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Sample records for isolated jejunal epithelium

  1. Substrate metabolism in isolated rat jejunal epithelium. Analysis using 14C-radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, R.T.

    1986-01-01

    The jejunal epithelium absorbs nutrients from the intestinal lumen and is therefore the initial site for metabolism of these compounds. The purpose of this investigation is to analyze substrate metabolism in a preparation of jejunal epithelium relatively free of other tissues. Novel radioisotopic labelling techniques allow quantitation of substrate metabolism in the TCA cycle, Embden-Meyerhof (glycolytic) pathway, and hexose monophosphate shunt. For example, ratios of 14 CO 2 production from pairs of 14 C-pyruvate, and 14 C-succinate radioisotopes (CO 2 ratios) indicate the probability of TCA cycle intermediate efflux to generate compounds other than CO 2 . With (2,3- 14 C)succinate as tracer, the ratio of 14 C in carbon 4 + 5 versus carbon 2 + 3 of citrate, the citrate labelling ratio, equals the probability of TCA intermediate flux to the acetyl CoA-derived portion of citrate versus flux to the oxaloacetate-derived portion. The principal metabolic substrates for the jejunal epithelium are glucose and glutamine. CO 2 ratios indicate that glutamine uptake and metabolism is partially Na + -independent, and is saturable, with a half-maximal rate at physiological plasma glutamine concentrations. Glucose metabolism in the jejunal epithelium proceeds almost entirely via the Embden-Meyerhof pathway. Conversion of substrates to multi-carbon products in this tissue allows partial conservation of reduced carbon for further utilization in other tissues. In summary, metabolic modeling based on 14 C labelling ratios is a potentially valuable technique for analysis of metabolic flux patterns in cell preparations

  2. Isolated jejunal perforation following blunt abdominal trauma

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    Ahmet Pergel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated perforation of the jejunum, following blunt abdominaltrauma, is extremely rare. These injuries aredifficult to diagnose because initial clinical signs are frequentlynonspecific and a delay in treatment increasesmortality and morbidity of the patients. Conventional radiogramsare often inadequate for diagnosing this subsetof trauma. For an accurate and timely diagnosis, thepossibility of bowel perforation and the need for repeatedexaminations should be kept in mind. Herein, we presenta 28-year-old man with isolated jejunal perforation followingblunt abdominal trauma.Key words: Blunt abdominal trauma, isolated jejunal perforation,early diagnosis

  3. Mannose-specific interaction of Lactobacillus plantarum with porcine jejunal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretzer, G.; Meulen, van der J.; Snel, J.; Meer, van der R.; Kleerebezem, M.; Niewold, Th.; Hulst, M.M.; Smits, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Host-microorganism interactions in the intestinal tract are complex, and little is known about specific nonpathogenic microbial factors triggering host responses in the gut. In this study, mannose-specific interactions of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v with jejunal epithelium were investigated using

  4. Electrophysiological response of chicken's jejunal epithelium to increasing levels of T-2 toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha Waqar; Kröger, Susan; Tichy, Alexander; Zentek, Jürgen; Böhm, Josef

    2013-02-01

    The present investigations were conducted to test the effects of T-2 toxin on electrophysiological variables of jejunal epithelium of chicken. Jejunal segments of broilers were monitored in Ussing chambers in the presence of T-2 toxin at the levels of 0 (negative control), 0 (methanol/vehicle control), 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 μg/ml of buffer. T-2 toxin did not affect basal values of short circuit current (I(sc)), transmural potential difference, or tissue conductivity in the jejunal epithelium. T-2 toxin also did not statistically affect glucose-induced electrophysiological variables during the first 3 min of glucose induction. Compared to the vehicle control, the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) was negatively affected (P = 0.008) only under 5 μg of T-2 toxin/ml. Increasing levels of T-2 toxin negatively affected the ouabain-sensitive I(sc) in a cubic (P = 0.007) fashion. These data indicate that acute exposure to moderate levels of T-2 toxin may progressively impair the cation gradient across the jejunal epithelium.

  5. Serotonin receptors influencing cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelium and in colonic adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1986-01-01

    Serotonin has previously been shown to stimulate cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelium and in colonic tumours. The original classification of serotonin receptors into D and M groups was not conductive to the understanding of these observations. The more recent classification of serotonin receptors into 5HT1 and 5HT2 groups is considered in this report. On the balance of evidence it appears that similar receptors mediate the response to serotonin in the two tissues under consideration and that these receptors resemble those of the 5HT1 group. Such receptors are usually positively linked to adenylate cyclase.

  6. Improved cell line IPEC-J2, characterized as a model for porcine jejunal epithelium.

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    Silke S Zakrzewski

    Full Text Available Cell lines matching the source epithelium are indispensable for investigating porcine intestinal transport and barrier properties on a subcellular or molecular level and furthermore help to reduce animal usage. The porcine jejunal cell line IPEC-J2 is established as an in vitro model for porcine infection studies but exhibits atypically high transepithelial resistances (TER and only low active transport rates so that the effect of nutritional factors cannot be reliably investigated. This study aimed to properly remodel IPEC-J2 and then to re-characterize these cells regarding epithelial architecture, expression of barrier-relevant tight junction (TJ proteins, adequate TER and transport function, and reaction to secretagogues. For this, IPEC-J2 monolayers were cultured on permeable supports, either under conventional (fetal bovine serum, FBS or species-specific (porcine serum, PS conditions. Porcine jejunal mucosa was analyzed for comparison. Main results were that under PS conditions (IPEC-J2/PS, compared to conventional FBS culture (IPEC-J2/FBS, the cell height increased 6-fold while the cell diameter was reduced by 50%. The apical cell membrane of IPEC-J2/PS exhibited typical microvilli. Most importantly, PS caused a one order of magnitude reduction of TER and of trans- and paracellular resistance, and a 2-fold increase in secretory response to forskolin when compared to FBS condition. TJ ultrastructure and appearance of TJ proteins changed dramatically in IPEC-J2/PS. Most parameters measured under PS conditions were much closer to those of typical pig jejunocytes than ever reported since the cell line's initial establishment in 1989. In conclusion, IPEC-J2, if cultured under defined species-specific conditions, forms a suitable model for investigating porcine paracellular intestinal barrier function.

  7. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of bovine jejunal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Kate; Waters, Sinead M; Cormican, Paul; Kelly, Alan K; Kenny, David A

    2018-01-01

    Compensatory growth (CG), an accelerated growth phenomenon which occurs following a period of dietary restriction is utilised worldwide in animal production systems as a management practise to lower feed costs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of jejunal epithelial to CG in cattle through transcriptional profiling following a period of dietary restriction as well as subsequent re-alimentation induced CG. Sixty Holstein Friesian bulls were separated into two groups; RES and ADLIB, with 30 animals in each. RES animals were offered a restricted diet for 125 days (Period 1) followed by ad libitum feeding for 55 days (Period 2). ADLIB animals had ad libitum access to feed across both periods 1 and 2. At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment group were slaughtered, jejunal epithelium collected and RNAseq analysis performed. Animals that were previously diet restricted underwent CG, gaining 1.8 times the rate of their non-restricted counterparts. Twenty-four genes were differentially expressed in RES compared to ADLIB animals at the end of Period 1, with only one gene, GSTA1, differentially expressed between the two groups at the end of Period 2. When analysed within treatment (RES, Period 2 v Period 1), 31 genes were differentially expressed between diet restricted and animals undergoing CG. Dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation were associated with altered expression of genes involved in digestion and metabolism as well as those involved in cellular division and growth. Compensatory growth was also associated with greater expression of genes involved in cellular protection and detoxification in jejunal epithelium. This study highlights some of the molecular mechanisms regulating the response to dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG in cattle; however the gene expression results suggest that most of the CG in jejunal epithelium had occurred by day 55 of re-alimentation.

  8. Effect of Glucagon-like Peptide 2 on Tight Junction in Jejunal Epithelium of Weaned Pigs though MAPK Signaling Pathway

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    Changsong Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2 that is expressed in intestine epithelial cells of mammals, is important for intestinal barrier function and regulation of tight junction (TJ proteins. However, there is little known about the intracellular mechanisms of GLP-2 in the regulation of TJ proteins in piglets’ intestinal epithelial cells. The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that GLP-2 regulates the expressions of TJ proteins in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway in piglets’ intestinal epithelial cells. The jejunal tissues were cultured in a Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium/high glucose medium containing supplemental 0 to 100 nmol/L GLP-2. At 72 h after the treatment with the appropriate concentrations of GLP-2, the mRNA and protein expressions of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, occludin and claudin-1 were increased (p<0.05. U0126, an MAPK kinase inhibitor, prevented the mRNA and protein expressions of ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1 increase induced by GLP-2 (p<0.05. In conclusion, these results indicated that GLP-2 could improve the expression of TJ proteins in weaned pigs’ jejunal epithelium, and the underlying mechanism may due to the MAPK signaling pathway.

  9. Transepithelial transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated rat jejunal mucosae in ussing chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Dallin; Ghandehari, Hamidreza; Brayden, David J

    2014-08-11

    Oral delivery remains a challenge for poorly permeable hydrophilic macromolecules. Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown potential for their possible oral delivery. Transepithelial transport of carboxyl-terminated G3.5 and amine-terminated G4 PAMAM dendrimers was assessed using isolated rat jejunal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. The 1 mM FITC-labeled dendrimers were added to the apical side of mucosae. Apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) from the apical to the basolateral side were significantly increased for FITC when conjugated to G3.5 PAMAM dendrimer compared to FITC alone. Minimal signs of toxicity were observed when mucosae were exposed to both dendrimers with respect to transepithelial electrical resistance changes, carbachol-induced short circuit current stimulation, and histological changes. [(14)C]-mannitol fluxes were not altered in the presence of 1 mM dendrimers, suggesting that the paracellular pathway was not affected at this concentration in this model. These results give insight into the mechanism of PAMAM dendrimer transepithelial rat jejunal transport, as well as toxicological considerations important for oral drug delivery.

  10. Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term "epithelium" refers to layers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. It is also those cells that make ... Kierszenbaum AL, Tres LL. Epithelium. In: Kierszenbaum AL, Tres LL, ... to Pathology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  11. The influence of dibutyryl adenosine cyclic monophosphate on cell proliferation in the epithelium of the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and in colonic carcinomata of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-01-01

    1. Cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced adenocarcinomata of rat colon was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. 2. Dibutryl cyclic adneosine monophosphate (dibutyryl cAMP) was found to inhibit cell proliferation in colonic crypts and in colonic adenocarcinomata. 3. Dibutryl cAMP at very high doses was found to inhibit jejunal crypt cell proliferation but at lower doses was found to accelerate jejunal crypt cell proliferation. 4. Neither bilateral adrenalectomy nor chemical sympathectomy was found to abolish the ability of dibutryl cAMP to stimulate jejunal crypt cell proliferation. 5. The present results are difficult to interpret in terms of known hormonal influences on cell proliferation in the tissues examined and of established actions, of these hormones on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in other tissues.

  12. Choline transport in the isolated rabbit corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, isolated epithelial sheets were obtained by performing two sequential anterior keratectomies, three weeks apart, on rabbit corneas. Light microscopy of the isolated sheets revealed a multilayered epithelium with an intact basal cell layer without contamination from other cell types. The accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into the epithelial sheets was studied at substrate concentrations varying from 1 to 100 μMoles with and without the addition of specific metabolic and stereochemical inhibitors. Accumulation of [ 3 H]choline into these sheets was saturable. Kinetic analysis, performed by estimation from double-reciprocal plots, revealed a single component system with a K m of 24.9 μM. The metabolic inhibitors potassium cyanide and ouabain showed no effect on the uptake of [ 3 H]choline; however, the stereochemical inhibitor hemicholinium-3 significantly reduced the accumulation of radiolabel at both high and low substrate concentrations. The results suggest a non-energy dependent yet a highly specific transport system for the accumulation of choline into the rabbit epithelium

  13. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

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    Q.Y. Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  14. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y. [Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2014-10-14

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca{sup 2+} dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  15. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca 2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism

  16. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism. PMID:25387674

  17. The glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor is expressed in enteric neurons and not in the epithelium of the intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens; B. Pedersen, Nis; Brix, Sophie W.

    2015-01-01

    fibrillary acidic protein in these isolated tissue fractions was quantified with qRT-PCR. Expression of the Glp2r was confined to compartments containing enteric neurons and receptor expression was absent in the epithelium. Our findings provide evidence for the expression of the GLP-2R in intestinal...... compartments rich in enteric neurons and, importantly they exclude significant expression in the epithelium of rat jejunal mucosa....

  18. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-07-13

    In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl) carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  19. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crittenden Elizabeth L

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and muscarinic. Muscarinic receptors are in the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily, and five different muscarinic receptors have been molecularly cloned in human. These receptors are coupled to adenylyl cyclase, calcium mobilization and ion channel activation. To determine the receptor pathway involved in eliciting pigment granule migration, we isolated retinal pigment epithelium from bluegill and subjected it to a battery of cholinergic agents. Results The general cholinergic agonist carbachol induces pigment granule dispersion in isolated retinal pigment epithelium. Carbachol-induced pigment granule dispersion is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, by the M1 antagonist pirenzepine, and by the M3 antagonist 4-DAMP. Pigment granule dispersion was also induced by the M1 agonist 4-[N-(4-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy]-4-pent-2-ammonium iodide. In contrast the M2 antagonist AF-DX 116 and the M4 antagonist tropicamide failed to block carbachol-induced dispersion, and the M2 agonist arecaidine but-2-ynyl ester tosylate failed to elicit dispersion. Conclusions Our results suggest that carbachol-mediated pigment granule dispersion occurs through the activation of Modd muscarinic receptors, which in other systems couple to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and elevation of intracellular calcium. This conclusion must be corroborated by molecular studies, but suggests Ca2+-dependent pathways may be involved in light-adaptive pigment dispersion.

  20. Atriopeptin II stimulates chloride secretion in the isolated operculum epithelium of Fundulus heteroclitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zadunaisky, J.A.; Scheide, J.I.

    1986-01-01

    Whole killifish efflux of 36 Cl was increased more than 2x with the addition of 1.4 x 10 -7 M atriopeptin (ANF) to the seawater bath. Atriopeptin II (10 -7 M) added serosally to the isolated Fundulus heteroclitus opercular epithelium resulted in a consistent stimulation of the short-circuit current, from 129.5 +/- 12.3 to 153.5 +/- 13.4 μA/cm 2 . Tissue resistance was decreased 10% from 114.9 +/- 14.2 to 103.9 +/- 11.8 Omega x cm 2 indicating a change in chloride conductance. The effect of ANF was maximal at 10 -7 M and mucosal addition of ANF was ineffective in stimulating the opercular current. The ANF current stimulation did not interfere with the isoproterenol (10 -6 M) response but ANF did not stimulate the current if added after isoproterenol. Serosal addition of propranolol (10 -5 M), sufficient to inhibit 10 -6 M isoproterenol, had no effect on the ANF response. The serosal addition of 10 -6 M tetrodotoxin or 10 -4 M diltiazem did not inhibit the ANF response. The stimulatory effect observed by ANF did not involve the isoproterenol receptor or nerve activation; however, it was a distinct stimulatory response on the isolated opercular epithelium

  1. Prolapso jejunal em gastroenteroanastomose

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    Gerson Junqueira Júnior

    Full Text Available The autors report a case of jejunal mucosa prolapse after gastroenteroanastomosis, a rare postoperative complication. In the late postcholecistectomy period the patient had persistent vomit. Upper digestive endoscopy (UDE showed obstruction of the second portion of duodenum, and a gastrojejunal anastomosis was performed. Soon after that, the patient had persistent vomit and upper digestive endoscopy (UDE showed invagination of the jejunal mucosa. She was reoperated, a Roux Y gastrectomy was performed and the patient had a good evolution. The treatment for this complication is basically surgical, which intends to realieve the obstructive symptomatology.

  2. GATA4 Is Sufficient to Establish Jejunal Versus Ileal Identity in the Small IntestineSummary

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    Cayla A. Thompson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Patterning of the small intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis establishes three functionally distinct regions: duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Efficient nutrient assimilation and growth depend on the proper spatial patterning of specialized digestive and absorptive functions performed by duodenal, jejunal, and ileal enterocytes. When enterocyte function is disrupted by disease or injury, intestinal failure can occur. One approach to alleviate intestinal failure would be to restore lost enterocyte functions. The molecular mechanisms determining regionally defined enterocyte functions, however, are poorly delineated. We previously showed that GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4 is essential to define jejunal enterocytes. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that GATA4 is sufficient to confer jejunal identity within the intestinal epithelium. Methods: To test this hypothesis, we generated a novel Gata4 conditional knock-in mouse line and expressed GATA4 in the ileum, where it is absent. Results: We found that GATA4-expressing ileum lost ileal identity. The global gene expression profile of GATA4-expressing ileal epithelium aligned more closely with jejunum and duodenum rather than ileum. Focusing on jejunal vs ileal identity, we defined sets of jejunal and ileal genes likely to be regulated directly by GATA4 to suppress ileal identity and promote jejunal identity. Furthermore, our study implicates GATA4 as a transcriptional repressor of fibroblast growth factor 15 (Fgf15, which encodes an enterokine that has been implicated in an increasing number of human diseases. Conclusions: Overall, this study refines our understanding of an important GATA4-dependent molecular mechanism to pattern the intestinal epithelium along its cephalocaudal axis by elaborating on GATA4’s function as a crucial dominant molecular determinant of jejunal enterocyte identity. Microarray data from this study have been deposited into

  3. Rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A size 12 French radiopaque catheter, 135 cm long, suitable for rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation, is described. Its size and flexibility enable it to be passed with ease through the nose, stomach and duodenum. A guide wire is used to act as a stiffener as the catheter is passed through the stomach. The catheter is suitable for infusing barium directly into the small intestine and for performing hypotonic duodenography. The technique for duodenal and jejunal intubation is discussed. (author)

  4. Viability of a jejunal segment after neovascularization by omentoenteropexy Viabilidade de segmento jejunal neovascularizado por omentoenteropexia

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    Mércia Maria Braga Rocha

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Omentoenteropexy was developed as an alternative technique to promote neovascularization in an isolated bowel segment. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present protocol was to study the long-term viability of an isolated jejunal segment following neovascularization by omentoenteropexy. Long-term survival of a neovascularized bowel segment is an indication that the utilization of this segment as an intestinal graft can be successful. METHODS: To test the proposed surgical technique, 13 Wistar rats were subjected to laparotomy, the jejunum was exposed at 20 cm from the angle of Treitz and a pedicle of greater omentum was isolated. An incision of 6 cm was made along the antimesenteric jejunal border, exposing the submucosa. Omentoenteropexy was performed between the incision of the jejunum and the pedicle of the greater omentum. After seven weeks, the mesentery of the jejunal segment subjected to omentoenteropexy was ligated and isolated from the rest of the jejunum by a complete proximal and distal transversal section. Subsequently, an end-to-end anastomosis was performed to restore the continuity of the bowel. RESULTS: At 10 weeks from the first surgical intervention, the isolated jejunal segment subjected to omentoenteropexy was completely neovascularized and viable. CONCLUSION: No evidence of anatomical or functional intestinal obstruction was observed.A omentoenteropexia foi desenvolvida como uma alternativa para técnica de neovascularização em segmentos intestinais isolados, evidenciando algumas vantagens em relação a utilização de órgãos previamente descritos. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade de um segmento jejunal neovascularizado por omentoenteropexia. MÉTODOS: Treze ratos Wistar foram submetidos a laparotomia, com exposição do jejuno vinte centímetros após o ligamento de Treitz e obtenção de um pedículo de omento. Na borda antimesentérica do jejuno foi feita uma incisão de seis centímetros com exposição da submucosa intacta

  5. Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors elicits pigment granule dispersion in retinal pigment epithelium isolated from bluegill

    OpenAIRE

    González, Alfredo; Crittenden, Elizabeth L; García, Dana M

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background In fish, melanin pigment granules in the retinal pigment epithelium disperse into apical projections as part of the suite of responses the eye makes to bright light conditions. This pigment granule dispersion serves to reduce photobleaching and occurs in response to neurochemicals secreted by the retina. Previous work has shown that acetylcholine may be involved in inducing light-adaptive pigment dispersion. Acetylcholine receptors are of two main types, nicotinic and musc...

  6. Levcromakalim- and isoprenaline-induced relaxation of human isolated airways--role of the epithelium and of K+ channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J L; Johnson, P R; McKay, K O; Carey, D; Armour, C L

    1994-06-01

    In this study we have investigated the mechanism of action of levcromakalim and isoprenaline in human isolated airways with respect to the K+ channels they activate and the possibility that these smooth muscle relaxants activate K+ channels on the airway epithelium. Mechanical removal of the epithelial layer (mean percentage of epithelium present 20 +/- 3%, n = 20 tissues) did not affect the relaxation responses to levcromakalim or isoprenaline, either in terms of maximal relaxation or sensitivity. Whilst having no effect on isoprenaline-induced relaxation, studied from basal tone, the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker BRL 31660 (10, 30 and 50 microM) reduced relaxation responses induced (from basal tone) by levcromakalim from 74 +/- 6% (of the maximal response to isoprenaline) to 48 +/- 12% (n = 7), 9 +/- 9% (n = 4) and 0 (n = 4), respectively. Charybdotoxin, a blocker of high conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels, at concentrations of 30 and 100 nM, had no effect on either levcromakalim- or or isoprenaline-induced relaxation responses and yet charybdotoxin was active at KCa channels in outside-out patches of hippocampal granule cells. Moreover, tetraethylammonium (10 mM) inhibited neither isoprenaline- nor levcromakalim-induced relaxation. This study has demonstrated that the relaxation responses elicited in human bronchus to isoprenaline and levcromakalim are likely to be the result of direct effects on the smooth muscle with no contribution from epithelial receptors or K+ channels. The actions of levcromakalim appear to be mediated only via activation of KATP channels. Further, we have made the important observation that, under the experimental conditions of our study, isoprenaline does not activate the KCa channel to produce relaxation in human bronchus.

  7. Further studies on the effect of adenosine cyclic monophosphate derivatives on cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    1. Cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelium of rat was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. 2. Sodium butyrate was found to promote jejunal crypt cell proliferation. 3. N6, O2'-Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), N6-monobutyryl-cAMP and N6-monobutyryl-8-bromo-cAMP were found to inhibit cell proliferation when compared to sodium butyrate treated tissues. 4. 8-Chlorophenylthio-cAMP was found to inhibit cell division when compared to untreated animals. 5. O2'-Monobutyryl cAMP and 8-bromo-cAMP were not found to inhibit cell proliferation.

  8. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Penner, G B; Walpole, M E; Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Harmon, D L

    2014-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in volatile fatty acids (VFA) absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extract of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed causes an increase in the amount of VFA absorbed per unit of blood flow, which could result from an alteration in the absorptive or barrier function of the rumen epithelium. An experiment was conducted to determine the acute effects of an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract (EXT) on total, passive or facilitated acetate and butyrate flux across the isolated bovine rumen as well as the barrier function measured by inulin flux and tissue conductance (G t ). Flux of ergovaline across the rumen epithelium was also evaluated. Rumen tissue from the caudal dorsal sac of Holstein steers (n=6), fed a common diet, was collected and isolated shortly after slaughter and mounted between two halves of Ussing chambers. In vitro treatments included vehicle control (80% methanol, 0.5% of total volume), Low EXT (50 ng ergovaline/ml) and High EXT (250 ng ergovaline/ml). Results indicate that there is no effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on total, passive or facilitated flux of acetate or butyrate across the isolate bovine rumen epithelium (P>0.51). Inulin flux (P=0.16) and G t (P>0.17) were not affected by EXT treatment, indicating no alteration in barrier function due to acute ergot alkaloid exposure. Ergovaline was detected in the serosal buffer of the High EXT treatment indicating that the flux rate is ~0.25 to 0.44 ng/cm2 per hour. Data indicate that specific pathways for VFA absorption and barrier function of the rumen epithelium are not affected by acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue at the concentrations tested. Ergovaline has the potential to be absorbed from the rumen of cattle that

  9. Jejunal Diverticular Perforation due to Enterolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Nonose

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare entity with variable clinical and anatomical presentations. Although there is no consensus on the management of asymptomatic jejunal diverticular disease, some complications are potentially life-threatening and require early surgical treatment. Small bowel perforation secondary to jejunal diverticulitis by enteroliths is rare. The aim of this study was to report a case of small intestinal perforation caused by a large jejunal enterolith. An 86-year-old woman was admitted with signs of diffuse peritonitis. After initial fluid recovery the patient underwent emergency laparotomy. The surgery showed that she had small bowel diverticular disease, mainly localized in the proximal jejunum. The peritonitis was due to intestinal perforation caused by an enterolith 12 cm in length, localized inside one of these diverticula. The intestinal segment containing the perforated diverticulum with the enterolith was removed and an end-to-end anastomosis was done to reconstruct the intestinal transit. The patient recovered well and was discharged from hospital on the 5th postoperative day. There were no signs of abdominal pain 1 year after the surgical procedure. Although jejunal diverticular disease with its complications, such as formation of enteroliths, is difficult to suspect in patients with peritonitis, it should be considered as a possible source of abdominal infection in the elderly patient when more common diagnoses have been excluded.

  10. Transgastrostomy jejunal intubation for enteric alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, G K; Rombeau, J L; Caldwell, M D; Ring, E J; Freiman, D B

    1982-12-01

    Malnourished patients who cannot maintain an adequate oral intake but have normal intestinal absorption and motility are candidates for enteric alimentation. When impaired gastric peristalsis or an increased risk for aspiration makes gastrostomy feeding unsafe, direct jejunal infusion is the preferred route of alimentation. Angiographic techniques were used to convert previously placed, simple gastrostomies to combined gastrostomy-jejunostomies in 14 patients. In 17 additional patients, a combined gastrostomy-jejunal tube was placed under local anesthesia; angiographic techniques assisted in the placement of 11 of these tubes.

  11. Progenitor Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty-Santos, Leilani

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-producing β cells within the vertebrate fetal pancreas acquire their fate in a step-wise manner. Whereas the intrinsic factors dictating the transcriptional or epigenetic status of pancreatic lineages have been intensely examined, less is known about cell–cell interactions that might constitute a niche for the developing β cell lineage. It is becoming increasingly clear that understanding and recapitulating these steps may instruct in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells and/or therapeutic regeneration. Indeed, directed differentiation techniques have improved since transitioning from 2D to 3D cultures, suggesting that the 3D microenvironment in which β cells are born is critical. However, to date, it remains unknown whether the changing architecture of the pancreatic epithelium impacts the fate of cells therein. An emerging challenge in the field is to elucidate how progenitors are allocated during key events, such as the stratification and subsequent resolution of the pre-pancreatic epithelium, as well as the formation of lumens and branches. Here, we assess the progenitor epithelium and examine how it might influence the emergence of pancreatic multipotent progenitors (MPCs), which give rise to β cells and other pancreatic lineages. PMID:26216134

  12. Primarily Proximal Jejunal Stone Causing Enterolith Ileus in a Patient without Evidence of Cholecystoenteric Fistula or Jejunal Diverticulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abtar, Houssam Khodor; Mneimneh, Mostapha; Hammoud, Mazen M; Zaaroura, Ahmed; Papas, Yasmina S

    2016-01-01

    Stone formation within the intestinal lumen is called enterolith. This stone can encroach into the lumen causing obstruction and surgical emergency. Jejunal obstruction by an enterolith is a very rare entity and often missed preoperatively. To our knowledge, most cases of jejunal obstruction, secondary to stone, were associated with biliary disease (cholecystoenteric fistula), bezoar, jejunal diverticulosis, or foreign body. Hereby we present a rare case report of small bowel obstruction in an elderly man who was diagnosed lately to have primary proximal jejunal obstruction by an enterolith without evidence of a cholecystoenteric fistula or jejunal diverticulosis. This patient underwent laparotomy, enterotomy with stone extraction, and subsequent primary repair of the bowel.

  13. Lymphangioma of the jejunal mesentery and jejunal polyps presenting as an acute abdomen in a teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasundara, Jasb; Perera, E; Chandu de Silva, M V; Pathirana, A A

    2017-03-01

    Cystic lymphangioma of the small bowel mesentery is a rare clinical entity, especially after childhood. Medical literature reveals a limited number of such cases presenting as acute abdomen due to bowel obstruction, small bowel volvulus and bleeding into the tumour. We present the management experience of an 18-year-old woman who presented with rapid onset diffuse peritonism and raised inflammatory markers. Computed tomography showed a mass in the small bowel mesentery with suspicion of segmental bowel ischaemia. Emergency laparotomy revealed a mass in the mid-jejunal mesentery close to the bowel wall with no bowel ischaemia. The patient made an uncomplicated recovery after segmental bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis. Histology confirmed the mass as a cystic lymphangioma involving the jejunal mesentery and two small jejunal polyps. Lymphangioma could be considered in the differential diagnosis of an acute abdomen in a young adult when the presentation is atypical.

  14. Regional Morphology and Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers Across Isolated Rat Intestinal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Dallin; Bond, Tanner; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2015-12-01

    Intestinal permeability of PAMAM dendrimers has been observed, giving rationale for their use in oral drug delivery as potential carriers of associated molecules. This study assessed the apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) of dendrimers across isolated rat intestinal regional mucosae, along with estimation of the maximum non-toxic concentration. Caco-2 monolayers were also used to assess the comparative Papp values between isolated mucosae and cell culture models. Concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM of anionic and cationic dendrimers were tested in mucosae to assess their Papp, membrane TEER, [(14)C]-mannitol Papp, and histology. 0.1 mM concentrations of dendrimers were assessed over 120 min in Caco-2 cell monolayers as concentrations above that were cytotoxic. Jejunal transport of dendrimers was higher than transport in colonic epithelium. Monolayer Papp values of dendrimers were comparable to those of jejunal mucosae. Mucosae exposed to dendrimer concentrations of 10 mM for 120 min caused significant reduction in TEER and changes in tissue morphology; however, G3.5 was the only analogue that caused significant TEER reduction and morphological changes at 1 mM concentrations. Transport in jejunal mucosae appears to be the greatest indicating that the small intestinal will be the most likely region to target for oral drug delivery using PAMAM dendrimers. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Construction of a Jejunal Pouch After Total Gastrectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    food intake and slow the transit. Reconstruction using a jejunal interposition is more complicated and less suitable than the simple classic Roux‑en‑Y reconstruction.[1]. According to several prospective randomized trials and a recent meta‑analysis, the Roux‑en‑Y jejunal pouch reconstruction [Figure 1] appears to be the ...

  16. A Rare Cause of Acute Abdomen: Jejunal Diverticulosis with Perforation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is generally asymptomatic and is associated with high morbidity and mortality secondary to complications, especially in elderly patients. We present a case report of a 74-year-old female patient with jejunal diverticulosis and perforation due to diverticulitis.

  17. A rare cause of acute abdomen: jejunal diverticulosis with perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali

    2013-01-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis is generally asymptomatic and is associated with high morbidity and mortality secondary to complications, especially in elderly patients. We present a case report of a 74-year-old female patient with jejunal diverticulosis and perforation due to diverticulitis.

  18. Thromboxane synthesis inhibitors and postprandial jejunal capillary exchange capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangino, M J; Chou, C C

    1988-05-01

    The effects of thromboxane synthesis inhibitors (imidazole and U 63557A; Upjohn) and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, mefenamic acid, on jejunal capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc) were determined in dogs before and during the presence of predigested food in the jejunal lumen. The jejunal Kfc increased significantly soon after the placement of a predigested test food containing all major constituents of diet. The Kfc remained elevated as long as the food was present in the lumen (15 min). Mefenamic acid (10 mg/kg iv) did not significantly alter resting jejunal Kfc or alter the food-induced increase in Kfc. Imidazole (5.0 mg/min ia) or U 63557A (5.0 mg/kg iv) per se significantly increased jejunal Kfc. Placement of digested food further increased the Kfc to levels significantly higher than those observed before administration of the two thromboxane synthase inhibitors. Production of thromboxane B2 by jejunal tissue was significantly reduced and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha (the stable hydrolysis product of prostacyclin) production was significantly increased after administration of U 63557A. Our study indicates that the relative production of endogenous thromboxanes and other prostanoids modulates jejunal capillary exchange capacity in the absence or presence of digested food in the jejunal lumen.

  19. Primarily Proximal Jejunal Stone Causing Enterolith Ileus in a Patient without Evidence of Cholecystoenteric Fistula or Jejunal Diverticulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houssam Khodor Abtar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone formation within the intestinal lumen is called enterolith. This stone can encroach into the lumen causing obstruction and surgical emergency. Jejunal obstruction by an enterolith is a very rare entity and often missed preoperatively. To our knowledge, most cases of jejunal obstruction, secondary to stone, were associated with biliary disease (cholecystoenteric fistula, bezoar, jejunal diverticulosis, or foreign body. Hereby we present a rare case report of small bowel obstruction in an elderly man who was diagnosed lately to have primary proximal jejunal obstruction by an enterolith without evidence of a cholecystoenteric fistula or jejunal diverticulosis. This patient underwent laparotomy, enterotomy with stone extraction, and subsequent primary repair of the bowel.

  20. Elderly patient with acute, left lower abdominal pain: perforated jejunal diverticulitis (2010:7b)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, Manuela; Certo, Manuela; Varzim, Pedro; Silva, Donzilia; Peixoto, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    An elderly patient with acute, left, lower abdominal pain is described, for whom the diagnosis of perforated jejunal diverticulitis was established by computed tomography (CT). The presence of a jejunal segmental inflammatory process, with or without abscess or perforation, in the setting of jejunal diverticulosis, is very suggestive of jejunal diverticulitis. (orig.)

  1. Jejunal divertikulitis som årsag til akut abdomen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsic, Ivan; Cuk, Pedja; Nielsen, Michael Festersen

    2014-01-01

    diverticular disease is intravenous fluids and antibiotics. If there is an occurrence of peritonitis as a complication of jejunal diverticulitis, laparatomy may be indicated. Both of the patients received a conservative treatment with intravenous fluids and antibiotics with good response....

  2. Effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on short-chain fatty acid absorption and barrier function of isolated bovine ruminal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids present in endophyte-infected tall fescue are the causative agents for fescue toxicosis in cattle. Ergot alkaloids have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption from the washed rumen of ste...

  3. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated ruminal epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in VFA absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extr...

  4. Proteomic analysis of protein interactions between Eimeria maxima sporozoites and chicken jejunal epithelial cells by shotgun LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingwei; Liu, Tingqi; Li, Ke; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui

    2018-04-04

    Eimeria maxima initiates infection by invading the jejunal epithelial cells of chicken. However, the proteins involved in invasion remain unknown. The research of the molecules that participate in the interactions between E. maxima sporozoites and host target cells will fill a gap in our understanding of the invasion system of this parasitic pathogen. In the present study, chicken jejunal epithelial cells were isolated and cultured in vitro. Western blot was employed to analyze the soluble proteins of E. maxima sporozoites that bound to chicken jejunal epithelial cells. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assay was used to separate the E. maxima proteins that bound to chicken jejunal epithelial cells. Shotgun LC-MS/MS technique was used for proteomics identification and Gene Ontology was employed for the bioinformatics analysis. The results of Western blot analysis showed that four proteins bands from jejunal epithelial cells co-cultured with soluble proteins of E. maxima sporozoites were recognized by the positive sera, with molecular weights of 70, 90, 95 and 130 kDa. The co-IP dilutions were analyzed by shotgun LC-MS/MS. A total of 204 proteins were identified in the E. maxima protein database using the MASCOT search engine. Thirty-five proteins including microneme protein 3 and 7 had more than two unique peptide counts and were annotated using Gene Ontology for molecular function, biological process and cellular localization. The results revealed that of the 35 annotated peptides, 22 (62.86%) were associated with binding activity and 15 (42.86%) were involved in catalytic activity. Our findings provide an insight into the interaction between E. maxima and the corresponding host cells and it is important for the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying E. maxima invasion.

  5. Food allergy alters jejunal circular muscle contractility and induces local inflammatory cytokine expression in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovanen Petri T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that food allergy causes a state of non-specific jejunal dysmotility. This was tested in a mouse model. Methods Balb/c mice were epicutaneously sensitized with ovalbumin and challenged with 10 intragastric ovalbumin administrations every second day. Smooth muscle contractility of isolated circular jejunal sections was studied in organ bath with increasing concentrations of carbamylcholine chloride (carbachol. Smooth muscle layer thickness and mast cell protease-1 (MMCP-1 positive cell density were assayed histologically. Serum MMCP-1 and immunoglobulins were quantified by ELISA, and mRNA expressions of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and TGFβ-1 from jejunal and ileal tissue segments were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR. Results Ovalbumin-specific serum IgE correlated with jejunal MMCP-1+ cell density. In the allergic mice, higher concentrations of carbachol were required to reach submaximal muscular stimulation, particularly in preparations derived from mice with diarrhoea. Decreased sensitivity to carbachol was associated with increased expression of IL-4 and IL-6 mRNA in jejunum. Smooth muscle layer thickness, as well as mRNA of IFN-γ and TGF-β1 remained unchanged. Conclusion In this mouse model of food allergy, we demonstrated a decreased response to a muscarinic agonist, and increased levels of proinflammatory IL-6 and Th2-related IL-4, but not Th1-related IFN-γ mRNAs in jejunum. IgE levels in serum correlated with the number of jejunal MMCP-1+ cells, and predicted diarrhoea. Overall, these changes may reflect a protective mechanism of the gut in food allergy.

