rupprecht, M.; Adam, G.; Yamamura, J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Isolated syndesmotic injury is a frequent finding after acute ankle trauma. • Cut-off values and accuracy of plain film radiograph measurements were determined. • The TFCS and the MCS have the potential to detect isolated syndesmotic injury. • Appropriate cut-off values allow detection of isolated syndesmotic injury. • Only MRI reveals severity of isolated syndesmotic injury and concomitant injuries. - Abstract: Objectives: To determine cut-off values and the accuracy of plain film measurements for the detection of isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma and to investigate MRI findings of concomitant ankle injury. Methods: Eighty-four consecutive patients with absent fracture in plain film radiographs were prospectively evaluated for isolated syndesmotic injury after acute ankle trauma. The tibiofibular clear space (TFCS), the tibiofibular overlap (TFO), and the medial clear space (MCS) were independently assessed in plain radiographs by two readers. MRI performed at 3 T within 24 h served as the reference standard. MRI was evaluated for syndesmotic injury, using a four-scale grading system (0 = normal syndesmosis, 1a = periligamentous edema, 1b = intraligamentous edema, 2 = partial rupture, 3 = complete rupture), and for concomitant ankle injury. Inter-observer variability for x-ray measurements was assessed using Bland–Altman diagrams. ROC analyses were performed to determine cut-off values and sensitivity and specificity for TFCS, TFO, and MCS. Results: Eleven of 84 patients (13.1%) revealed syndesmotic injury (Grade 2 or 3) according to MRI. Between patients with and without syndesmotic injury significantly different measurements were obtained for TFCS (p = 0.003) and MCS (p = 0.04). ROC derived cut-off values were 5.3 mm for TFCS, 2.8 mm for TFO, and 2.8 mm for MCS. Sensitivity and specificity was 82% and 75% for TFCS, 36% and 78% for TFO, and 73% and 59% for MCS. The bias and limits of agreement were −0.04 mm and [−1

  19. Hydrolytic and thermal degradation of PCL and PCL/Bentonite compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, Danyelle Campos; Bezerra, Elieber Barros; Morais, Dayanne Diniz de Souza; Araujo, Edcleide Maria [Universidade Federal de Campina grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Wellen, Renate Maria Ramos, E-mail: wellen.renate@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-05-15

    Poly(ε-caprolactone)/montmorillonite (PCL/MMT) and Poly(εcaprolactone)/organo-modified montmorillonite (PCL/OMMT) compounds at 3% w/w clay content were prepared by melting mixing. The effect of MMT and OMMT on the degradability of PCL injected specimens was investigated in vacuum at 40 deg C for up to 45 days and in aqueous medium at 40 deg C for up to 45 days. Selected specimens were collected after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. Microstructural changes were monitored during the degradation experiment by means of melt flow rate (MFR), weight loss, X ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical properties, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PCL and its compounds revealed not to be prone to hydrolytic degradation with similar results for MFR of samples exposed in vacuum and water. Gain and loss of weight were observed during experiments, probably due to swelling mechanism taking place in two stages, with the amorphous phase being the first to be swelled followed by the crystalline one. By XRD a new peak corresponding to (002) plane was evident for PCL/OMMT. PCL proved to be resistant to degradation since experiments carried out in vacuum or in aqueous medium for up to 45 days were not enough to affect the mechanical integrity of PCL samples. (author)

  20. Hydrolytic and thermal degradation of PCL and PCL/Bentonite compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, Danyelle Campos; Bezerra, Elieber Barros; Morais, Dayanne Diniz de Souza; Araujo, Edcleide Maria; Wellen, Renate Maria Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ε-caprolactone)/montmorillonite (PCL/MMT) and Poly(εcaprolactone)/organo-modified montmorillonite (PCL/OMMT) compounds at 3% w/w clay content were prepared by melting mixing. The effect of MMT and OMMT on the degradability of PCL injected specimens was investigated in vacuum at 40 deg C for up to 45 days and in aqueous medium at 40 deg C for up to 45 days. Selected specimens were collected after 15, 30 and 45 days of exposure. Microstructural changes were monitored during the degradation experiment by means of melt flow rate (MFR), weight loss, X ray diffraction (XRD), mechanical properties, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PCL and its compounds revealed not to be prone to hydrolytic degradation with similar results for MFR of samples exposed in vacuum and water. Gain and loss of weight were observed during experiments, probably due to swelling mechanism taking place in two stages, with the amorphous phase being the first to be swelled followed by the crystalline one. By XRD a new peak corresponding to (002) plane was evident for PCL/OMMT. PCL proved to be resistant to degradation since experiments carried out in vacuum or in aqueous medium for up to 45 days were not enough to affect the mechanical integrity of PCL samples. (author)

  1. PCL tibial avulsion with an associated medial meniscal tear in a child: a case report on diagnosis and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries from tibial avulsions are rare in the paediatric setting. One would need a high index of suspicion as clinical examination may be difficult, especially in the early period. Magnetic resonance imaging is an excellent diagnostic modality for this condition and other associated injuries within the knee. We report a rare case in which the patient had a PCL avulsion off the tibial insertion site with an associated posterior horn medial meniscal tear off the posterior capsule. He was treated through open reduction and internal fixation of the avulsed fragment with suture repair of the meniscal tear. We emphasize the importance of diagnosing and managing associated intra-articular injuries when dealing with the rare condition of PCL tibial avulsion in the paediatric setting.

  2. Acute alcohol intoxication, diffuse axonal injury and intraventricular bleeding in patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Hidetoshi; Shinoda, Masaki; Fujii, Motoharu; Takahashi, Osamu; Murakata, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    The influence of blood alcohol level (BAL) on outcome remains unclear. This study investigated the relationships between BAL, type and number of diffuse axonal injury (DAI), intraventricular bleeding (IVB) and 6-month outcome. This study reviewed 419 patients with isolated blunt traumatic brain injury. First, it compared clinical and radiological characteristics between patients with good recovery and disability. Second, it compared BAL among DAI lesions. Third, it evaluated the correlation between the BAL and severity of IVB, number of DAI and corpus callosum injury lesions. Regardless of BAL, older age, male gender, severe Glasgow Coma Scale score (injury lesions. Acute alcohol intoxication was not associated with type and number of DAI lesion, IVB and disability. This study suggested that a specific type of traumatic lesion, specifically lesion on genu of corpus callosum and IVB, might be more vital for outcome.

  3. PCL/MWCNT Nanocomposites as Nanosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanov, Anita; Buzarovska, Alexandra; Avella, Maurizio; Errico, Maria E.; Gentile, Gennaro

    Due to the unique electronic, metallic and structural properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as compared to other materials, researchers focused on utilizing these characteristics for engineering applications such as actuators, hydrogen storage materials, chemical sensors and nanoelectronic devices. Many papers have been published utilizing CNTs as the sensing material in pressure, flow, thermal, gas, optical, mass, strain, stress, chemical and biological sensors. Amongst many of their superior electro-mechanical properties, the piezoresistive effect in CNTs is attractive for designing strain sensors. When CNTs are subjected to a mechanical strain, a change in their chirality leads to modulation of the conductance. In this paper, a novel carbon nanotube/biopolymer nanocomposite was used to develop a piezoresistive strain nano bio-sensor. A biocompatible polymer matrix has been used to provide good interfacial bonding between the carbon nanotubes. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, diameter d = 30-50 nm, purity >95%) have been used for the preparation of polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanocomposites (PCL/MWCNT). The nanocomposites were prepared by mixing the MWCNTs and PCL in a tetrahydrofuran solution for 24 h. Characterization of the PCL/MWCNTs nanocomposite films was performed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as by mechanical and electrical measurements.

  4. Structural and functional effects of social isolation on the hippocampus of rats with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaie, Babak; Lotfinia, Ahmad Ali; Ahmadi, Milad; Lotfinia, Mahmoud; Jafarian, Maryam; Karimzadeh, Fariba; Coulon, Philippe; Gorji, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Social isolation has significant long-term psychological and physiological consequences. Both social isolation and traumatic brain injury (TBI) alter normal brain function and structure. However, the influence of social isolation on recovery from TBI is unclear. This study aims to evaluate if social isolation exacerbates the anatomical and functional deficits after TBI in young rats. Juvenile male rats were divided into four groups; sham operated control with social contacts, sham control with social isolation, TBI with social contacts, and TBI with social isolation. During four weeks after brain injury in juvenile rats, we evaluated the animal behaviors by T-maze and open-field tests, recorded brain activity with electrocorticograms and assessed structural changes by histological procedures in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 areas. Our findings revealed significant memory impairments and hyperactivity conditions in rats with TBI and social isolation compared to the other groups. Histological assessments showed an increase of the mean number of dark neurons, apoptotic cells, and caspase-3 positive cells in all tested areas of the hippocampus in TBI rats with and without social isolation compared to sham rats. Furthermore, social isolation significantly increased the number of dark cells, apoptotic neurons, and caspase-3 positive cells in the hippocampal CA3 region in rats with TBI. This study indicates the harmful effect of social isolation on anatomical and functional deficits induced by TBI in juvenile rats. Prevention of social isolation may improve the outcome of TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk of traumatic brain injuries in children younger than 24 months with isolated scalp hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Peter S; Holmes, James F; Schutzman, Sara; Schunk, Jeffrey; Lichenstein, Richard; Foerster, Lillian A; Hoyle, John; Atabaki, Shireen; Miskin, Michelle; Wisner, David; Zuspan, SallyJo; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to determine the association between scalp hematoma characteristics and traumatic brain injuries in young children with blunt head trauma who have no other symptoms or signs suggestive of traumatic brain injuries (defined as "isolated scalp hematomas"). This was a secondary analysis of children younger than 24 months with minor blunt head trauma from a prospective cohort study in 25 Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network emergency departments. Treating clinicians completed a structured data form. For children with isolated scalp hematomas, we determined the prevalence of and association between scalp hematoma characteristics and (1) clinically important traumatic brain injury (death, neurosurgery for traumatic brain injury, intubation >24 hours for traumatic brain injury, or positive computed tomography (CT) scan in association with hospitalization ≥2 nights for traumatic brain injury); and (2) traumatic brain injury on CT. Of 10,659 patients younger than 24 months were enrolled, 2,998 of 10,463 (28.7%) with complete data had isolated scalp hematomas. Clinically important traumatic brain injuries occurred in 12 patients (0.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2% to 0.7%); none underwent neurosurgery (95% CI 0% to 0.1%). Of 570 patients (19.0%) for whom CTs were obtained, 50 (8.8%; 95% CI 6.6% to 11.4%) had traumatic brain injuries on CT. Younger age, non-frontal scalp hematoma location, increased scalp hematoma size, and severe injury mechanism were independently associated with traumatic brain injury on CT. In patients younger than 24 months with isolated scalp hematomas, a minority received CTs. Despite the occasional presence of traumatic brain injuries on CT, the prevalence of clinically important traumatic brain injuries was very low, with no patient requiring neurosurgery. Clinicians should use patient age, scalp hematoma location and size, and injury mechanism to help determine which otherwise asymptomatic children should undergo

  6. Isolated Penile Degloving from Milling Machine Injury in a Child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had been attending to a cassava milling machine in his village, in Ubakala Old ... machine. He was found upon rescue to be in pain, with his phallus entrapped by his clothes. The shorts had been tightly wrung by the pulley/fan belt system of the machine. Initial .... Degloving injury Eur J Trauma 2005;31:593‑6. 2. Mathur RK ...

  7. Social isolation after spinal cord injury: Indicators from the Longitudinal Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Susan D; Li, Chao; Krause, James S

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a conceptual model of social isolation, incorporating social disconnectedness (objective measures) and perceived isolation (subjective appraisals) in an aging sample of participants with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study used cross-sectional data from 768 participants from the most recent administration of the SCI Longitudinal Aging Study, which was initiated in 1973. Measures included the revised version of the Life Situation Questionnaire, items from the Craig Handicap Assessment Reporting Technique, and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Indicators of social isolation were combined into scales assessing social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. We tested the hypothesized model of social isolation, including both social disconnectedness and perceived isolation, after SCI using structural equation modeling. Results of structural equation modeling indicated good fit between the hypothesized model and data (root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.073, 90% confidence interval [0.070, 0.075]; comparative fit index = 0.949; Tucker Lewis Index = 0.946). Perceived isolation was significantly related with social disconnectedness (standardized coefficient [r] = .610). Several exogenous factors were significantly related to social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. Older participants were more likely to report lower levels of perceived isolation. Time since injury demonstrated an inverse relationship with both social disconnectedness and perceived isolation. Higher level and severity of injury were associated with higher levels of social disconnectedness. Our study establishes a stable model of social isolation to guide future research exploring the effect of social isolation on health after SCI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. One Stage Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy for Isolated Injury to Pancreatic Head Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanta Kumar Ghosh

    2013-01-01

    Major pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma by itself is a relatively rare occurrence, and in vast majority of cases (95%) it is associated with injury to adjacent major vessels and organs; thus making isolated major pancreatic injury even rarer. While most pancreatic injuries are managed by simple measures like debridement and drainage, complex proximal injury poses surgical challenge regarding surgical skill and judgement. Disproportionate approach at any stage of management ...

  9. Delayed diagnosis of an isolated posterolateral corner injury: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Patrick; DeGraauw, Christopher; Whitty, David

    2016-12-01

    Isolated injuries to the posterolateral corner of the knee are a rare and commonly missed injury associated with athletic trauma, motor vehicle accidents, and falls. Delayed or missed diagnoses can negatively impact patient prognosis, contributing to residual instability, chronic pain, and failure of surgical repair to other ligaments. A 44-year-old male CrossFit athlete presented with a history of two non-contact hyperextension injuries to his left knee while walking on ice. The only positive finding was the Dial Test at 30 degrees of knee flexion, indicative of an isolated posterolateral corner injury. After a delay in diagnosis, the patient underwent a reconstruction of the posterolateral corner and subsequent rehabilitation. Early recognition of this injury is important as this can affect the prognosis and activities of daily living of the patient. This case will discuss the clinical presentation, diagnostic procedures, and management of an isolated posterolateral corner injury and highlight the importance of early recognition and referrals from primary contact healthcare practitioners.

  10. Isolated medulla oblongata function after severe traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Wijdicks, E; Atkinson, J; Okazaki, H

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to report the first pathologically confirmed case of partly functionally preserved medulla oblongata in a patient with catastrophic traumatic brain injury.
A patient is described with epidural haematoma with normal breathing and blood pressure and a retained coughing reflex brought on only by catheter suctioning of the carina. Multiple contusions in the thalami and pons were found but the medulla oblongata was spared at necropsy. 
In conclusion, medulla oblong...

  11. Compartment Syndrome following Open Femoral Fracture with an Isolated Femoral Vein Injury Treated with Acute Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Walmsley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute compartment syndrome is a surgical emergency and its diagnosis is more difficult in obtunded or insensate patients. We present the case of a 34-year-old woman who sustained a Gustilo-Anderson grade III open midshaft femur fracture with an isolated femoral vein injury treated with direct repair. She developed lower leg compartment syndrome at 48 hours postoperatively, necessitating fasciotomies. She was subsequently found to have a DVT in her femoral vein at the level of the repair and was started on therapeutic anticoagulation. This case highlights the importance of recognition of isolated venous injuries in a trauma setting as a risk factor for developing compartment syndrome.

  12. Acute posterior cruciate ligament injuries: effect of location, severity, and associated injuries on surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark A; Simeone, F Joseph; Palmer, William E; Chang, Connie Y

    2018-06-01

    To correlate MRI findings of patients with posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury and surgical management. A retrospective search yielded 79 acute PCL injuries (36 ± 16 years old, 21 F, 58 M). Two independent readers graded PCL tear location (proximal, middle, or distal third) and severity (low-grade or high-grade partial/complete) and evaluated injury of other knee structures. When available, operative reports were examined and the performed surgical procedure was compared with injury grade, location, and presence of associated injuries. The most commonly injured knee structures in acute PCL tears were posterolateral corner (58/79, 73%) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (48/79, 61%). Of the 64 patients with treatment information, 31/64 (48%) were managed surgically: 12/31 (39%) had PCL reconstruction, 13/31 (42%) had ACL reconstruction, 10/31 (32%) had posterolateral corner reconstruction, 9/31 (29%) had LCL reconstruction, 8/31 (26%) had meniscectomy, and 8/31 (26%) had fixation of a fracture. Proximal third PCL tear and multiligamentous injury were more commonly associated with surgical management (P < 0.05). Posterolateral and posteromedial corner, ACL, collateral ligament, meniscus, patellar retinaculum, and gastrocnemius muscle injury, and fracture were more likely to result in surgical management (P < 0.05). Patients with high-grade partial/complete PCL tear were more likely to have PCL reconstruction as a portion of surgical management (P < 0.05). Location of PCL tear and presence of other knee injuries were associated with surgical management while high-grade/complete PCL tear grade was associated with PCL reconstruction. MRI reporting of PCL tear location, severity, and of other knee structure injuries is important for guiding clinical management.

  13. Evaluation of Single-Bundle versus Double-Bundle PCL Reconstructions with More Than 10-Year Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Deie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL injuries are not rare in acute knee injuries, and several recent anatomical studies of the PCL and reconstructive surgical techniques have generated improved patient results. Now, we have evaluated PCL reconstructions performed by either the single-bundle or double-bundle technique in a patient group followed up retrospectively for more than 10 years. Methods. PCL reconstructions were conducted using the single-bundle (27 cases or double-bundle (13 cases method from 1999 to 2002. The mean age at surgery was 34 years in the single-bundle group and 32 years in the double-bundle group. The mean follow-up period was 12.5 years. Patients were evaluated by Lysholm scoring, the gravity sag view, and knee arthrometry. Results. The Lysholm score after surgery was 89.1±5.6 points for the single-bundle group and 91.9±4.5 points for the double-bundle group. There was no significant difference between the methods in the side-to-side differences by gravity sag view or knee arthrometer evaluation, although several cases in both groups showed a side-to-side difference exceeding 5 mm by the latter evaluation method. Conclusions. We found no significant difference between single- and double-bundle PCL reconstructions during more than 10 years of follow-up.

  14. Embolization of Isolated Lumbar Artery Injuries in Trauma Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Hinrichs, Clay R.; Hubbi, Basil; Doddakashi, Satish; Bahramipour, Philip; Schubert, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the angiographic findings and results of embolotherapy in the management of lumbar artery trauma. Methods. All patients with lumbar artery injury who underwent angiography and percutaneous embolization in a state trauma center within a 10-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Radiological information and procedural reports were reviewed to assess immediate angiographic findings and embolization results. Long-term clinical outcome was obtained by communication with the trauma physicians as well as with chart review. Results. In a 10-year period, 255 trauma patients underwent abdominal aortography. Eleven of these patients (three women and eight men) suffered a lumbar artery injury. Angiography demonstrated active extravasation (in nine) and/or pseudoaneurysm (in four). Successful selective embolization of abnormal vessel(s) was performed in all patients. Coils were used in six patients, particles in one and gelfoam in five patients. Complications included one retroperitoneal abscess, which was treated successfully. One patient returned for embolization of an adjacent lumbar artery due to late pseudoaneurysm formation. Conclusions. In hemodynamically stable patients, selective embolization is a safe and effective method for immediate control of active extravasation, as well as to prevent future hemorrhage from an injured lumbar artery

  15. Isolated fracture of pisiform: case report of a rare injury of wrist

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    ABSTRACT: Isolated fracture of the pisiform is an extremely rare injury. Generally fractures of the pisiform are associated with fractures of other carpal bones or the distal radius. Fractures of the carpals and metacarpals account for roughly 6% of all fractures. The average incidence of pisiform fractures is 0.2% of all carpal ...

  16. Processing and properties of PCL/cotton linter compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezerra, Elieber Barros; Franca, Danyelle Campos; Morais, Dayanne Diniz de Souza; Araujo, Edcleide Maria [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais; Rosa, Morsyleide de Freitas; Morais, Joao Paulo Saraiva [Embrapa Tropical Agroindustia, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Wellen, Renate Maria Ramos, E-mail: wellen.renate@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiaba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    Biodegradable compounds of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/ cotton linter were melting mixed with filling content ranging from 1% to 5% w/w. Cotton linter is an important byproduct of textile industry; in this work it was used in raw state and after acid hydrolysis. According to the results of torque rheometry no decaying of viscosity took place during compounding, evidencing absence of breaking down in molecular weight. The thermal stability increased by 20% as observed in HDT for PCL/cotton nanolinter compounds. Adding cotton linter to PCL did not change its crystalline character as showed by XRD; however an increase in degree of crystallinity was observed by means of DSC. From mechanical tests in tension was observed an increase in ductility of PCL, and from mechanical tests in flexion an increase in elastic modulus upon addition of cotton linter, whereas impact strength presented lower values for PCL/cotton linter and PCL/cotton nanolinter compounds. SEM images showed that PCL presents plastic fracture and cotton linter has an interlacing fibril structure with high L/D ratio, which are in agreement with matrix/fibril morphology observed for PCL/cotton linter compounds. PCL/cotton linter compounds made in this work cost less than neat PCL matrix and presented improved properties making feasible its commercial use. (author)

  17. [Treatment practice in patients with isolated blunt splenic injuries. A survey of Swiss traumatologists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnüriger, B; Martens, F; Eberle, B M; Renzulli, P; Seiler, C A; Candinas, D

    2013-01-01

    The non-operative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injuries has gained widespread acceptance. However, there are still many controversies regarding follow-up of these patients. The purpose of this study was to survey active members of the Swiss Society of General and Trauma Surgery (SGAUC) to determine their practices regarding the NOM of isolated splenic injuries. A survey of active SGAUC members with a written questionnaire was carried out. The questionnaire was designed to elicit information about personal and facility demographics, diagnostic practices, in-hospital management, preferred follow-up imaging and return to activity. Out of 165 SGAUC members 52 (31.5%) completed the survey and 62.8% of all main trauma facilities in Switzerland were covered by the sample. Of the respondents 14 (26.9%) have a protocol in place for treating patients with splenic injuries. For initial imaging in hemodynamically stable patients 82.7% of respondents preferred ultrasonography (US). In cases of suspected splenic injury 19.2% of respondents would abstain from further imaging. In cases of contrast extravasation from the spleen half of the respondents would take no specific action. For low-grade injuries 86.5% chose to admit patients for an average of 1.6 days (range 0-4 days) with a continuously monitored bed. No differences in post-discharge activity restrictions between moderate and high-grade splenic injuries were found. The present survey showed considerable practice variation in several important aspects of the NOM of splenic injuries. Not performing further CT scans in patients with suspected splenic injuries and not intervening in cases of a contrast extravasation were the most important discrepancies to the current literature. Standardization of the NOM of splenic injuries may be of great benefit for both surgeons and patients.

  18. Ischemia-reperfusion injury in the isolated rat lung. Role of flow and endogenous leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, A F; Haynes, J; Taylor, A

    1993-02-01

    Microvascular lung injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) may occur via leukocyte-dependent and leukocyte-independent pathways. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion may be a rate-limiting step in IR lung injury. Leukocyte adhesion to microvascular endothelium occurs when the attractant forces between leukocyte and endothelium are greater than the kinetic energy of the leukocyte and the vascular wall shear rate. We hypothesized (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs are not free of endogenous leukocytes, (2) that endogenous leukocytes contribute to IR-induced microvascular injury as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and (3) that a reduction of perfusate flow rate would potentiate leukocyte-dependent IR injury. Sixty lungs were divided into four groups: (1) low-flow controls, (2) high-flow controls, (3) low-flow IR, and (4) high-flow IR. Microvascular injury was linearly related to baseline perfusate leukocyte concentrations at both low (r = 0.78) and high (r = 0.82) flow rates. Kfc in the high-flow IR group (0.58 +/- 0.03 ml/min/cm H2O/100 g) was less (p Kfc in the low-flow IR group (0.82 +/- 0.07), and in both groups Kfc values were significantly greater than low-flow (0.34 +/- 0.03) and high-flow (0.31 +/- 0.01) control Kfc values after 75 min. Retention of leukocytes in the lung, evaluated by a tissue myeloperoxidase assay, was greatest in the low-flow IR group. We conclude (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs contain significant quantities of leukocytes and that these leukocytes contribute to IR lung injury, and (2) that IR-induced microvascular injury is potentiated by low flow.

  19. Static inflation attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in an isolated rat lung in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shang Jyh; Wang, David; Yeh, Diana Yu-Wung; Hsu, Kang; Hsu, Yung Hsiang; Chen, Hsing I

    2004-08-01

    Ischemia (I)/reperfusion (R) lung injury is an important clinical issue in lung transplantation. In the present study, we observed the effects of lung static inflation, different perfusates, and ventilatory gas with nitrogen or oxygen on the I/R-induced pulmonary damage. A total of 96 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The lung was isolated in situ. In an isolated lung, the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight gain (LWG), lung weight (LW)/body weight (BW) ratio, and protein concentration in BAL fluid (PCBAL) were measured or calculated to evaluate the degree of lung injury. Histologic examinations with hematoxylin-eosin staining were performed. I/R caused lung injury, as reflected by increases in Kfc, LWG, LW/BW, and PCBAL. The histopathologic picture revealed the presence of hyaline membrane formation and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. These values were significantly attenuated by static lung inflation. The I/R lung damage appeared to be less in the lung perfused with whole blood than in the lung perfused with an isotonic solution. Therapy with ventilatory air (ie, nitrogen or oxygen) did not alter the I/R lung damage. The data suggest that lung inflation is protective to I/R injury, irrespective of the type of ventilatory air used for treatment. The preservation of the lung for transplantation is better kept at a static inflation state and perfused with whole blood instead of an isotonic physiologic solution.

  20. Tracheostomy is associated with decreased hospital mortality after moderate or severe isolated traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, David Marek; Hochrieser, Helene; Metnitz, Philipp G H; Mauritz, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Data regarding the impact and timing of tracheostomy in patients with isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI) are ambiguous. Our goal was to evaluate the impact of tracheostomy on hospital mortality in patients with moderate or severe isolated TBI. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of data prospectively collected at 87 Austrian intensive care units (ICUs). All patients continuously admitted between 1998 and 2010 were evaluated for the study. In total, 4,735 patients were admitted to ICUs with isolated TBI. Of these patients, 2,156 had a moderate or severe TBI (1,603 patients were endotracheally intubated only, 553 patients underwent tracheostomy). Epidemiological data (trauma severity, treatment, and outcome) of the two groups were compared. Patients with moderate or severe isolated TBI undergoing tracheostomy had a similar Glasgow Coma Scale score, median (interquartile range): 6 (3-8) vs 6 (3-8); p = 0.90, and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 45 (37-54) vs 45 (35-56); p = 0.86, compared with intubated patients not undergoing tracheostomy. Furthermore, patients undergoing tracheostomy exhibited higher Abbreviated Injury Scale Head scores and had a longer ICU stay for survivors, 30 (22-42) vs 9 (3-17) days; p tracheostomy compared with patients who remained intubated, observed-to-expected mortality ratio (95 % confidence interval): 0.62 (0.53-0.72) vs 1.00 (0.95-1.05) respectively. Despite the greater severity of head injury, patients with isolated TBI who underwent tracheostomy had a lower risk-adjusted mortality than patients who remained intubated. Reasons for this difference in outcome may be multifactorial and require further investigation.

  1. WITHDRAWN: Exercise for treating isolated anterior cruciate ligament injuries in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trees, Amanda H; Howe, Tracey E; Dixon, John; White, Lisa

    2011-05-11

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most frequently injured ligament of the knee. Injury causes pain, effusion and inflammation leading to the inability to fully activate the thigh muscles. Regaining muscular control is essential if the individual wishes to return to pre-injury level of function and patients will invariably be referred for rehabilitation. To present the best evidence for effectiveness of exercise used in the rehabilitation of isolated ACL injuries in adults, on return to work and pre-injury levels of activity. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (Feb 2005), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2005), MEDLINE (1996 to March 2005), EMBASE (1980 to March 2005), other databases and reference lists of articles. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials testing exercise programmes designed to rehabilitate adults with isolated ACL injuries. Trials where participants were randomised to receive any combination of the following: no care, usual care, a single-exercise intervention, and multiple-exercise interventions, were included. The primary outcome measures of interest were returning to work and return to pre-injury level of activity post treatment, at six months and one year. Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information. Adverse effects information was collected from the trials. Nine trials involving 391 participants were included. Only two trials, involving 76 participants, reported conservative rehabilitation and seven trials, involving 315 participants, evaluated rehabilitation following ACL reconstruction. Methodological quality scores varied considerably across the trials, with the nature of participant and assessor blinding poorly reported. Trial comparisons fell into six categories. Pooling of data was rarely possible due to lack of appropriate

  2. Review on PCL, PBS, and PCL/PBS blends containing carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Gumede

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polymers received considerable attention due to their contribution in the reduction of environmental concerns and the realization that global petroleum resources are finite. The development of double crystalline biobased blends such as poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL and poly(butylene succinate (PBS are particularly interesting because each component has an influence on the crystallization behaviour of the other component, and thus influences the strength and mechanical properties of a polymer blend. The lack of miscibility between PCL and PBS constitutes a bottleneck, and efforts have been made to improve the miscibility through the inclusion of copolymers. Having realized that incorporating conductive nanofillers such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs, (especially when the CNTs are functionalized or used as a masterbatch i.e., polycarbonate/MWCNTs masterbatch, into biopolymer matrices, can enhance the thermal and mechanical properties, as well as electrical and thermal conductivity, a lot of research was aimed at the production of bionanocomposites. This review paper discusses the properties of PCL, PBS, their blends, and their CNTs containing nanocomposites.

  3. Bactericidal Effect of Lauric Acid-Loaded PCL-PEG-PCL Nano-Sized Micelles on Skin Commensal Propionibacterium acnes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Quynh-Mai Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acne is the over growth of the commensal bacteria Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes on human skin. Lauric acid (LA has been investigated as an effective candidate to suppress the activity of P. acnes. Although LA is nearly insoluble in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO has been reported to effectively solubilize LA. However, the toxicity of DMSO can limit the use of LA on the skin. In this study, LA-loaded poly(ɛ-caprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ɛ-caprolactone micelles (PCL-PEG-PCL were developed to improve the bactericidal effect of free LA on P. acnes. The block copolymers mPEG-PCL and PCL-PEG-PCL with different molecular weights were synthesized and characterized using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. In the presence of LA, mPEG-PCL diblock copolymers did not self-assemble into nano-sized micelles. On the contrary, the average particle sizes of the PCL-PEG-PCL micelles ranged from 50–198 nm for blank micelles and 27–89 nm for LA-loaded micelles. The drug loading content increased as the molecular weight of PCL-PEG-PCL polymer increased. Additionally, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of free LA were 20 and 80 μg/mL, respectively. The MICs and MBCs of the micelles decreased to 10 and 40 μg/mL, respectively. This study demonstrated that the LA-loaded micelles are a potential treatment for acne.

  4. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  5. [Isolated traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve. Radial nerve transfer in four cases and literatura review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2012-11-01

    To analyze the results of an initial series of four cases of traumatic injuries of the axillary nerve, treated by a nerve transfer from the triceps long branch of the radial nerve. An extensive analysis of the literature has also been made. Four patients aged between 21 and 42 years old presenting an isolated traumatic palsy of the axillary nerve were operated between January 2007 and June 2010. All cases were treated by nerve transfer six to eight months after the trauma. The results of these cases are analyzed, the same as the axillary nerve injuries series presented in the literature from 1982. One year after the surgery, all patients improved their abduction a mean of 70° (range 30 to 120°), showing a M4 in the British Medical Council Scale. No patient complained of triceps weakness after the procedure. These results are similar to those published employing primary grafting for the axillary nerve. Isolated injuries of the axillary nerve should be treated with surgery when spontaneous recovery is not verified 6 months after the trauma. Primary repair with grafts is the most popular surgical technique, with a rate of success of approximately 90%. The preliminary results of a nerve transfer employing the long triceps branch are similar, and a definite comparison of both techniques with a bigger number of cases should be done in the future. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Bio-functionalized PCL nanofibrous scaffolds for nerve tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Prabhakaran, Molamma P.; Morshed, Mohammad; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein; Ramakrishna, S.

    2010-01-01

    Surface properties of scaffolds such as hydrophilicity and the presence of functional groups on the surface of scaffolds play a key role in cell adhesion, proliferation and migration. Different modification methods for hydrophilicity improvement and introduction of functional groups on the surface of scaffolds have been carried out on synthetic biodegradable polymers, for tissue engineering applications. In this study, alkaline hydrolysis of poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out for different time periods (1 h, 4 h and 12 h) to increase the hydrophilicity of the scaffolds. The formation of reactive groups resulting from alkaline hydrolysis provides opportunities for further surface functionalization of PCL nanofibrous scaffolds. Matrigel was attached covalently on the surface of an optimized 4 h hydrolyzed PCL nanofibrous scaffolds and additionally the fabrication of blended PCL/matrigel nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out. Chemical and mechanical characterization of nanofibrous scaffolds were evaluated using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and tensile measurement. In vitro cell adhesion and proliferation study was carried out after seeding nerve precursor cells (NPCs) on different scaffolds. Results of cell proliferation assay and SEM studies showed that the covalently functionalized PCL/matrigel nanofibrous scaffolds promote the proliferation and neurite outgrowth of NPCs compared to PCL and hydrolyzed PCL nanofibrous scaffolds, providing suitable substrates for nerve tissue engineering.

  7. Isolated Post-Traumatic Radial Head Dislocation, A Rare and Easily Missed Injury-A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Gupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of the head of the radius may be either congenital, an isolated injury or more commonly part of a complex injury to the elbow such as the Monteggia fracturedislocation. Isolated traumatic radial head dislocation without associated injuries in children is a rare and easily missed condition. We report such a case in a 7-year-old boy without any associated injuries or co-morbid conditions. Initially the diagnosis was missed, and 6 weeks later open reduction was performed with annular ligament reconstruction surgery. At the one-year follow up, the patient had returned to most normal activities, showing only slight terminal restriction of pronation. We discuss the injury mechanism and management for the Monteggia fracturedislocation and review the available literature.

  8. Processing and Properties of PCL/Cotton Linter Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bezerra,Elieber Barros; França,Danyelle Campos; Morais,Dayanne Diniz de Souza; Rosa,Morsyleide de Freitas; Morais,João Paulo Saraiva; Araújo,Edcleide Maria; Wellen,Renate Maria Ramos

    2017-01-01

    Biodegradable compounds of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/ cotton linter were melting mixed with filling content ranging from 1% to 5% w/w. Cotton linter is an important byproduct of textile industry; in this work it was used in raw state and after acid hydrolysis. According to the results of torque rheometry no decaying of viscosity took place during compounding, evidencing absence of breaking down in molecular weight. The thermal stability increased by 20% as observed in HDT for PCL/cotton...

  9. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sushant; Singh, Abhay Narayan; Verma, Anil; Dubey, Vikash Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) nanosphere encapsulating superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were successfully synthesized using double emulsion (w/o/w) solvent evaporation technique. Characterization of the nanosphere using dynamic light scattering, field emission scanning electron microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed a spherical-shaped nanosphere in a size range of 812 ± 64 nm with moderate protein encapsulation efficiency of 55.42 ± 3.7 % and high in vitro protein release. Human skin HaCat cells were used for analyzing antioxidative properties of SOD- and CAT-encapsulated PCL nanospheres. Oxidative stress condition in HaCat cells was optimized with exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; 1 mM) as external stress factor and verified through reactive oxygen species (ROS) analysis using H2DCFDA dye. PCL nanosphere encapsulating SOD and CAT together indicated better antioxidative defense against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in human skin HaCat cells in comparison to PCL encapsulating either SOD or CAT alone as well as against direct supplement of SOD and CAT protein solution. Increase in HaCat cells SOD and CAT activities after treatment hints toward uptake of PCL nanosphere into the human skin HaCat cells. The result signifies the role of PCL-encapsulating SOD and CAT nanosphere in alleviating oxidative stress.

  10. Isolated transient loss of consciousness is an indicator of significant injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owings, J T; Wisner, D H; Battistella, F D; Perlstein, J; Walby, W F; Tharratt, R S

    1998-09-01

    To determine if isolated transient loss of consciousness is an indicator of significant injury. University-based level I trauma center. Phase 1 retrospective case series of all patients with trauma admitted directly from the emergency department to the operating room or an intensive care unit who had transient loss of consciousness as their only trauma triage criterion. Phase 2 prospective case series of all trauma patients transported by emergency medical system personnel with transient loss of consciousness as their only trauma triage criterion. Emergency operation and intensive care unit admission. Phase 1: From January 1, 1992, to March 31, 1995, we admitted 10255 patients with trauma. Three hundred seven (3%) met the enrollment criteria and were admitted to the operating room (n = 168) or intensive care unit (n = 139). Of these, 58 (18.9%) were taken to the operating room emergently to manage life-threatening injuries: 11 (4%) had craniotomies and 47 (15%) had non-neurosurgical operations. Phase 2: From July 1 to December 31, 1996, 2770 trauma patients were transported to our facility; 135 (4.9%) met the enrollment criteria. Forty-one (30.4%) of these required admission, and 6 (4.4%) were taken emergently to the operating room from the emergency department (1 [1%] for a craniotomy, 3 [2.2%] for intra-abdominal bleeding, and 2 [1.5%] for other procedures). Two (1.5%) of the 135 patients died. Patients with isolated transient loss of consciousness are at significant risk of critical surgical and neurosurgical injuries. These patients should be triaged to trauma centers or hospitals with adequate imaging, surgical, and neurosurgical resources.

  11. Electric conductivity of PCl5-ZrCl4, PCl5-TaCl5, and PCl5-MoCl5 molten mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Red'kin, A.A.; Moskalenko, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    When mixing individual molecular melts of PCl 5 with ZrCl 4 , TaCl 5 or with MoCl 5 , an essential (by several orders) increase in electric conductivity (up to 0.02-0.1 Ohm -1 ·cm -1 ), which stems, in all probability, from the appearance of complex ions PCl 4 + , ZrCl 5 - , ZrCl 6 2- , TaCl 5 - and MoCl 6 - in the molten mixtures as a result of chemical interaction

  12. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chia-Chih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI. Niacinamide (NAC is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. Methods The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g, PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight, cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight. There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS. The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. Results PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Conclusions Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental

  13. Niacinamide mitigated the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate in isolated rat's lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chih; Hsieh, Nan-Kuang; Liou, Huey Ling; Chen, Hsing I

    2012-03-01

    Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) is a strong neutrophil activator and has been used to induce acute lung injury (ALI). Niacinamide (NAC) is a compound of B complex. It exerts protective effects on the ALI caused by various challenges. The purpose was to evaluate the protective effects of niacinamide (NAC) on the PMA-induced ALI and associated changes. The rat's lungs were isolated in situ and perfused with constant flow. A total of 60 isolated lungs were randomized into 6 groups to received Vehicle (DMSO 100 μg/g), PMA 4 μg/g (lung weight), cotreated with NAC 0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/g (lung weight). There were 10 isolated lungs in each group. We measured the lung weight and parameters related to ALI. The pulmonary arterial pressure and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) were determined in isolated lungs. ATP (adenotriphosphate) and PARP [poly(adenosine diphophate-ribose) polymerase] contents in lung tissues were detected. Real-time PCR was employed to display the expression of inducible and endothelial NO synthases (iNOS and eNOS). The neutrophil-derived mediators in lung perfusate were determined. PMA caused increases in lung weight parameters. This agent produced pulmonary hypertension and increased microvascular permeability. It resulted in decrease in ATP and increase in PARP. The expression of iNOS and eNOS was upregulated following PMA. PMA increased the neutrophil-derived mediators. Pathological examination revealed lung edema and hemorrhage with inflammatory cell infiltration. Immunohistochemical stain disclosed the presence of iNOS-positive cells in macrophages and endothelial cells. These pathophysiological and biochemical changes were diminished by NAC treatment. The NAC effects were dose-dependent. Our results suggest that neutrophil activation and release of neutrophil-derived mediators by PMA cause ALI and associated changes. NO production through the iNOS-producing cells plays a detrimental role in the PMA-induced lung injury. ATP is beneficial

  14. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) reduce costs in the management of isolated splenic injuries at pediatric trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ivan M; Zurakowski, David; Chen, Qiaoli; Mooney, David P

    2013-02-01

    The American Pediatric Surgical Association Trauma Committee proposed the use of a clinical practice guideline (CPG) for the non-operative management of isolated splenic injuries in 1998. An analysis was conducted to determine the financial impact of CPGs on the management of these injuries. The Pediatric Health Information System database, which contains data from 44 children's hospitals, was used to identify children who sustained a graded isolated splenic injury between June 2005 and June 2010. Demographics, length of stay (LOS), readmission rates, and laboratory, imaging, procedural, and total cost data were determined for all hospitals verified as a pediatric trauma center by the American College of Surgeons and/or designated by their local authority. Comparisons were made between facilities self-identifying as having a splenic injury management CPG and those without a CPG. Children (1,154) with isolated splenic injuries (grades 1-4) were cared for in 26 pediatric trauma centers: 20 with a CPG and 6 without (non-CPG). Median costs were significantly lower at CPG than non-CPG centers for imaging (US $163 vs. US $641, P splenic injuries at a pediatric trauma center results in significantly reduced imaging, laboratory, and total hospital costs independent of patient age, gender, grade, and LOS.

  15. Serum IL-6: a candidate biomarker for intracranial pressure elevation following isolated traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Norman H

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased intracranial pressure (ICP is a serious, life-threatening, secondary event following traumatic brain injury (TBI. In many cases, ICP rises in a delayed fashion, reaching a maximal level 48-96 hours after the initial insult. While pressure catheters can be implanted to monitor ICP, there is no clinically proven method for determining a patient's risk for developing this pathology. Methods In the present study, we employed antibody array and Luminex-based screening methods to interrogate the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the serum of healthy volunteers and in severe TBI patients (GCS≤8 with or without incidence of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP. De-identified samples and ELISAs were used to confirm the sensitivity and specificity of IL-6 as a prognostic marker of elevated ICP in both isolated TBI patients, and polytrauma patients with TBI. Results Consistent with previous reports, we observed sustained increases in IL-6 levels in TBI patients irrespective of their ICP status. However, the group of patients who subsequently experienced ICP ≥ 25 mm Hg had significantly higher IL-6 levels within the first 17 hours of injury as compared to the patients whose ICP remained ≤20 mm Hg. When blinded samples (n = 22 were assessed, a serum IL-6 cut-off of 128 pg/ml correctly identified 85% of isolated TBI patients who subsequently developed elevated ICP, and values between these cut-off values correctly identified 75% of all patients whose ICP remained ≤20 mm Hg throughout the study period. In contrast, the marker had no prognostic value in predicting elevated ICP in polytrauma patients with TBI. When the levels of serum IL-6 were assessed in patients with orthopedic injury (n = 7 in the absence of TBI, a significant increase was found in these patients compared to healthy volunteers, albeit lower than that observed in TBI patients. Conclusions Our results suggest that serum IL-6 can be used for the

  16. Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries Associated With Military Survival Swim Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Michael S; Mason, John S; Posner, Matthew A; Haley, Chad A

    2017-07-01

    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries are relatively common injuries associated with athletic activities and high-energy trauma. Posterolateral corner (PLC) injuries frequently accompany injury to the PCL. Diagnosis can be challenging and requires a comprehensive history and physical examination. Patients frequently report vague, nonspecific symptoms and the mechanism of injury is often useful in localizing injured structures. Two of the more common mechanisms for PCL injury include a direct blow to the proximal anterior tibia with the knee flexed, as well as a significant knee hyperextension injury. With a PCL tear, patients rarely describe an audible "pop" that is commonly reported in ACL injuries. On physical exam, a frequent finding in PCL tears is a loss of 10 to 20° of knee flexion. Although the most common clinical tests for PCL tears include the posterior drawer test, the posterior sag sign, and the quadriceps active test, there is a lack of high-quality diagnostic accuracy studies. Two cases of U.S. Military Academy Cadets who sustained PCL injuries while removing combat boots during military survival swim training are presented. The results of the clinical examination are accompanied by magnetic resonance imaging results and intraoperative arthroscopic images to highlight key findings. Both patients were evaluated and diagnosed with PCL injures within 10 days of their injuries. Each reported feeling/hearing a "pop," which is atypical in PCL tears. Both patients demonstrated a lack of active and passive knee flexion, which is a commonly reported impairment. One patient was managed nonsurgically with physical therapy and eventually returned to full duty without limitations 9 months after his injury. The other patient, who sustained a combined PCL-PLC injury, underwent a PCL reconstruction and PLC repair and reconstruction 8 weeks after his injury. He returned all training, with the exception of contact/collision sports, 9 months after surgery. Both

  17. Resistance to Reperfusion Injury Following Short Term Postischemic Administration of Natural Honey in Globally Ischemic Isolated Rat Heart

    OpenAIRE

    Haleh Vaez; Mehrban Samadzadeh; Fahimeh Zahednezhad; Moslem Najafi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Results of our previous study revealed that preischemic perfusion of honey before zero flow global ischemia had cardioprotective effects in rat. The present study investigated potential resistance to reperfusion injury following short term postischemic administration of natural honey in globally ischemic isolated rat heart. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10-13). The rat hearts were isolated, mounted on a Langendorff apparatus, allowed to equilibra...

  18. Comparision of treatment outcomes in isolated injuries of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL and injuries of ACL connected with damages of menisci, conducted with use of KOOS scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Piech

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL rupture is one of the most common knee injuries. Such trauma is caused by sudden hyperextension and internal rotation above physiological range of movement. It is most commonly diagnosed in young and physically active people. ACL injury is often accompanied by damages of menisci. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare treatment outcomes in patients with isolated rupture of ACL and with both ACL and menisci damages Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study subjective opinions of 46 patients of Orthopedics and Traumatology Clinic of SPSK4 in Lublin were evaluated. Subjects were 19-59 years old, 28 of them had isolated ACL injury, while 18 suffered also with menisci damages. The study was conducted using KOOS questionnaires. Complications, hospitalization time and reconstruction technique were also taken into account. Results: Maximum rating in KOOS scale is 100 points for each of the parameters. This rating characterizes the most favorable state. For pain average rating in isolated ACL injury was 82,31 while in ACL injury with meniscus damage it was 84,37. For other parameters results were respectively: quality of life – 63,59 and 61,81; remaining symptoms 74,57 and 74,09; daily activities 86.61 and 83.84;  sport 70.71 and 65.56. The data have been developed with the help of non-compliance test chi2. Conclusions: The results of the work show that there is a correlation between the type of injury and the assessment of the patient in three parameters: remaining symptoms, daily functioning and sport. The other two parameters (quality of life, pain were irrelevant.

  19. Chronic exposure to zinc oxide nanoparticles increases ischemic-reperfusion injuries in isolated rat hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milivojević, Tamara; Drobne, Damjana; Romih, Tea; Mali, Lilijana Bizjak [University of Ljubljana, Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty (Slovenia); Marin, Irena; Lunder, Mojca; Drevenšek, Gorazd, E-mail: gorazd.drevensek@mf.uni-lj.si [University of Ljubljana, Institute of Pharmacology and Experimental Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine (Slovenia)

    2016-10-15

    The use of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in numerous products is increasing, although possible negative implications of their long-term consumption are not known yet. Our aim was to evaluate the chronic, 6-week oral exposure to two different concentrations of ZnO NPs on isolated rat hearts exposed to ischemic-reperfusion injury and on small intestine morphology. Wistar rats of both sexes (n = 18) were randomly divided into three groups: (1) 4 mg/kg ZnO NPs, (2) 40 mg/kg ZnO NPs, and (3) control. After 6 weeks of treatment, the hearts were isolated, the left ventricular pressure (LVP), the coronary flow (CF), the duration of arrhythmias and the lactate dehydrogenase release rate (LDH) were measured. A histological investigation of the small intestine was performed. Chronic exposure to ZnO NPs acted cardiotoxic dose-dependently. ZnO NPs in dosage 40 mg/kg maximally decreased LVP (3.3-fold) and CF (2.5-fold) and increased the duration of ventricular tachycardia (all P < 0.01) compared to control, whereas ZnO NPs in dosage 4 mg/kg acted less cardiotoxic. Goblet cells in the small intestine epithelium of rats, treated with 40 mg ZnO NPs/kg, were enlarged, swollen and numerous, the intestinal epithelium width was increased. Unexpectedly, ZnO NPs in both dosages significantly decreased LDH. A 6-week oral exposure to ZnO NPs dose-dependently increased heart injuries and caused irritation of the intestinal mucosa. A prolonged exposure to ZnO NPs might cause functional damage to the heart even with exposures to the recommended daily doses, which should be tested in future studies.

  20. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, J.; Guo, L.Y.; Yang, X.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Weng, J. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)], E-mail: jweng@swjtu.cn

    2008-12-30

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications.

  1. Preparation of bioactive porous HA/PCL composite scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, J.; Guo, L.Y.; Yang, X.B.; Weng, J.

    2008-01-01

    Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramic scaffold has been widely attracted the attention to act as a three-dimensional (3D) template for cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and thus promoting bone and cartilage regeneration because of its osteoinduction. However, the porous bioceramic scaffold is fragile so that it is not suitable to be applied in clinic for bone repair or replacement. Therefore, it is significant to improve the mechanical property of porous HA bioceramics while the interconnected structure is maintained for tissue ingrowth in vivo. In the present research, a porous composite scaffold composed of HA scaffold and polycaprolactone (PCL) lining was fabricated by the method of polymer impregnating to produce HA scaffold coated with PCL lining. Subsequently, the composite scaffolds were deposited with biomimetic coating for improving the bioactivity. The HA/PCL composite scaffolds with improved mechanical property and bioactivity is expected to be a promising bone substitute in tissue engineering applications

  2. Comparison of mortality following hospitalisation for isolated head injury in England and Wales, and Victoria, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda J Gabbe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI remains a leading cause of death and disability. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines recommend transfer of severe TBI cases to neurosurgical centres, irrespective of the need for neurosurgery. This observational study investigated the risk-adjusted mortality of isolated TBI admissions in England/Wales, and Victoria, Australia, and the impact of neurosurgical centre management on outcomes. METHODS: Isolated TBI admissions (>15 years, July 2005-June 2006 were extracted from the hospital discharge datasets for both jurisdictions. Severe isolated TBI (AIS severity >3 admissions were provided by the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN and Victorian State Trauma Registry (VSTR for England/Wales, and Victoria, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare risk-adjusted mortality between jurisdictions. FINDINGS: Mortality was 12% (749/6256 in England/Wales and 9% (91/1048 in Victoria for isolated TBI admissions. Adjusted odds of death in England/Wales were higher compared to Victoria overall (OR 2.0, 95% CI: 1.6, 2.5, and for cases <65 years (OR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.51, 3.69. For severe TBI, mortality was 23% (133/575 for TARN and 20% (68/346 for VSTR, with 72% of TARN and 86% of VSTR cases managed at a neurosurgical centre. The adjusted mortality odds for severe TBI cases in TARN were higher compared to the VSTR (OR 1.45, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.19, but particularly for cases <65 years (OR 2.04, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.90. Neurosurgical centre management modified the effect overall (OR 1.12, 95% CI: 0.73, 1.74 and for cases <65 years (OR 1.53, 95% CI: 0.77, 3.03. CONCLUSION: The risk-adjusted odds of mortality for all isolated TBI admissions, and severe TBI cases, were higher in England/Wales when compared to Victoria. The lower percentage of cases managed at neurosurgical centres in England and Wales was an explanatory factor, supporting the changes made to the NICE

  3. Isolated Transverse Process Fractures and Markers of Associated Injuries: The Experience at University of California, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Timothy T; Nagasawa, Daniel T; Lagman, Carlito; Jacky Chen, Cheng Hao; Chung, Lawrance K; Voth, Brittany L; Beckett, Joel S; Tucker, Alexander M; Niu, Tianyi; Gaonkar, Bilwaj; Yang, Isaac; Macyszyn, Luke

    2017-08-01

    To report a single-institution experience with isolated transverse process fractures (ITPFs) and provide increasing support for the development of evidence-based guidelines. The authors also evaluated the presence of concerning symptoms or red flags that may indicate additional, underlying injuries in the setting of ITPFs. The Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center patient database was queried (years 2005-2016) using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code 805: fracture of the vertebral column without mention of spinal cord injury. A total of 129 patients with ITPFs were identified. Mean age was 38.1 years (range 15-92 years). Women were more likely to present with abdominal pain and associated kidney injury (P = 0.018 and P = 0.012, respectively). Motor vehicle accident (MVA) was the most common mechanism of injury (n = 81, 62.8%) and was associated with thoracic (P = 0.032) and lower extremity pain/injury (P = 0.005). Back pain was the most common presenting symptom (n = 71, 64.6%) and was associated with intraabdominal and lower extremity injuries (P = 0.032 and P = 0.016, respectively). Chest and neck pain were associated with vascular injuries (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Spine consult (neurosurgery or orthopedic surgery) was frequent (n = 94, 72.9%) and was more common after MVA versus fall (P = 0.018). Several factors were identified as significant markers of associated injuries, including female sex, MVA, and presenting symptoms. Neck and chest pain were significantly associated with vascular injuries. Clinicians should maintain high indices of suspicion for associated injuries in patients with ITPFs, especially after high-velocity mechanisms. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Self-injurious behaviour in autistic children: a neuro-developmental theory of social and environmental isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Darragh P

    2014-03-01

    Self-injurious behaviour is not one of the three core symptoms that define autism. However, children on the autism spectrum appear to be particularly vulnerable. Afflicted children typically slap their faces, punch or bang their heads, and bite or pinch themselves. These behaviours can be extremely destructive, and they interfere with normal social and educational activities. However, the neurobiological mechanisms that confer vulnerability in children with autism have not been adequately described. This review explores behavioural and neurobiological characteristics of children with autism that may be relevant for an increased understanding of their vulnerability for self-injurious behaviour. Behavioural characteristics that are co-morbid for self-injurious behaviour in children with autism are examined. In addition, the contributions of social and environmental deprivation in self-injurious institutionalized orphans, isolated rhesus macaques, and additional animal models are reviewed. There is extensive evidence that social and environmental deprivation promotes self-injurious behaviour in both humans (including children with autism) and animal models. Moreover, there are multiple lines of convergent neuroanatomical, neurophysiological, and neurochemical data that draw parallels between self-injurious children with autism and environmentally deprived humans and animals. A hypothesis is presented that describes how the core symptoms of autism make these children particularly vulnerable for self-injurious behaviour. Relevant neurodevelopmental pathology is described in cortical, limbic, and basal ganglia brain regions, and additional research is suggested.

  5. Normalization of coagulopathy is associated with improved outcome after isolated traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Daniel S; Mitra, Biswadev; Cameron, Peter A; Fitzgerald, Mark; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V

    2016-07-01

    Acute traumatic coagulopathy (ATC) has been reported in the setting of isolated traumatic brain injury (iTBI) and is associated with poor outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of procoagulant agents administered to patients with ATC and iTBI during resuscitation, hypothesizing that timely normalization of coagulopathy may be associated with a decrease in mortality. A retrospective review of the Alfred Hospital trauma registry, Australia, was conducted and patients with iTBI (head Abbreviated Injury Score [AIS] ⩾3 and all other body AIS normalized ratio ⩾1.3) were selected for analysis. Data on procoagulant agents used (fresh frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, prothrombin complex concentrates, tranexamic acid, vitamin K) were extracted. Among patients who had achieved normalization of INR or survived beyond 24hours and were not taking oral anticoagulants, the association of normalization of INR and death at hospital discharge was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There were 157 patients with ATC of whom 68 (43.3%) received procoagulant products within 24hours of presentation. The median time to delivery of first products was 182.5 (interquartile range [IQR] 115-375) minutes, and following administration of coagulants, time to normalization of INR was 605 (IQR 274-1146) minutes. Normalization of INR was independently associated with significantly lower mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.10; 95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38). Normalization of INR was associated with improved mortality in patients with ATC in the setting of iTBI. As there was a substantial time lag between delivery of products and eventual normalization of coagulation, specific management of coagulopathy should be implemented as early as possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal, mechanical and morphological behavior of starch thermoplastic (TPS) and polycaprolactone (PCL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Adriana de; Marconcini, Jose M.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal, mechanical and morphological properties of thermoplastic starch (TPS) and polycaprolactone (PCL) blend obtained by extrusion was studied. The results showed that TPS/PCL blends are immiscible, however it is suggested some interaction in the interphase between TPS and PCL as observed by crystallinity decrease of the blend. The PCL addition in the TPS improves the properties and decreases the cost of the blend. (author)

  7. Admissions for isolated nonoperative mild head injuries: Sharing the burden among trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ting; Mejaddam, Ali Y; Chang, Yuchiao; DeMoya, Marc A; King, David R; Yeh, Daniel D; Kaafarani, Haytham M A; Alam, Hasan B; Velmahos, George C

    2016-10-01

    Isolated nonoperative mild head injuries (INOMHI) occur with increasing frequency in an aging population. These patients often have multiple social, discharge, and rehabilitation issues, which far exceed the acute component of their care. This study was aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with INOMHI admitted to three services: trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology. Retrospective case series (January 1, 2009 to August 31, 2013) at an academic Level I trauma center. According to an institutional protocol, INOMHI patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 13 to 15 were admitted on a weekly rotational basis to trauma surgery, neurosurgery, and neurology. The three populations were compared, and the primary outcomes were survival rate to discharge, neurological status at hospital discharge as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS), and discharge disposition. Four hundred eighty-eight INOMHI patients were admitted (trauma surgery, 172; neurosurgery, 131; neurology, 185). The mean age of the study population was 65.3 years, and 58.8% of patients were male. Seventy-seven percent of patients has a GCS score of 15. Age, sex, mechanism of injury, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Injury Severity Score, Abbreviated Injury Scale in head and neck, and GCS were similar among the three groups. Patients who were admitted to trauma surgery, neurosurgery and neurology services had similar proportions of survivors (98.8% vs 95.7% vs 94.7%), and discharge disposition (home, 57.0% vs 61.6% vs 55.7%). The proportion of patients with GOS of 4 or 5 on discharge was slightly higher among patients admitted to trauma (97.7% vs 93.0% vs 92.4%). In a logistic regression model adjusting for Charlson Comorbidity Index CCI and Abbreviated Injury Scale head and neck scores, patients who were admitted to neurology or neurosurgery had significantly lower odds being discharged with GOS 4 or 5. While the trauma group had the lowest proportion of repeats of brain computed tomography (61

  8. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced acute lung injury in an isolated perfused rabbit-lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masato; Nishida, Osamu; Nakamura, Fujio; Katsuya, Hirotada

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Some animal studies suggest that free radical scavengers inhibit the onset of oxidant-induced ALI. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is chemically similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as the endogenous antioxidant vitamin E. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that propofol has antioxidant potential. We hypothesized that propofol may attenuate ALI by acting as a free-radical scavenger. We investigated the effects of propofol on oxidant-induced ALI induced by purine and xanthine oxidase (XO), in isolated perfused rabbit lung, in two series of experiments. In series 1, we examined the relationship between the severity of ALI and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In series 2, we evaluated the effects of propofol on attenuating ALI and the dose dependence of these effects. The lungs were perfused for 90 min, and we evaluated the effects on the severity of ALI by monitoring the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), and the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure (Ppc). In series 1, treatment with catalase (an H2O2 scavenger) prior to the addition of purine and XO resulted in complete prevention of ALI, suggesting that H2O2 may be involved closely in the pathogenesis of ALI. In series 2, pretreatment with propofol at concentrations in excess of 0.5 mM significantly inhibited the increases in the Kfc values, and that in excess of 0.75 mM significantly inhibited the increase in the Ppa values. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced ALI in an isolated perfused rabbit lung model, probably due to its antioxidant action.

  9. Electric conductivity of PCl{sub 5}-ZrCl{sub 4}, PCl{sub 5}-TaCl{sub 5}, and PCl{sub 5}-MoCl{sub 5} molten mixtures; Ehlektroprovodnost` rasplavlennykh sistem PCl{sub 5}-ZrCl{sub 4}, PCl{sub 5}-TaCl{sub 5}, i PCl{sub 5}-MoCl{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, A B; Red` kin, A A; Moskalenko, N I [Inst. Vysokotemperaturnoj Ehlektrokhimii UrO RAN, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    1997-05-01

    When mixing individual molecular melts of PCl{sub 5} with ZrCl{sub 4}, TaCl{sub 5} or with MoCl{sub 5}, an essential (by several orders) increase in electric conductivity (up to 0.02-0.1 Ohm{sup -1}{center_dot}cm{sup -1}), which stems, in all probability, from the appearance of complex ions PCl{sub 4}{sup +}, ZrCl{sub 5}{sup -}, ZrCl{sub 6}{sup 2-}, TaCl{sub 5}{sup -} and MoCl{sub 6}{sup -} in the molten mixtures as a result of chemical interaction. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Culture Extracts of Penicillium chrysogenum PCL501: Effects of Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing M. Onyegeme-Okerenta

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Penicillium chrysogenum PCL501 produced β-lactam antibiotics when fermented with different agro-wastes: cassava shavings, corncob, sawdust and sugarcane pulp. In vitro antibacterial activity of the culture extracts was tested against four clinical bacterial isolates, namely, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All the culture extracts and standard drug (commercial Benzyl Penicillin inhibited the growth B. subtilis and E. coli; the potency varied with carbon source. Antibacterial activity of extracts from cultures containing cassava shavings and sugarcane pulp was comparable with that of the standard drug. The MIC against the susceptible organisms was 0.20mg/ml for the standard drug and ranged from 0.40 to 1.50mg/ml for the culture extracts. Neither the culture extracts nor the standard drug inhibited K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa; the bacterial strains produced β-lactamase enzymes. Cassava shavings and sugarcane pulp are indicated as suitable cheap carbon sources for the production of antibiotics by Penicillium chrysogenum PCL501.

  11. Random/aligned electrospun PCL/PCL-collagen nanofibrous membranes: comparison of neural differentiation of rat AdMSCs and BMSCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çapkın, Merve; Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe; Çakmak, Soner; Kurt, Feyzan Özdal; Şen, B Hakan; Türk, B Tuğba; Deliloğlu-Gürhan, S İsmet

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the aligned (A) and randomly oriented (R) polycaprolactone (PCL-A and PCL-R) and PCL/collagen (PCL/Col-A and PCL/Col-R) nanofibers were electrospun onto smooth PCL membranes (PCLMs) prepared by solvent casting. In order to investigate the effects of chemical composition and nanotopography of fibrous surfaces on proliferation and on neural differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), adipose and bone marrow-derived rat MSCs (AdMSCs and BMSCs) were cultivated in suitable media i.e. inducing medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF), and cell maintenance medium (CMM). BMSCs adhered and proliferated on all nanofibrous membranes more efficiently than AdMSCs. PCL/Col-A was found as the most convenient surface supporting proliferation in both cell types. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that BMSCs and AdMSCs are prone for differentiation to oligodendrocytes more than they differentiate to other neuronal cell types. PCL-A nanofibrous membranes supported differentiation of MSCs to O4 + (an oligodendrocytes surface antigen) cells in both culture media. The intensity of immunoreactivity of O4 + cells differentiated from BMSCs on PCL-A was highest when compared with the other groups (p + cells. In conclusion, this study can be evaluated to establish the cell therapy strategies in neurodegenerative disorders, which are relevant to oligodendrocyte abstinence using BMSCs or AdMSCs on aligned nanofibrous membranes. (paper)

  12. PCL-PLLA Semi-IPN Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs): Degradation and Mechanical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Lindsay N; Page, Vanessa M; Kmetz, Kevin T; Grunlan, Melissa A

    2016-12-01

    Thermoresponsive shape memory polymers (SMPs) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) whose shape may be actuated by a transition temperature (T trans ) have shown utility for a variety of biomedical applications. Important to their utility is the ability to modulate mechanical and degradation properties. Thus, in this work, SMPs are formed as semi-interpenetrating networks (semi-IPNs) comprised of a cross-linked PCL diacrylate (PCL-DA) network and thermoplastic poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA). The semi-IPN uniquely allows for requisite crystallization of both PCL and PLLA. The influence of PLLA (PCL:PLLA wt% ratio) and PCL-DA molecular weight (n) on film properties are investigated. PCL-PLLA semi-IPNs are able to achieve enhanced mechanical properties and accelerated rates of degradation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Strong synergistic effects in PLA/PCL blends: Impact of PLA matrix viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostafinska, Aleksandra; Fortelný, Ivan; Hodan, Jiří; Krejčíková, Sabina; Nevoralová, Martina; Kredatusová, Jana; Kruliš, Zdeněk; Kotek, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2017-05-01

    Blends of two biodegradable polymers, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), with strong synergistic improvement in mechanical performance were prepared by melt-mixing using the optimized composition (80/20) and the optimized preparation procedure (a melt-mixing followed by a compression molding) according to our previous study. Three different PLA polymers were employed, whose viscosity decreased in the following order: PLC ≈ PLA1 > PLA2 > PLA3. The blends with the highest viscosity matrix (PLA1/PCL) exhibited the smallest PCL particles (d∼0.6μm), an elastic-plastic stable fracture (as determined from instrumented impact testing) and the strongest synergistic improvement in toughness (>16× with respect to pure PLA, exceeding even the toughness of pure PCL). According to the available literature, this was the highest toughness improvement in non-compatiblized PLA/PCL blends ever achieved. The decrease in the matrix viscosity resulted in an increase in the average PCL particle size and a dramatic decrease in the overall toughness: the completely stable fracture (for PLA1/PCL) changed to the stable fracture followed by unstable crack propagation (for PLA2/PCL) and finally to the completely brittle fracture (for PLA3/PCL). The stiffness of all blends remained at well acceptable level, slightly above the theoretical predictions based on the equivalent box model. Despite several previous studies, the results confirmed that PLA and PCL could behave as compatible polymers, but the final PLA/PCL toughness is extremely sensitive to the PCL particle size distribution, which is influenced by both processing conditions and PLA viscosity. PLA/PCL blends with high stiffness (due to PLA) and toughness (due to PCL) are very promising materials for medical applications, namely for the bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Supercritical CO2 impregnation of PLA/PCL films with natural substances for bacterial growth control in food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Stoja; Hollermann, Gesa; Errenst, Cornelia; Pajnik, Jelena; Frerich, Sulamith; Kroll, Stephen; Rezwan, Kurosch; Ivanovic, Jasna

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable polymers with antibacterial properties are highly desirable materials for active food packaging applications. Thymol, a dietary monoterpene phenol with a strong antibacterial activity is abundant in plants belonging to the genus Thymus. This study presents two approaches for supercritical CO 2 impregnation of poly(lactic acid)(PLA)/poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL) blended films to induce antibacterial properties of the material: (i) a batch impregnation process for loading pure thymol, and (ii) an integrated supercritical extraction-impregnation process for isolation of thyme extract and its incorporation into the films, operated in both batch or semi-continuous modes with supercritical solution circulation. The PCL content in films, impregnation time and CO 2 flow regime were varied to maximize loading of the films with thymol or thyme extract with preserving films' structure and thermal stability. Representative film samples impregnated with thymol and thyme extract were tested against Gram (-) (Escherichia coli) and Gram(+) (Bacillus subtilis) model strains, by measuring their metabolic activity and re-cultivation after exposure to the films. The film containing thymol (35.8 wt%) showed a strong antibacterial activity leading to a total reduction of bacterial cell viability. Proposed processes enable fast, controlled and organic solvent-free fabrication of the PLA/PCL films containing natural antibacterial substances at moderately low temperature, with a compact structure and a good thermal stability, for potential use as active food packaging materials. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of thermal and mechanical properties of PCL films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siqueira, A.R. de; Vieira, A.B. da Silva; Leite, I.F.

    2016-01-01

    In the current situation of the market, it is remarkable the concern for the development of materials that offer better properties and biodegradable behavior. The scientific researches seeks development and improvement of materials for applications in products increasingly biodegradable. To do so, this research aims at obtaining films composed of polymer poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL), aliphatic polyester synthetic and biodegradable, and silicates in layers, specifically in the State of Paraiba, prepared by the method of solution. This mixture makes it possible to form different nanostructures intercalated morphology and/or exfoliated, which therefore provides improvement in the thermal properties of the final product. After analyzing the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was observed predominantly exfoliated morphologies to PCL films containing different silicate content and an increase in thermal stability when there was a lower concentration of clay as thermal analysis (TGA). (author)

  16. Electrospun PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prabha, Rahul; Kraft, David Christian Evar; Melsen, Birte

    2015-01-01

    -caprolactone (PCL)- triphasic bioceramic(HAB) scaffold to biomimic native tissue and we tested its ability to support osteogenic differentiation of stromal stem cells ( MSC) and its suitability for regeneration of craniofa- cial defects. Physiochemical characterizations of the scaffold, including con- tact angle...... body fluid immersed scaffold samples. Culturing human adult dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) and human bone marrow derived MSC seeded on PVA-PCL-HAB scaffold showed enhanced cell proliferation and in vitro osteoblastic differentiation. Cell-containing scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in immune...... deficient mice. Histologic ex- amination of retrieved implant sections stained with H&E, Col- lagenType I and Human Vimentin antibody demonstrated that the cells survived in vivo in the implants for at least 8 weeks with evidence of osteoblastic differentiation and angiogenesis within the implants. Our...

  17. Epidemiology of isolated meniscal injury and its effect on performance in athletes from the National Basketball Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Peter C; Starkey, Chad; Lombardo, Stephen; Vitti, Gary; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The current incidence and outcomes of meniscal injury have not been quantified in professional athletes. To describe the incidence, risk, amount of time lost, and effect on performance for isolated meniscal injury in athletes from the National Basketball Association (NBA). Demographic factors predicting the risk of meniscal tears and the effect of injury in return to play were also investigated. Descriptive epidemiology study. A centralized database was queried to identify meniscal injuries occurring in the NBA over 21 seasons. The frequency of injury, time lost, game exposures, and incidence, rate, and risk were calculated. The preinjury and postinjury player efficiency rating (PER) was used to identify changes in player performance. We identified 129 isolated meniscal tears in NBA athletes during a 21-season span. From this number, 77 (59.7%) involved the lateral meniscus and 52 (40.3%) the medial meniscus. Injuries occurred more frequently in games. The lateral meniscus had a statistically significant higher injury rate. Both left and right knees were equally affected. The number of days missed for lateral meniscal tears and medial meniscal tears was 43.8 ± 35.7 days and 40.9 ± 29.7 days, respectively, and was not statistically different. There was a significant inverse relationship between age and rate of lateral meniscal tears, with lateral meniscal tears more likely to occur up to age 30 years; beyond that medial meniscal tears were more common. Players with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 had a significantly increased risk of meniscal tears compared with players with a BMI less than 25, specifically with an increased risk of lateral meniscal tears. Twenty-five players (19.4%) did not return to play. For those who did, upon returning to competition, there was no statistical change in PER from their preinjury status, and the mean number of seasons completed was 4.1 ± 3.7 seasons. The lateral meniscus is more frequently torn than the medial meniscus

  18. Study of thermal and mechanical properties of PCL films; Estudo das propriedades termicas de filmes a base de PCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueira, A.R. de; Vieira, A.B. da Silva; Leite, I.F., E-mail: itamaraf@gmail.com [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joaoo Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais

    2016-07-01

    In the current situation of the market, it is remarkable the concern for the development of materials that offer better properties and biodegradable behavior. The scientific researches seeks development and improvement of materials for applications in products increasingly biodegradable. To do so, this research aims at obtaining films composed of polymer poly(ε-caprolactone)(PCL), aliphatic polyester synthetic and biodegradable, and silicates in layers, specifically in the State of Paraiba, prepared by the method of solution. This mixture makes it possible to form different nanostructures intercalated morphology and/or exfoliated, which therefore provides improvement in the thermal properties of the final product. After analyzing the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) was observed predominantly exfoliated morphologies to PCL films containing different silicate content and an increase in thermal stability when there was a lower concentration of clay as thermal analysis (TGA). (author)

  19. Functionalized PCL/HA nanocomposites as microporous membranes for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basile, Maria Assunta; Gomez d' Ayala, Giovanna; Malinconico, Mario [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli (Naples) (Italy); Laurienzo, Paola, E-mail: paola.laurienzo@ipcb.cnr.it [Institute for Polymers, Composites and Biomaterials, CNR, Via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli (Naples) (Italy); Coudane, Jean; Nottelet, Benjamin [Institut des Biomolécules Max Mousseron (IBMM), Artificial Biopolymers Group, CNRS UMR 5247, University of Montpellier 1, Faculty of Pharmacy, 15 Av. C. Flahault, Montpellier 34093 (France); Ragione, Fulvio Della [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, Via L. De Crecchio 7, Naples (Italy); Oliva, Adriana, E-mail: adriana.oliva@unina2.it [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Second University of Naples, Via L. De Crecchio 7, Naples (Italy)

    2015-03-01

    In the present work, microporous membranes based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL functionalized with amine (PCL-DMAEA) or anhydride groups (PCL-MAGMA) were realized by solvent–non solvent phase inversion and proposed for use in Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). Nanowhiskers of hydroxyapatite (HA) were also incorporated in the polymer matrix to realize nanocomposite membranes. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed improved interfacial adhesion with HA for functionalized polymers, and highlighted substantial differences in the porosity. A relationship between the developed porous structure of the membrane and the chemical nature of grafted groups was proposed. Compared to virgin PCL, hydrophilicity increases for functionalized PCL, while the addition of HA influences significantly the hydrophilic characteristics only in the case of virgin polymer. A significant increase of in vitro degradation rate was found for PCL-MAGMA based membranes, and at lower extent of PCL-DMAEA membranes. The novel materials were investigated regarding their potential as support for cell growth in bone repair using multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as a model. MSC plated onto the various membranes were analyzed in terms of adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic capacity that resulted to be related to chemical as well as porous structure. In particular, PCL-DMAEA and the relative nanocomposite membranes are the most promising in terms of cell-biomaterial interactions. - Graphical abstract: Functionalized PCL is used to realize nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite (HA) in the form of microporous membranes. The influence of different grafted groups on mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, porous membrane structure and interaction with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is discussed. - Highlights: • Functionalized PCL shows faster in vitro degradation rate. • Functionalized PCL shows superior cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. • Nanocomposites based

  20. Functionalized PCL/HA nanocomposites as microporous membranes for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, Maria Assunta; Gomez d'Ayala, Giovanna; Malinconico, Mario; Laurienzo, Paola; Coudane, Jean; Nottelet, Benjamin; Ragione, Fulvio Della; Oliva, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, microporous membranes based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and PCL functionalized with amine (PCL-DMAEA) or anhydride groups (PCL-MAGMA) were realized by solvent–non solvent phase inversion and proposed for use in Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR). Nanowhiskers of hydroxyapatite (HA) were also incorporated in the polymer matrix to realize nanocomposite membranes. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) showed improved interfacial adhesion with HA for functionalized polymers, and highlighted substantial differences in the porosity. A relationship between the developed porous structure of the membrane and the chemical nature of grafted groups was proposed. Compared to virgin PCL, hydrophilicity increases for functionalized PCL, while the addition of HA influences significantly the hydrophilic characteristics only in the case of virgin polymer. A significant increase of in vitro degradation rate was found for PCL-MAGMA based membranes, and at lower extent of PCL-DMAEA membranes. The novel materials were investigated regarding their potential as support for cell growth in bone repair using multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) as a model. MSC plated onto the various membranes were analyzed in terms of adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic capacity that resulted to be related to chemical as well as porous structure. In particular, PCL-DMAEA and the relative nanocomposite membranes are the most promising in terms of cell-biomaterial interactions. - Graphical abstract: Functionalized PCL is used to realize nanocomposites with hydroxyapatite (HA) in the form of microporous membranes. The influence of different grafted groups on mechanical properties, in vitro degradation, porous membrane structure and interaction with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) is discussed. - Highlights: • Functionalized PCL shows faster in vitro degradation rate. • Functionalized PCL shows superior cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. • Nanocomposites based

  1. Flow cytometry analysis of inflammatory cells isolated from the sciatic nerve and DRG after chronic constriction injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Yin, Yan; Li, Fei; Malhotra, Charvi; Cheng, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    Cellular responses to nerve injury play a central role in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. However, the analysis of site specific cellular responses to nerve injury and neuropathic pain is limited to immunohistochemistry staining with numerous limitations. We proposed to apply flow cytometry to overcome some of the limitations and developed two protocols for isolation of cells from small specimens of the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in mice. RESULTS AND COMPARASION WITH EXISTING: methods We found that both the non-enzymatic and enzymatic approaches were highly effective in harvesting a sufficient number of cells for flow cytometry analysis in normal and pathological conditions. The total number of cells in the injury site of the sciatic and its DRGs increased significantly 14days after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve, compared to sham surgery control or the contralateral control. The enzymatic approach yielded a significantly higher total number of cells and CD45 negative cells, suggesting that this approach allows for harvest of more resident cells, compared to the non-enzymatic method. The percentage of CD45 + /CD11b + cells was significantly increased in the sciatic nerve but not in the DRG. These results were consistent with both protocols. We thus offer two simple and effective protocols that allow for application of flow cytometry to the investigation of cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Morphology of Poly lactide/Polycaprolactone (PLA/PCL) Nano composite by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Zulaiha Hairaldin; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Norazowa Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    In this study, Octadecylamine Modified Montmorillonites (ODAMMT) were used to prepare Poly lactide/ Polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites. PLA and PCL mix in 90:10 ratios, using an internal mixer by melt blending technique. The other sample was blend with Natrium Montmorillonite (NaMMT) and Octadecylamine Modified Montmorillonite (ODA-MMT) to produce PLA/ PCL-NaMMT and PLA/ PCL ODAMMT. To characterize the polymer nano composites, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR and SEM analysis were conducted. Comparison of morphology were made up between PLA/ PCL, PLA/ PCL with presence of 7 % of Na-MMT and 7 % ODA-MMT respectively based on SEM micrograph by calculate the number-average diameter. (author)

  3. Isolated acute non-cystic white matter injury in term infants presenting with neonatal encephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrett, Michael Joseph

    2013-03-01

    We discuss possible aetiological factors, MRI evolution of injury and neuro-developmental outcomes of neonatal encephalopathy (NE). Thirty-six consecutive infants diagnosed with NE were included. In this cohort, four infants (11%) were identified with injury predominantly in the deep white matter on MRI who were significantly of younger gestation, lower birthweight with higher Apgars at one and five minutes compared to controls. Placental high grade villitis of unknown aetiology (VUA) was identified in all four of these infants. Our hypothesis states VUA may induce white matter injury by causing a local inflammatory response and\\/or oxidative stress during the perinatal period. We underline the importance of continued close and systematic evaluation of all cases of NE, including examination of the placenta, in order to come to a better understanding of the clinical presentation, the patterns of brain injury and the underlying pathophysiological processes.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro evaluation of magnetic nanoparticles modified with PCL-PEG-PCL for controlled delivery of 5FU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Nahideh; Annabi, Nasim; Mostafavi, Ebrahim; Anzabi, Maryam; Khalilov, Rovshan; Saghfi, Siamak; Mehrizadeh, Masoud; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2018-02-22

    Magnetic nanoparticles have properties that cause to apply them in cancer therapy and vehicles for the delivery of drugs such as 5FU, especially when they are modified with biocompatible copolymers. The aim of this study is to modify superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONPs) with PCL-PEG-PCL copolymers and then utilization of these nanoparticles for encapsulation of anticancer drug 5FU. The ring-opening polymerization (ROP) was used for the synthesis of PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer by ε-caprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene glycol (PEG2000). We used the double emulsion method (water/oil/water) to prepare 5FU-encapsulated Fe 3 O 4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer. Chemical structure and magnetic properties of 5FU-loaded magnetic-polymer nanoparticles were investigated systematically by employing FT-IR, XRD, VSM and SEM techniques. In vitro release profile of 5FU-loaded NPs was also determined. The results showed that the encapsulation efficiency value for nanoparticles were 90%. Moreover, the release of 5FU is significantly higher at pH 5.8 compared to pH 7.4. Therefore, these nanoparticles have sustained release and can apply for cancer therapy.

  5. Preparation of novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials and their corrosion resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi, Zhongxian; Tan, Cui; Xu, Lan; Yang, Na; Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were prepared. • The biomaterials were prepared by anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. • The composite biomaterials were smooth and with low porosity. • The prepared biomaterials have good corrosion resistance in SBF. • The composite biomaterials can release zinc ion to promote bone formation. - Abstract: In this study, novel and functional Mg/O/PCL/ZnO (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)/zinc oxide) composite biomaterials for enhancing the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the implant was prepared by using anodization treatment and dip-coating technique. The surface morphology, microstructure, adhesion strength and corrosion resistance of the composite biomaterials were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), adhesion measurements, electrochemical tests and immersion tests respectively. In addition, the biocompatible properties of Mg (magnesium), Mg/PCL (magnesium/poly(ε-caprolactone)) and Mg/O/PCL (magnesium/anodic film/poly(ε-caprolactone)) samples were also investigated. The results show that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials were with low porosity and with the ZnO powders dispersed in PCL uniformly. The adhesion tests suggested that Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had better adhesion strength than that of Mg/PCL composite biomaterials obviously. Besides, an in vitro test for corrosion demonstrated that the Mg/O/PCL/ZnO composite biomaterials had good corrosion resistance and zinc ion was released obviously in SBF

  6. Sternal fracture: isolated lesion versus polytrauma from associated extrasternal injuries--analysis of 1,867 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, David D; Peleg, Kobi; Givon, Adi; Radomislensky, Irina; Makey, Ian; Decamp, Malcolm M; Whyte, Richard; Gangadharan, Sidhu P; Berger, Robert L

    2013-09-01

    Sternal fractures fall into two distinct categories as follows: (1) isolated sternal fracture (ISF) without associated injury and (2) polytrauma sternal fracture (PSF) with associated extrasternal injury. PSF can be sufficiently severe to require hospitalization, while ISF is usually a mild insult manageable in an ambulatory setting. Nonetheless, most patients with ISF are hospitalized. The disconnect between treatment based on existing evidence and actual clinical practice may be caused in large part by the small patient cohorts in published studies conducive to inaccurate conclusions. This article addresses the issue by analyzing prospectively collected data on a far larger population than hitherto available. The Israeli National Trauma Registry (INTR) collects data prospectively on patients admitted to trauma centers in Israel. We analyzed the INTR database on sternal fractures for demographics, mechanisms and severity of injury, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and outcomes. Between 1997 and 2008, the INTR received data on 1,867 consecutive patients hospitalized with sternal fractures. The injury was sustained most often during motor vehicle accidents (84.1%), followed by falls (10.3%) and other blunt or penetrating mechanisms (5.6%). ISF was sustained in 26.4%, and PSF was sustained in 73.6%. Associated injuries involved most parts of the body. Cardiac contusions or lacerations were diagnosed in 1.8% of the 1,867 patients. ISF was associated with a lower incidence of cardiorespiratory compromise, more favorable trauma scores (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score > 14, Revised Trauma Score > 11), and use of fewer intensive care facilities or operations compared with PSF. Endotracheal intubation, chest tube insertion, or thoracotomy was not performed in any ISF patient but was performed in 16.9% of the PSF cohort. The differences between ISF and PSF were statistically significant in all analyzed indices of injury severity. This study produced compelling evidence that

  7. Prospective Evaluation of Electromyography-Guided Phrenic Nerve Monitoring During Superior Vena Cava Isolation to Anticipate Phrenic Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shinsuke; Ichihara, Noboru; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Hachiya, Hitoshi; Araki, Makoto; Takagi, Takamitsu; Iwasawa, Jin; Kuroi, Akio; Hirao, Kenzo; Iesaka, Yoshito

    2016-04-01

    Right phrenic nerve injury (PNI) is a major concern during superior vena cava (SVC) isolation due to the anatomical close proximity. The functional and histological severity of PNI parallels the degree of the reduction in the compound motor action potential (CMAP) amplitude. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring CMAPs during SVC isolation to anticipate PNI during atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation. Thirty-nine paroxysmal AF patients were prospectively enrolled. Radiofrequency energy was delivered point-by-point for 30 seconds with 20 W until eliminating all SVC potentials after the pulmonary vein isolation. Right diaphragmatic CMAPs were obtained from modified surface electrodes by pacing from the right subclavian vein. Radiofrequency applications were applied without fluoroscopy under CMAP monitoring at sites with phrenic nerve capture by high output pacing. Electrical SVC isolation was successfully achieved with a mean of 9.4 ± 3.3 applications in all patients. In 3 (7.5%) patients, the SVC was isolated without radiofrequency delivery at phrenic nerve capture sites. Among a total of 346 applications in the remaining 36 patients, 71 (20.5%) were delivered while monitoring CMAPs. In 1 (1.4%) application, the RF application was interrupted due to a decrease in the CMAP amplitude. However, no PNI was detected on fluoroscopy, and the decreased amplitude recovered spontaneously. The remaining 70 (98.6%) applications exhibited no significant changes in the CMAP amplitude throughout the applications (from 1.01 ± 0.47 to 0.98 ± 0.45 mV, P = 0.383). Stable right diaphragmatic CMAPs could be obtained, and monitoring CMAPs might be useful for anticipating right PNI during SVC isolation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Isoflurane administration before ischemia and during reperfusion attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced injury of isolated rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Ishibe, Y; Ueda, M; Hang, Y

    1999-09-01

    To investigate the effects of isoflurane on ischemia/ reperfusion (IR)-induced lung injury, we administered isoflurane before ischemia or during reperfusion. Isolated rabbit lungs were divided into the following groups: control (n = 6), perfused and ventilated for 120 min without ischemia; ISO-control (n = 6), 1 minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) isoflurane was administered for 30 min before 120 min continuous perfusion; IR (n = 6), ischemia for 60 min, followed by 60 min reperfusion; IR-ISO1 and IR-ISO2, ischemia followed by reperfusion and 1 MAC (n = 6) or 2 MAC (n = 6) isoflurane for 60 min; ISO-IR (n = 6), 1 MAC isoflurane was administered for 30 min before ischemia, followed by IR. During these maneuvers, we measured total pulmonary vascular resistance (Rt), coefficient of filtration (Kfc), and lung wet to dry ratio (W/D). The results indicated that administration of isoflurane during reperfusion inhibited an IR-induced increase in Kfc and W/D ratio. Furthermore, isoflurane at 2 MAC, but not 1 MAC, significantly inhibited an IR-induced increase in Rt. The administration of isoflurane before ischemia significantly attenuated the increase in IR-induced Kfc, W/D, and Rt. Our results suggest that the administration of isoflurane before ischemia and during reperfusion protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury in isolated rabbit lungs.

  9. MCT1 and MCT4 Expression During Myocardial Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury in the Isolated Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Myocardium ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury can be caused by imbalances in cellular metabolism. Lactate, transported by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs, has been implicated as a mechanism in this process. The present study was designed to investigate the expression and functional role of MCTs in rat hearts during ischemia and reperfusion. Methods: Langendorff-perfused rat hearts were subjected to 20 minutes stabilization, 30 minutes of global ischemia and 60 minutes reperfusion. Hearts were collected serially for detecting expression changes in MCT1, MCT4 during myocardial I/R injury and lactate concentration was measured. Post-ischemic left ventricular function and infract size were determined at end-point, followed by the pretreatment of D-lactate, a competitive inhibitor of MCTs. Results: MCT4 was significantly increased following global ischemia and MCT1 expression was increased during the early stages of reperfusion in isolated rat hearts, while the expression of the ancillary protein CD147 was increased during I/R injury. We determined increases in AMPK phosphorylation status, which was significantly elevated following ischemia and early reperfusion. Blocking monocarboxylate transport by competitive inhibition with D-lactate caused decreased left ventricular performance and increased infarct size. Conclusion: Increased MCT4 expression facilitates lactate extrusion during the ischemic period, while increased MCT1 may facilitate lactate transport into and out of cells simultaneously during early reperfusion, with increases in AMPK phosphorylation status during the myocardial I/R period. Lactate transport by MCTs has a profound protective effect during myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.

  10. Resistance to Reperfusion Injury Following Short Term Postischemic Administration of Natural Honey in Globally Ischemic Isolated Rat Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaez, Haleh; Samadzadeh, Mehrban; Zahednezhad, Fahimeh; Najafi, Moslem

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Results of our previous study revealed that preischemic perfusion of honey before zero flow global ischemia had cardioprotective effects in rat. The present study investigated potential resistance to reperfusion injury following short term postischemic administration of natural honey in globally ischemic isolated rat heart. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10-13). The rat hearts were isolated, mounted on a Langendorff apparatus, allowed to equilibrate for 30 min then subjected to 30 min global ischemia. In the control group, the hearts were reperfused with drug free normal Krebs-Henseleit (K/H) solution before ischemia and during 120 min reperfusion. In the treatment groups, reperfusion was initiated with K/H solution containing different concentration of honey (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%) for 15 min and was resumed until the end of 120 min with normal K/H solution. Results: In the control group, VEBs number was 784±199, while in honey concentration of 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%, it decreased to 83±23 (Phoney. In the control group, the infarct size was 54.1±7.8%, however; honey (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%) markedly lowered the value to 12.4±2.4, 12.7±3.3, 11.3±2.6 and 7.9±1.7 (Phoney in global ischemia showed protective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries in isolated rat heart. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, lipoperoxidation inhibition, reduction of necrotized tissue, presence of rich energy sources, various type of vitamins, minerals and enzymes and formation of NO-contain metabolites may probably involve in those cardioprotective effects. PMID:24312792

  11. The nanoscale phase distinguishing of PCL-PB-PCL blended in epoxy resin by tapping mode atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiqin; Sun, Limin; Shen, Guangxia; Liang, Qi

    2012-02-01

    In this work, we investigated the bulk phase distinguishing of the poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-polybutadiene-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL-PB-PCL) triblock copolymer blended in epoxy resin by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM). We found that at a set-point amplitude ratio ( r sp) less than or equal to 0.85, a clear phase contrast could be obtained using a probe with a force constant of 40 N/m. When r sp was decreased to 0.1 or less, the measured size of the PB-rich domain relatively shrank; however, the height images of the PB-rich domain would take reverse (translating from the original light to dark) at r sp = 0.85. Force-probe measurements were carried out on the phase-separated regions by TM-AFM. According to the phase shift angle vs. r sp curve, it could be concluded that the different force exerting on the epoxy matrix or on the PB-rich domain might result in the height and phase image reversion. Furthermore, the indentation depth vs. r sp plot showed that with large tapping force (lower r sp), the indentation depth for the PB-rich domain was nearly identical for the epoxy resin matrix.

  12. Guided-Inquiry Experiments for Physical Chemistry: The POGIL-PCL Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunnicutt, Sally S.; Grushow, Alexander; Whitnell, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The POGIL-PCL project implements the principles of process-oriented, guided-inquiry learning (POGIL) in order to improve student learning in the physical chemistry laboratory (PCL) course. The inquiry-based physical chemistry experiments being developed emphasize modeling of chemical phenomena. In each experiment, students work through at least…

  13. Coaxial PCL/PVA electrospun nanofibers: osseointegration enhancer and controlled drug release device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Wei; Shi, Tong; Ren, Weiping; Yu, Xiaowei; Markel, David C

    2013-01-01

    The failure of prosthesis after total joint replacement is mainly due to dysfunctional osseointegration and implant infection. There is a critical need for orthopedic implants that promote rapid osseointegration and prevent bacterial colonization, particularly when placed in bone compromised by disease or physiology of the patients. The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coaxial electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) core-sheath nanofiber (NF) blended with both hydroxyapatite nanorods (HA) and type I collagen (Col) (PCL Col /PVA HA ). Doxycycline (Doxy) and dexamethasone (Dex) were successfully incorporated into the PCL Col /PVA HA NFs for controlled release. The morphology, surface hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of the PCL/PVA NF mats were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle and atomic force microscopy. The PCL Col /PVA HA NFs are biocompatible and enhance the adhesion and proliferation of murine pre-osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. The release of Doxy and Dex from coaxial PCL Col /PVA HA NFs showed more controlled release compared with the blended NFs. Using an ex vivo porcine bone implantation model we found that the PCL Col /PVA HA NFs bind firmly on the titanium rod surface and the NFs coating remained intact on the surface of titanium rods after pullout. No disruption or delamination was observed after the pullout test. These findings indicate that PCL Col /PVA HA NFs encapsulating drugs have great potential in enhancing implant osseointegration and preventing implant infection. (paper)

  14. Coaxial PCL/PVA electrospun nanofibers: osseointegration enhancer and controlled drug release device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Yu, Xiaowei; Markel, David C; Shi, Tong; Ren, Weiping

    2013-09-01

    The failure of prosthesis after total joint replacement is mainly due to dysfunctional osseointegration and implant infection. There is a critical need for orthopedic implants that promote rapid osseointegration and prevent bacterial colonization, particularly when placed in bone compromised by disease or physiology of the patients. The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel coaxial electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) core-sheath nanofiber (NF) blended with both hydroxyapatite nanorods (HA) and type I collagen (Col) (PCL(Col)/PVA(HA)). Doxycycline (Doxy) and dexamethasone (Dex) were successfully incorporated into the PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs for controlled release. The morphology, surface hydrophilicity and mechanical properties of the PCL/PVA NF mats were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, water contact angle and atomic force microscopy. The PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs are biocompatible and enhance the adhesion and proliferation of murine pre-osteoblastic MC3T3 cells. The release of Doxy and Dex from coaxial PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs showed more controlled release compared with the blended NFs. Using an ex vivo porcine bone implantation model we found that the PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs bind firmly on the titanium rod surface and the NFs coating remained intact on the surface of titanium rods after pullout. No disruption or delamination was observed after the pullout test. These findings indicate that PCL(Col)/PVA(HA) NFs encapsulating drugs have great potential in enhancing implant osseointegration and preventing implant infection.

  15. Effect of organo clay addition on thermal properties of poly lactide/ polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Zulaiha Hairaldin; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Norazoma Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    In this study, melt blending technique was applied to prepare poly lactide/polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites with various blends. Montmorillonite (MMT) was used as an addition to the matrix. In this study, melt blending technique was applied to prepare poly lactide/polycaprolactone (PLA/ PCL) nano composites. Montmorillonite (MMT) was used as an addition to the matrix with various percentages. The other one is modified clay prepared by modifying the nature of montmorillonite with octadecylamine (ODA) to improve the characteristic of PLA/ PCL blends. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated intercalation of the PLA/ PCL into silicate nano size interlayers galleries of the nano composites. The presence of modified clays in nano composite was confirmed by FTIR spectrum. TGA and DTG results show addition of MMT and modified clay ODA-MMT improved the thermal stability of the PLA/ PCL blends. (author)

  16. Shape memory behaviour of radiation-crosslinked PCL/PMVS blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guangming; Xu Shuogui; Wang Jinhua; Zhang Longbin

    2006-01-01

    The performance and radiation crosslinking of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polymethylvinylsiloxane (PMVS) blends has been investigated. Radiation crosslinking of PCL/PMVS blends followed the Charlesby-Pinner equation, and PMVS promoted the radiation crosslinking of the blends. As the concentration of PMVS increased, the gelation dose and the ratio of degradation to crosslinking (p 0 /q 0 ) decreased and the efficiency of radiation crosslinking increased. The elastic modulus below the melting point of PCL of radiation-crosslinked PCL/PMVS blends decreased with the increase of PMVS, and increased above the melting point. The crosslinked PCL/PMVS blends exhibited excellent shape memory effects, and the ratios of deformation to recovery were more than 95%

  17. Isolated amnesia following a bilateral paramedian thalamic infarct. Possible etiologic role of a whiplash injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, F; Maurri, S

    1992-04-01

    A previously healthy 45 years old carpenter suffered a whiplash injury in a road accident on July, 18th, 1990. He continued to work in spite of occipital headache, episodic sweatening and slight hypersomnia. On August, 8th, 1990 while parking his car into the deck of a ferry-boat he was found slightly confuse and markedly amnestic. A post-traumatic subdural haematoma was suspected. As a CT-scan of the brain was normal, a toxic encephalopathy or an hysterical amnesia were proposed. However, a MRI performed on August, 22th, 1990, apart from a small infarct in the white matter of the left occipital lobe, showed two small bilateral paramedian thalamic infarcts. The last lesions usually follow a thrombotic or embolic occlusion of the "basilar communicating artery" (BCA) belonging to the vertebro-basilar system. The possible etiologic relationship between this syndrome and the previous whiplash injury has been considered. Six months later, while a control MRI showed a reduction of the brain lesions, a neuropsychological examination revealed a slight improvement of memory dysfunction evident also at a distance of further 6 months. This case is interesting because it tests the high sensitivity of MRI in amnestic syndromes and because of the possible role of a whiplash injury in the etiology of BPTI.

  18. Evaluation of the biotissue of PCL and β-TCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomao, Zenaide; Zavaglia, Cecilia A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The use of biomaterials to replace, repair injured tissues and organs of human beings has increased due to population growth and its higher life expectancy. The tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that integrates principles of biology, chemistry, genetics, materials science and biomedical engineering, to produce composite three-dimensional, capable of replacing biological tissues. The development of new biomaterials using the method of evaporation of the solvent can help to solvent this problem. This work aimed to characterized the membranes of poly (ε-caprolactone) dense and porous (scaffolds) of PCL/B-TCP; and make an in vitro evaluation. Techniques were used to: SEM, EDS, XRD, TGA, DSC, mechanical traction tests, test cell viability and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The hydrolytic degradation was analyzed in phosphate buffer (PBS) and the biocompatibility through standards (ASTM and ABNT) concluding that the materials are biocompatible and are used with great potential for replacement of the bone tissue. (author)

  19. Protectant activity of defibrotide in cardioplegia followed by ischemia/reperfusion injury in the isolated rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossoni, G; Pompilio, G; Biglioli, P; Alamanni, F; Tartara, P; Rona, P; Porqueddu, M; Berti, F

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that defibrotide, a polydeoxyribonucleotide obtained by depolymerization of DNA from porcine tissues, has important protective effects on myocardial ischemia, which may be associated with a prostacyclin-related mechanism. The purpose of this study was to investigate the direct effects of defibrotide (given in cardioplegia or after ischemia) on a model of rat heart recovery after cardioplegia followed by ischemia/reperfusion injury. Isolated rat hearts, undergoing 5 minutes of warm cardioplegic arrest followed by 20 minutes of global ischemia and 30 minutes of reperfusion, were studied using the modified Langendorff model. The cardioplegia consisted of St. Thomas' Hospital solution augmented with defibrotide (50, 100, and 200 microg/mL) or without defibrotide (controls). Left ventricular mechanical function and the levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha (6-keto-PGF1alpha; the stable metabolite of prostacyclin) were measured during preischemic and reperfusion periods. After global ischemia, hearts receiving defibrotide in the cardioplegic solution (n = 8) manifested in a concentration-dependent fashion lower left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (p defibrotide in the cardioplegic solution also had, in a dose-dependent way, lower levels of creatine-kinase (p defibrotide was given alone to the hearts at the beginning of reperfusion (n = 7), the recovery of postischemic left ventricular function was inferior (p defibrotide was given in cardioplegia. Defibrotide confers to conventional crystalloid cardioplegia a potent concentration-dependent protective effect on the recovery of isolated rat heart undergoing ischemia/reperfusion injury. The low cost and the absence of contraindications (cardiac toxicity and hemodynamic effects) make defibrotide a promising augmentation to cardioplegia.

  20. Local delivery of FTY720 in PCL membrane improves SCI functional recovery by reducing reactive astrogliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjuan; Wang, Jiaqiu; Lu, Ping; Cai, Youzhi; Wang, Yafei; Hong, Lan; Ren, Hao; Heng, Boon Chin; Liu, Hua; Zhou, Jing; Ouyang, Hongwei

    2015-09-01

    FTY720 has recently been approved as an oral drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, and exerts its therapeutic effect by acting as an immunological inhibitor targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype (S1P1) of T cells. Recently studies demonstrated positive efficacy of this drug on spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models after systemic administration, albeit with significant adverse side effects. We hereby hypothesize that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by reducing pathological astrogliosis. The mechanistic functions of FTY720 were investigated in vitro and in vivo utilizing immunofluorescence, histology, MRI and behavioral analysis. The in vitro study showed that FTY720 can reduce astrocyte migration and proliferation activated by S1P. FTY720 can prolong internalization of S1P1 and exert antagonistic effects on S1P1. In vivo study of SCI animal models demonstrated that local delivery of FTY720 with polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane significantly decreased S1P1 expression and glial scarring compared with the control group. Furthermore, FTY720-treated groups exhibited less cavitation volume and neuron loss, which significantly improved recovery of motor function. These findings demonstrated that localized delivery of FTY720 can promote SCI recovery by targeting the S1P1 receptor of astrocytes, provide a new therapeutic strategy for SCI treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isolated transverse process fractures of the subaxial cervical spine: a clinically insignificant injury or not?: a prospective, longitudinal analysis in a consecutive high-energy blunt trauma population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, M.; Middendorp, J.J. van; Hosman, A.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Prospective single cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence, associated injuries, treatment outcomes and associated adverse events of isolated transverse process fractures (TPFs) of the subaxial cervical spine in a high-energy blunt trauma population. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND

  2. Development of core-shell coaxially electrospun composite PCL/chitosan scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surucu, Seda; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal

    2016-11-01

    This study was related to combining of synthetic Poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and natural chitosan polymers to develop three dimensional (3D) PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds for tissue engineering applications. The scaffolds were fabricated with coaxial electrospinning technique and the characterizations of the samples were done by thickness and contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses, mechanical and PBS absorption and shrinkage tests. The average inter-fiber diameter values were calculated for PCL (0.717±0.001μm), chitosan (0.660±0.007μm) and PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds (0.412±0.003μm), also the average inter-fiber pore size values exhibited decreases of 66.91% and 61.90% for the PCL and chitosan scaffolds respectively, compared to PCL/chitosan core-shell ones. XPS analysis of the PCL/chitosan core-shell structures exhibited the characteristic peaks of PCL and chitosan polymers. The cell culture studies (MTT assay, Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope (CLSM) and SEM analyses) carried out with L929 ATCC CCL-1 mouse fibroblast cell line proved that the biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds. The obtained results showed that the created micro/nano fibrous structure of the PCL/chitosan core-shell scaffolds in this study increased the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Resistance to Reperfusion Injury Following Short Term Postischemic Administration of Natural Honey in Globally Ischemic Isolated Rat Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleh Vaez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Results of our previous study revealed that preischemic perfusion of honey before zero flow global ischemia had cardioprotective effects in rat. The present study investigated potential resistance to reperfusion injury following short term postischemic administration of natural honey in globally ischemic isolated rat heart. Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10-13. The rat hearts were isolated, mounted on a Langendorff apparatus, allowed to equilibrate for 30 min then subjected to 30 min global ischemia. In the control group, the hearts were reperfused with drug free normal Krebs-Henseleit (K/H solution before ischemia and during 120 min reperfusion. In the treatment groups, reperfusion was initiated with K/H solution containing different concentration of honey (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% for 15 min and was resumed until the end of 120 min with normal K/H solution. Results: In the control group, VEBs number was 784±199, while in honey concentration of 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2%, it decreased to 83±23 (P<0.001, 138±48 (P<0.01, 142±37 (P<0.001 and 157±40 (P<0.01, respectively. Number and duration of VT and time spent in reversible VF were also reduced by honey. In the control group, the infarct size was 54.1±7.8%, however; honey (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2% markedly lowered the value to 12.4±2.4, 12.7±3.3, 11.3±2.6 and 7.9±1.7 (P<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Postischemic administration of natural honey in global ischemia showed protective effects against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries in isolated rat heart. Antioxidant and radical scavenging activity, lipoperoxidation inhibition, reduction of necrotized tissue, presence of rich energy sources, various type of vitamins, minerals and enzymes and formation of NO-contain metabolites may probably involve in those cardioprotective effects.

  4. Imaging of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction: normal postsurgical appearance and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcala-Galiano, Andrea; Baeva, Maria; Jose Argueeso, Maria [Hospital ASEPEYO Coslada, Department of Radiology, Madrid (Spain); Ismael, Maryem [Hospital ASEPEYO Coslada, Department of Traumatology and Orthopaedic Surgery, Madrid (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    This article reviews the normal postsurgical anatomy and appearance of PCL reconstructions on MDCT and MRI with the different operative techniques considering the type of tibial fixation, use of a single or double bundle, type of tendon graft and the fixation material. Tunnel positioning, appearance of the ligament graft and findings at the donor site are considered. Imaging signs of PCL graft failure and its possible causes are discussed. Imaging manifestations of other potential complications of both the PCL graft and donor sites are described, such as laxity, impingement, arthrofibrosis, ganglion cyst formation or complications related to the fixation material. (orig.)

  5. One Stage Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy  for Isolated Injury to Pancreatic Head Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar

    2013-07-01

    Major pancreatic injury following blunt abdominal trauma by itself is a relatively rare occurrence, and in vast majority of cases (95%) it is associated with injury to adjacent major vessels and organs; thus making isolated major pancreatic injury even rarer. While most pancreatic injuries are managed by simple measures like debridement and drainage, complex proximal injury poses surgical challenge regarding surgical skill and judgement. Disproportionate approach at any stage of management can contribute  to high mortality and morbidity. Emergency pancreatoduodenectomy plays a limited but important role in managing serious trauma to proximal pancreas and duodenum. Author presents a case where isolated injury to head of pancreas required emergency pancreatoduodenectomy. After a bizarre road accident, a middle aged male underwent emergency laparotomy for intraperitoneal bleeding and during exploration a deep transverse laceration with ampullary disruption was found in the head of the organ. Duodenum in all its part was intact and there was no other injury. The nature and site of injury made emergency pancreatoduodenectomy the only viable option. Leaking pancreatojejunostomy enhances infective complications that lead to late mortality. To circumvent this problem there is enthusiasm for staged surgery with resection and tube pancreatostomy in first stage, leaving the difficult anastomosis for a later date, However, if the patient is haemodynamically stable and operated reasonably early, one stage pancreatoduodenectomy gives good result and avoids repeating surgery with inherent problems and reduces hospital stay. For successful management of pancreatic trauma it is essential to make early diagnosis of duct disruption, with sound application of operative skill and judgement by treating surgeon.

  6. Data of PCL-b-P(MMA-DMAEMA2 characterization and related assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Franco

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented here are related to the research paper entitled “PCL-b-P(MMA-co-DMAEMA2 new triblock copolymer for novel pH-sensitive nanocapsules intended for drug delivery to tumors” by Franco et al. [1]. Characterization data of PCL-diol, macroinitiator Br-PCL-Br, homopolymers (PMMA and PDMAEMA and copolymers (batch 1 and batch 2 analyzed by FTIR, SEC and NMR, as well as, characterization of PCL-NS formulation by laser diffraction and DLS analysis, initial nanocapsule formulations and 1C-NC and 2C-NC formulations, including hydrodynamic diameter at different pH media, and DMSO cytotoxicity. Keywords: Methacrylic copolymer, Polycaprolactone, Nanocapsules, pH-sensitive, Cell viability

  7. Preserving the PCL during the tibial cut in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotti, G; Sessa, P; Amato, M; Ripani, F R; Giannicola, G

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the PCL insertion may be damaged during the tibial cut performed in total knee arthroplasty. We investigated the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL insertion and to what extent the posterior slope of the tibial cut and that of the patient's tibial plateaus affect the outcome. MR images of 83 knees were analysed. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL using a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patient's slope of the tibial plateau, was evaluated. Correlations between the results and the degrees of the posterior slope of the patient's tibial plateaus were also investigated. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the entire PCL insertion was, on average, 5.5, 4.7, 4.2 and 3.1 mm when a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patients' tibial plateaus was used, respectively. When the 25th percentile was considered, the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was 4 and 3 mm with a tibial cut of 0° and 5° of posterior slope, respectively. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was significantly greater in patients with a sagittal slope of the tibial plateaus more than 8° than in those with a sagittal slope less than 8°. In cruciate retaining implants, the PCL insertion may be spared in the majority of patients by performing a tibial cut of 4 mm, or even less when a posterior slope of 3°-5° is used. The clinical relevance of our study is that the execution of a conservative tibial cut, followed by a second tibial resection to achieve the thickness required for the tibial component to be implanted, may be an alternative technique to spare the PCL in CR TKA. II.

  8. Active Bilayer PE/PCL Films for Food Packaging Modified with Zinc Oxide and Casein

    OpenAIRE

    Rešček, Ana; Kratofil Krehula, Ljerka; Katančić, Zvonimir; Hrnjak-Murgić, Zlata

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the properties of active polymer food packaging bilayer polyethylene/polycaprolactone (PE/PCL) films. Such packaging material consists of primary PE layer coated with thin film of PCL coating modified with active component (zinc oxide or zinc oxide/casein complex) with intention to extend the shelf life of food and to maintain the quality and health safety. The influence of additives as active components on barrier, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of such m...

  9. Mechanical properties of electrospun PCL scaffold under in vitro and accelerated degradation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvdal, Alexandra Liv Vest; Vange, Jakob; Nielsen, Lene Feldskov

    2014-01-01

    Within recent years, researchers have looked into using polycaprolactone (PCL) as a synthetic biodegradable scaffold for tissue engineering purposes. This study investigated the mechanical properties of an electrospun PCL, while being exposed to physiological fluids at 37C (in vitro conditions) w...... in buffer (pH 12). The accelerated study showed a linear decrease in both elastic modulus and yield stress as a function of degradation time....

  10. Nanobody-functionalized PEG-b-PCL polymersomes and their targeting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Tao; Dembele, Fatimata; Beugnet, Anne; Sengmanivong, Lucie; Trepout, Sylvain; Marco, Sergio; de Marco, Ario; Li, Min-Hui

    2015-11-20

    We prepared and characterized polymersomes functionalized with nanobodies (VHHs) on the basis of biocompatible, biodegradable and FDA-approved poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL). Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and N-beta-maleimidopropyl-oxysuccinimide ester were allowed reacting with H2N-PEG-b-PCL to produce FITC and maleimide (Mal) functionalized copolymers, Mal-PEG-b-PCL and FITC-PEG-b-PCL. A mixture of MeO-PEG-b-PCL, Mal-PEG-b-PCL and FITC-PEG-b-PCL was used to prepare polymersomes by thin film hydration and nanoprecipitation methods. Morphological studies by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) showed that the nanoparticles exhibited predominantly vesicular structures (polymersomes). Their mean diameters measured by dynamic light scattering were around 150 nm and the zeta-potentials around -1 mV at pH 7.4. The nanoparticles were functionalized with either anti-HER2 (VHH1) or anti-GFP (VHH2) nanobodies using maleimide-cysteine chemistry. Their particle size and zeta-potential increased slightly after nanobody-functionalization. The specific binding of VHH-functionalized polymersomes and control nanoparticles towards HER2 positive breast cancer cells was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. The collected results represent the first report which experimentally demonstrates that VHH1-functionalized PEO-b-PCL polymersomes can target specifically breast cancer cells expressing HER2 receptors. The detailed morphological and cell-binding studies described herein pave the way for future in vivo studies to evaluate the feasibility to use such nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface modification of Polycaprolactone (PCL) microcarrier for performance improvement of human skin fibroblast cell culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, N.; Hashim, Y. Z. H.; Arifin, M. A.; Mel, M.; Salleh, H. Mohd; Sopyan, I.; Hamid, M. Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) has many advantages for use in biomedical engineering field. In the present work PCL microcarriers of 150-200 μm were fabricated using oil-in-water (o/w) emulsification coupled with solvent evaporation method. The surface charge of PCL microcarrier was then been improved by using ultraviolet/ozone treatment to introduce oxygen functional group. Immobilisation of gelatin onto PCL microspheres using zero-length crosslinker provides a stable protein-support complex, with no diffusional barrier which is ideal for mass processing. The optimum concentration of carboxyl group (COOH) absorbed on the surface was 1495.9 nmol/g and the amount of gelatin immobilized was 1797.3 μg/g on UV/O3 treated microcarriers as compared to the untreated (320 μg/g) microcarriers. The absorption of functional oxygen groups on the surface and the immobilized gelatin was confirmed with Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy and the enhancement of hydrophilicity of the surface was confirmed using water contact angle measurement which decreased (86.93° - 49.34°) after UV/O3 treatment and subsequently after immobilisation of gelatin. The attachment and growth kinetics for human skin fibroblast cell (HSFC) showed that adhesion occurred much more rapidly for gelatin immobilised surface as compared to untreated PCL and UV/O3 PCL microcarrier.

  12. Tailoring degradation of AZ31 alloy by surface pre-treatment and electrospun PCL fibrous coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanas, T. [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut, Kerala 673601 (India); Sampath Kumar, T.S., E-mail: tssk@iitm.ac.in [Medical Materials Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India); Perumal, Govindaraj; Doble, Mukesh [Department of Biotechnology - Bhupat and Jyoti Mehta School of Biosciences, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-08-01

    AZ31 magnesium alloy was coated with polycaprolactone (PCL) nano-fibrous layer using electrospinning technique so as to control degradation in physiological environment. Before coating, the alloy was treated with HNO{sub 3} to have good adhesion between the coating and substrate. To elucidate the role of pre-treatment and coating, samples only with PCL coating as well as HNO{sub 3} treatment only were prepared for comparison. Best coating adhesion of 4B grade by ASTM D3359–09 tape test was observed for pre-treated samples. The effect of coating on in vitro degradation and biomineralization was studied using supersaturated simulated body fluid (SBF 5 ×). The weight loss and corrosion results obtained by immersion test showed that the combination of HNO{sub 3} pre-treatment and PCL coating is very effective in controlling the degradation rate and improving bioactivity. Cytotoxicity studies using L6 cells showed that PCL coated sample has better cell adhesion and proliferation compared to uncoated samples. Nano-fibrous PCL coating combined with prior acid treatment seems to be a promising method to tailor degradation rate with enhanced bioactivity of Mg alloys. - Highlights: • PCL electrospun coating on HNO{sub 3} pre-treated AZ31 alloy controls biodegradation. • Acid pre-treatment stabilizes the substrate - coating interface. • Electrospun porous coating improves biomineralization. • Coating similar to extracellular matrix enhances cell adhesion.

  13. Functionalization of PCL-3D Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Improved BMP2-Induced Bone Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszuk, Jacob M; Xu, Tao; Yao, Qingqing; Fang, Fang; Childs, Josh D; Hong, Zhongkui; Tao, Jianning; Fong, Hao; Sun, Hongli

    2018-03-01

    Bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) is a key growth factor for bone regeneration, possessing FDA approval for orthopedic applications. BMP2 is often required in supratherapeutic doses clinically, yielding adverse side effects and substantial treatment costs. Considering the crucial role of materials for BMPs delivery and cell osteogenic differentiation, we devote to engineering an innovative bone-matrix mimicking niche to improve low dose of BMP2-induced bone formation. Our previous work describes a novel technique, named thermally induced nanofiber self-agglomeration (TISA), for generating 3D electrospun nanofibrous (NF) polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. TISA process could readily blend PCL with PLA, leading to increased osteogenic capabilities in vitro , however, these bio-inert synthetic polymers produced limited BMP2-induced bone formation in vivo. We therefore hypothesize that functionalization of NF 3D PCL scaffolds with bone-like hydroxyapatite (HA) and BMP2 signaling activator phenamil will provide a favorable osteogenic niche for bone formation at low doses of BMP2. Compared to PCL-3D scaffolds, PCL/HA-3D scaffolds demonstrated synergistically enhanced osteogenic differentiation capabilities of C2C12 cells with phenamil. Importantly, in vivo studies showed this synergism was able to generate significantly increased new bone in an ectopic mouse model, suggesting PCL/HA-3D scaffolds act as a favorable synthetic extracellular matrix for bone regeneration.