  6. [Reconstruction of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus using a free jejunal graft].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, P; Bumbasirević, M; Knezević, J; Dunjić, M; Djukić, V; Simić, A; Stojakov, D; Sabljak, P; Bjelović, M; Janković, Z; Micev, M; Saranović, D

    2000-01-01

    Extensive malignant tumors of the hypopharynx and cervical esophagus continue to challenge surgeons in respect to both type and extent of resection as well as type of reconstruction. In the period between November 1st, 1996 and November 1st, 1998, at our Department, five patients have been operated due to squamocellular carcinoma of the hypopharynx using a free jejunal graft reconstruction method. The first free jejunal graft operation due to hypopharyngeal carcinoma, at the same time the first operation of this kind ever done in our Country, was performed on November 13th, 1998. There were 4 female and one male patient, average age 47.75 years. Disfagia for solid foods was a leading symptom in all patients (mean duration of 3.5 months) and was always accompanied with weight loss (average of 8 kg for two months). In all patients barium swallow, endoscopy, CT as well as intraoperative endoscopy was performed. Radical surgical procedure was always accompanied with the bilateral modified lympf node neck dissection. As a arterial donor vessel superior thyroid artery was used in all patients. As a venous drainage in three patients a external jugular vein was used and in two facial vein. Reconstruction using a free jejunal graft of approximately 25 cm long was performed in all patients creating upper, oropharingeal, anastomosis end to side and distal, esophageal, end to end (in only one patients side to end) using 3/0 apsorbable sutures. Mean duration of the operation was six hours. The postoperative course in all patients was uneventful. On the 9th postoperative day gastrografin and three days later barium swallow radiography was performed as a standard control study. Regular check ups were done on three, six, nine months, year and two years. On all controls all patients were symptom free and feeling well. It is our opinion that in the patients with isolated carcinoma of the hypopharynx due to low morbidity and mortality rate, free jejunal graft method is the surgical

  7. The Jejunal Serosal Patch Procedure: A Successful Technique for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The selection of the most appropriate technique for the repair of peptic ulcer perforations, especially when the initial attempt of closure has failed have been the concern of many surgeons. Since the experimental report regarding the jejunal serosal patch procedure by Koboldin in 1963, authors have reported its ...

  8. Retrograde jejunal intussusception after total gastrectomy: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Retrograde jejunal intussusception is a rare disease. A 60‑year‑old female patient was hospitalized due to vomiting for 2 days, with a history of radical gastrectomy plus esophagus jejunum Rouxs‑en‑Y. On examination, there was a palpable wax‑like mass on the left‑hand side underneath the umbilicus. Computerized ...

  9. Retrograde jejunal intussusception after total gastrectomy: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-02

    Nov 2, 2015 ... Retrograde jejunal intussusception is a rare disease. A 60-year-old female patient was hospitalized due to vomiting for 2 days, with a history of radical gastrectomy plus esophagus jejunum Rouxs-en-Y. On examination, there was a palpable wax-like mass on the left-hand side underneath the umbilicus.

  10. Jejunal perforation by swallowed ibuprofen caplet | Njoku | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present a case of jejunal perforation caused by an unusual foreign body, an ibuprofen caplet in its blister packing believed to be the first of its kind, perforation of the intestine caused by an ingested medication. The patient eventually developed an enterocutaneous fistula through the weak wall of a preexisting incisional ...

  11. Autoradiographic investigations on the question of diurnal variations of cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herterich, G.C.

    1982-01-01

    In this work the question was investigated whether the proliferation activity of the crypt epithelia of the small intestine of mice is subject to diurnal variations. The results published so far to settle this question are contradictory. The flow rate at the beginning and end of the S phase was measured as a function of daytime for the jejunal crypt epithelia of mice following a double labelling with 3-H and 14-C-TdR. The quotient of the cell flow rate in and out of the S phase is supposed to be = 1 over the whole day if there are no diurnal variations. The method of measurements of the cell flow rate was chosen above all because the quotient is largely independent of the variation from animal to animal. The experiments provided dues as to the presence of deviations of the quotient of cell flow rate at the end and beginning of the S phase and of the mitotic index from the daily mean value. However, on account of the relatively large statistical variations of the values at the different daytimes it is not possible to state clearly whether the cell proliferation of the jejunal epithelium is subject to diurnal variations. Should there be such variations, then they are not large at any rate. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Palliative Percutaneous Jejunal Stent for Patients with Short Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Takayama

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal obstruction is a common preterminal event in patients with gastric and pancreatic cancer who often undergo palliative bypass surgery. Although endoscopic palliation with self-expandable metallic stents has emerged as a safe and effective alternative to surgery, experience with this technique remains limited. In particular, a proximal jejunal obstruction requires more technical expertise than a duodenal obstruction. Palliative treatment modalities include both surgical and nonsurgical approaches. In this report, we describe the successful placement of self-expandable metallic stents at the proximal jejunum using a combination of percutaneous endoscopic, intraoperative, and transstomal stenting. Usually endoscopy is not indicated in cases of proximal jejunal obstruction, but some cases may require palliative endoscopy instead of bypass operation.

  13. A Case of Midgut Volvulus Associated with a Jejunal Diverticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Gutowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Midgut volvulus in adults is a rare entity that may present with intermittent colicky abdominal pain mixed with completely asymptomatic episodes. This small bowel twist may result in complications of obstruction, ischemia, hemorrhage, or perforation. With a midgut volvulus, complications may be life-threatening, and emergent surgical intervention is the mainstay of treatment. This current case involves an 80-year-old woman with intermittent abdominal pain with increasing severity and decreasing interval of time to presentation. A CAT scan revealed mesenteric swirling with possible internal hernia. A diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparotomy revealed a midgut volvulus, extensive adhesions involving the root of the mesentery, and a large jejunal diverticulum. The adhesions were lysed enabling untwisting of the bowel, allowing placement of the small bowel in the correct anatomic position and resection of the jejunal diverticulum. This is a rare case of midgut volvulus with intermittent abdominal pain, associated with jejunal diverticulum managed successfully. A midgut volvulus should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient who present with a small bowel obstruction secondary to an internal hernia, especially when a swirl sign is present on the CAT scan.

  14. Ruptured Jejunal Diverticulum Due to a Single-Band Small Bowel Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaraman Durai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticulosis is rare and often goes unnoticed until complications occur. The diverticula are true, acquired diverticula and often asymptomatic. Jejunal diverticulosis can be associated with diverticulosis of the duodenum, ileum, and colon. Here we describe a patient with known severe diverticular disease of the large bowel, who presented acutely with abdominal pain and signs of generalised peritonitis. Laparotomy showed ruptured jejunal diverticulosis with a single band over the terminal ileum, causing small bowel obstruction. Spontaneous perforation of a jejunal diverticulum is rare and is usually an intraoperative finding. One should exclude a precipitating cause, such as coexisting distal obstruction, stricture, or a foreign body.

  15. CT of jejunal diverticulitis: imaging findings, differential diagnosis, and clinical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macari, M.; Faust, M.; Liang, H.; Pachter, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To describe the imaging findings of jejunal diverticulitis as depicted at contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and review the differential diagnosis and clinical management. Materials and Methods: CT and pathology databases were searched for the diagnosis of jejunal diverticulitis. Three cases were identified and the imaging and clinical findings correlated. Results: Jejunal diverticulitis presents as a focal inflammatory mass involving the proximal small bowel. A trial of medical management with antibiotics may be attempted. Surgical resection may be required if medical management is unsuccessful. Conclusion: The imaging findings at MDCT may allow a specific diagnosis of jejunal diverticulitis to be considered and may affect the clinical management of the patient

  16. Stratum corneum lipid liposome-encapsulated panomycocin: preparation, characterization, and the determination of antimycotic efficacy against Candida spp. isolated from patients with vulvovaginitis in an in vitro human vaginal epithelium tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzgü, Fatih; Bayram, Günce; Tosun, Kübra; İzgü, Demet

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a liposomal lyophilized powder formulation of panomycocin was developed for therapeutic purposes against vulvovaginal candidiasis which affects 80% of women worldwide. Panomycocin is a potent antimycotic protein secreted by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus NCYC 434. This study involved the preparation of panomycocin-loaded stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLLs), characterization of the SCLLs, and determination of antimycotic efficacy of the formulation against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata clinical vaginal isolates in a human vaginal epithelium tissue model. The encapsulation and loading efficiencies of SCLLs were 73% and 76.8%, respectively. In transmission electron microscopy images, the SCLLs appeared in the submicron size range. Dynamic light scattering analyses showed that the SCLLs had uniform size distribution. Zeta potential measurements revealed stable and positively charged SCLLs. In Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, no irreversible interactions between the encapsulated panomycocin and the SCLLs were detected. The SCLLs retained >98% of encapsulated panomycocin in aqueous solution up to 12 hours. The formulation was fungicidal at the same minimum fungicidal concentration values for non-formulated pure panomycocin when tested on an in vitro model of vaginal candidiasis. This is the first study in which SCLLs and a protein as an active ingredient have been utilized together in a formulation. The results obtained in this study led us to conduct further preclinical trials of this formulation for the development of an effective topical anti-candidal drug with improved safety.

  17. Effects of fasting at different stages of lighting regimen on the proliferation of jejunal epithelial cells during rat pup weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Maria Albertina de Miranda; Okada, Monica A; Ayub, Cristina Lucia Sant'Ana C; Gomes, José Rosa

    2009-07-01

    The lifespan of intestinal epithelial cells is predetermined by the process of cell proliferation that occurs constantly in the crypt. The control of this process involves some endogenous factors, such as hormones, as well as exogenous factors, like food and natural light variations. These last two exogenous factors seem to be the major modulators of the cell proliferation process. Fasting treatment was conducted to assess the role of food and its effect on the metaphase index (MI) of the intestinal epithelium at different times and periods (light and dark) of the day. The effects of short- (5 hr) and long-term (25 hr) fasting on the MI in the jejunal epithelium of young rats were investigated at 09:00 h, 15:00 hr, 21:00 hr, and 02:00 hr using the arrested metaphases method. The present study demonstrates that 5 hr and 25 hr of fasting treatment decrease the MI at 09:00 hr. It was observed from MI analysis that there is an interaction between the fed/fasted status of the animal and the different times of the day. This result suggests that during the transition from youth to adulthood, the control of MI by the light/dark cycle seems to be more pronounced as compared with control by food intake at some periods of the day, although at other times food had a greater impact on the MI.

  18. Transepithelial Transport of PAMAM Dendrimers Across Isolated Human Intestinal Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Dallin; Enda, Michael; Bond, Tanner; Moghaddam, Seyyed Pouya Hadipour; Conarton, Josh; Scaife, Courtney; Volckmann, Eric; Ghandehari, Hamidreza

    2015-11-02

    Poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers have shown transepithelial transport across intestinal epithelial barrier in rats and across Caco-2 cell monolayers. Caco-2 models innately lack mucous barriers, and rat isolated intestinal tissue has been shown to overestimate human permeability. This study is the first report of transport of PAMAM dendrimers across isolated human intestinal epithelium. It was observed that FITC labeled G4-NH2 and G3.5-COOH PAMAM dendrimers at 1 mM concentration do not have a statistically higher permeability compared to free FITC controls in isolated human jejunum and colonic tissues. Mannitol permeability was increased at 10 mM concentrations of G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 dendrimers. Significant histological changes in human colonic and jejunal tissues were observed at G3.5-COOH and G4-NH2 concentrations of 10 mM implying that dose limiting toxicity may occur at similar concentrations in vivo. The permeability through human isolated intestinal tissue in this study was compared to previous rat and Caco-2 permeability data. This study implicates that PAMAM dendrimer oral drug delivery may be feasible, but it may be limited to highly potent drugs.

  19. Jejunal hemorrhage syndrome in a Zebu cow in Brazil

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    Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens type A has been incriminated as the etiologic agent in jejunal hemorrhage syndrome (JHS, which is a disease that affects dairy cattle. Although this microorganism is considered an important enteropathogen the pathogenesis of JHS is still not clear, and there have been no reports of its occurrence in Brazil so far. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of JHS by infection with a C. perfringens type A strain carrying the beta-2 toxin gene in a zebu cow in Brazil, for the first time.

  20. Jejunal diverticulitis in a healthy 91-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagolanu, Deepthi Chaitanya; Subhani, Miral; Novick, Daniel; Rizvon, Kaleem

    2018-05-30

    A 91-year-old African American man was admitted with sudden onset diffuse abdominal pain which radiated to the right flank. CT of the abdomen with contrast showed diverticula in the jejunum with adjacent inflammation and microperforation that was contained. Conservative therapy similar to colonic diverticulitis was effective. Although rare, our case highlights the importance of having an early and high suspicion for jejunal diverticulitis when patients present with non-specific abdominal symptoms in order to avoid perforation. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Perforated Jejunal Diverticula Secondary to a Large Faecolith: A Rare Cause of the Acute Abdomen

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    Peter John Webster

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jejunal diverticula are uncommon and usually asymptomatic. Very rarely, they can lead to acute complications such as bleeding, obstruction, and perforation. This report describes our experience of a case of jejunal diverticula perforation secondary to a large faecolith, with particular focus on the aetiology and management of this rare condition.

  2. Handlebar Hernia With Jejunal and Duodenal Injuries: A Case Report

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    Ching-Wen Huang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic abdominal wall hernia is an uncommon complication of abdominal blunt trauma. Handlebar hernia is even more infrequent. To the best of our knowledge, there are fewer than 30 cases of handlebar hernia reported in the English literature. Associated intra-abdominal injuries are infrequent. We present a case of handlebar hernia with jejunal and duodenal injuries. Emergency surgical intervention included primary repair of the disrupted musculofascial defect and injuries of the duodenum and jejunum. Bile- stained discharge from the drain tube was noted, so a second operation was performed about 7 days after the first. Leakage from the sutured jejunal perforation and another irregular perforation in the posterior wall of the fourth portion of the duodenum were noted. The two perforations were debrided and repaired. The muscular and fascial defects were debrided and closed with interrupted sutures. The patient recovered smoothly and was discharged 30 days after the blunt injury. No other major complication was noted 11 months after surgery.

  3. Presentation of GIST as jejuno-jejunal intussusception

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    Anil Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs are rare tumour. It comprises 0.2% of gastrointestinal tumours and only 0.04% of small intestinal tumours. Usually this tumour is found in people in their 60s.These tumours can be found anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract but most commonly found in the stomach (40–60%. Patients with GISTs usually have vague and nonspecific symptoms. We present a 17year-old with complain of abdominal pain, distension, and few episodes of vomiting. All laboratory investigations were normal. The ultrasonography (USG and computed tomography (CT were suggestive of jejuno-jejunal intussusception. The patient had emergency exploratory laparotomy with resection of the segment with five cm healthy margin, and end to end anastomosis. Patient was discharged after 4 days and remains well. This case report highlights the rarity of GISTs in the concern of age (17 year old, site (Jejunum as well as presentation (intussusception.

  4. Retrograde Jejuno-Jejunal Intussusception after Total Gastrectomy

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    Akira Yoneda

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available An eighty-year-old female was transferred to the hospital after experiencing abdominal pain and nausea. She had had a history of total gastrectomy for gastric cancer 14 years previously. Abdominal X-ray revealed a localized expansion of the small bowel. Computed tomography revealed a mass with a lamellar structure in a concentric circle. With a tentative diagnosis of small bowel obstruction due to intussusception, she underwent emergency operation. Laparotomy revealed a retrograde jejuno-jejunal intussusception. Bowel resection was performed due to the severe ischemic damage. All reported intussusception cases after total gastrectomy displayed retrograde characteristics and could occur both during the early and late period after surgery. It is important to consider the possibility of intussusception for patients presenting with acute abdomen who have previously undergone gastric resection.

  5. The effect of isoperistaltic jejunal interposition upon gastric emptying

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    Mackie, C.R.; Hall, A.W.; Clark, J.; Wisbey, M.; Baker, P.R.; Cuschieri, A.

    1981-12-01

    Ten patients with severe postgastrectomy-postvagotomy symptoms, all of whom had the features of vasomotor dumping, underwent gastric emptying studies, using a 300 milliliter meal of 15 per cent dextrose labeled with 99mTc-sulphur colloid. Studies were repeated two to 11 months following remedial operative treatment, using a 12.5 to 15.0 centimeter isoperistaltic jejunal interposition. Preoperatively, all patients had rapid gastric emptying with a typical biphasic pattern. Following isoperistaltic interposition, the rate of gastric emptying was similar to that found in control patients. Gastric emptying reverted to a more normal pattern but, as in the preoperative studies, was best described by a double exponential function, consisting of slow and fast components. Analysis of these particular functions suggests the manner in which isoperistaltic interposition modified the underlying disorder of gastric motility.

  6. Jejuno-jejunal intussusception in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

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    Tara J. Fetzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An approximately four-year-old male castrated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus was presented for painful defecation with a 24-hour history of hyporexia and intermittent episodes of rolling behavior. Upon presentation the patient was quiet, alert, and responsive, and mildly hypothermic. Abdominal palpation revealed an approximately 2-cm long oblong mass within the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed gastric dilation without volvulus and a peritoneal mass effect. The patient was euthanized following gastric reflux of brown malodorous fluid from his nares and oral cavity. A necropsy was performed and revealed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception causing mechanical gastrointestinal ileus, and gastric dilatation without volvulus. While non-obstructive gastrointestinal stasis is common and obstructive ileus is uncommon in guinea pigs, this report shows that intestinal intussusception is a differential in guinea pigs with ileus and gastric dilatation.

  7. Small bowel volvulus with jejunal diverticulum: Primary or secondary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Fei; Guan, Wen-Xian; Cao, Ke; Wang, Hao; Du, Jun-Feng

    2015-09-28

    Small bowel volvulus, which is torsion of the small bowel and its mesentery, is a medical emergency, and is categorized as primary or secondary type. Primary type often occurs without any apparent intrinsic anatomical anomalies, while the secondary type is common clinically and could be caused by numerous factors including postoperative adhesions, intestinal diverticulum, and/or tumors. Here, we report a rare case of a 60-year-old man diagnosed with small bowel volvulus using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography. Further discovery by laparotomy showed one jejunal diverticulum, longer corresponding mesentery with a narrower insertion, and a lack of mesenteric fat. This case report includes several etiological factors of small bowel volvulus, and we discuss the possible cause of small bowel volvulus in this patient. We also highlight the importance of MDCT angiography in the diagnosis of volvulus and share our experience in treating this disease.

  8. Jejunal Gastric Heterotopia causing Multiple Strictures and Perforation Peritonitis- A Case Report with Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, M; Nambiar, Ajit; Geetha, K; Kundil, Byju

    2017-03-01

    Gastric heterotopias beyond the ligament of Treitz though rare, should be thought of in the differential diagnosis of polypoid lesions presenting with gastrointestinal bleed or obstructive symptoms especially in children and in the young. Here is a 24-year-old male with multifocal jejunal gastric heterotopias causing multiple strictures and perforation peritonitis. Patient presented with acute abdomen pain and an emergency laparotomy was performed revealing jejunum with multiple strictures and perforation, followed by jejunal resection. On gross examination polypoid mucosa was noted at the stricture sites which showed heterotopic gastric mucosa on microscopy. Jejunal gastric heterotopias are extremely rare with less than ten reported cases and those presenting with multiple strictures are even rarer. To our knowledge this is the second case of jejunal gastric heterotopia presenting with multiple strictures.

  9. Immunohistochemical study of jejunal graft mucosa cell populations during the initial adaptation phase in the host body in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Stefan; Jonecová, Zuzana; Varga, Ján; Staško, Pavel; Kovalčinová, Barbora; Maretta, Milan; Leško, Dušan; Veselá, Jarmila

    2013-10-01

    The character of the changes in cell populations within the jejunal graft mucosa during the initial adaptation phase in the host body was investigated. 24 adult male Wistar rats underwent intestinal heterotopic allotransplantation. Aorto-aortal and porto-caval anastomoses were performed using the end-to-side microsurgery technique. Graft tissues were compared to the intestinal tissues of the recipients. This study demonstrates that: (1) Distinct injury to the graft mucosa 1h after transplantation was accompanied by significant reduction in numbers of epithelial secretory cell populations. The injury was more intense in the mesenteric portion. Six hours after transplantation the graft mucosa was covered by a continuous epithelium, but the number of goblet and Paneth cells was found to be less than 30% of that in the recipient epithelium. (2) In comparison with recipients, myeloperoxidase-positive cell numbers increased significantly in the graft mucosa 1 h after transplantation. In the epithelial layer, denudation and destruction of villi was associated with a significant reduction in intraepithelial lymphocyte numbers. A significant decrease in mucosal mast cell numbers was detected 6 h after transplantation. They attained only 10% of the number found in the recipients. (3) Time-dependent changes in the graft mucosa revealed that CD163-positive cells increased significantly in the graft mucosa during 6 h after transplantation and reached the level found in the recipients. In contrast, the myeloperoxidase-positive cell population significantly decreased in the graft mucosa within the initial 6 h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Congenital intrahepatic arterioportal and portosystemic venous fistulae with jejunal arteriovenous malformation depicted on multislice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Eun Jin; Goo, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Kim, Seong-Chul

    2004-01-01

    We report a symptomatic infant with very rare congenital arterioportal and portosystemic venous fistulae in the liver. Multislice CT after partial transcatheter embolisation revealed not only the complicated vascular architecture of the lesion, but also an incidental jejunal arteriovenous malformation which explained the patient's melena. The patient underwent ligation of the hepatic artery and resection of the jejunal arteriovenous malformation. Postoperative multislice CT clearly demonstrated the success of the treatment. (orig.)

  11. Thromboxane plays a role in postprandial jejunal oxygen uptake and capillary exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, A; Chou, C C

    1990-09-01

    The effects of a thromboxane A2 (TxA2)-endoperoxide receptor antagonist, SQ 29548, on jejunal blood flow, oxygen uptake, and capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc) were determined in anesthetized dogs under resting conditions and during the presence of predigested food in the jejunal lumen in three series of experiments. In series 1, 2.0 micrograms intra-arterial administration of SQ 29548 was found to abolish completely the vasoconstrictor action of graded doses (0.05-2.0 micrograms) of intra-arterial injection of a TxA2-endoperoxide analogue, U44069. SQ 29548 (2.0 micrograms ia) per se did not significantly alter resting jejunal blood flow, oxygen uptake, capillary pressure, or Kfc. Before SQ 29548, placement of food plus bile into the jejunal lumen increased blood flow +42 +/- 9%, oxygen uptake +28 +/- 7%, and Kfc +24 +/- 6%. After SQ 29548, the food placement increased blood flow +37 +/- 8%, oxygen uptake +52 +/- 11%, and Kfc +63 +/- 20%. The food-induced increases in oxygen uptake and Kfc after SQ 29548 were significantly greater than those induced before the blocking of TxA2-endoperoxide receptors by SQ 29548. Our study indicates that endogenous thromboxane does not play a role in regulating jejunal blood flow, capillary filtration, and oxygen uptake under resting conditions. However, it plays a role in limiting the food-induced increases in jejunal oxygen uptake and capillary exchange capacity without influencing the food-induced hyperemia.

  12. Jejunal perforation caused by abdominal angiostrongyliasis Perfuração jejunal causada por angiostrongilíase abdominal

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    Jaques WAISBERG

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe a case of abdominal angiostrongyliasis in an adult patient presenting acute abdominal pain caused by jejunal perforation. The case was unusual, as this affliction habitually involves the terminal ileum, appendix, cecum or ascending colon. The disease is caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus costaricensis, whose definitive hosts are forest rodents while snails and slugs are its intermediate hosts. Infection in humans is accidental and occurs via the ingestion of snail or slug mucoid secretions found on vegetables, or by direct contact with the mucus. Abdominal angiostrongyliasis is clinically characterized by prolonged fever, anorexia, abdominal pain in the right-lower quadrant, and peripheral blood eosinophilia. Although usually of a benign nature, its course may evolve to more complicated forms such as intestinal obstruction or perforation likely to require a surgical approach. Currently, no efficient medication for the treatment of abdominal angiostrongyliasis is known to be available. In this study, the authors provide a review on the subject, considering its etiopathogeny, clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment.Os autores descrevem caso de angiostrongilíase abdominal em doente adulto que se manifestou como abdômen agudo devido à perfuração de alça jejunal, evento raro, uma vez que esta afecção geralmente envolve o íleo terminal, apêndice, ceco ou cólon ascendente. A doença é causada pelo nematódeo Angiostrongylus costaricensis cujos hospedeiros definitivos são roedores silvestres e os hospedeiros intermediários são caracóis e caramujos. A infecção em humanos é acidental e ocorre pela ingestão de secreção mucóide destes invertebrados presentes em vegetais ou por contato direto com o muco. A angiostrongilíase abdominal é clinicamente caracterizada pela presença de febre prolongada, anorexia, dor no quadrante inferior direito do abdômen e eosinofilia periférica. Embora a doença seja de

  13. Therapeutic effect of recombinant human interleukin-11 and curcumin on jejunal damage in mice after neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Gongmin; Peng Ruiyun; Gao Yabing; Wang Shuiming; Li Yang; Xu Xinping; Wang Lifeng; Dong Ji; Zhao Li

    2010-01-01

    irradiation group (F=0.015-0.035, all P<0.05) but without significant differences between them. Conclusions: Jejunal damage in mice could be induced after 3 Gy neutron irradiation. rhIL-11 and curcumin might reduce the damage and promote the regeneration and repair of the intestinal epithelium. (authors)

  14. On free jejunal and colon transfer for pharyngo-esophageal reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Kiyoko; Annraku, Kuniaki; Ikenoya, Shintaro; Makino, Sachio; Ito, Kazuyuki; Takubo, Kenji; Kaji, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    Free jejunal transfer is a common procedure for hypopharyngo-esophageal reconstruction. We reviewed our experience with patients who underwent free jejunal and colon transfer surgery for hypopharyngo-esophageal reconstruction in the last 20 years in our institute. A retrospective review was conducted for 31 cases of reconstruction with free jejunal and colon transfer performed at Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital during the period of 20 years from January 1992 to December 2011. The mean age of the patients was 66 years. There were 30 patients with hypopharynx cancer and one patient with larynx cancer. Thirty patients had received preoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The average time of surgery for free jejunal transfer reconstruction was 8.8 hours, including extraction of the hypopharynx, pharynx and cervical esophagus, debridment of pars hemi-cervicalis, and grafting procedure of free jejunum. The most common recipient vessels were the transverse cervical artery and external jugular vein, but recently, vessels of free flaps are often chosen to be anastomosed with the superior thyroid artery and internal jugular vein. The free jejunal and colon grafts for reconstruction took successfully in all patients. The complication rate was 52% (16/31 cases). Complications often occurred in cases of total esophagectomy, recurrence after full-dose chemoradiotherapy, and radiation therapy administered postoperatively. (author)

  15. Phytobezoar in a jejunal diverticulum as a cause of small bowel obstruction: a case report

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    Rauf Fozia

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Phytobezoars are concretions of poorly digested fruit and vegetable fibers found in the alimentary tract. Previous gastric resection, gastrojejunostomy, or pyloroplasty predispose people to bezoar formation. Small-bowel bezoars normally come from the stomach, and primary small-bowel bezoars are very rare. They are seen only in patients with underlying small-bowel diseases such as diverticula, strictures, or tumors. Primary small-bowel bezoars almost always present as intestinal obstructions, although it is a very rare cause, being responsible for less than 3% of all small-bowel obstructions in one series. Jejunal diverticula are rare, with an incidence of less than 0.5%. They are usually asymptomatic pseudodiverticula of pulsion type, and complications are reported in 10% to 30% of patients. A phytobezoar in a jejunal diverticulum is an extremely rare presentation. Case presentation A 78-year-old Pakistani man presented to our clinic with small-bowel obstruction. Upon exploration, we found a primary small-bowel bezoar originating in a jejunal diverticulum and causing jejunal obstruction. Resection and anastomosis of the jejunal segment harboring the diverticulum was performed, and our patient had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion Primary small-bowel bezoars are very rare but must be kept in mind as a possible cause of small-bowel obstruction.

  16. The placement of naso-jejunal feeding tube under DSA guidance: its technology and skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Laichang; Wang Wenhui; Li Fenqiang; Su Dongjun; Li Bo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze and summarize the manipulation and skills of the placement of naso-jejunal feeding tube under DSA guidance. Methods: After performing the spraying anesthesia of nasopharynx, the naso-jejunal feeding tube, with the help of guide wire and under DSA guidance, was placed into the proximal jejunum by passing it through the nose, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, pylorus and duodenum in order. The procedure was employed in 441 cases. Results: The mean time for performing the procedure was within five minutes. The procedure was successfully accomplished in all 441 cases and no complications occurred in this series. Conclusion: Under DSA guidance the placement of naso- jejunal feeding tube can be safely and quickly carried out with high successful rate and less sufferings to patient. It is worth popularizing this technique in clinical practice. (authors)

  17. Electroacupuncture at LI11 promotes jejunal motility via the parasympathetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xuanming; Yuan, Mengqian; Yin, Yin; Wang, Yidan; Li, Yuqin; Zhang, Na; Sun, Xueyi; Yu, Zhi; Xu, Bin

    2017-06-21

    Gastrointestinal motility disorder has been demonstrated to be regulated by acupuncture treatment. The mechanisms underlying the effects of acupuncture stimulation of abdominal and lower limb acupoints on gastrointestinal motility have been thoroughly studied; however, the physiology underlying the effects of acupuncture on the forelimbs to mediate gastrointestinal motility requires further exploration. The aim of this study was to determine whether electroacupuncture (EA) at LI11 promotes jejunal motility, whether the parasympathetic pathway participates in this effect, and if so, which somatic afferent nerve fibres are involved. A manometric balloon was used to observe jejunal motility. The effects and mechanisms of EA at LI11 were explored in male Sprague-Dawley rats with or without drug administration (propranolol, clenbuterol, acetylcholine, and atropine) and with or without vagotomy. Three types of male mice (β 1 β 2 receptor-knockout [β 1 β 2 -/- ] mice, M 2 M 3 receptor-knockout [M 2 M 3 -/- ] mice and wild-type [WT] mice) were also studied by using different EA intensities (1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 mA). A total of 72 rats and 56 mice were included in the study. EA at LI11 increased the contractile amplitude of jejunal motility in the majority of both rats and mice. However, EA at LI11 did not enhance jejunal motility in rats administered atropine, rats that underwent vagotomy, and M 2 M 3 -‍‍/- mice (at all intensities). In WT mice, EA at LI11 significantly increased jejunal motility at all intensities except 1 mA, and a plateau was reached at intensities greater than 4 mA. Our results suggest that EA at LI11 promotes jejunal motility primarily by exciting the parasympathetic pathway, and that Aδ-fibres and C-fibres may play important roles in the process.

  18. Serosal-to-mucosal urea flux across the isolated ruminal epithelium is mediated via urea transporter-B and aquaporins when Holstein calves are abruptly changed to a moderately fermentable diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, M E; Schurmann, B L; Górka, P; Penner, G B; Loewen, M E; Mutsvangwa, T

    2015-02-01

    Urea transport (UT-B) proteins are known to facilitate urea movement across the ruminal epithelium; however, other mechanisms may be involved as well because inhibiting UT-B does not completely abolish urea transport. Of the aquaporins (AQP), which are a family of membrane-spanning proteins that are predominantly involved in the movement of water, AQP-3, AQP-7, and AQP-10 are also permeable to urea, but it is not clear if they contribute to urea transport across the ruminal epithelium. The objectives of this study were to determine (1) the functional roles of AQP and UT-B in the serosal-to-mucosal urea flux (Jsm-urea) across rumen epithelium; and (2) whether functional adaptation occurs in response to increased diet fermentability. Twenty-five Holstein steer calves (n=5) were assigned to a control diet (CON; 91.5% hay and 8.5% vitamin and mineral supplement) or a medium grain diet (MGD; 41.5% barley grain, 50% hay, and 8.5% vitamin and mineral) that was fed for 3, 7, 14, or 21 d. Calves were killed and ruminal epithelium was collected for mounting in Ussing chambers under short-circuit conditions and for analysis of mRNA abundance of UT-B and AQP-3, AQP-7, and AQP-10. To mimic physiologic conditions, the mucosal buffer (pH 6.2) contained no urea, whereas the serosal buffer (pH 7.4) contained 1 mM urea. The fluxes of (14)C-urea (Jsm-urea; 26 kBq/10 mL) and (3)H-mannitol (Jsm-mannitol; 37 kBq/10 mL) were measured, with Jsm-mannitol being used as an indicator of paracellular or hydrophilic movement. Serosal addition of phloretin (1 mM) was used to inhibit UT-B-mediated urea transport, whereas NiCl2 (1 mM) was used to inhibit AQP-mediated urea transport. Across treatments, the addition of phloretin or NiCl2 reduced the Jsm-urea from 116.5 to 54.0 and 89.5 nmol/(cm(2) × h), respectively. When both inhibitors were added simultaneously, Jsm-urea was further reduced to 36.8 nmol/(cm(2) × h). Phloretin-sensitive and NiCl2-sensitive Jsm-urea were not affected by diet. The

  19. Effects of grinding method, particle size, and physical form of the diet on gastrointestinal morphology and jejunal glucose transport in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhe, I; Ruhnke, I; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Boroojeni, F Goodarzi; Löwe, R; Zentek, J

    2014-08-01

    Several studies illustrated that the structure of feed, i.e., the particle size, particle-size distribution, and the physical form of the diet, affects the avian gastrointestinal function and health leading to changes in productive performance. However, investigations concerning the effects of feeding differently processed diets on laying hens are limited and primarily concentrated on bird performance. The current study examines the effect of feed processing on the gastrointestinal morphology and on the jejunal glucose transport of laying hens. In 8 replicates, a total of 384 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 20 wk were randomly allocated to 8 different groups and fed over a period of 21 d in a 3-factorial design. Diets differed in 1) grinding method, either hammer or roller mill; 2) physical form, either mash or expandate; and 3) particle size, either coarsely or finely ground. During the experimental trial, the laying performance of each feeding group was recorded daily and the feed intake and BW determined weekly. After slaughtering, the weights of the pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard, and small intestine were measured. Villus lengths and crypt depths of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were determined. The jejunal electrogenic glucose transport was studied in Ussing chambers. Hens that received mash instead of expandate had higher proventriculus (P = 0.011), gizzard (P feeding of coarsely instead of finely ground diets led to higher gizzard weights (P hens showed longer duodenal (P hens had higher glucose transport rates than expandate-fed hens (P feeding of coarsely ground as well as mash diets had stimulating effects on the development of the gastrointestinal organs. Moreover, the feeding of mash influenced the intestinal microstructure of the epithelium that was accompanied by higher glucose transport capacities. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Jejunal Choristoma: A Very Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain in Children

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    T. A. Olajide

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Choristoma is development of a normal tissue in an aberrant location. This report describes jejunal salivary choristoma (JSC causing recurring episodes of abdominal discomfort in a 5-year-old girl. Exploratory laporatomy revealed a pale yellow subserosal jejunal lesion. Wedge resection of the lesion and repair of the bowel were performed. The child did well postoperatively and has since that time been free of pain at follow-up. Histopathological examination of the resected lesion revealed salivary gland choriostoma. Literature review (PUBMED search engine revealed no previous report of this rare clinicopathologic entity. We conclude that choriostoma should be considered a possible differential when evaluating abdominal complaint in children.

  1. Jejunal intussusception in a 10-year-old boy with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beluffi, Giampiero [Section of Paediatric Radiology, Department of Radiodiagnosis, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Piazzale Golgi, 2, 27100, Pavia PV (Italy); Romano, Piero; Matteotti, Chiara; Minniti, Silvio; Ceffa, Franco [Division of Paediatric Surgery, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy); Morbini, Patrizia [Department of Pathology, IRCCS Policlinico S. Matteo, Pavia (Italy)

    2004-09-01

    Jejunal intussusception in a Chinese 10-year-old boy affected by the blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is presented and discussed. The syndrome is rare, sporadically found with possible dominant inheritance, and due to a gene mutation mapped on the short arm of chromosome 9. It presents with distinctive cutaneous and gastrointestinal malformations together with possible other organ involvement. Gastrointestinal malformations tend to bleed and lead to anaemia. Infrequent complications of the gastrointestinal malformations are volvulus, intestinal infarction and intussusception. The age of the patient and the jejunal intussusception precipitated by a vascular malformation containing calcifications (which were also found in different gut segments) make this case remarkable. (orig.)