  14. Low Prevalence of Anterior and Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Patients With Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jaysson T; Ramji, Alim F; Lyapustina, Tatyana A; Yost, Mary T; Ain, Michael C

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries and their subsequent reconstructions are common in the general population, but there has been no research regarding ACL or PCL injuries in patients with achondroplasia, the most common skeletal dysplasia. Our goals were to (1) evaluate the prevalence of ACL and PCL injuries in adolescents and adults with achondroplasia, (2) compare this prevalence with that reported for the general population, (3) determine how many patients with ACL or PCL injuries underwent ligament reconstruction as treatment, and (4) determine patient activity levels as they relate to the rate of ACL/PCL injuries and reconstructions. We reviewed medical records of 430 patients with achondroplasia seen in the senior author's clinic from 2002 through 2014. Demographic data were reviewed, as well as any documentation of ACL or PCL injury or reconstruction. We called all 430 patients by telephone, and 148 agreed to participate in our survey, whereas 1 declined. We asked these patients about their history of ACL or PCL injury or reconstruction, as well as current and past physical activity levels. No ACL or PCL injuries were found on chart review. One patient reached by telephone reported an ACL injury that did not require reconstruction. This yielded a theoretical prevalence of 3/430 (0.7%). Of the 148 patients surveyed, 43 (29%) reported low physical activity, 75 (51%) reported moderate physical activity, and 26 (17%) reported high physical activity. There was no significant difference in the rate of ACL injury when stratified by physical activity level (P=0.102). ACL and PCL injuries and reconstructions are extremely rare in patients with achondroplasia, which cannot be completely ascribed to a low level of physical activity. One possible explanation is that patients with achondroplasia, on an average, have a more anterior tibial slope compared with those without achondroplasia, which decreases the force generated

  15. Preparation of porous PLLA/PCL blend by a combination of PEO phase and NaCl particulate leaching in PLLA/PCL/PEO/NaCl blend

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezzati, P.; Ghasemi, I.; Karrabi, M.; Azizi, H.; Fortelný, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 10 (2014), s. 757-766 ISSN 1026-1265 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PLLA/PCL/PEO ternary blend * bio -scaffold * melts blending Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2014

  16. Isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis: Prevalence, symptomatology and associated scapholunate ligament disruption in a population presenting to an accident and emergency department with acute wrist injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginson, Antony P.; Braybrook, Jason; Williams, Stephen; Finlay, David

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis in a population presenting to an Accident and Emergency Department of Leicester Royal Infirmary with acute wrist injuries. Also to identify the presence of scapholunate ligament disruption in this patient group and quantify symptoms and loss of function in terms of the modified system of Green and O'Brien, a recognized clinical scoring system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1711 radiographs of patients attending the Accident and Emergency Department were prospectively reviewed over a 5-month period. Those patients with isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis were invited for clinical review. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were identified with isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis. Two had a poor Green and O'Brien score and evidence of scapholunate ligament disruption (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis has a prevalence of 1% in a population presenting to an Accident and Emergency Department with acute wrist injuries over the age of 30 years. Isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis may be asymptomatic even though the changes in the joint are severe. Scapholunate ligament disruption is associated with a poor Green and O'Brien score, but is not present in the majority of cases. Higginson, A.P. et al. (2001)

  17. Psychometric analysis of the PTSD Checklist-5 (PCL-5) among treatment-seeking military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, Jennifer H; Jordan, Alexander H; Weathers, Frank W; Resick, Patricia A; Dondanville, Katherine A; Hall-Clark, Brittany; Foa, Edna B; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Hembree, Elizabeth A; Mintz, Jim; Peterson, Alan L; Litz, Brett T

    2016-11-01

    The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-5; Weathers et al., 2013) was recently revised to reflect the changed diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013). We investigated the psychometric properties of PCL-5 scores in a large cohort (N = 912) of military service members seeking PTSD treatment while stationed in garrison. We examined the internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and DSM-5 factor structure of PCL-5 scores, their sensitivity to clinical change relative to PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I; Foa, Riggs, Dancu, & Rothbaum, 1993) scores, and their diagnostic utility for predicting a PTSD diagnosis based on various measures and scoring rules. PCL-5 scores exhibited high internal consistency. There was strong agreement between the order of hypothesized and observed correlations among PCL-5 and criterion measure scores. The best-fitting structural model was a 7-factor hybrid model (Armour et al., 2015), which demonstrated closer fit than all other models evaluated, including the DSM-5 model. The PCL-5's sensitivity to clinical change, pre- to posttreatment, was comparable with that of the PSS-I. Optimally efficient cut scores for predicting PTSD diagnosis were consistent with prior research with service members (Hoge, Riviere, Wilk, Herrell, & Weathers, 2014). The results indicate that the PCL-5 is a psychometrically sound measure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms that is useful for identifying provisional PTSD diagnostic status, quantifying PTSD symptom severity, and detecting clinical change over time in PTSD symptoms among service members seeking treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Three-dimensional electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL)/alginate hybrid composite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Seong; Kim, GeunHyung

    2014-12-19

    Micro/nanofibrous scaffolds have been used widely in biomedical applications because the micro/nano-scale fibres resemble natural extracellular matrix and the high surface-to-volume ratio encourages cellular activities (attachment and proliferation). However, poor mechanical properties, low controllability of various shapes and difficulties in obtaining controllable pore structure have been obstacles to their use in hard-tissue regeneration. To overcome these shortcomings, we suggest a new composite system, which uses a combination method of wet electrospinning, rapid prototyping and a physical punching process. Using the process, we obtained polycaprolactone (PCL)/alginate composite scaffolds, consisting of electrospun PCL/alginate fibres and micro-sized PCL struts, with mean pore sizes of 821 ± 55 μm. To show the feasibility of the scaffolds for hard-tissue regeneration, the scaffolds were assessed not only for physical properties, including hydrophilicity, water absorption, and tensile and compressive strength, but also in vitro cellular responses (cell viability and proliferation) and osteogenic differentiation (alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralisation) by culturing with pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1 cells). With the reinforcing micro-sized PCL struts, the elastic modulus of the PCL/alginate scaffold was significantly improved versus a pure PCL scaffold. Additionally, due to the alginate component in the fibrous scaffold, they showed significantly enhanced hydrophilic behaviour, water absorption (∼8-fold) and significant biological activities (∼1.6-fold for cell viability at 7 days, ∼2.3-fold for ALP activity at 14 days and ∼6.4-fold for calcium mineralisation at 14 days) compared with those of a pure PCL fibrous scaffold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on conductive PANI-PCL fiber scaffold by electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yumei; Li, Xiang; Zhao, Rui; Wang, Chuying; Qiu, Fangping; Sun, Bolun; Ji, He; Qiu, Ju; Wang, Ce

    2017-01-01

    Recently, electrically conductive biomaterial scaffolds have shown great potential in tissue regeneration. Herein, we reported an electrically conductive polyaniline (PANI) coated poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun micron-fiber scaffold for the enhanced attachment and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under electrical stimulation conditions. After the O 2 plasma treatment toward PCL electrospun fiber, PANI could be polymerized onto their surfaces successfully. The obtained PANI-PCL fibers were characterized by SEM observations, FT-IR spectra, XPS analysis, and water contact angle measurement. The mechanical tests indicated that the fibers could satisfy the practical vascular scaffold requirements. The conductivity of the PANI-PCL fibers was 6.71 × 10 −3 S/cm which could provide a conductive in-vitro platform to study the effect of electrical stimulation on HUVECs proliferation. When PANI-coated PCL fibers were compared with PCL fibers, HUVECs exhibited highly enhanced adhesion and viability, especially under electrical stimulation (ES) of 200, 300, and 400 mV/cm. Proliferation of HUVECs on PANI-PCL fibers was strongly dependent on electrical stimulation intensity. The results showed new insights into conductive scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Electrospun PCL fibers were subjected to an O 2 plasma treatment to improve the hydrophilicity. • PANI was coated onto the surface of PCL fibers successfully after the plasma treatment. • HUVECs could attach, spread, and survive better on PANI-PCL fibers than on pure PCL fibers. • Electrical stimulation benefited proliferation of HUVECs on conductive PANI-PCL scaffold.

  20. Enhanced adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells on conductive PANI-PCL fiber scaffold by electrical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yumei [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Traditional Chinese Medicine Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117 (China); Li, Xiang; Zhao, Rui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Chuying [Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Traditional Chinese Medicine Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Changchun University of Chinese Medicine, Changchun 130117 (China); Qiu, Fangping, E-mail: qfp2004@126.com [Chemistry and Biology Science College, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun, Bolun; Ji, He; Qiu, Ju [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Ce, E-mail: cwang@jlu.edu.cn [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2017-03-01

    Recently, electrically conductive biomaterial scaffolds have shown great potential in tissue regeneration. Herein, we reported an electrically conductive polyaniline (PANI) coated poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) electrospun micron-fiber scaffold for the enhanced attachment and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under electrical stimulation conditions. After the O{sub 2} plasma treatment toward PCL electrospun fiber, PANI could be polymerized onto their surfaces successfully. The obtained PANI-PCL fibers were characterized by SEM observations, FT-IR spectra, XPS analysis, and water contact angle measurement. The mechanical tests indicated that the fibers could satisfy the practical vascular scaffold requirements. The conductivity of the PANI-PCL fibers was 6.71 × 10{sup −3} S/cm which could provide a conductive in-vitro platform to study the effect of electrical stimulation on HUVECs proliferation. When PANI-coated PCL fibers were compared with PCL fibers, HUVECs exhibited highly enhanced adhesion and viability, especially under electrical stimulation (ES) of 200, 300, and 400 mV/cm. Proliferation of HUVECs on PANI-PCL fibers was strongly dependent on electrical stimulation intensity. The results showed new insights into conductive scaffolds for vascular tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Electrospun PCL fibers were subjected to an O{sub 2} plasma treatment to improve the hydrophilicity. • PANI was coated onto the surface of PCL fibers successfully after the plasma treatment. • HUVECs could attach, spread, and survive better on PANI-PCL fibers than on pure PCL fibers. • Electrical stimulation benefited proliferation of HUVECs on conductive PANI-PCL scaffold.

  1. 3D printed porous polycaprolactone/oyster shell powder (PCL/OSP) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wenfeng; Zhang, Shuangying; Lan, Yuewei; Huang, Chen; Wang, Chao; Lai, Xuexu; Chen, Hanwei; Ao, Ningjian

    2018-04-01

    In this work, oyster shell powder (OSP) was used as the bio-filler and combined with polycaprolactone (PCL) through melt blending methodology. The PCL and PCL/OSP scaffolds were prepared using additive manufacturing process. All the 3D printed scaffolds hold a highly porosity and interconnected pore structures. OSP particles are dispersed in the polymer matrix, which helped to improve the degree of crystallinity and mineralization ability of the scaffolds. There was no significant cytotoxicity of the prepared scaffolds towards MG-63 cells, and all the scaffolds showed a well ALP activity. Therefore, PCL/OSP scaffolds had a high potential to be employed in the bone tissue engineering.

  2. An additive manufacturing-based PCL-alginate-chondrocyte bioprinted scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Joydip; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-11-01

    Regenerative medicine is targeted to improve, restore or replace damaged tissues or organs using a combination of cells, materials and growth factors. Both tissue engineering and developmental biology currently deal with the process of tissue self-assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. In this investigation, additive manufacturing (AM) with a multihead deposition system (MHDS) was used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) cell-printed scaffolds using layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of polycaprolactone (PCL) and chondrocyte cell-encapsulated alginate hydrogel. Appropriate cell dispensing conditions and optimum alginate concentrations for maintaining cell viability were determined. In vitro cell-based biochemical assays were performed to determine glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), DNA and total collagen contents from different PCL-alginate gel constructs. PCL-alginate gels containing transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) showed higher ECM formation. The 3D cell-printed scaffolds of PCL-alginate gel were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous spaces of female nude mice. Histochemical [Alcian blue and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining] and immunohistochemical (type II collagen) analyses of the retrieved implants after 4 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue and type II collagen fibril formation in the PCL-alginate gel (+TGFβ) hybrid scaffold. In conclusion, we present an innovative cell-printed scaffold for cartilage regeneration fabricated by an advanced bioprinting technology. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Active Bilayer PE/PCL Films for Food Packaging Modified with Zinc Oxide and Casein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rešček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the properties of active polymer food packaging bilayer polyethylene/polycaprolactone (PE/PCL films. Such packaging material consists of primary PE layer coated with thin film of PCL coating modified with active component (zinc oxide or zinc oxide/casein complex with intention to extend the shelf life of food and to maintain the quality and health safety. The influence of additives as active components on barrier, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties of such materials was studied. The results show that, in comparison to the neat PE and PE/PCL films, some of PE/PCL bilayer films with additives exhibit improved barrier properties i.e. decreased water vapour permeability. Higher thermal stability of modified PE/PCL material is obtained due to a modified mechanism of thermal degradation. The samples with the additive nanoparticles homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix showed good mechanical properties. Addition of higher ZnO content contributes to the enhanced antibacterial activity of a material.

  4. Pcl/Chitosan Blended Nanofibrous Tubes Made by Dual Syringe Electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hild Martin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 3D tubular scaffolds made from Poly-(Ɛ-caprolactone (PCL/chitosan (CS nanofibres are very promising candidate as vascular grafts in the field of tissue engineering. In this work, the fabrication of PCL/CS-blended nanofibrous tubes with small diameters by electrospinning from separate PCL and CS solutions is studied. The influence of different CS solutions (CS/polyethylene glycol (PEO/glacial acetic acid (AcOH, CS/trifluoroacetic acid (TFA, CS/ AcOH on fibre formation and producibility of nanofibrous tubes is investigated. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR is used to verify the presence of CS in the blended samples. Tensile testing and pore size measurements are done to underline the good prerequisites of the fabricated blended PCL/ CS nanofibrous tubes as potential scaffolds for vascular grafts. Tubes fabricated from the combination of PCL and CS dissolved in AcOH possesses properties, which are favourable for future cell culture studies.

  5. The effects of isolated ankle strengthening and functional balance training on strength, running mechanics, postural control and injury prevention in novice runners: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltich, Jennifer; Emery, Carolyn A; Stefanyshyn, Darren; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-12-04

    Risk factors have been proposed for running injuries including (a) reduced muscular strength, (b) excessive joint movements and (c) excessive joint moments in the frontal and transverse planes. To date, many running injury prevention programs have focused on a "top down" approach to strengthen the hip musculature in the attempt to reduce movements and moments at the hip, knee, and/or ankle joints. However, running mechanics did not change when hip muscle strength increased. It could be speculated that emphasis should be placed on increasing the strength of the ankle joint for a "ground up" approach. Strengthening of the large and small muscles crossing the ankle joint is assumed to change the force distribution for these muscles and to increase the use of smaller muscles. This would be associated with a reduction of joint and insertion forces, which could have a beneficial effect on injury prevention. However, training of the ankle joint as an injury prevention strategy has not been studied. Ankle strengthening techniques include isolated strengthening or movement-related strengthening such as functional balance training. There is little knowledge about the efficacy of such training programs on strength alteration, gait or injury reduction. Novice runners will be randomly assigned to one of three groups: an isolated ankle strengthening group (strength, n = 40), a functional balance training group (balance, n = 40) or an activity-matched control group (control, n = 40). Isokinetic strength will be measured using a Biodex System 3 dynamometer. Running kinematics and kinetics will be assessed using 3D motion analysis and a force platform. Postural control will be assessed by quantifying the magnitude and temporal structure of the center of pressure trace during single leg stance on a force platform. The change pre- and post-training in isokinetic strength, running mechanics, and postural control variables will be compared following the interventions

  6. The effect of pre-injury anti-platelet therapy on the development of complications in isolated blunt chest wall trauma: a retrospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceri Battle

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The difficulties in the management of the blunt chest wall trauma patient in the Emergency Department due to the development of late complications are well recognised in the literature. Pre-injury anti-platelet therapy has been previously investigated as a risk factor for poor outcomes following traumatic head injury, but not in the blunt chest wall trauma patient cohort. The aim of this study was to investigate pre-injury anti-platelet therapy as a risk factor for the development of complications in the recovery phase following blunt chest wall trauma. METHODS: A retrospective study was completed in which the medical notes were analysed of all blunt chest wall trauma patients presenting to a large trauma centre in Wales in 2012 and 2013. Using univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis, pre-injury platelet therapy was investigated as a risk factor for the development of complications following blunt chest wall trauma. Previously identified risk factors were included in the analysis to address the influence of confounding. RESULTS: A total of 1303 isolated blunt chest wall trauma patients presented to the ED in Morriston Hospital in 2012 and 2013 with complications recorded in 144 patients (11%. On multi-variable analysis, pre-injury anti-platelet therapy was found to be a significant risk factor for the development of complications following isolated blunt chest wall trauma (odds ratio: 16.9; 95% confidence intervals: 8.2-35.2. As in previous studies patient age, number of rib fractures, chronic lung disease and pre-injury anti-coagulant use were also found to be significant risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-injury anti-platelet therapy is being increasingly used as a first line treatment for a number of conditions and there is a concurrent increase in trauma in the elderly population. Pre-injury anti-platelet therapy should be considered as a risk factor for the development of complications by clinicians managing

  7. Isolation and characterization of two kinds of stem cells from the same human skin back sample with therapeutic potential in spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowen Zong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS AND OBJECTIVE: Spinal cord injury remains to be a challenge to clinicians and it is attractive to employ autologous adult stem cell transplantation in its treatment, however, how to harvest cells with therapeutic potential easily and how to get enough number of cells for transplantation are challenging issues. In the present study, we aimed to isolate skin-derived precursors (SKPs and dermal multipotent stem cells (dMSCs simultaneously from single human skin samples from patients with paraplegia. METHODS: Dissociated cells were initially generated from the dermal layer of skin samples from patients with paraplegia and cultured in SKPs proliferation medium. Four hours later, many cells adhered to the base of the flask. The suspended cells were then transferred to another flask for further culture as SKPs, while the adherent cells were cultured in dMSCs proliferation medium. Twenty-four hours later, the adherent cells were harvested and single-cell colonies were generated using serial dilution method. [(3H]thymidine incorporation assay, microchemotaxis Transwell chambers assay, RT-PCR and fluorescent immunocytochemistry were employed to examine the characterizations of the isolated cells. RESULTS: SKPs and dMSCs were isolated simultaneously from a single skin sample. SKPs and dMSCs differed in several respects, including in terms of intermediate protein expression, proliferation capacities, and differentiation tendencies towards mesodermal and neural progenies. However, both SKPs and dMSCs showed high rates of differentiation into neurons and Schwann cells under appropriate inducing conditions. dMSCs isolated by this method showed no overt differences from dMSCs isolated by routine methods. CONCLUSIONS: Two kinds of stem cells, namely SKPs and dMSCs, can be isolated simultaneously from individual human skin sample from paraplegia patients. Both of them show ability to differentiate into neural cells under proper inducing conditions

  8. In vitro degradation of poly (L-co-D,L lactic acid containing PCL-T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Adriana Tomaz Duarte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of polymer-based bioresorbable temporary devices in the medical field grows continuously, and professionals from several areas act to solve problems related to body functions lost due to diseases, accidents or natural wear. Here we study the influence from poly(caprolactonetriol (PCL-T on the degeneration process in the copolymer poly(L-co-DL-lactic acid (PLDLA membrane, by producing PLDLA/PCL-T blends with 90/10, 70/30 and 50/50 relative concentrations. The data for in vitro degradation showed that PCL-T decreases the rate of PLDLA. This was obtained with the following techniques: Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Therefore, it is possible to vary the membrane degradation rate by changing the blend composition, which is a tool to tailor a biomaterial.

  9. Determining the mechanical properties of electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers using AFM and a novel fiber anchoring technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Stephen R.; Banerjee, Soham; Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin, E-mail: gutholdm@wfu.edu

    2016-02-01

    Due to its low cost, biocompatibility and slow bioresorption, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) continues to be a suitable material for select biomedical engineering applications. We used a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)/optical microscopy technique to determine key mechanical properties of individual electrospun PCL nanofibers with diameters between 440–1040 nm. Compared to protein nanofibers, PCL nanofibers showed much lower adhesion, as they slipped on the substrate when mechanically manipulated. We, therefore, first developed a novel technique to anchor individual PCL nanofibers to micrometer-sized ridges on a substrate, and then mechanically tested anchored nanofibers. When held at constant strain, tensile stress relaxed with fast and slow relaxation times of 1.0 ± 0.3 s and 8.8 ± 3.1 s, respectively. The total tensile modulus was 62 ± 26 MPa, the elastic (non-relaxing) component of the tensile modulus was 53 ± 36 MPa. Individual PCL fibers could be stretched elastically (without permanent deformation) to strains of 19–23%. PCL nanofibers are rather extensible; they could be stretched to a strain of at least 98%, and a tensile strength of at least 12 MPa, before they slipped off the AFM tip. PCL nanofibers that had aged for over a month at ambient conditions became stiffer and less elastic. Our technique provides accurate nanofiber mechanical data, which are needed to guide construction of scaffolds for cells and other biomedical devices. - Highlights: • Developed technique to anchor single nanofibers on microridges • Determined mechanical properties of e-spun PCL fibers • E-spun PCL fibers have similar mechanical properties as wet fibrin fibers. • E-spun PCL fiber total elastic modulus is ~ 60 MPa. • E-spun PCL fiber extensibility is > 100%.

  10. PEG-b-PCL polymeric nano-micelle inhibits vascular angiogenesis by activating p53-dependent apoptosis in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Dong, Qinglei; Shen, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Haide; Luo, Xianglin; Liao, Xiaoling; Wang, Guixue

    Micro/nanoparticles could cause adverse effects on cardiovascular system and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease-related events. Nanoparticles prepared from poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)- b -poly( ε -caprolactone) (PCL), namely PEG- b -PCL, a widely studied biodegradable copolymer, are promising carriers for the drug delivery systems. However, it is unknown whether polymeric PEG- b -PCL nano-micelles give rise to potential complications of the cardiovascular system. Zebrafish were used as an in vivo model to evaluate the effects of PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle on cardiovascular development. The results showed that PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle caused embryo mortality as well as embryonic and larval malformations in a dose-dependent manner. To determine PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle effects on embryonic angiogenesis, a critical process in zebrafish cardiovascular development, growth of intersegmental vessels (ISVs) and caudal vessels (CVs) in flk1-GFP transgenic zebrafish embryos using fluorescent stereomicroscopy were examined. The expression of fetal liver kinase 1 (flk1), an angiogenic factor, by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ whole-mount hybridization were also analyzed. PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle decreased growth of ISVs and CVs, as well as reduced flk1 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Parallel to the inhibitory effects on angiogenesis, PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle exposure upregulated p53 pro-apoptotic pathway and induced cellular apoptosis in angiogenic regions by qPCR and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) apoptosis assay. This study further showed that inhibiting p53 activity, either by pharmacological inhibitor or RNA interference, could abrogate the apoptosis and angiogenic defects caused by PEG- b -PCL nano-micelles, indicating that PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle inhibits angiogenesis by activating p53-mediated apoptosis. This study indicates that polymeric PEG- b -PCL nano-micelle could

  11. Vectorial Resilient PC(l) of Order k Boolean Functions from AG-Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao CHEN; Liang MA; Jianhua LI

    2011-01-01

    Propagation criteria and resiliency of vectorial Boolean functions are important for cryptographic purpose (see [1- 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, 16]). Kurosawa, Stoh [8] and Carlet [1]gave a construction of Boolean functions satisfying PC(l) of order k from binary linear or nonlinear codes. In this paper, the algebraic-geometric codes over GF(2m) are used to modify the Carlet and Kurosawa-Satoh's construction for giving vectorial resilient Boolean functions satisfying PC(l) of order k criterion. This new construction is compared with previously known results.

  12. Atmospheric plasma surface modifications of electrospun PCL/chitosan/PCL hybrid scaffolds by nozzle type plasma jets for usage of cell cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surucu, Seda [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Atilim University, Incek, Golbasi, 06836, Ankara (Turkey); Masur, Kai [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (Germany); Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal, E-mail: hilal.sasmazel@atilim.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Atilim University, Incek, Golbasi, 06836, Ankara (Turkey); Von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus Dieter [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun PCL/chitosan/PCL scaffolds introduced to the literature by us were modified with atmospheric pressure plasma jets. • Plasma was fed into the system with different gas flow rates, time and distances. • Topographical and functional changes were examined by various characterization methods. • Optimum plasma treatment parameters for enhanced topography and functionality were determined. • Electrospun hybrid plasma surface modified samples showed the increased biocompatibility performance of L929 fibroblast cells. - Abstract: This paper reports Ar gas, Ar + O{sub 2}, Ar + O{sub 2} + N{sub 2} gas mixtures and dry air plasma modifications by atmospheric pressure argon driven kINPen and air driven Diener (PlasmaBeam) plasma jets to alter surface properties of three dimensional (3D), electrospun PCL/Chitosan/PCL layer by layer hybrid scaffolds to improve human fibroblast (MRC5) cell attachment and growth. The characterizations of the samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed that the plasma modification carried out under dry air and Ar + O{sub 2} + N{sub 2} gas mixtures were altered effectively the nanotopography and the functionality of the material surfaces. It was found that the samples treated with Ar + O{sub 2} + N{sub 2} gas mixtures for 1 min and dry air for 9 min have better hydrophilicity 78.9° ± 1.0 and 75.6° ± 0.1, respectively compared to the untreated samples (126.5°). Biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds was determined with alamarBlue (aB) assay and MTT assay methods, Giemsa staining, fluorescence microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The results showed that plasma treated samples increased the hydrophilicity and oxygen functionality and topography of the surfaces significantly, thus affecting the cell viability and proliferation on

  13. Atmospheric plasma surface modifications of electrospun PCL/chitosan/PCL hybrid scaffolds by nozzle type plasma jets for usage of cell cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surucu, Seda; Masur, Kai; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal; Von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrospun PCL/chitosan/PCL scaffolds introduced to the literature by us were modified with atmospheric pressure plasma jets. • Plasma was fed into the system with different gas flow rates, time and distances. • Topographical and functional changes were examined by various characterization methods. • Optimum plasma treatment parameters for enhanced topography and functionality were determined. • Electrospun hybrid plasma surface modified samples showed the increased biocompatibility performance of L929 fibroblast cells. - Abstract: This paper reports Ar gas, Ar + O_2, Ar + O_2 + N_2 gas mixtures and dry air plasma modifications by atmospheric pressure argon driven kINPen and air driven Diener (PlasmaBeam) plasma jets to alter surface properties of three dimensional (3D), electrospun PCL/Chitosan/PCL layer by layer hybrid scaffolds to improve human fibroblast (MRC5) cell attachment and growth. The characterizations of the samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed that the plasma modification carried out under dry air and Ar + O_2 + N_2 gas mixtures were altered effectively the nanotopography and the functionality of the material surfaces. It was found that the samples treated with Ar + O_2 + N_2 gas mixtures for 1 min and dry air for 9 min have better hydrophilicity 78.9° ± 1.0 and 75.6° ± 0.1, respectively compared to the untreated samples (126.5°). Biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds was determined with alamarBlue (aB) assay and MTT assay methods, Giemsa staining, fluorescence microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The results showed that plasma treated samples increased the hydrophilicity and oxygen functionality and topography of the surfaces significantly, thus affecting the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds.

  14. Effect of valproic acid and injury on lesion size and endothelial glycocalyx shedding in a rodent model of isolated traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Cecilie Heerdegen; deMoya, Marc A; Perner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    were analyzed for sSDC-1, and lesion size was determined on Nissl-stained cryosections. RESULTS: sSDC-1 was significantly elevated in injured compared with uninjured animals at 3 hours (p = 0.0009) and 6 hours (p = 0.0007) after injury. This effect was significantly more pronounced in the animals...

  15. Comparison between PCL/hydroxyapatite (HA) and PCL/halloysite nanotube (HNT) composite scaffolds prepared by co-extrusion and gas foaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xin; Mi, Hao-Yang; Turng, Lih-Sheng

    2017-03-01

    In this work, three-dimensional poly(caprolactone) (PCL) tissue engineering scaffolds were prepared by co-extrusion and gas foaming. Biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were added to the polymer matrix to enhance the mechanical properties and bioactivity of the composite scaffolds. The effects of HA and HNT on the rheological behavior, microstructure, and mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were systematically compared. It was found that the HNT improved viscosity more significantly than HA, and reduced the pore size of scaffolds, while the mechanical performance of PCL/HNT scaffolds was higher than PCL/HA scaffolds with the same filler content. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were used as the cell model to compare the biological properties of two composite scaffolds. The results demonstrated that cells could survive on all scaffolds, and showed a more flourishing living state on the composite scaffolds. The cell differentiation for 5% HA and 1% HNT scaffolds were significantly higher than other scaffolds, while the differentiation of 5% HNT scaffolds was lower than that of 1% HNT scaffolds mainly because of the reduced pore size and pore interconnectivity. Therefore, this study suggested that, with proper filler content and control of microstructure through processing, HNT could be a suitable substitute for HA for bone tissue engineering to reduce the cost and improve mechanical performance. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Hemodynamic instability after pulmonary veins isolation in a patient with dual chamber pacemaker: The phantom injury of the ventricular lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Márcio Galindo; Lobato, Guilherme Miglioli; Chen, Shaojie

    2017-06-01

    The standard treatment of sinus node dysfunction (SND) is the pacemaker implantation, and the ideal methodology for the management of atrial fibrillation (AF) is rhythm control, but this is sometimes very hard to accomplish. For such actions, complete isolation of all pulmonary veins (PVI) is currently widely accepted as the best endpoint. In this case, we report a female patient, 81 years old, with controlled hypertension, without coronary artery disease, bearer of bilateral knee replacement, and dual chamber pacemaker implanted 1.5 years ago owing to sinus node disease, presenting the following symptoms: presyncope episodes associated with sustained irregular palpitation tachycardia. The evaluation of the pacemaker-recorded episodes of atrial fibrillation, the echocardiogram-presented normal systolic function and measurements, as well as the resting myocardial scintigraphy and with drug use did not demonstrate ischemia and/or fibrosis. The patient was in use of valsartan 320 mg daily, amlodipine 10 mg daily, sotalol hydrochloride 120 mg 2 times daily, and dabigatran 110 mg 2 times daily. At the end of the PVI, the patient presented hemodynamic instability, with a decrease in heart rate to 30 bpm and invasive arterial blood pressure to 60/30 mmHg. The pericardial puncture was quickly carried out with the possibility of cardiac tamponade as the first hypothesis, but no pericardial effusion was found. Next, we detected acute capture loss from the ventricular pacemaker lead, unvarying with high voltage and pulse width, even with stable impedance, sense and keeping the same position visualized by fluoroscopy. And there was soon afterwards induction of sustained ventricular tachycardia degenerating to spontaneous ventricular fibrillation. Electrical cardioversion-defibrillation was performed with 200J, and the sinus rhythm was reestablished, but there was a dead short, and the pacemaker generator was burned and disabled. So, we can speculate that

  17. Chronic injuries of the cruciate ligaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pricca, P.; Cecchini, A.; Vecchioni, G.; Mariani, P.M.; Tansini, A.; Ferrario, A.

    1988-01-01

    The high incidence of cruciate ligament injuries as a result of acute knee trauma with hemartrosis and abuse of diagnostic arthroscopies call for a suitable radiological imaging of the central pivot. Computed Arthrotomography (CAT) was used to examine the knee joint in 20 cases of clinically suspected chronic cruciate ligament injury. The images were correlated with arthroscopic and/or arthrotomic findings. Thirteen lesions of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) (65%) were found, plus 1 lesion of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) (5%), 2 associated lesions of ACL + PCL (10%), and 4 normal cases. Confirmation of pathology was available in all cases but one by arthroscopy and/or surgery. The central pivot diseases were classified as follows: absence, detachement, partial or complete tear. CAT findings of cruciate ligament injuries are emphasized and the role of the technique as compared to arthroscopy is discussed. CAT is useful in 3-D evaluation of central pivot and detection of different cruciate ligament injuries, with high sensitivity-specifity for ACL and high specifity-moderate sensitivity for PCL. In the evaluation of the chronic unstable knee, CAT is highly accurate and gives the surgeon useful information towards the planning of therapeutic procedures. CAT is almost non-invasive, well tolerated and easy to perform in out-patients, which make it a first-choice procedure in the screening of chronic ligament injuries

  18. The Hepatoprotection Provided by Taurine and Glycine against Antineoplastic Drugs Induced Liver Injury in an Ex Vivo Model of Normothermic Recirculating Isolated Perfused Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid is a non-protein amino acid found in high concentration in different tissues. Glycine (Amino acetic acid is the simplest amino acid incorporated in the structure of proteins. Several investigations indicate the hepatoprotective properties of these amino acids. On the other hand, antineoplastic agents-induced serum transaminase elevation and liver injury is a clinical complication. The current investigation was designed to screen the possible hepatoprotective properties of taurine and glycine against antineoplastic drugs-induced hepatic injury in an ex vivo model of isolated perfused rat liver. Rat liver was perfused with different concentration (10 μM, 100 μM and 1000 μM of antineoplastic drugs (Mitoxantrone, Cyclophosphamide, Cisplatin, 5 Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin and Dacarbazine via portal vein. Taurine and glycine were administered to drug-treated livers and liver perfusate samples were collected for biochemical measurements (ALT, LDH, AST, and K+. Markers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity and glutathione were also assessed in liver tissue. Antineoplastic drugs caused significant pathological changes in perfusate biochemistry. Furthermore, markers of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in drug treated livers. It was found that taurine (5 and 10 mM and glycine (5 and 10 mM administration significantly mitigated the biomarkers of liver injury and attenuated drug induced oxidative stress. Our data indicate that taurine and glycine supplementation might help as potential therapeutic options to encounter anticancer drugs-induced liver injury.

  19. Graphite nanoplatelets-modified PLA/PCL: Effect of blend ratio and nanofiller localization on structure and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelnar, Ivan; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Zhigunov, Alexander; Nevoralová, Martina

    2017-07-01

    Structure and properties of poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/poly (ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) influenced by graphite nanoplatelets (GNP) were studied in dependence on blend composition. Electron microscopy indicates predominant localization of GNP in PCL. GNP-induced changes in viscosity hinder refinement of PCL inclusions, support PCL continuity in the co-continuous system, and lead to reduction of PLA inclusions size without GNP being present at the interface in the PCL-matrix blend. Negligible differences in crystallinity of both phases indicate that mechanical behaviour is mainly influenced by reinforcement and GNP-induced changes in morphology. Addition of 5 parts of GNP leads to ~40% and ~25% increase of stiffness in the PCL- and PLA-matrix systems, respectively, whereas the reinforcing effect is practically eliminated in the co-continuous systems due to GNP-induced lower continuity of PLA which enhances toughness. Impact resistance of the 80/20 blend shows increase with 5 parts content due to synergistic effect of PCL/GNP stacks, whereas minor increase in the blend of the ductile PCL matrix with brittle PLA inclusions is caused by GNP-modification of the component parameters. Results indicate high potential of GNP in preparing biocompatible systems with wide range of structure and properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodegradable blends of urea plasticized thermoplastic starch (UTPS) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL): Morphological, rheological, thermal and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Ana Carolina; Carmona, Vitor Brait; Simão, José Alexandre; Capparelli Mattoso, Luiz Henrique; Marconcini, José Manoel

    2017-07-01

    Biodegradable blends of urea plasticized thermoplastic starch (UTPS) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) were prepared in a co-rotating twin screw extruder. The UTPS and PCL content varied in a range of 25wt%. The materials were characterized by capillary rheometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), termogravimetry (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and tensile tests. Capillary rheometry showed better interaction between UTPS and PCL at 110°C than at 130°C. SEM showed immiscibility of all blends and good dispersion of UTPS in PCL matrix up to 50wt%. However, a co-continuous morphology was found for UTPS/PCL 75/25. Thermal analysis showed that introducing PCL in UTPS, increased T onset due to higher thermal stability of PCL, and blends presented an intermediate behavior of neat polymers. The presence of PCL in blends improved significantly the mechanical properties of neat UTPS. Because they are totally biodegradable, these blends can be vehicles for controlled or slow release of nutrients to the soil while degraded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Surface chemistry of PH 3, PF 3 and PCl 3 on Ru(0001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, H.-S.; Diebold, U.; Shinn, N. D.; Madey, T. E.

    1994-06-01

    The adsorption, desorption and decomposition of PH 3, PF 3 and PCl 3 on Ru(0001) have been studied by soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (SXPS) using synchrotron radiation. Due to large chemical shifts in the P 2p core levels, different phosphorus containing surface species can be identified. We find that PF 3 adsorbs molecularly on Ru(0001) at 80 and 300 K. At 80 K, PH 3 saturates the surface with one layer of atomic hydrogen, elemental phosphorus, subhydride (i.e., PHx (0 PH 3, with a total phosphorus coverage of 0.4 ML. At 300 K, PH 3 decomposes into atomic hydrogen and elemental phosphorus with a phosphorus coverage of 0.8 ML. At 80 K, PCl 3 adsorbs dissociatively into atomic chlorine, elemental phosphorus, PCl and possibly PCl 2 and PCl 3 in the first monolayer. Formation of multilayers of PCl 3 is observed at 80 K. At 300 K, PCl 3 adsorbs dissociatively as atomic chlorine and elemental phosphorus with a saturation phosphorus coverage of 0.1 ML. The variation in total phosphorus uptake at 300 K from PX3 ( X = H, FandCl) adsorption is a result of competition between site blocking by dissociation fragments and displacement reactions. Annealing surfaces with adsorbed phosphorus to 1000 K results in formation of RuzP ( z = 1 or 2), which is manifested by the chemical shifts in the P2p core level, as well as the P LVV Auger transition. The recombination of adsorbed phosphorus and adsorbed X ( = H, FandCl) from decomposition is also observed, but is a minor reaction channel on the surface. Thermochemical data are used to analyze the different stabilities of PX 3 at 300 K, namely, PF 3 adsorbs molecularly and PH 3 and PCl 3 dissociate completely. First, we compare the heat of molecular adsorption and the heat of dissociative adsorption of PX 3 on Ru(0001), using an enthalpy approach, and find results consistent with experimental observations. Second, we compare the total bond energy difference between molecular adsorption and complete dissociation of PX 3 on Ru

  2. Effect of midazolam versus propofol sedation on markers of neurological injury and outcome after isolated severe head injury: a pilot study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ghori, Kamran A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Midazolam and propofol are sedative agents commonly administered to patients with brain injury. We compared plasma concentrations of glial cell S100beta protein and nitric oxide (NO) between patients who received midazolam and those who received propofol sedation after severe brain injury, and investigated the association between S100beta and NO concentrations and neurological outcome. DESIGN: 28 patients with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Score <9) who required sedation and ventilation were randomly assigned to receive midazolam (n =15) or propofol (n = 13) based sedation. Blood samples were drawn daily for 5 days for estimation of S100beta and NO concentrations. Neurological outcome was assessed 3 months later as good (Glasgow Outcome Score [GOS], 4-5) or poor (GOS, 1-3). RESULTS: A good neurological outcome was observed in 8\\/15 patients (53%) in the midazolam group and 7\\/13 patients (54%) in the propofol group. Patients with a poor outcome had higher serum S100beta concentrations on ICU admission and on Days 1-4 in the ICU than those with a good outcome (mean [SD] on Day 1, 0.99 [0.81] v 0.41 [0.4] microg\\/L; Day 2, 0.80 [0.81] v 0.41 [0.24] microg\\/L; Day 3, 0.52 [0.55] v 0.24 [0.25] microg\\/L; and Day 4, 0.54 [0.43] v 0.24 [0.35] microg\\/L; P<0.05). There was no significant difference on Day 5. Plasma NO concentrations were not associated with outcome. In subgroup analysis, there was no difference in S100beta and NO concentrations between patients with a good outcome versus those with a poor outcome in either the midazolam or propofol group. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma concentrations of markers of neurological injury in patients with severe head injury were similar in those who received midazolam sedation and those who received propofol. Patients who had a poor neurological outcome at 3 months had consistently higher serum S100beta concentrations during the initial 4 days after injury than patients who had a good outcome.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of PCL/gelatin composite nanofibrous scaffold for tissue engineering applications by electrospinning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Sneh; Dinda, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Narayan Chandra

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, composite nanofibrous tissue engineering-scaffold consisting of polycaprolactone and gelatin, was fabricated by electrospinning method, using a new cost-effective solvent mixture: chloroform/methanol for polycaprolactone (PCL) and acetic acid for gelatin. The morphology of the nanofibrous scaffold was investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) which clearly indicates that the morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL to gelatin in the solution. Uniform fibers were produced only when the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin is sufficiently high (10:1). The scaffold was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). FT-IR and TG analysis indicated some interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules within the scaffold, while XRD results demonstrated crystalline nature of PCL/gelatin composite scaffold. Cytotoxicity effect of scaffold on L929 mouse fibroblast cells was evaluated by MTT assay and cell proliferation on the scaffold was confirmed by DNA quantification. Positive results of MTT assay and DNA quantification L929 mouse fibroblast cells indicated that the scaffold made from the combination of natural polymer (gelatin) and synthetic polymer (PCL) may serve as a good candidate for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: ► PCL/Gelatin scaffold was successfully fabricated by electrospinning method. ► PCL in CHCl 3 /CH 3 OH and gelatin in acetic acid: a novel polymer-solvent system. ► The morphology of nanofibers was influenced by the weight ratio of PCL/gelatin. ► Chemical interactions between PCL and gelatin molecules enhanced cell growth. ► Cell culture studies indicate the suitability of scaffold for tissue regeneration

  4. The performance of dental pulp stem cells on nanofibrous PCL/gelatin/nHA scaffolds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, X.; Yang, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Bian, Z.; Fan, M.; Jansen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of current study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo behavior of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) seeded on electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL)/gelatin scaffolds with or without the addition of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). For the in vitro evaluation, DNA content, alkaline

  5. Study of Enzymatic Degradation Comparison of CPP/Bionolle and CPP/PCL Blend with Modic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikham; Makuuchi, K.; Yoshii, Fumeo

    2000-01-01

    Melt-blending poly propylene-co-ethylene (CPP)/poly butylene succinate (Bionolle), CPP/polyεcaprolactone (PCL) with polypropylene grafted maleic anhydride (Modic) as compatibilizer has been studied. The effect of Modic concentration on the compatibility was evaluated using the ultimate elongation at break, tensile strength and SEM micrographs. The Result show that 20 wt % and 10 % wt of Medic appears to be an optimum concentration for CPP/Bionolle and CPP/PCL blend respectively, as indicated by relatively high elongation at breaks, tensile strength and formation of co-continuous phase in the blend morphology. Enzymatic degradation of the CPP/Bionolle and CPP/PCL blend with 10 wt % of Modic was carried out using lipase AK enzyme in the phospate buffer solution pH 7.0 and incubated at the fixed temperature for 8 days. The result show that about 15 % and 86 % weight loss film of composition CPP/Bionolle>25/75 and CPP/PCL >25/75 blend respectively has been reached

  6. The Fabrication and Characterization of PCL/Rice Husk Derived Bioactive Glass-Ceramic Composite Scaffolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnaz Naghizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to fabricate a 3D scaffold using polycaprolactone (PCL and silicate based bioactive glass-ceramic (R-SBgC. Different concentrations of R-SBgC prepared from rice husk ash (RHA were combined with PCL to fabricate a composite scaffold using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS method. The products were then characterized using SEM and EDX. The results demonstrated that R-SBgC in PCL matrix produced a bioactive material which has highly porous structure with interconnected porosities. There appears to be a relationship between the increase in R-SBgC concentration and increased material density and compressive modulus; however, increasing R-SBgC concentration result in reduced scaffold porosity. In conclusion, it is possible to fabricate a PCL/bioactive glass-ceramic composite from processed rice husk. Varying the R-SBgC concentrations can control the properties of this material, which is useful in the development of the ideal scaffold intended for use as a bone substitute in nonload bearing sites.

  7. Buildings and Terrain of Urban Area Point Cloud Segmentation based on PCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ying; Zhong, Ruofei

    2014-01-01

    One current problem with laser radar point data classification is building and urban terrain segmentation, this paper proposes a point cloud segmentation method base on PCL libraries. PCL is a large cross-platform open source C++ programming library, which implements a large number of point cloud related efficient data structures and generic algorithms involving point cloud retrieval, filtering, segmentation, registration, feature extraction and curved surface reconstruction, visualization, etc. Due to laser radar point cloud characteristics with large amount of data, unsymmetrical distribution, this paper proposes using the data structure of kd-tree to organize data; then using Voxel Grid filter for point cloud resampling, namely to reduce the amount of point cloud data, and at the same time keep the point cloud shape characteristic; use PCL Segmentation Module, we use a Euclidean Cluster Extraction class with Europe clustering for buildings and ground three-dimensional point cloud segmentation. The experimental results show that this method avoids the multiple copy system existing data needs, saves the program storage space through the call of PCL library method and class, shortens the program compiled time and improves the running speed of the program

  8. Antioxidative study of Cerium Oxide nanoparticle functionalised PCL-Gelatin electrospun fibers for wound healing application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Ahmad Rather

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Skin wound healing involves a coordinated cellular response to achieve complete reepithelialisation. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the wound environment often pose a hindrance in wound healing resulting in impaired wound healing process. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs have the ability to protect the cells from oxidative damage by actively scavenging the ROS. Furthermore, matrices like nanofibers have also been explored for enhancing wound healing. In the current study CeNP functionalised polycaprolactone (PCL-gelatin nanofiber (PGNPNF mesh was fabricated by electrospinning and evaluated for its antioxidative potential. Wide angle XRD analysis of randomly oriented nanofibers revealed ∼2.6 times reduced crystallinity than pristine PCL which aided in rapid degradation of nanofibers and release of CeNP. However, bioactive composite made between nanoparticles and PCL-gelatin maintained the fibrous morphology of PGNPNF upto 14 days. The PGNPNF mesh exhibited a superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic activity due to the incorporated CeNPs. The PGNPNF mesh enhanced proliferation of 3T3-L1 cells by ∼48% as confirmed by alamar blue assay and SEM micrographs of cells grown on the nanofibrous mesh. Furthermore, the PGNPNF mesh scavenged ROS, which was measured by relative DCF intensity and fluorescence microscopy; and subsequently increased the viability and proliferation of cells by three folds as it alleviated the oxidative stress. Overall, the results of this study suggest the potential of CeNP functionalised PCL-gelatin nanofibrous mesh for wound healing applications.

  9. Ultraporous interweaving electrospun microfibers from PCL-PEO binary blends and their cellular response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Menglin; Li, Yanfang; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    from a blend of polycaprolactone (PCL) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) in a DCM-DMF mixed solution when the ratio between each component reached a threshold and when the electrospinning parameters were delicately controlled. We further investigated their influence on cell infiltration and colonization...

  10. Vascular Tissue Engineering: Effects of Integrating Collagen into a PCL Based Nanofiber Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Bertram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The engineering of vascular grafts is a growing field in regenerative medicine. Although numerous attempts have been made, the current vascular grafts made of polyurethane (PU, Dacron®, or Teflon® still display unsatisfying results. Electrospinning of biopolymers and native proteins has been in the focus of research to imitate the extracellular matrix (ECM of vessels to produce a small caliber, off-the-shelf tissue engineered vascular graft (TEVG as a substitute for poorly performing PU, Dacron, or Teflon prostheses. Blended poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL/collagen grafts have shown promising results regarding biomechanical and cell supporting features. In order to find a suitable PCL/collagen blend, we fabricated plane electrospun PCL scaffolds using various collagen type I concentrations ranging from 5% to 75%. We analyzed biocompatibility and morphological aspects in vitro. Our results show beneficial features of collagen I integration regarding cell viability and functionality, but also adverse effects like the loss of a confluent monolayer at high concentrations of collagen. Furthermore, electrospun PCL scaffolds containing 25% collagen I seem to be ideal for engineering vascular grafts.

  11. Maltose conjugation to PCL: Advanced structural characterization and preliminary biological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secchi, Valeria; Guizzardi, Roberto; Russo, Laura; Pastori, Valentina; Lecchi, Marzia; Franchi, Stefano; Iucci, Giovanna; Battocchio, Chiara; Cipolla, Laura

    2018-05-01

    The emerging trends in regenerative medicine rely among others on biomaterial-based therapies, with the use of biomaterials as a central delivery system for biochemical and physical cues to manipulate transplanted or ingrowth cells and to orchestrate tissue regeneration. Cell adhesion properties of a biomaterial strongly depend on its surface characteristics. Among others poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is a biocompatible and biodegradable material with low cytotoxicity that is widely adopted as synthetic polymer in several applications. However, it is hydrophobic, which limits its use in tissue engineering. In order to improve its hydrophilicity and cellular compatibility, PCL surface was grafted with maltose through a two-step procedure in which controlled aminolysis of PCL ester bonds by hexanediamine was followed by reductive amination with the carbohydrate reducing end. The modified PCL surface was then characterized in detail by x-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Near Edge x-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopies. In addition, the biocompatibility of the proposed biomaterial was investigated in preliminary biological assays.

  12. Immobilization of silk fibroin on the surface of PCL nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khosravi, Alireza; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Mollahosseini, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    Poly(ɛ‐caprolactone) (PCL) is explored in tissue engineering (TE) applications due to its biocompatibility, processability, and appropriate mechanical properties. However, its hydrophobic nature and lack of functional groups in its structure are major drawbacks of PCL‐based scaffolds limiting...

  13. Synthesis and solution properties of PCL-b-PHPMA diblock copolymers containing stable nitroxyl radicals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrova, Svetlana; Klepac, Damir; Konefal, Rafal; Kereiche, S.; Kováčik, L.; Filippov, Sergey K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 15 (2016), s. 5407-5417 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15213 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PCL-b-PHPMA diblock copolymers * TEMPO * EPR spectroscodpy Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.835, year: 2016

  14. Development of a Spirulina Extract/Alginate-Imbedded PCL Nanofibrous Cosmetic Patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Seon Yeong; Cho, Myung Kwon; Shim, Kyou Hee; Kim, Hye Jin; Song, Hyeon Gi; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2017-09-28

    Cosmetic patches have recently been developed as skin products for personal care owing to rapid advances in the technology of delivery of active ingredients, moisture, and adhesiveness to skin. Alginate and Spirulina are typical marine resources used in cosmetic products. This research involved the development of a Spirulina extract-impregnated alginate nanofiber cosmetic patch supported by a polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber cover ( Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch). In addition to the ability of alginate to affect moisture and adhesiveness to skin, the impregnation of Spirulina extract strengthened those abilities as well as its own bioactive effectiveness. All fabrication processing steps were undertaken in aqueous solution. The three components (alginate, Spirulina extract, and PCL) had no detected cytotoxicity in human keratinocyte cell-based examination. In addition, wetting the pre-dried patch on the skin resulted in the Spirulina extract being released within 30 min. The results indicate the excellence of the Spi /Alg-PCL NF patch as a skin-care cosmetic device.

  15. Development of a PCL-silica nanoparticles composite membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A.; Diba, M.; Kersten, M.; Jansen, J.A.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Yang, F.

    2018-01-01

    The pivotal step in Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) therapy is the insertion of a membrane for support and barrier functions. Here, we studied the effect of the addition of silica nanoparticles (Si-NPs) in electrospun poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) membranes to improve the mechanical and

  16. Facile fabrication of aloe vera containing PCL nanofibers for barrier membrane application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Princeton; Rahman, Shekh M; Bhattarai, Narayan

    2016-01-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a widely used method in dental surgical procedures that utilizes a barrier membrane to exclude migration of epithelium and ensure repopulation of periodontal ligament cells at the sites having insufficient gingiva. Commercial GTR membranes are typically composed of synthetic polymers that have had mild clinical success mostly because of their lack of proper bioactivity and appropriate degradation profile. In this study, a natural polymer, aloe vera was blended with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create nanofibrous GTR membranes by electrospinning. Aloe vera has proven anti-inflammatory properties and enhances the regeneration of periodontium tissues. PCL, a synthetic polymer, is well known to produce miscible polyblends nanofibers with natural polymers. Nanofibrous membranes with varying composition of PCL to aloe vera were fabricated, and several physicochemical and biological properties, such as fiber morphology, wettability, chemical structure, mechanical strength, and cellular compatibility of the membranes were analyzed. PCL/aloe vera membranes with ratios from 100/00 to 70/30 showed good uniformity in fiber morphology and suitable mechanical properties, and retained the integrity of their fibrous structure in aqueous solutions. Experimental results, using cell viability assay and cell attachment observation, showed that the nanofibrous membranes support 3T3 cell viability and could be a potential candidate for GTR therapy.

  17. Fabrication and characterization of PVA/Gum tragacanth/PCL hybrid nanofibrous scaffolds for skin substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarekhalili, Zahra; Bahrami, S Hajir; Ranjbar-Mohammadi, M; Milan, Peiman Brouki

    2017-01-01

    In this work three dimensional biodegradable nanofiberous scaffolds containing poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and gum tragacanth (GT) were successfully fabricated through two nozzles electrospinning process. For this purpose, PVA/GT blend (Blend: B) solution (60:40wt%) was injected from one syringe and poly(ε-caprolactone) solution from the other one. Presence of PVA and PCL in the formulation improved the electrospinning process of GT solution and mechanical properties of the fabricated nanofibers. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed uniform PVA/GT-PCL blend-hybrid (Blend-Hybrid: B-H) nanofibers with the diameter ranging about 132±27nm. Hybrid nanofibers were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests. The antibacterial activities of the PVA/GT-PCL (B-H) nanofibers were conducted against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and results indicated that the hybrid nanofibers were 95.19% antibacterial against S. aureus bacterium. NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells growth and MTT assay were carried out on the scaffolds. Hydrophilicity nature, favorable mechanical properties of the fabricated hybrid nanofibers, along with their structure in biological media, biocompatibility, as well as antibacterial property indicate scaffolds prepared are suitable for tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of urea and urea-modified halloysite on performance of PCL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Khunová, V.; Kelnar, Ivan; Kristóf, J.; Dybal, Jiří; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav; Kaprálková, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 120, č. 2 (2015), s. 1283-1291 ISSN 1388-6150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-15255S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PCL * urea * halloysite Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.781, year: 2015

  19. Sequential crystallization and morphology of triple crystalline biodegradable PEO-b-PCL-b-PLLA triblock terpolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Palacios, Jordana; Mugica, Agurtzane; Zubitur, Manuela; Iturrospe, Amaia; Arbe, A.; Liu, Guoming; Wang, Dujin; Zhao, Junpeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Muller, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The sequential crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(e-caprolactone)-b-poly(L-lactide) (PEO-b-PCL-b-PLLA) triblock terpolymers, in which the three blocks are able to crystallize separately and sequentially from the melt, is presented. Two

  20. Pharmacokinetics and in vivo delivery of curcumin by copolymeric mPEG-PCL micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheiri Manjili, Hamidreza; Ghasemi, Parisa; Malvandi, Hojjat; Mousavi, Mir Sajjad; Attari, Elahe; Danafar, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Curcumin (CUR) has been associated with anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-amyloid, and antitumor effects, but its application is limited because of its low aqueous solubility and poor oral bioavailability. To progress the bioavailability and water solubility of CUR, we synthesized five series of mono methoxy poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) diblock copolymers. The structure of the copolymers was characterized by H NMR, FTIR, DSC and GPC techniques. In this study, CUR was encapsulated within micelles through a single-step nano-precipitation method, leading to formation of CUR-loaded mPEG-PCL (CUR/mPEG-PCL) micelles. The resulting micelles were characterized further by various techniques such as dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cytotoxicity of void CUR, mPEG-PCL and CUR/mPEG-PCL micelles was compared to each other by performing MTT assay of the treated MCF-7 and 4T1 cell line. Study of the in vivo pharmacokinetics of the CUR-loaded micelles was also carried out on selected copolymers in comparison with CUR solution formulations. The results showed that the zeta potential of CUR-loaded micelles was about -11.5mV and the average size was 81.0nm. CUR was encapsulated into mPEG-PCL micelles with loading capacity of 20.65±0.015% and entrapment efficiency of 89.32±0.34%. The plasma AUC (0-t), t 1/2 and C max of CUR micelles were increased by 52.8, 4.63 and 7.51-fold compared to the CUR solution, respectively. In vivo results showed that multiple injections of CUR-loaded micelles could prolong the circulation time and increase the therapeutic efficacy of CUR. These results suggested that mPEG-PCL micelles would be a potential carrier for CUR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrospinning PCL Scaffolds Manufacture for Three-Dimensional Breast Cancer Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Rabionet

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cell culture is traditionally performed within two-dimensional (2D environments, providing a quick and cheap way to study cell properties in a laboratory. However, 2D systems differ from the in vivo environment and may not mimic the physiological cell behavior realistically. For instance, 2D culture models are thought to induce cancer stem cells (CSCs differentiation, a rare cancer cell subpopulation responsible for tumor initiation and relapse. This fact hinders the development of therapeutic strategies for tumors with a high relapse percentage, such as triple negative breast cancer (TNBC. Thus, three-dimensional (3D scaffolds have emerged as an attractive alternative to monolayer culture, simulating the extracellular matrix structure and maintaining the differentiation state of cells. In this work, scaffolds were fabricated through electrospinning different poly(ε-caprolactone-acetone solutions. Poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL meshes were seeded with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC cells and 15% PCL scaffolds displayed significantly (p < 0.05 higher cell proliferation and elongation than the other culture systems. Moreover, cells cultured on PCL scaffolds exhibited higher mammosphere forming capacity and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity than 2D-cultured cells, indicating a breast CSCs enrichment. These results prove the powerful capability of electrospinning technology in terms of poly(ε-caprolactone nanofibers fabrication. In addition, this study has demonstrated that electrospun 15% PCL scaffolds are suitable tools to culture breast cancer cells in a more physiological way and to expand the niche of breast CSCs. In conclusion, three-dimensional cell culture using PCL scaffolds could be useful to study cancer stem cell behavior and may also trigger the development of new specific targets against such malignant subpopulation.

  2. Sequential crystallization and morphology of triple crystalline biodegradable PEO-b-PCL-b-PLLA triblock terpolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Palacios, Jordana

    2016-01-05

    The sequential crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(e-caprolactone)-b-poly(L-lactide) (PEO-b-PCL-b-PLLA) triblock terpolymers, in which the three blocks are able to crystallize separately and sequentially from the melt, is presented. Two terpolymers with identical PEO and PCL block lengths and two different PLLA block lengths were prepared, thus the effect of increasing PLLA content on the crystallization behavior and morphology was evaluated. Wide angle X-Ray scattering (WAXS) experiments performed on cooling from the melt confirmed the triple crystalline nature of these terpolymers and revealed that they crystallize in sequence: the PLLA block crystallizes first, then the PCL block, and finally the PEO block. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis further demonstrated that the three blocks can crystallize from the melt when a low cooling rate is employed. The crystallization process takes place from a homogenous melt as indicated by small angle X-Ray scattering (SAXS) experiments. The crystallization and melting enthalpies and temperatures of both PEO and PCL blocks decrease as PLLA content in the terpolymer increases. Polarized light optical microscopy (PLOM) demonstrated that the PLLA block templates the morphology of the terpolymer, as it forms spherulites upon cooling from the melt. The subsequent crystallization of PCL and PEO blocks occurs inside the interlamellar regions of the previously formed PLLA block spherulites. In this way, unique triple crystalline mixed spherulitic superstructures have been observed for the first time. As the PLLA content in the terpolymer is reduced the superstructural morphology changes from spherulites to a more axialitic-like structure.

  3. Evaluation of Chronic Physical and Psychological Stress Induction on Cardiac Ischemia / Reperfusion Injuries in Isolated Male Rat Heart: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Rakhshan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to stress leads to physiological changes called “stress response” which are the result ofthe changes in the adrenomedullary hormone system, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and sympatheticnervous system (SNS activity. In the present study, the effects of chronic physical and psychological stressand also the role of sympathetic system effects in stress on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injuries have beenstudied in isolated rat heart. Rat heart was isolated and subjected to 30 min regional ischemia and 120 minreperfusion. The daily stress was induced for one week prior to I/R induction. Sympathectomy was donechemically by injection of hydroxyl-dopamine prior to stress induction. There were no significant changes inheart rate and Coronary Flow between groups. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP and rate productpressure (RPP in both physical and psychological stress groups decreased significantly compared to those incontrol group (Pgroups. Infarct size significantly increased in both physical and psychological stress groups and control group(Pas compared with stress groups (Ppsychological stress prior to ischemia/reperfusion causes enhancement of myocardial injuries and it seemsthat increased sympathetic activity in response to stress is responsible for these adverse effects of stress onischemic/reperfused heart.

  4. Effects of Chitosan Alkali Pretreatment on the Preparation of Electrospun PCL/Chitosan Blend Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Roozbahani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, nanofibrous scaffolds have been used in the field of biomedical engineering as wound dressings, tissue engineering scaffolds, and drug delivery applications. The electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds can be used as carriers for several types of drugs, genes, and growth factors. PCL is one of the most commonly applied synthetic polymers for medical use because of its biocompatibility and slow biodegradability. PCL is hydrophobic and has no cell recognition sites on its structure. Electrospinning of chitosan and PCL blend was investigated in formic acid/acetic acid as the solvent with different PCL/chitosan ratios. High viscosity of chitosan solutions makes difficulties in the electrospinning process. Strong hydrogen bonds in a 3D network in acidic condition prevent the movement of polymeric chains exposed to the electrical field. Consequently, the amount of chitosan in PCL/chitosan blend was limited and more challenging when the concentration of PCL increases. The treatment of chitosan in alkali condition under high temperature reduced its molecular weight. Longer treatment time further decreased the molecular weight of chitosan and hence its viscosity. Electrospinning of PCL/chitosan blend was possible at higher chitosan ratio, and SEM images showed a decrease in fiber diameter and narrower distribution with increase in the chitosan ratio.

  5. Determining the mechanical properties of electrospun poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) nanofibers using AFM and a novel fiber anchoring technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stephen R; Banerjee, Soham; Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Due to its low cost, biocompatibility and slow bioresorption, poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) continues to be a suitable material for select biomedical engineering applications. We used a combined atomic force microscopy (AFM)/optical microscopy technique to determine key mechanical properties of individual electrospun PCL nanofibers with diameters between 440-1040nm. Compared to protein nanofibers, PCL nanofibers showed much lower adhesion, as they slipped on the substrate when mechanically manipulated. We, therefore, first developed a novel technique to anchor individual PCL nanofibers to micrometer-sized ridges on a substrate, and then mechanically tested anchored nanofibers. When held at constant strain, tensile stress relaxed with fast and slow relaxation times of 1.0±0.3s and 8.8±3.1s, respectively. The total tensile modulus was 62±26MPa, the elastic (non-relaxing) component of the tensile modulus was 53±36MPa. Individual PCL fibers could be stretched elastically (without permanent deformation) to strains of 19-23%. PCL nanofibers are rather extensible; they could be stretched to a strain of at least 98%, and a tensile strength of at least 12MPa, before they slipped off the AFM tip. PCL nanofibers that had aged for over a month at ambient conditions became stiffer and less elastic. Our technique provides accurate nanofiber mechanical data, which are needed to guide construction of scaffolds for cells and other biomedical devices. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Pleural Drainage and its Role in Management of the Isolated Penetrating Chest Injuries During the War Time in Sarajevo, 1992.-1995.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Hadžismajlović

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Penetrating chest injuries are the most frequent causes of serious demage and death in wounded indivisuals. In reports from the last wars where wounds caused by high velocity projectiles predominated, thoracotomies were perfomed in about 15% of the wounded individuals, mostly encompassing injuries of the heart and great vessels, accomanied by massive bleeding that could not be resolved by chest tube insertion. This retrospective analysis was performed on the medical records of 477 patients tretaed for isolated penetrating chest injuries in Department of Thoracic Surgery Clinical Center of the University in Sarajevo between april 1992 - june 1995. We analised the ways of their menagement with special view on pleural drainage, indication for this method and results of treatment. 398 (83,4% wounded individuals have been treated with pleural tube inserting as definitive mesaure and for the urgent thoracotomy there were 79 (16,6% patients left. Average hospital treatment in wounded drained patients was 7,68 days. With shrapnels there were 357 (74,84% wounded individuals, and with bullet 120 (25,16% wounded individuals. The complications of plaural tube inserting were - empyema in 34 (7,13% patients and there were no other complications. Chest tube inserting as definitive mesaure was used in 398 (83,44% patients. Chest tube inserting as preoperative measure (urgent thoracotomy was used in 79 (16,56% patients. There were 460 (96,44% healed patients. Death occurred in 17 (3,56% patients.

  7. Pleural drainage and its role in management of the isolated penetrating chest injuries during the war time in Sarajevo, 1992.-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzismajlović, Ademir; Pilav, Alen

    2007-05-01

    Penetrating chest injuries are the most frequent causes of serious demage and death in wounded indivisuals. In reports from the last wars where wounds caused by high velocity projectiles predominated, thoracotomies were perfomed in about 15% of the wounded individuals, mostly encompassing injuries of the heart and great vessels, accomanied by massive bleeding that could not be resolved by chest tube insertion. This retrospective analysis was performed on the medical records of 477 patients tretaed for isolated penetrating chest injuries in Department of Thoracic Surgery Clinical Center of the University in Sarajevo between april 1992 - june 1995. We analised the ways of their menagement with special view on pleural drainage, indication for this method and results of treatment. 398 (83,4%) wounded individuals have been treated with pleural tube inserting as definitive mesaure and for the urgent thoracotomy there were 79 (16,6%) patients left. Average hospital treatment in wounded drained patients was 7,68 days. With shrapnels there were 357 (74,84%) wounded individuals, and with bullet 120 (25,16%) wounded individuals. The complications of plaural tube inserting were - empyema in 34 (7,13%) patients and there were no other complications. Chest tube inserting as definitive mesaure was used in 398 (83,44%) patients. Chest tube inserting as preoperative measure (urgent thoracotomy) was used in 79 (16,56%) patients. There were 460 (96,44%) healed patients. Death occurred in 17 (3,56%) patients.

  8. Structure and magnetic properties of SiO{sub 2}/PCL novel sol–gel organic–inorganic hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Cristina Mozzati, Maria [Department of Physics, CNISM and INSTM, University of Pavia, Via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Ferrara, Chiara; Mustarelli, Piercarlo [Department of Chemistry, Section of Physical Chemistry, University of Pavia and INSTM, Via Taramelli 16, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2013-07-15

    Organic–inorganic nanocomposite materials have been synthesized via sol–gel. They consist of an inorganic SiO{sub 2} matrix, in which different percentages of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) have been incorporated. The formation of H-bonds among the carbonyl groups of the polymer chains and Si–OH group of the inorganic matrix has been proved by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis and has been confirmed by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). X-Ray diffraction (XRD) analysis highlighted the amorphous nature of the synthesized materials. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph and atomic force microscope (AFM) topography showed their homogeneous morphology and nanostructure nature. Considering the opportunity to synthesize these hybrid materials under microgravity conditions by means of magnetic levitation, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry has been used to quantify their magnetic susceptibility. This measure has shown that the SiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid materials are diamagnetic and that their diamagnetic susceptibility is independent of temperature and increases with the PCL amount. - Graphical abstract: Characterization and magnetic properties of SiO{sub 2}/PCL organic–inorganic hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel. FT-IR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; solid-state NMR: solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance; SQUID: superconducting quantum interference device. - Highlights: • Sol–gel synthesis of SiO{sub 2}/PCL amorphous class I organic–inorganic hybrid materials. • FT-IR and NMR analyses show the hydrogen bonds formation between SiO{sub 2} and PCL. • AFM and SEM analyses confirm that the SiO{sub 2}/PCL are homogenous hybrid materials. • The SQUID measures show that the simples are diamagnetic. • Diamagnetic susceptibility of SiO{sub 2}/PCL materials increases with the PCL amount.

  9. Phrenic nerve injury: An underrecognized and potentially preventable complication of pulmonary vein isolation using a wide-area circumferential ablation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong Ji, Sang; Dewire, Jane; Barcelon, Bernadette; Philips, Binu; Catanzaro, John; Nazarian, Saman; Cheng, Alan; Spragg, David; Tandri, Harikrishna; Bansal, Sandeep; Ashikaga, Hiroshi; Rickard, Jack; Kolandaivelu, Aravindan; Sinha, Sunil; Marine, Joseph E; Calkins, Hugh; Berger, Ronald

    2013-10-01

    Phrenic nerve injury (PNI) is a well-known, although uncommon, complication of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using radiofrequency energy. Currently, there is no consensus about how to avoid or minimize this injury. The purpose of this study was to determine how often the phrenic nerve, as identified using a high-output pacing, lies along the ablation trajectory of a wide-area circumferential lesion set. We also sought to determine if PVI can be achieved without phrenic nerve injury by modifying the ablation lesion set so as to avoid those areas where phrenic nerve capture (PNC) is observed. We prospectively enrolled 100 consecutive patients (age 61.7 ± 9.2 years old, 75 men) who underwent RF PVI using a wide-area circumferential ablation approach. A high-output (20 mA at 2 milliseconds) endocardial pacing protocol was performed around the right pulmonary veins and the carina where a usual ablation lesion set would be made. A total of 30% of patients had PNC and required modification of ablation lines. In the group of patients with PNC, the carina was the most common site of capture (85%) followed by anterior right superior pulmonary vein (RSPV) (70%) and anterior right inferior pulmonary vein (RIPV) (30%). A total of 25% of PNC group had capture in all 3 (RSPV, RIPV, and carina) regions. There was no difference in the clinical characteristics between the groups with and without PNC. RF PVI caused no PNI in either group. High output pacing around the right pulmonary veins and the carina reveals that the phrenic nerve lies along a wide-area circumferential ablation trajectory in 30% of patients. Modification of ablation lines to avoid these sites may prevent phrenic nerve injury during RF PVI. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. How the Complex Interplay between Different Blocks Determines the Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Triple-Crystalline PEO-b-PCL-b-PLLA Triblock Terpolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Palacios, Jordana K.; Zhao, Junpeng; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos; Mü ller, Alejandro J.

    2017-01-01

    PEO-b-PCL-b-PLLA triblock terpolymers are fascinating triple-crystalline materials. In this work, the isothermal crystallization kinetics of these terpolymers evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is presented for the first time and compared to analogous PCL-b-PLLA diblock copolymers and to PLLA, PCL, and PEO homopolymers. The results are complemented by in situ SAXS/WAXS synchrotron experiments. One-, two-, and three-step crystallization protocols were employed to study the crystallization kinetics of the blocks. At PLLA block crystallization temperatures, both PCL and PEO molten chains caused a strong plasticizing effect on the PLLA block crystallization, and the overall crystallization rate of the PLLA block in the terpolymers was higher than that in the PLLA-b-PCL diblock copolymers. In the case of the PCL block, the crystallization was followed after PLLA was fully crystallized (two-step crystallization). A nucleating effect induced by the previously formed PLLA crystals was observed. However, an antiplasticizing effect on PCL crystallization was detected if the sample is quenched directly from the melt to the PCL crystallization temperature (one-step crystallization). Finally, the crystallization of the PEO block was followed after PLLA and PCL had fully crystallized (three-step crystallization). The PEO crystallization rate highly decreased due to the confinement imposed by the previously formed PLLA and PCL crystals. Complex competitive effects such as plasticization, nucleation, antiplasticization, and confinement occurred during the isothermal crystallization of tricrystalline PEO-b-PCL-b-PLLA triblock terpolymers.

  11. How the Complex Interplay between Different Blocks Determines the Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Triple-Crystalline PEO-b-PCL-b-PLLA Triblock Terpolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Palacios, Jordana K.

    2017-12-05

    PEO-b-PCL-b-PLLA triblock terpolymers are fascinating triple-crystalline materials. In this work, the isothermal crystallization kinetics of these terpolymers evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is presented for the first time and compared to analogous PCL-b-PLLA diblock copolymers and to PLLA, PCL, and PEO homopolymers. The results are complemented by in situ SAXS/WAXS synchrotron experiments. One-, two-, and three-step crystallization protocols were employed to study the crystallization kinetics of the blocks. At PLLA block crystallization temperatures, both PCL and PEO molten chains caused a strong plasticizing effect on the PLLA block crystallization, and the overall crystallization rate of the PLLA block in the terpolymers was higher than that in the PLLA-b-PCL diblock copolymers. In the case of the PCL block, the crystallization was followed after PLLA was fully crystallized (two-step crystallization). A nucleating effect induced by the previously formed PLLA crystals was observed. However, an antiplasticizing effect on PCL crystallization was detected if the sample is quenched directly from the melt to the PCL crystallization temperature (one-step crystallization). Finally, the crystallization of the PEO block was followed after PLLA and PCL had fully crystallized (three-step crystallization). The PEO crystallization rate highly decreased due to the confinement imposed by the previously formed PLLA and PCL crystals. Complex competitive effects such as plasticization, nucleation, antiplasticization, and confinement occurred during the isothermal crystallization of tricrystalline PEO-b-PCL-b-PLLA triblock terpolymers.

  12. Atmospheric plasma surface modifications of electrospun PCL/chitosan/PCL hybrid scaffolds by nozzle type plasma jets for usage of cell cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surucu, Seda; Masur, Kai; Turkoglu Sasmazel, Hilal; Von Woedtke, Thomas; Weltmann, Klaus Dieter

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports Ar gas, Ar + O2, Ar + O2 + N2 gas mixtures and dry air plasma modifications by atmospheric pressure argon driven kINPen and air driven Diener (PlasmaBeam) plasma jets to alter surface properties of three dimensional (3D), electrospun PCL/Chitosan/PCL layer by layer hybrid scaffolds to improve human fibroblast (MRC5) cell attachment and growth. The characterizations of the samples were done by contact angle (CA) measurements, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. The results showed that the plasma modification carried out under dry air and Ar + O2 + N2 gas mixtures were altered effectively the nanotopography and the functionality of the material surfaces. It was found that the samples treated with Ar + O2 + N2 gas mixtures for 1 min and dry air for 9 min have better hydrophilicity 78.9° ± 1.0 and 75.6° ± 0.1, respectively compared to the untreated samples (126.5°). Biocompatibility performance of the scaffolds was determined with alamarBlue (aB) assay and MTT assay methods, Giemsa staining, fluorescence microscope, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses. The results showed that plasma treated samples increased the hydrophilicity and oxygen functionality and topography of the surfaces significantly, thus affecting the cell viability and proliferation on/within scaffolds.

  13. Moisture Absorption Behaviour of Biopolymer Polycapralactone (PCL) / Organo Modified Montmorillonite Clay (OMMT) biocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Neetu; Shrivastava, Sharad; Bandhu Ghosh, Subrata

    2018-04-01

    Bio composite materials were fabricated using mixing biodegradable polymer polycaptalactone (PCL) and Organo Modified Montmorillonite Clay (OMMT) through solution casting. Various samples of bio composite films were prepared by varying the OMMT wt% composition by 0.1%, 0.5%, 1% and 1.5%. Thereafter, the density and water absorption of the composites were investigated with respect to immersion time in water. The moisture absorption results show that with an increase in weight percentage (from 0.1 to wt 1.5%) of OMMT within the bio polymer films, the absorption value of bio-nanocomposite films reduced rapidly from 34.4% to 22.3%. The density of hybrid composites also increased with increase in weight percentage of OMMT. The swelling characteristic of PCL increased with increasing % of OMMT clay. These results indicate that the optimized composition of constituents in composite membrane could effectively reduce the anhydrous conditions of bio-composite film.

  14. Influence of processing temperature on the rheological behavior of PCL/MMT nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Juliano; Beatrice, Cesar A.G.; Favaro, Marcia M.; Bretas, Rosario E.S.; Branciforti, Marcia C.

    2009-01-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable polymer; however, this polymer had low mechanical strength, limiting its applications. The addition of a lamellar silicate (MMT) can alter this behavior, especially when the filler is well dispersed and distributed thru the polymeric matrix. In this work the influence of the processing temperature in the structure of PCL/MMT nanocomposites was studied. The nanocomposites were obtained by melt intercalation in a Haake rheometer at two temperatures: 80 and 120 deg C. Wide angle X-ray analysis showed that the intercalation of the polymer chains into the clay's galleries was not influenced by the processing temperature. However, the steady state and dynamic rheological properties showed that the higher the processing temperature the better the dispersion and distribution of the clay thru the matrix, without having polymer degradation. (author)

  15. Development and characterization of biodegradable polymer blends - PHBV/PCL irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosario, F.; Casarin, S.A.; Agnelli, J.A.M.; Souza Junior, O.F. de

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that aimed to develop PHBV biodegradable polymer blends, in a major concentration with PCL, irradiate the pure polymers and blends in two doses of gamma radiation and to analyze the changes in chemical and mechanical properties. The blends used in this study were from natural biodegradable copolymer poly (hydroxybutyrate-valerate) (PHBV) and synthetic biodegradable polymer poly (caprolactone) (PCL 2201) with low molar mass (2,000 g/mol). Several samples were prepared in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder and afterwards, the tensile specimens were injected for the irradiation treatment with 50 kGy to 100 kGy doses and for the mechanical tests. The characterization of the samples before and after the irradiation treatments was performed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and mechanical tensile tests. (author)

  16. Reversed double PCL sign: unusual location of a meniscal fragment of the knee observed by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niitsu, M.; Itai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Ikeda, K. [Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2003-12-01

    A 36-year-old woman with tears of the anterior cruciate ligament and medial meniscus received a meniscectomy. The MR images obtained prior to the partial meniscectomy showed a bucket-handle meniscal tear with centrally displaced fragment lying anterior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), representing a ''double PCL sign''; however, after the meniscectomy, MR images demonstrated a fragment in the space posterior to the PCL where no structure is generally recognized except for the ligament of wrisberg. This article reports a ''reversed'' double PCL sign, caused by inadequate surgical clearance of a bucket-handle tear of the medial meniscus. (orig.)

  17. The influence of soil and landfill leachate microorganisms in the degradation of PVC/PCL films cast from DMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of plastics continues to increase in our daily lives in a growing range products, these materials are very persistent in the environment. The blending of aliphatic polyesters with other thermoplastic polymers is a profitable way of producing materials with changed physical properties and biodegradability, which can facilitate microbial adhesion to the polymer matrix and help to reduce (post-consumer degradation time of these materials in landfills. This study was an investigation of the biodegradation of films of blends of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL by soil microorganisms and leachate, by means of respirometry, infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR, differential calorimetry scanning (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, contact angle and weight loss. The results showed that in the soil, the films suffered oxidative biodegradation. The PCL promoted degradation of the PVC in the film of PVC/PCL and the PVC inhibited the rapid degradation of the PCL.

  18. Comparative Study of the Physical, Topographical and Biological Properties of Electrospinning PCL, PLLA, their Blend and Copolymer Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolbasov, E.; Goreninskii, S.; Tverdokhlebov, S.; Mishanin, A.; Viknianshchuk, A.; Bezuidenhout, D.; Golovkin, A.

    2018-05-01

    Biodegradable polymers (blends, copolymers) could be the ideal materials for manufacturing of scaffolds for small diameter vascular graft. Such material characteristics as mechanical properties, chemical structure, nano- and micro topography, surface charge, porosity, wettability etc. are becoming the most important aspects for effectiveness of prosthesis biofunctionalization because of their great impact on cell adhesion, spreading, cell proliferation, differentiation and cell function. The aim of the study is to compare physical, topographical and biological properties of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), polycaprolactone + poly-L-lactic acid blend (PCL PLLA), L-lactide/Caprolactone copolymer (PLC7015) scaffolds fabricated with the same fiber thickness using electrospun technology. PCL PLLA scaffolds had the highest average pore area (pactive phase of adhesion process. We propose that physical and topographical properties of PCL, PLLA, their blend and copolymer are of a great dependence of chemical structure but could be changed during the manufacturing process that will lead to changes in biological properties.

  19. PSMA ligand conjugated PCL-PEG polymeric micelles targeted to prostate cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Jin

    Full Text Available In this content, a small molecular ligand of prostate specific membrane antigen (SMLP conjugated poly (caprolactone (PCL-b-poly (ethylene glycol (PEG copolymers with different block lengths were synthesized to construct a satisfactory drug delivery system. Four different docetaxel-loaded polymeric micelles (DTX-PMs were prepared by dialysis with particle sizes less than 60 nm as characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS and transmission electron microscope (TEM. Optimization of the prepared micelles was conducted based on short-term stability and drug-loading content. The results showed that optimized systems were able to remain stable over 7 days. Compared with Taxotere, DTX-PMs with the same ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic chain length displayed similar sustained release behaviors. The cytotoxicity of the optimized targeted DTX-PCL12K-PEG5K-SMLP micelles (DTX-PMs2 and non-targeted DTX-PCL12K-mPEG5K micelles (DTX-PMs1 were evaluated by MTT assays using prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA positive prostate adenocarcinoma cells (LNCaP. The results showed that the targeted micelles had a much lower IC50 than their non-targeted counterparts (48 h: 0.87 ± 0.27 vs 13.48 ± 1.03 µg/ml; 72 h: 0.02 ± 0.008 vs 1.35 ± 0.54 µg/ml. In vitro cellular uptake of PMs2 showed 5-fold higher fluorescence intensity than that of PMs1 after 4 h incubation. According to these results, the novel nano-sized drug delivery system based on DTX-PCL-PEG-SMLP offers great promise for the treatment of prostatic cancer.

  20. Adhesion and metabolic activity of human corneal cells on PCL based nanofiber matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafiej, Piotr; Küng, Florian [Department of Ophthalmology, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Polymer Materials, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 7, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Thieme, Daniel; Czugala, Marta; Kruse, Friedrich E. [Department of Ophthalmology, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Schubert, Dirk W. [Institute of Polymer Materials, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Martensstraße 7, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Fuchsluger, Thomas A., E-mail: thomas.fuchsluger@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Ophthalmology, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Schwabachanlage 6, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    In this work, polycaprolactone (PCL) was used as a basic polymer for electrospinning of random and aligned nanofiber matrices. Our aim was to develop a biocompatible substrate for ophthalmological application to improve wound closure in defects of the cornea as replacement for human amniotic membrane. We investigated whether blending the hydrophobic PCL with poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) or chitosan (CHI) improves the biocompatibility of the matrices for cell expansion. Human corneal epithelial cells (HCEp) and human corneal keratocytes (HCK) were used for in vitro biocompatibility studies. After optimization of the electrospinning parameters for all blends, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and water contact angle were used to characterize the different matrices. Fluorescence staining of the F-actin cytoskeleton of the cells was performed to analyze the adherence of the cells to the different matrices. Metabolic activity of the cells was measured by cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) for 20 days to compare the biocompatibility of the materials. Our results show the feasibility of producing uniform nanofiber matrices with and without orientation for the used blends. All materials support adherence and proliferation of human corneal cell lines with oriented growth on aligned matrices. Although hydrophobicity of the materials was lowered by blending PCL, no increase in biocompatibility or proliferation, as was expected, could be measured. All tested matrices supported the expansion of human corneal cells, confirming their potential as substrates for biomedical applications. - Highlights: • PCL was blended with chitosan and poly(glycerol sebacate) for electrospinning. • Biocompatibility was proven with two human corneal cell lines. • Both cell lines adhered and proliferated on random and aligned nanofiber matrices. • Cytoskeletal orientation is shown on aligned nanofiber matrices.

  1. Precision extruding deposition (PED) fabrication of polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, Lauren; Gueceri, Selcuk; Chang, Robert; Sun Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gordon, Jennifer; Kang Qian; Hartsock, Langdon; An Yuehuei [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)], E-mail: st963bya@drexel.edu, E-mail: guceri@drexel.edu, E-mail: rcc34@drexel.edu, E-mail: sunwei@drexel.edu, E-mail: kangqk@musc.edu, E-mail: hartsock@musc.edu, E-mail: any@musc.edu

    2009-03-01

    Bone tissue engineering is an emerging field providing viable substitutes for bone regeneration. Recent advances have allowed scientists and engineers to develop scaffolds for guided bone growth. However, success requires scaffolds to have specific macroscopic geometries and internal architectures conducive to biological and biophysical functions. Freeform fabrication provides an effective process tool to manufacture three-dimensional porous scaffolds with complex shapes and designed properties. A novel precision extruding deposition (PED) technique was developed to fabricate polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. It was possible to manufacture scaffolds with a controlled pore size of 350 {mu}m with designed structural orientations using this method. The scaffold morphology, internal micro-architecture and mechanical properties were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and mechanical testing, respectively. An in vitro cell-scaffold interaction study was carried out using primary fetal bovine osteoblasts. Specifically, the cell proliferation and differentiation was evaluated by Alamar Blue assay for cell metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast production of calcium. An in vivo study was performed on nude mice to determine the capability of osteoblast-seeded PCL to induce osteogenesis. Each scaffold was implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and, following sacrifice, was explanted at one of a series of time intervals. The explants were then evaluated histologically for possible areas of osseointegration. Microscopy and radiological examination showed multiple areas of osseous ingrowth suggesting that the osteoblast-seeded PCL scaffolds evoke osteogenesis in vivo. These studies demonstrated the viability of the PED process to fabricate PCL scaffolds having the necessary mechanical properties, structural integrity, and controlled pore size and interconnectivity desired for bone tissue engineering.

  2. Precision extruding deposition (PED) fabrication of polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, Lauren; Gueceri, Selcuk; Chang, Robert; Sun Wei; Gordon, Jennifer; Kang Qian; Hartsock, Langdon; An Yuehuei

    2009-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering is an emerging field providing viable substitutes for bone regeneration. Recent advances have allowed scientists and engineers to develop scaffolds for guided bone growth. However, success requires scaffolds to have specific macroscopic geometries and internal architectures conducive to biological and biophysical functions. Freeform fabrication provides an effective process tool to manufacture three-dimensional porous scaffolds with complex shapes and designed properties. A novel precision extruding deposition (PED) technique was developed to fabricate polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. It was possible to manufacture scaffolds with a controlled pore size of 350 μm with designed structural orientations using this method. The scaffold morphology, internal micro-architecture and mechanical properties were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and mechanical testing, respectively. An in vitro cell-scaffold interaction study was carried out using primary fetal bovine osteoblasts. Specifically, the cell proliferation and differentiation was evaluated by Alamar Blue assay for cell metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast production of calcium. An in vivo study was performed on nude mice to determine the capability of osteoblast-seeded PCL to induce osteogenesis. Each scaffold was implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and, following sacrifice, was explanted at one of a series of time intervals. The explants were then evaluated histologically for possible areas of osseointegration. Microscopy and radiological examination showed multiple areas of osseous ingrowth suggesting that the osteoblast-seeded PCL scaffolds evoke osteogenesis in vivo. These studies demonstrated the viability of the PED process to fabricate PCL scaffolds having the necessary mechanical properties, structural integrity, and controlled pore size and interconnectivity desired for bone tissue engineering

  3. PCL-HA microscaffolds for in vitro modular bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Alessandra; Salerno, Aurelio; Imparato, Giorgia; Domingo, Concepción; Urciuolo, Francesco; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of microscaffolds and bone-bioactive surfaces is a pivotal point in modular bone tissue engineering. In this study, the design and fabrication of porous polycaprolactone (PCL) microscaffolds functionalized with hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles by means of a bio-safe and versatile thermally-induced phase separation process is reported. The ability of the as-prepared nanocomposite microscaffolds to support the adhesion, growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in standard and osteogenic media and using dynamic seeding/culture conditions was investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that the PCL-HA nanocomposite microparticles had an enhanced interaction with hMSCs and induced their osteogenic differentiation, even without the exogenous addition of osteogenic factors. In particular, calcium deposition, alizarin red assay, histological analysis, osteogenic gene expression and collagen I secretion were assessed. The results of these tests demonstrated the formation of bone microtissue precursors after 28 days of dynamic culture. These findings suggest that PCL-HA nanocomposite microparticles represent an excellent platform for in vitro modular bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Starch/PCL composite nanofibers by co-axial electrospinning technique for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komur, B; Bayrak, F; Ekren, N; Eroglu, M S; Oktar, F N; Sinirlioglu, Z A; Yucel, S; Guler, O; Gunduz, O

    2017-03-29

    In this study, starch and polycaprolactone (PCL), composite nanofibers were fabricated by co-axial needle electrospinning technique. Processing parameters such as polymer concentration, flow rate and voltage had a marked influence on the composite fiber diameter. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical and physical properties (such as density, viscosity and electrical conductivity) of the composite fibres were evaluated. Moreover, a cell culture test was performed in order to determine their cytotoxicity for wound dressing application. The effect of starch ratio in the solution on the properties and morphological structure of the fibers produced was presented. With lower starch concentration values, the fibers have greater ultimate tensile strength characteristic (mostly 4 and 5 wt%). According to SEM results, it can be figured out that the nanofibers fabricated have good spinnability and morphology. The mean diameter of the fibers is about 150 nm. According to results of cell culture study, the finding can be determined that the increase of starch in the fiber also increases the cell viability. Composite nanofibers of starch/PCL have been prepared using a co-axial needle electrospinning technique. PCL was successfully encapsulated within starch. Fiber formation was observed for different ratio of starch. With several test, analysis and measurement performed, some important parameters such as quality and effectuality of each fiber obtained for wound dressing applications were discussed in detail.

  5. Comparison of the PTSD Checklist (PCL) Administered via a Mobile Device Relative to a Paper Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Matthew; Kuhn, Eric; Hoffman, Julia E; Ruzek, Josef; Acierno, Ron

    2015-10-01

    Mobile devices are increasingly used to administer self-report measures of mental health symptoms. There are significant differences, however, in the way that information is presented on mobile devices compared to the traditional paper forms that were used to administer such measures. Such differences may systematically alter responses. The present study evaluated if and how responses differed for a self-report measure, the PTSD Checklist (PCL), administered via mobile device relative to paper and pencil. Participants were 153 trauma-exposed individuals who completed counterbalanced administrations of the PCL on a mobile device and on paper. PCL total scores (d = 0.07) and item responses did not meaningfully or significantly differ across administrations. Power was sufficient to detect a difference in total score between administrations determined by prior work of 3.46 with a d = 0.23. The magnitude of differences between administration formats was unrelated to prior use of mobile devices or participant age. These findings suggest that responses to self-report measures administered via mobile device are equivalent to those obtained via paper and they can be used with experienced as well as naïve users of mobile devices. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  6. Calcium phosphate coated Keratin-PCL scaffolds for potential bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinxin; Lui, Yuan Siang; Choo, Caleb Kai Chuen; Sow, Wan Ting; Huang, Charlotte Liwen; Ng, Kee Woei; Tan, Lay Poh; Loo, Joachim Say Chye

    2015-04-01

    The incorporation of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles within or on the surface of electrospun polymeric scaffolds is a popular approach for bone tissue engineering. However, the fabrication of osteoconductive composite scaffolds via benign processing conditions still remains a major challenge to date. In this work, a new method was developed to achieve a uniform coating of calcium phosphate (CaP) onto electrospun keratin-polycaprolactone composites (Keratin-PCL). Keratin within PCL was crosslinked to decrease its solubility, before coating of CaP. A homogeneous coating was achieved within a short time frame (~10min) by immersing the scaffolds into Ca(2+) and (PO4)(3-) solutions separately. Results showed that the incorporation of keratin into PCL scaffolds not only provided nucleation sites for Ca(2+) adsorption and subsequent homogeneous CaP surface deposition, but also facilitated cell-matrix interactions. An improvement in the mechanical strength of the resultant composite scaffold, as compared to other conventional coating methods, was also observed. This approach of developing a biocompatible bone tissue engineering scaffold would be adopted for further in vitro osteogenic differentiation studies in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: In vitro cell culture studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovac, Dajana; Gamboa-Martínez, Tatiana C.; Ivankovic, Marica; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the potential of using highly porous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone for bone tissue engineering applications. The cell culture studies were performed in vitro with preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in static culture conditions. Comparisons were made with uncoated HAp scaffold. The attachment and spreading of preosteoblasts on scaffolds were observed by Live/Dead staining Kit. The cells grown on the HAp/PCL composite scaffold exhibited greater spreading than cells grown on the HAp scaffold. DNA quantification and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed a good proliferation of cells on the scaffolds. DNA content on the HAp/PCL scaffold was significantly higher compared to porous HAp scaffolds. The amount of collagen synthesis was determined using a hydroxyproline assay. The osteoblastic differentiation of the cells was evaluated by determining alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and collagen type I secretion. Furthermore, cell spreading and cell proliferation within scaffolds were observed using a fluorescence microscope. - Highlights: • Hydroxyapatite/poly(ε-caprolactone) scaffold with interconnected pores was prepared • Cytotoxicity test showed that the scaffold was not cytotoxic towards MC3T3-E1 cells • The scaffold supported the attachment, proliferation and differentiation of cells • A 3D cell colonization was confirmed using the fluorescence microscopy • The scaffold might be a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering

  8. Psychometric properties of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) in a representative sample of Canadian federal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Jennifer E; Hart, Stephen D; Cooke, David J; Michie, Christine

    2016-04-01

    The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003) is a commonly used psychological test for assessing traits of psychopathic personality disorder. Despite the abundance of research using the PCL-R, the vast majority of research used samples of convenience rather than systematic methods to minimize sampling bias and maximize the generalizability of findings. This potentially complicates the interpretation of test scores and research findings, including the "norms" for offenders from the United States and Canada included in the PCL-R manual. In the current study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of PCL-R scores for all male offenders admitted to a regional reception center of the Correctional Service of Canada during a 1-year period (n = 375). Because offenders were admitted for assessment prior to institutional classification, they comprise a sample that was heterogeneous with respect to correctional risks and needs yet representative of all offenders in that region of the service. We examined the distribution of PCL-R scores, classical test theory indices of its structural reliability, the factor structure of test items, and the external correlates of test scores. The findings were highly consistent with those typically reported in previous studies. We interpret these results as indicating it is unlikely any sampling limitations of past research using the PCL-R resulted in findings that were, overall, strongly biased or unrepresentative. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of AZ31 Mg alloy using PCL/ZnO NPs via electrospinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinwoo [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Mousa, Hamouda M. [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Materials and Mechanical Design, Faculty of Engineering, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Park, Chan Hee, E-mail: biochan@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheol Sang, E-mail: chskim@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Graduate School, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Division of Mechanical Design Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • PCL/ZnO composite coating layer by electrospinning techniques showed the nano-scaled and porous surface structure. • Addition of zinc oxide NPs in the PCL fibers led to enhanced coating adhesion and corrosion resistance. • The composite coated surfaces on Mg substrates improved cell attachment and proliferation. - Abstract: In the efforts to improve corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloys, polycarprolactone (PCL) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) composite coatings were applied onto AZ31 Mg alloys via electrospinning technique in this study. The PCL/ZnO composite coatings on Mg alloys were characterized by using FE-SEM, EDX, XPS, and FT-IR. Moreover, coating adhesion test, electrochemical corrosion test, and biocompatibility test in vitro were performed to measure coating performance. Our results revealed that the increase in the content of ZnO NPs in the composite coatings not only improved the coating adhesion of composite coatings on Mg alloys, but also increased the corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts of the PCL/ZnO composite coated samples was superior to the biocompatibility of the bare samples. Such data suggest that applying PCL/ZnO composite coating to the magnesium alloys has suitable potential in biomedical applications.

  10. Portuguese version of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)-I: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Teresa; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Joana

    2015-03-30

    The PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M) is a brief self-report instrument widely used to assess Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in war Veterans, according to DSM-IV. This study sought out to explore the factor structure and reliability of the Portuguese version of the PCL-M. A sample of 660 Portuguese Colonial War Veterans completed the PCL-M. Several Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to test different structures for PCL-M PTSD symptoms. Although the respecified first-order four-factor model based on King et al.'s model showed the best fit to the data, the respecified first and second-order models based on the DSM-IV symptom clusters also presented an acceptable fit. In addition, the PCL-M showed adequate reliability. The Portuguese version of the PCL-M is thus a valid and reliable measure to assess the severity of PTSD symptoms as described in DSM-IV. Its use with Portuguese Colonial War Veterans may ease screening of possible PTSD cases, promote more suitable treatment planning, and enable monitoring of therapeutic outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of an organoclay on the reaction-induced phase-separation in a dynamically asymmetric epoxy/PCL system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rotrekl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The addition of layered silicates can significantly affect the phase behaviour of both immiscible thermoplastic blends and partially miscible thermoset systems that undergo reaction-induced phase separation (RIPS during curing. This study focuses on the phase behaviour of polycaprolactone (PCL/epoxy in the presence of organically modified montmorillonite (oMMT. Due to the high dynamic asymmetry caused by the differences in the molecular weights and viscosities of the PCL and the uncured epoxy, the critical point is localised at low PCL concentrations, as indicated by the pseudophase diagram. The addition of oMMT to the system led to the marked shift of the critical point towards higher concentrations of PCL, with an increase in the oMMT content occurring as a consequence of the preferential localisation of the clay in the epoxy phase, making this phase more dynamically slow. Significant changes in morphology, including phase inversion of the PCL/epoxy systems caused by the presence of oMMT, were recorded for PCL concentrations ranging from 10 to 30%.

  12. Enhanced corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of AZ31 Mg alloy using PCL/ZnO NPs via electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinwoo; Mousa, Hamouda M.; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PCL/ZnO composite coating layer by electrospinning techniques showed the nano-scaled and porous surface structure. • Addition of zinc oxide NPs in the PCL fibers led to enhanced coating adhesion and corrosion resistance. • The composite coated surfaces on Mg substrates improved cell attachment and proliferation. - Abstract: In the efforts to improve corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of magnesium alloys, polycarprolactone (PCL) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) composite coatings were applied onto AZ31 Mg alloys via electrospinning technique in this study. The PCL/ZnO composite coatings on Mg alloys were characterized by using FE-SEM, EDX, XPS, and FT-IR. Moreover, coating adhesion test, electrochemical corrosion test, and biocompatibility test in vitro were performed to measure coating performance. Our results revealed that the increase in the content of ZnO NPs in the composite coatings not only improved the coating adhesion of composite coatings on Mg alloys, but also increased the corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts of the PCL/ZnO composite coated samples was superior to the biocompatibility of the bare samples. Such data suggest that applying PCL/ZnO composite coating to the magnesium alloys has suitable potential in biomedical applications.

  13. Biocorrosion and osteoconductivity of PCL/nHAp composite porous film-based coating of magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Amna, Touseef; Lim, Jae Kyoo

    2013-04-01

    The present study was aimed at designing a novel porous hydroxyapatite/poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (nHAp/PCL) hybrid nanocomposite matrix on a magnesium substrate with high and low porosity. The coated samples were prepared using a dip-coating technique in order to enhance the bioactivity and biocompatibility of the implant and to control the degradation rate of magnesium alloys. The mechanical and biocompatible properties of the coated and uncoated samples were investigated and an in vitro test for corrosion was conducted by electrochemical polarization and measurement of weight loss. The corrosion test results demonstrated that both the pristine PCL and nHAp/PCL composites showed good corrosion resistance in SBF. However, during the extended incubation time, the composite coatings exhibited more uniform and superior resistance to corrosion attack than pristine PCL, and were able to survive severe localized corrosion in physiological solution. Furthermore, the bioactivity of the composite film was determined by the rapid formation of uniform CaP nanoparticles on the sample surfaces during immersion in SBF. The mechanical integrity of the composite coatings displayed better performance (˜34% higher) than the uncoated samples. Finally, our results suggest that the nHAp incorporated with novel PCL composite membranes on magnesium substrates may serve as an excellent 3-D platform for cell attachment, proliferation, migration, and growth in bone tissue. This novel as-synthesized nHAp/PCL membrane on magnesium implants could be used as a potential material for orthopedic applications in the future.

  14. The German version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5): psychometric properties and diagnostic utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Gottschalk, Antje; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Rau, Heinrich; Dyer, Anne; Schäfer, Ingo; Schellong, Julia; Ehring, Thomas

    2017-11-28

    The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist (PCL, now PCL-5) has recently been revised to reflect the new diagnostic criteria of the disorder. A clinical sample of trauma-exposed individuals (N = 352) was assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) and the PCL-5. Internal consistencies and test-retest reliability were computed. To investigate diagnostic accuracy, we calculated receiver operating curves. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were performed to analyze the structural validity. Results showed high internal consistency (α = .95), high test-retest reliability (r = .91) and a high correlation with the total severity score of the CAPS-5, r = .77. In addition, the recommended cutoff of 33 on the PCL-5 showed high diagnostic accuracy when compared to the diagnosis established by the CAPS-5. CFAs comparing the DSM-5 model with alternative models (the three-factor solution, the dysphoria, anhedonia, externalizing behavior and hybrid model) to account for the structural validity of the PCL-5 remained inconclusive. Overall, the findings show that the German PCL-5 is a reliable instrument with good diagnostic accuracy. However, more research evaluating the underlying factor structure is needed.

  15. Biodegradação de filmes de PP/PCL em solo e solo com chorume Study of biodegradation of PP/PCL films in soil and soil with leachate landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Filmes de blenda de poli(ε-caprolactona (PCL e polipropileno (PP foram obtidos por moldagem por compressão. O estudo da biodegradação de filmes de blendas de PP/PCL em solo e solo com chorume foi obtido pela evolução de CO2, perda de massa, ângulo de contato, microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC. As análises de evolução de CO2 mostraram que a biodegradação da blenda de PP/PCL em solo com chorume foi maior que a dos homopolímeros, sugerindo que os polímeros na blenda são mais suscetíveis à degradação, o que se deve à não interação entre PP e PCL. Os resultados também mostraram que os microrganismos do solo com chorume provocaram uma erosão superficial. Verificou-se que a biodegradação do PCL é inibida pelos microrganismos do chorume adicionados no solo.Blend films of polycaprolactone (PCL and polypropylene (PP have been obtained by melt-pressing of both components. The biodegradation of PP/PCL blend films in soil and soil with leachate landfill has been assessed with measurements of evolution of CO2, weight loss, contact angle, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The respirometric tests showed that the PP/PCL biodegradation in the soil with leachate was higher than the homopolymers, suggesting that the polymers in the blend are more susceptible to biodegradation owing to the lack of interaction between PP and PCL. The results also showed that biodegradation due to microorganisms in the soil with leachate occurred by surface erosion. It was found that the PCL biodegradation is inhibited by the leachate microorganisms added in the soil.

  16. Antioxidative effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate in CCl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkosi, C Z; Opoku, A R; Terblanche, S E

    2006-11-01

    The effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate on the plasma activity levels of catalase (CA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) as well as glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in liver homogenates and lipid peroxidation (LPO-malondialdehyde-MDA) levels in liver homogenates and liver microsomal fractions against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury in low-protein fed Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) were investigated. A group of male Sprague-Dawley rats maintained on a low-protein diet for 5 days were divided into three subgroups. Two subgroups were injected with carbon tetrachloride and the other group with an equivalent amount of olive oil. Two hours after CCl(4) intoxication one of the two subgroups was administered with pumpkin seed protein isolate and thereafter switched onto a 20% pumpkin seed protein isolate diet. The other two groups of rats were maintained on the low-protein diet for the duration of the investigation. Groups of rats from the different subgroups were killed at 24, 48 and 72 h after their respective treatments. After 5 days on the low-protein diet the activity levels of all the enzymes as well as antioxidant levels were significantly lower than their counterparts on a normal balanced diet. However, a low-protein diet resulted in significantly increased levels of lipid peroxidation. The CCl(4) intoxicated rats responded in a similar way, regarding all the variables investigated, to their counterparts on a low-protein diet. The administration of pumpkin seed protein isolate after CCl(4) intoxication resulted in significantly increased levels of all the variables investigated, with the exception of the lipid peroxidation levels which were significantly decreased. From the results of the present study it is concluded that pumpkin seed protein isolate administration was effective in alleviating the detrimental effects associated with protein

  17. The cardioprotective effect of thymoquinone on ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart via regulation of apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Junhui; Ke, Zun-Ping; Shi, Yan; Zeng, Qiutang; Cao, Zhe

    2018-06-22

    Thymoquinone (TQ), as the active constituents of black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed oil, has been reported to have potential protective effects on the cardiovascular system. This study aimed to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of TQ on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in Langendorff-perfused rat hearts. Wister rat hearts were subjected to I/R and the experimental group were pretreated with TQ prior to I/R. Hemodynamic parameters, myocardial infarct size, cardiac marker enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were assayed. Compared with the untreated group, TQ preconditioning significantly improved cardiac function, reduced infarct size, decreased cardiac lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) levels, suppressed enedoxidative stress, and apoptosis. In addition, TQ treatment promoted autophagy, which was partially reversed by chloroquine (CQ), a kind of autophagy blocker. Our study suggests that TQ can protect heart against I/R injury, which is associated with anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic effects through activation of autophagy. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A comparison between complete immobilisation and protected active mobilisation in sensory nerve recovery following isolated digital nerve injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Henry, F P

    2012-06-01

    Post-operative immobilisation following isolated digital nerve repair remains a controversial issue amongst the microsurgical community. Protocols differ from unit to unit and even, as evidenced in our unit, may differ from consultant to consultant. We undertook a retrospective review of 46 patients who underwent isolated digital nerve repair over a 6-month period. Follow-up ranged from 6 to 18 months. Twenty-four were managed with protected active mobilisation over a 4-week period while 22 were immobilised over the same period. Outcomes such as return to work, cold intolerance, two-point discrimination and temperature differentiation were used as indicators of clinical recovery. Our results showed that there was no significant difference noted in either clinical assessment of recovery or return to work following either post-operative protocol, suggesting that either regime may be adopted, tailored to the patient\\'s needs and resources of the unit.

  19. 2-N, 6-O-sulfated chitosan-assisted BMP-2 immobilization of PCL scaffolds for enhanced osteoinduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Lingyan [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); CSIRO Manufacturing, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Department of Prosthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 639 Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai 200011 (China); Yu, Yuanman [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Wang, Jing, E-mail: biomatwj@163.com [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Werkmeister, Jerome A [CSIRO Manufacturing, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); McLean, Keith M, E-mail: Keith.McLean@csiro.au [CSIRO Manufacturing, Bayview Avenue, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Liu, Changsheng, E-mail: liucs@ecust.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Engineering Research Center for Biomedical Materials of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a 2-N, 6-O-sulfated chitosan (26SCS) modified electrospun fibrous PCL scaffold for bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) delivery to improve osteoinduction. The PCL scaffold was modified by an aminolysis reaction using ethylenediamine (ED) and 26SCS was immobilized via electrostatic interactions (PCL-N-S). Scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. In vitro BMP-2 adsorption and release kinetics indicated that modified PCL-N-S scaffolds showed higher levels of binding of BMP-2 (about 30–100 times), moderative burst release (about one third), and prolonged releasing time compared to the unmodified PCL scaffold. The bioactivity of released BMP-2 determined by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity assay was maintained and improved 8– 12 times with increasing concentration of immobilized 26SCS on the scaffolds. In vitro studies demonstrated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) attached more readily to the PCL-N-S scaffolds with increased spreading. In conclusion, 26SCS modified PCL scaffolds can be a potent system for the sustained and bioactive delivery of BMP-2. - Graphical abstract: Limited self-regenerating capacity of human body makes the reconstruction of critical size bone defect a significant challenge. Although bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is an important differentiation factor inducing bone regeneration, it's short half-life in vivo and potent side effect at high dosage still show lots of concerns in the clinical use. Herein, modification of electrospun PCL scaffolds was presented through immobilizing of sulfated chitosan (26SCS). The modified scaffolds effectively improve the binding capacity of BMP-2 and exhibited an enhanced bioactivity and sustained release in vitro. Thus, the use of 26SCS modified PCL scaffolds combined with BMP-2 could be a useful scaffold for tissue

  20. Development and properties of duplex MgF2/PCL coatings on biodegradable magnesium alloy for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Preeti; Kang, Hoe Jin; Padalhin, Andrew R; Park, Ihho; Moon, Byoung-Gi; Lee, Byong Taek

    2018-01-01

    The present work addresses the performance of polycaprolactone (PCL) coating on fluoride treated (MgF2) biodegradable ZK60 magnesium alloy (Mg) for biomedical application. MgF2 conversion layer was first produced by immersing Mg alloy substrate in hydrofluoric acid solution. The outer PCL coating was then prepared using dip coating technique. Morphology, elements profile, phase structure, roughness, mechanical properties, invitro corrosion, and biocompatibility of duplex MgF2/PCL coating were then characterized and compared to those of fluoride coated and uncoated Mg samples. The invivo degradation behavior and biocompatibility of duplex MgF2/PCL coating with respect to ZK60 Mg alloy were also studied using rabbit model for 2 weeks. SEM and TEM analysis showed that the duplex coating was uniform and comprised of porous PCL film (~3.3 μm) as upper layer with compact MgF2 (~2.2 μm) as inner layer. No significant change in microhardness was found on duplex coating compared with uncoated ZK60 Mg alloy. The duplex coating showed improved invitro corrosion resistance than single layered MgF2 or uncoated alloy samples. The duplex coating also resulted in better cell viability, cell adhesion, and cell proliferation compared to fluoride coated or uncoated alloy. Preliminary invivo studies indicated that duplex MgF2/PCL coating reduced the degradation rate of ZK60 Mg alloy and exhibited good biocompatibility. These results suggested that duplex MgF2/PCL coating on magnesium alloy might have great potential for orthopedic applications.

  1. Comparative Efficacies of Collagen-Based 3D Printed PCL/PLGA/?-TCP Composite Block Bone Grafts and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Bone Substitute for Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Kyoung-Sub; Choi, Jae-Won; Kim, Jae-Hun; Chung, Ho Yun; Jin, Songwan; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Yun, Won-Soo; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare bone regeneration and space maintaining ability of three-dimensional (3D) printed bone grafts with conventional biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). After mixing polycaprolactone (PCL), poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) in a 4:4:2 ratio, PCL/PLGA/?-TCP particulate bone grafts were fabricated using 3D printing technology. Fabricated particulate bone grafts were mixed with atelocollagen to produce collagen-based PCL/P...

  2. Dermal-epidermal membrane systems by using human keratinocytes and mesenchymal stem cells isolated from dermis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerno, Simona, E-mail: s.salerno@itm.cnr.it [Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council of Italy, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, via P. Bucci cubo 17/C, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy); Messina, Antonietta [Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council of Italy, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, via P. Bucci cubo 17/C, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy); Giordano, Francesca [Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, I-87036 Rende, (CS) (Italy); Bader, Augustinus [Biomedical-Biotechnological Center, BBZ, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Drioli, Enrico [Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council of Italy, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, via P. Bucci cubo 17/C, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy); WCU Energy Engineering Department, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); De Bartolo, Loredana, E-mail: l.debartolo@itm.cnr.it [Institute on Membrane Technology, National Research Council of Italy, ITM-CNR, c/o University of Calabria, via P. Bucci cubo 17/C, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2017-02-01

    Dermal-epidermal membrane systems were developed by co-culturing human keratinocytes with Skin derived Stem Cells (SSCs), which are Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) isolated from dermis, on biodegradable membranes of chitosan (CHT), polycaprolactone (PCL) and a polymeric blend of CHT and PCL. The membranes display physico-chemical, morphological, mechanical and biodegradation properties that could satisfy and fulfil specific requirements in skin tissue engineering. CHT membrane exhibits an optimal biodegradation rate for acute wounds; CHT-PCL for the chronic ones. On the other hand, PCL membrane in spite of its very slow biodegradation rate exhibits mechanical properties similar to in vivo dermis, a lower hydrophilic character, and a surface roughness, all properties that make it able to sustain cell adhesion and proliferation for in vitro skin models. Both CHT–PCL and PCL membranes guided epidermal and dermal differentiation of SSCs as pointed out by the expression of cytokeratins and the deposition of the ECM protein fibronectin, respectively. In the dermal-epidermal membrane systems, a more suitable microenvironment for the SSCs differentiation was promoted by the interactions and the mutual interplay with keratinocytes. Being skin tissue-biased stem cells committed to their specific final dermal and/or epidermal cell differentiation, SSCs are more suitable for skin tissue engineering than other adult MSCs with different origin. For this reason, they represent a useful autologous cell source for engineering skin substitutes for both in vivo and in vitro applications.

  3. TiO2/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Bollino, F.; Papale, F.; Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO 2 /PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials

  4. The Influence of the Polymer Amount on the Biological Properties of PCL/ZrO2 Hybrid Materials Synthesized via Sol-Gel Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelina Catauro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic/inorganic hybrid materials are attracting considerable attention in the biomedical area. The sol-gel process provides a convenient way to produce many bioactive organic–inorganic hybrids. Among those, poly(e-caprolactone/zirconia (PCL/ZrO2 hybrids have proved to be bioactive with no toxic materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these materials on the cellular response as a function of the PCL content, in order to evaluate their potential use in the biomedical field. For this purpose, PCL/ZrO2 hybrids containing 6, 12, 24, and 50 wt % of PCL were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The effects of their presence on the NIH-3T3 fibroblast cell line carrying out direct cell number counting, MTT, cell damage assays, flow cytometry-based analysis of cell-cycle progression, and immunoblotting experiments. The results confirm and extend the findings that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids are free from toxicity. The hybrids containing 12 and 24 wt % PCL, (more than 6 and 50 wt % ones enhance cell proliferation when compared to pure ZrO2 by affecting cell cycle progression. The finding that the content of PCL in PCL/ZrO2 hybrids differently supports cell proliferation suggests that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids could be useful tools with different potential clinical applications.

  5. The Influence of the Polymer Amount on the Biological Properties of PCL/ZrO2 Hybrid Materials Synthesized via Sol-Gel Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranquillo, Elisabetta; Illiano, Michela; Sapio, Luigi; Spina, Annamaria; Naviglio, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid materials are attracting considerable attention in the biomedical area. The sol-gel process provides a convenient way to produce many bioactive organic–inorganic hybrids. Among those, poly(e-caprolactone)/zirconia (PCL/ZrO2) hybrids have proved to be bioactive with no toxic materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these materials on the cellular response as a function of the PCL content, in order to evaluate their potential use in the biomedical field. For this purpose, PCL/ZrO2 hybrids containing 6, 12, 24, and 50 wt % of PCL were synthesized by the sol-gel method. The effects of their presence on the NIH-3T3 fibroblast cell line carrying out direct cell number counting, MTT, cell damage assays, flow cytometry-based analysis of cell-cycle progression, and immunoblotting experiments. The results confirm and extend the findings that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids are free from toxicity. The hybrids containing 12 and 24 wt % PCL, (more than 6 and 50 wt % ones) enhance cell proliferation when compared to pure ZrO2 by affecting cell cycle progression. The finding that the content of PCL in PCL/ZrO2 hybrids differently supports cell proliferation suggests that PCL/ZrO2 hybrids could be useful tools with different potential clinical applications. PMID:29039803

  6. Influence of PCL on the material properties of collagen based biocomposites and in vitro evaluation of drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanungo, Ivy; Fathima, Nishter Nishad; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2013-01-01

    Formulation of biodegradable collagen–poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) based biomaterials for the sustained release of insulin is the main objective of the present work. PCL has been employed to modulate the physico-chemical behavior of collagen to control the drug release. Designed formulations were employed to statistically optimize insulin release parameter profile at different collagen to PCL molar ratios. Circular dichroism, thermoporometry, FTIR, impedance and scanning electron microscopy techniques have been employed to investigate the effect of PCL on hydration dynamics of the collagen molecule, which in turn changes the dissolution parameters of the drug from the systems. Drug entrapment efficiency has been found to be maximum for collagen to PCL molar ratio of 1:2 (> 90%). In vitro dissolution test reveals that 99% of the drug was released from composite at collagen to PCL molar ratio of 1:3 and 1:4 within 2 h, which indicates that hydrophobicity of the matrix results in weak interaction between lipophilic drug and carrier materials. The least burst release was observed for collagen to PCL molar ratio at 1:2 as synergistic interactions between collagen and PCL was maximum at that particular polymer–polymer ratios. The drug release data indicates super case-II transport of drug (n > 1.0). - Graphical abstract: Collagen–poly-ε-caprolactone based biomaterials for the sustained release of insulin were formulated. Circular dichroism, thermoporometry, FTIR, impedance and scanning electron microscopy techniques have been employed to elucidate the effect of PCL on the structure of the collagen and in vitro drug release. The drug release data fitted to the kinetic model indicates super case-II transport due to the combination of diffusion and polymer relaxation/dissolution (n > 1.0). - Highlights: • Poly-ε-caprolactone influences physico-chemical behavior of collagen. • Poly-ε-caprolactone influences in vitro drug release mechanism from biocomposites.

  7. Reduction of Fusarium wilt in watermelon by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 and P. fluorescens WCS365

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.T. Tziros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum is a devastatine soil-borne disease that causes extensive losses throughout the world. Two known Pseudomonas biocontrol strains were used separately and in combination to assess their antagonistic effectiveness against F. oxysporum f. sp. niveum in pot experiments. P. chlororaphis PCL1391 signifi cantly reduced disease severity. P. fl uorescens WCS365 was less effective in disease suppression, while a combination of the two bacteria had intermediate effects. The biological control of Fusarium wilt with P. chlororaphis offers a potentially useful tool in an integrated pest management program to control Fusarium wilt of watermelon.

  8. The preosteoblast response of electrospinning PLGA/PCL nanofibers: effects of biomimetic architecture and collagen I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian YZ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yunzhu Qian,1,2 Hanbang Chen,1 Yang Xu,1 Jianxin Yang,2 Xuefeng Zhou,3 Feimin Zhang,1 Ning Gu3 1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, 2Center of Stomatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, 3School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Constructing biomimetic structure and incorporating bioactive molecules is an effective strategy to achieve a more favorable cell response. To explore the effect of electrospinning (ES nanofibrous architecture and collagen I (COL I-incorporated modification on tuning osteoblast response, a resorbable membrane composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid/poly(caprolactone (PLGA/PCL; 7:3 w/w was developed via ES. COL I was blended into PLGA/PCL solution to prepare composite ES membrane. Notably, relatively better cell response was delivered by the bioactive ES-based membrane which was fabricated by modification of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and COL I. After investigation by field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurement, and mechanical test, polyporous three-dimensional nanofibrous structure with low tensile force and the successful integration of COL I was obtained by the ES method. Compared with traditional PLGA/PCL membrane, the surface hydrophilicity of collagen-incorporated membranes was largely enhanced. The behavior of mouse preosteoblast MC3T3-E1 cell infiltration and proliferation on membranes was studied at 24 and 48 hours. The negative control was fabricated by solvent casting. Evaluation of cell adhesion and morphology demonstrated that all the ES membranes were more favorable for promoting the cell adhesion and spreading than the casting membrane. Cell Counting Kit-8 assays revealed that biomimetic architecture, surface topography, and bioactive properties of membranes were favorable for cell

  9. Hyperextension injuries of the knee. Do patterns of bone bruising predict soft tissue injury?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A.M.; Gibbons, C.E.R. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Pillai, J.K.; Roberton, B.J. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Gulati, V. [Homerton University Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, London (United Kingdom)

    2018-02-15

    To establish whether patterns of soft tissue injury following knee hyperextension are associated with post-traumatic 'bone bruise' distribution. Patients with a knee MRI within one year of hyperextension injury were identified at our institution over a 7 year period. MRIs, plain radiographs and clinical details of these patients were reviewed. Twenty-five patients were identified (median time from injury to MRI = 24 days). The most common sites of bone bruising were the anteromedial tibial plateau (48%) and anterolateral tibial plateau (44%). There were high rates of injury to the posterior capsule (52%), ACL (40%) and PCL (40%) but lower rates of injury to the menisci (20%), medial and lateral collateral ligaments (16%) and posterolateral corner (16%). Anterior tibial plateau oedema and rupture of the posterior capsule predicted cruciate ligament injury [OR = 10.5 (p = 0.02) and 24.0 (p = 0.001) respectively]. Whilst anterolateral tibial plateau oedema strongly predicted PCL injury [OR = 26.0, p = 0.003], ACL injury was associated with a variable pattern of bone bruising. Meniscal injury was unrelated to the extent or pattern of bone bruising. 5 out of 8 patients with a 'double sulcus' on the lateral radiograph had ACL injury. The presence of a double sulcus showed significant association with anteromedial kissing contusions (OR = 7.8, p = 0.03). Following knee hyperextension, bone bruising patterns may be associated with cruciate ligament injury. Other structures are injured less frequently and have weaker associations with bone bruise distribution. The double sulcus sign is a radiographic marker that confers a high probability of ACL injury. (orig.)