  2. Jejunal intussusception in a 10-year-old boy with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beluffi, Giampiero; Romano, Piero; Matteotti, Chiara; Minniti, Silvio; Ceffa, Franco; Morbini, Patrizia

    2004-01-01

    Jejunal intussusception in a Chinese 10-year-old boy affected by the blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is presented and discussed. The syndrome is rare, sporadically found with possible dominant inheritance, and due to a gene mutation mapped on the short arm of chromosome 9. It presents with distinctive cutaneous and gastrointestinal malformations together with possible other organ involvement. Gastrointestinal malformations tend to bleed and lead to anaemia. Infrequent complications of the gastrointestinal malformations are volvulus, intestinal infarction and intussusception. The age of the patient and the jejunal intussusception precipitated by a vascular malformation containing calcifications (which were also found in different gut segments) make this case remarkable. (orig.)

  3. Jejunal varices diagnosed by capsule endoscopy in patients with post-liver transplant portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Lee M; Kim, Stanley; Superina, Riccardo; Mohammad, Saeed

    2017-02-01

    Portal hypertension secondary to portal vein obstruction following liver transplant occurs in 5%-10% of children. Jejunal varices are uncommon in this group. We present a case series of children with significant GI blood loss, negative upper endoscopy, and jejunal varices detected by CE. Case series of patients who had CE for chronic GI blood loss following liver transplantation. Three patients who had their initial transplants at a median age of 7 months were identified at our institution presenting at a median age of 8 years (range 7-16 years) with a median Hgb of 2.8 g/dL (range 1.8-6.8 g/dL). Upper endoscopy was negative for significant esophageal varices, gastric varices, and bleeding portal gastropathy in all three children. All three patients had significant jejunal varices noted on CE in mid-jejunum. Jejunal varices were described as large prominent bluish vessels underneath visualized mucosa, one with evidence of recent bleeding. The results led to venoplasty of the portal vein in two patients and a decompressive shunt in one patient with resolution of GI bleed and anemia. CE is useful to diagnose intestinal varices in children with portal hypertension and GI bleeding following liver transplant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve - a potential alternative to bariatric surgery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Gylvin, Silas; Vilmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for several co-morbidities reducing life expectancy. Conservative treatment of obesity is generally ineffective in the long-term. Bariatric surgery has proven effective, but is associated with potential complications. Duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve is a novel...

  5. Increased jejunal prostaglandin E2 concentrations in patients with acute cholera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, P.; Rabbani, G. H.; Bukhave, K.; Rask-Madsen, J.

    1985-01-01

    Supraphysiologic doses of prostaglandins (PGs) mimic the effect of cholera toxin and cAMP in the small intestine, but not all observations are explicable in terms of the theory that links PGs to cAMP. Because no data exist on endogenous PGs in human cholera we measured PGE2 concentrations in jejunal

  6. Jejunal diverticula with perforation in non steroidal anti inflammatory drug user: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhit Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Jejunal diverticula are rare lesions, and their perforation never features in the list of diagnoses for acute abdomen, especially in this part of the world. Further this unique case report opens the doors for further research to prove an assosiation between NSAID use and diverticular perforation which itself is a very rare entity.

  7. Duodenal Derotation and Extent Tapering Jejunoplasty as Primary Repair for Neonates With High Jejunal Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Cheng Luo

    2010-10-01

    Conclusion: In very proximal high atresia, the extent of tapering is limited by the proximity of the ligament of Treitz. Duodenal derotation provides better access to the high atresia. The results of this limited experience suggest that the DDETJ procedure could provide an alternative therapy in patients with high jejunal atresia.

  8. Vascularized pedicle jejunal graft for closure of large duodenal defect in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massie, Anna; McFadden, Michael

    2016-11-01

    A Labrador retriever dog was presented for intestinal obstruction resulting in devitalization of portions of the duodenum. A severe perforation, accounting for 70% duodenal circumference, was present at the level of the duodenal papilla. A vascularized jejunal graft was used to close the perforation, representing novel utilization of this grafting technique.

  9. Comparison of enterotomy leak pressure among fresh, cooled, and frozen-thawed porcine jejunal segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeschlimann, Kimberly A; Mann, F A; Middleton, John R; Belter, Rebecca C

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether stored (cooled or frozen-thawed) jejunal segments can be used to obtain dependable leak pressure data after enterotomy closure. SAMPLE 36 jejunal segments from 3 juvenile pigs. PROCEDURES Jejunal segments were harvested from euthanized pigs and assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 12 segments/group) as follows: fresh (used within 4 hours after collection), cooled (stored overnight at 5°C before use), and frozen-thawed (frozen at -12°C for 8 days and thawed at room temperature [23°C] for 1 hour before use). Jejunal segments were suspended and 2-cm enterotomy incisions were made on the antimesenteric border. Enterotomies were closed with a simple continuous suture pattern. Lactated Ringer solution was infused into each segment until failure at the suture line was detected. Leak pressure was measured by use of a digital transducer. RESULTS Mean ± SD leak pressure for fresh, cooled, and frozen-thawed segments was 68.3 ± 23.7 mm Hg, 55.3 ± 28.1 mm Hg, and 14.4 ± 14.8 mm Hg, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in mean leak pressure among pigs, but a significant difference in mean leak pressure was detected among treatment groups. Mean leak pressure was significantly lower for frozen-thawed segments than for fresh or cooled segments, but mean leak pressure did not differ significantly between fresh and cooled segments. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Fresh porcine jejunal segments or segments cooled overnight may be used for determining intestinal leak pressure, but frozen-thawed segments should not be used.

  10. Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints enhances jejunal motility in constipated and diarrheic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qing-Guang; Gao, Xin-Yan; Liu, Kun; Yu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Liang; Wang, Hai-Ping; Zhu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect and mechanism of acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints on jejunal motility, particularly in pathological conditions. METHODS: Jejunal motility was assessed using a manometric balloon placed in the jejunum approximately 18-20 cm downstream from the pylorus and filled with approximately 0.1 mL warm water in anesthetized normal rats or rats with diarrhea or constipation. The heterotopic acupoints including LI11 (Quchi), ST37 (Shangjuxu), BL25 (Dachangshu), and the homotopic acupoint ST25 (Tianshu), and were stimulated for 60 s by rotating acupuncture needles right and left at a frequency of 2 Hz. To determine the type of afferent fibers mediating the regulation of jejunal motility by manual acupuncture, the ipsilateral sciatic A or C fibers of ST37 were inactivated by local application of the A-fiber selective demyelination agent cobra venom or the C fiber blocker capsaicin. Methoctramine, a selective M2 receptor antagonist, was injected intravenously to identify a specific role for M2 receptors in mediating the effect of acupuncture on jejunal motility. RESULTS: Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints, such as LI11 and ST37, increased jejunal motility not only in normal rats, but also in rats with constipation or diarrhea. In normal rats, manual acupuncture at LI11 or ST37 enhanced jejunal pressure from 7.34 ± 0.19 cmH2O to 7.93 ± 0.20 cmH2O, an increase of 9.05% ± 0.82% (P acupuncture at LI11 or ST37 increased intrajejunal pressure from 8.17 ± 0.31 cmH2O to 9.86 ± 0.36 cmH2O, an increase of 20.69% ± 2.10% (P 0.05), respectively. In contrast, acupuncture ST25, a homotopic acupoint, decreased not only intrajejunal pressure, but also significantly decreased frequency in normal rats and rats with constipation or diarrhea. Following demyelination of Aδ fibers, acupuncture at ST37 again augmented intrajejunal pressure to 121.48% ± 3.06% of baseline. Following capsaicin application for 24 h, acupuncture at ipsilateral ST37 increased

  11. The Effect of Combination of Radiation with 5-Fluorouracil on Mouse Jejunal Crypt Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Charn Il

    1985-01-01

    The interaction of radiation and 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) on mouse jejunal crypt cells was studied using the microcolony survival assay. 150mg/kg of 5-FU was injected intraperitoneally 15 minutes before irradiation and 6 hours after irradiation. Jejunal crypt cells of mouse survived more when 5-FU was given 15 minutes before irradiation than giving it 6 hours after irradiation. The mean lethal doses (Do) of each of irradiation alone group, 5-FU injection group of 15 minutes preceding irradiation, and 5-FU injection group of 6 hours post irradiation were 135, 135, and 114 rad respectively. The dose effect factor (DEF) of each of 5-FU injection groups of 15 minutes preceding irradiation and of 6 hours post irradiation were 1.13 and 1.27

  12. Jejunal Replacement of Stomach in Two Children with Total Gastric Necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onder Ozden

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Total gastrectomy is an extremely rare procedure in children and experience with its replacement is very limited. We present two patients who had jejunal replacement due to total gastric necrosis. The first patient was a- 2-year-old boy who admitted with a history of caustic ingestion. He was taken operation because of gastric perforation and necrosis. Anastomosis was applied by using jejunal segments. The second patient was an 11-years-old girl who left diaphragmatic hernia and acute gastric volvulus. At laparotomy, Total gastrectomy and Hunt-Lawrence type gastroesophostomy were made. Reconstruction with jejunum is thought as a good option in total gastric necrosis according to our 2 patient experiences. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 403-407

  13. Single-incision, laparoscopic-assisted jejunal resection and anastomosis following a gunshot wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jacob A; Shigemoto, Reynsen; Reese, David J; Case, J Brad

    2015-01-01

    A 2 yr old castrated male Pomeranian was evaluated for a 6 wk history of chronic vomiting, intermittent anorexia, and lethargy. Physical examination revealed a palpable, nonpainful, soft-tissue mass in the midabdominal area. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasound revealed a focal, eccentric thickening of the jejunal wall with associated jejunal mural foreign body and partial mechanical obstruction. Following diagnosis of a partial intestinal obstruction as the cause of chronic vomiting, the patient underwent general anesthesia for a laparoscopic-assisted, midjejunal resection and anastomosis using a single-incision laparoscopic surgery port. The patient was discharged the day after surgery, and clinical signs abated according to information obtained during a telephone interview conducted 2 and 8 wk postoperatively. The dog described in this report is a unique case of partial intestinal obstruction treated by laparoscopic-assisted resection and anastomosis using a single-incision laparoscopic surgery port.

  14. The Combination of Gastroschisis, Jejunal Atresia, and Colonic Atresia in a Newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Bauman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We encountered a rare case of gastroschisis associated with jejunal atresia and colonic atresia. In our case, the jejunal atresia was not discovered for 27 days after the initial abdominal wall closure. The colonic atresia was not discovered for 48 days after initial repair of the gastroschisis secondary to the rarity of the disorder. Both types of atresia were repaired with primary hand-sewn anastomoses. Other than the prolonged parenteral nutrition and hyperbilirubinemia, our patient did very well throughout his hospital course. Based on our case presentation, small bowel atresia and colonic atresia must be considered in patients who undergo abdominal wall closure for gastroschisis with prolonged symptoms suggestive of bowel obstruction. Our case report also demonstrates primary enteric anastomosis as a safe, well-tolerated surgical option for patients with types of intestinal atresia.

  15. Jejunal Perforation: A Rare Presentation of Burkitt’s Lymphoma—Successful Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Ranjan Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors of the small bowel presenting as acute abdomen are a rare occurrence. Burkitt’s lymphoma presenting as a surgical emergency needing emergency laparotomy is an uncommon presentation of this tumor. We present an interesting case of jejunal perforation as a first manifestation of Burkitt’s lymphoma which was successfully managed with surgical resection, high dose chemotherapy, and good supportive care.

  16. Peritonitis by jejunal ulcer perforation in a child: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndèye Aby Ndoye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcer perforation is a rare cause of peritonitis in children. The cases reported in the literature are caused by peptic ulcer. We report on a case of peritonitis caused by jejunal ulcer perforation, discovered in a girl's abdomen during an acute surgical procedure. The treatment consisted of a resection of the perforation followed by an end-to-end anastomosis. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  17. Jejunal Diverticulosis Presented with Acute Abdomen and Diverticulitis Complication: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidan, Nurdan; Mermi, Esra Ummuhan; Acay, Mehtap Beker; Murat, Muammer; Zobaci, Ethem

    2015-01-01

    Jejunal diverticulosis is a rare, usually asymptomatic disease. Its incidence increases with age. If symptomatic, diverticulosis may cause life-threatening acute complications such as diverticulitis, perforation, intestinal hemorrhage and obstruction. In this report, we aimed to present a 67-year-old male patient with jejunal diverticulitis accompanying with abdominal pain and vomiting. A 67-year-old male patient complaining of epigastric pain for a week and nausea and fever for a day presented to our emergency department. Ultrasonographic examination in our clinic revealed diverticulum-like images with thickened walls adjacent to the small intestine loops, and increase in the echogenicity of the surrounding mesenteric fat tissue. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography showed multiple diverticula, thickened walls with showing contrast enhancement and adjacent jejunum in the left middle quadrant, increased density of the surrounding mesenteric fat tissue, and mesenteric lymph nodes. The patient was hospitalized by general surgery department with the diagnosis of jejunal diverticulitis. Conservative intravenous fluid administration and antibiotic therapy were initiated. Clinical symptoms regressed and the patient was discharged from hospital after 2 weeks. In cases of diverticulitis it should be kept in mind that in patients with advanced age and pain in the left quadrant of the abdomen, diverticular disease causing mortality and morbidity does not always originate from the colon but might also originate from the jejunum

  18. Preoperative determination of appropriate cutting line for proximal gastrectomy to avoid postoperative jejunal ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Naoto; Kashimura, Hirotaka; Nimura, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Yano, Kentaro; Aoki, Hiroaki; Koyama, Tomoki; Sasaki, Toshiyuki; Shida, Atsuo; Mitsumori, Norio; Aoki, Teruaki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Although proximal gastrectomy has become a procedure of choice for patients' early cancer in the upper third of stomach, no clinical guide for optimal gastric resection in order to avoid postoperative jejunal ulcer is available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether determining the distribution of parietal and chief cells of the stomach using Congo red test is clinically relevant. The F-line was defined as a boundary line between fundic and intermediate area of the stomach according to the pathological findings in 29 patients who underwent total gastrectomy for early gastric cancer, whereas the f-line was regarded as a boundary line between intermediate and pyloric area. In the additional 6 patients undergoing vagus-preserving proximal gastrectomy with jejunal pouch interposition, endoscopic Congo red test was preoperatively performed to determine the F-f-line. The distances from the pyloric ring to f-line on the lesser and greater curvatures were variable. Long-term outcomes of proximal gastrectomy guided by preoperative endoscopic Congo red test were favorable. It is suggested that preoperative endoscopic Congo red test is useful to determine the appropriate cutting line in order to avoid postoperative jejunal ulcer after proximal gastrectomy.

  19. Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Naoyo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing dogma that the former term ovarian "germinal epithelium" resulted from a mistaken belief that it could give rise to new germ cells is now strongly challenged. Discussion Two years ago, a research group of the University of Tennessee led by Antonin Bukovsky successfully demonstrated the oogenic process from the human ovarian covering epithelium now commonly called the ovarian surface epithelium. They showed the new oocyte with zona pellucida and granulosa cells, both originated from the surface epithelium arising from mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea, and stressed that the human ovary could form primary follicles throughout the reproductive period. This gives a big impact not only to the field of reproductive medicine, but also to the oncologic area. The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia. Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors. Summary Since the oogenic capability of ovarian surface cells has been proven, it is now believed that the oocytes can originate from them. The term "germinal epithelium", hence, might reasonably be reinstated.

  20. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support in vitro and in vivo growth of human small intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lahar

    Full Text Available The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough off into the intestinal lumen. The intestinal niche consists of various cell types, extracellular matrix, and growth factors and surrounds the intestinal progenitor cells. There have recently been advances in the understanding of the interactions that regulate the behavior of the intestinal epithelium and there is great interest in methods for isolating and expanding viable intestinal epithelium. However, there is no method to maintain primary human small intestinal epithelium in culture over a prolonged period of time. Similarly no method has been published that describes isolation and support of human intestinal epithelium in an in vivo model. We describe a technique to isolate and maintain human small intestinal epithelium in vitro from surgical specimens. We also describe a novel method to maintain human intestinal epithelium subcutaneously in a mouse model for a prolonged period of time. Our methods require various growth factors and the intimate interaction between intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs and the intestinal epithelial cells to support the epithelial in vitro and in vivo growth. Absence of these myofibroblasts precluded successful maintenance of epithelial cell formation and proliferation beyond just a few days, even in the presence of supportive growth factors. We believe that the methods described here can be used to explore the molecular basis of human intestinal stem cell support, maintenance, and growth.

  1. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-05-02

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period.

  2. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed...

  3. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus...... is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature......, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system...

  4. [Characterization of stem cells derived from the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diensthuber, M; Heller, S

    2010-11-01

    In contrast to regenerating hair cell-bearing organs of nonmammalian vertebrates the adult mammalian organ of Corti appears to have lost its ability to maintain stem cells. The result is a lack of regenerative ability and irreversible hearing loss following auditory hair cell death. Unexpectedly, the neonatal auditory sensory epithelium has recently been shown to harbor cells with stem cell features. The origin of these cells within the cochlea's sensory epithelium is unknown. We applied a modified neurosphere assay to identify stem cells within distinct subregions of the neonatal mouse auditory sensory epithelium. Sphere cells were characterized by multiple markers and morphologic techniques. Our data reveal that both the greater and the lesser epithelial ridge contribute to the sphere-forming stem cell population derived from the auditory sensory epithelium. These self-renewing sphere cells express a variety of markers for neural and otic progenitor cells and mature inner ear cell types. Stem cells can be isolated from specific regions of the auditory sensory epithelium. The distinct features of these cells imply a potential application in the development of a cell replacement therapy to regenerate the damaged sensory epithelium.

  5. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...... of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets....

  6. The fraction dose absorbed, in humans, and high jejunal human permeability relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Arik; Lennernäs, Hans; Amidon, Gordon L

    2012-06-04

    The drug intestinal permeability (P(eff)) measure has been widely used as one of the main factors governing both the rate and/or extent of drug absorption (F(abs)) in humans following oral administration. In this communication we emphasize the complexity behind and the care that must be taken with this in vivo P(eff) measurement. Intestinal permeability, considering the whole of the human intestine, is more complex than generally recognized, and this can lead to misjudgment regarding F(abs) and P(eff) in various settings, e.g. drug discovery, formulation design, drug development and regulation. Setting the adequate standard for the low/high permeability class boundary, the different experimental methods for the permeability measurement, and segmental-dependent permeability throughout the human intestine due to different mechanisms are some of the main points that are discussed. Overall, the use of jejunal P(eff) as a surrogate for extent of absorption is sound and scientifically justified; a compound with high jejunal P(eff) will have high F(abs), eliminating the risk for misclassification as a BCS class I drug. Much more care should be taken, however, when jejunal P(eff) does not support a high-permeability classification; a thorough examination may reveal high-permeability after all, attributable to e.g. segmental-dependent permeability due to degree of ionization or transporter expression. In this situation, the use of multiple permeability experimental methods, including the use of metabolism, which except for luminal degradation requires absorption, is prudent and encouraged.

  7. Dietary non-esterified oleic Acid decreases the jejunal levels of anorectic N-acylethanolamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diep, Thi Ai; Madsen, Andreas N; Krogh-Hansen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    mice respond to dietary fat (olive oil) by reducing levels of anorectic NAEs, and 3) whether dietary non-esterified oleic acid also can decrease levels of anorectic NAEs in mice. We are searching for the fat sensor in the intestine, which mediates the decreased levels of anorectic NAEs. METHODS: Male...... of anorectic NAEs in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the down-regulation of the jejunal level of anorectic NAEs by dietary fat is not restricted to rats, and that the fatty acid component oleic acid, in dietary olive oil may be sufficient to mediate this regulation. Thus, a fatty acid sensor may...

  8. Conversion of choledochojejunostomy stents to jejunal feeding tubes for postoperative enteral alimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, D R; Torosian, M H; McLean, G K; Meranze, S G; Rosato, E F

    1988-01-01

    The problem of protein calorie malnutrition following major gastrointestinal surgery can be treated with central venous or enteric alimentation, with the latter being preferred. The authors describe a simple technique for the conversion of biliary stents placed after pancreaticoduodenal surgery into jejunal feeding tubes when the stenting function is no longer needed. Three illustrative cases are presented. In each case, the procedure took less than 30 min and had no associated morbidity. This technique allows early conversion from central venous to enteric alimentation without the need to create a second surgical enterostomy.

  9. Refractory cytopenias secondary to copper deficiency in children receiving exclusive jejunal nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Amanda E; Kahwash, Samir B; Chawla, Anjulika

    2017-11-01

    Copper deficiency is a known cause of anemia and neutropenia that is easily remedied with copper supplementation. Copper is primarily absorbed in the stomach and proximal duodenum, so patients receiving enteral nutrition via methods that bypass this critical region may be at increased risk for copper deficiency. In pediatrics, postpyloric enteral feeding is increasingly utilized to overcome problems related to aspiration, severe reflux, poor gastric motility, and gastric outlet obstruction. However, little is known about the prevalence of copper deficiency in this population. We describe three pediatric patients receiving exclusive jejunal feeds who developed cytopenias secondary to copper deficiency. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. An unusual presentation of a malignant jejunal tumor and a different management strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parida Dillip K

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant small bowel tumors are very rare and leiomyosarcoma accounts for less than 15% of the cases. Management of these tumors is challenging in view of nonspecific symptoms, unusual presentation and high incidence of metastasis. In this case report, an unusual presentation of jejunal sarcoma and management of liver metastasis with radiofrequency ablation (RFA is discussed. Case presentation A 45-year-old male presented with anemia and features of small bowel obstruction. Operative findings revealed a mass lesion in jejunum with intussusception of proximal loop. Resection of bowel mass was performed. Histopathological findings were suggestive of leiomyosarcoma. After 3-years of follow-up, the patient developed recurrence in infracolic omentum and a liver metastasis. The omental mass was resected and liver lesion was managed with radiofrequency ablation. Conclusion Jejunal leiomyosarcoma is a rare variety of malignant small bowel tumor and a clinical presentation with intussusception is unusual. We suggest that an aggressive management approach using a combination of surgery and a newer technique like RFA can be attempted in patients with limited metastatic spread to liver to prolong the long-term survival in a subset of patients.

  11. Preparation and properties of monoclonal antibodies to individual prekeratins of simple rat epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskii, S.M.; Krutovskikh, V.A.; Bannikov, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors study the properties of a series of hybridoma clones producing antibodies to individual prekeratins (PK) from simple types of epithelium. BALB/c mice were immunized with a preparation of intermediate filaments isolated from the mucosa of the rat large intestine. The specificity of the five clones studied was studied by monoautoradiography. For a more detailed study of the specificity of the experimentally obtained antibodies, the authors used the same immunoautoradiographic method to study their reaction with proteins of cells of other types. The authors have obtained monoclonal antibodies to three individual PK of simple types of rat epithelium: PK40, PK49, and PK55

  12. Duodenal-jejunal bypass liner implantation provokes rapid weight loss and improved glycemic control, accompanied by elevated fasting ghrelin levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koehestanie, P.; Dogan, K.; Berends, F.; Janssen, I.; Wahab, P.J.; Groenen, M.; Müller, M.R.; Wit, de N.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic implantation of a duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) is a novel bariatric technique to induce weight loss and remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Placement of the DJBL mimics the bypass component of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) procedure. In this

  13. Behandling med duodenal-jejunal bypass-sleeve ved svær overvægt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Ulrich; Gylvin, Silas; Vilmann, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are risk factors for several co-morbidities reducing life expectancy. Conservative treatment of obesity is generally ineffective in the long-term. Bariatric surgery has proven effective, but is associated with potential complications. Duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve is a novel...

  14. Differential proteiomic analysis of mouse intestinal epithelium irradiated by γ-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bo; Su Yongping; Liu Xiaohong; Ai Guoping; Ran Xinze; Wei Yongjiang; Wang Junping; Cheng Tianmin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: For elucidating the molecular mechanism of reconstruction of intestinal epithelium damaged by ionizing radiation, the proteomes of murine intestinal epithelium from normal and irradiated mice were compared by 2-D electrophoresis. Methods: Histopathologic sections of whole small intestine made from BALB/c mice 3 h and 72 h after total-body irradiation were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. Intestinal epithelial cells were isolated from normal and irradiated mice. The total protein samples prepared by one-step method were used in 2-D electrophoresis, the protein maps were compared and the differential spots were detected with PDQuest analysis software. Twenty-eight different spots were cut off from the gels, digested in gel with trypsin, measured with MALDI-TOF-MS and searched in database. Results: Small intestinal epithelium was damaged as early as 3 h after irradiation, and reconstructed 72 h later. After Coomassie-staining, the 2-DE image analysis by PDQuest software detected 638 ± 39 protein spots in normal mice group, 566 ± 32 spots in 3 hours post irradiation group, and 591 ± 29 spots in 3 days post irradiation group. The 2-DE images showed that proteomes of intestinal epithelium were altered with γ-irradiation. The proteins identified by peptide mass fingerprinting involved in cellular events, including signal transduction, metabolism and oxidative stress responses. Conclusions: Gamma-irradiation can induce the protein expression of intestinal epithelium. The technique of 2-D electrophoresis is a useful tool in the study of molecular mechanism of radiation damage

  15. Gastric pull-up reconstruction combined with free jejunal transfer (FJT) following total pharyngolaryngo-oesophagectomy (PLE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Song; Zhu, Yiming; Li, Dezhi; Li, Zhengjiang; Wu, Yuehuang; Xu, Zhengang; Liu, Shaoyan

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction following total pharyngolaryngo-oesophagectomy (PLE) still challenges surgeons because of the extreme length of removed tissue. Gastric pull-up reconstruction, one of the most common reconstructive methods after PLE, has many complications such as anastomotic fistula and gastric necrosis caused by the high anastomotic tension. However, modifications of gastric pull-up reconstruction aiming to reducing the high anastomotic tension have been less reported compared with other aspects with this technique. Here we report a modified gastric pull-up reconstruction combined with free jejunal transfer (FTJ) to reduce the anastomosis tension, and thus to reduce the risk of complications after PLE. Patients underwent a standard surgical procedure including total pharyngolaryngo-oesophagectomy and bilateral internal jugular lymph nodal clearance. A free jejunal graft about 10 cm was harvested and placed in the appropriate position between mobilized stomach and oropharynx. The anastomosis between the free jejunal graft and the gastric tube was created through a stapler. Vascular anastomosis was made between the jejunal artery and the transverse cervical artery, and between the jejunal vein and the internal jugular vein. Hand suturing technique was used in the anastomosis between jejunum and pharynx. None of the patients suffered from any complications such as anastomotic fistula. Both patients resumed early postoperative oral intake. So far, they remain free of tumor recurrence and are in good health for 46 and 18 months, respectively. Considering the tumor status and the patient condition, the gastric pull-up reconstruction combined with FJT after PLE could be a reliable choice. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with double jejunal loop reconstruction: an old trick for a new dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcel Autran C; Makdissi, Fabio F; Surjan, Rodrigo C T; Machado, Marcel C C

    2013-02-01

    Pancreatoduodenectomy is an established procedure for the treatment of benign and malignant diseases located at the pancreatic head and periampullary region. In order to decrease morbidity and mortality, we devised a unique technique using two different jejunal loops to avoid activation of pancreatic juice by biliary secretion and therefore reduce the severity of pancreatic fistula. This technique has been used for open pancreatoduodenectomy worldwide but to date has never been described for laparoscopic pancreatoduodenectomy. This article reports the technique of laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with two jejunal loops for reconstruction of the alimentary tract. After pancreatic head resection, retrocolic end-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy with duct-to-mucosa anastomosis is performed. The jejunal loop is divided with a stapler, and side-to-side jejunojejunostomy is performed with the stapler, leaving a 40-cm jejunal loop for retrocolic hepaticojejunostomy. Finally, end-to-side duodenojejunostomy is performed in an antecolic fashion. This technique has been successfully used in 3 consecutive patients with pancreatic head tumors: 2 patients underwent hand-assisted laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy, and 1 patient underwent totally laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. One patient presented a Grade A pancreatic fistula that was managed conservatively. One patient received blood transfusion. Mean operative time was 9 hours. Mean hospital stay was 7 days. No postoperative mortality was observed. Laparoscopic pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy with double jejunal loop reconstruction is feasible and may be useful to decrease morbidity and mortality after pancreatoduodenectomy. This operation is challenging and may be reserved for highly skilled laparoscopic surgeons.

  17. Ethanol impedes embryo transport and impairs oviduct epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tonghui; Yang, Qiuhong; Liu, Ruoxi; Wang, Wenfu; Wang, Shuanglian; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    Most studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol on pre-implantation embryo transport and/or early embryo development in the oviduct. We reported here that ethanol concentration-dependently suppressed the spontaneous motility of isolated human oviduct strips (EC50 50 ± 6 mM), which was largely attenuated in the present of L-NAME, a classical nitric oxide synthase(NOS) competitive inhibitor. Notably, either acute or chronic alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the mouse oviduct, which was largely rescued by co-administration of L-NAME in a acute alcohol intake group but not in chronic alcohol intake group. It is worth mentioning that the oviductal epithelium destruction was verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations in chronic alcohol intake group. In conclusion, alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the oviduct by suppressing the spontaneous motility of oviduct and/or impairing oviductal epithelium. These findings suggested that alcohol abuse increases the incident of ectopic pregnancy.

  18. Ethanol impedes embryo transport and impairs oviduct epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tonghui; Yang, Qiuhong; Liu, Ruoxi; Wang, Wenfu; Wang, Shuanglian; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2016-05-16

    Most studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol on pre-implantation embryo transport and/or early embryo development in the oviduct. We reported here that ethanol concentration-dependently suppressed the spontaneous motility of isolated human oviduct strips (EC50 50±6mM), which was largely attenuated in the present of L-NAME, a classical nitric oxide synthase(NOS) competitive inhibitor. Notably, either acute or chronic alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the mouse oviduct, which was largely rescued by co-administration of L-NAME in a acute alcohol intake group but not in chronic alcohol intake group. It is worth mentioning that the oviductal epithelium destruction was verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations in chronic alcohol intake group. In conclusion, alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the oviduct by suppressing the spontaneous motility of oviduct and/or impairing oviductal epithelium. These findings suggested that alcohol abuse increases the incident of ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Expressions of TRPVs in the cholesteatoma epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ba Hung; Koizumi, Hiroki; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Kawaguchi, Rintaro; Suzuki, Hideaki

    2017-10-01

    We have recently proposed a hypothesis that acid leakage through the cholesteatoma epithelium mediates bone resorption in middle ear cholesteatoma. In the present study, we investigated the expressions of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels, which have been shown to play roles in the regulation of epidermal barrier function, in the cholesteatoma epithelium in comparison with the normal skin. Cholesteatoma epithelium and postauricular skin were collected from 17 patients with primary acquired middle ear cholesteatoma who underwent tympanomastoidectomy. Expressions of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 were explored by fluorescence immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 mRNAs were all detected by qRT-PCR both in the skin and cholesteatoma tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that TRPV1 and TRPV3 were positive in the viable cell layers of the epidermis of the skin, and only TRPV3 was positive in those of the cholesteatoma epithelium. The immunoreactivity for TRPV3 was significantly weaker in cholesteatoma than in the skin. The lower expression of TRPV3 in cholesteatoma may be one of the mechanisms underlying the increased permeability of this tissue. On the other hand, TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPV6 are unlikely to be involved in the regulation of epithelial permeability in cholesteatoma.

  20. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-06-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1 ) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system development, 2 ) the choroid plexus as a route for microorganisms and immune cells into the central nervous system, and 3 ) the choroid plexus as a potential route for drug delivery into the central nervous system, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight current active areas of research in the choroid plexus physiology and a few matters of continuous controversy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Videoradiography of free jejunal grafts for rehabilitation of speech in laryngectomized patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokieser, P.; Grasl, M.C.; Schima, W.; Uranitsch, K.; Piza-Katzer, H.; Niederle, B.; Ehrenberger, K.; Ekberg, O.; Tscholakoff, D.

    1995-01-01

    In laryngectomized patients a tracheo-esophageal artificial fistula can be used to achieve air flow from the trachea to the esophagus during speech. A one-way plastic valve is often used for the fistula. A free jejunal graft between the trachea and the esophagus can also be used. To avoid aspiration the transplant is attached to the submental area giving the graft a siphon-like shape. We performed 23 videoradiographic examinations using high-density barium in 14 such patients. The aim was to evaluate the protective function of these grafts against aspiration. Penetration of the bolus and a small amount of residual contrast material in the ascending limb of the graft was a normal finding. If the standard barium bolus reached the descending limb at any time during the examination, this was a sign of aspiration hazard. To avoid aspiration, the vertex of the speech siphon should be higher than the level of the hypopharyngeal anastomosis. (orig.)

  2. Exogenous transforming growth factor-β1 enhances smooth muscle differentiation in embryonic mouse jejunal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Riccardo; Roberts, Neil A; Randles, Michael J; Morabito, Antonino; Woolf, Adrian S

    2017-01-13

    An ex vivo experimental strategy that replicates in vivo intestinal development would in theory provide an accessible setting with which to study normal and dysmorphic gut biology. The current authors recently described a system in which mouse embryonic jejunal segments were explanted onto semipermeable platforms and fed with chemically defined serum-free media. Over 3 days in organ culture, explants formed villi and they began to undergo spontaneous peristalsis. As defined in the current study, the wall of the explanted gut failed to form a robust longitudinal smooth muscle (SM) layer as it would do in vivo over the same time period. Given the role of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) in SM differentiation in other organs, it was hypothesized that exogenous TGFβ1 would enhance SM differentiation in these explants. In vivo, TGFβ receptors I and II were both detected in embryonic longitudinal jejunal SM cells and, in organ culture, exogenous TGFβ1 induced robust differentiation of longitudinal SM. Microarray profiling showed that TGFβ1 increased SM specific transcripts in a dose dependent manner. TGFβ1 proteins were detected in amniotic fluid at a time when the intestine was physiologically herniated. By analogy with the requirement for exogenous TGFβ1 for SM differentiation in organ culture, the TGFβ1 protein that was demonstrated to be present in the amniotic fluid may enhance intestinal development when it is physiologically herniated in early gestation. Future studies of embryonic intestinal cultures should include TGFβ1 in the defined media to produce a more faithful model of in vivo muscle differentiation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Surgery for nonobese type 2 diabetic patients: an interventional study with duodenal-jejunal exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geloneze, Bruno; Geloneze, Sylka R; Fiori, Carla; Stabe, Christiane; Tambascia, Marcos A; Chaim, Elinton A; Astiarraga, Brenno D; Pareja, Jose Carlos

    2009-08-01

    A 24-week interventional prospective trial was performed to compare the benefits of open duodenal-jejunal exclusion surgery (GJB) with a matched control group on standard medical care. One-hundred eighty patients were screened for the surgical approach. Twelve patients accepted to be operated and presented the full eligibility criteria for surgery that includes overweight BMI (25-29.9 kg/m2), T2DM diagnosis for less than 15 years, insulin-treated patients, no history of major complications, preserved beta-cell function, and absence of autoimmunity. A matched control group (CG) of patients whom refused surgical treatment was placed to receive standard care. Patients had age of 50 (5) years, time of diagnosis 9 years (range, 3 to 15 years), time of insulin usage 6 months (range, 3 to 48 months), fasting glucose (FG), 9.8 (2.5) mg/dL, and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) 8.90 (2.12)%. At 24 weeks after surgery, patients experienced greater reductions on FG (14% vs. 7% on CG), A1C (from 8.78 to 7.84 in GJB-p<0.01 and 8.93 to 8.71 in CG; p<0.05 between groups) and reductions on average daily insulin requirement (93% vs. 29%, p<0.01). Ten patients stopped insulin usage in GJB but they remain taking oral medications. No differences were observed in both groups regarding BMI, body distribution and composition, blood pressure, and lipids. In conclusion, duodenal-jejunal exclusion was an effective treatment for nonobese T2DM subjects. GJB was superior to standard care in achieving better glycemic control along with reduction in insulin requirements.

  4. A functional study on small intestinal smooth muscles in jejunal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tyagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the contractile status of neonatal small intestinal smooth muscle of dilated pre-atretic part of intestinal atresia to resolve debatable issues related to mechanisms of persistent dysmotility after surgical repair. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 longitudinally sectioned strips were prepared from pre-atretic dilated part of freshly excised 8 jejunal atresia type III a cases. Spontaneous as well as acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions were recorded in vitro by using organ bath preparations. Chemically evoked contractions were further evaluated after application of atropine (muscarinic blocker, pheniramine (H1 blocker, and lignocaine (neuronal blocker to ascertain receptors and neuronal involvement. Histological examinations of strips were made by using Masson trichrome stain to assess the fibrotic changes. Results: All 34 strips, except four showed spontaneous contractions with mean frequency and amplitude of 5.49 ± 0.26/min and 24.41 ± 5.26 g/g wet tissue respectively. The response to ACh was nearly twice as compared to histamine for equimolar concentrations (100 μM. ACh (100 μM induced contractions were attenuated (by 60% by atropine. Histamine (100 μM-induced contractions was blocked by pheniramine (0.32 μM and lignocaine (4 μM by 74% and 78%, respectively. Histopathological examination showed varying degree of fibrotic changes in muscle layers. Conclusions: Pre-atretic dilated part of jejunal atresia retains functional activity but with definitive histopathologic abnormalities. It is suggested that excision of a length of pre-atretic part and early stimulation of peristalsis by locally acting cholinomimetic or H1 agonist may help in reducing postoperative motility problems in atresia patients.