  10. Incidence rate of mild traumatic brain injury among patients who have suffered from an isolated limb fracture: Upper limb fracture patients are more at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodoin, Marianne; Rouleau, Dominique M; Charlebois-Plante, Camille; Benoit, Benoit; Leduc, Stéphane; Laflamme, G-Yves; Gosselin, Nadia; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; De Beaumont, Louis

    2016-08-01

    This study compares the incidence rate of mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI) detected at follow-up visits (retrospective diagnosis) in patients suffering from an isolated limb trauma, with the incidence rate held by the hospital records (prospective diagnosis) of the sampled cohort. This study also seeks to determine which types of fractures present with the highest incidence of mild TBI. Retrospective assessment of mild TBI among orthopaedic monotrauma patients, randomly selected for participation in an Orthopaedic clinic of a Level I Trauma Hospital. Patients in the remission phase of a limb fracture were recruited between August 2014 and May 2015. No intervention was done (observational study). Standardized semi-structured interviews were conducted with all patients to retrospectively assess for mild TBI at the time of the fracture. Emergency room related medical records of all patients were carefully analyzed to determine whether a prospective mild TBI diagnosis was made following the accident. A total of 251 patients were recruited (54% females, Mean age=49). Study interview revealed a 23.5% incidence rate of mild TBI compared to an incidence rate of 8.8% for prospective diagnosis (χ(2)=78.47; plimb monotrauma (29.6%; n=42/142) are significantly more at risk of sustaining a mild TBI compared to lower limb fractures (15.6%; n=17/109) (χ(2)=6.70; p=0.010). More specifically, patients with a proximal upper limb injury were significantly more at risk of sustaining concomitant mild TBI (40.6%; 26/64) compared to distal upper limb fractures (20.25%; 16/79) (χ(2)=7.07; p=0.008). Results suggest an important concomitance of mild TBI among orthopaedic trauma patients, the majority of which go undetected during acute care. Patients treated for an upper limb fracture are particularly at risk of sustaining concomitant mild TBI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Hepatoprotective Effects of Corn Silk against Dose-induced Injury of Ecstasy (MDMA Using Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corn silk (CS is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatoprotective activity of CS by Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion System (IRLP. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk (10, 20, 40, and 100 mg kg-1 was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity by IRLP. Phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve, respectively. IRLP system is ideal for studying biochemical alterations of chemicals with minimum neuro-hormonal effects. In this study, the liver was perfused with Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, containing different concentration of hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk (10, 20, 40, 50,100mg/kg, added to the buffer, and perfused for 2 hours. During the perfusion, many factors, including amino-transferees activities and the level of GSH, were assessed as indicators of liver viability. Consequently, sections of liver tissues were examined for any histopathological changes. Results: Histopathological changes in liver tissues were related to hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Also, 50 and 100mg/kg doses caused significant (P<0.05 histopathological changes. Level of GSH in samples perfused with hydro-alcoholic extract increased compared to the control group. Conclusion: Hepatoprotective effect of CS is due to decreased lipid peroxidation, although other mechanisms might also be involved.

  12. Hydrogen sulfide postconditioning protects isolated rat hearts against ischemia and reperfusion injury mediated by the JAK2/STAT3 survival pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng-Fei Luan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway is an important component of survivor activating factor enhancement (SAFE pathway. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway participates in hydrogen sulfide (H2S postconditioning, protecting isolated rat hearts from ischemic-reperfusion injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (230-270 g were divided into 6 groups (N = 14 per group: time-matched perfusion (Sham group, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R group, NaHS postconditioning group, NaHS with AG-490 group, AG-490 (5 µM group, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; <0.2% group. Langendorff-perfused rat hearts, with the exception of the Sham group, were subjected to 30 min of ischemia followed by 90 min of reperfusion after 20 min of equilibrium. Heart rate, left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, and the maximum rate of increase or decrease of left ventricular pressure (± dp/dt max were recorded. Infarct size was determined using triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC staining. Myocardial TUNEL staining was used as the in situ cell death detection method and the percentage of TUNEL-positive nuclei to all nuclei counted was used as the apoptotic index. The expression of STAT3, bcl-2 and bax was determined by Western blotting. After reperfusion, compared to the I/R group, H2S significantly improved functional recovery and decreased infarct size (23.3 ± 3.8 vs 41.2 ± 4.7%, P < 0.05 and apoptotic index (22.1 ± 3.6 vs 43.0 ± 4.8%, P < 0.05. However, H2S-mediated protection was abolished by AG-490, the JAK2 inhibitor. In conclusion, H2S postconditioning effectively protects isolated I/R rat hearts via activation of the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway.

  13. Surface modification of Ti-30Ta alloy by electrospun PCL deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, C.M.; Rangel, A.L.R.; Souza, M.A. de; Claro, A.P.R.A.; Rezende, M.C.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil); Almeida, R. dos S. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    Full text: Surface modifications techniques have been used for change the inert surface of the titanium alloys for better interaction. Ingots of the experimental alloy Ti30Ta were melted in an arc furnace and re-melted ten times at least. They were homogenized under vacuum at 1000 °C for 86. 4 ks to eliminate chemical segregation and cold-worked by swaging. Discs were immersed in aqueous NaOH solution for 24 h, dried at room temperature, immersed in HCl and dried at 40 °C in oven for 24 hours. Followed, PCL fibers were deposited on the Ti30Ta alloy discs surfaces by electrospinning. Plasma treatment was carried out for change PCL electrospun by using stainless steel plasma reactor. Samples were immersed in SBF 5x solution for apatite growth. Surfaces were evaluated by using SEM, X-rays diffraction and contact angle. Samples exhibited hydrophilic behavior after plasma treatment and SBF immersion. Results are very interesting for biomedical applications. (author)

  14. Interaction between a high purity magnesium surface and PCL and PLA coatings during dynamic degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ying; Song Yang; Zhang Shaoxiang; Li Jianan; Zhao Changli; Zhang Xiaonong

    2011-01-01

    In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) coatings were prepared on the surface of high purity magnesium (HPMs), respectively, and electrochemical and dynamic degradation tests were used to investigate the degradation behaviors of these polymer-coated HPMs. The experimental results indicated that two uniform and smooth polymer films with thicknesses between 15 and 20 μm were successfully prepared on the HPMs. Electrochemical tests showed that both PCL-coated and PLA-coated HPMs had higher free corrosion potentials (E corr ) and smaller corrosion currents (I corr ) in the modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF) at 37 0 C, compared to those of the uncoated HPMs. Dynamic degradation tests simulating the flow conditions in coronary arteries were carried out on a specific test platform. The weight of the specimens and the pH over the tests were recorded to characterize the corrosion performance of those samples. The surfaces of the specimens after the dynamic degradation tests were also examined. The data implied that there was a special interaction between HPM and its polymer coatings during the dynamic degradation tests, which undermined the corrosion resistance of the coated HPMs. A model was proposed to illustrate the interaction between the polymer coatings and HPM. This study also suggested that this reciprocity may also exist on the implanted magnesium stents coated with biodegradable polymers, which is a potential obstacle for the further development of drug-eluting magnesium stents.

  15. Polymorphic solidification of Linezolid confined in electrospun PCL fibers for controlled release in topical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, Loredana; Saturnino, Carmela; D'Aniello, Sharon; Vigliotta, Giovanni; Vittoria, Vittoria

    2015-07-25

    Poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL) membranes loaded with Linezolid, chemically N-[[(5S)-3-[3-fluoro-4-(4-morpholinyl)phenyl]-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]methyl]acetamide (empirical formula C16H20FN3O4) have been prepared by electrospinning technique, at different Linezolid concentrations (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5%, w/w). Structural characterization, morphological analysis and the study of the mechanical properties have been performed on loaded membranes and compared with neat PCL membranes. Linezolid embedded in the membranes is prevalently amorphous, with a low crystallinity showing a different polymorphic form respect to the usual Form I and Form II. The release kinetics of the drug were studied by spectrophotometric analysis (UV-vis). It allowed to discriminate between Linezolid molecules on the surface and encapsulated into the fibers. The antibacterial activity of the electrospun membranes was effective to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus. The properties of the loaded membranes and their capability for local delivery of the antibiotic make them good candidates as drug release devices for topical use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Surface modification of Ti-30Ta alloy by electrospun PCL deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, C.M.; Rangel, A.L.R.; Souza, M.A. de; Claro, A.P.R.A.; Rezende, M.C.R.; Almeida, R. dos S.

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Surface modifications techniques have been used for change the inert surface of the titanium alloys for better interaction. Ingots of the experimental alloy Ti30Ta were melted in an arc furnace and re-melted ten times at least. They were homogenized under vacuum at 1000 °C for 86. 4 ks to eliminate chemical segregation and cold-worked by swaging. Discs were immersed in aqueous NaOH solution for 24 h, dried at room temperature, immersed in HCl and dried at 40 °C in oven for 24 hours. Followed, PCL fibers were deposited on the Ti30Ta alloy discs surfaces by electrospinning. Plasma treatment was carried out for change PCL electrospun by using stainless steel plasma reactor. Samples were immersed in SBF 5x solution for apatite growth. Surfaces were evaluated by using SEM, X-rays diffraction and contact angle. Samples exhibited hydrophilic behavior after plasma treatment and SBF immersion. Results are very interesting for biomedical applications. (author)

  17. Silver nanoparticles immobilized onto polycaprolactone (PCL)/poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl metacrilate) nanofiber meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Fernanda G.; Bonkovoski, Leticia C.; Witt, Maria A.; Rubira, Adley F.; Muniz, Edvani C.

    2015-01-01

    The present work comprises the fabrication of nanofiber meshes of polycaprolactone (PCL)/poly [(2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) and the subsequent immobilization of silver nanoparticles, in order to obtain materials with potential application in tissue engineering. The nanofibers composed of different ratios of PDMAEMA / PCL (m/m) were obtained by electrospinning. These nanofiber meshes were then immersed in colloidal suspensions containing the AgNPs under different pH values to immobilize the nanoparticles onto the fiber's surface. A greater amount of AgNPs was deposited when the fibers were immersed in a solution of pH 5, as one can observe from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images and the X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) spectra. It was observed that the meshes of the blends suffered morphological changes after immersion in acid solution (pH 5), and, the deposition of AgNPs onto the meshes in general was more effective in acid environment (pH 5). (author)

  18. Comparison of Selective Laser Melted Titanium and Magnesium Implants Coated with PCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matena, Julia; Petersen, Svea; Gieseke, Matthias; Teske, Michael; Beyerbach, Martin; Kampmann, Andreas; Escobar, Hugo Murua; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Haferkamp, Heinz; Nolte, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Degradable implant material for bone remodeling that corresponds to the physiological stability of bone has still not been developed. Promising degradable materials with good mechanical properties are magnesium and magnesium alloys. However, excessive gas production due to corrosion can lower the biocompatibility. In the present study we used the polymer coating polycaprolactone (PCL), intended to lower the corrosion rate of magnesium. Additionally, improvement of implant geometry can increase bone remodeling. Porous structures are known to support vessel ingrowth and thus increase osseointegration. With the selective laser melting (SLM) process, defined open porous structures can be created. Recently, highly reactive magnesium has also been processed by SLM. We performed studies with a flat magnesium layer and with porous magnesium implants coated with polymers. The SLM produced magnesium was compared with the titanium alloy TiAl6V4, as titanium is already established for the SLM-process. For testing the biocompatibility, we used primary murine osteoblasts. Results showed a reduced corrosion rate and good biocompatibility of the SLM produced magnesium with PCL coating. PMID:26068455

  19. Interaction between a high purity magnesium surface and PCL and PLA coatings during dynamic degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Ying; Song Yang; Zhang Shaoxiang; Li Jianan; Zhao Changli; Zhang Xiaonong, E-mail: xnzhang@sjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-04-15

    In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) and polylactic acid (PLA) coatings were prepared on the surface of high purity magnesium (HPMs), respectively, and electrochemical and dynamic degradation tests were used to investigate the degradation behaviors of these polymer-coated HPMs. The experimental results indicated that two uniform and smooth polymer films with thicknesses between 15 and 20 {mu}m were successfully prepared on the HPMs. Electrochemical tests showed that both PCL-coated and PLA-coated HPMs had higher free corrosion potentials (E{sub corr}) and smaller corrosion currents (I{sub corr}) in the modified simulated body fluid (m-SBF) at 37 {sup 0}C, compared to those of the uncoated HPMs. Dynamic degradation tests simulating the flow conditions in coronary arteries were carried out on a specific test platform. The weight of the specimens and the pH over the tests were recorded to characterize the corrosion performance of those samples. The surfaces of the specimens after the dynamic degradation tests were also examined. The data implied that there was a special interaction between HPM and its polymer coatings during the dynamic degradation tests, which undermined the corrosion resistance of the coated HPMs. A model was proposed to illustrate the interaction between the polymer coatings and HPM. This study also suggested that this reciprocity may also exist on the implanted magnesium stents coated with biodegradable polymers, which is a potential obstacle for the further development of drug-eluting magnesium stents.

  20. Reduction of Electromagnetic Interference Using ZnO-PCL Nanocomposites at Microwave Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Yakubu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In industrial equipment and home appliance applications, the electromagnetic compatibility compliance directive (ECCD demands that electromagnetic interference side effects be eliminated or marginally minimized. The equipment must not disturb radio and telecommunication as well as other appliances. Additionally the ECCD also governs the immunity of such equipment to interference and seeks to ensure that this equipment is not disturbed by radio emissions when used as intended. Many types of absorbing materials are commercially available. However, many are expensive and not environmentally friendly. It is in the light of the above that we studied the electromagnetic absorption properties of ZnO-PCL nanocomposites prepared from cheap and abundant resources which are environmentally friendly (zinc and polycaprolactone. The test was carried out using a microstrip, open ended coaxial probe, and vector network analyzer. Amongst other findings, result showed that the ZnO-PCL nanocomposite has the capability of attenuating microwave frequency up to −18.2 dB due to their very high specific surface areas attributed to the nanofillers at 12 GHz.

  1. The use of PLDLA/PCL-T scaffold to repair osteochondral defects in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Rodrigues Esposito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological repair of osteochondral lesions requires the development of a scaffold that is compatible with the structure of the damaged tissue, cartilage and bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological performance of a PLDLA/PCL-T (90/10 scaffold for repairing osteochondral defects in rabbits. Polymeric scaffolds containing saccharose (75% w/v were obtained by solvent casting and then implanted in the medial knee condyles of 12 New Zealand rabbits after osteochondral damage with a trephine metallic drill (diameter: 3.3 mm in both medial femoral condyles. Each rabbit received the same treatment, i.e., the polymeric scaffold was implanted on the right side while no material was implanted on the left side (control. Four and 12 weeks later histological examination revealed bone neoformation in the implant group, with the presence of hyaline cartilage and mesenchymal tissue. In contrast, the control group showed bone neoformation with necrosis, exacerbated superficial fibrosis, inflammation and cracks in the neoformed tissue. These findings indicate that the PLDLA/PCL-T scaffold was biocompatible and protected the condyles by stabilizing the lesion and allowing subchondral bone tissue and hyaline cartilage formation.

  2. Viscoelastic properties of PLA/PCL blends compatibilized with different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Boo Young; Han, Do Hung

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to observe changes in the viscoelastic properties of PLA/PCL (80/20) blends produced using different compatibilization methods. Reactive extrusion and high-energy radiation methods were used for blend compatibilization. Storage and loss moduli, complex viscosity, transient stress relaxation modulus, and tan δ of blends were analyzed and blend morphologies were examined. All compatibilized PLA/PCL blends had smaller dispersed particle sizes than the non-compatibilized blend, and well compatibilized blends had finer morphologies than poorly compatibilized blends. Viscoelastic properties differentiated well compatibilized and poorly compatibilized blends. Well compatibilized blends had higher storage and loss moduli and complex viscosities than those calculated by the log-additive mixing rule due to strong interfacial adhesion, whereas poorly compatibilized blends showed negative deviations due to weak interfacial adhesion. Moreover, well compatibilized blends had much slower stress relaxation than poorly compatibilized blends and didn't show tan δ plateau region caused by slippage at the interface between continuous and dispersed phases.

  3. In Vitro Evaluation of PCL and P(3HB) as Coating Materials for Selective Laser Melted Porous Titanium Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Michael; Matena, Julia; Teske, Michael; Petersen, Svea; Aliuos, Pooyan; Roland, Laura; Grabow, Niels; Murua Escobar, Hugo; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Haferkamp, Heinz; Nolte, Ingo

    2017-11-23

    Titanium is widely used as a bone implant material due to its biocompatibility and high resilience. Since its Young's modulus differs from bone tissue, the resulting "stress shielding" could lead to scaffold loosening. However, by using a scaffold-shaped geometry, the Young's modulus can be adjusted. Also, a porous geometry enables vascularisation and bone ingrowth inside the implant itself. Additionally, growth factors can improve these effects. In order to create a deposit and release system for these factors, the titanium scaffolds could be coated with degradable polymers. Therefore, in the present study, synthetic poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) and the biopolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (P(3HB)) were tested for coating efficiency, cell adhesion, and biocompatibility to find a suitable coating material. The underlying scaffold was created from titanium by Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and coated with PCL or P(3HB) via dip coating. To test the biocompatibility, Live Cell Imaging (LCI) as well as vitality and proliferation assays were performed. In addition, cell adhesion forces were detected via Single Cell Force Spectroscopy, while the coating efficiency was observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses. Regarding the coating efficiency, PCL showed higher values in comparison to P(3HB). Vitality assays revealed decent vitality values for both polymers, while values for PCL were significantly lower than those for blank titanium. No significant differences could be observed between PCL and P(3HB) in proliferation and cell adhesion studies. Although LCI observations revealed decreasing values in cell number and populated area over time on both polymer-coated scaffolds, these outcomes could be explained by the possibility of coating diluent residues accumulating in the culture medium. Overall, both polymers fulfill the requirements regarding biocompatibility. Nonetheless, since only PCL coating ensured the

  4. Psychometric Validation of the English and French Versions of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Andrea R.; Houle-Johnson, Stephanie; Herbert, Christophe; El-Hage, Wissam; Brunet, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of a French version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and to further validate the existing English version of the measure. Undergraduate students (n = 838 English, n = 262 French) completed the PCL-5 as well as other self-report symptom measures of PTSD and depression online. Both the English and French versions PCL-5 total scores demonstrated excellent internal consistency (English: α = .95; French: α = .94), and strong convergent and divergent validity. Strong internal consistency was also observed for each of the four subscales for each version (α’s > .79). Test-retest reliability for the French version of the measure was also very good (r = .89). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the four-factor DSM-5 model was not a good fit of the data. The seven-factor hybrid model best fit the data in each sample, but was only marginally superior to the six-factor anhedonia model. The French version of the PCL-5 demonstrated the same psychometric qualities as both the English version of the same measure and previous versions of the PCL. Thus clinicians serving French-speaking clients now have access to this highly used screening instrument. With regards to the structural validity of the PCL-5 and of the new PTSD diagnostic structure of the DSM-5, additional research is warranted. Replication of our results in clinical samples is much needed. PMID:27723815

  5. On/Off Power Supply of the Electron Beam Machine HV Automation by Using PCL-718 and PCLD-786

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyanto; Suyono, Djoko; Salam, Aminus; Ngatinu; Sudaryanto; Wiyana, Badi

    1996-01-01

    HV on/off power supply of the electron beam machine HV automation by using PCL-718 and PCLD-786 have been done. During the simulation experiments by using PCL-718 ADC-12 bit and PCLD-786 driver relay and Turbo-C software have been multiplexes 16 differential digital output channels which controlled on/off ac/dc relay of the electron beam machine power supply. Two PCLD-786 can be cascaded to expand the digital output channels which controlled 32 ac/dc relay

  6. Effects of pre- and post-electrospinning plasma treatments on electrospun PCL nanofibers to improve cell interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadian, M; Grande, S; Morent, R; Nikiforov, A; De Geyter, N; Declercq, H

    2017-01-01

    In this study, liquid plasma treatment was used to improve the morphology of Poly-ε-CaproLactone (PCL) NanoFibers (NFs), followed by performing a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma surface modification to enhance the hydrophilicity of electrospun mats generated from plasma-modified PCL solutions. Cell interaction studies performed after 1 day and 7 days clearly revealed the highly increased cellular interactions on the double plasma-treated nanofibers compared to the pristine ones due to the combination of (1) a better NF morphology and (2) an increased surface hydrophilicity. (paper)

  7. Injury of the posterior ligamentous complex of the thoracolumbar spine: a prospective evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Alexander R; Rihn, Jeffrey A; Saravanja, Davor; Anderson, David G; Hilibrand, Alan S; Albert, Todd J; Fehlings, Michael G; Morrison, William; Flanders, Adam E; France, John C; Arnold, Paul; Anderson, Paul A; Friel, Brian; Malfair, David; Street, John; Kwon, Brian; Paquette, Scott; Boyd, Michael; Dvorak, Marcel F S; Fisher, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Prospective diagnostic imaging study. To determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing injury of the posterior ligamentous complex (PLC) in patients with thoracolumbar trauma. Treatment decisions in thoracolumbar injury patients are currently based on the status of the PLC. It is, therefore, important to understand the accuracy of MRI in diagnosing varying degrees of PLC injury. Prior studies report that MRI is up to 100% sensitive for diagnosing PCL injury. Patients with an acute injury from T1 to L3 who required posterior surgery were prospectively studied. A musculoskeletal radiologist, based on the preoperative MRI findings, characterized each of the 6 components of the PLC as intact, incompletely disrupted, or disrupted. During the surgical procedure, the surgeon identified each component of the PLC as intact, incompletely disrupted, or disrupted. The radiologist's interpretation and surgical findings were compared. Forty-two patients with 62 levels of injury were studied. There were 33 males (78.6%) and 9 females (21.4%), and the average age was 35.7 years. According to the kappa score, there was a moderate level of agreement between the radiologist's interpretation and the intraoperative findings for all PLC components except the thoracolumbar fascia, for which there was slight agreement. The sensitivity for the various PLC components ranged from 79% (left facet capsule) to 90% (interspinous ligament). The specificity ranged from 53% (thoracolumbar fascia) to 65% (ligamentum flavum). There was less agreement between the radiologist and surgeon for the patients with less severe neurologic compromise, i.e., those patients with an AIS grade of either D or E. The sensitivity and specificity of MRI for diagnosing injury of the PLC are lower than previously reported in the literature. The integrity of the PLC as determined by MRI should not be used in isolation to determine treatment.

  8. Stabilization of gold nanoparticles by thiol functionalized poly(ε-Caprolactone) for the labeling of PCL biocarrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryal, Santosh; Remant Bahadur, K.C.; Bhattarai, Narayan; Lee, Byoung Min; Kim, Hak Yong

    2006-01-01

    Polymer terminated by 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulfanyl) ethanol was synthesized by ring opening bulk polymerization of ε-Caprolactone initiated by the reaction product of aluminum isopropoxide and 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulfenyl) ethanol. The corresponding thiolyated poly(ε-Caprolactone) (PCL) was obtained after removal of protecting group under slightly basic condition. Both of PCL end capped by protected thiol and thiolyated PCL (PCLS-H) were characterized by 1 H NMR and the molecular weights were determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Decrease in polydispersity after deprotection was observed. The PCLS-H can be grafted to the gold nanoparticles either by direct incorporation or ligand exchange with the existing undecanethiol on the gold nanoparticles. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Mixed ligands stabilized gold nanoparticles were further used for the labeling of PCL biocarrier by nanoprecipitation. The sizes of these nanoparticles-labeled biocarrier were determined by TEM. This is an easy and convenient way to label biocarrier by the gold nanoparticles based contrasting agent in order to study its consequences in vivo

  9. Effect of Zebularine loaded MePEG-PCL nanoparticles on viability, attachment of in vitro cultured lens epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect of zebularine(Zebloaded Poly(ethylene glycol-block-poly(ε-caprolactonemethyl ether(MePEG-PCLnanoparticles(NPson the viability, attachment, and apoptosis of in vitro cultured lens epithelial cells(LECs. METHODS: In vitro cultured infant human lens tissue HLE B-3 immortalized cells were distributed randomly divided into six groups. Each group was administered with free Zeb 50μmol/L(ZebF1 group, 100μmol/L(ZebF2 group, Zeb -loaded MePEG-PCL NPs 50μmol/L(ZebNP1 group, Zeb -loaded MePEG-PCL NPs 100μmol/L(ZebNP2 group, MePEG-PCL empty NPs(NPs groupor blank medium(group Crespectively. A tetrazolium dye assay(MTTtest and modified MTT test were performed to determine cell viability and cell attachment. DNA ladder was used to detect the cell apoptosis. RESULTS: Determined by MTT colorimetric method: Cell proliferation rate of LECs were suppressed by all Zeb administration groups in a concentration-time dependent manner(PPP ZebNP1>ZebF2(PCONCLUSION: Zeb loaded MePEG-PCL NPs had better effect on suppressing the viability and attachment of in vitro cultured LECs than the free Zeb groups, as well as enhancing the apoptosis.

  10. Rationalization of specific structure formation in electrospinning process: Study on nano-fibrous PCL- and PLGA-based scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Mahdi; Mirzadeh, Hamid; Zandi, Mojgan; Irani, Shiva; Barzin, Jalal

    2015-12-01

    Formation of specific structures on poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) and poly lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) based electrospun mats is rationalized and the effect of interactive parameters; high voltage and flow rate on unique surface topography is evaluated. By increasing the collecting time in electrospinning process and enhancing fiber to fiber repulsion, surface characteristics of mats changes from nano- to micro-topography. In this study surface topography of the fabricated mats based on PCL and PLGA were assessed using AFM and SEM techniques to display the distinct phenomenon occurs on collected random fibers. In this research the rationale behind the formation of bump and flower like structures on fibrous mats was discussed. Because of great potential application of the fabricated substrates in the fields of medical purposes, cell-matrix interaction was evaluated and in vitro biological test with human dermal fibroblast and mouse L929 fibroblast cells was performed to study the cell responses to different roughness of nano-fibers collected at different time intervals. Our results show that after 7 days, cell proliferation is improved on PCL collected at 40 min in the case of human fibroblast cells and on PCL collected in 70 min in the case of L929 mouse fibroblast cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Multimethod Assessment of Juvenile Psychopathy: Comparing the Predictive Utility of the PCL:YV, YPI, and NEO PRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Kimonis, Eva R.; Dmitrieva, Julia; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study compares 3 distinct approaches for measuring juvenile psychopathy and their utility for predicting short- and long-term recidivism among a sample of 1,170 serious male juvenile offenders. The assessment approaches compared a clinical interview method (the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version [PCL:YV]; Forth, Kosson, & Hare,…

  12. Using the PCL-R to Help Estimate the Validity of Two Self-Report Measures of Psychopathy with Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poythress, Norman G.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.; Skeem, Jennifer L.; Douglas, Kevin S.; Edens, John F.; Epstein, Monica; Patrick, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Two self-report measures of psychopathy, Levenson's Primary and Secondary Psychopathy scales (LPSP) and the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI), were administered to a large sample of 1,603 offenders. The most widely researched measure of criminal psychopathy, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), served as a provisional referent…

  13. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of electrospun nanofibers of PCL, chitosan and gelatin: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, S.R., E-mail: srrg@campus.fct.unl.pt [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica/Departamento de Física Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Rodrigues, G. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental/Departamento de Biologia Animal Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Martins, G.G. [Centro de Biologia Ambiental/Departamento de Biologia Animal Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, R. da Quinta Grande, 6, 2780-156 Oeiras (Portugal); Roberto, M.A. [Departamento de Cirurgia Plástica e Reconstrutiva e Unidade de Queimados, Hospital de São José, Rua José António Serrano, 1150-199 Lisboa (Portugal); Mafra, M. [Serviço de Anatomia Patológica, Hospital de São José, Rua José António Serrano, 1150-199 Lisboa (Portugal); Henriques, C.M.R. [Centro de Física e Investigação Tecnológica/Departamento de Física Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); and others

    2015-01-01

    Many polymers have been investigated with respect to their use in skin tissue engineering. However, directly comparable data on the role played by different polymers in assisting skin wound healing requires their in vitro and in vivo evaluation under the same conditions. Therefore, we performed a study in order to compare the performance of electrospun nanofiber mats from three different polymers concerning cell–scaffold interaction and wound healing promotion. A polyester (polycaprolactone, PCL), a protein (gelatin from cold water fish skin, GEL) and a polysaccharide (chitosan, CS) were the polymers chosen. Gelatin nanofibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde vapor. The scaffolds were characterized physico-chemically, in vitro by seeding with human fetal fibroblasts, HFFF2, and used in vivo as skin substitutes in a rat wound model with total skin removal. In vitro tests revealed that cells adhered and proliferated in all scaffolds. However, cells deep into the scaffold were only observed in the PCL and CS scaffolds. In in vivo tests CS scaffolds had the highest impact on the healing process by decreasing the extent of wound contraction and enhancing the production of a neodermis and re-epithelialization of the wound. - Highlights: • We produced and compared the properties of electrospun PCL, CS and fish GEL. • In vitro, cells adhered and proliferated better on GEL scaffolds. • Deep cell migration was observed in the PCL and CS matrices. • In vivo, both CS and GEL matrices integrated well within the wounds. • Only CS effectively blocked, although only partially, the contraction phenomenon.

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of electrospun nanofibers of PCL, chitosan and gelatin: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, S.R.; Rodrigues, G.; Martins, G.G.; Roberto, M.A.; Mafra, M.; Henriques, C.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Many polymers have been investigated with respect to their use in skin tissue engineering. However, directly comparable data on the role played by different polymers in assisting skin wound healing requires their in vitro and in vivo evaluation under the same conditions. Therefore, we performed a study in order to compare the performance of electrospun nanofiber mats from three different polymers concerning cell–scaffold interaction and wound healing promotion. A polyester (polycaprolactone, PCL), a protein (gelatin from cold water fish skin, GEL) and a polysaccharide (chitosan, CS) were the polymers chosen. Gelatin nanofibers were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde vapor. The scaffolds were characterized physico-chemically, in vitro by seeding with human fetal fibroblasts, HFFF2, and used in vivo as skin substitutes in a rat wound model with total skin removal. In vitro tests revealed that cells adhered and proliferated in all scaffolds. However, cells deep into the scaffold were only observed in the PCL and CS scaffolds. In in vivo tests CS scaffolds had the highest impact on the healing process by decreasing the extent of wound contraction and enhancing the production of a neodermis and re-epithelialization of the wound. - Highlights: • We produced and compared the properties of electrospun PCL, CS and fish GEL. • In vitro, cells adhered and proliferated better on GEL scaffolds. • Deep cell migration was observed in the PCL and CS matrices. • In vivo, both CS and GEL matrices integrated well within the wounds. • Only CS effectively blocked, although only partially, the contraction phenomenon

  15. Effect of platy and tubular nanoclays on behaviour of biodegradable PCL/PLA blend and related microfibrillar composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelnar, Ivan; Kratochvíl, Jaroslav

    2016-05-01

    Blending of ductile poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and rigid polylactic acid (PLA) is a promising way to tailor biodegradable materials with broad range of properties. But the mutual incompatibility of both polyesters leads to compromised behaviour only. Alternative to PCL/PLA blends is application of PLA in the form of short fibres, however, difficult dispergation of flexible fibres including their poor adhesion and limited processing is a significant restriction. More effective is in situ formation of polymeric fibre-reinforced materials using microfibrillar composites (MFC) concept based on melt- or cold-drawing of a polymer blend. Important advantage of MFC is efficient dispersion and bonding of in-situ formed reinforcing fibres This work deals with combination of structure-directing and reinforcing effects of montmorillonite (oMMT) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) in the PCL/PLA 80/20 blend with in-situ formation of PLA fibrils in the PCL matrix. In the resulting microfibrillar composite, reinforcement by rigid PLA fibrils is combined with strengthening of both components by the nanofiller (NF). Moreover, PLA fibrils formation via melt-drawing is only possible after nanofiller addition due to favourable affecting of rheological parameters of the polymer components. The structure-properties relationship and complex effect of NF on microfibrillar composite performance, causing e.g., quite comparable parameters of both microfibrillar composites in spite of lower reinforcing effect of halloysite nanotubes on components, are discussed.

  16. [Emotional processing in patients with a dissocial personality disorder subtype "psychopathy" according to PCL-R].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Tatjana; Sommer, Monika; Hajak, Göran; Müller, Jürgen

    2004-11-01

    Functional MRI was used to test the effects of the deficient emotional responsiveness of psychopathic patients on cognitive processes. We used a Simon-paradigm, in which ten healthy volunteers and ten patients with a diagnosis of "psychopathy" (defined by Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised) have to select their spatially defined responses on the basis of a nonspatial stimuli feature. For the emotion induction pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) were selected. At the beginning and intermediated by the Simon-paradigm blocks of positive, negative or neutral pictures were presented. Patients with "psychopathy" exhibited untypical activation patterns in amygdala and prefrontal regions during interferences between negative or positive stimulations and cognitive tasks. These results demonstrated disturbed regulation of emotion-cognition-interaction in "psychopathy" according to PCL-R.

  17. Estudo das células Neuro2A sobre os biomateriais PCL e PLLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gabriel Maturana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Os biomateriais poli L-ácido lático (PLLA e o poli caprolactona (PCL são os polímeros mais estudadas na área dos materiais bioreabsorvíveis. Dentre as suas principais características que contribuem para a interação celular, temos a especificidade química da superfície, elétrica, hidrofobicidade e topografia. Ainda, observa-se o tempo de degradação, porosidade, biocompatibilidade com o tecido biológico, bem como, a confecção com as mais variadas formas e dimensões. Já a prática da cultura celular, tem como objetivo estudar a adesão, migração, diferenciação e a proliferação celular utilizando-se um determinado material ou substância. Contudo, poucos trabalhos utilizando os biomateriais ora supracitados e a aplicação em células neuro2A foram realizados. Sabe-se que este tipo celular é derivado de células embrionárias da crista neural, as quais originam em neurônios simpáticos e apresentam como característica a imortalidade, portanto, são excelentes modelos em ensaios in vitro. Nesse sentido, o presente estudo avalia a adesão e a proliferação desta linhagem celular sobre os biopolímeros poli caprolactona (PCL e poli L-ácido lático (PLLA.

  18. Comparative Efficacies of a 3D-Printed PCL/PLGA/β-TCP Membrane and a Titanium Membrane for Guided Bone Regeneration in Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hyung Shim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a 3D-printed resorbable polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane on bone regeneration and osseointegration in areas surrounding implants and to compare results with those of a non-resorbable titanium mesh membrane. After preparation of PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes using extrusion-based 3D printing technology; mechanical tensile testing and in vitro cell proliferation testing were performed. Implant surgery and guided bone regeneration were performed randomly in three groups (a no membrane group, a titanium membrane group, and a PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane group (n = 8 per group. Histological and histometric analyses were conducted to evaluate effects on bone regeneration and osseointegration. Using the results of mechanical testing; a PCL/PLGA/β-TCP ratio of 2:6:2 was selected. The new bone areas (% in buccal defects around implants were highest in the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP group and significantly higher than in the control group (p < 0.05. Bone-to-implant contact ratios (% were also significantly higher in the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP and titanium groups than in the control group (p < 0.05. When the guided bone regeneration procedure was performed using the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane; new bone formation around the implant and osseointegration were not inferior to those of the non-resorbable pre-formed titanium mesh membrane.

  19. Predicting violent infractions in a Swiss state penitentiary: A replication study of the PCL-R in a population of sex and violent offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubacher Arja

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research conducted with forensic psychiatric patients found moderate correlations between violence in institutions and psychopathy. It is unclear though, whether the PCL-R is an accurate instrument for predicting aggressive behavior in prisons. Results seem to indicate that the instrument is better suited for predicting verbal rather than physical aggression of prison inmates. Methods PCL-R scores were assessed for a sample of 113 imprisoned sex and violent offenders in Switzerland. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate physical and verbal aggression as a function of the PCL-R sum score. Additionally, stratified analyses were conducted for Factor 1 and 2. Infractions were analyzed as to their motives and consequences. Results The mean score of the PCL-R was 12 points. Neither the relationship between physical aggression and the sum score of the PCL-R, nor the relationship between physical aggression and either of the two factors of the PCL-R were significant. Both the sum score and Factor 1 predicted the occurrence of verbal aggression (AUC = 0.70 and 0.69, while Factor 2 did not. Conclusion Possible explanations are discussed for the weak relationship between PCL-R scores and physically aggressive behavior during imprisonment. Some authors have discussed whether the low base rate of violent infractions can be considered an explanation for the non-significant relation between PCL-R-score and violence. The base rate in this study, however, with 27%, was not low. It is proposed that the distinction between reactive and instrumental motives of institutional violence must be considered when examining the usefulness of the PCL-R in predicting in-prison physical aggressive behavior.

  20. In Vitro Evaluation of PCL and P(3HB as Coating Materials for Selective Laser Melted Porous Titanium Implants

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    Michael Grau

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium is widely used as a bone implant material due to its biocompatibility and high resilience. Since its Young’s modulus differs from bone tissue, the resulting “stress shielding” could lead to scaffold loosening. However, by using a scaffold-shaped geometry, the Young’s modulus can be adjusted. Also, a porous geometry enables vascularisation and bone ingrowth inside the implant itself. Additionally, growth factors can improve these effects. In order to create a deposit and release system for these factors, the titanium scaffolds could be coated with degradable polymers. Therefore, in the present study, synthetic poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL and the biopolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (P(3HB were tested for coating efficiency, cell adhesion, and biocompatibility to find a suitable coating material. The underlying scaffold was created from titanium by Selective Laser Melting (SLM and coated with PCL or P(3HB via dip coating. To test the biocompatibility, Live Cell Imaging (LCI as well as vitality and proliferation assays were performed. In addition, cell adhesion forces were detected via Single Cell Force Spectroscopy, while the coating efficiency was observed using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX analyses. Regarding the coating efficiency, PCL showed higher values in comparison to P(3HB. Vitality assays revealed decent vitality values for both polymers, while values for PCL were significantly lower than those for blank titanium. No significant differences could be observed between PCL and P(3HB in proliferation and cell adhesion studies. Although LCI observations revealed decreasing values in cell number and populated area over time on both polymer-coated scaffolds, these outcomes could be explained by the possibility of coating diluent residues accumulating in the culture medium. Overall, both polymers fulfill the requirements regarding biocompatibility. Nonetheless, since only PCL

  1. Experimental research of ZrO{sub 2}/BCP/PCL scaffold with complex pore pattern for bone tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Min Woo; Shin, Hae Ri; Kim, Jong Young [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Recently, synthetic biopolymers and bioceramics such as poly (-caprolactone)(PCL), hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, biphasic calcium phosphate(BCP), and zirconia have been used as substrates to generate various tissues or organs in tissue engineering. Thus, the purpose of this study was the characterization of ZrO{sub 2}/BCP/PCL(ZBP) scaffold for bone tissue regeneration. Based on the result of single-line test, blended 3D ZBP scaffolds with fully interconnected pores and new complex pore pattern of -type and staggered-type were successfully fabricated using a polymer deposition system. Furthermore, the effect of ZBP scaffold on mechanical property was analyzed. In addition, in vitro cell interaction of ZBP scaffold on MG63 cells was evaluated using a cell counting kit-8(CCK-8) assay.

  2. Controlled release of metronidazole from composite poly-ε-caprolactone/alginate (PCL/alginate) rings for dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Shih-Feng; Kehinde, Timilehin; Zhang, Xiangming; Khajotia, Sharukh; Schmidtke, David W; Starly, Binil

    2013-06-01

    Dental implants provide support for dental crowns and bridges by serving as abutments for the replacement of missing teeth. To prevent bacterial accumulation and growth at the site of implantation, solutions such as systemic antibiotics and localized delivery of bactericidal agents are often employed. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a novel method of controlled localized delivery of antibacterial agents to an implant site using a biodegradable custom fabricated ring. The study involved incorporating a model antibacterial agent (metronidazole) into custom designed poly-ε-caprolactone/alginate (PCL/alginate) composite rings to produce the intended controlled release profile. The rings can be designed to fit around the body of any root form dental implants of various diameters, shapes and sizes. In vitro release studies indicate that pure (100%) alginate rings exhibited an expected burst release of metronidazole in the first few hours, whereas Alginate/PCL composite rings produced a medium burst release followed by a sustained release for a period greater than 4 weeks. By varying the PCL/alginate weight ratios, we have shown that we can control the amount of antibacterial agents released to provide the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) needed for adequate protection. The fabricated composite rings have achieved a 50% antibacterial agent release profile over the first 48 h and the remaining amount slowly released over the remainder of the study period. The PCL/alginate agent release characteristic fits the Ritger-Peppas model indicating a diffusion-based mechanism during the 30-day study period. The developed system demonstrates a controllable drug release profile and the potential for the ring to inhibit bacterial biofilm growth for the prevention of diseases such as peri-implantitis resulting from bacterial infection at the implant site. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ESTUDIO FISICOQUÍMICO DE MEZCLAS DE ALMIDÓN TERMOPLÁSTICO (TPS Y POLICAPROLACTONA (PCL

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    JOSE MINA H.

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las propiedades físico-químicas de un almidón termoplástico (TPS de yuca, plastificado con glicerol, y el efecto de la incorporación de policaprolactona (PCL en el desarrollo de tres mezclas binarias TPS-PCL a proporciones 60-40, 50-50 y 40-60. El estudio inició con la preparación por extrusión del TPS y su posterior mezcla en caliente con la policaprolactona. El análisis de los resultados se enfocó principalmente a la identificación y seguimiento de la retrogradación, que se dio en el almidón termoplástico para diferentes tiempos de acondicionamiento (a 54% H.R. y 25ºC. Con el proceso de plastificación del almidón se generó una masa predominantemente amorfa, evidenciada por los resultados obtenidos con SEM, DRX y FTIR. Con la incorporación de la PCL se obtuvieron mezclas inmiscibles, en las cuales el TPS se constituyó en la fase dispersa y que conservaron una tendencia en la variación de las propiedades con el tiempo de acondicionamiento, similar a la observada en el TPS solo; indicando este hecho que las interacciones físico-químicas generadas entre el TPS y la policaprolactona no fueron lo suficientemente fuertes, como para incidir en la variación estructural del TPS, la cual se dio independiente del contenido de PCL.

  4. Surface modification of MPEG-b-PCL-based nanoparticles via oxidative self-polymerization of dopamine for malignant melanoma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong W

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wei Xiong,1,2 Lixia Peng,1,2 Hongbo Chen,3 Qin Li1,2 1Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, 2Department of Plastic Surgery, General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Command of PLA, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 3Division of Life Sciences and Health, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China Abstract: To enhance the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy on malignant melanoma, paclitaxel (PTX-loaded methoxy poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(ε-caprolactone nanoparticles (MPEG-b-PCL NPs that had their surfaces modified with polydopamine (PTX-loaded MPEG-b-PCL NPs@PDA were prepared as drug vehicles. The block copolymer MPEG-b-PCL was synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and characterized by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gel permeation chromatography. The PTX-loaded NPs were prepared by a modified nanoprecipitation technique. The PTX-loaded NPs and PTX-loaded NPs@PDA were characterized in terms of size and size distribution, zeta potential, surface morphology, drug encapsulation efficiency, and drug release. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that coumarin-6-loaded NPs@PDA could be internalized by human melanoma cell line A875 cells. The cellular uptake efficiency of NPs was greatly enhanced after PDA modification. The antitumor efficacy of the PTX-loaded NPs@PDA was investigated in vitro by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and in vivo by a xenograft tumor model. The PTX-loaded NPs@PDA could significantly inhibit tumor growth compared to Taxol® and precursor PTX-loaded NPs. All the results suggested that the PTX-loaded MPEG-b-PCL NPs that had their surfaces modified with PDA are promising nanocarriers for malignant melanoma therapy. Keywords: cancer nanotechnology, drug delivery, surface modification, polydopamine, malignant melanoma

  5. Enhanced Radiosensitization Effect of Curcumin Delivered by PVP-PCL Nanoparticle in Lung Cancer

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    Cuixia Wen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin, the principal polyphenolic curcuminoid, has been reported in numerous studies for its antitumor effect in a series of cancers. It is also reported that curcumin possesses radiosensitization effect in some cancers. However, the poor solubility and unsatisfied bioavailability of curcumin significantly undermine its potential application. Here we prepared curcumin loaded nanoparticles by employing PVP-PCL as drug carrier. Characterization studies indicated the satisfied drug loading efficiency and a sustained in vitro release pattern. Quantification uptake study showed that the uptake efficiency of Cum-NPs by lung cancer cells was time- and dose-dependent. In vitro anticancer study demonstrated the superior cytotoxic effect of Cum-NPs with stronger apoptotic induction over free Cum. Most importantly, there is almost no report on the radiosensitization effect of curcumin loaded nanoparticles. Here, Cum-NPs led to more inhibition of the colony forming ability of A549 cells as compared to the equivalent concentration of free Cum as shown in clonogenic assay. Furthermore, Cum-NPs are much more effective in enhancing the tumor growth inhibitory effect of radiation therapy in a A549 xenograft model. Therefore, results from the current study seem to be the first report on the radiosensitization effect of Cum-NPs and paved the way for a curcumin nanodrug delivery system as a potential radiation adjuvant.

  6. Platelet lysate as a serum replacement for skin cell culture on biomimetic PCL nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovkova, Vera; Vocetkova, Karolina; Rampichova, Michala; Mickova, Andrea; Buzgo, Matej; Lukasova, Vera; Dankova, Jana; Filova, Eva; Necas, Alois; Amler, Evzen

    2018-06-01

    Platelets are a popular source of native growth factors for tissue engineering applications. The aim of the study was to verify the use of platelet lysate as a fetal bovine serum (FBS) replacement for skin cell culture. The cytokine content of the platelet lysate was characterized using the Bio-Plex system. The cells (fibroblasts, melanocytes, and keratinocytes) were cultured on PCL nanofibrous scaffolds to mimic their natural microenvironment. The cytokine content of the platelet lysate was determined, and to the cells, a medium containing platelet lysate or platelet lysate in combination with FBS was added. The results showed that 7% (v/v) platelet lysate was sufficient to supplement 10% (v/v) FBS in the culture of fibroblasts and keratinocytes. The combination of platelet lysate and FBS had a rather inhibitory effect on fibroblasts, in contrary to keratinocytes, where the effect was synergic. Platelet lysate did not sufficiently promote proliferation in melanocytes; however, the combination of FBS and platelet lysate yielded a better outcome and resulted in bipolar morphology of the cultured melanocytes. The data indicated that platelet lysate improved cell proliferation and metabolic activity and may be used as an additive to the cell culture media.

  7. Mechanical study of PLA-PCL fibers during in vitro degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A C; Vieira, J C; Ferra, J M; Magalhães, F D; Guedes, R M; Marques, A T

    2011-04-01

    The aliphatic polyesters are widely used in biomedical applications since they are susceptible to hydrolytic and/or enzymatic chain cleavage, leading to α-hydroxyacids, generally metabolized in the human body. This is particularly useful for many biomedical applications, especially, for temporary mechanical supports in regenerative medical devices. Ideally, the degradation should be compatible with the tissue recovering. In this work, the evolution of mechanical properties during degradation is discussed based on experimental data. The decrease of tensile strength of PLA-PCL fibers follows the same trend as the decrease of molecular weight, and so it can also be modeled using a first order equation. For each degradation stage, hyperelastic models such as Neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin and second reduced order, allow a reasonable approximation of the material behavior. Based on this knowledge, constitutive models that describe the mechanical behavior during degradation are proposed and experimentally validated. The proposed theoretical models and methods may be adapted and used in other biodegradable materials, and can be considered fundamental tools in the design of regenerative medical devices where strain energy is an important requirement, such as, for example, ligaments, cartilage and stents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Controllable mineral coatings on PCL scaffolds as carriers for growth factor release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-González, Darilis; Barnhart, Kara; Migneco, Francesco; Flanagan, Colleen; Hollister, Scott J; Murphy, William L

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have developed mineral coatings on polycaprolactone scaffolds to serve as templates for growth factor binding and release. Mineral coatings were formed using a biomimetic approach that consisted in the incubation of scaffolds in modified simulated body fluids (mSBF). To modulate the properties of the mineral coating, which we hypothesized would dictate growth factor release, we used carbonate (HCO(3)) concentration in mSBF of 4.2 mm, 25 mm, and 100 mm. Analysis of the mineral coatings formed using scanning electron microscopy indicated growth of a continuous layer of mineral with different morphologies. X-ray diffraction analysis showed peaks associated with hydroxyapatite, the major inorganic constituent of human bone tissue in coatings formed in all HCO(3) concentrations. Mineral coatings with increased HCO(3) substitution showed more rapid dissolution kinetics in an environment deficient in calcium and phosphate but showed re-precipitation in an environment with the aforementioned ions. The mineral coating provided an effective mechanism for growth factor binding and release. Peptide versions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) were bound with efficiencies up to 90% to mineral mineral-coated PCL scaffolds. We also demonstrated sustained release of all growth factors with release kinetics that were strongly dependent in the solubility of the mineral coating. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Extensive theoretical study on the excited states of the PCl+ molecule including spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Zhai, Hongsheng; Liu, Siyuan; Liu, Yufang

    2017-07-01

    The entire 23 Λ-S states of the PCl+ molecule have been studied by using the high-level relativistic MRCI+Q method with full-electron aug-cc-pCVQZ-DK basis set. The potential energy curves(PECs) and wavefunctions of the states have been calculated. From the PECs, the spectroscopic constants of the bound states are also determined, and the good agreements could be found with the experiments. The high density region of states exhibits many PECs' crossings, which lead to complicated interaction of the states. Here, the interactions arising from the dipolar interaction and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effect have been discussed in detail. Under the influence of the SOC effect, the A2Π state is perturbed by the 14Σ- state. Considering the SOC effect, total 45 Ω states are generated from the original 23 Λ-S states. The transition properties are also predicted, including the transition dipole moments, Franck-Condon factors, and radiative lifetimes. The lifetimes of the transitions A2Π1/2-X2Π1/2 and A2Π3/2-X2Π3/2 are determined to be 478.9 ns and 487.0 ns(v'=0), respectively.

  10. Drug loaded homogeneous electrospun PCL/gelatin hybrid nanofiber structures for anti-infective tissue regeneration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiajia; He, Min; Liu, Hao; Niu, Yuzhao; Crawford, Aileen; Coates, Phil D; Chen, Dafu; Shi, Rui; Zhang, Liqun

    2014-11-01

    Infection is the major reason for guided tissue regeneration/guided bone regeneration (GTR/GBR) membrane failure in clinical application. In this work, we developed GTR/GBR membranes with localized drug delivery function to prevent infection by electrospinning of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and gelatin blended with metronidazole (MNA). Acetic acid (HAc) was introduced to improve the miscibility of PCL and gelatin to fabricate homogeneous hybrid nanofiber membranes. The effects of the addition of HAc and the MNA content (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 wt.% of polymer) on the properties of the membranes were investigated. The membranes showed good mechanical properties, appropriate biodegradation rate and barrier function. The controlled and sustained release of MNA from the membranes significantly prevented the colonization of anaerobic bacteria. Cells could adhere to and proliferate on the membranes without cytotoxicity until the MNA content reached 30%. Subcutaneous implantation in rabbits for 8 months demonstrated that MNA-loaded membranes evoked a less severe inflammatory response depending on the dose of MNA than bare membranes. The biodegradation time of the membranes was appropriate for tissue regeneration. These results indicated the potential for using MNA-loaded PCL/gelatin electrospun membranes as anti-infective GTR/GBR membranes to optimize clinical application of GTR/GBR strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of polycaprolacton (PCL) nanocomposite scaffold compared with hydroxyapatite (HA) on healing of segmental femur bone defect in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Hadi; Jahandideh, Alireza; Asghari, Ahmad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Hesaraki, Saeed

    2017-08-01

    Segmental bone loss due to trauma, infection, and tumor resection and even non-union results in the vast demand for replacement and restoration of the function of the lost bone. The objective of this study is to utilize novel inorganic-organic nanocomposites for biomedical applications. Biodegradable implants have shown great promise for the repair of bone defects and have been commonly used as bone substitutes, which traditionally would be treated using metallic implants. In this study, 45 mature male New Zealand white rabbits 6-8 months and weighting 3-3.5 kg were examined. Rabbits were divided into three groups. Surgical procedures were done after an intramuscular injection of Ketamine 10% (ketamine hydrochloride, 50 mg/kg), Rompun 5% (xylazine, 5 mg/kg). Then an approximately 6 mm diameter - 5 mm cylinder bone defect was created in the femur of one of the hind limbs. After inducing the surgical wound, all rabbits were colored and randomly divided into three experimental groups of nine animals each: Group 1 received medical pure nanocomposite polycaprolactone (PCL) granules, Group 2 received hydroxyapatite and Group 3 was a control group with no treatment. Histopathological evaluation was performed on days 15, 30 and 45 after surgery. On day 45 after surgery, the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone in the healing site in PCL group was better than onward compared with HA and control groups. Finally, nanocomposite PCL granules exhibited a reproducible bone-healing potential.

  12. Graphene-containing PCL- coated Porous 13-93B3 Bioactive Glass Scaffolds for Bone Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türk, Mert; Deliormanlı, Aylin M.

    2018-04-01

    Borate-based 13-93B3 bioactive glass scaffolds were coated with the graphene-containing poly-caprolactone (PCL) solution to prepare electrically conductive composites for biomedical applications. Results revealed that electrical conductivity of the scaffolds increased with increasing concentration of graphene nanoparticles. Significant difference was not observed in hydroxyapatite forming ability of the bare and the graphene-containing scaffolds immersed in simulated body fluid. In vitro cytotoxicity experiments (XTT tests) showed that pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell viability percentages of the graphene- containing samples was higher than control group samples after 7 days of incubation. However, a decrease in cell viability rates was obtained after 14 days of incubation for samples coated with PCL containing graphene starting from 3 wt%. Additionally, results obtained in the live-dead assay were consistent with the results of XTT tests. A higher ALP activity was detected in cells cultured on the graphene-containing borate glass scaffolds than those on the bare PCL coated 13-93B3 scaffolds suggesting the presence of graphene nanopowders stimulated an early stage of osteoblastic differentiation. SEM analysis showed that MC3T3-E1 cells exhibited a flat appearance and spread out through the surface in all groups of scaffolds starting from 3 days of incubation.

  13. A channel multiplexing for the analog input channel of the advantech PCL-718 ADC-12 bit by using PCLD-889 programmable ampliplexer / multiplexer board have been done

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyanto; Aminus, S; Sujono, Djoko; Ngatinu; Sudaryanto; Wiyana, Badi

    1996-01-01

    A channel multiplexing for the analog input channels of the Advantech PCL-718 ADC-12 bit by using PCLD-889 programmable Amplifier / multiplexer board have been done. The experiments have been prepared by using Turbo-C software where every PCLD-889 board multiplexes 16 differential input channels into one analog output channel, up to 10 PCLD-889 can be cascaded to expand the analog input of PCL-718 ADC-12 bit to 8 x 16 channels

  14. Efficacy of rhBMP-2 Loaded PCL/β-TCP/bdECM Scaffold Fabricated by 3D Printing Technology on Bone Regeneration

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    Eun-Bin Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of 3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold containing bone demineralized and decellularized extracellular matrix (bdECM and human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 on bone regeneration. Scaffolds were divided into PCL/β-TCP, PCL/β-TCP/bdECM, and PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP groups. In vitro release kinetics of rhBMP-2 were determined with respect to cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. These three reconstructive materials were implanted into 8 mm diameter calvarial bone defect in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after implantation for micro-CT, histologic, and histomorphometric analyses. The findings obtained were used to calculate new bone volumes (mm3 and new bone areas (%. Excellent cell bioactivity was observed in the PCL/β-TCP/bdECM and PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP groups, and new bone volume and area were significantly higher in the PCL/β-TCP/bdECM/BMP group than in the other groups (p<.05. Within the limitations of this study, bdECM printed PCL/β-TCP scaffolds can reproduce microenvironment for cells and promote adhering and proliferating the cells onto scaffolds. Furthermore, in the rat calvarial defect model, the scaffold which printed rhBMP-2 loaded bdECM stably carries rhBMP-2 and enhances bone regeneration confirming the possibility of bdECM as rhBMP-2 carrier.

  15. MR imaging diagnosis of posterior cruciate ligament injury: importance of ancillary findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kang Ik; Lee, Jong Hwa; Kim, Young Sun; Lee, Jung Hwoi; Ki, Tae Sung; Park, Jong Oag

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of two ancillary findings of anterior tibial plateau bruise/fracture and popliteus muscle strain on MR diagnosis of posterior cruicate ligament injury. We retrospectively evaluated 48 patients with confirmed posterior cruciate ligament tear. We studied the incidence of anterior tibial plateau injury and popliteus muscle strain, and the specificity of popliteus muscle strain with or without bony injury. A complete tear of the posterior cruciate ligament was noted in 37 cases, a partial tear in 11. Anterior tibial plateau lesion was found in 21 of 48 cases (44%); This total was made up of 17/37 PCL complete tears (46%) and 4/11 partial tears (36%). The difference in the incidence of complete and partial tears is not statistically significant. Popliteus muscle injury was found in 20 of 48 cases (42%), the total consisted of 19/37 PCL complete tears (51%) and 1/11 partial tears (10%). The incidence of 42% is relatively high, approximating that of bony injury. The difference in the incidence of complete and partial tears is statistically significant (p < 0.006). Specificity for posterior cruciate ligament tear is 69%(20/29), and when concomitant with anterior tibial plateau injury is 94%(16/17). As in the case of anterior cruciate ligament injury, these documented ancillary findings of anterior tibial plateau and popliteus muscle injuries are very helpful when MR diagnosis of posterior cruciate ligament injury itself and differentiation of partial and complete rupture are doubtful

  16. Factor structure, internal consistency and reliability of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL: an exploratory study Estrutura fatorial, consistência interna e confiabilidade do Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL: um estudo exploratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Paula Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder resulting from exposure to traumatic events. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL is a self-report measure largely used to evaluate the presence of PTSD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the internal consistency, temporal reliability and factor validity of the Portuguese language version of the PCL used in Brazil. METHODS: A total of 186 participants were recruited. The sample was heterogeneous with regard to occupation, sociodemographic data, mental health history, and exposure to traumatic events. Subjects answered the PCL at two occasions within a 15 days’ interval (range: 5-15 days. RESULTS: Cronbach’s alpha coefficients indicated high internal consistency for the total scale (0.91 and for the theoretical dimensions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV (0.83, 0.81, and 0.80. Temporal reliability (test-retest was high and consistent for different cutoffs. Maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted and oblique rotation (Promax was applied. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO index (0.911 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity (χ² = 1,381.34, p INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno do estresse pós-traumático (TEPT é um transtorno de ansiedade decorrente da exposição a eventos traumáticos. Entre as medidas de avaliação dos sintomas, destaca-se o Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL. OBJETIVO: Investigar a consistência interna, a confiabilidade temporal e a validade fatorial da versão do PCL em português, utilizada no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 186 indivíduos heterogêneos em relação a ocupação, características sociodemográficas, histórico de saúde mental e exposição a eventos traumáticos. O PCL foi aplicado em dois momentos considerando um intervalo máximo de 15 dias (intervalo: 5-15 dias. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach foi adequada para a escala

  17. Immobilization of Platelet-Rich Plasma onto COOH Plasma-Coated PCL Nanofibers Boost Viability and Proliferation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Solovieva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scaffolds made of polycaprolactone (PCL are actively employed in different areas of biology and medicine, especially in tissue engineering. However, the usage of unmodified PCL is significantly restricted by the hydrophobicity of its surface, due to the fact that its inert surface hinders the adhesion of cells and the cell interactions on PCL surface. In this work, the surface of PCL nanofibers is modified by Ar/CO2/C2H4 plasma depositing active COOH groups in the amount of 0.57 at % that were later used for the immobilization of platelet-rich plasma (PRP. The modification of PCL nanofibers significantly enhances the viability and proliferation (by hundred times of human mesenchymal stem cells, and decreases apoptotic cell death to a normal level. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, after immobilization of PRP, up to 10.7 at % of nitrogen was incorporated into the nanofibers surface confirming the grafting of proteins. Active proliferation and sustaining the cell viability on nanofibers with immobilized PRP led to an average number of cells of 258 ± 12.9 and 364 ± 34.5 for nanofibers with ionic and covalent bonding of PRP, respectively. Hence, our new method for the modification of PCL nanofibers with PRP opens new possibilities for its application in tissue engineering.

  18. Cross-cultural and factorial validity of PTSD check list-military version (PCL-M) in Sinhalese language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semage, Saveen N; Sivayogan, Sivagurunadan; Forbes, David; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Monaragala, Roshan M M; Lockwood, Emma; Dunt, David

    2013-01-01

    There are currently no validated instruments to assess the burden of combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Sinhalese-the main spoken language in Sri Lanka. The purpose of this research was to establish the cross-cultural and structural validity of the PTSD Check List-Military Version (PCL-M) translated into Sinhalese. Expert committee consensus generation as well as translation-back translation approaches were used to establish the semantic, conceptual, and content equivalence of the Sinhalese and English versions of the PCL-M. Four translations of each item were made. In the absence of any "gold standard" psychometric instrument in Sinhalese to establish the criterion validity for the PCL-M (SIN), the study utilized more informal checks for assessment of validity and Sri Lankan cutoffs for caseness for PTSD to establish the psychometric strength of the translated instrument along with standard reliability analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on PCL-M scoring of a random sample of 1,586 soldiers to examine construct validity. Thirteen of the 17 items were selected by popular vote, and the remaining 4 through discussion and consensus. Reliability measured by Cronbach's-α was 0.944 for the total scale and 0.812, 0.869, and 0.895 for the three DSM-IV sub-scales (re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal), respectively. The desired cutoff point for the translated instrument was determined to be 44. The five-factor model by Elhai et al. and the four-factor model by King et al. fitted best, demonstrating good fit to all three fit indices, while the four-factor model and the DSM-IV three-factor model by Simms et al. only had acceptable levels of fit for root mean squared error of approximation. χ(2) difference test comparing the two better-fitting models suggests that the five-factor model by Elhai et al. has the better fit. The PCL-M (SIN) version is suitable for use in the study of PTSD in the Sri Lankan military forces, as

  19. MR imaging of medial collateral ligament injury and associated internal knee joint injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae Ha; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Lim, Dong Hun; Kim, Young Sook; Byun, Ju Nam; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Jae Hee

    1996-01-01

    To assess the value of MR imaging in the diagnosis of medial collateral ligament injury of the knee, we used MR imaging to evaluate the characteristic findings in MCL tears and the frequency of associated knee joint injury. We retrospectively reviewed 26 patients within four weeks of MCL injury, analysed MR findings and correlated them with surgical findings. We evaluated discontinuity, heterogeneous signal intensity of MCL, thin band- like low signal intensity at MCL, facial edema, loss of clear demarcation of adjacent fat also combined bone injury, meniscus injury and other ligament injury. Complete MCL tears were present in 14 patients and partial tears in 12. Complete tears showed discontinuity of MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in 11 patients(79%);proximal MCL tears are more common than distal tears. Partial tears showed thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL, fascial edema and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat in seven patients (58%);all patient s with MCL injury showed fascial edema;in 12 patients there was loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. We could not, however, distinguish between complete tears and partial tears when MCL showed heterogeneous high signal intensity. Combined bone injury in MCL tears was found in eight patients(62%);the most common sites of this were the lateral femoral condyle and lateral tibial plateau. There was associated injury involving other ligaments(ACL:50%;PCL:27%). Combined meniscus injury in MCL tears was present in 17 patients and the most common meniscus site(50%) is the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Complete MCL tears showed discontinuity of MCL and partial tears showed a thin band-like low signal intensity within MCL. All patients with MCL injury showed fascial edema, and loss of clear demarcation from adjacent fat. Various other injuries combine with MCL tears. MR imaging is therefore useful in the evaluation of medial collateral ligament injury and

  20. Beneficial effect of medicinal plants on the contractility of post-hypoxic isolated guinea pig atria - Potential implications for the treatment of ischemic-reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bipat, Robbert; Toelsie, Jerry R.; Magali, Indira; Soekhoe, Rubaina; Stender, Karin; Wangsawirana, Angelique; Oedairadjsingh, Krishan; Pawirodihardjo, Jennifer; Mans, Dennis R. A.

    Context Ischemic-reperfusion injury is accompanied by a decreased contractility of the myocardium. Positive-inotropic agents have proven useful for treating this condition but may exert serious side-effects.Objective In this study, aqueous preparations from Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench

  1. The Effect of Upper Body Mass and Initial Knee Flexion on the Injury Outcome of Post Mortem Human Subject Pedestrian Isolated Legs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Philippe; Trosseille, Xavier; Dufaure, Nicolas; Dubois, Denis; Potier, Pascal; Vallancien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    In the ECE 127 Regulation on pedestrian leg protection, as well as in the Euro NCAP test protocol, a legform impactor hits the vehicle at the speed of 40 kph. In these tests, the knee is fully extended and the leg is not coupled to the upper body. However, the typical configuration of a pedestrian impact differs since the knee is flexed during most of the gait cycle and the hip joint applies an unknown force to the femur. This study aimed at investigating the influence of the inertia of the upper body (modelled using an upper body mass fixed at the proximal end of the femur) and the initial knee flexion angle on the lower limb injury outcome. In total, 18 tests were conducted on 18 legs from 9 Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS). The principle of these tests was to impact the leg at 40 kph using a sled equipped with 3 crushing steel tubes, the stiffness of which were representative of the front face of a European sedan (bonnet leading edge, bumper and spoiler). The mass of the equipped sled was 74.5 kg. The test matrix was designed to perform 4 tests in 4 configurations combining two upper body masses (either 0 or 3 kg) and two knee angles (0 or 20 degrees) at 40 kph (11 m/s) plus 2 tests at 9 m/s. Autopsies were performed on the lower limbs and an injury assessment was established. The findings of this study were first that the increase of the upper body mass resulted in more severe injuries, second that an initial flexion of the knee, corresponding to its natural position during the gait cycle, decreased the severity of the injuries, and third that based on the injury outcome, a test conducted with no upper body mass and the knee fully extended was as severe as a test conducted with a 3 kg upper body mass and an initial knee flexion of 20°.

  2. Imipenem/cilastatin encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles for destroying carbapenem-resistant bacterial isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Mona I; Shaker, Mohamed A; Mady, Fatma M

    2017-04-11

    Carbapenem-resistance is an extremely growing medical threat in antibacterial therapy as the incurable resistant strains easily develop a multi-resistance action to other potent antimicrobial agents. Nonetheless, the protective delivery of current antibiotics using nano-carriers opens a tremendous approach in the antimicrobial therapy, allowing the nano-formulated antibiotics to beat these health threat pathogens. Herein, we encapsulated imipenem into biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles to destroy the imipenem-resistant bacteria and overcome the microbial adhesion and dissemination. Imipenem loaded poly Ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) and polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanocapsules were formulated using double emulsion evaporation method. The obtained nanocapsules were characterized for mean particle diameter, morphology, loading efficiency, and in vitro release. The in vitro antimicrobial and anti adhesion activities were evaluated against selected imipenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates. The obtained results reveal that imipenem loaded PCL nano-formulation enhances the microbial susceptibility and antimicrobial activity of imipenem. The imipenem loaded PCL nanoparticles caused faster microbial killing within 2-3 h compared to the imipenem loaded PLGA and free drug. Successfully, PCL nanocapsules were able to protect imipenem from enzymatic degradation by resistant isolates and prevent the emergence of the resistant colonies, as it lowered the mutation prevention concentration of free imipenem by twofolds. Moreover, the imipenem loaded PCL eliminated bacterial attachment and the biofilm assembly of P. aeruginosa and K. pneumoniae planktonic bacteria by 74 and 78.4%, respectively. These promising results indicate that polymeric nanoparticles recover the efficacy of imipenem and can be considered as a new paradigm shift against multidrug-resistant isolates in treating severe bacterial infections.

  3. TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid materials synthesized via sol–gel technique for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Marciano, S.; Pacifico, S. [Department Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, Second University of Naples, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta (Italy)

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present work has been the synthesis of organic/inorganic hybrid materials based on titanium dioxide and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to be used in the biomedical field. Several materials have been synthesized using sol–gel methods by adding different amounts of polymer to the inorganic sol. The obtained gels have been characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR data allowed us to hypothesize that the structure formed was that of an interpenetrating network, realized by hydrogen bonds between Ti-OH groups in the sol–gel intermediate species and carbonyl groups in the polymer repeating units. SEM and AFM analyses highlighted that the obtained materials were nanostructurated hybrids. To evaluate the biological properties of the hybrids, their bioactivity and cytotoxicity were investigated as a function of the PCL amount. The bioactivity of the synthesized systems was proven by the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of samples soaked in a fluid simulating human blood plasma (SBF). MTT cytotoxicity tests and Trypan Blue dye exclusion tests were carried out exposing NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts for 24 and 48 h to extracts from the investigated hybrid materials. The results showed that all the hybrids had a non-cytotoxic effect on target cells. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrids were obtained by the sol–gel process for biomedical applications. • Synthesized materials were found to be first-class hybrid nanocomposites. • Hybrids appear to be bioactive, a fundamental characteristic for osseointegration. • MTT and Trypan Blue viability test show that the materials are biocompatible. • The organic phase is able to modulate the biocompatibility of the materials.

  4. Copy number variation in CEP57L1 predisposes to congenital absence of bilateral ACL and PCL ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yichuan; Li, Yun; March, Michael E; Nguyen, Kenny; Kenny, Nguyen; Xu, Kexiang; Wang, Fengxiang; Guo, Yiran; Keating, Brendan; Glessner, Joseph; Li, Jiankang; Ganley, Theodore J; Zhang, Jianguo; Deardorff, Matthew A; Xu, Xun; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-11-11

    Absence of the anterior (ACL) or posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) are rare congenital malformations that result in knee joint instability, with a prevalence of 1.7 per 100,000 live births and can be associated with other lower-limb abnormalities such as ACL agnesia and absence of the menisci of the knee. While a few cases of absence of ACL/PCL are reported in the literature, a number of large familial case series of related conditions such as ACL agnesia suggest a potential underlying monogenic etiology. We performed whole exome sequencing of a family with two individuals affected by ACL/PCL. We identified copy number variation (CNV) deletion impacting the exon sequences of CEP57L1, present in the affected mother and her affected daughter based on the exome sequencing data. The deletion was validated using quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the gene was confirmed to be expressed in ACL ligament tissue. Interestingly, we detected reduced expression of CEP57L1 in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) cells from the two patients in comparison with healthy controls. Evaluation of 3D protein structure showed that the helix-binding sites of the protein remain intact with the deletion, but other functional binding sites related to microtubule attachment are missing. The specificity of the CNV deletion was confirmed by showing that it was absent in ~700 exome sequencing samples as well as in the database of genomic variations (DGV), a database containing large numbers of annotated CNVs from previous scientific reports. We identified a novel CNV deletion that was inherited through an autosomal dominant transmission from an affected mother to her affected daughter, both of whom suffered from the absence of the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments of the knees.

  5. Codelivery of curcumin and doxorubicin by MPEG-PCL results in improved efficacy of systemically administered chemotherapy in mice with lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang BL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bi-Lan Wang,1,* Yong-mei Shen,1,3,* Qiong-wen Zhang,1,* Yu-li Li,1 Min Luo,1 Ze Liu,1,2 Yan Li,1 Zhi-yong Qian,1 Xiang Gao,1 Hua-shan Shi1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medicine School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Department of Head and Neck Oncology, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 3Sichuang Haoyisheng Pharmacy, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Systemic administration of chemotherapy for cancer often has toxic side effects, limiting the doses that can be used in its treatment. In this study, we developed methoxy poly(ethylene glycol-poly(caprolactone (MPEG-PCL micelles loaded with curcumin and doxorubicin (Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL that were tolerated by recipient mice and had enhanced antitumor effects and fewer side effects. It was shown that these Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles could release curcumin and doxorubicin slowly in vitro. The long circulation time of MPEG-PCL micelles and the slow rate of release of curcumin and doxorubicin in vivo may help to maintain plasma concentrations of active drug. We also demonstrated that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL had improved antitumor effects both in vivo and in vitro. The mechanism by which Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles inhibit lung cancer might involve increased apoptosis of tumor cells and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. We found advantages using Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles in the treatment of cancer, with Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL achieving better inhibition of LL/2 lung cancer growth in vivo and in vitro. Our study indicates that Cur-Dox/MPEG-PCL micelles may be an effective treatment strategy for cancer in the future. Keywords: methoxy poly(ethylene glycol, poly(caprolactone, curcumin, doxorubicin, micelles, cancer, treatment

  6. Data on physicochemical properties of active films derived from plantain flour/PCL blends developed under reactive extrusion conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy J. Gutiérrez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data given below relates to the research paper entitled: “Eco-friendly films prepared from plantain flour/PCL blends under reactive extrusion conditions using zirconium octanoate as a catalyst”, recently published by our research group [1]. This article provides information concerning the physicochemical properties of the above-mentioned film systems: thickness, density, opacity, moisture content and surface moisture. Keywords: Active films, Antimicrobial properties, Cross-linking, Poly(ε-caprolactone, Starchy

  7. Osteogenic activity of cyclodextrin-encapsulated doxycycline in a calcium phosphate PCL and PLGA composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trajano, V.C.C.; Costa, K.J.R. [Restorative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, CEP: 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Lanza, C.R.M. [Department of Oral Clinical, Surgery and Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, CEP: 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Sinisterra, R.D. [Chemistry Department, ICEX, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, CEP: 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Cortés, M.E., E-mail: mecortes@ufmg.br [Restorative Dentistry Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, CEP: 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Composites of biodegradable polymers and calcium phosphate are bioactive and flexible, and have been proposed for use in tissue engineering and bone regeneration. When associated with the broad-spectrum antibiotic doxycycline (DOX), they could favor antimicrobial action and enhance the action of osteogenic composites. Composites of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and a bioceramic of biphasic calcium phosphate Osteosynt® (BCP) were loaded with DOX encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and were evaluated for effects on osteoblastic cell cultures. The DOX/βCD composite was prepared with a double mixing method. Osteoblast viability was assessed with methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assays after 1 day, 7 day, and 14 days of composite exposure; alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and collagen production were evaluated after 7 days and 14 days, and mineral nodule formation after 14 days. Composite structures were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoblasts exposed to the composite containing 25 μg/mL DOX/βCD had increased cell proliferation (p < 0.05) compared to control osteoblast cultures at all experimental time points, reaching a maximum in the second week. AP activity and collagen secretion levels were also elevated in osteoblasts exposed to the DOX/βCD composite (p < 0.05 vs. controls) and reached a maximum after 14 days. These results were corroborated by Von Kossa test results, which showed strong formation of mineralization nodules during the same time period. SEM of the composite material revealed a surface topography with pore sizes suitable for growing osteoblasts. Together, these results suggest that osteoblasts are viable, proliferative, and osteogenic in the presence of a DOX/βCD-containing BCP ceramic composite. - Highlights: • Doxycycline encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin was incorpored into a polycaprolactone - poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) - calcium phosphate • Composite’s scaffold carrying doxycycline

  8. Using MMPI-2-RF Correlates to Elucidate the PCL-R and Its Four Facets in a Sample of Male Forensic Psychiatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein Haneveld, Evelyn; Kamphuis, Jan H; Smid, Wineke; Forbey, Johnathan D

    2017-01-01

    This study documents the associations between the MMPI-2-RF (Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008 ) scale scores and the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R; Hare, 2003 ) facet scores in a forensic psychiatric sample. Objectives were to determine how the MMPI-2-RF scales might enhance substantive understanding of the nature of the 4 PCL-R facets and to discern possible implications for the treatment of psychopathic patients. A sample of 127 male forensic psychiatric offenders admitted to a Dutch forensic psychiatric hospital completed the PCL-R and the MMPI-2. Exploratory stepwise regression analyses assessed the prediction of the PCL-R total and its facet scores from MMPI-2-RF scales at its 3 hierarchical levels. Conceptually meaningful results emerged at each level of the MMPI-2-RF hierarchy, including several consistent differences between predictor sets across the facets. Interestingly, ideas of persecution (RC6) was a specific predictor of PCL-R Facet 2, a facet noted for its association with treatment failure. Results are compared and contrasted to the extant body of empirical work to date, and some tentative clinical implications are offered.

  9. Acetal-Linked Paclitaxel Polymeric Prodrug Based on Functionalized mPEG-PCL Diblock Polymer for pH-Triggered Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinglei Zhai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences in micro-environment between cancer cells and the normal ones offer the possibility to develop stimuli-responsive drug-delivery systems for overcoming the drawbacks in the clinical use of anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel, doxorubicin, and etc. Hence, we developed a novel endosomal pH-sensitive paclitaxel (PTX prodrug micelles based on functionalized poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (mPEG-PCL diblock polymer with an acid-cleavable acetal (Ace linkage (mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX. The mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX5 with a high drug content of 23.5 wt % was self-assembled in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4, 10 mM into nanosized micelles with an average diameter of 68.5 nm. The in vitro release studies demonstrated that mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX5 micelles was highly pH-sensitive, in which 16.8%, 32.8%, and 48.2% of parent free PTX was released from mPEG-PCL-Ace-PTX5 micelles in 48 h at pH 7.4, 6.0, and 5.0, respectively. Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide (MTT assays suggested that the pH-sensitive PTX prodrug micelles displayed higher therapeutic efficacy against MCF-7 cells compared with free PTX. Therefore, the PTX prodrug micelles with acetal bond may offer a promising strategy for cancer therapy.

  10. Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5) in veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovin, Michelle J; Marx, Brian P; Weathers, Frank W; Gallagher, Matthew W; Rodriguez, Paola; Schnurr, Paula P; Keane, Terence M

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5; Weathers, Litz, et al., 2013b) in 2 independent samples of veterans receiving care at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 468). A subsample of these participants (n = 140) was used to define a valid diagnostic cutoff score for the instrument using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5; Weathers, Blake, et al., 2013) as the reference standard. The PCL-5 test scores demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .96), test-retest reliability (r = .84), and convergent and discriminant validity. Consistent with previous studies (Armour et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2014), confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the data were best explained by a 6-factor anhedonia model and a 7-factor hybrid model. Signal detection analyses using the CAPS-5 revealed that PCL-5 scores of 31 to 33 were optimally efficient for diagnosing PTSD (κ(.5) = .58). Overall, the findings suggest that the PCL-5 is a psychometrically sound instrument that can be used effectively with veterans. Further, by determining a valid cutoff score using the CAPS-5, the PCL-5 can now be used to identify veterans with probable PTSD. However, findings also suggest the need for research to evaluate cluster structure of DSM-5. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Fluorescent, thermo-responsive biotin-P(NIPAAm-co-NDAPM)- b-PCL micelles for cell-tracking and drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongyong; Zhang Xianzheng; Cheng Han; Zhu Jingling; Li Unnam; Cheng Sixue; Zhuo Renxi

    2007-01-01

    An amphiphilic, biotinylated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-N-(3-dimethylamino propyl)methacrylamide)-block- poly(ε-caprolactone) (biotin-P(NIPAAm-co-NDAPM)- b-PCL) block copolymer was synthesized. The cytotoxicity study showed that the copolymer exhibited no apparent cytotoxicity. In aqueous solution, biotin-P(NIPAAm-co-NDAPM)- b-PCL copolymer was able to self-assemble into micelles of around 60 nm in diameter with a critical micellar concentration (CMC) of 36 mg l -1 . Biotin-P(NIPAAm- co-NDAPM)-b-PCL micelles were thermo-responsive and the cloud point temperature was at 36.5 deg. C. The fluorescent group, fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was further introduced to label the biotin-P(NIPAAm-co-NDAPM)- b-PCL copolymer. A cell internalization experiment was conducted and it was found that the fluorescent micelles could be internalized into the cells. The drug release behavior of drug-loading micelles was also examined and the drug-loaded biotin-P(NIPAAm-co-NDAPM)- b-PCL micelles showed slow drug release at 27 deg. C and fast drug release at 37 deg. C

  12. Association between the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians Score and Mortality in Patients with Isolated Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-12-03

    Background: The purpose of this study was to use a propensity score-matched analysis to investigate the association between the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) scores and clinical outcomes of patients with isolated moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: The study population comprised 7855 patients aged ≥40 years who were hospitalized for treatment of isolated moderate and severe TBI (an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥3 points only in the head and not in other regions of the body) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014. Patients were categorized as high-risk (OSTA score -1; n = 5359). Two-sided Pearson's chi-squared, or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare categorical data. Unpaired Student's t -test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to analyze normally and non-normally distributed continuous data, respectively. Propensity score-matching in a 1:1 ratio was performed using NCSS software, with adjustment for covariates. Results: Compared to low-risk patients, high- and medium-risk patients were significantly older and injured more severely. The high- and medium-risk patients had significantly higher mortality rates, longer hospital length of stay, and a higher proportion of admission to the intensive care unit than low-risk patients. Analysis of propensity score-matched patients with adjusted covariates, including gender, co-morbidity, blood alcohol concentration level, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and Injury Severity Score revealed that high- and medium-risk patients still had a 2.4-fold (odds ratio (OR), 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.39-4.15; p = 0.001) and 1.8-fold (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.19-2.86; p = 0.005) higher mortality, respectively, than low-risk patients. However, further addition of age as a covariate for the propensity score-matching demonstrated that there was no significant difference between high-risk and low-risk patients or between medium-risk and low-risk patients, implying that older age

  13. A Solvent-Free Surface Suspension Melt Technique for Making Biodegradable PCL Membrane Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratima Suntornnond

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In tissue engineering, there is limited availability of a simple, fast and solvent-free process for fabricating micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds. This paper presents the first report of a novel surface suspension melt technique to fabricate a micro-porous thin membrane scaffolds without using any organic solvent. Briefly, a layer of polycaprolactone (PCL particles is directly spread on top of water in the form of a suspension. After that, with the use of heat, the powder layer is transformed into a melted layer, and following cooling, a thin membrane is obtained. Two different sizes of PCL powder particles (100 µm and 500 µm are used. Results show that membranes made from 100 µm powders have lower thickness, smaller pore size, smoother surface, higher value of stiffness but lower ultimate tensile load compared to membranes made from 500 µm powder. C2C12 cell culture results indicate that the membrane supports cell growth and differentiation. Thus, this novel membrane generation method holds great promise for tissue engineering.

  14. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite-baghdadite nanocomposite scaffolds coated by PCL/Bioglass with polyurethane polymeric sponge technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Karamian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objecttive (s: Silicate bioceramics like Baghdadite with chemical formula Ca3ZrSi2O9, has attracted the attention of researchers in biomedical field due to its remarkable in-vitro and in-vivo bioactivity and mechanical properties.Materials and Methods: Therefore, in the current study the baghdadite powder with Sol-Gel method was synthesized. Then, hydroxyapatite/Baghdadite (HA/Bagh scaffolds were prepared by the replacing the polyurethane polymeric sponge technique. Afterwhile, the ceramic scaffolds were sintered at 1150ºC for 3 h. The prepared scaffold was then coated by polycaprolactone/bioglass (PCL/BG polymer nanocomposite. Results: Bioactivity and biomineralization in the simulated body fluid (SBF revealed that the nanocomposite scaffolds coate with PCL/BG had significant bioactivity properties. The morophology and microstructure investigation of soaked samples in SBF indicate that bone-like apatite formed on the surfaces. Also, ion release in SBF containing the scaffolds was measured by inductively coupled plasma (ICP analysis. The nucleation positions of apatite crystals were areas with high silicon containing, Si+4 ion positions.Conclusion: The study indicates that scaffold containing 30 wt. % baghdadite had proper bioactivity behaviordue to its ability to form bone-like apatite on the surface of specimens.

  15. Assessing Psychopathy Among Justice Involved Adolescents with the PCL: YV: An Item Response Theory Examination Across Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Siny; Schmidt, Karen M.; Vincent, Gina M.; Salekin, Randall T.; Moretti, Marlene M.; Odgers, Candice L.

    2014-01-01

    This study used an item response theory (IRT) model and a large adolescent sample of justice involved youth (N = 1,007, 38% female) to examine the item functioning of the Psychopathy Checklist – Youth Version (PCL: YV). Items that were most discriminating (or most sensitive to changes) of the latent trait (thought to be psychopathy) among adolescents included “Glibness/superficial charm”, “Lack of remorse”, and “Need for stimulation”, whereas items that were least discriminating included “Pathological lying”, “Failure to accept responsibility”, and “Lacks goals.” The items “Impulsivity” and “Irresponsibility” were the most likely to be rated high among adolescents, whereas “Parasitic lifestyle”, and “Glibness/superficial charm” were the most likely to be rated low. Evidence of differential item functioning (DIF) on four of the 13 items was found between boys and girls. “Failure to accept responsibility” and “Impulsivity” were endorsed more frequently to describe adolescent girls than boys at similar levels of the latent trait, and vice versa for “Grandiose sense of self-worth” and “Lacks goals.” The DIF findings suggest that four PCL: YV items function differently between boys and girls. PMID:25580672

  16. Protective effects of Hericium erinaceus mycelium and its isolated erinacine A against ischemia-injury-induced neuronal cell death via the inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and nitrotyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kam-Fai; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Teng, Chih-Chuan; Shen, Chien-Heng; Hsieh, Meng-Chiao; Lu, Chien-Chang; Lee, Ko-Chao; Lee, Li-Ya; Chen, Wan-Ping; Chen, Chin-Chu; Huang, Wen-Shih; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2014-08-27

    Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM) were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and homologous protein (CHOP) expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP.

  17. Protective Effects of Hericium erinaceus Mycelium and Its Isolated Erinacine A against Ischemia-Injury-Induced Neuronal Cell Death via the Inhibition of iNOS/p38 MAPK and Nitrotyrosine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Fai Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus, an edible mushroom, has been demonstrated to potentiate the effects of numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether H. erinaceus mycelium could act as an anti-inflammatory agent to bring about neuroprotection using a model of global ischemic stroke and the mechanisms involved. Rats were treated with H. erinaceus mycelium and its isolated diterpenoid derivative, erinacine A, after ischemia reperfusion brain injuries caused by the occlusion of the two common carotid arteries. The production of inflammatory cytokines in serum and the infracted volume of the brain were measured. The proteins from the stroke animal model (SAM were evaluated to determine the effect of H. erinaceus mycelium. H. erinaceus mycelium reduced the total infarcted volumes by 22% and 44% at a concentration of 50 and 300 mg/kg, respectively, compared to the SAM group. The levels of acute inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor á, were all reduced by erinacine A. Levels of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and CCAAT enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP and homologous protein (CHOP expression were attenuated by erinacine A. Moreover, the modulation of ischemia injury factors present in the SAM model by erinacine A seemed to result in the suppression of reactive nitrogen species and the downregulation of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP. These findings confirm the nerve-growth properties of Hericium erinaceus mycelium, which include the prevention of ischemic injury to neurons; this protective effect seems to be involved in the in vivo activity of iNOS, p38 MAPK and CHOP.

  18. Production of CNT-taxol-embedded PCL microspheres using an ammonium-based room temperature ionic liquid: as a sustained drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Yeol; Hwang, Ji-Young; Seo, Jae-Won; Shin, Ueon Sang

    2015-03-15

    We describe a one-pot method for the mass production of polymeric microspheres containing water-soluble carbon-nanotube (w-CNT)-taxol complexes using an ammonium-based room temperature ionic liquid. Polycaprolactone (PCL), trioctylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC; liquid state from -20 to 240°C), and taxol were used, respectively, as a model polymer, room temperature ionic liquid, and drug. Large quantities of white colored PCL powder without w-CNT-taxol complexes and gray colored PCL powders containing w-CNT-taxol (1:1 or 1:2 wt/wt) complexes were produced by phase separation between the hydrophilic TOMAC and the hydrophobic PCL. Both microsphere types had a uniform, spherical structure of average diameter 3-5μm. The amount of taxol embedded in PCL microspheres was determined by HPLC and (1)H NMR to be 8-12μg per 1.0mg of PCL (loading capacity (LC): 0.8-1.2%; entrapment efficiency (EE): 16-24%). An in vitro HPLC release assay showed sustain release of taxol without an initial burst over 60days at an average rate of 0.003-0.0073mg per day. The viability patterns of human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) for PCTx-1 and -2 showed dose-dependent inhibitory effects. In the presence of PCTx-1 and -2, the MCF-7 cells showed high viability in the concentration level of, respectably, <70 and <5μg/mL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of 3D printed PCL/PLGA/β-TCP versus collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration in a beagle implant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, J-Y; Park, C-Y; Bae, J-H; Ahn, G; Kim, C; Lim, D-H; Cho, D-W; Yun, W-S; Shim, J-H; Huh, J-B

    2016-10-07

    Here, we compared 3D-printed polycaprolactone/poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)/β-tricalcium phosphate (PCL/PLGA/β-TCP) membranes with the widely used collagen membranes for guided bone regeneration (GBR) in beagle implant models. For mechanical property comparison in dry and wet conditions and cytocompatibility determination, we analyzed the rate and pattern of cell proliferation of seeded fibroblasts and preosteoblasts using the cell counting kit-8 assay and scanning electron microscopy. Osteogenic differentiation was verified using alizarin red S staining. At 8 weeks following implantation in vivo using beagle dogs, computed tomography and histological analyses were performed after sacrifice. Cell proliferation rates in vitro indicated that early cell attachment was higher in collagen than in PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes; however, the difference subsided by day 7. Similar outcomes were found for osteogenic differentiation, with approximately 2.5 times greater staining in collagen than PCL/PLGA/β-TCP, but without significant difference by day 14. In vivo, bone regeneration in the defect area, represented by new bone formation and bone-to-implant contact, paralleled those associated with collagen membranes. However, tensile testing revealed that whereas the PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane mechanical properties were conserved in both wet and dry states, the tensile property of collagen was reduced by 99% under wet conditions. Our results demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes have similar levels of biocompatibility and bone regeneration as collagen membranes. In particular, considering that GBR is always applied to a wet environment (e.g. blood, saliva), we demonstrated that PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes maintained their form more reliably than collagen membranes in a wet setting, confirming their appropriateness as a GBR membrane.

  20. ORBITAL INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kansky

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbit is involved in 40% of all facial fractures. There is considerable variety in severity, ranging from simple nondisplaced to complex comminuted fractures. Complex comminuted fractures (up to 20% are responsible for the majority of complications and unfavorable results. Orbital fractures are classified as internal orbital fractures, zygomatico-orbital fractures, naso-orbito-ethmoidal fractures and combined fractures. The ophtalmic sequelae of midfacial fractures are usually edema and ecchymosis of the soft tissues, subconjuctival hemorrhage, diplopia, iritis, retinal edema, ptosis, enophthalmos, ocular muscle paresis, mechanical restriction of ocular movement and nasolacrimal disturbances. More severe injuries such as optic nerve trauma and retinal detachments have also been reported. Within the wide range of orbital fractures small group of complex fractures causes most of the sequelae. Therefore identification of severe injuries and adequate treatment is of major importance. The introduction of craniofacial techniques made possible a wide exposure even of large orbital wall defects and their reconstruction by bone grafts. In spite of significant progress, repair of complex orbital wall defects remains a problem even for the experienced surgeons.Results. In 1999 121 facial injuries were treated at our department (Clinical Centre Ljubljana Dept. Of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery. Orbit was involved in 65% of cases. Isolated inner orbital fractures presented 4% of all fractures. 17 (14% complex cases were treated, 5 of them being NOE, 5 orbital (frame and inner walls, 3 zygomatico-orbital, 2 FNO and 2 maxillo-orbital fractures.Conclusions. Final result of the surgical treatment depends on severity of maxillofacial trauma. Complex comminuted fractures are responsable for most of the unfavorable results and ocular function is often permanently damaged (up to 75% in these fractures.

  1. Unique paradoxical atlantoaxial dislocation with C1-C2 facet diastases and isolated ligamentous injury to the craniovertebral junction without neurological deficits: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddha Thekkatte Jagannatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Study design: Retrospective review of the case file. Objective: The primary objective was to report this rare case and discuss the mechanism of dislocation and technique of manual closed reduction of C1-C2 vertebrae in such scenarios. Summary of background data: Posterior atlantoaxial dislocation (AAD is extremely rare and a few cases have been reported in English literature. This young man sustained a high speed car accident and survived an extreme hyperextension injury to the craniovertebral junction (CVJ without any neurological deficits. On evaluation for neck pain he was noted with a dislocated odontoid lying in front of Atlas. There was C1-C2 facet diastases. No bony injury was noted at CVJ. Transverse axial ligament (TAL was intact. He underwent a successful awake reduction of the dislocation. The joint had to be manually distracted, realigned, and released under the guidance of fluoroscopy. This was followed by single stage C1-C2 Goel′s fusion with awake prone positioning. This patient was able to go back to work at the end of 3 months (GOS 5. Conclusions: This condition is extremely rare, can be carefully reduced manually under adequate neuromonitoring, and requires C1-C2 fusion in the same sitting.

  2. Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper ... can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are Sprains and strains Knee injuries Swollen ...

  3. Golf Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Golf Injuries Golf looks like an easy game to ... WHAT TYPES OF INJURIES ARE MOST COMMON IN GOLF? Acute injuries are usually the result of a ...

  4. Developing the PTSD Checklist-I/F for the DSM-IV (PCL-I/F: Assessing PTSD Symptom Frequency and Intensity in a Pilot Study of Male Veterans with Combat-Related PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Holliday

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The widely used posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD Checklist (PCL has established reliability and validity, but it does not differentiate posttraumatic symptom frequency from intensity as elements of posttraumatic symptom severity. Thus, the PCL in its existing form may not provide a comprehensive appraisal of posttraumatic symptomatology. Because of this, we modified the PCL to create the PCL-I/F that measures both frequency and intensity of PTSD symptoms via brief self-report. To establish validity and internal consistency of the PCL-I/F, we conducted a pilot study comparing PCL-I/F scores to structured diagnostic interview for PTSD (the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale [CAPS] in a male combat veteran sample of 92 participants. Statistically significant correlations between the PCL-I/F and the CAPS were found, suggesting initial validation of the PCL-I/F to screen and assess frequency and intensity of combat-related PTSD symptoms. Implications are discussed for screening and assessment of PTSD related to combat and non-combat trauma.

  5. CT-based injury classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirvis, S.E.; Whitley, N.O.; Vainright, J.; Gens, D.

    1988-01-01

    Review of preoperative abdominal CT scans obtained in adults after blunt trauma during a 2.5-year period demonstrated isolated or predominant liver injury in 35 patients and splenic injury in 33 patients. CT-based injury scores, consisting of five levels of hepatic injury and four levels of splenic injury, were correlated with clinical outcome and surgical findings. Hepatic injury grades I-III, present in 33 of 35 patients, were associated with successful nonsurgical management in 27 (82%) or with findings at celiotomy not requiring surgical intervention in four (12%). Higher grades of splenic injury generally required early operative intervention, but eight (36%) of 22 patients with initial grade III or IV injury were managed without surgery, while four (36%) of 11 patients with grade I or II injury required delayed celiotomy and splenectomy (three patients) or emergent rehospitalization (one patient). CT-based injury classification is useful in guiding the nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injury in hemodynamically stable adults but appears to be less reliable in predicting the outcome of blunt splenic injury

  6. Attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury by sevoflurane postconditioning involves protein kinase B and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta activation in isolated rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Neng-Xin; Yao, Yun-Tai; Shi, Chun-Xia; Li, Li-Huan

    2010-12-01

    Volatile anesthetic ischemic postconditioning reduces infarct size following ischemia/reperfusion. Whether phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β) is causal for cardioprotection by postconditioning is controversial. We therefore investigated the impact of PKB/Akt and GSK3β in isolated perfused rat hearts subjected to 40 min of ischemia followed by 1 h of reperfusion. 2.0% sevoflurane (1.0 minimum alveolar concentration) was administered at the onset of reperfusion in 15 min as postconditioning. Western blot analysis was used to determine phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and its downstream target GSK3β after 1 h of reperfusion. Mitochondrial and cytosolic content of cytochrome C checked by western blot served as a marker for mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. Sevoflurane postconditioning significantly improved functional cardiac recovery and decreased infarct size in isolated rat hearts. Compared with unprotected hearts, sevoflurane postconditioning-induced phosphorylation of PKB/Akt and GSK3β were significantly increased. Increase of cytochrome C in mitochondria and decrease of it in cytosol is significant when compared with unprotected ones which have reversal effects on cytochrome C. The current study presents evidence that sevoflurane-induced cardioprotection at the onset of reperfusion are partly through activation of PKB/Akt and GSK3β.

  7. Ankle ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A.F.H. Renström

    1998-06-01

    that is refractory to conservative measures and bracing as outlined above, surgical treatment must address the subtalar joint as well. Subtalar ligament injury and instability are probably more common than appreciated. Definition and diagnosis of this entity are difficult, however. Fortunately, it appears that in the majority of the acute injuries healing occurs with the same functional rehabilitation program as that for lateral ankle ligament sprains. For chronic subtalar instability an intial attempt at functional rehabilitation with ankle proprioceptive training and bracing should be attempted. If this program fails primary repair or reconstruction can be beneficial. Reconstructive procedures must address the subtalar joint. Subtalar instability often occurs in conjunction with talocrural instability, so careful diagnosis is critical in anyone with chronic ankle instability. If either is not addressed, the patient will continue to have problems. Deltoid ligament injuries most often occur in association with ankle fractures. They are rare as isolated injuries. If no fracture is evident on radiographs, particular attention must be paid to the syndesmosis to ensure there is not an associated syndesmosis disruption. True isolated deltoid injuries seem to do well with non-operative functional treatment as for lateral ankle ligament injuries. Deltoid ruptures associated with ankle fractures appear to heal well by addressing the other injuries and allowing the deltoid to heal on its own. It is vital to correct any syndesmosis injury and to obtain correct bony alignment. Syndesmosis injuries can be debilitating if not treated properly. Careful physical exam and interpretation of radiographs is necessary to obtain a correct diagnosis. Partial injuries appear to do well with functional rehabilitation. However, complete tears, if widening is not corrected, can lead to chronic ankle pain and early degenerative changes. Widening of the syndesmosis with a tear of the inferior

  8. Genetic and functional characterization of the gene cluster directing the biosynthesis of putisolvin I and II in Pseudomonas putida strain PCL1445

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubern, J.F.; Coppoolse, E.R.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bloemberg, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida PCL1445 secretes two cyclic lipopeptides, putisolvin I and putisolvin II, which possess a surface-tension-reducing ability, and are able to inhibit biofilm formation and to break down biofilms of Pseudomonas species including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The putisolvin synthetase gene

  9. Immobilization of cross linked Col-I–OPN bone matrix protein on aminolysed PCL surfaces enhances initial biocompatibility of human adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Hee; Jyoti, Md. Anirban; Song, Ho-Yeon, E-mail: songmic@sch.ac.kr

    2014-06-01

    In bone tissue engineering surface modification is considered as one of the important ways of fabricating successful biocompatible material. Addition of biologically active functionality on the surfaces has been tried for improving the overall biocompatibility of the system. In this study poly-ε-caprolactone film surfaces have been modified through aminolysis and immobilization process. Collagen type I (COL-I) and osteopontin (OPN), which play an important role in osteogenesis, was immobilized onto PCL films followed by aminolysis treatment using 1,6-hexanediamine. Characterization of animolysed and immobilized surfaces were done by a number techniques using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FT-IR, XPS, ninhydrin staining, SDS-PAGE and confocal microscopy and compared between the modified and un-modified surfaces. Results of the successive experiments showed that aminolysis treatment was homogeneously achieved which helped to entrap or immobilize Col-I–OPN proteins on surfaces of PCL film. In vitro studies with human adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (hADMSC) also confirmed the attachment and proliferation of cells was better in modified PCL surfaces than the unmodified surfaces. SEM, confocal microscopy and MTT assay showed a significant increase in cell spreading, attachment and proliferations on the biofunctionalized surfaces compared to the unmodified PCL surfaces at all-time points indicating the success of surface biofunctionalization.

  10. Polydopamine-Functionalized CA-(PCL-ran-PLA) Nanoparticles for Target Delivery of Docetaxel and Chemo-photothermal Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Na; Deng, Mei; Sun, Xiu-Na; Chen, Yi-Ding; Sui, Xin-Bing

    2018-01-01

    Current limitations of cancer therapy include the lack of effective strategy for target delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs, and the difficulty of achieving significant efficacy by single treatment. Herein, we reported a synergistic chemo-photothermal strategy based on aptamer (Apt)-polydopamine (pD) functionalized CA-(PCL-ran-PLA) nanoparticles (NPs) for effective delivery of docetaxel (DTX) and enhanced therapeutic effect. The developed DTX-loaded Apt-pD-CA-(PCL-ran-PLA) NPs achieved promising advantages, such as (i) improved drug loading content (LC) and encapsulation efficiency (EE) initiated by star-shaped copolymer CA-(PCL-ran-PLA); (ii) effective target delivery of drugs to tumor sites by incorporating AS1411 aptamers; (iii) significant therapeutic efficacy caused by synergistic chemo-photothermal treatment. In addition, the pD coating strategy with simple procedures could address the contradiction between targeting modification and maintaining formerly excellent bio-properties. Therefore, with excellent bio-properties and simple preparation procedures, the DTX-loaded Apt-pD-CA-(PCL-ran-PLA) NPs effectively increased the local drug concentration in tumor sites, minimized side effects, and significantly eliminated tumors, indicating the promising application of these NPs for cancer therapy. PMID:29527167

  11. Biodegradation of blend films PVA/PVC, PVA/PCL in soil and soil with landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biodegradation of blends films of poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(vinyl chloride (PVA/PVC and poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(caprolactone (PVA/PCL blends films prepared with dimethylformamide under a variety of conditions by respirometry, spectrophotometry (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and contact angle. The films were buried in the garden soil and in the soil mixed with the landfill leachate for 120 days at 28ºC. Significant levels of biodegradation were achieved in fairly short incubation times in the soil. The results indicated that PVA was the most biodegradable film in the soil and in the soil with the leachate.

  12. Fabrication and durable antibacterial properties of 3D porous wet electrospun RCSC/PCL nanofibrous scaffold with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Mei; Lin, Han [Alan G. MacDiarmid Laboratory, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang, Yilong [College of Quartermaster Technology, Jilin University, Changchun, 130062 (China); Yang, Guang [Norman Bethune First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China); Zhao, He [Alan G. MacDiarmid Laboratory, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Sun, Dahui, E-mail: sundahui1971@sina.com [Norman Bethune First Hospital, Jilin University, Changchun 130021 (China)

    2017-08-31

    Highlights: • Ranachensinensis skin collagen (RCSC) was used with molecular weight 105∼250KDa. • Wet electrospinning was successfully improved and was used to produce 3D porous structure materials with about 90% porosity. • AgNPs was loaded in AgNPs dispersion liquid. - Abstract: Electrospunnanofibers are used as three-dimensional (3D) scaffold materials that can alter cell attachment and cell proliferation, change the antibacterial properties of materials, and can be used as wound dressings. But the fabrication of porous 3D scaffold structure and the antibacterial properties enhancing are challenges remained to improve. With the states here, a Ranachensinensis skin collagen (RCSC)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)AgNP-loaded3D nanofiber scaffold is fabricated as a wound dressing material by using an improved wet electrospinning method (blending). The nanoscale of the AgNPs is proved. The 3D porous morphologies of the materials with different AgNP loadings, are determined with field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and the presence and uniformity distribution of AgNPs is confirmed by Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The silver-ion release rates, antibacterial properties, and cytotoxicities of dressing materials with different AgNP contents are evaluated using ICP-AES, the zone inhibition method, and MTT testing. These results showed that the improved wet electrospun is an effective way to fabricate AgNP loaded 3D scaffold materials with porous structure and nearly 90% porosity and the presence of AgNPs in dressing materials strengthen the antibacterial properties. The RCSC/PCL 3D scaffold materials containing 2.0%AgNP would be promising for dressing materials application nearly without cytotoxicities.

  13. Protective Effects of Kaempferol against Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Isolated Rat Heart via Antioxidant Activity and Inhibition of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mingjie; Ren, Huanhuan; Wang, Wenjuan; Zheng, Qiusheng; Wang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of kaempferol against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Method. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and its maximum up/down rate (±dp/dt max) were recorded as myocardial function. Infarct size was detected with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was determined using terminal deoxynucleotidyl nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The levels of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione/glutathione disulfide (GSH/GSSG) ratio, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were determined using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, total glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β), phospho-GSK-3β (P-GSK-3β), precaspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, and cytoplasm cytochrome C were assayed using Western blot analysis. Results. Pretreatment with kaempferol significantly improved the recovery of LVDP and ±dp/dt max, as well as increased the levels of SOD and P-GSK-3β and GSH/GSSG ratio. However, the pretreatment reduced myocardial infarct size and TUNEL-positive cell rate, as well as decreased the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cytoplasm cytochrome C, CK, LDH, MDA, and TNF-α. Conclusion. These results suggested that kaempferol provides cardioprotection via antioxidant activity and inhibition of GSK-3β activity in rats with I/R. PMID:26265983

  14. Athletic Hip Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T Sean; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Historically, athletic hip injuries have garnered little attention; however, these injuries account for approximately 6% of all sports injuries and their prevalence is increasing. At times, the diagnosis and management of hip injuries can be challenging and elusive for the team physician. Hip injuries are seen in high-level athletes who participate in cutting and pivoting sports that require rapid acceleration and deceleration. Described previously as the "sports hip triad," these injuries consist of adductor strains, osteitis pubis, athletic pubalgia, or core muscle injury, often with underlying range-of-motion limitations secondary to femoroacetabular impingement. These disorders can happen in isolation but frequently occur in combination. To add to the diagnostic challenge, numerous intra-articular disorders and extra-articular soft-tissue restraints about the hip can serve as pain generators, in addition to referred pain from the lumbar spine, bowel, bladder, and reproductive organs. Athletic hip conditions can be debilitating and often require a timely diagnosis to provide appropriate intervention.

  15. Development of Emu oil-loaded PCL/collagen bioactive nanofibers for proliferation and stemness preservation of human adipose-derived stem cells: possible application in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Younes; Alizadeh, Effat; Ebrahimi-Kalan, Abbas; Mortazavi, Yousef; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2017-12-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are promising candidate in stem cell therapies, and maintaining their stemness potential is vital to achieve effective treatment. Natural-based scaffolds have been recently attracted increasing attention in nanomedicine and drug delivery. In the present study, a polymeric nanofibrous scaffold was developed based on the polycaprolactone/Collagen (PCL/Coll) containing Emu oil as a bioactive material to induce the proliferation of ASCs, while simultaneously preserving the stemness property of those cells. Fabrication of the electrospun Emu oil-loaded PCL/Coll nanofibers was confirmed by using FE-SEM, FTIR, and tensile test. ASCs were seeded on two types of nanofibers (PCL/Coll and Emu oil-loaded PCL/Coll) and their proliferation, cell cycle progression, and stemness gene expressions were evaluated using MTT, propidium iodide staining, and qPCR during 14 days, respectively. The results indicated that ASCs displayed improved adhesion capacity with the higher rates of bioactivity and proliferation on the Emu oil-loaded nanofibers than the other groups. The proliferation capacity of ASCs on Emu oil-loaded PCL/Coll nanofibers was further confirmed by the cell cycle progression analysis. It was also found that Emu oil-loaded nanofibers significantly up-regulated the expression of stemness markers including sox-2, nanog, oct4, klf4, and c-Myc. The results demonstrated that the nanofibers containing Emu oil can reinforce the cell adhesion and enhance ASCs proliferation while preserving their stemness; therefore, using scaffolds containing natural products may have a great potential to enhance the in vitro expansion capacity of ASCs in the field of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine.

  16. Role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel-mediated PKC-ε in delayed protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated hearts of sevoflurane-preconditioned rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, The Second Affiliate Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Hu, S.M. [Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Xie, H.; Qiao, S.G. [Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, The Second Affiliate Hospital, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, H. [Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of California Davis Health System, Davis, CA (United States); Liu, C.F. [Institute of Neuroscience, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2015-03-27

    This study aimed to determine the role of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (mitoK{sub ATP}) channels and protein kinase C (PKC)-ε in the delayed protective effects of sevoflurane preconditioning using Langendorff isolated heart perfusion models. Fifty-four isolated perfused rat hearts were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=9). The rats were exposed for 60 min to 2.5% sevoflurane (the second window of protection group, SWOP group) or 33% oxygen inhalation (I/R group) 24 h before coronary occlusion. The control group (CON) and the sevoflurane group (SEVO) group were exposed to 33% oxygen and 2.5% sevoflurane for 60 min, respectively, without coronary occlusion. The mitoK{sub ATP} channel inhibitor 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) was given 30 min before sevoflurane preconditioning (5-HD+SWOP group). Cardiac function indices, infarct sizes, serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations, and the expression levels of phosphorylated PKC-ε (p-PKC-ε) and caspase-8 were measured. Cardiac function was unchanged, p-PKC-ε expression was upregulated, caspase-8 expression was downregulated, cTnI concentrations were decreased, and the infarcts were significantly smaller (P<0.05) in the SWOP group compared with the I/R group. Cardiac function was worse, p-PKC-ε expression was downregulated, caspase-8 expression was upregulated, cTnI concentration was increased and infarcts were larger in the 5-HD+SWOP group (P<0.05) compared with the SWOP group. The results suggest that mitoK{sub ATP} channels are involved in the myocardial protective effects of sevoflurane in preconditioning against I/R injury, by regulating PKC-ε phosphorylation before ischemia, and by downregulating caspase-8 during reperfusion.

  17. Knee ligament injuries associated with long bone fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaseb M.H

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial and femoral fractures, commonly seen in emergency departments, may be associated with various knee ligament injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of such fracture-associated knee ligament problems, with especial attention to rapid diagnosis. Methods: This study was carried out in patients with femoral or tibial fractures who were operated on in Imam Khomeini Medical Center from March 2003 to March 2005. All patients underwent surgical repair immediately after acute fracture, followed by a thorough knee examination. Patients with positive clinical findings were further evaluated using the stress view and arthroscopy. Results: We enrolled 470 cases in this study, of which 266 were tibial and 204 were femoral fractures. There were 404 men and 67 women, with an average age of tibial fracture patients was 34.5 and 44.6 years for those with femoral fractures. Of all fractures, 66% were due to car accidents, 16% to industrial accidents and 8% due to falling. The overall prevalence of ligament injuries in tibial fractures was as follows: 6.58% ACL tearing, 2.5% PCL, 21.95% MCL and 14.63% LCL. The overall prevalence of ligament injuries in femoral fractures was as follows: 6% ACL tearing, 3% PCL, 14% MCL and 8% LCL. Conclusion: The prevalence of ligament injuries of the knee was highest in distal femoral and tibial plateau fractures. It is prudent to perform a thorough knee examination once the fracture is stabilized in the operating room for the early detection of ligament injuries and prevention of further complications.

  18. Injury Characteristics of Low-Energy Lisfranc Injuries Compared With High-Energy Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renninger, Christopher H; Cochran, Grant; Tompane, Trevor; Bellamy, Joseph; Kuhn, Kevin

    2017-09-01

    Lisfranc injuries result from high- and low-energy mechanisms though the literature has been more focused on high-energy mechanisms. A comparison of high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) injury patterns is lacking. The objective of this study was to report injury patterns in LE Lisfranc joint injuries and compare them to HE injury patterns. Operative Lisfranc injuries were identified over a 5-year period. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury pattern, associated injuries, missed diagnoses, clinical course, and imaging studies were reviewed and compared. HE mechanism was defined as motor vehicle crash, motorcycle crash, direct crush, and fall from greater than 4 feet and LE mechanism as athletic activity, ground level twisting, or fall from less than 4 feet. Thirty-two HE and 48 LE cases were identified with 19.3 months of average follow-up. There were no differences in demographics or missed diagnosis frequency (21% HE vs 18% LE). Time to seek care was not significantly different. HE injuries were more likely to have concomitant nonfoot fractures (37% vs 6%), concomitant foot fractures (78% vs 4%), cuboid fractures (31% vs 6%), metatarsal base fractures (84% vs 29%), displaced intra-articular fractures (59% vs 4%), and involvement of all 5 rays (23% vs 6%). LE injuries were more commonly ligamentous (68% vs 16%), with fewer rays involved (2.7 vs 4.1). LE mechanisms were a more common cause of Lisfranc joint injury in this cohort. These mechanisms generally resulted in an isolated, primarily ligamentous injury sparing the lateral column. Both types had high rates of missed injury that could result in delayed treatment. Differences in injury patterns could help direct future research to optimize treatment algorithms. Level III, comparative series.

  19. Effect of 2-dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) roots, on advanced glycation end-product-mediated renal injury in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ni; Lin, Xing; Wen, Qingwei; Kintoko; Zhang, Shijun; Huang, Jianchun; Xu, Xiaohui; Huang, Renbin

    2013-05-10

    The roots of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) have a long history of medical use in traditional Chinese medicine for treating diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. 2-Dodecyl-6-methoxycyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione (DMDD) was isolated from the tuberous roots of A. carambola L. The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of DMDD on the advanced glycation end-product-mediated renal injury in type 2 diabetic KKAy mice with regard to prove its efficacy by local traditional practitioners in the treatment of kidney frailties in diabetics. KKAy mice were orally administrated DMDD (12.5, 25, 50mg/kg body weight/d) or aminoguanidine (200mg/kg body weight/d) for 8 weeks. Hyperglycemia, renal AGE formation, and the expression of related proteins, such as the AGE receptor, nuclear factor-κB, transforming growth factor-β1, and N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine, were markedly decreased by DMDD. Diabetes-dependent alterations in proteinuria, serum creatinine, creatinine clearance, and serum urea-N and glomerular mesangial matrix expansion were attenuated after treatment with DMDD for 8 weeks. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, which are reduced in the kidneys of KKAy mice, were enhanced by DMDD. These findings suggest that DMDD may inhibit the progression of diabetic nephropathy and may be a therapeutic agent for regulating several pharmacological targets to treat or prevent of diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress-Induced Hyperglycemia, but Not Diabetic Hyperglycemia, Is Associated with Higher Mortality in Patients with Isolated Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Analysis of a Propensity Score-Matched Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Peng-Chen; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-11-03

    Background : Admission hyperglycemia is associated with higher morbidity and mortality in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Stress-induced hyperglycemia (SIH), a form of hyperglycemia induced by the stress response, is associated with increased patient mortality following TBI. However, admission hyperglycemia occurs not only in SIH but also in patients with diabetic hyperglycemia (DH). Current information regarding whether trauma patients with SIH represent a distinct group with differential outcomes compared to those with DH remains limited. Methods : Serum glucose concentration ≥200 mg/dL upon arrival at the emergency department was defined as hyperglycemia. Presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) was determined by patient history and/or admission glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥6.5%. In the present study, the patient cohort included those with moderate and severe TBI, as defined by an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score ≥3 points in the head, and excluded those who had additional AIS scores ≥3 points in any other region of the body. A total of 1798 adult patients with isolated moderate to severe TBI were allocated into four groups: SIH ( n = 140), DH ( n = 187), diabetic normoglycemia (DN, n = 186), and non-diabetic normoglycemia (NDN, n = 1285). Detailed patient information was retrieved from the Trauma Registry System at a level I trauma center between 1 January 2009, and 31 December 2015. Unpaired Student's t - and Mann-Whitney U -tests were used to analyze normally and non-normally distributed continuous data, respectively. Categorical data were compared using the Pearson chi-square or two-sided Fisher's exact tests. Matched patient populations were allocated in a 1:1 ratio according to propensity scores calculated by NCSS software. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the effect of SIH and DH on the adjusted mortality outcome. Results : In patients with isolated moderate to severe TBI, the presence of SIH and DH led to 9.1-fold and 2

  1. "Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5) in veterans": Correction to Bovin et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Reports an error in "Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5) in veterans" by Michelle J. Bovin, Brian P. Marx, Frank W. Weathers, Matthew W. Gallagher, Paola Rodriguez, Paula P. Schnurr and Terence M. Keane ( Psychological Assessment , 2016[Nov], Vol 28[11], 1379-1391). In the article, the departments and affiliations were incorrectly listed for authors Michelle J. Bovin, Brian P. Marx, Matthew W. Gallagher, Paola Rodriguez, Paula P. Schnurr, and Terence M. Keane. The first department and affiliation for authors Michelle J. Bovin, Brian P. Marx, Matthew W. Gallagher, Paola Rodriguez, and Terence M. Keane and should have read "National Center for PTSD at VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts". The first department and affiliation for author Paula P. Schnurr should have read "National Center for PTSD, White River Junction, Vermont." The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-55809-001.) This study examined the psychometric properties of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5; Weathers, Litz, et al., 2013b) in 2 independent samples of veterans receiving care at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 468). A subsample of these participants (n = 140) was used to define a valid diagnostic cutoff score for the instrument using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5; Weathers, Blake, et al., 2013) as the reference standard. The PCL-5 test scores demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .96), test-retest reliability (r = .84), and convergent and discriminant validity. Consistent with previous studies (Armour et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2014), confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the data were best explained by a 6-factor anhedonia model and a 7-factor hybrid model. Signal

  2. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  3. Ocular Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2015-04-02

    Apr 2, 2015 ... KEYWORDS: Bangers, eye injuries, holidays, Nigeria ... antibiotic and cycloplegic eye drops, antibiotic ointment at night and .... Adeoti C. O, Bello T. O., Ashaye A. O. Blinding ... Can fireworks-related injuries to children during ...