  5. A functional study on small intestinal smooth muscles in jejunal atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Preeti; Mandal, Maloy B; Gangopadhyay, Ajay N; Patne, Shashikant C U

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to assess the contractile status of neonatal small intestinal smooth muscle of dilated pre-atretic part of intestinal atresia to resolve debatable issues related to mechanisms of persistent dysmotility after surgical repair. A total of 34 longitudinally sectioned strips were prepared from pre-atretic dilated part of freshly excised 8 jejunal atresia type III a cases. Spontaneous as well as acetylcholine- and histamine-induced contractions were recorded in vitro by using organ bath preparations. Chemically evoked contractions were further evaluated after application of atropine (muscarinic blocker), pheniramine (H1 blocker), and lignocaine (neuronal blocker) to ascertain receptors and neuronal involvement. Histological examinations of strips were made by using Masson trichrome stain to assess the fibrotic changes. All 34 strips, except four showed spontaneous contractions with mean frequency and amplitude of 5.49 ± 0.26/min and 24.41 ± 5.26 g/g wet tissue respectively. The response to ACh was nearly twice as compared to histamine for equimolar concentrations (100 μM). ACh (100 μM) induced contractions were attenuated (by 60%) by atropine. Histamine (100 μM)-induced contractions was blocked by pheniramine (0.32 μM) and lignocaine (4 μM) by 74% and 78%, respectively. Histopathological examination showed varying degree of fibrotic changes in muscle layers. Pre-atretic dilated part of jejunal atresia retains functional activity but with definitive histopathologic abnormalities. It is suggested that excision of a length of pre-atretic part and early stimulation of peristalsis by locally acting cholinomimetic or H1 agonist may help in reducing postoperative motility problems in atresia patients.

  6. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  7. The Structure of Urethral Epithelium in Merinos Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile RUS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate by histological techniques the structure of urethral epithelium in lambs. In this study, we harvested several fragments (prostatic, membranous and cavernous from urethra from 5 merino’s lambs of 3 months old. The first anatomical segment, the prostatic urethra, is lined by a urinary epithelium. The intermediary layer of this epithelium is formed of 5-6 rows of oval cells. The second segment of urethra has the same type of epithelium but the intermediary layer is formed of 6-7 rows of oval cells. In the last anatomical segment, the penile urethra, the epithelium is the same, but the intermediary layer has 3-4 rows of oval cells. In lambs, the urethra is lined by urinary epithelium. The urethral epithelium does not have the same thickness in all segments. The thinner epithelium it is in the cavernous urethra, the ticker is the membranous urethra.

  8. Tracheal epithelium cell volume responses to hyperosmolar, isosmolar and hypoosmolar solutions: relation to epithelium-derived relaxing factor (EpDRF effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Fedan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In asthmatic patients, inhalation of hyperosmolar saline or D-mannitol (D-M elicits bronchoconstriction, but in healthy subjects exercise causes bronchodilation. Hyperventilation causes drying of airway surface liquid (ASL and increases its osmolarity. Hyperosmolar challenge of airway epithelium releases epithelium-derived relaxing factor (EpDRF, which relaxes the airway smooth muscle. This pathway could be involved in exercise-induced bronchodilation. Little is known of ASL hyperosmolarity effects on epithelial function. We investigated the effects of osmolar challenge maneuvers on dispersed and adherent guinea-pig tracheal epithelial cells to examine the hypothesis that EpDRF-mediated relaxation is associated with epithelial cell shrinkage. Enzymatically-dispersed cells shrank when challenged with ≥10 mOsM added D M, urea or NaCl with a concentration-dependence that mimics relaxation of the of isolated, perfused tracheas (IPT. Cells shrank when incubated in isosmolar N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG chloride, Na gluconate (Glu, NMDG-Glu, K-Glu and K2SO4, and swelled in isosmolar KBr and KCl. However, isosmolar challenge is not a strong stimulus of relaxation in IPTs. In previous studies amiloride and 4,4' diisothiocyano 2,2' stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS inhibited relaxation of IPT to hyperosmolar challenge, but had little effect on shrinkage of dispersed cells. Confocal microscopy in tracheal segments showed that adherent epithelium is refractory to low hyperosmolar concentrations that induce dispersed cell shrinkage and relaxation of IPT. Except for gadolinium and erythro 9 (2 hydroxy 3 nonyladenine (EHNA, actin and microtubule inhibitors and membrane permeabilizing agents did not affect on ion transport by adherent epithelium or shrinkage responses of dispersed cells. Our studies dissociate relaxation of IPT from cell shrinkage after hyperosmolar challenge of airway epithelium .

  9. Alterações estruturais na mucosa jejunal de camundongos infectados com Schistosoma mansoni, alimentados com dietas hipo ou hiperprotéicas

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Janira Lúcia Assumpção; Ferreira, Haroldo da Silva; Rocha, Dinalva Bezerra da; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Leite; Assunção, Monica Lopes; Coutinho, Eridan de Medeiros

    2002-01-01

    The effects of high and low-protein diets on the structure of the jejunal mucosa were studied in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice (morphology and histomorphometry). Weaning male albino mice were infected with 80 cercariae, fed with high (20%) or low-protein (5%) diets and compared to uninfected controls under the same conditions. Mice were sacrificed 12 weeks after infection. Animals submitted to a low-protein diet showed lower weight curves, mainly when infected. In the jejunal mucosa, fing...

  10. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  11. cAMP Stimulates Transepithelial Short-Circuit Current and Fluid Transport Across Porcine Ciliary Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Angela King-Wah; Civan, Mortimer M; To, Chi-Ho; Do, Chi-Wai

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of cAMP on transepithelial electrical parameters and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium. Transepithelial electrical parameters were determined by mounting freshly isolated porcine ciliary epithelium in a modified Ussing chamber. Similarly, fluid movement across intact ciliary body was measured with a custom-made fluid flow chamber. Addition of 1, 10, and 100 μM 8-Br-cAMP (cAMP) to the aqueous side (nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, NPE) induced a sustained increase in short-circuit current (Isc). Addition of niflumic acid (NFA) to the aqueous surface effectively blocked the cAMP-induced Isc stimulation. The administration of cAMP to the stromal side (pigmented ciliary epithelium, PE) triggered a significant stimulation of Isc only at 100 μM. No additive effect was observed with bilateral application of cAMP. Likewise, forskolin caused a significant stimulation of Isc when applied to the aqueous side. Concomitantly, cAMP and forskolin increased fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium, and this stimulation was effectively inhibited by aqueous NFA. Depleting Cl- in the bathing solution abolished the baseline Isc and inhibited the subsequent stimulation by cAMP. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) blockers (H89/KT5720) significantly inhibited the cAMP- and forskolin-induced Isc responses. Our results suggest that cAMP triggers a sustained stimulation of Cl- and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium; Cl- channels in the NPE cells are potentially a cellular site for this PKA-sensitive cAMP-mediated response.

  12. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  13. Radiobiology of intestinal epithelium stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyannikova, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    After a single or three-fold whole body irradiation of mice with a dose of 4 Gy and the time interval for the proliferation to be restored (5 days or 3 weeks) the survival curve for stem cells of small intestine epithelium with regard to radiation dose was the same as that for non-preirradiated mice. This indicated that the proliferative potential of stem cells in these experimental conditions was not reduced

  14. Barrier properties of cultured retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2014-09-01

    The principal function of an epithelium is to form a dynamic barrier that regulates movement between body compartments. Each epithelium is specialized with barrier functions that are specific for the tissues it serves. The apical surface commonly faces a lumen, but the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to be unique by a facing solid tissue, the sensory retina. Nonetheless, there exists a thin (subretinal) space that can become fluid filled during pathology. RPE separates the subretinal space from the blood supply of the outer retina, thereby forming the outer blood-retinal barrier. The intricate interaction between the RPE and sensory retina presents challenges for learning how accurately culture models reflect native behavior. The challenge is heightened by findings that detail the variation of RPE barrier proteins both among species and at different stages of the life cycle. Among the striking differences is the expression of claudin family members. Claudins are the tight junction proteins that regulate ion diffusion across the spaces that lie between the cells of a monolayer. Claudin expression by RPE varies with species and life-stage, which implies functional differences among commonly used animal models. Investigators have turned to transcriptomics to supplement functional studies when comparing native and cultured tissue. The most detailed studies of the outer blood-retinal barrier have focused on human RPE with transcriptome and functional studies reported for human fetal, adult, and stem-cell derived RPE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of the ovarian follicular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Lavranos, T C; van Wezel, I L; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    1999-05-25

    A lot is known about the endocrine control of the development of ovarian follicles, but a key question now facing researchers is which molecular and cellular processes take part in control of follicular growth and development. The growth and development of ovarian follicles occurs postnatally and throughout adult life. In this review, we focus on the follicular epithelium (membrana granulosa) and its basal lamina. We discuss a model of how granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells and then enter different lineages before differentiation. The structure of the epithelium at the antral stage of development is presented, and the effects that follicle growth has on the behavior of the granulosa cells are discussed. Finally, we discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition. This would be expected if the behavior of the granulosa cells changes, or if the permeability of the basal lamina changes. It will be evident that the follicular epithelium has similarities to other epithelia in the body, but that it is more dynamic, as gross changes occur during the course of follicle development. This basic information will be important for the development of future reproductive technologies in both humans and animals, and possibly for understanding polycystic ovarian syndrome in women.

  16. Urticaria due to polyethylene glycol-3350 and electrolytes for oral solution in a patient with jejunal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongfeng; Henry, Winoah A; Chen, Lea Ann; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-01-01

    Both jejunal nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-3350 hypersensitivity are extremely rare. We describe a 30-year-old female who had previously taken a PEG-3350 bowel preparation without adverse effects, and presented for evaluation of chronic diarrhea. An upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, and small bowel series were scheduled. PEG-3350 and electrolytes for oral solution was prescribed for bowel cleansing. During consumption of the bowel preparation she developed urticarial hypersensitivity. An alternative bowel preparation was used. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy were normal, but small bowel series revealed innumerable sand-like lucencies in the jejunum. NLH was confirmed on biopsy from antegrade enteroscopy. This is the first case report on the pathological jejunal NLH in association with the PEG-3350 urticarial hypersensitivity. The potential pathophysiological etiology of this association is discussed.

  17. In vivo models of human airway epithelium repair and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Coraux

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an efficient defence system, the airway surface epithelium, in permanent contact with the external milieu, is frequently injured by inhaled pollutants, microorganisms and viruses. The response of the airway surface epithelium to an acute injury includes a succession of cellular events varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even to complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium has then to repair and regenerate to restore its functions. The in vivo study of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to reconstitute a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Humanised tracheal xenograft models have been developed in immunodeficient nude and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice in order to mimic the natural regeneration process of the human airway epithelium and to analyse the cellular and molecular events involved during the different steps of airway epithelial reconstitution. These models represent very powerful tools for analysing the modulation of the biological functions of the epithelium during its regeneration. They are also very useful for identifying stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration, as well as the characterisation of the epithelial stem and progenitor cells, may pave the way to regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional airway epithelium in numerous respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis and bronchiolitis.

  18. Colonic epithelium is diffusely abnormal in ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, P; Rosella, O; Nov, R; Young, G

    1995-01-01

    The hypothesis that the colonic epithelium is diffusely abnormal in ulcerative colitis was examined by comparing disease related responses in expression of markers of differentiation by colonic crypt cells to culture with and without butyrate. Cells were isolated from patients with normal colon (15), cancer (24), ulcerative colitis (19), or Crohn's disease (16). Alkaline phosphatase activities were measured in cell homogenates and the rate of glycoprotein synthesis assessed at the end of 24 h...

  19. Intestinal myoelectric activity and contractile motility in dogs with a reversed jejunal segment after extensive small bowel resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, M; Iwafuchi, M; Ohsawa, Y; Yagi, M; Iinuma, Y; Ohtani, S

    1992-06-01

    To evaluate the functioning and effectiveness of a reversed jejunal segment after extensive small bowel resection, we continuously measured the postoperative bowel motility (using bipolar electrodes and/or contractile strain gage force transducers) in interdigestive and postprandial conscious dogs at 2 to 5 weeks after surgery. The fasting duodenal migrating myoelectric (or motor) complex (MMC) occurred at markedly longer intervals in dogs with a 20-cm reversed jejunal segment created after 75% to 80% extensive small bowel resection (group 3) than in dogs that received extensive resection alone (group 2) or dogs that underwent construction of a reversed jejunal segment without bowel resection (group 1). The MMC arising from the duodenum was often interrupted at the jejunum above the proximal anastomosis and did not migrate smoothly to the reversed segment or terminal ileum in group 3. In addition, brief small discordant contractions were frequent in the reversed segment and the jejunum above the proximal anastomosis in group 3. The duration of the postprandial period without duodenal MMC activity was significantly prolonged in groups 2 and 3. These results suggest that the transit time and passage of intestinal contents were delayed and that the periodical MMC was disturbed in group 3. The delay of transit time was due to prolongation of the interval between duodenal MMCs, the interruption of MMC propagation at the jejunum above the proximal anastomosis, the dominance of MMCs that followed the inherent anatomical continuity of the bowel, and discordant movements across the proximal anastomosis. Functional obstruction could be a potential problem in a 20-cm reversed jejunal segment inserted after extensive small bowel resection.

  20. Resulting long-term intestinal motility in dogs following construction of a reversed jejunal segment after extensive small bowel resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, M; Iwafuchi, M; Ohsawa, Y; Yagi, M; Iinuma, Y; Ohtani, S

    1994-10-01

    To evaluate the long-term function and effective motility of a reversed jejunal segment after extensive small bowel resection, the authors continuously measured postoperative bowel motility during interdigestive and postprandial periods in conscious dogs 6 to 10 months after surgery. The long-term findings were compared with previously reported short-term results measured 2 to 4 weeks after the operation. In the long-term follow-up dogs with a 20-cm reversed jejunal segment constructed after extensive (75% to 80%) small bowel resection, the fasting duodenal migrating myoelectric (or motor) complex (MMC) was often interrupted in the jejunum above the reversed segment, and did not migrate smoothly to the reversed segment or terminal ileum. The MMCs arising from the duodenum predominantly propagated to the ileum through the inherent anatomic continuity of the bowel. In addition, brief small discordant contractions were frequent in the reversed segment and the jejunum, above the proximal anastomosis. These findings are similar to those of the MMC propagation pattern noted 2 to 4 weeks after surgery. However, the postprandial duration without duodenal MMC activity was significantly shorter in the dogs with long-term follow-up than in those with short-term follow-up (both were longer than in control dogs). Marked dilatation of the jejunum and reversed jejunal segment was noted across the proximal anastomosis. These results suggest that the transit time and passage of intestinal contents can be delayed and stagnated for at least 10 months after extensive small bowel resection with a 20-cm reversed jejunal segment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. A case of incisional hernia repair using Composix mesh prosthesis after antethoracic pedicled jejunal flap reconstruction following an esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Atsushi; Yasuda, Takushi; Kato, Hiroaki; Iwama, Mitsuru; Shiraishi, Osamu; Hiraki, Yoko; Tanaka, Yumiko; Shinkai, Masayuki; Imano, Motohiro; Kimura, Yutaka; Imamoto, Haruhiko

    2017-12-01

    An incisional hernia in a case of antethoracic pedicled jejunal flap esophageal reconstruction after esophagectomy is a very rare occurrence, and this hernia was distinctive in that the reconstructed jejunum had passed through the hernial orifice; a standard surgical treatment for such a presentation has not been established. Herein, we describe a case of repair using mesh prosthesis for an atypical and distinctive incisional hernia after antethoracic pedicled jejunal flap esophageal reconstruction. A 77-year-old woman with a history of subtotal esophagectomy who had undergone antethoracic pedicled jejunal flap reconstruction complained of epigastric prominence and discomfort without pain. On examination, she had an abdominal protrusion between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus that contained the small bowel. Computed tomography showed that the fenestration of the abdominal wall that was intentionally created for jejunum pull-up was dehisced in a region measuring 9 × 15 cm and the small intestine protruded through it into the subcutaneous space without strangulation. Because the hernial orifice was too large and the reconstructed jejunum was passing through the hernial orifice in this case, we applied a parastomal hernia repair method that was modified from the inguinal hernia repair using the Lichtenstein technique. After 3 years and 5 months following surgery, the patient has recovered without hernia recurrence or other complications. We consider this to be the first case of repair using Composix mesh prosthesis for repair of an atypical and distinctive incisional hernia after an antethoracic pedicled jejunal flap reconstruction. This method seems to be useful and could potentially be widely adopted as the surgical treatment for this condition.

  2. Portal vein stenting for delayed jejunal varix bleeding associated with portal venous occlusion after hepatoiliary and pancreatic surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Dong Ho; Park, Kwang Bo; Cho, Sung Ki; Park, Hong Suk; Shin, Sung Wook; Choo, Sung Wook; Do, Young Soo; Choo, In Wook; Choi, Dong Wook [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    The study aimed to describe portal stenting for postoperative portal occlusion with delayed (≥ 3 months) variceal bleeding in the afferent jejunal loop. Eleven consecutive patients (age range, 2–79 years; eight men and three women) who underwent portal stenting between April 2009 and December 2015 were included in the study. Preoperative medical history and the postoperative clinical course were reviewed. Characteristics of portal occlusion and details of procedures were also investigated. Technical success, treatment efficacy (defined as disappearance of jejunal varix on follow-up CT), and clinical success were analyzed. Primary stent patency rate was plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. All patients underwent hepatobiliary-pancreatic cancer surgery except two children with liver transplantation for biliary atresia. Portal occlusion was caused by benign postoperative change (n = 6) and local tumor recurrence (n = 5). Variceal bleeding occurred at 27 months (4 to 72 months) and portal stenting was performed at 37 months (4 to 121 months), on average, postoperatively. Technical success, treatment efficacy, and clinical success rates were 90.9, 100, and 81.8%, respectively. The primary patency rate of portal stent was 88.9% during the mean follow-up period of 9 months. Neither procedure-related complication nor mortality occurred. Interventional portal stenting is an effective treatment for delayed jejunal variceal bleeding due to portal occlusion after hepatobiliary-pancreatic surgery.

  3. Portal vein stenting for delayed jejunal varix bleeding associated with portal venous occlusion after hepatoiliary and pancreatic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Dong Ho; Park, Kwang Bo; Cho, Sung Ki; Park, Hong Suk; Shin, Sung Wook; Choo, Sung Wook; Do, Young Soo; Choo, In Wook; Choi, Dong Wook

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to describe portal stenting for postoperative portal occlusion with delayed (≥ 3 months) variceal bleeding in the afferent jejunal loop. Eleven consecutive patients (age range, 2–79 years; eight men and three women) who underwent portal stenting between April 2009 and December 2015 were included in the study. Preoperative medical history and the postoperative clinical course were reviewed. Characteristics of portal occlusion and details of procedures were also investigated. Technical success, treatment efficacy (defined as disappearance of jejunal varix on follow-up CT), and clinical success were analyzed. Primary stent patency rate was plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. All patients underwent hepatobiliary-pancreatic cancer surgery except two children with liver transplantation for biliary atresia. Portal occlusion was caused by benign postoperative change (n = 6) and local tumor recurrence (n = 5). Variceal bleeding occurred at 27 months (4 to 72 months) and portal stenting was performed at 37 months (4 to 121 months), on average, postoperatively. Technical success, treatment efficacy, and clinical success rates were 90.9, 100, and 81.8%, respectively. The primary patency rate of portal stent was 88.9% during the mean follow-up period of 9 months. Neither procedure-related complication nor mortality occurred. Interventional portal stenting is an effective treatment for delayed jejunal variceal bleeding due to portal occlusion after hepatobiliary-pancreatic surgery

  4. The role of the sympathetic nervous system in radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo; Kazuko; Nakamura, Yasuko; Ikeda, Yuji; Naito, Shinji; Ito, Masahiro; Okaichi, Kumio; Sekine, Ichiro

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the sympathetic nervous system on radiation-induced apoptosis in jejunal crypt cells, apoptosis levels were compared in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), animals which are a genetic hyperfunction model of the sympathetic nervous system, and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). SHR and WKY were exposed to whole body X-ray irradiation at doses from 0.5 to 2 Gy. The apoptotic index in jejunal crypt cells was significantly greater in SHR than in WKY at each time point after irradiation and at each dose. WKY and SHR were treated with reserpine to induce sympathetic dysfunction, and were subsequently exposed to irradiation. Reserpine administration to SHR or WKY resulted in a significant suppression of apoptosis. p53 accumulation was detected in the jejunum in both WKY and SHR after irradiation by Western blotting analysis. There were no significant differences in the levels of p53 accumulation in irradiated intestine between WKY and SHR. These findings suggested that hyperfunction of the sympathetic nervous system is involved in the mechanism of high susceptibility to radiation-induced apoptosis of the jejunal crypt cells. (author)

  5. Emergency arterial embolization of upper gastrointestinal and jejunal tumors: An analysis of 12 patients with severe bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandrino, F; Tettoni, S M; Gallesio, I; Summa, M

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study was to retrospectively assess the efficacy of emergency percutaneous transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with severe bleeding due to upper gastrointestinal or jejunal tumor. Twelve patients (7 men, 5 women; mean age, 74 years±14 (SD); range: 54-86 years) with severe bleeding from the upper gastrointestinal tract, with failed endoscopic treatment not eligible for emergency surgery were treated by emergency percutaneous transcatheter arterial embolization. The bleeding cause was gastric tumor in 7 patients, duodenal tumor in 4 patients and jejunal tumor in one patient. Procedure details and follow-up were reviewed. Twelve embolization procedures were performed using various embolic agents. Embolization was achieved and bleeding was stopped in all patients. Five patients underwent surgery within the 30 days following embolization. In the remaining 7 patients, no bleeding occurred at 1 month follow-up in 6 patients and bleeding recurred in one patient at 1 month. In this later patient, endoscopic treatment was successful. The results of our study suggest that transcatheter arterial embolization is safe and effective in patients with severe arterial bleeding due to upper gastrointestinal or jejunal tumor. In some patients, transcatheter arterial embolization can be used as a bridge to surgery. Copyright © 2016 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Purification and characterization of factors produced by Aspergillus fumigatus which affect human ciliated respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitani, R; Taylor, G; Elezis, E N; Llewellyn-Jones, C; Mitchell, J; Kuze, F; Cole, P J; Wilson, R

    1995-09-01

    The mechanisms by which Aspergillus fumigatus colonizes the respiratory mucosa are unknown. Culture filtrates of eight of nine clinical isolates of A. fumigatus slowed ciliary beat frequency and damaged human respiratory epithelium in vitro. These changes appeared to occur concurrently. Culture filtrates of two clinical isolates of Candida albicans had no effect on ciliated epithelium. We have purified and characterized cilioinhibitory factors of a clinical isolate of A. fumigatus. The cilioinhibitory activity was heat labile, reduced by dialysis, and partially extractable into chloroform. The activity was associated with both high- and low-molecular-weight factors, as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50. A low-molecular-weight cilioinhibitory factor was further purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and shown by mass spectrometry to be gliotoxin, a known metabolite of A. fumigatus. Gliotoxin significantly slowed ciliary beat frequency in association with epithelial damage at concentrations above 0.2 microgram/ml; other Aspergillus toxins, i.e., fumagillin and helvolic acid, were also cilioinhibitory but at much higher concentrations. High-molecular-weight (> or = 35,000 and 25,000) cilioinhibitory materials had neither elastolytic nor proteolytic activity and remain to be identified. Thus, A. fumigatus produces a number of biologically active substances which slow ciliary beating and damage epithelium and which may influence colonization of the airways.

  7. Bacillus licheniformis in geogenic dust induces inflammation in respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Janessa; Teo, Teck Hui; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann; Zosky, Graeme R; Clifford, Holly D

    2018-07-01

    Exposure to environmental geogenic (or earth-derived) dust can lead to more frequent and severe infections in the human airway. Particulate matter respiratory diseases. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to geogenic dust PM 10 experienced an exacerbation of inflammatory responses to influenza A virus. Whether geogenic dust PM 10 also exacerbates respiratory bacterial infection is not yet known, nor are the components of the dust that drive these responses. We treated airway bronchial epithelial cells (NuLi-1) with UV-irradiated geogenic dust PM 10 from six remote Western Australian towns. High levels of IL-6 and IL-8 production were observed, as well as persistent microbial growth. 16 S rRNA sequencing of the growth identified the microbe as Bacillus licheniformis, a spore-forming, environmentally abundant bacterium. We next investigated the interaction of B. licheniformis with respiratory epithelium in vitro to determine whether this exacerbated infection with a bacterial respiratory pathogen (non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, NTHi). Heat treatment (100 °C) of all PM 10 samples eliminated B. licheniformis contamination and reduced epithelial inflammatory responses, suggesting that heat-labile and/or microbial factors were involved in the host response to geogenic dust PM 10 . We then exposed NuLi-1 epithelium to increasing doses of the isolated Bacillus licheniformis (multiplicity of infection of 10:1, 1:1 or 0.1:1 bacteria: cells) for 1, 3, and 24 h. B. licheniformis and NTHi infection (association and invasion) was assessed using a standard gentamicin survival assay, and epithelial release of IL-6 and IL-8 was measured using a bead based immunoassay. B. licheniformis was cytotoxic to NuLi-1 cells at 24 h. At 3 h post-challenge, B. licheniformis elicited high IL-6 and IL-8 inflammatory responses from NuLi-1 cells compared with cells treated with heat-treated geogenic dust PM 10 (p respiratory epithelium. The impact on respiratory

  8. Passive ionic properties of frog retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S S; Steinberg, R H

    1977-09-15

    The isolated pigment epithelium and choroid of frog was mounted in a chamber so that the apical surfaces of the epithelial cells and the choroid were exposed to separate solutions. The apical membrane of these cells was penetrated with microelectrodes and the mean apical membrane potential was --88 mV. The basal membrane potential was depolarized by the amount of the transepithelial potential (8--20 mV). Changes in apical and basal cell membrane voltage were produced by changing ion concentrations on one or both sides of the tissue. Although these voltage changes were altered by shunting and changes in membrane resistance, it was possible to estimate apical and basal cell membrane and shunt resistance, and the relative ionic conductance Ti of each membrane. For the apical membrane: TK approximately equal to 0.52, THCO3 approximately equal to 0.39 and TNa approximately equal to 0.05, and its specific resistance was estimated to be 6000--7000 omega cm2. For the basal membrane: TK approximately equal to 0.90 and its specific resistance was estimated to be 400--1200 omega cm2. From the basal potassium voltage responses the intracellular potassium concentration was estimated at 110 mM. The shunt resistance consisted of two pathways: a paracellular one, due to the junctional complexes and another, around the edge of the tissue, due to the imperfect nature of the mechanical seal. In well-sealed tissues, the specific resistance of the shunt was about ten times the apical plus basal membrane specific resistances. This epithelium, therefore, should be considered "tight". The shunt pathway did not distinguish between anions (HCO--3, Cl--, methylsulfate, isethionate) but did distinguish between Na+ and K+.

  9. Superior mesenteric arterial branch occlusion causing partial jejunal ischemia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van De Winkel Nele

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Ischemic bowel disease comprises both mesenteric ischemia and colonic ischemia. Mesenteric ischemia can be divided into acute and chronic ischemia. These are two separate entities, each with their specific clinical presentation and diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. However, diagnosis may be difficult due to the vague symptomatology and subtle signs. Case presentation We report the case of a 68-year-old Caucasian woman who presented with abdominal discomfort, anorexia, melena and fever. A physical examination revealed left lower quadrant tenderness and an irregular pulse. Computed tomography of her abdomen as well as computed tomography enterography, enteroscopy, angiography and small bowel enteroclysis demonstrated an ischemic jejunal segment caused by occlusion of a branch of the superior mesenteric artery. The ischemic segment was resected and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The diagnosis of segmental small bowel ischemia was confirmed by histopathological study. Conclusion Mesenteric ischemia is a pathology well-known by surgeons, gastroenterologists and radiologists. Acute and chronic mesenteric ischemia are two separate entities with their own specific clinical presentation, radiological signs and therapeutic modalities. We present the case of a patient with symptoms and signs of chronic mesenteric ischemia despite an acute etiology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report presenting a case of acute mesenteric ischemia with segmental superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  10. Phytic acid decreases deoxynivalenol and fumonisin B1-induced changes on swine jejunal explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Olegário da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6 on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters on intestinal explants exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisin B1 (FB1. The jejunal explants were exposed for 4 h to different treatments: control, DON (10 μM, DON plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6, FB1 (70 μM, and FB1 plus 2.5 mM or 5 mM IP6. Both mycotoxins induced significant intestinal lesions and decreased villi height. The presence of 2.5 mM and 5 mM IP6 significantly inhibited the morphological changes caused by the mycotoxins. DON induced a significant increase in caspase-3 (83% and cyclooxygenase-2 (71.3% expression compared with the control. The presence of 5 mM IP6 induced a significant decrease in caspase-3 (43.7% and Cox-2 (48% expression compared with the DON group. FB1 induced a significant increase in caspase-3 expression (47% compared to the control, whereas IP6 induced no significant change in this expression. A significant decrease in cell proliferation was observed when explants were exposed to 5 mM of IP6 in comparison with the DON and FB1 groups. The present data provide evidence that phytic acid modulates the toxic effects induced by DON and FB1 on intestinal tissue.

  11. Direct microvascular monitoring of a free autologous jejunal flap using microendoscopy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hopper Colin

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early identification of flap failure is an indispensable prerequisite for flap salvage. Although many technical developments of free flap monitoring have now reached clinical application, very few are considered to be reliable and non-invasive for early recognition of flap failure. Case presentation We used microendoscopic technique for microvascular monitoring of free autologous jejunal flap by the direct visualisation of the flow of erythrocytes through the capillary vasculature on both the mucosal and serosal surfaces. Blood flow was seen to be pulsatile, with individual erythrocytes visible in the capillaries. The best view was obtained when the scope was focussed directly on the capillary rather than the graft surface. The view of the unstained mucosal surface was bland apart from the fine capillary loops which were seen to fill with each pulsatile event. The microendoscopic examination of the serosal surface revealed much larger calibre vessels with obvious blood flow. Conclusion The microendoscopic monitoring technique is simple and safe with direct visualisation of blood flow. The technique may also be useful for the monitoring of other free bowel transplants.

  12. Protective Effects of Vitamin E on Methotrexate-Induced Jejunal Mucosal Damage in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcu, Busra; Kanter, Mehmet; Orhon, Zeynep Nur; Yarali, Oguzhan; Karabacak, Rukiye

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the possible protective effects of Vitamin E (Vit E) on oxidative stress and jejunal damage in the rat intestinal mucosa after methotrexate (MTX)-induced enterotoxicity. Rats were divided into 3 groups: control, MTX, and MTX+ Vit E; each group contained 8 animals. The control group was given physiological serum in addition to sunflower oil for 3 days. The second group was given sunflower oil with intragastric tube daily, followed by MTX injection (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally). To the third group, starting 3 days before injection, Vit E was given dissolved in sunflower oil (600 mg/kg orally) in addition to MTX injection. Four days after MTX injection the anesthetized rats were sacrificed, and the tissue samples obtained from their jejunums were investigated for histological and biochemical analysis. Vit E treatment significantly decreased the elevated tissue malondialdehyde levels and increased the reduced glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities in comparison to the MTX-treated group. MTX treatment caused severe histopathological injury including mucosal erosions, inflammatory cell infiltration, necrosis, hemorrhage, and villous congestion. Vit E treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal injury caused by MTX via inhibiting induced nitric oxide synthase levels and NF-κB p65 activation. Because of its reconstructing and antioxidant effects, Vit E pretreatment may have protective effects in the intestinal tissue of MTX-treated rats.

  13. Conserved form and function of the germinal epithelium through 500 million years of vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Harry J; Uribe, Mari Carmen; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Mims, Steven D; Parenti, Lynne R

    2016-08-01

    The germinal epithelium, i.e., the site of germ cell production in males and females, has maintained a constant form and function throughout 500 million years of vertebrate evolution. The distinguishing characteristic of germinal epithelia among all vertebrates, males, and females, is the presence of germ cells among somatic epithelial cells. The somatic epithelial cells, Sertoli cells in males or follicle (granulosa) cells in females, encompass and isolate germ cells. Morphology of all vertebrate germinal epithelia conforms to the standard definition of an epithelium: epithelial cells are interconnected, border a body surface or lumen, are avascular and are supported by a basement membrane. Variation in morphology of gonads, which develop from the germinal epithelium, is correlated with the evolution of reproductive modes. In hagfishes, lampreys, and elasmobranchs, the germinal epithelia of males produce spermatocysts. A major rearrangement of testis morphology diagnoses osteichthyans: the spermatocysts are arranged in tubules or lobules. In protogynous (female to male) sex reversal in teleost fishes, female germinal epithelial cells (prefollicle cells) and oogonia transform into the first male somatic cells (Sertoli cells) and spermatogonia in the developing testis lobules. This common origin of cell types from the germinal epithelium in fishes with protogynous sex reversal supports the homology of Sertoli cells and follicle cells. Spermatogenesis in amphibians develops within spermatocysts in testis lobules. In amniotes vertebrates, the testis is composed of seminiferous tubules wherein spermatogenesis occurs radially. Emerging research indicates that some mammals do not have lifetime determinate fecundity. The fact emerged that germinal epithelia occur in the gonads of all vertebrates examined herein of both sexes and has the same form and function across all vertebrate taxa. Continued study of the form and function of the germinal epithelium in vertebrates

  14. Cytokeratin expression in mouse lacrimal gland germ epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Liu, Ying; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The lacrimal gland secretes tear fluids that protect the ocular surface epithelium, and its dysfunction leads to dry eye disease (DED). The functional restoration of the lacrimal gland by engraftment of a bioengineered lacrimal gland using lacrimal gland germ epithelial cells has been proposed to cure DED in mice. Here, we investigate the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium to clarify their unique characteristics. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to clarify the expression profile of cytokeratin in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. The mRNA expression of keratin (KRT) 5, KRT8, KRT14, KRT15, and KRT18 in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was increased compared with that in mouse embryonic stem cells and the lacrimal gland germ mesenchyme, as analyzed by Q-PCR. The expression level of KRT15 increased in the transition from stem cells to lacrimal gland germ epithelium, then decreased as the lacrimal gland matured. IHC revealed that the expression set of these cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was different from that in the adult lacrimal gland. The expression of KRT15 was observed in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium, and it segmentalized into some of the basal cells in the intercanulated duct in mature gland. We determined the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland epithelium, and identified KRT15 as a candidate unique cellular marker for the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  16. A Rare Case of Jejunal Arterio-Venous Fistula: Treatment with Superselective Catheter Embolization with a Tracker-18 Catheter and Microcoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenschein, Martin J.; Anderson, Suzanne E.; Lourens, Steven; Triller, Juergen

    2004-01-01

    Arterio-venous fistulas may develop spontaneously, following trauma or infection, or be iatrogenic in nature. We present a rare case of a jejunal arterio- venous fistula in a 35-year-old man with a history of pancreatic head resection that had been performed two years previously because of chronic pancreatitis. The patient was admitted with acute upper abdominal pain, vomiting and an abdominal machinery-type bruit. The diagnosis of a jejunal arterio-venous fistula was established by MR imaging. Transfemoral angiography was performed to assess the possibility of catheter embolization. The angiographic study revealed a small aneurysm of the third jejunal artery, abnormal early filling of dilated jejunal veins and marked filling of the slightly dilated portal vein (13-14 mm). We considered the presence of segmental portal hypertension. The patient was treated with coil embolization in the same angiographic session. This case report demonstrates the importance of auscultation of the abdomen in the initial clinical examination. MR imaging and color Doppler ultrasound are excellent noninvasive tools in establishing the diagnosis. The role of interventional radiological techniques in the treatment of early portal hypertension secondary to jejunal arterio-venous fistula is discussed at a time when this condition is still asymptomatic. A review of the current literature is included

  17. Spontaneous and cytokine induced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases in human colonic epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Saermark, T; Kirkegaard, T

    2009-01-01

    levels in cells from inflamed IBD mucosa. MMP-2 and -8 mRNA were expressed inconsistently and MMP-11, -13 and -14 mRNA undetectable. Proteolytic MMP activity was detected in CEC supernatants and the level was increased significantly in inflamed IBD epithelium. The enzyme activity was inhibited strongly......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in tissue damage associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).As the role of the intestinal epithelium in this process is unknown, we determined MMP expression and enzyme activity in human colonic epithelial cells (CEC). MMP mRNA expression...... was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells and in CEC isolated from biopsies from IBD and control patients. Total MMP activity in the cells was measured by a functional assay, based on degradation of a fluorescent synthetic peptide containing the specific bond...