  4. ACL Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... while doing things like skiing, playing soccer or football, and jumping on a trampoline. When you injure ... severity of the injury, age, physical condition, medical history, and other injuries or illnesses. People who are ...

  5. Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Knee Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Knee Injuries What's in ... can do to protect them. What's in a Knee? The knee is a joint , actually the largest ...

  6. Female Service Members and Symptom Reporting after Combat and Non-Combat-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brickell, Tracey A; Lippa, Sara M; French, Louis M; Kennedy, Jan E; Bailie, Jason M; Lange, Rael T

    2017-01-15

    Females are often excluded from military-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) research because of its relatively low prevalence in this population. The purpose of this study was to focus on outcome from mTBI in female service members, compared with males. Participants were 172 United States military service members selected from a larger sample that had sustained an mTBI, and were evaluated within 24 months of injury (Age: mean = 28.9, SD = 8.1) at one of six military medical centers. Eighty-six women were matched to 86 men on nine key variables: TBI severity, mechanism of injury, bodily injury severity, days post-injury, age, number of deployments, theater where wounded, branch of service, and rank. Participants completed the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C). There were no meaningful gender differences across all demographic and injury-related variables (p > 0.05). There were significant group differences and medium effect sizes for the NSI total score and all four NSI cluster scores. Symptoms most affected related to nausea, sensitivity to light, change in taste/smell, change in appetite, fatigue, and poor sleep. There were significant group differences and small-medium effect sizes for the PCL-C total score and two of the three PCL-C cluster scores. Symptoms most affected related to poor concentration, trouble remembering a stressful event, and disturbing memories/thoughts/images. Females consistently experienced more symptoms than males. As females become more active in combat-related deployments, it is critical that future studies place more emphasis on this important military population.

  7. Utility of the Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale to detect symptom exaggeration: an analogue simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rael T; Edmed, Shannon L; Sullivan, Karen A; French, Louis M; Cooper, Douglas B

    2013-01-01

    Brief self-report symptom checklists are often used to screen for postconcussional disorder (PCD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and are highly susceptible to symptom exaggeration. This study examined the utility of the five-item Mild Brain Injury Atypical Symptoms Scale (mBIAS) designed for use with the Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI) and the PTSD Checklist-Civilian (PCL-C). Participants were 85 Australian undergraduate students who completed a battery of self-report measures under one of three experimental conditions: control (i.e., honest responding, n = 24), feign PCD (n = 29), and feign PTSD (n = 32). Measures were the mBIAS, NSI, PCL-C, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS). Participants instructed to feign PTSD and PCD had significantly higher scores on the mBIAS, NSI, PCL-C, and MMPI-2-RF than did controls. Few differences were found between the feign PCD and feign PTSD groups, with the exception of scores on the NSI (feign PCD > feign PTSD) and PCL-C (feign PTSD > feign PCD). Optimal cutoff scores on the mBIAS of ≥8 and ≥6 were found to reflect "probable exaggeration" (sensitivity = .34; specificity = 1.0; positive predictive power, PPP = 1.0; negative predictive power, NPP = .74) and "possible exaggeration" (sensitivity = .72; specificity = .88; PPP = .76; NPP = .85), respectively. Findings provide preliminary support for the use of the mBIAS as a tool to detect symptom exaggeration when administering the NSI and PCL-C.

  8. A CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORIAL STRUCTURE OF THE PCL-R: WHICH MODEL FITS BEST THE DATA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Pérez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine which of the factorial solutions proposed for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R of two, three, four factors, and unidimensional fitted best the data. Two trained and experienced independent raters scored 197 prisoners from the Villabona Penitentiary (Asturias, Spain, age range 21 to 73 years (M = 36.0, SD = 9.7, of whom 60.12% were reoffenders and 73% had committed violent crimes. The results revealed that the two-factor correlational, three-factor hierarchical without testlets, four-factor correlational and hierarchical, and unidimensional models were a poor fit for the data (CFI ≤ .86, and the three-factor model with testlets was a reasonable fit for the data (CFI = .93. The scale resulting from the three-factor hierarchical model with testlets (13 items classified psychopathy significantly higher than the original 20-item scale. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for theoretical models of psychopathy, decision-making, prison classification and intervention, and prevention. Se diseñó un estudio con el objetivo de conocer cuál de las soluciones factoriales propuestas para la Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R de dos, tres y cuatro factores y unidimensional era la que presentaba mejor ajuste a los datos. Para ello, dos evaluadores entrenados y con experiencia evaluaron de forma independiente a 197 internos en la prisión Villabona (Asturias, España, con edades comprendidas entre los 21 y los 73 años (M = 36.0, DT = 9.7, de los cuales el 60.12% eran reincidentes y el 73% había cometido delitos violentos. Los resultados mostraron que los modelos unidimensional, correlacional de 2 factores, jerárquico de 3 factores sin testlest y correlacional y jerárquico de 4 factores, presentaban un pobre ajuste con los datos (CFI ≤ .86 y un ajuste razonable del modelo jerárquico de tres factores con testlets (CFI = .93. La escala resultante del modelo de tres factores

  9. Hamstring Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamstring injury Overview A hamstring injury occurs when you strain or pull one of your hamstring muscles — the group of three muscles that run along ... You may be more likely to get a hamstring injury if you play soccer, basketball, football, tennis ...

  10. Orienteering injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Folan, Jean M.

    1982-01-01

    At the Irish National Orienteering Championships in 1981 a survey of the injuries occurring over the two days of competition was carried out. Of 285 individual competitors there was a percentage injury rate of 5.26%. The article discusses the injuries and aspects of safety in orienteering.

  11. Construction of non-viral vector (mPEG5k-PCL1.2k)1.4-g-PEI10k and its gene delivery efficacy in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Wei HUANG; Ming LV; Zhong-gao GAO; Ming-ji JIN; Fei-fei YANG; Yu-li WANG

    2011-01-01

    Objective To construct(mPEG5k-PCL1.2k)1.4-g-PEI10k,a copolymer designed as delivery vector for non-viral gene therapy,and explore its cytotoxicity and efficacy in delivery of plasmid DNA(pDNA).Methods The copolymer,mPEG5k-PCL1.2k-OH,was prepared by ring-opening polymerization and then followed by a conversion of hydroxyl terminal(-OH) into N-hydroxysuccinimide(NHS) to prepare mPEG5k-PCL1.2k-NHS.One of the branches,PEI10k,was then reacted with mPEG5k-PCL1.2k-NHS to synthesize a ternary copolym...

  12. Novel thermo-responsive double-hydrophilic and hydrophobic MPEO-b-PEtOx-b-PCL triblock terpolymers: synthesis, characterization and self-assembly studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrova, Svetlana; Venturini, Cristina Garcia; Jäger, Alessandro; Jäger, Eliezer; Černoch, Peter; Kereiche, S.; Kováčik, L.; Raška, I.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, 24 February (2015), s. 215-225 ISSN 0032-3861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14009 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : MPEO-b-PEtOx-b-PCL triblock terpolymers * light-scattering * thermo-responsive nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.586, year: 2015

  13. Supramolecular self-assembly of novel thermo-responsive double-hydrophilic and hydrophobic Y-shaped [MPEO-b-PEtOx-b-(PCL)2] terpolymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrova, Svetlana; Venturini, Cristina Garcia; Jäger, Alessandro; Jäger, Eliezer; Hrubý, Martin; Pavlova, Ewa; Štěpánek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 77 (2015), s. 62844-62854 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH14079; GA MŠk(CZ) 7F14009 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : Y-shaped [PEO-b-PEtOx-b-(PCL)2] terpolymers * light scattering * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.289, year: 2015

  14. Influence of PCL on mechanical properties and bioactivity of ZrO{sub 2}-based hybrid coatings synthesized by sol–gel dip coating technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Veronesi, Paolo [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Lamanna, Giuseppe [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy)

    2014-06-01

    The biological properties of medical implants can be enhanced through surface modifications such as to provide a firm attachment of the implant. In this study, organic–inorganic hybrid coatings have been synthesized via sol–gel dip coating. They consist of an inorganic ZrO{sub 2} matrix in which different amounts of poly(ε-caprolactone) have been entrapped to improve the mechanical properties of the films. The influence of the PCL amount on the microstructural, biological and mechanical properties of the coating has been investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses have shown that the hybrids used for the coating are homogenous and totally amorphous materials; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) has demonstrated that hydrogen bonds arise between the organic and inorganic phases. SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) have highlighted the nanostructured nature of the film. SEM and EDS analyses, after soaking the samples in a simulated body fluid (SBF), have pointed out the apatite formation on the coating surface, which proves the bone-bonding ability of the nanocomposite bioactive films. Scratch and nano-indentation tests have shown that the coating hardness, stiffness and Young's modulus decrease in the presence of large amounts of the organic phase. - Highlights: • ZrO{sub 2}/PCL organic-inorganic hybrid coatings synthesis via sol-gel dip coating. • Coatings porosity and bioactivity increase in presence of high PCL amount. • Coatings Hardness and Young’s modulus decrease in presence of high PCL amount.

  15. The Influence of Lyophilized EmuGel Silica Microspheres on the Physicomechanical Properties, In Vitro Bioactivity and Biodegradation of a Novel Ciprofloxacin-Loaded PCL/PAA Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Mabrouk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A new composite poly(caprolactone (PCL and poly(acrylic acid (PAA (PCL:PAA 1:5 scaffold was synthesized via dispersion of PCL particles into a PAA network. Silica microspheres (Si (2–12 μm were then prepared by a lyophilized micro-emulsion/sol-gel (Emugel system using varying weight ratios. The model drug ciprofloxacin (CFX was used for in situ incorporation into the scaffold. The physicochemical and thermal integrity, morphology and porosity of the system was analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Attenuated Total Refelctance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, SEM, surface area analysis and liquid displacement, respectively. The mechanical properties of the scaffold were measured by textural analysis and in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and pH variations were evaluated by XRD, FTIR and SEM after immersion in Simulated Body Fluid (SBF. The in vitro and in vivo studies of the prepared scaffold were considered as future aspects for this study. CFX release was determined in phosphate buffer saline (PBS (pH 7.4; 37 °C. The incorporation of the Si microspheres and CFX into the scaffold was confirmed by XRD, FTIR, DSC and SEM, and the scaffold microstructure was dependent on the concentration of Si microspheres and the presence of CFX. The system displayed enhanced mechanical properties (4.5–14.73 MPa, in vitro bioactivity, biodegradation and controlled CFX release. Therefore, the PCL/PAA scaffolds loaded with Si microspheres and CFX with a porosity of up to 87% may be promising for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Enhancing the Hydrophilicity and Cell Attachment of 3D Printed PCL/Graphene Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguang; Caetano, Guilherme; Ambler, William Stephen; Blaker, Jonny James; Frade, Marco Andrey; Mandal, Parthasarathi; Diver, Carl; Bártolo, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    Scaffolds are physical substrates for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation, ultimately leading to the regeneration of tissues. They must be designed according to specific biomechanical requirements, i.e., certain standards in terms of mechanical properties, surface characteristics, porosity, degradability, and biocompatibility. The optimal design of a scaffold for a specific tissue strongly depends on both materials and manufacturing processes, as well as surface treatment. Polymeric scaffolds reinforced with electro-active particles could play a key role in tissue engineering by modulating cell proliferation and differentiation. This paper investigates the use of an extrusion-based additive manufacturing system to produce poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)/pristine graphene scaffolds for bone tissue applications and the influence of chemical surface modification on their biological behaviour. Scaffolds with the same architecture but different concentrations of pristine graphene were evaluated from surface property and biological points of view. Results show that the addition of pristine graphene had a positive impact on cell viability and proliferation, and that surface modification leads to improved cell response. PMID:28774112

  17. Comparison of epithelial and fibroblastic cell behavior on nano/micro-topographic PCL membranes produced by crystallinity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşderelioğlu, Menemşe; Kaya, F Betül; Beşkardeş, Işıl Gerçek

    2011-06-15

    In this study, the relationship between the cellular morphology and the material surface topography was investigated. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) membranes were prepared in a wide range of surface wettabilities by means of crystallinity-controlled solvent casting process. Membrane surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscope (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and static/dynamic water contact angle measurements. It was found that solvent evaporation and non-solvent (methanol) addition to the solvent (THF) are the most decisive parameters to change the surface topography. The non-solvent addition and the decrease in solvent evaporation temperature from room temperature to -20 °C caused increased polymeric chain mobility and crystallization time. Such changes in crystallization parameters led to the formation of micro/nano-sized features on the membrane. Cell culture studies indicated that in contrast to Madin Darby kidney (MDBK) epithelial cells, L929 mouse fibroblast preferred rough and porous surfaces. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Engineering anatomically shaped vascularized bone grafts with hASCs and 3D-printed PCL scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Joshua P; Hutton, Daphne L; Hung, Ben P; Huri, Pinar Yilgor; Cook, Colin A; Kondragunta, Renu; Jia, Xiaofeng; Grayson, Warren L

    2014-12-01

    The treatment of large craniomaxillofacial bone defects is clinically challenging due to the limited availability of transplantable autologous bone grafts and the complex geometry of the bones. The ability to regenerate new bone tissues that faithfully replicate the anatomy would revolutionize treatment options. Advances in the field of bone tissue engineering over the past few decades offer promising new treatment alternatives using biocompatible scaffold materials and autologous cells. This approach combined with recent advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies may soon allow the generation of large, bioartificial bone grafts with custom, patient-specific architecture. In this study, we use a custom-built 3D printer to develop anatomically shaped polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds with varying internal porosities. These scaffolds are assessed for their ability to support induction of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) to form vasculature and bone, two essential components of functional bone tissue. The development of functional tissues is assessed in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we demonstrate the ability to print large mandibular and maxillary bone scaffolds that replicate fine details extracted from patient's computed tomography scans. The findings of this study illustrate the capabilities and potential of 3D printed scaffolds to be used for engineering autologous, anatomically shaped, vascularized bone grafts. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Enhancing the Hydrophilicity and Cell Attachment of 3D Printed PCL/Graphene Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiguang Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Scaffolds are physical substrates for cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation, ultimately leading to the regeneration of tissues. They must be designed according to specific biomechanical requirements, i.e., certain standards in terms of mechanical properties, surface characteristics, porosity, degradability, and biocompatibility. The optimal design of a scaffold for a specific tissue strongly depends on both materials and manufacturing processes, as well as surface treatment. Polymeric scaffolds reinforced with electro-active particles could play a key role in tissue engineering by modulating cell proliferation and differentiation. This paper investigates the use of an extrusion-based additive manufacturing system to produce poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL/pristine graphene scaffolds for bone tissue applications and the influence of chemical surface modification on their biological behaviour. Scaffolds with the same architecture but different concentrations of pristine graphene were evaluated from surface property and biological points of view. Results show that the addition of pristine graphene had a positive impact on cell viability and proliferation, and that surface modification leads to improved cell response.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and property of biodegradable PEG-PCL-PLA terpolymers with miktoarm star and triblock architectures as drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixin; Luo, Song; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Hai; Peng, Xinyu; He, Bin; Li, Sai

    2018-03-01

    A series of amphiphilic terpolymers with miktoarm star and triblock architectures of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(l-lactide acid) (PLLA) or poly(DL-lactide acid) (PDLLA) terpolymers were synthesized as carriers for drug delivery. The architecture, molecular weight and crystallization behavior of the terpolymers were characterized. Anticancer drug doxorubicin was encapsulated in the micelles to investigate their drug loading properties. The miktoarm star terpolymers exhibited stronger crystallization capability, smaller size and better stability than that of triblock polymeric micelle, owing to the lower CMC values of miktoarm star polymeric micelle. Furthermore, the drug-loaded miktoarm star polymeric micelles showed the cumulative DOX release account of the micelles with PDLLA blocks was 65.3% while the release account of the corresponding micelles containing PLLA blocks was 45.2%. The IC 50 values of drug-loaded miktoarm star polymeric micelle were lower than triblock polymeric micelle. Meanwhile, Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and Flow Cytometry results demonstrated that the miktoarm star micelles were more favorable for cellular internalization. The miktoarm star micelles with PDLLA blocks were promising carriers for anticancer drug delivery.

  1. Do core interpersonal and affective traits of PCL-R psychopathy interact with antisocial behavior and disinhibition to predict violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennealy, Patrick J; Skeem, Jennifer L; Walters, Glenn D; Camp, Jacqueline

    2010-09-01

    The utility of psychopathy measures in predicting violence is largely explained by their assessment of social deviance (e.g., antisocial behavior; disinhibition). A key question is whether social deviance interacts with the core interpersonal-affective traits of psychopathy to predict violence. Do core psychopathic traits multiply the (already high) risk of violence among disinhibited individuals with a dense history of misbehavior? This meta-analysis of 32 effect sizes (N = 10,555) tested whether an interaction between the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 2003) Interpersonal-Affective and Social Deviance scales predicted violence beyond the simple additive effects of each scale. Results indicate that Social Deviance is more uniquely predictive of violence (d = .40) than Interpersonal-Affective traits (d = .11), and these two scales do not interact (d = .00) to increase power in predicting violence. In fact, Social Deviance alone would predict better than the Interpersonal-Affective scale and any interaction in 81% and 96% of studies, respectively. These findings have fundamental practical implications for risk assessment and theoretical implications for some conceptualizations of psychopathy.

  2. Personality traits as predictors of inpatient aggression in a high-security forensic psychiatric setting: prospective evaluation of the PCL-R and IPDE dimension ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Calvin M; Hogue, Todd E; Daffern, Michael; Mannion, Aisling; Howells, Kevin

    2011-05-01

    The Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder (DSPD) initiative in England and Wales provides specialized care to high-risk offenders with mental disorders. This study investigated the predictive utility of personality traits, assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and the International Personality Disorder Examination, with 44 consecutive admissions to the DSPD unit at a high-security forensic psychiatric hospital. Incidents of interpersonal physical aggression (IPA) were observed for 39% of the sample over an average 1.5-year period following admission. Histrionic personality disorder (PD) predicted IPA, and Histrionic, Borderline, and Antisocial PDs all predicted repetitive (2+ incidents of) IPA. PCL-R Factor 1 and Facets 1 and 2 were also significant predictors of IPA. PCL-R Factor 1 and Histrionic PD scores were significantly associated with imminence of IPA. Results were discussed in terms of the utility of personality traits in risk assessment and treatment of specially selected high-risk forensic psychiatric patients in secure settings.

  3. Effect of Ethyl Ester L-Lysine Triisocyanate addition to produce reactive PLA/PCL bio-polyester blends for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Annamaria; Nocita, Davide; Giamporcaro, Alberto; Ronca, Sara; Forte, Giuseppe; Pistone, Alessandro; Espro, Claudia

    2017-04-01

    We report in this paper the effects of Ethyl Ester L-Lysine Triisocyanate (LTI) on the physical-mechanical properties of Poly(lactide)/Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PLA/PCL) polyesters blends. The PLA/PCL ratios considered were 20/80, 50/50 and 80/20 (wt/wt %) and LTI was added in amounts of 0.0-0.5-1.0 phr. PLA and PCL reacted with LTI during processing in a Brabender twin screw internal mixer to produce block copolymers in-situ. The resulting blends have been characterized by torque measurements, uniaxial tensile tests, Differential Scanning Calorimeter, contact angle measurements with a Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) solution, ATR analysis and morphological SEM observations. Experimental results highlighted how LTI enhanced interaction and dispersion of the two components, resulting into a synergic effect in mechanical properties. Mechanical and physical properties can be tailored by changing the blend composition. The most noticeable trend was an increase in ductility of the mixed polymers. Besides, LTI decreased blend's wet ability in PBS and lowered the starting of crystalline phase formation for both polymers, confirming an interaction among them. These reactive blends could find use as biomedical materials, e.g. absorbable suture threads or scaffolds for cellular growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Fa Hsieh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments: Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol (mPEG and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε‑caprolactone (PCL; which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG‑COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14 of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  5. Theoretical and Numerical Approaches for Determining the Reflection and Transmission Coefficients of OPEFB-PCL Composites at X-Band Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ahmad F; Abbas, Zulkifly; Obaiys, Suzan J; Ibrahim, Norazowa; Hashim, Mansor; Khaleel, Haider

    2015-01-01

    Bio-composites of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibres and polycaprolactones (PCL) with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared and characterized. The composites produced from these materials are low in density, inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and possess good dielectric characteristics. The magnitudes of the reflection and transmission coefficients of OPEFB fibre-reinforced PCL composites with different percentages of filler were measured using a rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) in the X-band frequency range. In contrast to the effective medium theory, which states that polymer-based composites with a high dielectric constant can be obtained by doping a filler with a high dielectric constant into a host material with a low dielectric constant, this paper demonstrates that the use of a low filler percentage (12.2%OPEFB) and a high matrix percentage (87.8%PCL) provides excellent results for the dielectric constant and loss factor, whereas 63.8% filler material with 36.2% host material results in lower values for both the dielectric constant and loss factor. The open-ended probe technique (OEC), connected with the Agilent vector network analyzer (VNA), is used to determine the dielectric properties of the materials under investigation. The comparative approach indicates that the mean relative error of FEM is smaller than that of NRW in terms of the corresponding S21 magnitude. The present calculation of the matrix/filler percentages endorses the exact amounts of substrate utilized in various physics applications.

  6. Synthesis and self-assembly behavior of amphiphilic diblock copolymer dextran-block-poly(ε-caprolactone (DEX-b-PCL in aqueous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available An amphiphilic diblock copolymer, dextran-block-poly(ε-caprolactone (DEX-b-PCL, with a series of welldefined chain lengths of each block was prepared by conjugating a dextran chain with a PCL block via aza-Michael addition reaction under mild conditions. For the dextran block, samples with relatively uniform molecular weight, 3.5 and 6.0 kDa, were used, and the PCL blocks were prepared via ring-opening polymerization at defined ratios of ε-caprolactone to initiator in order to give copolymers with mass fraction of dextran (fDEX ranging from 0.16 to 0.45. When these copolymers were allowed to self-assemble in aqueous solution, the morphology of assembled aggregates varied as a function of fDEX when characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM, fluorescence microscope (FM and dynamic laser scattering (DLS. As fDEX decreases gradually from 0.45 to 0.16, the morphology of the copolymer assembly changes from spherical micelles to worm-like micelles and eventually to polymersomes, together with an increase in particle sizes.

  7. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Industry, 12 Nguyen Van Bao St, Ho Chi Minh (Viet Nam); Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China); Chen, Jim-Ray [Department of Pathology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Jwo, Shyh-Chuan [Division of General Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Keelung, Taiwan and Chang Gung University, College of Medicine, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Ming-Fa, E-mail: mfhsieh@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li, Taiwan (China)

    2010-12-28

    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG-COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX.

  8. Doxorubicin-Loaded PEG-PCL-PEG Micelle Using Xenograft Model of Nude Mice: Effect of Multiple Administration of Micelle on the Suppression of Human Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuong, Nguyen-Van; Jiang, Jian-Lin; Li, Yu-Lun; Chen, Jim-Ray; Jwo, Shyh-Chuan; Hsieh, Ming-Fa

    2010-01-01

    The triblock copolymer is composed of two identical hydrophilic segments Monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) and one hydrophobic segment poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL); which is synthesized by coupling of mPEG-PCL-OH and mPEG-COOH in a mild condition using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and 4-dimethylamino pyridine. The amphiphilic block copolymer can self-assemble into nanoscopic micelles to accommodate doxorubixin (DOX) in the hydrophobic core. The physicochemical properties and in vitro tests, including cytotoxicity of the micelles, have been characterized in our previous study. In this study, DOX was encapsulated into micelles with a drug loading content of 8.5%. Confocal microscopy indicated that DOX was internalized into the cytoplasm via endocystosis. A dose-finding scheme of the polymeric micelle (placebo) showed a safe dose of PEG-PCL-PEG micelles was 71.4 mg/kg in mice. Importantly, the circulation time of DOX-loaded micelles in the plasma significantly increased compared to that of free DOX in rats. A biodistribution study displayed that plasma extravasation of DOX in liver and spleen occurred in the first four hours. Lastly, the tumor growth of human breast cancer cells in nude mice was suppressed by multiple injections (5 mg/kg, three times daily on day 0, 7 and 14) of DOX-loaded micelles as compared to multiple administrations of free DOX

  9. Reversible TAD Chemistry as a Convenient Tool for the Design of (Re)processable PCL-Based Shape-Memory Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defize, Thomas; Riva, Raphaël; Thomassin, Jean-Michel; Alexandre, Michaël; Herck, Niels Van; Prez, Filip Du; Jérôme, Christine

    2017-01-01

    A chemically cross-linked but remarkably (re)processable shape-memory polymer (SMP) is designed by cross-linking poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) stars via the efficient triazolinedione click chemistry, based on the very fast and reversible Alder-ene reaction of 1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (TAD) with indole compounds. Typically, a six-arm star-shaped PCL functionalized by indole moieties at the chain ends is melt-blended with a bisfunctional TAD, directly resulting in a cross-linked PCL-based SMP without the need of post-curing treatment. As demonstrated by the stress relaxation measurement, the labile character of the TAD-indole adducts under stress allows for the solid-state plasticity reprocessing of the permanent shape at will by compression molding of the raw cross-linked material, while keeping excellent shape-memory properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Environmentally Friendly Compatibilizers from Soybean Oil for Ternary Blends of Poly(lactic acid-PLA, Poly(ε-caprolactone-PCL and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-PHB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Garcia-Campo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ternary blends of poly(lactic acid (PLA, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL with a constant weight percentage of 60%, 10% and 30% respectively were compatibilized with soybean oil derivatives epoxidized soybean oil (ESO, maleinized soybean oil (MSO and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO. The potential compatibilization effects of the soybean oil-derivatives was characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. The effects on morphology were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM. All three soybean oil-based compatibilizers led to a noticeable increase in toughness with a remarkable improvement in elongation at break. On the other hand, both the tensile modulus and strength decreased, but in a lower extent to a typical plasticization effect. Although phase separation occurred, all three soybean oil derivatives led somewhat to compatibilization through reaction between terminal hydroxyl groups in all three biopolyesters (PLA, PHB and PCL and the readily reactive groups in the soybean oil derivatives, that is, epoxy, maleic anhydride and acrylic/epoxy functionalities. In particular, the addition of 5 parts per hundred parts of the blend (phr of ESO gave the maximum elongation at break while the same amount of MSO and AESO gave the maximum toughness, measured through Charpy’s impact tests. In general, the herein-developed materials widen the potential of ternary PLA formulations by a cost effective blending method with PHB and PCL and compatibilization with vegetable oil-based additives.

  11. The validity of military screening for mental health problems: diagnostic accuracy of the PCL, K10 and AUDIT scales in an entire military population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander C; Davies, Christopher E; Fairweather-Schmidt, A Kate; Hodson, Stephanie E; Benassi, Helen; Steele, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    Depression, alcohol use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are serious issues among military personnel due to their impact on operational capability and individual well-being. Several military forces screen for these disorders using scales including the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL). However, it is unknown whether established cutoffs apply to military populations. This study is the first to test the diagnostic accuracy of these three scales in a population-based military cohort. A large sample of currently-serving Australian Defence Force (ADF) Navy, Army and Air Force personnel (n = 24,481) completed the K10, AUDIT and PCL-C (civilian version). Then, a stratified sub-sample (n = 1798) completed a structured diagnostic interview detecting 30-day disorder. Data were weighted to represent the ADF population (n = 50,049). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses suggested all three scales had acceptable sensitivity and specificity, with areas under the curve from 0.75 to 0.93. AUDIT and K10 screening cutoffs closely paralleled established cutoffs, whereas the PCL-C screening cutoff resembled that recommended for US military personnel. These self-report scales represent a cost-effective and clinically-useful means of screening personnel for disorder. Military populations may need lower cutoffs than civilians to screen for PTSD. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Environmentally Friendly Compatibilizers from Soybean Oil for Ternary Blends of Poly(lactic acid)-PLA, Poly(ε-caprolactone)-PCL and Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-PHB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Campo, María Jesús; Quiles-Carrillo, Luis; Masia, Jaime; Reig-Pérez, Miguel Jorge; Montanes, Nestor; Balart, Rafael

    2017-11-22

    Ternary blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) with a constant weight percentage of 60%, 10% and 30% respectively were compatibilized with soybean oil derivatives epoxidized soybean oil (ESO), maleinized soybean oil (MSO) and acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO). The potential compatibilization effects of the soybean oil-derivatives was characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and thermomechanical properties. The effects on morphology were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). All three soybean oil-based compatibilizers led to a noticeable increase in toughness with a remarkable improvement in elongation at break. On the other hand, both the tensile modulus and strength decreased, but in a lower extent to a typical plasticization effect. Although phase separation occurred, all three soybean oil derivatives led somewhat to compatibilization through reaction between terminal hydroxyl groups in all three biopolyesters (PLA, PHB and PCL) and the readily reactive groups in the soybean oil derivatives, that is, epoxy, maleic anhydride and acrylic/epoxy functionalities. In particular, the addition of 5 parts per hundred parts of the blend (phr) of ESO gave the maximum elongation at break while the same amount of MSO and AESO gave the maximum toughness, measured through Charpy's impact tests. In general, the herein-developed materials widen the potential of ternary PLA formulations by a cost effective blending method with PHB and PCL and compatibilization with vegetable oil-based additives.

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ... Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation ...

  15. Evidence for phosphorus bonding in phosphorus trichloride-methanol adduct: a matrix isolation infrared and ab initio computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prasad Ramesh; Ramanathan, N; Sundararajan, K; Sankaran, K

    2015-04-09

    The weak interaction between PCl3 and CH3OH was investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and ab initio computations. In a nitrogen matrix at low temperature, the noncovalent adduct was generated and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Computations were performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ, and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory to optimize the possible geometries of PCl3-CH3OH adducts. Computations revealed two minima on the potential energy surface, of which, the global minimum is stabilized by a noncovalent P···O interaction, known as a pnictogen bonding (phosphorus bonding or P-bonding). The local minimum corresponded to a cyclic adduct, stabilized by the conventional hydrogen bonding (Cl···H-O and Cl···H-C interactions). Experimentally, 1:1 P-bonded PCl3-CH3OH adduct in nitrogen matrix was identified, where shifts in the P-Cl modes of PCl3, O-C, and O-H modes of CH3OH submolecules were observed. The observed vibrational frequencies of the P-bonded adduct in a nitrogen matrix agreed well with the computed frequencies. Furthermore, computations also predicted that the P-bonded adduct is stronger than H-bonded adduct by ∼1.56 kcal/mol. Atoms in molecules and natural bond orbital analyses were performed to understand the nature of interactions and effect of charge transfer interaction on the stability of the adducts.

  16. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury.

  17. Isolated rib fractures in geriatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Elmistekawy, Elsayed M.; Hammad, Abd Almohsen M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term outcomes in patients older than 60 years with isolated rib fractures and admitted to emergency hospital. Materials and Methods: This study included patients who were 60 years old or more and sustained blunt chest injury and had isolated rib fractures. The following data were obtained from the medical records: age, gender, number of fracture ribs, side of fracture ribs, mechanism and nature of injury, preexisting medical...

  18. Reconstrução do L.C.P. do joelho: técnica de fixação no leito tibial ("INLAY". Avaliação objetiva e subjetiva de 30 casos Knee P.C.L. reconstruction: a tibial bed fixation ("INLAY" technique. Objective and subjective evaluation of a 30-cases series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rocha Piedade

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A reconstrução cirúrgica do ligamento cruzado posterior (L.C.P. do joelho ainda permanece como um grande desafio terapêutico. Neste trabalho avaliamos 30 pacientes submetidos à reconstrução cirúrgica do L.C.P. com a técnica de fixação do enxerto tendíneo no leito tibial por abordagem direta ("INLAY". 28 pacientes eram do sexo masculino e 2 do feminino, com idade média de 31,10 anos. O tempo médio de lesão foi de 34,24 meses Em 67% dos casos a lesão foi secundária a acidente motociclístico. As lesões condrais e do ligamento cruzado anterior (L.C.A. do joelho estavam presentes em 67% e 33% dos casos, respectivamente. Os pacientes foram avaliados objetivamente (teste de gaveta posterior e subjetivamente (Escala de Lysholm. O seguimento pós-operatório médio foi de 21,7 meses. Cerca de 66% dos casos foram classificados como bom e excelente na avaliação subjetiva e objetiva. A análise estatística apresentou comportamento semelhante para as duas avaliações.Os resultados clínicos pós-operatórios obtidos neste trabalho têm nos encorajado a seguir com esta técnica cirúrgica.Surgical reconstruction of the knee posterior cruciate ligament (P.C.L. still remains as a major therapeutic challenge. In this paper, we assessed 30 patients submitted to surgical reconstruction of the P.C.L. with a technique of tendinous graft fixation on tibial bed by direct approach ("INLAY". Twentyeight male patients and 2 female patients, with mean age of 31.10 years, participated on the study. The average injury time was 34.24 months. In 67% of the cases, injury was secondary to motorcycle accidents. Chondral injuries and knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries were present in 67% and 33% of the cases, respectively. Patients were assessed objectively (posterior drawer test and subjectively (Lysholm's Scale. Mean post-operative follow-up time was 21.7 months. About 66% of the cases were rated as good and excellent at the subjective and

  19. Paragliding injuries.

    OpenAIRE

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-01-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during st...

  20. Paragliding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger-Franke, M; Siebert, C H; Pförringer, W

    1991-06-01

    Regulations controlling the sport of paragliding were issued in April 1987 by the German Department of Transportation. The growing popularity of this sport has led to a steady increase in the number of associated injuries. This study presents the incidence, localization and degree of injuries associated with paragliding documented in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. The 283 injuries suffered by 218 paragliders were documented in the period 1987-1989: 181 occurred during landing, 28 during starting procedures and nine during flight. The mean patient age was 29.6 years. There were 34.9% spinal injuries, 13.4% upper extremity injuries and 41.3% lower limb injuries. Over half of these injuries were treated surgically and in 54 instances permanent disability remained. In paragliding the lower extremities are at greatest risk of injury during landing. Proper equipment, especially sturdy footwear, exact training in landing techniques as well as improved instruction in procedures during aborted or crash landings is required to reduce the frequency of these injuries.

  1. Regiocontroll synthesis cellulose-graft-polycaprolactone copolymer (2,3-di-O-PCL-cellulose by a new route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A new and convenient route to the regiocontrolled synthesis of a cellulose-based derivate copolymer (2,3-di-O-polycaprolactone-cellulose grafting ε-caprolactone (ε-CL from α-cellulose, cellulose-graft-polycaprolactone (cellulose-g-PCL, by a classical ring-opening polymerization (ROP reaction, using stannous octoate (Sn(Oct2 as catalyst, in 68% concentration of zinc chloride aqueous solution at 120 °C was presented. By controlling the hydroxyl of cellulose/ε-CL, catalyst/monomer ratio and the reaction time, the molecular architecture of the copolymers can be altered. The solubility of cellulose in zinc chloride aqueous was indicated by UV/VIS spectrometer and rheological measurements. The structures and thermal properties of cellulose-g-polycaprolactone copolymers were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (1H NMR, X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES. The interesting results confirm that zinc chloride solution can break the intra-molecular hydrogen bonds of cellulose selectively (not only O3H···O5, but also O2H···O6, and has no effect on the inter-molecular hydrogen bonds (O6H···O3. And the grafting reactivity of hydroxyl on cellulose is C2–OH > C3–OH >> C6–OH in zinc chloride solution, and this is clearly different from other researches. Most importantly, this work confirms that the method to regiocontrolled synthesis cellulose-based derivative polymers by regiobreaking hydrogen bonds is feasible. It is strongly believed that the new discovery may give a novel, environmental, simple and inexpensive method to modify cellulose chemically with various side chains grafted on a given hydroxyl, through liberating hydroxyl as reactive group from hydrogen bonds broken selectively by different solvents.

  2. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  3. Whiplash injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Peter, Jason

    2005-10-01

    Whiplash injuries are very common and usually are associated with rear-end collisions. However, a whiplash injury can be caused by any event that results in hyperextension and flexion of the cervical spine. These injuries are of serious concern to all consumers due to escalating cost of diagnosis, treatment, insurance, and litigation. Most acute whiplash injury cases respond well to conservative treatments, which result in resolution of symptoms usually within weeks to a few months after the injury occurred. Chronic whiplash injuries often are harder to diagnose and treat and often result in poor outcomes. Current research shows that various structures in the cervical spine receive nociceptive innervation and potentially may be the cause of chronic pain symptoms. One potential pain generator showing promise is the facet or zygapophyseal joints. Various researchers have proven that these joints are injured during whiplash injuries and that diagnosis and temporary pain relief can be obtained with facet joint injections. The initial evaluation of any patient should follow an organized and stepwise approach, and more serious causes of neck pain must first be ruled out through the history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. Treatment regimens should be evidence-based, focusing on treatments that have proven to be effective in treating acute and chronic whiplash injuries.

  4. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trauma can happen at home, school, play or sports. Most common injuries are scratches to the cornea or blunt trauma. Approved and tested eye and face protection is essential to prevent injuries. Sports such as hockey, baseball, racquet ball, squash, and ...

  5. Rowing Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thornton, Jane S; Vinther, Anders; Wilson, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    understanding in pre-participation screening, training load, emerging concepts surrounding back and rib injury, and relative energy deficiency in sport. Through a better understanding of the nature of the sport and mechanisms of injury, physicians and other healthcare providers will be better equipped to treat...

  6. Trampoline injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysted, M; Drogset, J O

    2006-12-01

    To describe the mechanism, location and types of injury for all patients treated for trampoline-associated injuries at St Olav's University Hospital, Trondheim, Norway, from March 2001to October 2004. Patients were identified from a National Injury Surveillance System. All patients were asked to complete a standard questionnaire at their first visit at the hospital. Most data were recorded prospectively, but data on the mechanism of injury, the number of participants on the trampoline at the time of injury, adult supervision and whether the activity occurred at school or in another organised setting were collected retrospectively. A total of 556 patients, 56% male and 44% female, were included. The mean age of patients was 11 (range 1-62) years. 77% of the injuries occurred on the body of the trampoline, including falls on to the mat, collisions with another jumper, falls on to the frame or the springs, and performing a somersault, whereas 22% of the people fell off the trampoline. In 74% of the cases, more than two people were on the trampoline, with as many as nine trampolinists noted at the time of injury. For children Trampolining can cause serious injuries, especially in the neck and elbow areas of young children. The use of a trampoline is a high-risk activity. However, a ban is not supported. The importance of having safety guidelines for the use of trampolines is emphasised.

  7. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  9. Repetitive Stress Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Repetitive Stress Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Repetitive Stress Injuries What's ... t had any problems since. What Are Repetitive Stress Injuries? Repetitive stress injuries (RSIs) are injuries that ...

  10. DIAGNOSTIC ACCURACY OF CLINICAL AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE IN KNEE MENISCI AND LIGAMENTOUS INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of clinical diagnosis compared to MRI findings in ligamentous and meniscal injuries with respect to arthroscopic confirmation as a gold standard. METHODS 485 patients with knee injuries were prospectively assessed by clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging and correlated after therapeutic arthroscopy. The overall accuracy, clinically productive values of sensitivity and specificity was derived. The actual value of the test with respect to positive predictive and negative predictive value was also derived, taking arthroscopic findings as confirmatory. The overall partial and total agreement among the clinical, MRI and arthroscopy was documented. RESULTS The overall accuracy for clinical examination was 85, 92, 100 and 100 and accuracy for MRI was 90, 97, 97 and 97 for detecting medial meniscus, lateral meniscus, ACL and PCL tears respectively. Clinically lateral meniscus tears are difficult to diagnose clinically with negative predictive value (90 whereas ACL injuries do not need MRI for diagnosis as evident by a high negative predictive value (100 of clinical examination. Total agreement with the clinical findings confirmed by arthroscopy was 64.40% which was relatively high as compared to total agreement of MRI findings which was only 31.50%. We found similar total agreement versus total disagreement of both clinical and MRI to be only 2.74% indicating very high accuracy in clinical diagnosis of meniscal and ligamentous injuries combined. CONCLUSION The clinical evaluation alone is sufficient to diagnose meniscal and ACL/PCL pathologies and MRI should be considered only as a powerful negative diagnostic tool. The arthroscopy decision should not be heavily dependent on MRI for ligamentous injuries but reverse is true for meniscal lesions. MR evaluation functions as a powerful negative diagnostic tool to rule out doubtful and complex knee injuries.

  11. Nano/micro hybrid scaffold of PCL or P3HB nanofibers combined with silk fibroin for tendon and ligament tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghashzargar, Elham; Farè, Silvia; Catto, Valentina; Bertoldi, Serena; Semnani, Dariush; Karbasi, Saeed; Tanzi, Maria Cristina

    2015-07-04

    A novel biodegradable nano/micro hybrid structure was obtained by electrospinning P3HB or PCL nanofibers onto a twisted silk fibroin (SF) structure, with the aim of fabricating a suitable scaffold for tendon and ligament tissue engineering. The electrospinning (ES) processing parameters for P3HB and PCL were optimized on 2D samples, and applied to produce two different nano/micro hybrid constructs (SF/ES-PCL and SF/ES-P3HB).Morphological, chemico-physical and mechanical properties of the novel hybrid scaffolds were evaluated by SEM, ATR FT-IR, DSC, tensile and thermodynamic mechanical tests. The results demonstrated that the nanofibers were tightly wrapped around the silk filaments, and the crystallinity of the SF twisted yarns was not influenced by the presence of the electrospun polymers. The slightly higher mechanical properties of the hybrid constructs confirmed an increase of internal forces due to the interaction between nano and micro components. Cell culture tests with L929 fibroblasts, in the presence of the sample eluates or in direct contact with the hybrid structures, showed no cytotoxic effects and a good level of cytocompatibility of the nano/micro hybrid structures in term of cell viability, particularly at day 1. Cell viability onto the nano/micro hybrid structures decreased from the first to the third day of culture when compared with the control culture plastic, but appeared to be higher when compared with the uncoated SF yarns. Although additional in vitro and in vivo tests are needed, the original fabrication method here described appears promising for scaffolds suitable for tendon and ligament tissue engineering.

  12. Theoretical and Numerical Approaches for Determining the Reflection and Transmission Coefficients of OPEFB-PCL Composites at X-Band Frequencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad F Ahmad

    Full Text Available Bio-composites of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB fibres and polycaprolactones (PCL with a thickness of 1 mm were prepared and characterized. The composites produced from these materials are low in density, inexpensive, environmentally friendly, and possess good dielectric characteristics. The magnitudes of the reflection and transmission coefficients of OPEFB fibre-reinforced PCL composites with different percentages of filler were measured using a rectangular waveguide in conjunction with a microwave vector network analyzer (VNA in the X-band frequency range. In contrast to the effective medium theory, which states that polymer-based composites with a high dielectric constant can be obtained by doping a filler with a high dielectric constant into a host material with a low dielectric constant, this paper demonstrates that the use of a low filler percentage (12.2%OPEFB and a high matrix percentage (87.8%PCL provides excellent results for the dielectric constant and loss factor, whereas 63.8% filler material with 36.2% host material results in lower values for both the dielectric constant and loss factor. The open-ended probe technique (OEC, connected with the Agilent vector network analyzer (VNA, is used to determine the dielectric properties of the materials under investigation. The comparative approach indicates that the mean relative error of FEM is smaller than that of NRW in terms of the corresponding S21 magnitude. The present calculation of the matrix/filler percentages endorses the exact amounts of substrate utilized in various physics applications.

  13. Isolation and characterization of Arctic microorganisms decomposing bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Aneta K; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Strzelecki, Mateusz C; Kociuba, Waldemar; Franczak, Łukasz; Mirończuk, Aleksandra M

    2017-12-01

    The increasing amount of plastic waste causes significant environmental pollution. In this study, screening of Arctic microorganisms which are able to degrade bioplastics was performed. In total, 313 microorganisms were isolated from 52 soil samples from the Arctic region (Spitsbergen). Among the isolated microorganisms, 121 (38.66%) showed biodegradation activity. The ability of clear zone formation on emulsified poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) was observed for 116 microorganisms (95.87%), on poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) for 73 microorganisms (60.33%), and on poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) for 102 microorganisms (84.3%). Moreover, the growth of microorganisms on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) agar plates was observed for 56 microorganisms (46.28%). Based on the 16S rRNA sequence, 10 bacterial strains which showed the highest ability for biodegradation were identified as species belonging to Pseudomonas sp. and Rhodococcus sp. The isolated fungal strains were tested for polycaprolactone films and commercial corn and potato starch bags degradation under laboratory conditions. Strains 16G (based on the analysis of a partial 18S rRNA sequence, identified as Clonostachys rosea) and 16H (identified as Trichoderma sp.) showed the highest capability for biodegradation. A particularly high capability for biodegradation was observed for the strain Clonostachys rosea, which showed 100% degradation of starch films and 52.91% degradation of PCL films in a 30-day shake flask experiment. The main advantage of the microorganisms isolated from Arctic environment is the ability to grow at low temperature and efficient biodegradation under this condition. The data suggest that C. rosea can be used in natural and laboratory conditions for degradations of bioplastics.

  14. Badminton injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøner, K; Schmidt, S A; Nielsen, A B; Yde, J; Jakobsen, B W; Møller-Madsen, B; Jensen, J

    1990-01-01

    In a one year period, from 1 January 1986 to 31 December 1986, 4303 patients with sports injuries were treated at Aarhus Amtssygehus and Aarhus Kommunehospital. The mean age was 21.6 years (range 7-72 years) and 2830 were men. Two hundred and seventeen badminton injuries occurred in 208 patients (136 men) with a mean age of 29.6 years (range 7-57 years), constituting 4.1 percent of all sport injuries in Aarhus. Joints and ligaments were injured in 58.5 percent of the patients, most frequently located in the lower limb and significantly more often among patients younger than 30 years of age. Muscle injury occurred in 19.8 percent of the patients. This type of injury was significantly more frequent among patients older than 30 years of age. Most injuries were minor. However, 6.8 percent of the patients were hospitalized and 30.9 percent received additional treatment by a physician. As the risk of injury varies with age, attempts to plan training individually and to institute prophylactic measures should be made. PMID:2078802

  15. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  16. Chilling injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ahar

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... ROS avoidance genes play pivotal role in defense mechanism against chilling injury derived oxidative stress. ... Low temperature storage is a postharvest technology ..... crops is highly dependent on ethylene production and.

  17. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Power Saws for 2001 05/15/2002 Nail Gun Related Injuries and Deaths Home Maintenance & Construction 05/ ... Information (FOIA) Inspector General No Fear Act Data USA.gov Report an Unsafe Product Contact Us: 800- ...

  18. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  19. Ear Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of different injuries can affect the outer ear. Cauliflower ear (subperichondrial hematoma) A blunt blow to the ... to a deformed ear. This deformity, called a cauliflower ear, is common among wrestlers, boxers, and rugby ...

  20. Clinical Findings in Patients with Splenic Injuries: Are Injuries to the Left Lower Chest Important?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneir, Aaron

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical findings in patients with splenic injury and to determine if isolated left lower chest injury may be the single clinical indicator of splenic injury. The medical records of all adult blunt trauma patients with splenic injury over a 14 month period were reviewed. Significant left lower chest injury was considered present if the patient had left sided pleuritic chest pain with tenderness to ribs 7-12 or if these ribs were visualized as fractured on any imaging study. Patients were considered to have clinical findings suggestive of splenic injury if they had pre-hospital or emergency department hypotension, abdominal pain or tenderness, a Glasgow coma scale < 15, or gross hematuria. Ninety patients had splenic injury. Thirty-nine (43%. 95% CI 33, 54% patients had significant left lower chest injury. In five (6%. 95% CI 2, 12% patients, injury to this portion of the chest was the single indicator of splenic injury. Nearly half the patients with splenic injury will have significant injury to the left lower chest and this finding may be the only indicator of splenic injury.

  1. Cold injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, R J

    1995-01-01

    There are two categories of cold injury. The first is hypothermia, which is a systemic injury to cold, and the second is frostbite, which is a local injury. Throughout history, entire armies, from George Washington to the Germans on the Russian Front in World War II, have fallen prey to prolonged cold exposure. Cold injury is common and can occur in all seasons if ambient temperature is lower than the core body temperature. In the 1985 Boston Marathon, even though it was 76 degrees and sunny, there were 75 runners treated for hypothermia. In general, humans adapt poorly to cold exposure. Children are at particular risk because of their relatively greater surface area/body mass ratio, causing them to cool even more rapidly than adults. Because of this, the human's best defense against cold injury is to limit his/her exposure to cold and to dress appropriately. If cold injury has occurred and is mild, often simple passive rewarming such as dry blankets and a warm room are sufficient treatment.

  2. Nordic (cross-country) skiing injuries in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, E; Asquith, J

    1987-03-02

    A retrospective study of 88 nordic skiing injuries from the 1984 and 1985 skiing seasons in Australia is presented. To our knowledge, this is the largest study to date of such injuries. These injuries are compared with alpine skiing injuries from the same medical clinic for the 1985 skiing season. There was a much lower incidence of injury from nordic skiing; however, when injuries did occur, they tended to be more serious than those of alpine skiing and frequently required immediate evacuation to hospital for treatment. As the nordic skier is relatively isolated from medical services, these findings need to be considered in the future planning of rescue services for such skiers.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of traumatic pancreatic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakawa, Akihiko; Isayama, Kenji; Nakatani, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of traumatic pancreatic injury in the acute stage is difficult to establish blood tests and abdominal findings alone. Moreover, to determine treatment strategies, it is important not only that a pancreatic injury is diagnosed but also whether a pancreatic ductal injury can be found. At our center, to diagnose isolated pancreatic injuries, we actively perform endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) in addition to abdominal CT at the time of admission. For cases with complications such as abdominal and other organ injuries, we perform a laparotomy to ascertain whether a pancreatic duct injury is present. In regard to treatment options, for grade III injuries to the pancreatic body and tail, we basically choose distal pancreatectomy, but we also consider the Bracy method depending on the case. As for grade III injuries to the pancreatic head, we primarily choose pancreaticoduodenectomy, but also apply drainage if the situation calls for it. However, pancreatic injuries are often complicated by injuries of other regions of the body. Thus, diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic injury should be based on a comprehensive decision regarding early prioritization of treatment, taking hemodynamics into consideration after admission, and how to minimize complications such as anastomotic leak and pancreatic fistulas. (author)

  4. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites based on PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em compositos de PCL/PLLA com fibra de coco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodama, Yasko

    2011-07-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem recently concerning environmental impact. In this scenario, preparation of polymers and composites based on coconut husk fiber would lead to a reduction on the cost of the final product. Additionally, it will reduce the amount of agribusiness waste disposal in the environment. In Brazil, coconut production is around 1.5 billion fruits by year in a cultivated area of 2.7 million hectares, but the coconut husk fiber has not been used much for industrial applications. Moreover, biodegradable polymers have attracted the attention of the most part of population, due to the environmental issues arising from the increasing use of polymeric materials of low degradability discharged as waste residue. Besides, when considering an application in the medical field, it is necessary that the products are sterilized and, ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical and surgical devices. In this work, it was studied blends and composites based on two commercial polymers: poly (e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly (lactic acid), PLLA, and coconut fiber. Those polymers are biodegradable as well as biocompatible, so it is important to know the effect of ionizing radiation in these materials. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays from {sup 60}Co source and electron beam with radiation doses ranging from 10 kGy up to 1 MGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated samples were studied using several analytical techniques and characterization assays that allowed understanding their properties in order to enable their application as precursors for medical and surgical devices. Thermal stability of non irradiated and irradiated composites up to 100 kGy radiation dose is not affected significantly by the coconut fiber incorporation to the polymeric matrix. Acetylation of fibers was not effective in order to induce any interaction between fibers and polymeric matrix, as expected. That was verified by the slight reduction of stress strength

  5. Kinematic and kinetic analysis of the knee joint before and after a PCL retaining total knee replacement during gait and single step ascent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolopoulos, Alexandros; Lallos, Stergios; Mastrokalos, Dimitrios; Michos, Ioannis; Darras, Nikolaos; Tzomaki, Magda; Efstathopoulos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to capture and analyze the kinetics and kinematics and determine the functional performance of the osteoarthritic knee after a posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) retaining total knee arthroplasty. Kinematic and kinetic gait analysis of level walking was performed in 20 subjects (12 female and 8 male) with knee ostoarthritis. These patients were free of any neurological diseases that could affect their normal gait. Mean age was 69.6 ± 6.6 years; mean height was 157.6 cm ± 7.6 cm; and mean weight was 77.2 ± 12.1 kg. Full body gait analyses were performed using the BIOKIN 3D motion analysis system before and 9 months after total knee arthroplasty procedures. Single-step ascending kinetic analyses and plantar pressure distribution analyses were also performed for all subjects. International Knee Society Scores (IKSSs) were also assessed pre- and postoperatively. Significant increases were noted postoperatively in average cadence (preoperative mean = 99.26, postoperative mean = 110.5; p knee adduction moment were also reported postoperatively. All patients showed a significant improvement of knee kinetics and kinematics after a PCL retaining total knee arthroplasty. Significant differences were found in the cadence, step length, stride length, and walk velocity postoperatively. IKSSs also significantly improved. Further research is warranted to determine the clinical relevance of these findings.

  6. Nanoporous capsules of block co-polymers of [(MeO-PEG-NH)-b-(L-GluA)]-PCL for the controlled release of anticancer drugs for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amgoth, Chander; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Kalle, Arunasree M.; Paik, Pradip

    2016-03-01

    Herein, new nanoporous capsules of the block co-polymers of MeO-PEG-NH-(L-GluA)10 and polycaprolactone (PCL) have been synthesized through a surfactant-free cost-effective self-assembled soft-templating approach for the controlled release of drugs and for therapeutic applications. The nanoporous polymer capsules are designed to be biocompatible and are capable of encapsulating anticancer drugs (e.g., doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and imatinib mesylate (ITM)) with a high extent (˜279 and ˜480 ng μg-1, respectively). We have developed a nanoformulation of porous MeO-PEG-NH-(L-GluA)10-PCL capsules with DOX and ITM. The porous polymer nanoformulations have been programmed in terms of the release of anticancer drugs with a desired dose to treat the leukemia (K562) and human carcinoma cells (HepG2) in vitro and show promising IC50 values with a very high mortality of cancer cells (up to ˜96.6%). Our nanoformulation arrests the cell divisions due to ‘cellular scenescence’ and kills the cancer cells specifically. The present findings could enrich the effectiveness of idiosyncratic nanoporous polymer capsules for use in various other nanomedicinal and biomedical applications, such as for killing cancer cells, immune therapy, and gene delivery.

  7. Myosin-1 inhibition by PClP affects membrane shape, cortical actin distribution and lipid droplet dynamics in early Zebrafish embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabuddha Gupta

    Full Text Available Myosin-1 (Myo1 represents a mechanical link between the membrane and actin-cytoskeleton in animal cells. We have studied the effect of Myo1 inhibitor PClP in 1-8 cell Zebrafish embryos. Our results indicate a unique involvement of Myo1 in early development of Zebrafish embryos. Inhibition of Myo1 (by PClP and Myo2 (by Blebbistatin lead to arrest in cell division. While Myo1 isoforms appears to be important for both the formation and the maintenance of cleavage furrows, Myo2 is required only for the formation of furrows. We found that the blastodisc of the embryo, which contains a thick actin cortex (~13 μm, is loaded with cortical Myo1. Myo1 appears to be crucial for maintaining the blastodisc morphology and the actin cortex thickness. In addition to cell division and furrow formation, inhibition of Myo1 has a drastic effect on the dynamics and distribution of lipid droplets (LDs in the blastodisc near the cleavage furrow. All these results above are effects of Myo1 inhibition exclusively; Myo2 inhibition by blebbistatin does not show such phenotypes. Therefore, our results demonstrate a potential role for Myo1 in the maintenance and formation of furrow, blastodisc morphology, cell-division and LD organization within the blastodisc during early embryogenesis.