  18. Morbidity and Functional Outcomes following Free Jejunal Flap Reconstruction for Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Song; Zhu, Yiming; Qu, Dong; Wang, Jian; Li, Dezhi; Zhang, Bin; Xu, Zhengang; Liu, Shaoyan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the morbidity and fundamental functional outcomes (swallow and speech) after free jejunal flap (FJF) reconstruction following total pharyngolaryngo-esophagectomy (PLE) in China. 18 patients with FJF reconstruction after total PLE were retrospectively reviewed. Scheduled barium swallow test was performed 7-10 days postoperatively. Rehabilitation of swallowing and speech for patients was assessed by the Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer Patients. 8 patients died of tumor recurrence and 2 patients died of other reasons (cerebrovascular disease and respiratory disease, respectively). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year survival rates were 70.5, 49.4, and 33.8%, respectively. 83.3% of all patients could tolerate soft chewable foods, such as cooked vegetables, fish, hamburger, and small pieces of meat. 2 patients with early stenosis at upper anastomotic sites were with good swallowing function; while 2 patients with early stenosis at lower anastomotic sites were found to have difficulty in oral diet. 2 (11.1%) patients with larynx-preserving pharyngo-esophagectomy showed no compromise in speech. Only 2 (11.1%) patients underwent primary tracheoesophageal puncture for inserting an indwelling voice prosthesis for speech, and both patients achieved functional tracheoesophageal speech. The remaining 14 (77.8%) patients with total PLE did not resume functional speech. Postoperative barium swallow examination is helpful to predict long-term anastomotic stenosis. Good functional swallow rehabilitation is achieved following FJF reconstruction after total PLE or a larynx-preserving procedure. However, the speech outcomes are not satisfactory. It raises the demand of enhancement of functional recovery so that quality of life can be improved for these patients in China. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Mucormicosis yeyunal en paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin Jejunal mucormycosis in a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma

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    B. Madrigal

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso de mucormicosis intestinal en un hombre de 46 años de edad, diagnosticado de enfermedad de Hodgkin clásica, estadio IV-B. Durante la primera fase de la quimioterapia, sufrió una hemorragia digestiva masiva secundaria a una úlcera yeyunal por zigomicosis tipo mucor, diagnosticada por biopsia endoscópica. El paciente fue tratado con antifúngicos y resección quirúrgica del intestino afectado. En la cirugía, se apreció una doble perforación yeyunal cubierta. El estudio anatomopatológico de la pieza confirmó el diagnóstico previo. Tras un año de seguimiento, el paciente está recuperado y su linfoma de Hodgkin en remisión completa. Tras una extensa revisión de la literatura, según nuestro conocimiento, este es el segundo caso publicado en la literatura de mucormicosis intestinal en un paciente con linfoma de Hodgkin.We report a case of intestinal mucormycosis in a 46-year-old male diagnosed with classical Hodgkin's disease, IV-B stage. During the first phase of chemotherapy he had a massive digestive bleeding event secondary to a jejunal ulcer, and zygomicosis mucor-type was diagnosed by endoscopic biopsy. The patient was treated with antifungal drugs and surgical resection of the intestine involved. At surgery a double covered perforation of the jejunum was seen. Pathological examination confirmed the previous diagnosis. After one year of follow-up the patient is doing well, and his lymphoma is on remission. To our best knowledge this is the second case of intestinal mucormycosis in a patient with Hodgkin's lymphoma reported in the medical literature.

  20. Jejunal brush border microvillous alterations in Giardia muris-infected mice: role of T lymphocytes and interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, K G; Logan, M R; Klammer, G M; Teoh, D A; Buret, A G

    2000-06-01

    Intestinal colonization with the protozoan Giardia causes diffuse brush border microvillous alterations and disaccharidase deficiencies, which in turn are responsible for intestinal malabsorption and maldigestion. The role of T cells and/or cytokines in the pathogenesis of Giardia-induced microvillous injury remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the role of T cells and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the brush border pathophysiology of acute murine giardiasis in vivo. Athymic nude (nu(-)/nu(-)) CD-1 mice and isogenic immunocompetent (nu(+)/nu(+)) CD-1 mice (4 weeks old) received an axenic Giardia muris trophozoite inoculum or vehicle (control) via orogastric gavage. Weight gain and food intake were assessed daily. On day 6, segments of jejunum were assessed for parasite load, brush border ultrastructure, IL-6 content, maltase and sucrase activities, villus-crypt architecture, and intraepithelial lymphocyte (IEL) infiltration. Despite similar parasitic loads on day 6, infected immunocompetent animals, but not infected nude mice, showed a diffuse loss of brush border microvillous surface area, which was correlated with a significant reduction in maltase and sucrase activities and a decrease in jejunal IL-6 concentration. In both athymic control and infected mice, jejunal brush border surface area and disaccharidases were high, but levels of tissue IL-6 were low and comparable to the concentration measured in immunocompetent infected animals. In both immunocompetent and nude mice, infection caused a small but significant increase in the numbers of IELs. These findings suggest that the enterocyte brush border injury and malfunction seen in giardiasis is, at least in part, mediated by thymus-derived T lymphocytes and that suppressed jejunal IL-6 does not necessarily accompany microvillous shortening.

  1. Jejunal feeding is followed by a greater rise in plasma cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucagon-like peptide 2 concentrations compared with gastric feeding in vivo in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhold, Joanna; Norren, Van Klaske; Rijna, Herman; Buijs, Nikki; Ankersmit, Marjolein; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Gootjes, Jeannette; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J.; Loon, Van Luc J.C.; Leeuwen, Van P.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Jejunal feeding is preferred instead of gastric feeding in patients who are intolerant to gastric feeding or at risk of aspiration. However, the impact of gastric feeding compared with that of jejunal feeding on postprandial circulating plasma glucose and amino acid concentrations and

  2. Jejunal feeding is followed by a greater rise in plasma cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucagon-like peptide 2 concentrations compared with gastric feeding in vivo in humans: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhold, Joanna; van Norren, Klaske; Rijna, Herman; Buijs, Nikki; Ankersmit, Marjolein; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Gootjes, Jeannette; Hartmann, Bolette; Holst, Jens J.; van Loon, Luc Jc; van Leeuwen, Paul Am

    2016-01-01

    Jejunal feeding is preferred instead of gastric feeding in patients who are intolerant to gastric feeding or at risk of aspiration. However, the impact of gastric feeding compared with that of jejunal feeding on postprandial circulating plasma glucose and amino acid concentrations and the associated

  3. Challenges and opportunities for tissue-engineering polarized epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Ana C; Soleas, John; Poon, James C H; Trieu, Dennis; Waddell, Thomas K; McGuigan, Alison P

    2014-02-01

    The epithelium is one of the most important tissue types in the body and the specific organization of the epithelial cells in these tissues is important for achieving appropriate function. Since many tissues contain an epithelial component, engineering functional epithelium and understanding the factors that control epithelial maturation and organization are important for generating whole artificial organ replacements. Furthermore, disruption of the cellular organization leads to tissue malfunction and disease; therefore, engineered epithelium could provide a valuable in vitro model to study disease phenotypes. Despite the importance of epithelial tissues, a surprisingly limited amount of effort has been focused on organizing epithelial cells into artificial polarized epithelium with an appropriate structure that resembles that seen in vivo. In this review, we provide an overview of epithelial tissue organization and highlight the importance of cell polarization to achieve appropriate epithelium function. We next describe the in vitro models that exist to create polarized epithelium and summarize attempts to engineer artificial epithelium for clinical use. Finally, we highlight the opportunities that exist to translate strategies from tissue engineering other tissues to generate polarized epithelium with a functional structure.

  4. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  7. Novel double-stapling technique for distal oesophageal resection and oesophago-jejunal anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilli, Sergio; Portigliotti, Luca; Davoli, Fabio; Roncon, Alberto; Rena, Ottavio; Oldani, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The restoration of the digestive tract by performing an esophago-jejunal anastomosis (EJA) is a crucial step of the total gastric and distal esophagus surgical resection for esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) cancer. We have already ideated and tested on a cadaver model an innovative technique which could be useful to minimize the risk of complications related to the phase of securing the anvil of the circular stapler prior to perform the EJA. This surgical technique was derived from the well-known "double-stapling Knight and Griffen" one that was described for the rectal resection. We used the following described technique in 20 patients with EGJ cancer and it is efficient, reliable, safe, easy to learn and easy to perform. From August 2014 to May 2015, 20 patients (14 male and 6 female) underwent surgery for esophagogastric junction cancer: In all patients a distal esophageal resection and total gastrectomy was performed. Through the trans-hiatal access, the free margins of the esophageal stump were suspended and the anvil of a circular stapler on a new dedicated and registered support bar was inserted into the lumen. Subsequently, the linear suturing stapler is closed over the bar and then fired to suture the distal stump of the esophagus; after the confirmation of a negative margin, the bar is retracted and the push-rod of the anvil is pulled out through the linear suture. Finally, the anastomosis is performed with the classic technique by using a circular stapler. No postoperative mortality occurred; postoperative course has been uneventful for 18 patients. One patient developed anastomotic fistula that has been treated conservatively with endoscopic prothesis, removed after 20 days. One patient developed in 3 POD myocardial infarction Mean Hospital stay has been 14 days (range 7-20 days). The aim of our new procedure is the insertion the anvil of a common circular stapler without handsewn securing; this is to reduce the technical difficulties related to the hand

  8. Claudin-4 Undergoes Age-Dependent Change in Cellular Localization on Pig Jejunal Villous Epithelial Cells, Independent of Bacterial Colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Alex Pasternak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Newborn piglets are immunologically naïve and must receive passive immunity via colostrum within 24 hours to survive. Mechanisms by which the newborn piglet gut facilitates uptake of colostral cells, antibodies, and proteins may include FcRn and pIgR receptor-mediated endocytosis and paracellular transport between tight junctions (TJs. In the present study, FcRn gene (FCGRT was minimally expressed in 6-week-old gut and newborn jejunum but it was expressed at significantly higher levels in the ileum of newborn piglets. pIgR was highly expressed in the jejunum and ileum of 6-week-old animals but only minimally in neonatal gut. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Claudin-5 localized to blood vessel endothelial cells. Claudin-4 was strongly localized to the apical aspect of jejunal epithelial cells for the first 2 days of life after which it was redistributed to the lateral surface between adjacent enterocytes. Claudin-4 was localized to ileal lateral surfaces within 24 hours after birth indicating regional and temporal differences. Tissue from gnotobiotic piglets showed that commensal microbiota did not influence Claudin-4 surface localization on jejunal or ileal enterocytes. Regulation of TJs by Claudin-4 surface localization requires further investigation. Understanding the factors that regulate gut barrier maturation may yield protective strategies against infectious diseases.

  9. EP3 receptors inhibit antidiuretic-hormone-dependent sodium transport across frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Nielsen, Robert

    1999-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; tight epithelium; prostaglandin receptors; sulprostone; misoprostol; cAMP; cellular Ca2+......Antidiuretic hormone; tight epithelium; prostaglandin receptors; sulprostone; misoprostol; cAMP; cellular Ca2+...

  10. Ultraviolet induced lysosome activity in corneal epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A 5.000 W Xe-Hg high pressure lamp and a double monochromator were used to produce a 3.3 nm half-bandpass ultraviolet radiation at 295 nm. Pigmented rabbit eyes were irradiated with radiant exposures from 140 Jm/sup -2/ to 10.000 Jm/sup -2/ and evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, light and electron microscopy. Corneal threshold (Hsub(c) was 200 Jm/sup -2/ and lens threshold (Hsub(L)) was 7.500 Jm/sup -2/. The most repeatable and reliable corneal response to these levels of UV was the development of corneal epithelial granules. Histological changes included a loss of superficial epithelial cells and selective UV induced autolysis of the wing cells. It is suggested that the biomicroscopically observed granules are the clinical manifestation of the secondary lysosomes revealed by light and electron microscopy. It is proposed that UV breaks down the primary lysosome membranes to release hydrolytic enzymes which in turn form the secondary lysosomes during autolysis. Extreme levels of radiant exposure at 295 nm result in indiscriminate destruction of all layers of the corneal epithelium, but the posterior cornea was spared.

  11. Ultraviolet induced lysosome activity in corneal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A 5.000 W Xe-Hg high pressure lamp and a double monochromator were used to produce a 3.3 nm half-bandpass ultraviolet radiation at 295 nm. Pigmented rabbit eyes were irradiated with radiant exposures from 140 Jm -2 to 10.000 Jm -2 and evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy, light and electron microscopy. Corneal threshold (Hsub(c) was 200 Jm -2 and lens threshold (Hsub(L)) was 7.500 Jm -2 . The most repeatable and reliable corneal response to these levels of UV was the development of corneal epithelial granules. Histological changes included a loss of superficial epithelial cells and selective UV induced autolysis of the wing cells. It is suggested that the biomicroscopically observed granules are the clinical manifestation of the secondary lysosomes revealed by light and electron microscopy. It is proposed that UV breaks down the primary lysosome membranes to release hydrolytic enzymes which in turn form the secondary lysosomes during autolysis. Extreme levels of radiant exposure at 295 nm result in indiscriminate destruction of all layers of the corneal epithelium, but the posterior cornea was spared. (orig.) [de

  12. Bacterial Population Adherent to the Epithelium on the Roo of the Dorsal Rumen of Sheep †

    OpenAIRE

    Dehority, Burk A.; Grubb, Jean A.

    1981-01-01

    By anaerobic procedures, the total number of adherent bacteria was determined on tissue samples obtained from the roof of the dorsal rumen of three sheep. After four washings, 1.91 × 107, 0.34 × 107, and 1.23 × 107 bacteria per cm2 were still attached to the rumen epithelium in sheep 1, 2, and 3, respectively. A total of 95 strains of bacteria were isolated from these three samples. Based on morphology, Gram stain, anaerobiosis, motility, and fermentation end products, they were presumptively...

  13. Changes in the Adult Vertebrate Auditory Sensory Epithelium After Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Auditory hair cells transduce sound vibrations into membrane potential changes, ultimately leading to changes in neuronal firing and sound perception. This review provides an overview of the characteristics and repair capabilities of traumatized auditory sensory epithelium in the adult vertebrate ear. Injured mammalian auditory epithelium repairs itself by forming permanent scars but is unable to regenerate replacement hair cells. In contrast, injured non-mammalian vertebrate ear generates replacement hair cells to restore hearing functions. Non-sensory support cells within the auditory epithelium play key roles in the repair processes. PMID:23178236

  14. Ultrastructural Histopathology of Vervet Monkey Colonic Epithelium After In Vitro Exposure to Cell-free Supernatants of Shigella Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, R. R.; Collins, N. E.; Cowley, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    The full dysentery syndrome of human shigellosis is often preceded by a transient diarrhoea that may be induced by bacterial extracellular products before invasion of the colonic mucosa and development of subsequent pathology. To examine this hypothesis, we studied the effects of cell-free cultures of Shigella sp. on the ultrastructure of monkey colonic epithelium in vitro. Clinical isolates of shigella strains were grown in a niche-simulating medium. Sheets of colon wall collected from verve...

  15. Expression pattern of adhesion molecules in junctional epithelium differs from that in other gingival epithelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, S; Yaegashi, T; Oikawa, Y; Fujiwara, H; Mikami, T; Takeda, Y; Satoh, M

    2006-08-01

    The gingival epithelium is the physiologically important interface between the bacterially colonized gingival sulcus and periodontal soft and mineralized connective tissues, requiring protection from exposure to bacteria and their products. However, of the three epithelia comprising the gingival epithelium, the junctional epithelium has much wider intercellular spaces than the sulcular epithelium and oral gingival epithelium. Hence, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cell adhesion structure in the junctional epithelium compared with the other two epithelia. Gingival epithelia excised at therapeutic flap surgery from patients with periodontitis were examined for expression of adhesion molecules by immunofluorescence. In the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but not in the junctional epithelium, desmoglein 1 and 2 in cell-cell contact sites were more abundant in the upper than the suprabasal layers. E-cadherin, the main transmembranous molecule of adherens junctions, was present in spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but was scarce in the junctional epithelium. In contrast, desmoglein 3 and P-cadherin were present in all layers of the junctional epithelium as well as the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium. Connexin 43 was clearly localized to spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium, sulcular epithelium and parts of the junctional epithelium. Claudin-1 and occludin were expressed in the cell membranes of a few superficial layers of the oral gingival epithelium. These findings indicated that the junctional epithelium contains only a few desmosomes, composed of only desmoglein 3; adherens junctions are probably absent because of defective E-cadherin. Thus, the anchoring junctions connecting junctional epithelium cells are lax, causing widened intercellular spaces. In contrast, the oral gingival epithelium, which has a few tight junctions, functions as a barrier.

  16. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  17. Preserving Duodenal-Jejunal (Foregut) Transit Does Not Impair Glucose Tolerance and Diabetes Remission Following Gastric Bypass in Type 2 Diabetes Sprague-Dawley Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolo, Ponnie R; Yao, Libin; Li, Chao; Zhu, Xiaocheng; Shi, Linsen; Widjaja, Jason

    2017-11-02

    Possible mechanisms underlying diabetes remission following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) include eradication of putative factor(s) with duodenal-jejunal bypass. The objective of this study is to observe the effects of duodenal-jejunal transit on glucose tolerance and diabetes remission in gastric bypass rat model. In order to verify the effect of duodenal-jejunal transit on glucose tolerance and diabetes remission in gastric bypass, 22 type 2 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rat models established through high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) administered intraperitoneally were assigned to one of three groups: gastric bypass with duodenal-jejunal transit (GB-DJT n = 8), gastric bypass without duodenal-jejunal transit (RYGB n = 8), and sham (n = 6). Body weight, food intake, blood glucose, as well as meal-stimulated insulin, and incretin hormone responses were assessed to ascertain the effect of surgery in all groups. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were conducted three and 7 weeks after surgery. Comparing our GB-DJT to the RYGB group, we saw no differences in the mean decline in body weight, food intake, and blood glucose 8 weeks after surgery. GB-DJT group exhibited immediate and sustained glucose control throughout the study. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) levels were also significantly increased from preoperative level in the GB-DJT group (p transit does not impede glucose tolerance and diabetes remission after gastric bypass in type-2 diabetes Sprague-Dawley rat model.

  18. Cyclosporine a inhibits apoptosis of rat gingival epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Su; Liu, Peihong; Li, Yanwu; Hou, Lin; Chen, Li; Qin, Chunlin

    2014-08-01

    The use of cyclosporine A (CsA) induces hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in a site-specific response manner, but the molecular mechanism via which the lesion occurs is unclear. The present research aims to investigate the site-specific effect of CsA on the apoptosis of gingival epithelium associated with gingival hyperplasia. Forty Wistar rats were divided into CsA-treated and non-treated groups. Paraffin-embedded sections of mandibular first molars were selected for hematoxylin and eosin staining, immunohistochemistry analyses of bcl-2 and caspase-3, and the staining of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transfer-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). The area of the whole gingival epithelium and the length of rete pegs were measured, and the number of bcl-2- and caspase-3-positive cells in the longest rete peg were counted. The analysis of variance for factorial designs and Fisher least significant difference test for post hoc analysis were used to determine the significance levels. In CsA-treated rats, bcl-2 expression was significantly upregulated, whereas caspase-3 expression was downregulated, along with a reduced number of TUNEL-positive cells. The site-specific distribution of bcl-2 was consistent with the site-specific hyperplasia of the gingival epithelium in CsA-treated rats. CsA inhibited gingival epithelial apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and common pathway. The antiapoptotic protein bcl-2 might play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the site-specific hyperplasia of gingival epithelium induced by CsA. There were mechanistic differences in the regulation of apoptosis for cells in the attached gingival epithelium, free gingival epithelium, and junctional epithelium.

  19. Age-related changes in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorong Gu

    Full Text Available Age-related changes in the retina are often accompanied by visual impairment but their mechanistic details remain poorly understood.Proteomic studies were pursued toward a better molecular understanding of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE aging mechanisms. RPE cells were isolated from young adults (3-4 month-old and old (24-25 month-old F344BN rats, and separated into subcellular fractions containing apical microvilli (MV and RPE cell bodies (CB lacking their apical microvilli. Proteins were extracted in detergent, separated by SDS-PAGE, digested in situ with trypsin and analyzed by LC MS/MS. Select proteins detected in young and old rat RPE were further studied using immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis.A total of 356 proteins were identified in RPE MV from young and 378 in RPE MV from old rats, 48% of which were common to each age group. A total of 897 proteins were identified in RPE CB from young rats and 675 in old CB, 56% of which were common to each age group. Several of the identified proteins, including proteins involved in response to oxidative stress, displayed both quantitative and qualitative changes in overall abundance during RPE aging. Numerous proteins were identified for the first time in the RPE. One such protein, collectrin, was localized to the apical membrane of apical brush border of proximal tubules where it likely regulates several amino acid transporters. Elsewhere, collectrin is involved in pancreatic β cell proliferation and insulin secretion. In the RPE, collectrin expression was significantly modulated during RPE aging. Another age-regulated, newly described protein was DJ-1, a protein extensively studied in brain where oxidative stress-related functions have been described.The data presented here reveals specific changes in the RPE during aging, providing the first protein database of RPE aging, which will facilitate future studies of age-related retinal diseases.

  20. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  1. Water permeability in human airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Steen; Procida, Kristina; Larsen, Per Leganger

    2005-01-01

    Osmotic water permeability (P(f)) was studied in spheroid-shaped human airway epithelia explants derived from nasal polyps by the use of a new improved tissue collection and isolation procedure. The fluid-filled spheroids were lined with a single cell layer with the ciliated apical cell membrane ...

  2. Prevalence of ciliated epithelium in apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F; Abdelsayed, Rafik A

    2014-04-01

    This article reports on the morphologic features and the frequency of ciliated epithelium in apical cysts and discusses its origin. The study material consisted of 167 human apical periodontitis lesions obtained consecutively from patients presenting for treatment during a period of 12 years in a dental practice operated by one of the authors. All of the lesions were obtained still attached to the root apices of teeth with untreated (93 lesions) or treated canals (74 lesions). The former were obtained by extraction and the latter by extraction or apical surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Lesions were classified, and the type of epithelium, if present, was recorded. Of the lesions analyzed, 49 (29%) were diagnosed as cysts. Of these, 26 (53%) were found in untreated teeth, and 23 (47%) related to root canal-treated teeth. Ciliated columnar epithelium was observed partially or completely lining the cyst wall in 4 cysts, and all of them occurred in untreated maxillary molars. Three of these lesions were categorized as pocket cysts, and the other was a true cyst. Ciliated columnar epithelium-lined cysts corresponded to approximately 2% of the apical periodontitis lesions and 8% of the cysts of endodontic origin in the population studied. This epithelium is highly likely to have a sinus origin in the majority of cases. However, the possibility of prosoplasia or upgraded differentiation into ciliated epithelium from the typical cystic lining squamous epithelium may also be considered. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hair cell regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jennifer S; Cotanche, Douglas A

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of sensory hair cells in the mature avian inner ear was first described just over 20 years ago. Since then, it has been shown that many other non-mammalian species either continually produce new hair cells or regenerate them in response to trauma. However, mammals exhibit limited hair cell regeneration, particularly in the auditory epithelium. In birds and other non-mammals, regenerated hair cells arise from adjacent non-sensory (supporting) cells. Hair cell regeneration was initially described as a proliferative response whereby supporting cells re-enter the mitotic cycle, forming daughter cells that differentiate into either hair cells or supporting cells and thereby restore cytoarchitecture and function in the sensory epithelium. However, further analyses of the avian auditory epithelium (and amphibian vestibular epithelium) revealed a second regenerative mechanism, direct transdifferentiation, during which supporting cells change their gene expression and convert into hair cells without dividing. In the chicken auditory epithelium, these two distinct mechanisms show unique spatial and temporal patterns, suggesting they are differentially regulated. Current efforts are aimed at identifying signals that maintain supporting cells in a quiescent state or direct them to undergo direct transdifferentiation or cell division. Here, we review current knowledge about supporting cell properties and discuss candidate signaling molecules for regulating supporting cell behavior, in quiescence and after damage. While significant advances have been made in understanding regeneration in non-mammals over the last 20 years, we have yet to determine why the mammalian auditory epithelium lacks the ability to regenerate hair cells spontaneously and whether it is even capable of significant regeneration under additional circumstances. The continued study of mechanisms controlling regeneration in the avian auditory epithelium may lead to strategies for inducing

  4. Comparison of transepithelial corneal crosslinking with epithelium-off crosslinking (epithelium-off CXL in adult Pakistani population with progressive keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra Akbar

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Transepithelial CXL is not recommended to be replaced completely by standard epithelium-off CXL due to continued ectatic progression in 25% of cases. However, thin corneas, unfit for standard epithelium-off CXL, can benefit from transepithelial CXL.

  5. Increase of corneal epithelium cell radioresistance during regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, M.F.; Bulyakova, N.V.; Azarova, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    A comparative study of the radiosensitivity of the normal and regenerating cornea epithelium of C 57 Bl mice was performed on the cellular level, the duration of the cell cycle being taken into account. Criteria of radiation injuries were the number of chromosome aberrations, mitotic index and duration of mitotic block. The anterior part of the head was irradiated singly with 1.75, 3.5 or 7.0 Gy and also repeatedly 3.5 + 3.5 at a 24-hours interval. The corneas were fixed 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours after irradiation. In all cases of irradiated mice the regenerating epithelium showed a shorter mitotic block and significantly lower cytogenetic injury as compared with the controls. Effects of fractionated irradiation were only shown in the regenerating epithelium. The results obtained indicate that regenerating epithelium cells of the cornea are significantly more radioresistant than normal epithelium due to activation of post-radiation recovery, and also, possibly, due to an increase in the content of endogenous radioprotectors. (author)

  6. Developmental origin of the posterior pigmented epithelium of iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Xiong, Kai; Lu, Lei; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Songtao; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Honglei; Zhou, Guomin

    2015-03-01

    Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.

  7. Respiratory Epithelium Lined Cyst of the Maxilla: Differential Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Martinelli-Kläy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary cysts, including the cysts lined by respiratory epithelium, can present a diagnostic challenge. We report an unusual case of a maxillary cyst on an endodontically treated tooth #16, in which the cavity was totally lined by a respiratory epithelium. The patient, a 35-year-old male, presented with a generalized chronic periodontitis and complained of a pain in the tooth #16 region. A periodontal pocket extending to the root apices with pus coming out from the gingival was found. A combined endodontic periodontal was observed on a panoramic radiography. CBCT-scan revealed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion at the apices of the distobuccal root of the 16. A communication with the right maxillary sinus cavity and a maxillary and ethmoidal sinusitis were also observed. The lesion was removed and histological examination revealed a cyst lined exclusively by respiratory epithelium. Ciliated and rare mucous cells were also observed. The diagnosis could evoke a surgical ciliated cyst mimicking the radicular cyst but the patient has no previous history of trauma or surgery in the maxillofacial region. It could also be an unusual radicular cyst in which the stratified squamous epithelium was destroyed by inflammation and replaced by a respiratory epithelium of the maxillary sinus.

  8. Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewell, H.J.; Efremenko, A.; Campbell, J.L.; Dodd, D.E.; Thomas, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1 ppm). At the 1.0 ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithelium, but not in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, a large number of significantly enriched cellular pathway responses were observed in both tissues at the two highest concentrations (10 and 30 ppm, which correspond to tumorigenic concentrations in the NTP bioassay). The nature of these responses supports a mode of action involving oxidative stress, inflammation and proliferation. These results are consistent with a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for naphthalene toxicity/carcinogenicity between 1.0 and 10 ppm in the rat. In the female olfactory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of neuroblastomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest concentration at which any signaling pathway was significantly affected, as characterized by the median pathway benchmark dose (BMD) or its 95% lower bound (BMDL) was 6.0 or 3.7 ppm, respectively, while the lowest female olfactory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 16.1, 11.1, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. In the male respiratory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of adenomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest pathway BMD and BMDL were 0.4 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, and the lowest male respiratory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm

  9. Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clewell, H.J., E-mail: hclewell@thehamner.org; Efremenko, A.; Campbell, J.L.; Dodd, D.E.; Thomas, R.S.

    2014-10-01

    Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1 ppm). At the 1.0 ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithelium, but not in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, a large number of significantly enriched cellular pathway responses were observed in both tissues at the two highest concentrations (10 and 30 ppm, which correspond to tumorigenic concentrations in the NTP bioassay). The nature of these responses supports a mode of action involving oxidative stress, inflammation and proliferation. These results are consistent with a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for naphthalene toxicity/carcinogenicity between 1.0 and 10 ppm in the rat. In the female olfactory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of neuroblastomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest concentration at which any signaling pathway was significantly affected, as characterized by the median pathway benchmark dose (BMD) or its 95% lower bound (BMDL) was 6.0 or 3.7 ppm, respectively, while the lowest female olfactory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 16.1, 11.1, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. In the male respiratory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of adenomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest pathway BMD and BMDL were 0.4 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, and the lowest male respiratory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm

  10. (/sup 3/H)ouabain localization of Na-K ATPase in the epithelium of rabbit ciliary body pars plicata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usukura, J.; Fain, G.L.; Bok, D.

    1988-04-01

    The secretion of the aqueous humor has been proposed to occur as the result of active Na+ transport by a ouabain-sensitive Na-K ATPase. We have examined the localization of this enzyme in the epithelium of rabbit ciliary body pars plicata using (3H)ouabain autoradiography. Single ciliary processes were isolated and incubated in Ringer containing (3H)ouabain. Processes were then rapidly frozen, freezedried, sectioned and exposed for autoradiography. In the light microscope, silver grains were found predominantly over the nonpigmented epithelial cells. In the electron microscope, grains could be localized for the most part to the interdigitations of the nonpigmented cell basolateral membrane. Label could also be observed at a much lower density above other membranes and above the pigmented and nonpigmented cell cytoplasm. No label was found in sections of control tissue which had been incubated in (3H)ouabain with an excess of cold ouabain. To show that the (3H)ouabain had free access to all of the membrane surfaces within the epithelium, in parallel experiments we incubated isolated processes in horseradish peroxidase. Our experiments suggest that most of the active Na+ transport in ciliary body epithelium occurs across the basolateral membrane of nonpigmented cells into the posterior chamber. Furthermore, the placement of the Na-K ATPase within the narrow membrane infoldings of the interdigitations is consistent with a role for this enzyme in water transport and the production of the aqueous.

  11. Mechanisms underlying epithelium-dependent relaxation in rat bronchioles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroigaard, Christel; Dalsgaard, Thomas; Simonsen, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms underlying epithelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF)-type relaxation in rat bronchioles. Immunohistochemistry was performed, and rat bronchioles and pulmonary arteries were mounted in microvascular myographs for functional studies. An opener of small...... (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK(Ca))-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, NS309 (6,7-dichloro-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-oxime) was used to induce EpDHF-type relaxation. IK(Ca) and SK(Ca)3 positive immunoreactions were observed mainly in the epithelium and endothelium of bronchioles and arteries......, respectively. In 5-hydroxytryptamine (1 microM)-contracted bronchioles (828 +/- 20 microm, n = 84) and U46619 (0.03 microM)-contracted arteries (720 +/- 24 microm, n = 68), NS309 (0.001-10 microM) induced concentration-dependent relaxations that were reduced by epithelium/endothelium removal and by blocking IK...

  12. Endogenous growth hormone and insulin after interposition of a reversed jejunal segment in short bowel syndrome. An experimental study on pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamichail Michail

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interposition of a reversed jejunal loop in short bowel sydrome has previously been investigated in human along with animal models and seemed able to facilitate intestinal adaptation. However, it is unclear if growth hormone and insulin, well known for their implication in short bowel pathophysiology, intervene on this effect. Findings Porcine models were randomly allocated to two cohorts: (1 short bowel (SB group (n = 8 and (2 short bowel reverse jejunal segment (SB-RS group (n = 8. Amongst other parameters serum growth hormone and insulin were measured at baseline, as well as on postoperative day 30 and 60. Conclusion Both endogenous hormones failed to demonstrate significant difference in respect to potential direct effect to mechanisms of enhanced intestinal adaptation in reversed group

  13. APR-246/PRIMA-1Met Inhibits and Reverses Squamous Metaplasia in Human Conjunctival Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Cheng; Wang, Guoliang; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Pei; Yang, Qichen; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Squamous metaplasia is a common pathologic condition in ocular surface diseases for which there is no therapeutic medication in clinic. In this study, we investigated the effect of a small molecule, APR-246/PRIMA-1(Met), on squamous metaplasia in human conjunctival epithelium. Human conjunctival explants were cultured for up to 12 days under airlifting conditions. Epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation were assessed by Cytokeratin 10 (K10), K14, K19, Pax6, MUC5AC, and p63 immunostaining patterns. β-catenin and TCF-4 immunofluorescent staining and real-time PCR characterized Wnt signaling pathway involvement. Pterygium clinical samples were cultured under airlifting conditions with or without APR-246 for 4 days. p63, K10, β-catenin, and TCF-4 expression in pterygial epithelium was determined by immunofluorescent staining and real-time PCR. Airlift conjunctival explants resulted in increased stratification and intrastromal epithelial invagination. Such pathology was accompanied by increases in K10, K14, and p63 expression, whereas K19 and Pax6 levels declined when compared to those in freshly isolated tissue. On the other hand, APR-246 reversed all of these declines in K10, K14, and p63 expression. Furthermore, K19 and Pax6 increased along with rises in goblet cell density. These effects of APR-246 were accompanied by near restoration of normal conjunctival epithelial histology. APR-246 also reversed squamous metaplasia in pterygial epithelium that had developed after 4 days in ex vivo culture. Reductions in squamous metaplasia induced by APR-246 suggest it may provide a novel therapeutic approach in different squamous metaplasia-associated ocular surface diseases.

  14. The distribution of free calcium ions in the cholesteatoma epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane-Knudsen, Viggo; Rasmussen, Gurli; Ottosen, Peter D

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of free calcium ions in normal skin and cholesteatoma epithelium was investigated using the oxalate precipitation method. In agreement with previous observations, we could demonstrate a calcium ion gradient in normal epidermis where the cells in stratum basale and spinosum reside...... appeared where oblong accumulations of free calcium ions were found basally in the stratum. These findings provide evidence that fluctuations in epidermal calcium in cholesteatoma epithelium may underlie the abnormal desquamation, may contribute to the formation of an abnormal permeability barrier and may...

  15. The effect of experimental gastric dilatation-volvulus on adenosine triphosphate content and conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Peycke, Laura E.; Hosgood, Giselle; Davidson, Jacqueline R.; Tetens, Joanne; Taylor, H. Wayne

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if experimental gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) would decrease adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and increase membrane conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa. Male dogs (n = 15) weighing between 20 and 30 kg were used. Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 equal groups: Group 1 was control, group 2 was GDV, and group 3 was ischemia. All dogs were anesthetized for 210 min. Group 1 had no manipulation. Group 2 had GDV experim...

  16. Hedgehog Signaling and Maintenance of Homeostasis in the Intestinal Epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büller, Nikè V. J. A.; Rosekrans, Sanne L.; Westerlund, Jessica; van den Brink, Gijs R.

    2012-01-01

    Homeostasis of the rapidly renewing intestinal epithelium depends on a balance between cell proliferation and loss. Indian hedgehog (Ihh) acts as a negative feedback signal in this dynamic equilibrium. We discuss recent evidence that Ihh may be one of the key epithelial signals that indicates

  17. DIFFERENTIAL HISTOMORPHOMETRIC CHANGES IN NORMAL AND INFLAMED GINGIVAL EPITHELIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaskovic Stankovic Sanja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim: In recent decades, many factors such as smoking, unhealthy diet as well as high alcohol intake were marked as risk factors that can lead to increased incidence of malignant alterations, gingivitis, periodontal disease and other oral epithelium pathological changes. Having in mind that in the group of non-malignant and non-dental oral pathology gingivitis and periodontal disease are the most common oral mucosa alterations aim of our research was to investigate histomorphometric characteristics of healthy and altered oral and gingival epithelium. Material and methods: Tissue samples of 24 oral and gingival mucosa specimens were collected. Samples were fixed in 10% buffered paraformaldehyde, routinely processed and embedded in paraffin blocks. From each block sections 5 micrometer thin were made and standard H/E staining as well as immunocytochemical detection of Ki-67 proliferation marker and CD79a lymphocyte marker were performed. Measurements and image analysis was performed with Image Pro Plus software (Media Cybernetics, USA and Axiovision (Ziess, USA. Results: We showed that inflamed gingival epithelium is increasing its thickness in proportion to the severity of adjacent inflammation. Furthermore, mitotic index is rising (up to 132% in the same manner as well as basal lamina length (up to 70% when normal and inflamed gingiva is compared. Architecture of epithelial ridges is changed from straightforward to mesh-like. Conclusion: Assessment of the free gingival epithelium thickness is directly related to the severity of the inflammation process i

  18. Examination of the reticular epithelium of the bovine pharyngeal tonsil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), located at the posterior of the nasopharynx is ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular composition of this important epithe...

  19. Coelomic epithelium-derived cells in visceral morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Laura; Carmona, Rita; Cañete, Ana; Cano, Elena; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    Coelomic cavities of vertebrates are lined by a mesothelium which develops from the lateral plate mesoderm. During development, the coelomic epithelium is a highly active cell layer, which locally is able to supply mesenchymal cells that contribute to the mesodermal elements of many organs and provide signals which are necessary for their development. The relevance of this process of mesenchymal cell supply to the developing organs is becoming clearer because genetic lineage tracing techniques have been developed in recent years. Body wall, heart, liver, lungs, gonads, and gastrointestinal tract are populated by cells derived from the coelomic epithelium which contribute to their connective and vascular tissues, and sometimes to specialized cell types such as the stellate cells of the liver, the Cajal interstitial cells of the gut or the Sertoli cells of the testicle. In this review we collect information about the contribution of coelomic epithelium derived cells to visceral development, their developmental fates and signaling functions. The common features displayed by all these processes suggest that the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the embryonic coelomic epithelium is an underestimated but key event of vertebrate development, and probably it is shared by all the coelomate metazoans. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Relative permeability of the endothelium and epithelium of rabbit lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effros, R.M.; Mason, G.R.; Silverman, P.; Hukkanen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Electron micrographic studies of lungs suggest that the epithelial cells are more tightly joined than the underlying endothelium, and macromolecules penetrate the endothelium more readily than the epithelium. Comparisons of epithelial and endothelial permeability to small molecules have been based upon the relative rates at which solutes traverse the alveolar-capillary barrier in fluid filled lungs and those at which they equilibrate across the capillaries in air-filled lungs. Because the former process is much slower than the latter, it has been concluded that the epithelium is less permeable to small solutes than the endothelium. However this difference may be related to inadequate access of solutes to airway surfaces. In this study, solute losses from the vascular space were compared to those from the airspace in perfused, fluid-filled rabbit lungs. 36 Cl - and 125 I - were lost from air-spaces almost twice as rapidly as 22 Na + . In contrast, the endothelium is equally permeable to 22 Na + and these anions. Loss of 3 H-mannitol from the perfusate resembled that of 22 Na + for about 30 minutes, after which diffusion of 3 H-mannitol into the tissue nearly ceased. These observations suggest that the epithelium is more permselective than the endothelium. By resisting solute and water transport, the epithelium tends to prevent alveolar flooding and confines edema to the interstitium, where it is less likely to interfere with gas exchange

  1. Wnt signaling in the intestinal epithelium: from endoderm to cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregorieff, A.; Clevers, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Wnt pathway controls cell fate during embryonic development. It also persists as a key regulator of homeostasis in adult self-renewing tissues. In these tissues, mutational deregulation of the Wnt cascade is closely associated with malignant transformation. The intestinal epithelium represents

  2. Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Structure and development of the saccular sensory epithelium in relation to otolith growth in the perch Perca fluviatilis (Telostei) ... Electron microscopy indicated: 1) The apical surface of each hair cell is covered with a ciliary bundle which varies in length in different epithelial regions. Each bundle is formed from a long ...

  3. Quantum Dot Distribution in the Olfactory Epithelium After Nasal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzotto, D.; De Marchis, S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in a wide range of human applications from industrial to bio-medical fields. However, the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, such as the small size, large surface area per mass and high reactivity raises great concern on the adverse effects of these particles on ecological systems and human health. There are several pioneer studies reporting translocation of inhaled particulates to the brain through a potential neuronal uptake mediated by the olfactory nerve (1, 2, 3). However, no direct evidences have been presented up to now on the pathway followed by the nanoparticles from the nose to the brain. In addition to a neuronal pathway, nanoparticles could gain access to the central nervous system through extracellular pathways (perineuronal, perivascular and cerebrospinal fluid paths). In the present study we investigate the localization of intranasally delivered fluorescent nanoparticles in the olfactory epithelium. To this purpose we used quantum dots (QDs), a model of innovative fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals commonly used in cell and animal biology (4). Intranasal treatments with QDs were performed acutely on adult CD1 mice. The olfactory epithelium was collected and analysed by confocal microscopy at different survival time after treatment. Data obtained indicate that the neuronal components of the olfactory epithelium are not preferentially involved in QDs uptake, thus suggesting nanoparticles can cross the olfactory epithelium through extracellular pathways.

  4. Adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis serotypes to pocket epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierickx, K; Pauwels, M; Laine, ML; Van Eldere, J; Cassiman, JJ; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van Steenberghe, D; Quirynen, M

    Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a key pathogen in periodontitis, is able to adhere to and invade the pocket epithelium. Different capsular antigens of P gingivalis have been identified (K-serotyping). These P gingivalis capsular types show differences in adhesion capacity to human cell lines

  5. Radioautographic DNA synthesis study on mice Mus musculus gingival epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1984-01-01

    The DNA-synthetizing cells frequency in the gingival epithelium basal layer of the first lower molar region in young and adult mice were studied. The 3H-thymidine and radioautography were used. The labeled cells frequency was determined by calculating their proportions. The data were statiscally analysed. (M.A.C.) [pt

  6. The ultrastructure of the midgut epithelium in millipedes (Myriapoda, Diplopoda)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sosinka, A.; Rost-Roszkowska, M.M.; Vilímová, J.; Tajovský, Karel; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M.; Chajec, Ł.; Sonakowska, L.; Kamińska, K.; Hyra, M.; Poprawa, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2014), s. 477-492 ISSN 1467-8039 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : digestive cells * midgut epithelium * millipedes * regenerative cells * secretory cells * ultrastructure Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.650, year: 2014

  7. Different behaviour of 63Ni and 59Fe during absorption in iron-deficient and iron-adequate jejunal rat segments ex vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Fassbender, M.; Elsenhans, B.; McKie, A.T.; Schuemann, K.

    2003-01-01

    Nickel exhibits low oral toxicity. It shares the absorptive pathways for iron, though there are substantial quantitative differences in handling of both metals. To analyse these differences more closely, jejunal segments from iron-deficient and iron-adequate rats were luminally perfused ex vivo with 59 Fe and 63 Ni at six different concentrations (1-500 μmo1/l) under steady state conditions. 59 Fe over-all absorption increased 2.0-4.6-fold in iron-deficiency at luminal concentrations between 1 and 100 μmol/l, while 63 Ni absorption increased to a much lower extent (2.6-fold at 1 μmol/l and 1.5-fold at higher luminal concentrations). Moreover, there was a 5-7-fold higher concentration for 63 Ni in the jejunal tissue than in the absorbate at luminal concentrations above 50 μmol/l which was not observed at 1 μmol 63 Ni/l and not for 59 Fe. 63 Ni tissue load showed a linear and a saturable fraction. In iron-deficiency the saturable 63 Ni fraction increased 4-fold as compared to only 1.5-fold increments for 59 Fe. Moreover, a substantially higher share of 63 Ni was retained in the jejunal tissue at high as compare to low luminal concentrations after perfusion had been continued without luminal radioactivity. This was not found for 59 Fe and suggests a concentration-dependent block of 63 Ni export across the enterocytes' basolateral membrane. To explain these results one may speculate that 63 Ni may bind more tightly to tissue ligands than 59 Fe due to the higher thermodynamic and kinetic stability of nickel complexes. In particular, nickel may bind to a basolateral population of metal carriers and block its own basolateral transfer in a concentration-dependent manner. Tight 63 Ni binding to non-specific jejunal ligands is responsible for the unaltered high linear fraction of jejunal 63 Ni load in iron-deficient and iron-adequate segments. Binding of 63 Ni to food and tissue ligands in the small intestine may, thus, be a likely explanation for the low oral nickel

  8. HIV enteropathy: HAART reduces HIV-induced stem cell hyperproliferation and crypt hypertrophy to normal in jejunal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Philip A; Kapembwa, Moses S; Belmonte, Liliana; Tudor, Gregory; Kotler, Donald P; Potten, Christopher S; Booth, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro; Griffin, George E

    2014-01-01

    To analyse the structural and kinetic response of small intestinal crypt epithelial cells including stem cells to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Crypt size and proliferative activity of transit and stem cells in jejunal mucosa were quantified using morphometric techniques. Crypt length was measured by counting the number of enterocytes along one side of a number of crypts in each biopsy specimen and the mean crypt length was calculated. Proliferating crypt cells were identified with MIB-1 monoclonal antibody, and the percentage of crypt cells in proliferation was calculated at each cell position along the length of the crypt (proliferation index). Data were obtained from 9 HIV-positive test patients co-infected with microsporidia, 34 HIV-positive patients receiving HAART and 13 control cases. Crypt length was significantly greater in test patients than in controls, but crypt length in patients receiving HAART was normal. The proliferation index was greater in test subjects than in controls in stem and transit cell compartments, and was decreased in patients treated with HAART only in the stem cell region of the crypt. Villous atrophy in HIV enteropathy is attributed to crypt hypertrophy and encroachment of crypt cells onto villi. HAART restores normal crypt structure by inhibition of HIV-driven stem cell hyperproliferation at the crypt bases.

  9. Enteroscopic Tattooing for Better Intraoperative Localization of a Bleeding Jejunal GIST Facilitates Minimally Invasive Laparoscopically-assisted Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacob, Razvan; Dimitriu, Anca; Stanciulea, Oana; Herlea, Vlad; Popescu, Irinel; Gheorghe, Cristian

    2016-03-01

    We present the case of a 63-year-old man that was admitted for melena and severe anemia. Upper GI endoscopy and colonoscopy failed to identify the lesion responsible for bleeding, and enteroCT scan was also non-contributive to the diagnosis. Capsule endoscopy indicated possible jejunal bleeding but could not indicate the source of bleeding, recommending anterograde enteroscopy. Single balloon enteroscopy identified a 2 cm submucosal tumour in the distal part of the jejunum, with a macroscopic appearance suggesting a gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). The tumor location was marked using SPOT tattoo and subsequently easily identified by the surgeon and resected via minimally invasive laparoscopic-assisted approach. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis indicated a low risk GIST. The unusual small size of the GIST as a modality of presentation, with digestive bleeding and anemia and the ability to use VCE/enteroscopy to identify and mark the lesion prior to minimally invasive surgery, represent the particularities of the presented case.

  10. A very feasible alternative in patients with feeding difficulties from gastrostomy: Jejunal tube advanced through the gastrostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Karabulut

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our aim is to share our experiences regarding patients who cannot be fed effectively through the gastrostomy tube, but were inserted feeding jejunostomy through the gastrostomy orifice using scopic fluoroscopic techniques utilised by the interventional radiology. Patients and Methods: Between January 2010 and May 2013 the patients that were inserted jejunostomy tube through the gastrostomy orifice using fluoroscopic techniques were retrospectively analysed. Data including primary indication for gastrostomy, sex, concomitant disease and the requirement for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD were all recorded. Results: There were five patients with these criteria. They all received either medical or surgical GERD therapy; nevertheless enteral feeding failed to reach an effective level, they all had vomiting and did not gain any weight. Following conversion, all the patients gained minimum 2 kg in 2-5 months; all the patients tolerated enteral feeding and were discharged in the early period. There were neither procedure related complications such as perforation, bleeding nor sedation related complications. Procedure took no more than 30 min as a whole. There was no need for surgical intervention. However in one patient re-intervention was required due to accidental removal of the catheter. Conclusions: In case of feeding difficulties following the gastrostomy; instead of an invasive surgical intervention; physicians should consider jejunal feeding that is advanced through the gastrostomy, which does not require any anaesthesia.

  11. Histomorphology of the corneal epithelium of anastrozole treated rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.; Qamar, K.; Butt, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of prolonged use of anastrozole as an endocrine treatment of breast cancer on the corneal epithelium in an animal model. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with National Institute of Health, Islamabad, six months from Jun 2012 to Nov 2012. Material and Methods: Twenty adult female NewZealand white rabbits were taken. Ten rabbits were placed in control group taking normal diet and 10 were given anastrozole orally in the normal dose of 1 mg/day (0.02 mg/kg/day). After the completion of the study, corneas were removed and grossly examined. The specimen were fixed and slides prepared for histomorphological examination. The epithelium in each slide was examined for any deposits, edema or increase in stratification and the height of the epithelium was measured for each eye. The results were compared between the groups for statistical significance. Results: The epithelium had normal shape with no areas of any deposits, edema or ulceration. The mean epithelial height in the control group was 21.25 +- 4.29 mu m and 21.00 +- 4.28 mu m in the right corneas and left corneas, respectively. The mean epithelial height taken from the experimental group was 20.50 +- 4.97 mu m and 21.00 +- 4.28 mu m in right sided and left sided corneas, respectively. The p value was calculated to be 0.722 and 1.00 for the right and left corneas, respectively and no statistical significance was found in between the two groups. Conclusion: Long term administration of anastrozole has no effect on the histological morphology of the corneal epithelium. (author)

  12. Kinetics of corneal epithelium turnover in vivo. Studies of lovastatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Fleschner, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    The authors developed a direct chemical approach for estimating the rate of turnover of the corneal epithelium in vivo. The method was used to examine the effects of lovastatin, a potent inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, on proliferation and turnover of the epithelium. Corneal DNA was labeled by pulse injection (IP) of the rat with 3H-thymidine, and 3H-labeled DNA was recovered from peripheral and central corneas over the next 15 days. Only the epithelium became labeled, and the loss of label by cell desquamation began 3 days after injection. The loss of 3H-DNA from the cornea (peripheral plus central region) followed first-order kinetics. The half-life of the disappearance was about 3 days. The peripheral cornea became more highly labeled than the central cornea and began to lose 3H-DNA before the central cornea. These observations support the possibility of a higher mitotic rate in the peripheral region and the centripetal movement of a population of peripheral epithelial cells in the normal cornea. The half-lives of the disappearance of 3H-DNA from peripheral and central corneas measured between days 5 and 15 postinjection were identical, both at 3 days. Complete turnover of the corneal epithelium would, therefore, require about 2 weeks (4-5 half-lives). Treatment of the rat with lovastatin had no obvious effects upon the proliferation or turnover of the corneal epithelium. Although lovastatin inhibited corneal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, the key regulatory enzyme of cholesterol synthesis, the cornea compensated by induction of this enzyme so that there was no net inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the cornea

  13. NORMAL GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE F344 RAT NASAL TRANSITIONAL/RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The nasal epithelium is an important target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity in rodents. Gene expression profiles were determined in order to provide normal baseline data for nasal transitional/respiratory epithelium from healthy rats. Ce...

  14. File list: InP.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Input control Others Olfactory epithelium... SRX112965,SRX143806,SRX185883,SRX378545,SRX378544 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  15. File list: InP.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Input control Others Olfactory epithelium... SRX112965,SRX185883,SRX143806,SRX378545,SRX378544 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/InP.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 TFs and others Others Olfactory epithelium... SRX143828 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Oth.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 RNA polymerase Others Olfactory epithelium... SRX112963,SRX143827 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  18. File list: InP.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. Dynamics of Bovine Sperm Interaction with Epithelium Differ Between Oviductal Isthmus and Ampulla1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardon, Florencia; Markello, Ross D.; Hu, Lian; Deutsch, Zarah I.; Tung, Chih-Kuan; Wu, Mingming; Suarez, Susan S.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, many sperm that reach the oviduct are held in a reservoir by binding to epithelium. To leave the reservoir, sperm detach from the epithelium; however, they may bind and detach again as they ascend into the ampulla toward oocytes. In order to elucidate the nature of binding interactions along the oviduct, we compared the effects of bursts of strong fluid flow (as would be caused by oviductal contractions), heparin, and hyperactivation on detachment of bovine sperm bound in vitro to epithelium on intact folds of isthmic and ampullar mucosa. Intact folds of oviductal mucosa were used to represent the strong attachments of epithelial cells to each other and to underlying connective tissue that exist in vivo. Effects of heparin on binding were tested because heparin binds to the Binder of SPerm (BSP) proteins that attach sperm to oviductal epithelium. Sperm bound by their heads to beating cilia on both isthmic and ampullar epithelia and could not be detached by strong bursts of fluid flow. Addition of heparin immediately detached sperm from isthmic epithelium but not ampullar epithelium. Addition of 4-aminopyridine immediately stimulated hyperactivation of sperm but did not detach them from isthmic or ampullar epithelium unless added with heparin. These observations indicate that the nature of binding of sperm to ampullar epithelium differs from that of binding to isthmic epithelium; specifically, sperm bound to isthmic epithelium can be detached by heparin alone, while sperm bound to ampullar epithelium requires both heparin and hyperactivation to detach from the epithelium. PMID:27605344

  5. File list: NoD.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  6. File list: ALL.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  1. The α-Amylase Induction in Endosperm during Rice Seed Germination Is Caused by Gibberellin Synthesized in Epithelium1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Miyuki; Itoh, Hironori; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    We recently isolated two genes (OsGA3ox1 and OsGA3ox2) from rice (Oryza sativa) encoding 3β-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the final step of active gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis (H. Itoh, M. Ueguchi-Tanaka, N. Sentoku, H. Kitano, M. Matsuoka, M. Kobayashi [2001] Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 8909–8914). Using these cloned cDNAs, we analyzed the temporal and spatial expression patterns of the 3β-hydroxylase genes and also an α-amylase gene (RAmy1A) during rice seed germination to investigate the relationship between GA biosynthesis and α-amylase expression. Northern-blot analyses revealed that RAmy1A expression in the embryo occurs before the induction of 3β-hydroxylase expression, whereas in the endosperm, a high level of RAmy1A expression occurs 1 to 2 d after the peak of OsGA3ox2 expression and only in the absence of uniconazol. Based on the analysis of an OsGA3ox2 null mutant (d18-Akibare dwarf), we determined that 3β-hydroxylase produced by OsGA3ox2 is important for the induction of RAmy1A expression and that the OsGA3ox1 product is not essential for α-amylase induction. The expression of OsGA3ox2 was localized to the shoot region and epithelium of the embryo, strongly suggesting that active GA biosynthesis occurs in these two regions. The synthesis of active GA in the epithelium is important for α-amylase expression in the endosperm, because an embryonic mutant defective in shoot formation, but which developed epithelium cells, induced α-amylase expression in the endosperm, whereas a mutant defective in epithelium development did not. PMID:11950975

  2. Luminal epithelium in endometrial fragments affects their vascularization, growth and morphological development into endometriosis-like lesions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dilu; Menger, Michael D; Wang, Hongbo; Laschke, Matthias W

    2014-02-01

    In endometriosis research, endometriosis-like lesions are usually induced in rodents by transplantation of isolated endometrial tissue fragments to ectopic sites. In the present study, we investigated whether this approach is affected by the cellular composition of the grafts. For this purpose, endometrial tissue fragments covered with luminal epithelium (LE(+)) and without luminal epithelium (LE(-)) were transplanted from transgenic green-fluorescent-protein-positive (GFP(+)) donor mice into the dorsal skinfold chamber of GFP(-) wild-type recipient animals to analyze their vascularization, growth and morphology by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry during a 14-day observation period. LE(-) fragments developed into typical endometriosis-like lesions with cyst-like dilated endometrial glands and a well-vascularized endometrial stroma. In contrast, LE(+) fragments exhibited a polypoid morphology and a significantly reduced blood perfusion after engraftment, because the luminal epithelium prevented the vascular interconnection with the microvasculature of the surrounding host tissue. This was associated with a markedly decreased growth rate of LE(+) lesions compared with LE(-) lesions. In addition, we found that many GFP(+) microvessels grew outside the LE(-) lesions and developed interconnections to the host microvasculature, indicating that inosculation is an important mechanism in the vascularization process of endometriosis-like lesions. Our findings demonstrate that the luminal epithelium crucially affects the vascularization, growth and morphology of endometriosis-like lesions. Therefore, it is of major importance to standardize the cellular composition of endometrial grafts in order to increase the validity and reliability of pre-clinical rodent studies in endometriosis research.

  3. Luminal epithelium in endometrial fragments affects their vascularization, growth and morphological development into endometriosis-like lesions in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilu Feng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In endometriosis research, endometriosis-like lesions are usually induced in rodents by transplantation of isolated endometrial tissue fragments to ectopic sites. In the present study, we investigated whether this approach is affected by the cellular composition of the grafts. For this purpose, endometrial tissue fragments covered with luminal epithelium (LE+ and without luminal epithelium (LE− were transplanted from transgenic green-fluorescent-protein-positive (GFP+ donor mice into the dorsal skinfold chamber of GFP− wild-type recipient animals to analyze their vascularization, growth and morphology by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy, histology and immunohistochemistry during a 14-day observation period. LE− fragments developed into typical endometriosis-like lesions with cyst-like dilated endometrial glands and a well-vascularized endometrial stroma. In contrast, LE+ fragments exhibited a polypoid morphology and a significantly reduced blood perfusion after engraftment, because the luminal epithelium prevented the vascular interconnection with the microvasculature of the surrounding host tissue. This was associated with a markedly decreased growth rate of LE+ lesions compared with LE− lesions. In addition, we found that many GFP+ microvessels grew outside the LE− lesions and developed interconnections to the host microvasculature, indicating that inosculation is an important mechanism in the vascularization process of endometriosis-like lesions. Our findings demonstrate that the luminal epithelium crucially affects the vascularization, growth and morphology of endometriosis-like lesions. Therefore, it is of major importance to standardize the cellular composition of endometrial grafts in order to increase the validity and reliability of pre-clinical rodent studies in endometriosis research.

  4. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.

  5. Nested Expression Domains for Odorant Receptors in Zebrafish Olfactory Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weth, Franco; Nadler, Walter; Korsching, Sigrun

    1996-11-01

    The mapping of high-dimensional olfactory stimuli onto the two-dimensional surface of the nasal sensory epithelium constitutes the first step in the neuronal encoding of olfactory input. We have used zebrafish as a model system to analyze the spatial distribution of odorant receptor molecules in the olfactory epithelium by quantitative in situ hybridization. To this end, we have cloned 10 very divergent zebrafish odorant receptor molecules by PCR. Individual genes are expressed in sparse olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of the position of labeled cells in a simplified coordinate system revealed three concentric, albeit overlapping, expression domains for the four odorant receptors analyzed in detail. Such regionalized expression should result in a corresponding segregation of functional response properties. This might represent the first step of spatial encoding of olfactory input or be essential for the development of the olfactory system.

  6. Measurement of the thickness of the bronchial epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, D.H.; Baldwin, F.

    1989-02-01

    Cancer of the lung in uranium miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of gaseous radon daughters which become attached to molecules of water vapour or to dust particles. Since, the depth of tissue penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium that lines the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to measure the thickness of human bronchial epithelium; 2) to determine the distribution and depth of the nuclei of basal cells in the bronchial epithelium; and 3) to compare these parameters in groups of smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens of the lung were examined (26 smokers, 3 non-smokers). The specimens were fixed and prepared for examination by light and electron microscopy. Blocks of tissue were oriented so that the maximum number of bronchi were cut in cross-section; measurements included bronchi of all sizes from bronchial generations (1≥ 9.01 mm) diameter to the smallest bronchioles, generations 7 - 16 (0.26 - 2.0 mm). Comparison of measurements in smokers and non-smokers show no significant differences, so that the 29 cases are considered to represent a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness. Of more importance are the figures relating to the distance from the cell surface to the underlying nucleus. Here too, with the exception of goblet cells, the measurements are significantly smaller in generations 7 - 16 than in generation 1

  7. Cytogenetic damage and postradiation restoration of eye cornea epithelium of Rodentia characterizing by different radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, M.F.; Bulyakova, N.V.

    1983-01-01

    Intensity of beam damage and reparation of eye cornea epithelium of animals inhabiting under different conditions and differing by radiosensitivity has been studied. Mice differing by high radiosensitivity have the hardest cytogenetic damage. Cornea epithelium of bank voles is more radiostable than that of mice. The most negligible damages of cornea epithelium is observed in Mongolian sandwort despite the fact that their total radiation stability is lower than that of bank voles. High protective-restoring properties of eye cornea epithelium of Mongolian sandwort are explained by the structure of epithelium cells diffe-- ring by a large number of cytoplasm

  8. Long-term comparison of boomerang-shaped jejunal interposition and Billroth-I reconstruction after distal gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kinro; Miyachi, Kazuhito; Yoda, Norihito; Onodera, Shinichi; Satomura, Hitoshi; Otsuka, Kichiro; Nakajima, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Sunagawa, Masakatsu; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    Billroth-I (BI) is a simple, physiological method of reconstruction following distal gastrectomy. In actuality, postoperative QOL is by no means favorable due to the high incidence of post-gastrectomy syndrome. The aim of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of boomerang-shaped jejunal interposition (BJI) after distal gastrectomy. Sixty-six patients with early gastric cancer underwent the BI procedure (n = 33) or BJI (n = 33) after distal gastrectomy, following which they were compared for 5 years. Tumor characteristics, operative details, postoperative complications and complaints, number of meals, and body weight were analyzed. Patients were followed up by endoscopy every 12 months. There were no significant differences in the incidence of postoperative complications. The incidence of heartburn (30 vs. 0 %, P = 0.0009) and oral bitterness (33 vs. 6 %, P = 0.0112) were significantly lower in the BJI cases. Endoscopic findings revealed significantly lower incidences of reflux esophagitis (24 vs. 0 %, P = 0.0051) and remnant gastritis (70 vs. 3 %, P < 0.0001) in the BJI group. The incidence of food stasis was low in both groups (12 vs. 15 %). In the BJI group, 30 patients (90 %) were eating 3 meals/day within 12 months, whereas in the BI group, 16 patients (48 %) were still eating 5 meals/day at 12 months or later. BJI is as safe as BI, but is better in terms of improvement in bile reflux and food intake without stasis. This procedure, therefore, appears to be a useful method for reconstruction after distal gastrectomy.

  9. Jejunal gluconeogenesis associated with insulin resistance level and its evolution after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Repiso, Carolina; Garcia-Serrano, Sara; Moreno-Ruiz, Francisco J; Alcain-Martinez, Guillermo; Rodriguez-Pacheco, Francisca; Garcia-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2017-04-01

    Intestinal gluconeogenesis (GNG) may play an important role in glucose homeostasis, but there is little information about the condition in humans. To study the relationship between intestinal GNG and insulin resistance, its association with the evolution of morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery, and the effect of insulin and or leptin. Regional university hospital, Malaga (Spain). Jejunal mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG was analyzed in 3 groups of morbidly obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: with low insulin resistance (MO-low-IR), with high insulin resistance (MO-high-IR), and with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin (MO-metf-T2D). Also, intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) from MO-low-IR were incubated with different doses of insulin and or leptin. In MO-high-IR, glutaminase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6 Pase), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1 α), and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 1 c (SREBP-1 c) expressions were significantly higher than in MO-low-IR. In MO-metf-T2 D, only PEPCK was significantly lower than in MO-high-IR. In IEC, an incubation with a high glucose and insulin dose produced an increase of PEPCK and SREBP-1 c, and a decrease of glutaminase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase), and PGC-1 α expression. At high doses of leptin, G6 Pase and FBPase were significantly increased. The improvement of insulin resistance 3 months after bariatric surgery was positively associated with high G6 Pase and FBPase expression. mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG is increased in the jejunum of MO-high-IR, and regulated by insulin and or leptin. High mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG is associated with a better evolution of insulin resistance after bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mouldy feed, mycotoxins and Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli colonization associated with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Luke

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxin - producing Escherichia coli (STECs cause serious human disease outbreaks through the consumption of contaminated foods. Cattle are considered the main reservoir but it is unclear how STECs affect mature animals. Neonatal calves are the susceptible age class for STEC infections causing severe enteritis. In an earlier study, we determined that mycotoxins and STECs were part of the disease complex for dairy cattle with Jejunal Hemorrhage Syndrome (JHS. For STECs to play a role in the development of JHS, we hypothesized that STEC colonization should also be evident in beef cattle with JHS. Aggressive medical and surgical therapies are effective for JHS, but rely on early recognition of clinical signs for optimal outcomes suggesting that novel approaches must be developed for managing this disease. The main objective of this study was to confirm that mouldy feeds, mycotoxins and STEC colonization were associated with the development of JHS in beef cattle. Results Beef cattle developed JHS after consuming feed containing several types of mycotoxigenic fungi including Fusarium poae, F. verticillioides, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus fumigatus. Mixtures of STECs colonized the mucosa in the hemorrhaged tissues of the cattle and no other pathogen was identified. The STECs expressed Stx1 and Stx2, but more significantly, Stxs were also present in the blood collected from the lumen of the hemorrhaged jejunum. Feed extracts containing mycotoxins were toxic to enterocytes and 0.1% of a prebiotic, Celmanax Trademark, removed the cytotoxicity in vitro. The inclusion of a prebiotic in the care program for symptomatic beef calves was associated with 69% recovery. Conclusions The current study confirmed that STECs and mycotoxins are part of the disease complex for JHS in beef cattle. Mycotoxigenic fungi are only relevant in that they produce the mycotoxins deposited in the feed. A

  11. Longitudinal evaluation of efficacy, safety and nutritional status during one-year treatment with the duodenal-jejunal bypass liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Nina; Laubner, Katharina; Lautenbach, Anne; Schön, Gerhard; Schlensak, Matthias; Stengel, Rainer; Eberl, Thomas; Dederichs, Frank; Aberle, Jens; Seufert, Jochen

    2018-03-09

    The endoscopic duodenal-jejunal bypass liner (DJBL) represents a novel temporary endoscopic approach for treatment of obesity-associated type 2 diabetes. Recent results from the German DJBL registry confirmed substantial positive metabolic effects of the DJBL in type 2 diabetes. However, the last Food and Drug Administration trial was stopped due to a high occurrence of hepatic abscesses (3.5%). Here, we analyzed time courses of development of co-morbidities, nutritive changes, and occurrence of adverse events during the 1-year treatment phase with the DJBL in the German DJBL registry. Sixty-six patients from the registry were analyzed for efficacy, safety, and nutritional status. Patient data sets were analyzed at implantation, 3 and 6 months after implantation, and at explantation visits. Weight, body mass index, glycated hemoglobin, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol primarily declined during the first 3 months after implantation, whereas systolic and diastolic blood pressure were predominantly reduced during the second half of the treatment phase. Severe DJBL-associated side effects were mainly documented at the explantation visit (intestinal obstruction [1.7%], dislocation [1.7%], and liver abscess [1.7%]). Measurements of serum concentrations of ferritin, albumin, vitamin B12, folic acid, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25 OH-Vit-D3), and calcium provided suggestive evidence of a possible decrease of nutritional absorption of vitamins and trace elements by the DJBL. The DJBL demonstrates high efficacy with substantial improvement of all parameters of the metabolic syndrome and the potential for reduction of comedications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. These registry results are important to optimize recommendations for adaptation of concomitant medication, surveillance of adverse events, nutritional status and supplementation, and adaptation of the implantation period of the DJBL. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by

  12. Integrin Beta 1 Suppresses Multilayering of a Simple Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jichao; Krasnow, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Epithelia are classified as either simple, a single cell layer thick, or stratified (multilayered). Stratified epithelia arise from simple epithelia during development, and transcription factor p63 functions as a key positive regulator of epidermal stratification. Here we show that deletion of integrin beta 1 (Itgb1) in the developing mouse airway epithelium abrogates airway branching and converts this monolayer epithelium into a multilayer epithelium with more than 10 extra layers. Mutant lung epithelial cells change mitotic spindle orientation to seed outer layers, and cells in different layers become molecularly and functionally distinct, hallmarks of normal stratification. However, mutant lung epithelial cells do not activate p63 and do not switch to the stratified keratin profile of epidermal cells. These data, together with previous data implicating Itgb1 in regulation of epidermal stratification, suggest that the simple-versus-stratified developmental decision may involve not only stratification inducers like p63 but suppressors like Itgb1 that prevent simple epithelia from inappropriately activating key steps in the stratification program. PMID:23285215

  13. Zinc uptake in vitro by human retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, D.A.; Rothman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, is present in unusually high concentrations in the chorioretinal complex relative to most other tissues. Because little has been known about the interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium and free or protein-associated zinc, we studied 65 Zn uptake by human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro. When monolayers were exposed to differing concentrations from 0 to 30 microM 65 Zn in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 5.4 gm/l glucose at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C, we observed a temperature-dependent saturable accumulation of the radiolabel. With 15 microM 65 Zn, we saw a biphasic pattern of uptake with a rapid first phase and a slower second phase over 120 min. Uptake of 65 Zn was inhibited by iodacetate and cold, and reduced approximately 50% by the addition of 2% albumin to the labelling medium. Neither ouabain nor 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake. Cells previously exposed to 65 Zn retained approximately 70% of accumulated 65 Zn 60 min after being changed to radiolabel-free medium. Following removal of cells from the extracellular matrix adherent to the dish bottom, a variable amount of nonspecific binding of 65 Zn to the residual matrix was demonstrated. These observations are consistent with a facilitated type of transport and demonstrate the ability of human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro to accumulate and retain zinc

  14. Regeneration of tracheal epithelium using mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masakazu; Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Yoshie, Susumu; Otsuki, Koshi; Miyake, Masao; Hazama, Akihiro; Wada, Ikuo; Omori, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion The findings demonstrated the potential use of induced pluripotent stem cells for regeneration of tracheal epithelium. Objective Autologous tissue implantation techniques using skin or cartilage are often applied in cases of tracheal defects with laryngeal inflammatory lesions and malignant tumor invasion. However, these techniques are invasive with an unstable clinical outcome. The purpose of this study was to investigate regeneration in a tracheal defect site of nude rats after implantation of ciliated epithelium that was differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells. Method Embryoid bodies were formed from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. They were cultured with growth factors for 5 days, and then cultured at the air-liquid interface. The degree of differentiation achieved prior to implantation was determined by histological findings and the results of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Embryoid bodies including ciliated epithelium were embedded into collagen gel that served as an artificial scaffold, and then implanted into nude rats, creating an 'air-liquid interface model'. Histological evaluation was performed 7 days after implantation. Results The ciliated epithelial structure survived on the lumen side of regenerated tissue. It was demonstrated histologically that the structure was composed of ciliated epithelial cells.

  15. Recovery of Vocal Fold Epithelium after Acute Phonotrauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Bernard; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Kimball, Emily E; Valenzuela, Carla V; Mizuta, Masanobu; Daniero, James J; Garrett, C Gaelyn; Sivasankar, M Preeti

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the timeline of tissue repair of vocal fold epithelium after acute vibration exposure using an in vivo rabbit model. Sixty-five New Zealand white breeder rabbits were randomized to 120 min of modal- or raised-intensity phonation. After the larynges were harvested at 0, 4, 8, and 24 h, and at 3 and 7 days, the vocal fold tissue was evaluated using electron microscopy and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. There was an immediate decrease in the microprojection depth and height following raised-intensity phonation, paired with upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2. This initial 24-h period was also characterized by the significant downregulation of junction proteins. Interleukin 1β and transforming growth factor β1 were upregulated for 3 and 7 days, respectively, followed by an increase in epithelial cell surface depth at 3 and 7 days. These data appear to demonstrate a shift from inflammatory response to the initiation of a restorative process in the vocal fold epithelium between 24 h and 3 days. Despite the initial damage from raised-intensity phonation, the vocal fold epithelium demonstrates a remarkable capacity for the expeditious recovery of structural changes from transient episodes of acute phonotrauma. While structurally intact, the return of functional barrier integrity may be delayed by repeated episodes of phonotrauma and may also play an important role in the pathophysiology of vocal fold lesions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Solitary chemoreceptor cell proliferation in adult nasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Finger, Thomas E

    2005-03-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) in the nasal epithelium (Finger et al., 2003). Many nasal SCCs express the G-protein alpha-gustducin as well as other elements of the bitter-taste signaling cascade including phospholipase Cbeta2, TRPM5 and T2R bitter-taste receptors. While some populations of sensory cells are replaced throughout life (taste and olfaction), others are not (hair cells and carotid body chemoreceptors). These experiments were designed to test whether new SCCs are generated within the epithelium of adult mice. Wild type C57/B6 mice were injected with the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. At various times after injection (1-40 days), the mice were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde and prepared for dual-label immunocytochemistry. Double labeled cells were detected as early as 3 days post BrdU injection and remained for as long as 12 days post-injection suggesting that SCCs do undergo turnover like the surrounding nasal epithelium. No BrdU labeled cells were detected after 24 days suggesting relatively rapid replacement of the SCCs.

  17. Electrocautery-induced localized colonic injury elicits increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in small bowel and decreases jejunal alanine absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barada, Kassem; Mourad, Fadi H; Noutsi, Bakiza; Saadé, Nayef E

    2015-01-01

    Colitis is associated with functional abnormalities in proximal non-inflamed gut areas, but animal models to study small bowel dysfunction in colitis have limitations. This study aims to determine small intestinal alanine absorption and cytokine expression in a novel model of colonic ulceration induced by electro-cautery. A descending colon ulcer was induced in rats by a bipolar electro-cautery probe. Ulcer score was determined using Satoh's criteria. Jejunal alanine absorption was measured immediately and at different time intervals post ulcer induction. Levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) protein and m-RNA were determined in mucosal scrapings obtained from the colon, duodenum, jejunum and ileum at various time intervals after colonic ulcer induction. The mean ulcer score was 3 up to 48h, followed by healing by 96h post ulcer induction. Small bowel histology was normal throughout. Jejunal alanine absorption was reduced by 12-34% immediately and up to 72h after cautery and returned to normal at 96h. IL-1 and TNF-α mRNA increased significantly in the colon, duodenum, jejunum and ileum 3h post electro-cautery and returned to normal at 48h, while that of IL-6 increased significantly at 48h post ulcer induction. Similarly, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α protein levels increased in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon up to 48h post ulcer induction. Electrically induced localized colonic injury increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in non-inflamed segments of the small intestine and was associated with derangements of jejunal absorptive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of corn replacement with graded levels of wheat screening and enzyme supplementation on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazhari, M.; Golian, A.; Kermanshahi, H.