  8. Nanoporous capsules of block co-polymers of [(MeO-PEG-NH)-b-(L-GluA)]-PCL for the controlled release of anticancer drugs for therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amgoth, Chander; Paik, Pradip; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Kalle, Arunasree M

    2016-01-01

    Herein, new nanoporous capsules of the block co-polymers of MeO-PEG-NH-(L-GluA) 10 and polycaprolactone (PCL) have been synthesized through a surfactant-free cost-effective self-assembled soft-templating approach for the controlled release of drugs and for therapeutic applications. The nanoporous polymer capsules are designed to be biocompatible and are capable of encapsulating anticancer drugs (e.g., doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and imatinib mesylate (ITM)) with a high extent (∼279 and ∼480 ng μg −1 , respectively). We have developed a nanoformulation of porous MeO-PEG-NH-(L-GluA) 10 -PCL capsules with DOX and ITM. The porous polymer nanoformulations have been programmed in terms of the release of anticancer drugs with a desired dose to treat the leukemia (K562) and human carcinoma cells (HepG2) in vitro and show promising IC 50 values with a very high mortality of cancer cells (up to ∼96.6%). Our nanoformulation arrests the cell divisions due to ‘cellular scenescence’ and kills the cancer cells specifically. The present findings could enrich the effectiveness of idiosyncratic nanoporous polymer capsules for use in various other nanomedicinal and biomedical applications, such as for killing cancer cells, immune therapy, and gene delivery. (paper)

  9. Characterization of Polycaprolactone and Rice Husk Silica Composite (PCL-SiO2) by E-Spinning to Apply Supporter for Drug Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sinae; Hilonga, Askwar; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    Polycaprolactone (PCL) is an interesting material to apply biomedical field owing to its biodegradability and biocompatibility which is suitable for a specific site with longer healing times. Blending the polymer with other materials has degradation property improved with the effective and economic method. This study was conducted to fabricate supporter based on Polycaprolactone and Rice husk silica (PCL-SiO2) by using electrospinning. Nano-porous silica in the composite was synthesized from rice husk having properties of economic, eco-friendly and high surface area. It drew to enhance the amount of drug loading in the carrier. Electrospinning technique is used to fabricate fibrous component by optimization condition obtained from previous mechanical properties experiments. Release experiment was carried out by the degree of dye absorbance at 544nm by ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, the RhB in SiO2 alternative drug for modelling of drug release was released for 1 ~ 20 days at 37°C in phosphate buffer. Furthermore, the Mechanical property was confirmed by DSC, TGA. Morphology and degree of biodegradation were shown as SEM images and EDS.

  10. The popliteal fibular ligament in acute knee trauma: patterns of injury on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKean, D.; Thomee, E.; Grant, D.; Teh, J.L.; Mansour, R. [Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Headington, Oxford (United Kingdom); Yoong, P. [Royal Berkshire NHS Foundation Trust, Royal Berkshire Hospital, Reading (United Kingdom); Yanny, S. [Buckinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Aylesbury (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    To describe the patterns of injury associated with injury to the popliteofibular ligament injury. A retrospective review was performed of 180 MRI scans undertaken for acute knee trauma. Scans were excluded if the time of injury was over 4 weeks from the time of the scan, or if there was a history of septic arthritis, inflammatory arthropathy, previous knee surgery, or significant artefact. An agreed criterion for assessing the structures of the posterolateral ligamentous complex was defined and in each scan, the popliteofibular ligament (PFL) was scored as normal or injured. The menisci, ligaments, and tendons of each knee were also assessed. The mean age was 25.7 years (range, 9-65 years) and 72.2 % (n = 130) patients were male. The PFL was injured in 36 cases (20 %). There is a significant association between PFL injury and ACL rupture (p = 0.0001), ITB injury (p = 0.0001), PCL injury (p = 0.0373), in addition to associations with injury to other posterolateral corner structures including the lateral collateral ligament (p = 0.0001), biceps femoris tendon (p = 0.0014), and popliteus tendon (p = 0.0014). Of our series of PFL injuries, nine cases (25 %) were associated with further injuries of posterolateral corner structures and in 27 cases (75 %) the PFL was the only posterolateral corner structure torn. PFL injury is not uncommon in acute knee trauma and is associated with significant internal derangement of the knee, especially anterior cruciate ligament rupture, ITB sprain, and injury to other structures within the posterolateral corner. (orig.)

  11. An unusual presentation of whiplash injury: long thoracic and spinal accessory nerve injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, N.; Srinivasan, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    Whiplash injuries from motor vehicle accidents are very common. The usual presentation and course of this condition normally results in resolution of symptoms within a few weeks. Brachial plexus traction injuries without any bone or joint lesion of the cervical spine have been reported before. We report a case where a gentleman was involved in a rear end vehicle collision, sustained a whiplash injury and was later found to have a long thoracic nerve palsy and spinal accessory nerve palsy. Although isolated injuries of both nerves following a whiplash injury have been reported, combined injury of the two nerves following a whiplash injury is very uncommon and is being reported for the first time. PMID:17587067

  12. Chest Injuries Associated with Head Injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Although there have been significant advances in management, associated severe injuries, in particular chest injuries, remain a major challenge. Extracranial injuries, especially chest injuries increase mortality in patients with TBI in both short.

  13. Study of the effect of ionizing radiation on composites based on PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yasko

    2011-01-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem recently concerning environmental impact. In this scenario, preparation of polymers and composites based on coconut husk fiber would lead to a reduction on the cost of the final product. Additionally, it will reduce the amount of agribusiness waste disposal in the environment. In Brazil, coconut production is around 1.5 billion fruits by year in a cultivated area of 2.7 million hectares, but the coconut husk fiber has not been used much for industrial applications. Moreover, biodegradable polymers have attracted the attention of the most part of population, due to the environmental issues arising from the increasing use of polymeric materials of low degradability discharged as waste residue. Besides, when considering an application in the medical field, it is necessary that the products are sterilized and, ionizing radiation is widely used to sterilize medical and surgical devices. In this work, it was studied blends and composites based on two commercial polymers: poly (e-caprolactone), PCL, and poly (lactic acid), PLLA, and coconut fiber. Those polymers are biodegradable as well as biocompatible, so it is important to know the effect of ionizing radiation in these materials. Samples were irradiated with gamma rays from 60 Co source and electron beam with radiation doses ranging from 10 kGy up to 1 MGy. The non-irradiated and irradiated samples were studied using several analytical techniques and characterization assays that allowed understanding their properties in order to enable their application as precursors for medical and surgical devices. Thermal stability of non irradiated and irradiated composites up to 100 kGy radiation dose is not affected significantly by the coconut fiber incorporation to the polymeric matrix. Acetylation of fibers was not effective in order to induce any interaction between fibers and polymeric matrix, as expected. That was verified by the slight reduction of stress strength observed

  14. Comparative outcome of bomb explosion injuries versus high-powered gunshot injuries of the upper extremity in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Rivkin, Gurion; Avitzour, Malka; Liebergall, Meir; Mintz, Yoav; Mosheiff, Ram

    2013-03-01

    Explosion injuries to the upper extremity have specific clinical characteristics that differ from injuries due to other mechanisms. To evaluate the upper extremity injury pattern of attacks on civilian targets, comparing bomb explosion injuries to gunshot injuries and their functional recovery using standard outcome measures. Of 157 patients admitted to the hospital between 2000 and 2004, 72 (46%) sustained explosion injuries and 85 (54%) gunshot injuries. The trauma registry files were reviewed and the patients completed the DASH Questionnaire (Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) and SF-12 (Short Form-12) after a minimum period of 1 year. Of the 157 patients, 72 (46%) had blast injuries and 85 (54%) had shooting injuries. The blast casualties had higher Injury Severity Scores (47% vs. 22% with a score of > 16, P = 0.02) and higher percent of patients treated in intensive care units (47% vs. 28%, P = 0.02). Although the Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the upper extremity injury was similar in the two groups, the blast casualties were found to have more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries and were treated surgically more often. No difference was found in the SF-12 or DASH scores between the groups at follow up. The casualties with upper extremity blast injuries were more severely injured and sustained more bilateral and complex soft tissue injuries to the upper extremity. However, the rating of the local injury to the isolated limb is similar, as was the subjective functional recovery.

  15. Below Knee Impact Responses using Cadaveric Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sriram; Beillas, Philippe; Belwadi, Aditya; Hardy, Warren N; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Masuda, Mitsutoshi

    2004-11-01

    than the PCL affect the injury outcome and that the intact knee would suffer predominantly tibial metaphyseal fractures possibly due to bending. Consequently, it is concluded that the current experimental setup can produce isolated PCL injuries but the data available are inadequate to characterize PCL tolerance. A Hybrid III knee equipped with a ball bearing knee slider was also tested using a pendulum setup. Apart from the initial higher stiffness, the overall response of this knee lies within the force-deflection corridors defined using the response of the cadaver knees with PCL mid-substance failure.

  16. Longitudinal split of the posterior cruciate ligament: description of a new MR finding and evaluation of its potential clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, J.H. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W., E-mail: chung@amc.seoul.k [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J.W. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B.K.; Lee, S.H.; Shin, M.J. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical significance of the intra-substance longitudinal split of the posterior cruciate ligament (LS-PCL) and to evaluate its potential clinical significance on MRI. Materials and methods: The databases of two centres were searched for LS-PCL, 6917 knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations undertaken were retrospectively reviewed. LS-PCL was defined as increased signal intensity in a PCL in the longitudinal direction, but with an intact ligament outer surface on MRI. Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. Available arthroscopic results, degree of posterior knee instability, and changes in MRI findings, or the degree of instability during follow-up (FU), were reviewed from the patients medical records and via their MRI images. MRI images were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus for presence and location of LS-PCL and any combined injuries: menisci lesions, ligament injuries, and bone marrow changes. Results: Seven of 12 patients (58.3%) had morphological or functional evidence of PCL injury or insufficiency according to the change of posterior instability on FU stress testing (n = 3), insufficiency during arthroscopy (n = 2), or decreased extent and altered shape of the PCL split on the FU MRI (n = 3). One patient revealed both change of posterior instability on FU stress testing and insufficiency during arthroscopy. Combined injuries were revealed in seven patients. Five patients had isolated LS-PCL: two patients underwent arthroscopic PCL reconstructions; and another three patients revealed knee instability on stress testing. Conclusion: Although LS-PCL has not been described before, it can be a type of partial tear of the PCL, which causes PCL insufficiency.

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ... Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ... Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  20. Dealing with Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Dealing With Sports Injuries KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Sports Injuries ... a long way toward preventing injuries. Types of Sports Injuries Common reasons why teens get injured playing ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ... Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 ...

  4. Fingertip Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Fingertip Injury Email to a friend * required fields ...

  5. Musculoskeletal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigirey, V

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about musculoskeletal injuries and the diagnosis of osseous tumors. The use of the radiology, bone scintigraphy, computed tomography and magnetic resonance contribute to detect the localization of the osseous lesions as well as the density (lytic, sclerotic, mixed) and the benign and malignant tumors.

  6. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF KNEE INJURIES AMONG US HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES, 2005/06–2010/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, David M.; Collins, Christy L.; Best, Thomas M.; Flanigan, David C.; Fields, Sarah K.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Purpose US high school athletes sustain millions of injuries annually. Detailed patterns of knee injuries, among the most costly sports injuries, remain largely unknown. We hypothesize that patterns of knee injuries in US high school sports differ by sport and gender. Methods US High school sports-related injury data were collected for 20 sports using the National High School Sports-Related Injury Surveillance System, High School RIO™. Knee injury rates, rate ratios, and injury proportion ratios were calculated. Results From 2005/06–2010/11, 5,116 knee injuries occurred during 17,172,376 athlete exposures (AEs) for an overall rate of 2.98 knee injuries per 10,000 AEs. Knee injuries were more common in competition than practice (RR 3.53, 95% CI 3.34–3.73). Football had the highest knee injury rate (6.29 per 10,000 AEs) followed by girls’ soccer (4.53) and girls’ gymnastics (4.23). Girls had significantly higher knee injury rates than boys in gender-comparable sports (soccer, volleyball, basketball, baseball/softball, lacrosse, swimming and diving, and track and field) (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.39–1.65). The most commonly involved structure was the MCL (reported in 36.1% of knee injuries), followed by the patella/patellar tendon (29.5%), ACL (25.4%), meniscus (23.0%), LCL (7.9%), and PCL (2.4%). Girls were significantly more likely to sustain ACL injuries in gender-comparable sports (RR 2.38, 95% CI 1.91–2.95). Overall, 21.2% of knee injuries were treated with surgery; girls were more often treated with surgery than boys in gender-comparable sports (IPR 1.30, 95% CI 1.11–1.53). Conclusions Knee injury patterns differ by sport and gender. Continuing efforts to develop preventive interventions could reduce the burden of these injuries. PMID:23059869

  7. Morphology evolution of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), poly(.epsilon.-caprolactone) (PCL) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) ternary blend and their effects on mechanical properties for bio scaffold applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ezzati, P.; Ghasemi, I.; Karrabi, M.; Azizi, H.; Fortelný, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2014), s. 449-456 ISSN 0379-153X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : PLLA/PCL/PEO ternary blend * bio scaffold * melt blending Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2014

  8. Integrated Care for Multisensory Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    poned due to the precedence of managing life-threatening injuries that require airway stabilization and bleeding control. Delays in TBI and...formed may experience increased anxiety, depression, and isolation. These responses can manifest physically as hypertension, dizziness, gastrointestinal ...For example, an upper extremity amputee who also suffers from blast-related vision and hearing dysfunction and mTBI may not have the manual

  9. Inventário de Psicopatia de Hare Versão Jovens (PCL:YV: Estudo Preliminar em Amostra Adolescente Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Ronchetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary study of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV reliability developed with 20 male Brazilian adolescents offenders. They had between 16 and 17 years old medium age and were confined in a facility in the metropolitan area of Porto Alegre, the southernmost state capital in the country. A questionnaire with social and demographic data and a semi-structured interview were filled out. Collateral information was also obtained with the monitors of the facility where the research was performed. The results showed a high index of inter-evaluator reliability (W=0.93; p <0.001 in this sample. These findings suggest the continuation of the studies in order of generalizing the findings as well as to give continuity to the process of instrument validation in the Brazilian context.

  10. Nanocomposites Based on PCL and Halloysite Nanotubes Filled with Lysozyme: Effect of Draw Ratio on the Physical Properties and Release Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Bugatti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs were loaded with lsozyme, as antimicrobial molecule, at a HNTs/lysozyme ratio of 1:1. Such a nano-hybrid was incorporated into a poly (ε-caprolactone (PCL matrix at 10 wt % and films were obtained. The nano-composites were submitted to a cold drawn process at three different draw ratios, λ = 3, 4, and 5, where λ is l(final length/l0(initial length. Morphology, physical, and barrier properties of the starting nanocomposite and drawn samples were studied, and correlated to the release of the lysozyme molecule. It was demonstrated that with a simple mechanical treatment it is possible to obtain controlled release systems for specific active packaging requirements.

  11. Tratamento cirúrgico da fratura-avulsão da inserção tibial do L.C.P. do joelho: experiência de 21 casos Surgical treatment of avulsion fractures of the knee PCL tibial insertion: experience with 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Rocha Piedade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliamos 21 pacientes, sendo 16 pacientes do sexo masculino e 5 do feminino, com idade média de 30 anos, foram submetidos à tratamento cirúrgico da fratura-avulsão do LCP. Em 57% dos casos a lesão foi secundária a acidente motociclístico e 19% a acidente automobilístico. Em 72% dos casos foi identificada uma lesão na face anterior do joelho. O tratamento cirúrgico consistiu na abordagem posterior do joelho e fixação do fragmento ósseo com parafuso e arruela em 18 casos; e amarrilhas trans-ósseas em 3 casos, onde o fragmento ósseo era muito pequeno. Em 91% dos casos, a cirurgia foi realizada dentro dos primeiros 15 dias apos a lesão. Os pacientes foram avaliados objetivamente (teste de gaveta posterior e subjetivamente (Escala de Lysholm, apos um seguimento pós-operatório mínimo de 12 meses. A análise estatística não mostrou diferença significativa, ao nível de 5%, entre as avaliações objetiva e subjetiva. A ausência de lesão ligamentar periférica pode ter contribuído para que os resultados clínicos pós-operatórios tenham avaliação subjetiva satisfatória; entretanto, a presença de uma posteriorização tibial residual sugere que a fratura-avulsão do ligamento cruzado posterior deve ser abordada não como uma lesão óssea pura, mas sim, como uma lesão ósteo-ligamentar.We assessed 21 patients (16 males and 5 females, with mean age of 30 years who underwent surgical treatment for PCL avulsion fracture. In 57% of the cases, injuries were secondary to motorcycle accidents and 19% resulted from car accidents. Injuries on knee's anterior surface were detected in 72% of the cases. The surgical procedure involved posterior approach and bone fragment fixation using nut and screw in 18 cases, the trans-bone suture loop fixation in 3 cases with small bone fragments. In 91% of the cases, surgery was performed within the first two weeks following injury. The patients were objectively (posterior drawer test and

  12. Modifications induced by swift heavy ions on poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL). Part 2. Radicals characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouxhet, L.; Mestdagh, M.; Legras, R.

    2000-01-01

    Modifications induced by different energetic heavy ions ( 40 Ar 9+ , 80 Kr 15+ , 129 Xe 24+ , 208 Pb 53+ and 208 Pb 56+ ) on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB/HV) have been investigated by electron spin resonance (ESR). Indeed, film irradiation by heavy ions leads to, among other phenomena, the formation of radicals in the ion tracks. Thanks to ESR, it is possible to detect these radicals and to identify them or at least to characterize them by following the evolution of the radical signal as a function of parameters, like temperature, or the kinetic of disappearance of the radical species at ambient temperature in vacuum or ambient atmosphere. This study confirmed the generation of radicals by the irradiation of PHB/HV samples with energetic heavy ions reported in the literature. The study on PCL was not pursued after a few preliminary studies, revealing the presence of an ESR signal in the non-irradiated sample. Electronic stopping power has a major influence on radical decrease at ambient temperature. The ion used for the irradiation did not modify very much the radical signal and the evolution of the radicalar signal intensity with temperature. Different reasoning and experiments revealed that the glass transition temperature is a key temperature above which irreversible recombinations of the most stable radicals take place. A simulation study indicated that the most stable radical produced was probably a tertiary radical formed by the stabilization of the secondary radical resulting from the abstraction of a highly mobile hydrogen adjacent to the carbonyl

  13. Biological response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to titanium grade 4 implants coated with PCL/ZrO2 hybrid materials synthesized by sol–gel route: in vitro evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catauro, M.; Bollino, F.; Papale, F.; Mozetic, P.; Rainer, A.; Trombetta, M.

    2014-01-01

    The surface modification of implantable materials in order to improve their biological proprieties, including tissue tolerance and osseointegration ability, by means of functional coating deposition is a promising strategy to provide a firm fixation of the implants. In this study, organic/inorganic hybrid materials consisting of an inorganic zirconia-based matrix, in which a biocompatible polymer, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), has been incorporated at different percentages, have been synthesized via sol–gel route. Developed materials have been used to coat titanium grade 4 substrates by means of dip coating technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the obtained coatings has shown that films crack-free can be obtained for high levels of PCL. Chemical composition and interactions between organic and inorganic moieties have been studied by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. The bone-bonding capability of the nanocomposite films has been evaluated in vitro by examining the appearance of an apatite layer on their surface when soaked in a simulated body fluid by means of SEM equipped with EDS microanalysis. In vitro biocompatibility assessment was performed in combination with human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Materials were found to be non-toxic and supporting cell proliferation. Additionally, the coating material was not hampering the differentiation of hMSCs in an osteogenic medium. - Highlights: • ZrO 2 /PCL hybrid coatings on Ti grade 4 were obtained by sol–gel dip coating process. • The PCL acts as a plasticizer and allows us to prepare crack-free coatings. • Independent of PCL amount, the films improve the titanium substrates' bioactivity. • The coatings are non-toxic and supportive of cell proliferation at all compositions. • The coatings don't hamper hMSC differentiation in an osteogenic medium

  14. Biological response of human mesenchymal stromal cells to titanium grade 4 implants coated with PCL/ZrO{sub 2} hybrid materials synthesized by sol–gel route: in vitro evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, M., E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, F.; Papale, F. [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Mozetic, P.; Rainer, A.; Trombetta, M. [Tissue Engineering Lab, Center for Integrated Research, “Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma”, via Alvaro del Portillo, 00128 Rome (Italy)

    2014-12-01

    The surface modification of implantable materials in order to improve their biological proprieties, including tissue tolerance and osseointegration ability, by means of functional coating deposition is a promising strategy to provide a firm fixation of the implants. In this study, organic/inorganic hybrid materials consisting of an inorganic zirconia-based matrix, in which a biocompatible polymer, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), has been incorporated at different percentages, have been synthesized via sol–gel route. Developed materials have been used to coat titanium grade 4 substrates by means of dip coating technique. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the obtained coatings has shown that films crack-free can be obtained for high levels of PCL. Chemical composition and interactions between organic and inorganic moieties have been studied by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform InfraRed spectroscopy. The bone-bonding capability of the nanocomposite films has been evaluated in vitro by examining the appearance of an apatite layer on their surface when soaked in a simulated body fluid by means of SEM equipped with EDS microanalysis. In vitro biocompatibility assessment was performed in combination with human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Materials were found to be non-toxic and supporting cell proliferation. Additionally, the coating material was not hampering the differentiation of hMSCs in an osteogenic medium. - Highlights: • ZrO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid coatings on Ti grade 4 were obtained by sol–gel dip coating process. • The PCL acts as a plasticizer and allows us to prepare crack-free coatings. • Independent of PCL amount, the films improve the titanium substrates' bioactivity. • The coatings are non-toxic and supportive of cell proliferation at all compositions. • The coatings don't hamper hMSC differentiation in an osteogenic medium.

  15. Adversity and Resilience Are Associated with Outcome after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Military Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Matthew W; Cooper, Douglas B; Lu, Lisa H; Iverson, Grant L; Kennedy, Jan E

    2018-05-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the associations between resilience, adversity, post-concussion symptoms, and post-traumatic stress symptom reporting after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We hypothesized that resilience would be associated with less symptom reporting, and adversity would be associated with greater symptom reporting. This was a cross-sectional study of retrospective data collected for an ongoing TBI repository. United States military service members who screened positive for mTBI during a primary care visit completed the Trauma History Screen (THS), Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC), Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory (NSI), and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). Data collected from February 2015 to August 2016 were used for the present study. Only participants with complete data for the above measures were included, yielding a sample size of 165 participants. Adversity (THS) and resilience (CD-RISC) scores were each correlated significantly with post-concussion (NSI) and traumatic stress (PCL-C) total and subscale scores in the hypothesized direction. Interactions between adversity and resilience were absent for all measures except the NSI sensory subscale. Four traumatic event types were significantly associated positively with most NSI and PCL-C total and subscale scores, but the age at which traumatic events were first experienced showed few and mixed significant associations. In conclusion, resilience and adversity were significantly associated with symptom endorsement after mTBI. Screening for cumulative adversity may identify individuals at greater risk of developing persistent post-concussion symptoms and/or PTSD, and interventions that increase resilience may reduce symptom severity.

  16. A nested mechanistic sub-study into the effect of tranexamic acid versus placebo on intracranial haemorrhage and cerebral ischaemia in isolated traumatic brain injury: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (CRASH-3 Trial Intracranial Bleeding Mechanistic Sub-Study [CRASH-3 IBMS]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Abda; Roberts, Ian; Shakur, Haleema

    2017-07-17

    Tranexamic acid prevents blood clots from breaking down and reduces bleeding. However, it is uncertain whether tranexamic acid is effective in traumatic brain injury. The CRASH-3 trial is a randomised controlled trial that will examine the effect of tranexamic acid (versus placebo) on death and disability in 13,000 patients with traumatic brain injury. The CRASH-3 trial hypothesizes that tranexamic acid will reduce intracranial haemorrhage, which will reduce the risk of death. Although it is possible that tranexamic acid will reduce intracranial bleeding, there is also a potential for harm. In particular, tranexamic acid may increase the risk of cerebral thrombosis and ischaemia. The protocol detailed here is for a mechanistic sub-study nested within the CRASH-3 trial. This mechanistic sub-study aims to examine the effect of tranexamic acid (versus placebo) on intracranial bleeding and cerebral ischaemia. The CRASH-3 Intracranial Bleeding Mechanistic Sub-Study (CRASH-3 IBMS) is nested within a prospective, double-blind, multi-centre, parallel-arm randomised trial called the CRASH-3 trial. The CRASH-3 IBMS will be conducted in a cohort of approximately 1000 isolated traumatic brain injury patients enrolled in the CRASH-3 trial. In the CRASH-3 IBMS, brain scans acquired before and after randomisation are examined, using validated methods, for evidence of intracranial bleeding and cerebral ischaemia. The primary outcome is the total volume of intracranial bleeding measured on computed tomography after randomisation, adjusting for baseline bleeding volume. Secondary outcomes include progression of intracranial haemorrhage (from pre- to post-randomisation scans), new intracranial haemorrhage (seen on post- but not pre-randomisation scans), intracranial haemorrhage following neurosurgery, and new focal ischaemic lesions (seen on post-but not pre-randomisation scans). A linear regression model will examine whether receipt of the trial treatment can predict haemorrhage

  17. Duodenal Transection without Pancreatic Injury following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Bankar, Sanket Subhash; Gosavi, Vikas S.; Hamid, Mohd.

    2014-01-01

    With the inventions of faster cars and even more faster motorbikes there is a worldwide increase in road traffic accidents, which has increased the incidence of blunt abdominal trauma but still duodenal injury following a blunt abdominal trauma is uncommon and can pose a formidable challenge to the surgeon and failure to manage it properly can result in devastating results. It may typically occur in isolation or with pancreatic injury. Here, we report a case of an isolated transection of the ...

  18. Determinants of splenectomy in splenic injuries following blunt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction. The management of splenic injuries has shifted from splenectomy to splenic preservation owing to the risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). This study aimed to identify the factors that determine splenectomy in patients with isolated splenic injuries, with a view to increasing the rate of splenic ...

  19. Causes And Pattern Of Unilateral Hand Injuries | Kaisha | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the causes and pattern of hand injuries in patients with isolated unilateral acute hand injuries managed at the Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). Design: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, between May and August 2006. Subjects: All ...

  20. Isolation World

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Martín, Eugeni

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.

  1. Distal radioulnar joint injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu P Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distal radioulnar joint is a trochoid joint relatively new in evolution. Along with proximal radioulnar joint , forearm bones and interosseous membrane, it allows pronosupination and load transmission across the wrist. Injuries around distal radioulnar joint are not uncommon, and are usually associated with distal radius fractures,fractures of the ulnar styloid and with the eponymous Galeazzi or Essex_Lopresti fractures. The injury can be purely involving the soft tissue especially the triangular fibrocartilage or the radioulnar ligaments.The patients usually present with ulnar sided wrist pain, features of instability, or restriction of rotation. Difficulty in carrying loads in the hand is a major constraint for these patients. Thorough clinical examination to localize point of tenderness and appropriate provocative tests help in diagnosis. Radiology and MRI are extremely useful, while arthroscopy is the gold standard for evaluation. The treatment protocols are continuously evolving and range from conservative, arthroscopic to open surgical methods. Isolated dislocation are uncommon. Basal fractures of the ulnar styloid tend to make the joint unstable and may require operative intervention. Chronic instability requires reconstruction of the stabilizing ligaments to avoid onset of arthritis. Prosthetic replacement in arthritis is gaining acceptance in the management of arthritis.

  2. Determinants of splenectomy in splenic injuries following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinkuolie, A A; Lawal, O O; Arowolo, O A; Agbakwuru, E A; Adesunkanmi, A R K

    2010-02-01

    The management of splenic injuries has shifted from splenectomy to splenic preservation owing to the risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI). This study aimed to identify the factors that determine splenectomy in patients with isolated splenic injuries, with a view to increasing the rate of splenic preservation. Files of 55 patients managed for isolated splenic injuries from blunt abdominal trauma between 1998 and 2007 were retrospectively analysed using a pro forma. Management options were classified into nonoperative, operative salvage and splenectomy. The majority of patients suffered splenic injury as a result of motor vehicle accident (MVA) trauma or falls. Splenectomy was undertaken in 33 (60%) patients, 12 (22%) had non-operative management, and operative salvage was achieved in 10 (18%) patients. Significant determinants of splenectomy were grade of splenic injury, hierarchy of the surgeon, and hierarchy of the assistant. MVA injury and falls accounted for the vast majority of blunt abdominal trauma in this study. The rate and magnitude of energy transferred versus splenic protective mechanisms at the time of blunt abdominal trauma seems to determine the grade of splenic injury. Interest in splenic salvage surgery, availability of technology that enables splenic salvage surgery, and the experience of the surgeon and assistant appear to determine the surgical management. Legislation on vehicle safety and good parental control may reduce the severity of splenic injury in blunt abdominal trauma. When surgery is indicated, salvage surgery should be considered in intermediate isolated splenic injury to reduce the incidence of OPSI.

  3. Gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, E A; Nmadu, P T

    2004-04-01

    To determine the pattern, presentation and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt abdominal trauma in children. A retrospective study. Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria. Twenty one children managed for gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma from 1984-2002. The pattern, presentation, management and outcome of gastrointestinal injuries from blunt trauma. In the 19 year period, 1984-2002, 92 children were treated for blunt abdominal trauma, 21(23%) of who had injuries to the gastrointestinal tract. Three presenting after 24 hours had evidence of peritonitis. In six children with isolated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) injury who presented within two hours, abdominal signs were vague at initial evaluation but became marked over a few hours at repeated examination. In eight with associated intraabdominal injuries, abdominal signs were marked at initial examination and five presented with shock. Free peritoneal air was present on plain abdominal and chest radiograph in three of ten patients, dilated bowel loops in six and fluid levels in one. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage or paracentesis was positive in four patients with isolated GIT injuries and eight with associated intraabdominal injuries. There were 24 injuries in the 21 patients consisting of 15 perforations, five contusions, two seromuscular tears, and two gangrene from mesenteric injury. The small intestine was involved in 11 patients, colon six, stomach five, duodenum one and rectum one. Seven (35%) patients had associated extraabdominal injuries. Treatment consisted of simple closure of perforations, over sewing of contusions, resection and anastomosis for gangrene and repair with protective stoma for the rectal injury. One patient each developed prolonged ileus, urinary tract infection and chest infection, respectively postoperatively. Mortality was 28%, all of who had associated intraabdominal or extraabdominal injuries. Gastrointestinal injury from blunt abdominal trauma in

  4. Equivalência semântica da versão em português da Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C para rastreamento do transtorno de estresse pós-traumático Equivalencia semántica de la versión en portugués de la Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C para el rastreo del trastorno de estrés pos-traumático Semantic equivalence of the Portuguese version of the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C for the screening of post-traumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Berger

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno do estresse pós-traumático (TEPT é bastante prevalente, atingindo de 2 a 5% da população em alguns países. Seus portadores apresentam pior qualidade de vida, maior número de detenções e problemas legais, e utilizam os serviços de saúde com maior freqüência quando comparados a indivíduos não acometidos. Apesar do crescimento da violência urbana no Brasil, ainda não dispomos de nenhum instrumento adaptado para nossa língua que seja capaz de rastrear o TEPT. Este artigo pretende traduzir, adaptar e avaliar a aplicabilidade da versão em português da Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist - Civilian Version (PCL-C, uma escala auto-aplicável amplamente utilizada em todo o mundo para rastreamento do transtorno do estresse pós-traumático. MÉTODOS: A comprovação da equivalência semântica da versão em português da PCL-C foi feita através de quatro etapas: tradução; retradução; apreciação formal de equivalência e adaptação; e interlocução com a população-alvo. RESULTADOS: Foi criada uma versão em português da PCL-C que manteve o significado semântico da versão original e mostrou-se de fácil compreensão e aplicabilidade. DISCUSSÃO: A PCL-C foi escolhida para este estudo por ser um instrumento amplamente utilizado em países de língua inglesa e por possuir outras utilidades além do rastreamento do TEPT. A interlocução com a população-alvo, feita com um número relativamente pequeno de indivíduos (n = 21, mostrou que alguns participantes entenderam o termo "estresse" como uma rotina de vida cansativa. CONCLUSÃO: Uma vez obtida a equivalência semântica da versão em português da PCL-C, estudos posteriores deverão determinar suas características psicométricas para a população brasileira.INTRODUCCÍON: El trastorno de estrés postraumático (TEPT es bastante común, afectando del 2 al 5% de la población en algunos países. Quienes lo padecen presentan una inferior

  5. Modification of Ti6Al4V implant surfaces by biocompatible TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid layers prepared via sol-gel dip coating: Structural characterization, mechanical and corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catauro, Michelina, E-mail: michelina.catauro@unina2.it [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Bollino, Flavia [Department of Industrial and Information Engineering, Second University of Naples, Via Roma 21, 81031 Aversa (Italy); Giovanardi, Roberto; Veronesi, Paolo [Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Via Vivarelli 10, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2017-05-01

    Surface modification of metallic implants is a promising strategy to improve tissue tolerance, osseointegration and corrosion resistance of them. In the present work, bioactive and biocompatible organic-inorganic hybrid coatings were prepared using a sol-gel dip coating route. They consist of an inorganic TiO{sub 2} matrix in which different percentages of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, were incorporated. The coatings were used to modify the surface of Ti6Al4V substrates in order to improve their wear and corrosion resistance. The chemical structure of the coatings was analyzed by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Coating microstructure, mechanical properties and ability to inhibit the corrosion of the substrates were evaluated as a function of the PCL amount. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the polymer allows to obtain crack-free coatings, but when high percentages were added uncoated areas appear. Nano-indentation tests revealed that, as expected, surface hardness and elastic modulus decrease as the percentage of polymeric matrix increases, but scratch testing demonstrated that the coatings are effective in preventing scratching of the underlying metallic substrate, at least for PCL contents up to 20 wt%. The electrochemical tests (polarization curves acquired in order to evaluate the corrosion resistance) allowed to asses that the coatings have a significant effect in term of corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) but they do not significantly affect the passivation process that titanium undergoes in contact with the test solution used (modified Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline or DPBS). - Highlights: • Bioactive TiO{sub 2}/PCL hybrid coatings on Ti6Al4V were prepared via sol-gel dip coating. • Hybrid coatings are crack-free but when 50 wt% PCL was added, uncoated areas appear. • Coating hardness and elastic modulus decrease as the PCL percentage

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos ... Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injury? play_arrow What kind of surgery is common after a spinal cord injury? play_ ... How soon after a spinal cord injury should surgery be performed? play_arrow Is it common to ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences ...

  10. Radiotherapy injuries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalifa, G.; Bennet, J.; Couanet, D.; Masselot, J.

    1985-01-01

    Side effects of radiotherapy in pediatrics are reviewed including bone injuries and radio-induced bone tumors; nervous system injuries with emphasis on hypothalamus, pituitary gland, brain and spinal cord; lung, digestive system and urinary tract injuries [fr

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  12. Facial Sports Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury 101 ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  15. Preventing Knee Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ... a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? ...

  18. Anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries in sports: incidence, time of practice until injury, and limitations caused after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astur, Diego Costa; Xerez, Marcos; Rozas, João; Debieux, Pedro Vargas; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Cohen, Moises

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1) isolated rupture of the ACL; (2) ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3) isolated menisci injury. The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%), followed by group 2 (30.2%) and 3 (25%). Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years) than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years). Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries in sports: incidence, time of practice until injury, and limitations caused after trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1 isolated rupture of the ACL; (2 ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3 isolated menisci injury. RESULTS: The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%, followed by group 2 (30.2% and 3 (25%. Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. CONCLUSION: Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years. Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.

  20. Isolated jejunal perforation following blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Pergel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated perforation of the jejunum, following blunt abdominaltrauma, is extremely rare. These injuries aredifficult to diagnose because initial clinical signs are frequentlynonspecific and a delay in treatment increasesmortality and morbidity of the patients. Conventional radiogramsare often inadequate for diagnosing this subsetof trauma. For an accurate and timely diagnosis, thepossibility of bowel perforation and the need for repeatedexaminations should be kept in mind. Herein, we presenta 28-year-old man with isolated jejunal perforation followingblunt abdominal trauma.Key words: Blunt abdominal trauma, isolated jejunal perforation,early diagnosis

  1. Cervical spine fracture in a boxer a rare but important sporting injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical vertebral injuries are rare in boxing. The case of an adult boxer with an isolated vertical fracture of the anterior arch of the atlas is described. The mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, complications and treatment are discussed. Measures to prevent head and neck injury in boxing are discussed.

  2. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild Traumatic Brain Injury Resilience Families with Kids Depression Families & Friendships Tobacco Life Stress Spirituality Anger Physical Injury Stigma Health & Wellness Work Adjustment Community Peer-2-Peer Forum ...

  3. Baseball and softball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quincy

    2006-05-01

    Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.

  4. accidental injuries in children (physical child abuse)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-06

    Dec 6, 2016 ... are often due to minor accidental injuries. However ... In dark-skinned children, bruises may be confused with café-au-lait spots. .... A bruise should not be examined in isolation if reason- ... dren with intellectual disability, such as autism and hy- ... opmental stage, social and environmental factors includ-.

  5. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  6. Radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubner, K.F.

    1988-01-01

    Radiation accidents and incidents continue to be of great interest and concern to the public. Issues such as the threat of nuclear war, the Chernobyl reactor accident, or reports of sporadic incidences of accidental radiation exposure keep this interest up and maintain a high level of fear among the public. In this climate of real concern and radiation phobia, physicians should not only be prepared to answer questions about acute or late effects of ionizing radiation, but also be able to participate in the initial assessment and management of individuals who have been exposed to ionizing radiation or contaminated with radioactive material. Some of the key facts about radiation injury and its medical treatment are discussed by the author

  7. Novel star-type methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) copolymeric nanoparticles for controlled release of curcumin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Runliang; Zhu, Wenxia; Song, Zhimei; Zhao, Liyan; Zhai, Guangxi

    2013-06-01

    To improve curcumin's (CURs) water solubility and release property, a novel star methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) copolymer was synthesized through O-alkylation, basic hydrolysis and ring-opening polymerization reaction with MPEG, epichlorohydrin, and ɛ-caprolactone as raw materials. The structure of the novel copolymer was characterized by 1H NMR, FT-IR, and GPC. The results of FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter of CUR-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by dialysis method showed that CUR was successfully encapsulated into the SMP12 copolymeric NPs with 98.2 % of entrapment efficiency, 10.91 % of drug loading, and 88.4 ± 11.2 nm of mean particle diameter in amorphous forms. The dissolubility of nanoparticulate CUR was increased by 1.38 × 105 times over CUR in water. The obtained blank copolymer showed no hemolysis. A sustained CUR release to a total of approximately 56.13 % was discovered from CUR-NPs in 40 % of ethanol saline solution within 72 h on the use of dialysis method. The release behavior fitted the ambiexponent and biphasic kinetics equation. In conclusion, the copolymeric NPs loading CUR might serve as a potential nanocarrier to improve the solubility and release property of CUR.

  8. Novel star-type methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)–poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) copolymeric nanoparticles for controlled release of curcumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Runliang; Zhu Wenxia; Song Zhimei; Zhao Liyan; Zhai Guangxi

    2013-01-01

    To improve curcumin’s (CURs) water solubility and release property, a novel star methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)–poly(ε-caprolactone) (MPEG–PCL) copolymer was synthesized through O-alkylation, basic hydrolysis and ring-opening polymerization reaction with MPEG, epichlorohydrin, and ε-caprolactone as raw materials. The structure of the novel copolymer was characterized by 1 H NMR, FT-IR, and GPC. The results of FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter of CUR-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by dialysis method showed that CUR was successfully encapsulated into the SMP12 copolymeric NPs with 98.2 % of entrapment efficiency, 10.91 % of drug loading, and 88.4 ± 11.2 nm of mean particle diameter in amorphous forms. The dissolubility of nanoparticulate CUR was increased by 1.38 × 10 5 times over CUR in water. The obtained blank copolymer showed no hemolysis. A sustained CUR release to a total of approximately 56.13 % was discovered from CUR-NPs in 40 % of ethanol saline solution within 72 h on the use of dialysis method. The release behavior fitted the ambiexponent and biphasic kinetics equation. In conclusion, the copolymeric NPs loading CUR might serve as a potential nanocarrier to improve the solubility and release property of CUR.

  9. Novel star-type methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) copolymeric nanoparticles for controlled release of curcumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Runliang; Zhu Wenxia; Song Zhimei, E-mail: zhimei_song@126.com [University of Jinan, Shandong Academy of Medical Science, Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Medicine and Life Sciences (China); Zhao Liyan [Hebei North University, Department of Pharmacy (China); Zhai Guangxi [Shandong University, Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy (China)

    2013-06-15

    To improve curcumin's (CURs) water solubility and release property, a novel star methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly({epsilon}-caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) copolymer was synthesized through O-alkylation, basic hydrolysis and ring-opening polymerization reaction with MPEG, epichlorohydrin, and {epsilon}-caprolactone as raw materials. The structure of the novel copolymer was characterized by {sup 1}H NMR, FT-IR, and GPC. The results of FT-IR and differential scanning calorimeter of CUR-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) prepared by dialysis method showed that CUR was successfully encapsulated into the SMP12 copolymeric NPs with 98.2 % of entrapment efficiency, 10.91 % of drug loading, and 88.4 {+-} 11.2 nm of mean particle diameter in amorphous forms. The dissolubility of nanoparticulate CUR was increased by 1.38 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} times over CUR in water. The obtained blank copolymer showed no hemolysis. A sustained CUR release to a total of approximately 56.13 % was discovered from CUR-NPs in 40 % of ethanol saline solution within 72 h on the use of dialysis method. The release behavior fitted the ambiexponent and biphasic kinetics equation. In conclusion, the copolymeric NPs loading CUR might serve as a potential nanocarrier to improve the solubility and release property of CUR.

  10. Manufacturing and characterization of encapsulated microfibers with different molecular weight poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) resins using a melt electrospinning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jason K; Ko, Junghyuk; Jun, Martin B G; Lee, Patrick C

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulated structures of poly(ε-caprolactone) microfibers were successfully fabricated through two distinct melt electrospinning methods: melt coaxial and melt-blending electrospinning methods. Both methods resulted in encapsulated microfibers, but the resultant microfibers had different morphologies. Melt coaxial electrospinning formed a dual, semi-concentric structure, whereas melt-blending electrospinning resulted in an islands-in-a-sea fiber structure (i.e. a multiple-core structure). The encapsulated microfibers were produced using a custom-designed melt coaxial electrospinning device and the microfibers were characterized using a scanning electron microscope. To analyze the properties of the melt blended encapsulated fibers and coaxial fibers, the microfiber mesh specimens were collected. The mechanical properties of each microfiber mesh were analyzed through a tensile test. The coaxial microfiber meshes were post processed with a femtosecond laser machine to create dog-bone shaped tensile test specimens, while the melt blended microfiber meshes were kept as-fabricated. The tensile experiments undertaken with coaxial microfiber specimens resulted in an increase in tensile strength compared to 10 k and 45 k monolayer specimens. However, melt blended microfiber meshes did not result in an increase in tensile strength. The melt blended microfiber mesh results indicate that by using greater amounts of 45 k PCL resin within the microstructure, the resulting fibers obtain a higher tensile strength. (paper)

  11. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist 5 (PCL-5 and Life Events Checklist 5 (LEC-5 for the Brazilian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Paula Lima

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist 5 (PCL-5 and the Life Events Checklist 5 (LEC-5 for the Brazilian sociolinguistic context. Method: The adaptation process sought to establish conceptual, semantic, and operational equivalence between the original items of the questionnaire and their translated versions, following standardized protocols. Initially, two researchers translated the original version of the scale into Brazilian Portuguese. Next, a native English speaker performed the back-translation. Quantitative and qualitative criteria were used to evaluate the intelligibility of items. Five specialists compared the original and translated versions and assessed the degree of equivalence between them in terms of semantic, idiomatic, cultural and conceptual aspects. The degree of agreement between the specialists was measured using the content validity coefficient (CVC. Finally, 28 volunteers from the target population were interviewed in order to assess their level of comprehension of the items. Results: CVCs for items from both scales were satisfactory for all criteria. The mean comprehension scores were above the cutoff point established. Overall, the results showed that the adapted versions' items had adequate rates of equivalence in terms of concepts and semantics. Conclusions: The translation and adaptation processes were successful for both scales, resulting in versions that are not only equivalent to the originals, but are also intelligible for the population at large.

  12. Cartilage Injuries in the Adult Knee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyad, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage injuries are frequently recognized as a source of significant morbidity and pain in patients with previous knee injuries. The majority of patients who undergo routine knee arthroscopy have evidence of a chondral defect. These injuries represent a continuum of pathology from small, asymptomatic lesions to large, disabling defects affecting a major portion of one or more compartments within the knee joint. In comparison to patients with osteoarthritis, individuals with isolated chondral surface damage are often younger, significantly more active, and usually less willing to accept limitations in activities that require higher impact. At the present time, a variety of surgical procedures exist, each with their unique indications. This heterogeneity of treatment options frequently leads to uncertainty regarding which techniques, if any, are most appropriate for patients. The purpose of this review is to describe the workup and discuss the management techniques for cartilage injuries within the adult knee. PMID:26069581

  13. Collateral Ligament Knee Injuries in Pediatric and Adolescent Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Dennis E; Miller, Patricia E; Berrahou, Iman K; Yen, Yi-Meng; Heyworth, Benton E

    2017-12-08

    The majority of research on medial (MCL) and lateral (LCL) collateral ligament injuries has focused on adults and combined collateral/cruciate injuries. The purpose of this study was to determine characteristics associated with isolated collateral ligament injuries in adolescents, and assess timing for return to sports. Electronic medical records were queried to identify patients aged below 17 years who sustained a magnetic resonance imaging-confirmed isolated MCL or LCL injury over an 8-year period. Retrospective review then documented patient and injury characteristics and clinical course. General linear modeling was used to analyze risk factors for prolonged return to sports, continued pain or reinjury. Fifty-one knees (33 in males, 65%), mean age 13.8 years (range, 5 to 17), were identified, of which 40 (78%) had MCL injuries. Over half (29, 57%) of knees had an open distal femoral physis including all 5 bony avulsion injuries. Eleven (22%) had LCL injuries of which 3 (6%) had concurrent posterolateral corner injuries. Forty-two (82%) knees had injuries that occurred during sports. Eleven knees (28%) with MCL tears had a simultaneous patellar instability episode. Knee injuries that occurred during sports had 37% shorter recovery time (P=0.02). Eight knees (16%) experienced a reinjury and 12 (24%) were followed over an extended period of time for various knee issues. Football injuries were more likely to be grade 3 (P=0.03), and football and soccer accounted for all grade III injuries. The mean return to sports was 2.2 months, with grade III cases returning at 2.4 months, and 95% of cases within 4 months. Isolated collateral ligament injuries are rare in adolescent athletes. MCL injuries, one-quarter of which occurred in conjunction with patellar instability events, were 4 times more common than LCL injuries, one quarter of which have other posterolateral corner structures involved. Grade III injuries represent 20% to 25% of collateral ligament injuries and

  14. Efficacy of rhBMP-2 loaded PCL/PLGA/β-TCP guided bone regeneration membrane fabricated by 3D printing technology for reconstruction of calvaria defects in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Jin-Hyung; Jeong, Chang-Mo; Huh, Jung-Bo; Jang, Jinah; Jeong, Sung-In; Cho, Dong-Woo; Yoon, Min-Chul

    2014-01-01

    We successfully fabricated a three-dimensional (3D) printing-based PCL/PLGA/β-TCP guided bone regeneration (GBR) membrane that slowly released rhBMP-2. To impregnate the GBR membrane with intact rhBMP-2, collagen solution encapsulating rhBMP-2 (5 µg ml −1 ) was infused into pores of a PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membrane constructed using a 3D printing system with four dispensing heads. In a release profile test, sustained release of rhBMP-2 was observed for up to 28 d. To investigate the efficacy of the GBR membrane on bone regeneration, PCL/PLGA/β-TCP membranes with or without rhBMP-2 were implanted in an 8 mm calvaria defect of rabbits. Bone formation was evaluated at weeks 4 and 8 histologically and histomorphometrically. A space making ability of the GBR membrane was successfully maintained in both groups, and significantly more new bone was formed at post-implantation weeks 4 and 8 by rhBMP-2 loaded GBR membranes. Interestingly, implantation with rhBMP-2 loaded GBR membranes led to almost entire healing of calvaria defects within 8 weeks. (paper)

  15. Stress injury of the rib in a swimmer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heincelman, Carrie [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Brown, Seth; England, Eric; Mehta, Kaushal; Wissman, Robert D. [University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Rib stress injuries are uncommonly reported but have been documented among athletes, most notably rowers. There have only been two prior case reports of rib stress injuries in swimmers, both of which were young females. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was either not obtained or the imaging characteristics were incompletely described. We present a case of an isolated third rib stress injury in a collegiate male swimmer diagnosed via MR imaging. We briefly discuss the possible etiologies for rib stress injuries, their MR appearance, as well as their treatment. (orig.)

  16. Patterns of work injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....

  17. Sports-specific injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, K D; Minnich, J M

    1996-04-01

    Injuries to the upper extremities can happen in any sport. Injury patterns are common to specific sports. Understanding which injuries occur with these sports allows the examiner to diagnose and treat the athlete easily. This article reviews some of the injuries common in sports such as bicycling, golf, gymnastics, martial arts, racquet sports, and weightlifting.

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  19. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  20. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  1. Injuries to the Collateral Ligaments of the Metacarpophalangeal Joint of the Thumb, Including Simultaneous Combined Thumb Ulnar and Radial Collateral Ligament Injuries, in National Football League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Brian C; Belkin, Nicole S; Kennelly, Steve; Weiss, Leigh; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F; Hotchkiss, Robert N

    2017-01-01

    Thumb collateral ligament injuries occur frequently in the National Football League (NFL). In the general population or in recreational athletes, pure metacarpophalangeal (MCP) abduction or adduction mechanisms yield isolated ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) and radial collateral ligament (RCL) tears, respectively, while NFL athletes may sustain combined mechanism injury patterns. To evaluate the incidence of simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tears among all thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries in NFL athletes on a single team. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of all thumb injuries on a single NFL team from 1991 to 2014 was performed. All players with a thumb MCP collateral ligament injury were included. Collateral ligament injuries were confirmed by review of both physical examination findings and magnetic resonance imaging. Player demographics, surgical details, and return-to-play data were obtained from the team electronic medical record and surgeons' records. A total of 36 thumbs in 32 NFL players were included in the study, yielding an incidence of 1.6 thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries per year on a single NFL team. Of these, 9 thumbs (25%) had a simultaneous combined UCL and RCL tear injury pattern confirmed on both physical examination and MRI. The remaining 27 thumbs (75%) were isolated UCL injuries. All combined UCL/RCL injuries required surgery due to dysfunction from instability; 63.0% of isolated UCL injuries required surgical repair ( P = .032) due to continued pain and dysfunction from instability. Repair, when required, was delayed until the end of the season. All players with combined UCL/RCL injuries and isolated UCL injuries returned to play professional football the following season. Simultaneous combined thumb UCL and RCL tear is a previously undescribed injury pattern that occurred in 25% of thumb MCP collateral ligament injuries on a single NFL team over a 23-year period. All players with combined thumb UCL

  2. Gastrointestinal Injuries in Blunt Abdominal Traumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönüllü, D; Ilgun, S; Gedik, M L; Demiray, O; Öner, Z; Er, M; Köksoy, F N

    2015-01-01

    To discuss the efficiency of RTS (Revised TraumaScore), ISS (Injury Severity Score), and factors that affect mortality and morbidity in gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma.Method and methods: Patients with gastrointestinal injuries due to blunt trauma operated within the last six years have been studied retrospectively in terms of demographics,injury mechanism and localization, additional injuries, RTS and ISS, operative technique, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization. Of the eighteen cases, cause of injury was a traffic accident for 11 (61.1%), fall from height for 5 (27%) and physical attack for 2 (11%). Among the eighteen patients,there were 21 gastrointestinal injuries (11 intestinal, 6 colon,3 duodenum, 1 stomach). 10 (55.6%) had additional intraabdominal injuries while the number for extra-abdominal injuries were 12 (66.7%). Primary suture (10), segmentary resection (9) and pyloric exclusion (2) were the operations performed for the twenty-one gastrointestinal injuries.Although statistically not significant, 13(72.2%) patients with additional injuries compared with 5 (27.8%) patients with isolated gastrointestinal injuries, were found to have lower RTS (7.087/7.841), higher ISS (19.4/12.2), longer duration of hospitalization (11.5/8.4 day) as well as higher morbidity (7/1) and mortality (2/0) rates. Comparing the RTS (7.059/7.490) of patients who have and have not developed morbidity revealed no significant difference.However, ISS (23.9/12.2) was significantly higher in patients who have developed morbidity (p=0.003). RTS (6.085 7.445) and ISS (39.5/14.6) of patients who have survived were significantly different than patients who have not(p=0.037 and p=0.023, respectively) Additional injuries in patients with gastrointestinal injury due blunt abdominal traumas increases, although not significantly, morbidity, mortality and duration of hospitalization even when operated early. High ISS is significantly related to the risk of both

  3. Blunt splenic injury and severe brain injury: a decision analysis and implications for care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabbasi, Thamer; Nathens, Avery B.; Tien, Col Homer

    2015-01-01

    Background The initial nonoperative management (NOM) of blunt splenic injuries in hemodynamically stable patients is common. In soldiers who experience blunt splenic injuries with concomitant severe brain injury while on deployment, however, NOM may put the injured soldier at risk for secondary brain injury from prolonged hypotension. Methods We conducted a decision analysis using a Markov process to evaluate 2 strategies for managing hemodynamically stable patients with blunt splenic injuries and severe brain injury — immediate splenectomy and NOM — in the setting of a field hospital with surgical capability but no angiography capabilities. We considered the base case of a 40-year-old man with a life expectancy of 78 years who experienced blunt trauma resulting in a severe traumatic brain injury and an isolated splenic injury with an estimated failure rate of NOM of 19.6%. The primary outcome measured was life expectancy. We assumed that failure of NOM would occur in the setting of a prolonged casualty evacuation, where surgical capability was not present. Results Immediate splenectomy was the slightly more effective strategy, resulting in a very modest increase in overall survival compared with NOM. Immediate splenectomy yielded a survival benefit of only 0.4 years over NOM. Conclusion In terms of overall survival, we would not recommend splenectomy unless the estimated failure rate of NOM exceeded 20%, which corresponds to an American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grade III splenic injury. For military patients for whom angiography may not be available at the field hospital and who require prolonged evacuation, immediate splenectomy should be considered for grade III–V injuries in the presence of severe brain injury. PMID:26100770

  4. Blunt gastric injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  5. Urological injuries following trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent, C.; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M.; Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N.; Fotheringham, T.

    2008-01-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated

  6. Urological injuries following trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Iyngkaran, T.; Power, N.; Matson, M. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Hajdinjak, T.; Buchholz, N. [Department of Urology, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Fotheringham, T. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Barts and The London NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  7. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  8. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  10. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  11. Urological injuries following trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, C; Iyngkaran, T; Power, N; Matson, M; Hajdinjak, T; Buchholz, N; Fotheringham, T

    2008-12-01

    Blunt renal trauma is the third most common injury in abdominal trauma following splenic and hepatic injuries, respectively. In the majority, such injuries are associated with other abdominal organ injuries. As urological injuries are not usually life-threatening, and clinical signs and symptoms are non-specific, diagnosis is often delayed. We present a practical approach to the diagnosis and management of these injuries based on our experience in a busy inner city trauma hospital with a review of the current evidence-based practice. Diagnostic imaging signs are illustrated.

  12. Mechanical injury induces brain endothelial-derived microvesicle release: Implications for cerebral vascular injury during traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Andrews

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that the endothelium responds to mechanical forces induced by changes in shear stress and mechanotransduction. However, our understanding of vascular remodeling following traumatic brain injury (TBI remains incomplete. Recently published studies have revealed that lung and umbilical endothelial cells produce extracellular microvesicles (eMVs, such as microparticles, in response to changes in mechanical forces (blood flow and mechanical injury. Yet, to date, no studies have shown whether brain endothelial cells produce eMVs following TBI. The brain endothelium is highly specialized and forms the blood-brain barrier (BBB, which regulates diffusion and transport of solutes into the brain. This specialization is largely due to the presence of tight junction proteins (TJPs between neighboring endothelial cells. Following TBI, a breakdown in tight junction complexes at the BBB leads to increased permeability, which greatly contributes to the secondary phase of injury. We have therefore tested the hypothesis that brain endothelium responds to mechanical injury, by producing eMVs that contain brain endothelial proteins, specifically TJPs. In our study, primary human adult brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC were subjected to rapid mechanical injury to simulate the abrupt endothelial disruption that can occur in the primary injury phase of TBI. eMVs were isolated from the media following injury at 2, 6, 24 and 48 hrs. Western blot analysis of eMVs demonstrated a time-dependent increase in TJP occludin, PECAM-1 and ICAM-1 following mechanical injury. In addition, activation of ARF6, a small GTPase linked to extracellular vesicle production, was increased after injury. To confirm these results in vivo, mice were subjected to sham surgery or TBI and blood plasma was collected 24 hrs post-injury. Isolation and analysis of eMVs from blood plasma using cryo-EM and flow cytometry revealed elevated levels of vesicles containing

  13. Mechanical Injury Induces Brain Endothelial-Derived Microvesicle Release: Implications for Cerebral Vascular Injury during Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Allison M; Lutton, Evan M; Merkel, Steven F; Razmpour, Roshanak; Ramirez, Servio H

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the endothelium responds to mechanical forces induced by changes in shear stress and strain. However, our understanding of vascular remodeling following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains incomplete. Recently published studies have revealed that lung and umbilical endothelial cells produce extracellular microvesicles (eMVs), such as microparticles, in response to changes in mechanical forces (blood flow and mechanical injury). Yet, to date, no studies have shown whether brain endothelial cells produce eMVs following TBI. The brain endothelium is highly specialized and forms the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which regulates diffusion and transport of solutes into the brain. This specialization is largely due to the presence of tight junction proteins (TJPs) between neighboring endothelial cells. Following TBI, a breakdown in tight junction complexes at the BBB leads to increased permeability, which greatly contributes to the secondary phase of injury. We have therefore tested the hypothesis that brain endothelium responds to mechanical injury, by producing eMVs that contain brain endothelial proteins, specifically TJPs. In our study, primary human adult brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC) were subjected to rapid mechanical injury to simulate the abrupt endothelial disruption that can occur in the primary injury phase of TBI. eMVs were isolated from the media following injury at 2, 6, 24, and 48 h. Western blot analysis of eMVs demonstrated a time-dependent increase in TJP occludin, PECAM-1 and ICAM-1 following mechanical injury. In addition, activation of ARF6, a small GTPase linked to extracellular vesicle production, was increased after injury. To confirm these results in vivo, mice were subjected to sham surgery or TBI and blood plasma was collected 24 h post-injury. Isolation and analysis of eMVs from blood plasma using cryo-EM and flow cytometry revealed elevated levels of vesicles containing occludin following brain trauma

  14. An isolated dorso-medial dislocation of navicular bone: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Varun Kumar; Kashyap, Abhishek; Vargaonkar, Gauresh; Kumar, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    An isolated dislocation of tarsal navicular is extremely rare injury. Usually it is associated with fracture of navicular itself or other tarsal bones of foot along with disruption of medial or lateral column of foot. Mechanism of injury is complex but usually a severe abduction force is required to produce such injury in a planter flexed foot. A 30 year old male presented with isolated navicular dislocat