    2015-07-01

    An experiment was carried out to study the effect of corn replacement with five levels of wheat screening (0, 150, 300, 450 and 600 g/kg of diet) with (0.5 g/kg of diet) or without xylanase-glucanase enzyme on performance, blood lipids, viscosity and jejunal histomorphology of finisher broilers (25-42 days of age). Five hundred day-old Ross-308 male broiler chicks were fed by a standard commercial diet up to 24 days of age, then randomly assigned to 10 diets. Each diet was fed to five groups of ten chicks each. There was not significant differences in body weight gain (BWG), feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of birds fed with different levels of wheat screening (WS), whereas enzyme increased (p<0.05) BWG. Different levels of WS and enzyme did not have a significant effect on relative weights of carcass, breast, thigh, and abdominal fat of broilers. Relative weights of gizzard, pancreas, small and large intestine, and relative length of jejunum and jejunal and ileal viscosity were increased (p<0.05) by WS, while were decreased (p<0.05) by enzyme. The serum cholesterol level decreased (p<0.05) by increasing levels of WS. Jejunal histomorphological observations showed (p<0.05) shorter and thicker villus and lower crypt depth by increasing levels of WS, while addition of enzyme to the diets, affected (p<0.05) reversely to these parameters. The results showed that the addition of wheat screening up to an inclusion level of 600 g/kg of diet had no adverse effect on broiler performance in the finisher (25-42 d) phases whereas decreased serum cholesterol levels, increased viscosity and villus atrophy. The dietary administration of exogenous enzyme improved performance parameters and decreased viscosity and villus atrophy of broiler jejunum. (Author)

  19. The effect of experimental gastric dilatation-volvulus on adenosine triphosphate content and conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peycke, Laura E; Hosgood, Giselle; Davidson, Jacqueline R; Tetens, Joanne; Taylor, H Wayne

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if experimental gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) would decrease adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration and increase membrane conductance of the canine gastric and jejunal mucosa. Male dogs (n = 15) weighing between 20 and 30 kg were used. Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 equal groups: Group 1 was control, group 2 was GDV, and group 3 was ischemia. All dogs were anesthetized for 210 min. Group 1 had no manipulation. Group 2 had GDV experimentally induced for 120 min followed by decompression, derotation, and reperfusion for 90 min. Group 3 had GDV experimentally induced for 210 min. Gastric (fundus and pylorus) and jejunal tissue was taken at 0, 120, and 210 min from all of the dogs. Tissue was analyzed for ATP concentration, mucosal conductance, and microscopic changes. The ATP concentration in the fundus did not change significantly from baseline in group 2, but decreased significantly below baseline at 210 min in group 3. The ATP concentration in the jejunum decreased significantly below baseline in groups 2 and 3 at 120 min, remaining significantly decreased in group 3 but returning to baseline at 210 min in group 2. Mucosal conductance of the fundus did not change significantly in any dog. Mucosal conductance of the jejunum increased at 120 min in groups 2 and 3, and became significantly increased above baseline at 210 min. The jejunal mucosa showed more profound cellular changes than the gastric mucosa. The jejunum showed substantial decreases in ATP concentration with an increase in mucosal conductance, suggesting cell membrane dysfunction. Dogs sustaining a GDV are likely to have a change in the activity of mucosal cells in the jejunum, which may be important in the pathophysiology of GDV.

  20. Jejunal feeding is followed by a greater rise in plasma cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, and glucagon-like peptide 2 concentrations compared with gastric feeding in vivo in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luttikhold, Joanna; van Norren, Klaske; Rijna, Herman

    2016-01-01

    and the associated endocrine response in vivo in humans remains largely unexplored. OBJECTIVE: We compared the impact of administering enteral nutrition as either gastric feeding or jejunal feeding on endocrine responses in vivo in humans. DESIGN: In a randomized, crossover study design, 12 healthy young men (mean...... and a greater postprandial incremental AUC for GLP-1 and cholecystokinin (all P young men results in similar postprandial plasma amino acid and glucose concentrations....... However, the endocrine response differs substantially, with higher peak plasma cholecystokinin, PYY, GLP-1, and GLP-2 concentrations being attained after jejunal feeding. This effect may result in an improved anabolic response, greater insulin sensitivity, and an improved intestinotropic effect...

  1. Uncut Esophagojejunostomy with Double Jejunal Pouch: An Alternative Reconstruction Method that Improves the Quality of Life of Patients after Total Gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jia Qing; Cao, Yong Kuan; Zhang, Guo Hu; Wang, Pei Hong; Luo, Guo De

    2017-04-01

    Currently, there is no optimal digestive tract reconstruction technique well recognized by scholars after total gastrectomy. In this study, a new reconstruction method, which is modified from the classic Roux-en-Y procedure, an uncut jejunal esophageal anastomosis with double jejunal pouch (UJEA-DJP) was established, and its advantages for improving the quality of life of patients who undergo total gastrectomy were analyzed. Altogether 160 patients with gastric cancer enrolled in our center from September 2009 to March 2012 received radical D2 total gastrectomy. According to the reconstruction methods used, these patients were divided into three groups: UJEA-DJP (n = 63), Roux-en-Y (n = 45), and P-loop with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy (P-RY; n = 52). The operation time for reconstruction, complications, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and the Visick classification among the three groups were analyzed. We found that UJEA-DJP has advantages over Roux-en-Y and P-RY regarding the time of digestive tract reconstruction, incidence rates for long-term complications, postoperative nutritional index, body weight recovery, and the Visick classification for subjective feelings (p quality of life of patients after surgical procedure.

  2. Histochemical characterization of glycoproteins present in jejunal and colonic goblet cells of pigs on different diets. A biopsy study using chemical methods and peroxidase-labelled lectins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, J; Fioramonti, J; Bénazet, F; Buéno, L

    1987-01-01

    We examined the glycoprotein composition of intestinal goblet cells in jejunal and colonic biopsies obtained from pigs on different diets. Paraffin sections were stained both chemically and with the following horseradish-peroxidase conjugated lectins: Canavalia ensiformis (Con-A), Limulus polyphemus (LPA), Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA), Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Ricinus communis (RCA1), Glycine max (SBA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA). Using chemical staining procedures, only small quantitative differences were noted between the two organs. With respect to lectin staining, the mucus of the jejunum was characterized by the absence of Con-A binding sites, and colonic mucus consistently exhibited an absence of SBA affinity. After dietary modifications, O-acetyl sialic acid reactivity was lowered in the jejunum but was enhanced in the colon. In the jejunum, the glycoproteins became neuraminidase susceptible, whereas the colon became characterized by the absence of neutral mucins. The affinity for the tested lectins after the different diets was variable, but the most striking effects were observed after the fibreless diet (milk alone). Our data suggest the existence of marked regional variations in goblet-cell mucus and indicate significant differences between the glycoprotein components of the jejunal and colonic mucosa. Furthermore, the biosynthesis of mucins in both regions was altered by even only short-term feeding modifications.

  3. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  4. Solitary Chemoreceptor Cell Proliferation in Adult Nasal Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbransen, Brian D.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) in the nasal epithelium (Finger et al., 2003). Many nasal SCCs express the G-protein α-gustducin as well as other elements of the bitter-taste signaling cascade including phospholipase Cβ2, TRPM5 and T2R bitter-taste receptors. While some populations of sensory cells are replaced throughout life (taste and olfaction), others are not (hair cells and carotid body chemoreceptors). These ...

  5. Immune defense mechanisms in the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukkila-Worley, Read; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2012-02-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells provide an essential line of defense for Caernohabditis elegans against ingested pathogens. Because nematodes consume microorganisms as their food source, there has presumably been selection pressure to evolve and maintain immune defense mechanisms within the intestinal epithelium. Here we review recent advances that further define the immune signaling network within these cells and suggest mechanisms used by the nematode to monitor for infection. In reviewing studies of pathogenesis that use this simple model system, we hope to illustrate some of the basic principles of epithelial immunity that may also be of relevance in higher order hosts. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Ultrastructure of respiratory tract epithelium following irradiation or application of cytostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konradova, V.; Smelhaus, V.; Kanta, J.

    1988-01-01

    The ultrastructure was studied of the large bronchi epithelium in 3 patients with malignant tumors where signs of pulmonary fibrosis were found following irradiation and combined therapy. In 2 patients, pseudostratified cylindrical epithelium was observed with signs of pathological alteration, in the third patient an altered pseudostratified cylindrical epithelium with ultrastructural signs of commencing reconstructure into stratified squamous epithelium. The findings in the respiratory track epithelium of the patients were similar to those observed in a group of children with chronic or relapsing bronchitis and bronchopneumonia. The findings show marked disturbance of the ciliary border caused by reduction in the number of kinocilia which is associated with an impairment of the self-cleaning capacity of epithelium. (author). 1 tab., 10 refs

  7. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.F.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  8. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N F; Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R; Henderson, R F; Mauderly, J L; Cuddihy, R G

    1988-12-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  9. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Apoorva; Akram, Khondoker M; Williams, Debbie; Armes, Hannah; Russell, Catherine; Hood, Derek; Armstrong, Stuart; Stewart, James P; Brown, Steve D M; Bingle, Lynne; Bingle, Colin D

    2016-11-01

    Otitis media (OM), or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME) epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs) at an air-liquid interface (ALI) that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host-pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Embryo-epithelium interactions during implantation at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, John D; Ruane, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    At implantation, with the acquisition of a receptive phenotype in the uterine epithelium, an initial tenuous attachment of embryonic trophectoderm initiates reorganisation of epithelial polarity to enable stable embryo attachment and the differentiation of invasive trophoblasts. In this Cell Science at a Glance article, we describe cellular and molecular events during the epithelial phase of implantation in rodent, drawing on morphological studies both in vivo and in vitro, and genetic models. Evidence is emerging for a repertoire of transcription factors downstream of the master steroidal regulators estrogen and progesterone that coordinate alterations in epithelial polarity, delivery of signals to the stroma and epithelial cell death or displacement. We discuss what is known of the cell interactions that occur during implantation, before considering specific adhesion molecules. We compare the rodent data with our much more limited knowledge of the human system, where direct mechanistic evidence is hard to obtain. In the accompanying poster, we represent the embryo-epithelium interactions in humans and laboratory rodents, highlighting similarities and differences, as well as depict some of the key cell biological events that enable interstitial implantation to occur. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Nanotopography follows force in TGF-β1 stimulated epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoelking, Gerold; Oberleithner, Hans; Riethmuller, Christoph; Reiss, Bjoern; Wegener, Joachim; Pavenstaedt, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation and cellular fibrosis often imply an involvement of the cytokine TGF-β1. TGF-β1 induces epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT), a term describing the loss of epithelium-specific function. Indicative for this process are an elongated cell shape parallel to stress fibre formation. Many signalling pathways of TGF-β1 have been discovered, but mechanical aspects have not yet been investigated. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to analyse surface topography and mechanical properties of EMT in proximal kidney tubule epithelium (NRK52E). Elongated cells, an increase of stress fibre formation and a loss of microvillus compatible structures were observed as characteristic signs of EMT. Furthermore, AFM could identify an increase in stiffness by 71% after six days of stimulation with TGF-β1. As a novel topographical phenomenon, nodular protrusions emerged at the cell-cell junctions. They occurred preferentially at sites where stress fibres cross the border. Since these nodular protrusions were sensitive to inhibitors of force generation, they can indicate intracellular tension. The results demonstrate a manifest impact of elevated tension on the cellular topography.

  12. Coordination of Cellular Dynamics Contributes to Tooth Epithelium Deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Ritsuko; Kihira, Miho; Nakatsu, Yousuke; Nomoto, Yohei; Ogawa, Miho; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Mizuno, Kensaku; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Morishita, Yoshihiro; Tsuji, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    The morphologies of ectodermal organs are shaped by appropriate combinations of several deformation modes, such as invagination and anisotropic tissue elongation. However, how multicellular dynamics are coordinated during deformation processes remains to be elucidated. Here, we developed a four-dimensional (4D) analysis system for tracking cell movement and division at a single-cell resolution in developing tooth epithelium. The expression patterns of a Fucci probe clarified the region- and stage-specific cell cycle patterns within the tooth germ, which were in good agreement with the pattern of the volume growth rate estimated from tissue-level deformation analysis. Cellular motility was higher in the regions with higher growth rates, while the mitotic orientation was significantly biased along the direction of tissue elongation in the epithelium. Further, these spatio-temporal patterns of cellular dynamics and tissue-level deformation were highly correlated with that of the activity of cofilin, which is an actin depolymerization factor, suggesting that the coordination of cellular dynamics via actin remodeling plays an important role in tooth epithelial morphogenesis. Our system enhances the understanding of how cellular behaviors are coordinated during ectodermal organogenesis, which cannot be observed from histological analyses. PMID:27588418

  13. The epithelium in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: breaking the barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eCamelo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive disease of unknown etiology characterised by a dysregulated wound healing response that leads to fatal accumulation of fibroblasts and extracellular matrix in the lung, which compromises tissue architecture and lung function capacity. Injury to type II alveolar epithelial cells is thought to be the key event for the initiation of the disease, and so far both genetic factors, such as mutations in telomerase and MUC5b genes as well as environmental components, like cigarette smoking, exposure to asbestos and viral infections have been implicated as potential initiating triggers. The injured epithelium then enters a state of senescence-associated secretory phenotype whereby it produces both pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors that contribute to the wound healing process in the lung. Immune cells, like macrophages and neutrophils as well as activated myofibroblasts then perpetuate this cascade of epithelial cell apoptosis and proliferation by release of pro-fibrotic TGF-β and continuous deposition of extracellular matrix stiffens the basement membrane, altogether having a deleterious impact on epithelial cell function. In this review we describe the role of the epithelium as both a physical and immunological barrier between environment and self in the homeostatic versus diseased lung and explore the potential mechanisms of epithelial cell injury and the impact of loss of epithelial cell permeability and function on cytokine production, inflammation and myofibroblast activation in the fibrotic lung.

  14. Radio-iodination of plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, H J; Edelman, I S [California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Cardiovascular Research Inst.; California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Medicine; California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry and Biophysics)

    1979-01-01

    The present report describes high yield enzymatic radio-iodination of the apical and basal-lateral plasma membranes of toad bladder epithelium with /sup 125/I-Na, by a procedure that does not breach the functional integrity of the epithelium, as assessed by the basal and vasopressin-sensitive short-circuit current (SCC). Iodination of basal-lateral plasma membranes, at a yield comparable to that obtained with apical labelling, was attained after about 30 min of exposure of the intact bladder to the labelling solutions. Approximately 25% of the basal-lateral labeling was lost when the epithelial cells were harvested after collagenase treatment, implying that some iodination of the basement membrane had taken place. Less than 10% of iodination of the apical or basal-lateral surfaces was accounted for by lipid-labeling. Analysis of the labeled apical and basal-lateral species by enzymatic digestion and thin layer chromatography disclosed that virtually all the radioactivity was present as mono-iodotyrosine (MIT). (orig./AJ).

  15. An in vitro model of murine middle ear epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apoorva Mulay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Otitis media (OM, or middle ear inflammation, is the most common paediatric disease and leads to significant morbidity. Although understanding of underlying disease mechanisms is hampered by complex pathophysiology it is clear that epithelial abnormalities underpin the disease. There is currently a lack of a well-characterised in vitro model of the middle ear (ME epithelium that replicates the complex cellular composition of the middle ear. Here, we report the development of a novel in vitro model of mouse middle ear epithelial cells (mMECs at an air–liquid interface (ALI that recapitulates the characteristics of the native murine ME epithelium. We demonstrate that mMECs undergo differentiation into the varied cell populations seen within the native middle ear. Proteomic analysis confirmed that the cultures secrete a multitude of innate defence proteins from their apical surface. We showed that the mMECs supported the growth of the otopathogen, nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi, suggesting that the model can be successfully utilised to study host–pathogen interactions in the middle ear. Overall, our mMEC culture system can help to better understand the cell biology of the middle ear and improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of OM. The model also has the potential to serve as a platform for validation of treatments designed to reverse aspects of epithelial remodelling that underpin OM development.

  16. Stem/progenitor cells derived from the cochlear sensory epithelium give rise to spheres with distinct morphologies and features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diensthuber, Marc; Oshima, Kazuo; Heller, Stefan

    2009-06-01

    Nonmammalian vertebrates regenerate lost sensory hair cells by means of asymmetric division of supporting cells. Inner ear or lateral line supporting cells in birds, amphibians, and fish consequently serve as bona fide stem cells resulting in high regenerative capacity of hair cell-bearing organs. Hair cell regeneration does not happen in the mammalian cochlea, but cells with proliferative capacity can be isolated from the neonatal cochlea. These cells have the ability to form clonal floating colonies, so-called spheres, when cultured in nonadherent conditions. We noticed that the sphere population derived from mouse cochlear sensory epithelium cells was heterogeneous, consisting of morphologically distinct sphere types, hereby classified as solid, transitional, and hollow. Cochlear sensory epithelium-derived stem/progenitor cells initially give rise to small solid spheres, which subsequently transition into hollow spheres, a change that is accompanied by epithelial differentiation of the majority of sphere cells. Only solid spheres, and to a lesser extent, transitional spheres, appeared to harbor self-renewing stem cells, whereas hollow spheres could not be consistently propagated. Solid spheres contained significantly more rapidly cycling Pax-2-expressing presumptive otic progenitor cells than hollow spheres. Islet-1, which becomes upregulated in nascent sensory patches, was also more abundant in solid than in hollow spheres. Likewise, hair cell-like cells, characterized by the expression of multiple hair cell markers, differentiated in significantly higher numbers in cell populations derived from solid spheres. We conclude that cochlear sensory epithelium cell populations initially give rise to small solid spheres that have self-renewing capacity before they subsequently convert into hollow spheres, a process that is accompanied by loss of stemness and reduced ability to spontaneously give rise to hair cell-like cells. Solid spheres might, therefore, represent

  17. Identification of short hairpin RNA targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus with transgenic bovine fetal epithelium cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is known that RNA interference (RNAi targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, it has not been previously investigated whether shRNAs targeting FMDV in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against FMDV challenge. PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we constructed three recombinant lentiviral vectors containing shRNA against VP2 (RNAi-VP2, VP3 (RNAi-VP3, or VP4 (RNAi-VP4 of FMDV, and found that all of them strongly suppressed the transient expression of a FLAG-tagged viral gene fusion protein in 293T cells. In BHK-21 cells, RNAi-VP4 was found to be more potent in inhibition of viral replication than the others with over 98% inhibition of viral replication. Therefore, recombinant lentiviral vector RNAi-VP4 was transfected into bovine fetal fibroblast cells to generate transgenic nuclear donor cells. With subsequent somatic cell cloning, we generated forty transgenic blastocysts, and then transferred them to 20 synchronized recipient cows. Three transgenic bovine fetuses were obtained after pregnant period of 4 months, and integration into chromosome in cloned fetuses was confirmed by Southern hybridization. The primary tongue epithelium cells of transgenic fetuses were isolated and inoculated with 100 TCID(50 of FMDV, and it was observed that shRNA significantly suppressed viral RNA synthesis and inhibited over 91% of viral replication after inoculation of FMDV for 48 h. CONCLUSION: RNAi-VP4 targeting viral VP4 gene appears to prevent primary epithelium cells of transgenic bovine fetus from FMDV infection, and it could be a candidate shRNA used for cultivation of transgenic cattle against FMDV.

  18. Isolation and in vitro expansion of human colonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jung, P.; Sato, T.; Merlos-Suarez, A.; Barriga, F.M.; Iglesias, M.; Rossell, D.; Auer, H.; Gallardo, M.; Blasco, M.A.; Sancho, E.; Clevers, H.; Batlle, E.

    2011-01-01

    Here we describe the isolation of stem cells of the human colonic epithelium. Differential cell surface abundance of ephrin type-B receptor 2 (EPHB2) allows the purification of different cell types from human colon mucosa biopsies. The highest EPHB2 surface levels correspond to epithelial colonic

  19. Conditional inactivation of p53 in mouse ovarian surface epithelium does not alter MIS driven Smad2-dominant negative epithelium-lined inclusion cysts or teratomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M Quartuccio

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy among US women. The etiology of this disease, although poorly understood, may involve the ovarian surface epithelium or the epithelium of the fallopian tube fimbriae as the progenitor cell. Disruptions in the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ pathway and p53 are frequently found in chemotherapy-resistant serous ovarian tumors. Transgenic mice expressing a dominant negative form of Smad2 (Smad2DN, a downstream transcription factor of the TGFβ signaling pathway, targeted to tissues of the reproductive tract were created on a FVB background. These mice developed epithelium-lined inclusion cysts, a potential precursor lesion to ovarian cancer, which morphologically resembled oviductal epithelium but exhibited protein expression more closely resembling the ovarian surface epithelium. An additional genetic "hit" of p53 deletion was predicted to result in ovarian tumors. Tissue specific deletion of p53 in the ovaries and oviducts alone was attempted through intrabursal or intraoviductal injection of Cre-recombinase expressing adenovirus (AdCreGFP into p53 (flox/flox mice. Ovarian bursal cysts were detected in some mice 6 months after intrabursal injection. No pathological abnormalities were detected in mice with intraoviductal injections, which may be related to decreased infectivity of the oviductal epithelium with adenovirus as compared to the ovarian surface epithelium. Bitransgenic mice, expressing both the Smad2DN transgene and p53 (flox/flox, were then exposed to AdCreGFP in the bursa and oviductal lumen. These mice did not develop any additional phenotypes. Exposure to AdCreGFP is not an effective methodology for conditional deletion of floxed genes in oviductal epithelium and tissue specific promoters should be employed in future mouse models of the disease. In addition, a novel phenotype was observed in mice with high expression of the Smad2DN transgene as validated

  20. Piezoelectric materials mimic the function of the cochlear sensory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Takatoshi; Shintaku, Hirofumi; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kawano, Satoyuki; Ogita, Hideaki; Sakamoto, Tatsunori; Hamanishi, Shinji; Wada, Hiroshi; Ito, Juichi

    2011-11-08

    Cochlear hair cells convert sound vibration into electrical potential, and loss of these cells diminishes auditory function. In response to mechanical stimuli, piezoelectric materials generate electricity, suggesting that they could be used in place of hair cells to create an artificial cochlear epithelium. Here, we report that a piezoelectric membrane generated electrical potentials in response to sound stimuli that were able to induce auditory brainstem responses in deafened guinea pigs, indicating its capacity to mimic basilar membrane function. In addition, sound stimuli were transmitted through the external auditory canal to a piezoelectric membrane implanted in the cochlea, inducing it to vibrate. The application of sound to the middle ear ossicle induced voltage output from the implanted piezoelectric membrane. These findings establish the fundamental principles for the development of hearing devices using piezoelectric materials, although there are many problems to be overcome before practical application.

  1. Asymmetric [14C]albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; LeBon, T.R.; Shinbane, J.S.; Crandall, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, 14 C-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, [ 14 C]albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space

  2. Alcohol-assisted versus Mechanical Epithelium Removal in Photorefractive Keratectomy

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    Mohammad Ghoreishi,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the outcomes and complications of alcohol-assisted versus mechanical corneal epithelial debridement for photorefractive keratectomy (PRK. Methods: This randomized controlled trial included 1,250 eyes of 625 patients undergoing PRK for correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism. Each patient was randomly assigned to alcohol-assisted or mechanical epithelial removal. Results: A total of 658 eyes underwent alcohol-assisted epithelial removal while the epithelium was removed mechanically in 592 eyes. Mean spherical equivalent was ‑4.37}2.3 D in the alcohol group and ‑3.8}1.3 D in the mechanical group (P = 0.78. There was no significant difference in postoperative pain between the study groups (P = 0.22. Uncorrected visual acuity ≥ 20/20 and ≥ 20/40 was achieved in 90.9% versus 93.4% (P = 0.08, and 98.9% versus 99.5% (P = 0.36 of eyes in the alcohol and mechanical groups, respectively. Final refractive error within 1D of emmetropia was achieved in 90% versus 92.2% of eyes in the alcohol and mechanical groups, respectively (P = 0.23. Alcohol-assisted debridement required less time than mechanical debridement (96±18 vs. 118±26 seconds, P=0.035. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of early and late postoperative complications. Conclusion: Alcohol-assisted and mechanical epithelium removal are comparable in terms of efficacy and side effects. The method of epithelial debridement in PRK may be left to the surgeon′s choice.

  3. Waterpipe smoking induces epigenetic changes in the small airway epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Walters

    Full Text Available Waterpipe (also called hookah, shisha, or narghile smoking is a common form of tobacco use in the Middle East. Its use is becoming more prevalent in Western societies, especially among young adults as an alternative form of tobacco use to traditional cigarettes. While the risk to cigarette smoking is well documented, the risk to waterpipe smoking is not well defined with limited information on its health impact at the epidemiologic, clinical and biologic levels with respect to lung disease. Based on the knowledge that airway epithelial cell DNA methylation is modified in response to cigarette smoke and in cigarette smoking-related lung diseases, we assessed the impact of light-use waterpipe smoking on DNA methylation of the small airway epithelium (SAE and whether changes in methylation were linked to the transcriptional output of the cells. Small airway epithelium was obtained from 7 nonsmokers and 7 light-use (2.6 ± 1.7 sessions/wk waterpipe-only smokers. Genome-wide comparison of SAE DNA methylation of waterpipe smokers to nonsmokers identified 727 probesets differentially methylated (fold-change >1.5, p<0.05 representing 673 unique genes. Dominant pathways associated with these epigenetic changes include those linked to G-protein coupled receptor signaling, aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling and xenobiotic metabolism signaling, all of which have been associated with cigarette smoking and lung disease. Of the genes differentially methylated, 11.3% exhibited a corresponding significant (p<0.05 change in gene expression with enrichment in pathways related to regulation of mRNA translation and protein synthesis (eIF2 signaling and regulation of eIF4 and p70S6K signaling. Overall, these data demonstrate that light-use waterpipe smoking is associated with epigenetic changes and related transcriptional modifications in the SAE, the cell population demonstrating the earliest pathologic abnormalities associated with chronic cigarette smoking.

  4. Combination of retinal pigment epithelium cell-conditioned medium and photoreceptor outer segments stimulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation toward a functional retinal pigment epithelium cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chen; Zhang, Jing; Ao, Mingxin; Li, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Xu, Yonggen; Li, Xuemin; Wang, Wei

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have suggested that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are capable of retinal tissue-specific differentiation but not retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell-specific differentiation. Photoreceptor outer segments (POS) contribute to RPE development and maturation. However, there has been no standard culture system that fosters the differentiation of BMMSCs into mature RPE cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated if the soluble factors from RPE cells and POS could differentiate BMMSCs into cells having a phenotype characteristic of RPE cells. Rat BMMSCs were separately co-cultured with RPE cells, or they were exposed to either control medium, RPE cell-conditioned medium (RPECM), POS, or a combination of RPECM and POS (RPECM-POS). After 7 days, the cells were analyzed for morphology and the expression of RPE markers (cytokeratin 8, CRALBP, and RPE65) to assess the RPE differentiation. Significantly higher pigment accumulation and increased protein expression of the three markers were seen in cells cultured in RPECM-POS than in other treated cultures. Furthermore, the RPECM-POS-treated cultures displayed ultrastructural features typical of RPE cells, expressed RPE cell functional proteins, and had the capability to phagocytose POS. Together, theses results suggest the combination of RPECM and POS stimulate BMMSCs differentiation toward a functional RPE phenotype. Our results provide the foundation for a new route to RPE regenerative therapy involving BMMSCs. Future work isolating the active agent in RPECM and POS would be useful in therapies for RPE diseases or in developing appropriately pre-differentiated BMMSCs for tissue-engineered RPE reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Airway responses towards allergens - from the airway epithelium to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Hansen, Søren; Würtzen, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    -damaged, healthy epithelium lowers the DCs ability to induce inflammatory T cell responses towards allergens. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on which signals from the airway epithelium, from first contact with inhaled allergens all the way to the ensuing Th2 cell responses...

  6. Transcriptome and H3K27 tri-methylation profiling of Ezh2-deficient lung epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaksei Z. Holik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of the lungs to air breathing at birth requires the fine orchestration of different processes to control lung morphogenesis and progenitor cell differentiation. However, there is little understanding of the role that epigenetic modifiers play in the control of lung development. We found that the histone methyl transferase Ezh2 plays a critical role in lung lineage specification and survival at birth. We performed a genome-wide transcriptome study combined with a genome-wide analysis of the distribution of H3K27 tri-methylation marks to interrogate the role of Ezh2 in lung epithelial cells. Lung cells isolated from Ezh2-deficient and control mice at embryonic day E16.5 were sorted into epithelial and mesenchymal populations based on EpCAM expression. This enabled us to dissect the transcriptional and epigenetic changes induced by the loss of Ezh2 specifically in the lung epithelium. Here we provide a detailed description of the analysis of the RNA-seq and ChIP-seq data, including quality control, read mapping, differential expression and differential binding analyses, as well as visualisation methods used to present the data. These data can be accessed from the Gene Expression Omnibus database (super-series accession number GSE57393.

  7. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of bacterial magnetosomes against human retinal pigment epithelium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lei; Lv, Xiujuan; Zhang, Tongwei; Jia, Peina; Yan, Ruiying; Li, Shuli; Zou, Ruitao; Xue, Yuhua; Dai, Liming

    2016-06-01

    A variety of nanomaterials have been developed for ocular diseases. The ability of these nanomaterials to pass through the blood-ocular barrier and their biocompatibility are essential characteristics that must be considered. Bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) are a type of biogenic magnetic nanomaterials synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria. Due to their unique biomolecular membrane shell and narrow size distribution of approximately 30 nm, BMs can pass through the blood-brain barrier. The similarity of the blood-ocular barrier to the blood-brain barrier suggests that BMs have great potential as treatments for ocular diseases. In this work, BMs were isolated from magnetotactic bacteria and evaluated in various cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies in human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) cells. The BMs entered ARPE-19 cells by endocytosis after a 6-h incubation and displayed much lower cytotoxicity than chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs exhibited significantly higher genotoxicity than BMs and promoted the expression of Bax (the programmed cell death acceleration protein) and the induction of greater cell necrosis. In BM-treated cells, apoptosis tended to be suppressed via increased expression of the Bcl-2 protein. In conclusion, BMs display excellent biocompatibility and potential for use in the treatment of ocular diseases.

  8. Wnt control of stem cells and differentiation in the intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Daniel; Clevers, Hans

    2005-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium represents a very attractive experimental model for the study of integrated key cellular processes such as proliferation and differentiation. The tissue is subjected to a rapid and perpetual self-renewal along the crypt-villus axis. Renewal requires division of multipotent stem cells, still to be morphologically identified and isolated, followed by transit amplification, and differentiation of daughter cells into specialized absorptive and secretory cells. Our understanding of the crucial role played by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in controlling the fine balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in the gut has been significantly enhanced in recent years. Mutations in some of its components irreversibly lead to carcinogenesis in humans and in mice. Here, we discuss recent advances related to the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in regulating intestinal stem cells, homeostasis, and cancer. We emphasize how Wnt signaling is able to maintain a stem cell/progenitor phenotype in normal intestinal crypts, and to impose a very similar phenotype onto colorectal adenomas

  9. Hypotonicity induced K+ and anion conductive pathways activation in eel intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lionetto, M G; Giordano, M E; De Nuccio, F

    2005-01-01

    , the activation of 'emergency' systems of rapid cell volume regulation is fundamental in their physiology. The aim of the present work was to study the physiological response to hypotonic stress in a salt-transporting epithelium, the intestine of the euryhaline teleost Anguilla anguilla. Eel intestinal epithelium......, when symmetrically bathed with Ringer solution, develops a net Cl- current giving rise to a negative transepithelial potential at the basolateral side of the epithelium. The eel intestinal epithelium responded to a hypotonic challenge with a biphasic decrease in the transepithelial voltage (V......(te)) and the short circuit current (I(sc)). This electrophysiological response correlated with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) response, recorded by morphometrical measurement of the epithelium height. Changes in the transepithelial resistance were also observed following the hypotonicity exposure...

  10. The ureteric bud epithelium: morphogenesis and roles in metanephric kidney patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagalakshmi, Vidya K; Yu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    The mammalian metanephric kidney is composed of two epithelial components, the collecting duct system and the nephron epithelium, that differentiate from two different tissues -the ureteric bud epithelium and the nephron progenitors, respectively-of intermediate mesoderm origin. The collecting duct system is generated through reiterative ureteric bud branching morphogenesis, whereas the nephron epithelium is formed in a process termed nephrogenesis, which is initiated with the mesenchymal-epithelial transition of the nephron progenitors. Ureteric bud branching morphogenesis is regulated by nephron progenitors, and in return, the ureteric bud epithelium regulates nephrogenesis. The metanephric kidney is physiologically divided along the corticomedullary axis into subcompartments that are enriched with specific segments of these two epithelial structures. Here, we provide an overview of the major molecular and cellular processes underlying the morphogenesis and patterning of the ureteric bud epithelium and its roles in the cortico-medullary patterning of the metanephric kidney. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Relaxant effect of ghrelin on guinea pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle: role of epithelial NO and PGE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayed, Mohammed Saeed Zayed

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the potential ghrelin relaxing effect on guinea pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). Using an in vitro experimental approach, the physiological role of the airway epithelium on smooth muscle relaxation has been investigated by analyzing the dose-response curves for carbachol- or histamine-induced contractions on epithelium intact versus denuded tracheal tissue. The relaxant effect of ghrelin (5-200 μmol/L) then investigated on carbachol-contracted, non-sensitized, and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pig TSM with an intact or denuded epithelium. The isolated TSMs from identical guinea pigs were incubated in Krebs solution aerated with 95% O 2 and 5% CO 2 through an automated tissue organ bath system (n = 6 for each group). The ghrelin relaxation mechanism was assessed by adding L-NAME, indomethacin, and YIL-781 for GHS-R1 into the tissue chamber. The spasmogens carbachol and histamine have shown a significantly higher contracting effect on epithelium-denuded than in epithelium-intact TSM confirmed by the significantly higher mean pEC50 of both agonists on the epithelium-denuded trachea (p < 0.05). Ghrelin has shown a concentration-dependent relaxing effect on carbachol-contracted TSM (r = 0.96, p = 0.00). The effect was more evident in the intact non-sensitized than in epithelium-denuded or OVA-sensitized groups (p < 0.05). Preincubation with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) inhibitors has significantly reduced the ghrelin-induced relaxation on epithelium-intact TSM suggesting an epithelium-dependant mechanism. However, GHS-R1a antagonist has also succeeded to reduce ghrelin relaxant effect, which needs further clarification. Ghrelin proved to have a potential TSM relaxant effect possibly through epithelium-dependant mechanisms involving NO and PGE 2 .

  12. Epithelium percentage estimation facilitates epithelial quantitative protein measurement in tissue specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Bova, George Steven; Li, Qing Kay; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    The rapid advancement of high-throughput tools for quantitative measurement of proteins has demonstrated the potential for the identification of proteins associated with cancer. However, the quantitative results on cancer tissue specimens are usually confounded by tissue heterogeneity, e.g. regions with cancer usually have significantly higher epithelium content yet lower stromal content. It is therefore necessary to develop a tool to facilitate the interpretation of the results of protein measurements in tissue specimens. Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cathepsin L (CTSL) are two epithelial proteins whose expressions in normal and tumorous prostate tissues were confirmed by measuring staining intensity with immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The expressions of these proteins were measured by ELISA in protein extracts from OCT embedded frozen prostate tissues. To eliminate the influence of tissue heterogeneity on epithelial protein quantification measured by ELISA, a color-based segmentation method was developed in-house for estimation of epithelium content using H&E histology slides from the same prostate tissues and the estimated epithelium percentage was used to normalize the ELISA results. The epithelium contents of the same slides were also estimated by a pathologist and used to normalize the ELISA results. The computer based results were compared with the pathologist's reading. We found that both EpCAM and CTSL levels, measured by ELISA assays itself, were greatly affected by epithelium content in the tissue specimens. Without adjusting for epithelium percentage, both EpCAM and CTSL levels appeared significantly higher in tumor tissues than normal tissues with a p value less than 0.001. However, after normalization by the epithelium percentage, ELISA measurements of both EpCAM and CTSL were in agreement with IHC staining results, showing a significant increase only in EpCAM with no difference in CTSL expression in cancer tissues. These results

  13. Definitive management of isolated esophageal atresia: Experience at NICH Karachi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Iftikhar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Definitive treatment of isolated esophageal atresia (IEA is still controversial. A study was conducted to review cases of IEA in our department with a view to evaluate the long term results of definitive surgery in these patients. Materials and Methods: Nine consecutive patients with IEA were included in the study. All babies initially underwent cervical esophagostomy and feeding gastrostomy. One baby also had anorectal atresia and needed a colostomy. In 6 babies, end esophagostomy was performed while in 3 babies, lateral esophagostomy was performed. Of the 6 babies with end esophagostomy, two underwent jejunal Interpositioning, two had serial extra-thoracic lengthening and two reverse gastric tube interpositiong. Three babies with lateral esophagostomy were planned for delayed primary repair. Results: Both babies with jejunal interpositiong initially did well; serious gastro-esophageal reflux occurred in one baby who needed antireflux surgery. At 6 years follow-up both children had redundant Jejunum. Recurrent Respiratory tract infection remained a problem in one child while other is doing well. Of the two babies with extrathoracic lengthening it was possible to perform end to end anastomosis in one baby but in the other extrathoracic lengthening did not work and gastric transpositioning was performed. Of the two babies with reverse gastric tube interpositioning one developed esophageal stenosis at the site of anastomosis and is on serial dilatations. Other died due to anastomotic leak and mediastinitis. In all the three babies with lateral esophagostomy spontaneous lengthening of esophagus was noted. End to end anastomosis was possible in two of these babies who are doing well. One is waiting definitive surgery. Number of complications, hospital stay and cost of surgery was least in patients with lateral esophagostomy. Conclusion: Various methods of definitive treatment have been proposed for isolated esophageal atresia but each

  14. Evaluation of different toxicity assays applied to proliferating cells and to stratified epithelium in relation to permeability enhancement with glycocholate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eirheim, Heidi Ugelstad; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate different toxicity assays for use on proliferating buccal TR146 cells and on stratified TR146 epithelium and to compare these results to the permeability enhancing effect of glycocholate (GC). Both the proliferating cells and the epithelium were...... across the epithelium concurrent with a decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was also determined. The robustness of the epithelium was significantly higher than that of the proliferating cells (P...

  15. Process of tight junction recovery in the injured vocal fold epithelium: Morphological and paracellular permeability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryo; Katsuno, Tatsuya; Kishimoto, Yo; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Mizuta, Masanobu; Suehiro, Atsushi; Yamashita, Masaru; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Tateya, Ichiro; Omori, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    The vocal fold epithelium that includes tight junction (TJ)-based barrier function protects underlying connective tissues from external insults. TJs play an important role to control paracellular permeability of not only solutes but also ions, and preserve the vocal fold homeostasis. However, the distribution of TJs and paracellular diffusion barrier across the entire vocal fold epithelium are still unknown. The aim of this study was to identify the distribution of TJs in the vocal fold epithelium and to characterize the recovery process of TJ-based paracellular diffusion barrier in a rat model of vocal fold injury. Animal experiments with controls. Normal and vocal fold-injured rats were used. Larynges were harvested for immunohistochemical examination of TJ proteins. For functional analysis, a tracer permeability assay was performed using EZ-Link Sulfo-NHS-LC-Biotin. TJ proteins occludin and zonula occludens 1 signals were localized to the junctional regions of the most luminal cell layers of the vocal fold epithelium. The injured region had been recovered with epithelium at 5 days postinjury, but the paracellular diffusion barrier assays revealed that biotinylation reagents diffused into the lamina propria at 5 days postinjury, and were blocked at the epithelium at 14 and 28 days postinjury. It was strongly suggested that TJs in the vocal fold epithelium exist at the junctional regions of the first layer of stratified squamous epithelium. TJ-based paracellular diffusion barrier following vocal fold injury is recovered by 14 days postinjury, and this period corresponds with the time course of structural changes in the regenerating epithelium layer. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:E150-E156, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  16. The A0 blood group genotype modifies the jejunal glycomic binding pattern profile of piglets early associated with a simple or complex microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priori, D.; Colombo, M.; Koopmans, S.J.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Meulen, van der J.; Trevisi, P.; Bosi, P.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium glycocalyx sugar motif is an important determinant of the bacterial-host interaction and may be affected in pigs by gut microbiota and by blood group genotype. The aim was to study the effect of intestinal association with different microbiota and A0 blood group

  17. SPDEF regulates goblet cell hyperplasia in the airway epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwon-Sik; Korfhagen, Thomas R.; Bruno, Michael D.; Kitzmiller, Joseph A.; Wan, Huajing; Wert, Susan E.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.; Chen, Gang; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    Goblet cell hyperplasia and mucous hypersecretion contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases including cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In the present work, mouse SAM pointed domain-containing ETS transcription factor (SPDEF) mRNA and protein were detected in subsets of epithelial cells lining the trachea, bronchi, and tracheal glands. SPDEF interacted with the C-terminal domain of thyroid transcription factor 1, activating transcription of genes expressed selectively in airway epithelial cells, including Sftpa, Scgb1a1, Foxj1, and Sox17. Expression of Spdef in the respiratory epithelium of adult transgenic mice caused goblet cell hyperplasia, inducing both acidic and neutral mucins in vivo, and stainined for both acidic and neutral mucins in vivo. SPDEF expression was increased at sites of goblet cell hyperplasia caused by IL-13 and dust mite allergen in a process that was dependent upon STAT-6. SPDEF was induced following intratracheal allergen exposure and after Th2 cytokine stimulation and was sufficient to cause goblet cell differentiation of Clara cells in vivo. PMID:17347682

  18. Smoking influences on the thickness of marginal gingival epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar Cristina Cunha

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking patients show reduction of inflammatory clinical signs that might be associated with local vasoconstriction and an increased gingival epithelial thickness. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the thickness of the marginal gingival oral epithelium in smokers and non-smokers, with clinically healthy gingivae or with gingivitis. Twenty biopsies were obtained from four different groups. Group I: non-smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group II: non-smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. Group III: smokers with clinically healthy gingivae (n = 5. Group IV: smokers with gingivitis (n = 5. These biopsies were histologically processed, serially sectioned at 5 mm, stained with H. E., and examined by image analysis software (KS400, which was used to perform the morphometric evaluation and the quantification of the major epithelial thickness, the epithelial base thickness and the external and internal epithelial perimeters. Differences between the four groups were analyzed using ANOVA test and Tukey's test. The criteria for statistical significance were accepted at the probability level p < 0.05. A greater epithelial thickness was observed in smokers independent of the gingival health situation.

  19. Paraoxonase Enzyme Protects Retinal Pigment Epithelium from Chlorpyrifos Insult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasna, Jagan Mohan; Anandbabu, Kannadasan; Bharathi, Subramaniam Rajesh; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy

    2014-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) provides nourishment and protection to the eye. RPE dysfunction due to oxidative stress and inflammation is one of the major reason for many of the retinal disorders. Organophosphorus pesticides are widely used in the agricultural, industrial and household activities in India. However, their effects on the eye in the context of RPE has not been studied. In this study the defense of the ARPE19 cells exposed to Chlorpyrifos (1 nM to 100 µM) in terms of the enzyme paraoxonase (PON) was studied at 24 hr and 9 days of treatment. Chlorpyrifos was found to induce oxidative stress in the ARPE19 cells as seen by significant increase in ROS and decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels without causing cell death. Tissue resident Paraoxonase 2 (PON2) mRNA expression was elevated with chlorpyrifos exposure. The three enzymatic activities of PON namely, paraoxonase (PONase), arylesterase (PON AREase) and thiolactonase (PON HCTLase) were also found to be significantly altered to detoxify and as an antioxidant defense. Among the transcription factors regulating PON2 expression, SP1 was significantly increased with chlorpyrifos exposure. PON2 expression was found to be crucial as ARPE19 cells showed a significant loss in their ability to withstand oxidative stress when the cells were subjected to chlorpyrifos after silencing PON2 expression. Treatment with N-acetyl cysteine positively regulated the PON 2 expression, thus promoting the antioxidant defense put up by the cells in response to chlorpyrifos. PMID:24979751

  20. Chronic Alcohol Ingestion Changes the Landscape of the Alveolar Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles A. Downs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Similar to effects of alcohol on the heart, liver, and brain, the effects of ethanol (EtOH on lung injury are preventable. Unlike other vital organ systems, however, the lethal effects of alcohol on the lung are underappreciated, perhaps because there are no signs of overt pulmonary disorder until a secondary insult, such as a bacterial infection or injury, occurs in the lung. This paper provides overview of the complex changes in the alveolar environment known to occur following both chronic and acute alcohol exposures. Contemporary animal and cell culture models for alcohol-induced lung dysfunction are discussed, with emphasis on the effect of alcohol on transepithelial transport processes, namely, epithelial sodium channel activity (ENaC. The cascading effect of tissue and phagocytic Nadph oxidase (Nox may be triggered by ethanol exposure, and as such, alcohol ingestion and exposure lead to a prooxidative environment; thus impacting alveolar macrophage (AM function and oxidative stress. A better understanding of how alcohol changes the landscape of the alveolar epithelium can lead to improvements in treating acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS for which hospitalized alcoholics are at an increased risk.

  1. Regulation of Tight Junctions in Upper Airway Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kojima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal barrier of the upper respiratory tract including the nasal cavity, which is the first site of exposure to inhaled antigens, plays an important role in host defense in terms of innate immunity and is regulated in large part by tight junctions of epithelial cells. Tight junction molecules are expressed in both M cells and dendritic cells as well as epithelial cells of upper airway. Various antigens are sampled, transported, and released to lymphocytes through the cells in nasal mucosa while they maintain the integrity of the barrier. Expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function in normal human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs are affected by various stimuli including growth factor, TLR ligand, and cytokine. In addition, epithelial-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, which is a master switch for allergic inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis, enhances the barrier function together with an increase of tight junction molecules in HNECs. Furthermore, respiratory syncytial virus infection in HNECs in vitro induces expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function together with proinflammatory cytokine release. This paper summarizes the recent progress in our understanding of the regulation of tight junctions in the upper airway epithelium under normal, allergic, and RSV-infected conditions.

  2. Tissue fixation and autoradiographic negative chemography in rat oral epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prime, S.S.; MacDonald, D.G. (Glasgow Dental Hospital (UK))

    1983-01-01

    The effect of routine methods of tissue fixation on autoradiographic negative chemography was investigated in adult rat palatal and tongue epithelia following the incorporation of /sup 3/H thymidine in vivo. Tissues fixed in formalin or Bouin's without acetic acid demonstrated more negative chemography than those fixed in Bouin's fluid, formol-acetic-methanol or Carnoy's solutions. These findings were associated with the lowest silver grain counts per nucleus in the formalin fixed tissues, low grain counts in tissues fixed in Bouin's without acetic acid, but the addition of acetic acid to make complete Bouin's fluid gave results similar to those following fixation with Carnoy's solution. The highest silver grain counts were obtained with tissues fixed in formol-acetic-methanol. The relationship between negative chemography and the labelling indices of tissues was unclear except where the negative chemographic effects were severe. Formalin fixed tissues showed the maximum negative chemographic effects and the lowest labelling indices. Carnoy's solution appeared to be the fixative of choice for cell kinetic studies of oral epithelium.

  3. Histone Deacetylase Inhibition Restores Retinal Pigment Epithelium Function in Hyperglycemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Desjardins

    Full Text Available In diabetic individuals, macular edema is a major cause of vision loss. This condition is refractory to insulin therapy and has been attributed to metabolic memory. The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE is central to maintaining fluid balance in the retina, and this function is compromised by the activation of advanced glycation end-product receptors (RAGE. Here we provide evidence that acute administration of the RAGE agonist, glycated-albumin (gAlb or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, increased histone deacetylase (HDAC activity in RPE cells. The administration of the class I/II HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin-A (TSA, suppressed gAlb-induced reductions in RPE transepithelial resistance (in vitro and fluid transport (in vivo. Systemic TSA also restored normal RPE fluid transport in rats with subchronic hyperglycemia. Both gAlb and VEGF increased HDAC activity and reduced acetyl-α-tubulin levels. Tubastatin-A, a relatively specific antagonist of HDAC6, inhibited gAlb-induced changes in RPE cell resistance. These data are consistent with the idea that RPE dysfunction following exposure to gAlb, VEGF, or hyperglycemia is associated with increased HDAC6 activity and decreased acetyl-α-tubulin. Therefore, we propose inhibiting HDAC6 in the RPE as a potential therapy for preserving normal fluid homeostasis in the hyperglycemic retina.

  4. Glucose, epithelium, and enteric nervous system: dialogue in the dark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

    2009-06-01

    The gastrointestinal epithelium is in close contact with the various components of the chymus, including nutrients, bacteria and toxins. The epithelial barrier has to decide which components are effectively absorbed and which components are extruded. In the small intestine, a nutrient like glucose is mainly absorbed by the sodium linked glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and the glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The expression and activity of both transport proteins is directly linked to the amount of intraluminal glucose. Besides the direct interaction between glucose and the enterocytes, glucose also stimulates different sensory mechanisms within the intestinal wall. The most important types of cells involved in the sensing of intraluminal contents are enteroendocrine cells and neurones of the enteric nervous system. Regarding glucosensing, a distinct type of enteroendocrine cells, the enterochromaffine (EC) cells are involved. Excitation of EC cells by intraluminal glucose results in the release of serotonin (5-HT), which modulates epithelial functions and activates enteric secretomotorneurones. Enteric neurones are not only activated by 5-HT, but also directly by glucose. The activation of different cell types and the subsequent crosstalk between these cells may trigger appropriate absorptive and secretory processes within the intestine.

  5. LOCALIZATION OF PERMEABILITY BARRIERS IN THE FROG SKIN EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Palomo, A.; Erlij, D.; Bracho, H.

    1971-01-01

    Ruthenium red and colloidal lanthanum were used to determine the site of the structural barriers to diffusion within the intercellular spaces of frog skin epithelium. Electron micrographs show that occluding zonules located at the outer border of the stratum corneum and at the outer layer of the stratum granulosum are true tight junctions since they are impermeable to these tracers. Measurement of 140La uptake by the living skin shows that lanthanum moves across the external surface of the skin readily, into and out of a compartment that has a limited capacity and is bounded on its internal side by a barrier impermeable to lanthanum. Examination of these skins with the electron microscope suggests that the compartment is localized between the external membrane of the cells at the outer layer of the s. granulosum and at the outermost surface of the skin. These observations and other findings described in the literature indicate that the site of the external high resistance barrier of the frog skin is localized at the outer border of the s. granulosum. PMID:4329611

  6. Tissue fixation and autoradiographic negative chemography in rat oral epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prime, S.S.; MacDonald, D.G.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of routine methods of tissue fixation on autoradiographic negative chemography was investigated in adult rat palatal and tongue epithelia following the incorporation of 3 H thymidine in vivo. Tissues fixed in formalin or Bouin's without acetic acid demonstrated more negative chemography than those fixed in Bouin's fluid, formol-acetic-methanol or Carnoy's solutions. These findings were associated with the lowest silver grain counts per nucleus in the formalin fixed tissues, low grain counts in tissues fixed in Bouin's without acetic acid, but the addition of acetic acid to make complete Bouin's fluid gave results similar to those following fixation with Carnoy's solution. The highest silver grain counts were obtained with tissues fixed in formol-acetic-methanol. The relationship between negative chemography and the labelling indices of tissues was unclear except where the negative chemographic effects were severe. Formalin fixed tissues showed the maximum negative chemographic effects and the lowest labelling indices. Carnoy's solution appeared to be the fixative of choice for cell kinetic studies of oral epithelium. (author)

  7. Regeneration of stem-cells in intestinal epithelium after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Stem-cells can be defined as pluripotent progenitor cells, capable of both self-renewal and differentitation into all the functional end-cells typical of that cell family. Intestinal crypts contain population of cells which is capable of a) self-renewal following the severe depletion after radiation injury, b) replacing all other cypt cell types, and c) regeneration following repeated depletion (in colon). These are the properties of stem cells. Most measurements of the rate of regeneration of these cells following the severe depletion by radiation have been made by employing large test dose at increasing times. Such measurements have produced widely differing rates of increase in the survival under the test dose, from 4 hours (macrocolonies in jejunum) to 43 hours (microcolonies in stomach). In other tissues, large single test doses have been used to derive the time of doubling survival ratio e.g. for epidermal clones. Although cryptogenic cell number per crypt can be virtually restored by day 4 after a single dose and probably after many such doses, the status quo cannot be reached until the number of crypts is restored to normal. Stem cell numbers form a necessary part of the integrity of epitheliums. The quality of the stem cell function of survivors as expressed in the differentiated progeny, and the maintenance of function of the supportive environment are equally important for late radiation damage. (Yamashita, S.)

  8. Surface characteristics of isopod digestive gland epithelium studied by SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millaku, Agron; Leser, Vladka; Drobne, Damjana; Godec, Matjaz; Torkar, Matjaz; Jenko, Monika; Milani, Marziale; Tatti, Francesco

    2010-05-01

    The structure of the digestive gland epithelium of a terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber has been investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB/SEM), and light microscopy in order to provide evidence on morphology of the gland epithelial surface in animals from a stock culture. We investigated the shape of cells, extrusion of lipid droplets, shape and distribution of microvilli, and the presence of bacteria on the cell surface. A total of 22 animals were investigated and we found some variability in the appearance of the gland epithelial surface. Seventeen of the animals had dome-shaped digestive gland "normal" epithelial cells, which were densely and homogeneously covered by microvilli and varying proportions of which extruded lipid droplets. On the surface of microvilli we routinely observed sparsely distributed bacteria of different shapes. Five of the 22 animals had "abnormal" epithelial cells with a significantly altered shape. In three of these animals, the cells were much smaller, partly or completely flat or sometimes pyramid-like. A thick layer of bacteria was detected on the microvillous border, and in places, the shape and size of microvilli were altered. In two animals, hypertrophic cells containing large vacuoles were observed indicating a characteristic intracellular infection. The potential of SEM in morphological investigations of epithelial surfaces is discussed.

  9. Patient-specific three-dimensional explant spheroids derived from human nasal airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Stevens, Elizabeth Munkebjerg; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional explant spheroid formation is an ex vivo technique previously used in studies of airway epithelial ion and water transport. Explanted cells and sheets of nasal epithelium form fully differentiated spheroids enclosing a partly fluid-filled lumen with the ciliated apical...... surface facing the outside and accessible for analysis of ciliary function. METHODS: We performed a two-group comparison study of ciliary beat pattern and ciliary beat frequency in spheroids derived from nasal airway epithelium in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and in healthy controls...... in the investigation of pathophysiological aspects and drug effects in human nasal airway epithelium....

  10. Palatal shelf epithelium: a morphologic and histochemical study in X-irradiated and normal mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartner, L.P.; Hiatt, J.L.; Provenza, D.V.

    1978-01-01

    The palatal shelf epithelium of normal and irradiated mice was examined morphologically and histochemically, utilizing the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) technique for the demonstration of the basement membrane and the Nitro BT method for succinate dehydrogenase activity in order to demonstrate the metabolic competence of its cells. The 'programmed cell death theory' was not supported by the present investigation, since the cells of the medial ridge epithelium retained their structural and metabolic integrity even subsequent to the formation of cell nests. Additionally, the medial ridge epithelium of mice with radiation-induced cleft palates demonstrated normal structural and metabolic integrity long past the prospective time of fusion. (author)

  11. Lipopolysaccharide hyperpolarizes guinea pig airway epithelium by increasing the activities of the epithelial Na(+) channel and the Na(+)-K(+) pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodrill, Michael W; Fedan, Jeffrey S

    2010-10-01

    Earlier, we found that systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 4 mg/kg) hyperpolarized the transepithelial potential difference (V(t)) of tracheal epithelium in the isolated, perfused trachea (IPT) of the guinea pig 18 h after injection. As well, LPS increased the hyperpolarization component of the response to basolateral methacholine, and potentiated the epithelium-derived relaxing factor-mediated relaxation responses to hyperosmolar solutions applied to the apical membrane. We hypothesized that LPS stimulates the transepithelial movement of Na(+) via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)/Na(+)-K(+) pump axis, leading to hyperpolarization of V(t). LPS increased the V(t)-depolarizing response to amiloride (10 μM), i.e., offset the effect of LPS, indicating that Na(+) transport activity was increased. The functional activity of ENaC was measured in the IPT after short-circuiting the Na(+)-K(+) pump with basolateral amphotericin B (7.5 μM). LPS had no effect on the hyperpolarization response to apical trypsin (100 U/ml) in the Ussing chamber, indicating that channel-activating proteases are not involved in the LPS-induced activation of ENaC. To assess Na(+)-K(+) pump activity in the IPT, ENaC was short-circuited with apical amphotericin B. The greater V(t) in the presence of amphotericin B in tracheas from LPS-treated animals compared with controls revealed that LPS increased Na(+)-K(+) pump activity. This finding was confirmed in the Ussing chamber by inhibiting the Na(+)-K(+) pump via extracellular K(+) removal, loading the epithelium with Na(+), and observing a greater hyperpolarization response to K(+) restoration. Together, the findings of this study reveal that LPS hyperpolarizes the airway epithelium by increasing the activities of ENaC and the Na(+)-K(+) pump.

  12. Increased cholinergic contractions of jejunal smooth muscle caused by a high cholesterol diet are prevented by the 5-HT4 agonist – tegaserod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffer Eldon

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excess cholesterol in bile and in blood is a major risk factor for the respective development of gallbladder disease and atherosclerosis. This lipid in excess negatively impacts the functioning of other smooth muscles, including the intestine. Serotonin is an important mediator of the contractile responses of the small intestine. Drugs targeting the serotonin receptor are used as prokinetic agents to manage intestinal motor disorders, in particular irritable bowel syndrome. Thus, tegaserod, acting on 5-HT4 receptor, ideally should obviate detrimental effects of excessive cholesterol on gastrointestinal smooth muscle. In this study we examined the effect of tegaserod on cholesterol-induced changes in the contractile responses of intestinal smooth muscle. Methods The effects of a high cholesterol (1% diet on the in vitro contractile responses of jejunal longitudinal smooth muscle from Richardson ground squirrels to the cholinergic agonist carbachol were examined in the presence or absence of tetrodrodotoxin (TTX. Two groups of animals, fed either low (0.03% or high cholesterol rat chow diet, were further divided into two subgroups and treated for 28 days with either vehicle or tegaserod. Results The high cholesterol diet increased, by nearly 2-fold, contractions of the jejunal longitudinal smooth muscle elicited by carbachol. These cholinergic contractions were mediated by muscarinic receptors since they were blocked by scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, but not by the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium. Tegaserod treatment, which did not affect cholinergic contractions of tissues from low cholesterol fed animals, abrogated the increase caused by the high cholesterol diet. With low cholesterol diet TTX enhanced carbachol-evoked contractions, whereas this action potential blocker did not affect the augmented cholinergic contractions seen with tissues from animals on the high cholesterol diet. Tegaserod

  13. Effects of Duodenal-Jejunal Exclusion and New Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion on Blood Glucose in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Shan Geng; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Xiaojian; Chen, Hao

    2017-08-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB), new bilio-pancreatic diversion (NBPD), and duodenal-jejunal exclusion (DJE) on blood glucose in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed with high glucose, high fat food, and intraperitoneally injected with streptozotocin to establish a T2DM animal model. T2DM rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups: a sham group (n = 8), DJB group (n = 9), NBPD group (n = 10), and DJE group (n = 10). Body weight, 2-h postprandial glucose, oral glucose tolerance, fasting serum bile acid, 2-h postprandial serum bile acid, fasting insulin, 2-h postprandial insulin (INS), fasting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and 2-h postprandial GLP-1 were measured before and after surgery. Six weeks after surgery, the 2-h postprandial glucose in the DJB (16.1 ± 6.7 mmol/L) and NBPD (19.5 ± 5.7 mmol/L) groups decreased significantly compared to the sham group (25.8 ± 4.9 mmol/L) (P  0.05). Four weeks after surgery, fasting serum bile acid in the DJB group (60.6 ± 11.4 μmol/L) and NBPD group (54.4 ± 7.64 μmol/L) was significantly higher than that in the sham group (34.3 ± 6.98 μmol/L; P  0.05). Body weight remained stable after surgery in all 4 groups (P > 0.05). NBPD plays a major role in the therapy of T2DM with DJB. NBPD may significantly increase fasting serum bile acid in T2DM rats, an action that may be one of the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic effects of DJB on T2DM.

  14. FORMALDEHYDE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION IN F344 RAT NASAL RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaldehyde-induced gene expression in F344 rat nasal respiratory epithelium ABSTRACTFormaldehyde, an occupational and environmental toxicant used extensively in the manufacturing of many household and personal use products, is known to induce squamous cell carci...

  15. Digital histologic analysis reveals morphometric patterns of age-related involution in breast epithelium and stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Rupninder; Chollet-Hinton, Lynn; Kirk, Erin L; Midkiff, Bentley; Troester, Melissa A

    2016-02-01

    Complete age-related regression of mammary epithelium, often termed postmenopausal involution, is associated with decreased breast cancer risk. However, most studies have qualitatively assessed involution. We quantitatively analyzed epithelium, stroma, and adipose tissue from histologically normal breast tissue of 454 patients in the Normal Breast Study. High-resolution digital images of normal breast hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides were partitioned into epithelium, adipose tissue, and nonfatty stroma. Percentage area and nuclei per unit area (nuclear density) were calculated for each component. Quantitative data were evaluated in association with age using linear regression and cubic spline models. Stromal area decreased (P = 0.0002), and adipose tissue area increased (P epithelium. Epithelial nuclear density is a quantitative measure of age-related breast involution that begins to decline in the early premenopausal period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Michinaga; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    Shigella, Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery. Although Shigella have neither adherence factors nor flagella required for attaching or accessing the intestinal epithelium, Shigella are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate immune response. During Shigella infection, they deliver many numbers of effectors through the type III secretion system into the surrounding space and directly into the host-cell cytoplasm. The effectors play pivotal roles from the onset of bacterial infection through to the establishment of the colonization of the intestinal epithelium, such as bacterial invasion, intracellular survival, subversion of the host immune defense response, and maintenance of the infectious foothold. These examples suggest that Shigella have evolved highly sophisticated infectious and intracellular strategies to establish replicative niches in the intestinal epithelium.

  17. Regional variations of cell surface carbohydrates in human oral stratified epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Hakomori, S

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of blood group carbohydrate chains with antigen A, B, H type 2 chain (A and B precursor), and N-acetyllactosamine (H type 2 precursor) specificity was studied in human oral epithelium from different anatomical regions. These represented various epithelial differentiation patterns...... epithelium from nine blood group A, two blood group B, and nine blood group O individuals. The blood group carbohydrate chains were examined in tissue sections by immunofluorescence microscopy. The A and B blood group antigens were detected by human blood group sera, and antigen H type 2 chains and N...... antigen H type 2 chains in metaplastically keratinized buccal epithelium was found to differ significantly from that seen in normal non-keratinized buccal epithelium. The regional variations demonstrated in cell surface carbohydrates are suggested to reflect differences in tissue differentiation....

  18. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva

    2006-11-15

    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  19. Does autophagy in the midgut epithelium of centipedes depend on the day/night cycle?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rost-Roszkowska, M.M.; Chajec, Ł.; Vilímová, J.; Tajovský, Karel; Kszuk-Jendrysik, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 68, January (2015), s. 130-139 ISSN 0968-4328 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : centipede * midgut epithelium * digestive cells * ultrastructure * autophagy Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.838, year: 2015

  20. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  1. Functional annotation of the human retinal pigment epithelium transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgels Theo GMF

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine level, variability and functional annotation of gene expression of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, the key tissue involved in retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Macular RPE cells from six selected healthy human donor eyes (aged 63–78 years were laser dissected and used for 22k microarray studies (Agilent technologies. Data were analyzed with Rosetta Resolver, the web tool DAVID and Ingenuity software. Results In total, we identified 19,746 array entries with significant expression in the RPE. Gene expression was analyzed according to expression levels, interindividual variability and functionality. A group of highly (n = 2,194 expressed RPE genes showed an overrepresentation of genes of the oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthesis and ribosome pathways. In the group of moderately expressed genes (n = 8,776 genes of the phosphatidylinositol signaling system and aminosugars metabolism were overrepresented. As expected, the top 10 percent (n = 2,194 of genes with the highest interindividual differences in expression showed functional overrepresentation of the complement cascade, essential in inflammation in age-related macular degeneration, and other signaling pathways. Surprisingly, this same category also includes the genes involved in Bruch's membrane (BM composition. Among the top 10 percent of genes with low interindividual differences, there was an overrepresentation of genes involved in local glycosaminoglycan turnover. Conclusion Our study expands current knowledge of the RPE transcriptome by assigning new genes, and adding data about expression level and interindividual variation. Functional annotation suggests that the RPE has high levels of protein synthesis, strong energy demands, and is exposed to high levels of oxidative stress and a variable degree of inflammation. Our data sheds new light on the molecular composition of BM, adjacent to the

  2. Optical modulation of transgene expression in retinal pigment epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanker, D.; Lavinsky, D.; Chalberg, T.; Mandel, Y.; Huie, P.; Dalal, R.; Marmor, M.

    2013-03-01

    Over a million people in US alone are visually impaired due to the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The current treatment is monthly intravitreal injections of a protein which inhibits Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, thereby slowing progression of the disease. The immense financial and logistical burden of millions of intravitreal injections signifies an urgent need to develop more long-lasting and cost-effective treatments for this and other retinal diseases. Viral transfection of ocular cells allows creation of a "biofactory" that secretes therapeutic proteins. This technique has been proven successful in non-human primates, and is now being evaluated in clinical trials for wet AMD. However, there is a critical need to down-regulate gene expression in the case of total resolution of retinal condition, or if patient has adverse reaction to the trans-gene products. The site for genetic therapy of AMD and many other retinal diseases is the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). We developed and tested in pigmented rabbits, an optical method to down-regulate transgene expression in RPE following vector delivery, without retinal damage. Microsecond exposures produced by a rapidly scanning laser vaporize melanosomes and destroy a predetermined fraction of the RPE cells selectively. RPE continuity is restored within days by migration and proliferation of adjacent RPE, but since the transgene is not integrated into the nucleus it is not replicated. Thus, the decrease in transgene expression can be precisely determined by the laser pattern density and further reduced by repeated treatment without affecting retinal structure and function.

  3. Claudin-8d is a cortisol-responsive barrier protein in the gill epithelium of trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosov, Dennis; Kelly, Scott P

    2017-10-01

    The influence of claudin (Cldn) 8 tight junction (TJ) proteins on cortisol-mediated alterations in gill epithelium permeability was examined using a primary cultured trout gill epithelium model. Genes encoding three Cldn-8 proteins ( cldn-8b, -8c and -8d ) have been identified in trout and all are expressed in the model gill epithelium. Cortisol treatment 'tightened' the gill epithelium, as indicated by increased transepithelial resistance (TER) and reduced paracellular [ 3 H]polyethylene glycol (MW 400 Da; PEG-400) flux. This occurred in association with elevated cldn-8d mRNA abundance, but no alterations in cldn-8b and -8c mRNA abundance were observed. Transcriptional knockdown (KD) of cldn-8d inhibited a cortisol-induced increase in Cldn-8d abundance and reduced the 'epithelium tightening' effect of cortisol in association with increased paracellular PEG-400 flux. Under simulated in vivo conditions (i.e. apical freshwater), cldn-8d KD hindered a cortisol-mediated reduction in basolateral to apical Na + and Cl - flux (i.e. reduced the ability of cortisol to mitigate ion loss). However, cldn-8d KD did not abolish the tightening effect of cortisol on the gill epithelium. This is likely due, in part, to the effect of cortisol on genes encoding other TJ proteins, which in some cases appeared to exhibit a compensatory response. Data support the idea that Cldn-8d is a barrier protein of the gill epithelium TJ that contributes significantly to corticosteroid-mediated alterations in gill epithelium permeability. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Macrophages are required for dendritic cell uptake of respiratory syncytial virus from an infected epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugonna, Kelechi; Bingle, Colin D; Plant, Karen; Wilson, Kirsty; Everard, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that the respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] can productively infect monocyte derived dendritic cells [MoDC] and remain dormant within the same cells for prolonged periods. It is therefore possible that infected dendritic cells act as a reservoir within the airways of individuals between annual epidemics. In the present study we explored the possibility that sub-epithelial DCs can be infected with RSV from differentiated bronchial epithelium and that in turn RSV from DCs can infect the epithelium. A dual co-culture model was established in which a differentiated primary airway epithelium on an Air Liquid Interface (ALI) was cultured on a transwell insert and MoDCs were subsequently added to the basolateral membrane of the insert. Further experiments were undertaken using a triple co-culture model in which in which macrophages were added to the apical surface of the differentiated epithelium. A modified RSV [rr-RSV] expressing a red fluorescent protein marker of replication was used to infect either the MoDCs or the differentiated epithelium and infection of the reciprocal cell type was assessed using confocal microscopy. Our data shows that primary epithelium became infected when rr-RSV infected MoDCs were introduced onto the basal surface of the transwell insert. MoDCs located beneath the epithelium did not become infected with virus from infected epithelial cells in the dual co-culture model. However when macrophages were present on the apical surface of the primary epithelium infection of the basal MoDCs occurred. Our data suggests that RSV infected dendritic cells readily transmit infection to epithelial cells even when they are located beneath the basal layer. However macrophages appear to be necessary for the transmission of infection from epithelial cells to basal dendritic cells.

  5. Effect of syngeneic thymocytes on proliferation of the small intestinal epithelium in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmakov, A.N.; Aparovich, G.G.; Trufakin, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the action of syngeneic thymocytes on proliferation of the epithelium of the mouse small intestine. The mice were injected with 3 H-thymidine in the experiments. Under the experimental conditions presented here, syngeneic thymocytes can reduce the number of DNA-synthesizing cells in the intestinal epithelium, causing narrowing of the zone of proliferation and enlargement of the zone of differentiation of the enterocytes

  6. Radiosensitivity of spermatogenous epithelium stem cells of mice of different strains and age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyannikova, O.A.; Konoplyannikov, A.G.

    1988-01-01

    In experiments on CBA and BALB/c male mices (3 months of age) and F 1 (CBAxC57BL/6) hybrides (at the age of 3, 12, and 24 months) a difference was noted in the radiosensitivity of spermatogenous epithelium stem cells displayed by the changes in their colony-forming ability to testicular tubules 42 days following local 60 Co-γ-irradiation. The older the hybrid mice the smaller was the number of spermatogenous epithelium stem cells

  7. [Alterations in the metabolism of cornmeal epithelium during medium-term storage (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Martens, F W; Hennighausen, U; Wirz, K; Teping, C

    1977-08-08

    Freshly prepared bovine corneas were stored in medium TC 199 with penicillin and fetal calf serum at +4 degrees C over a storage period of 168h. Every 24h, the levels of glucose, lactate, and pyruvate in the corneal epithelium were estimated. Also the glucose levels in the corneal epithelium and stroma were compared at the same time intervals. Furthermore, alterations in the enzyme pattern of the epithelial cells during storage were observed.

  8. The chronicles of Porphyromonas gingivalis: the microbium, the human oral epithelium and their interplay

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Özlem

    2008-01-01

    The microbiota of the human oral mucosa consists of a myriad of bacterial species that normally exist in commensal harmony with the host. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an aetiological agent in severe forms of periodontitis (a chronic inflammatory disease), is a prominent component of the oral microbiome and a successful colonizer of the oral epithelium. This Gram-negative anaerobe can also exist within the host epithelium without the existence of overt disease. Gingival epithelial cells, the oute...

  9. Phagocytosis of Giardia muris by macrophages in Peyer's patch epithelium in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Owen, R L; Allen, C L; Stevens, D P

    1981-01-01

    No mechanism for the initiation of immunological clearance of Giardia from the mammalian intestinal tract has been identified. In normal and nude mice experimentally infected with G. muris, we examined antigen-sampling epithelium over Peyer's patch follicles by electron microscopy for evidence of interaction between G. muris and lymphoid cells. Invading G. muris were found in the epithelium near dying or desquamating columnar cells. Macrophages beneath the basal lamina extended pseudopods int...

  10. Neural crest contribution to lingual mesenchyme, epithelium and developing taste papillae and taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Xiang; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Mishina, Yuji; Mistretta, Charlotte M

    2012-08-15

    The epithelium of mammalian tongue hosts most of the taste buds that transduce gustatory stimuli into neural signals. In the field of taste biology, taste bud cells have been described as arising from "local epithelium", in distinction from many other receptor organs that are derived from neurogenic ectoderm including neural crest (NC). In fact, contribution of NC to both epithelium and mesenchyme in the developing tongue is not fully understood. In the present study we used two independent, well-characterized mouse lines, Wnt1-Cre and P0-Cre that express Cre recombinase in a NC-specific manner, in combination with two Cre reporter mouse lines, R26R and ZEG, and demonstrate a contribution of NC-derived cells to both tongue mesenchyme and epithelium including taste papillae and taste buds. In tongue mesenchyme, distribution of NC-derived cells is in close association with taste papillae. In tongue epithelium, labeled cells are observed in an initial scattered distribution and progress to a clustered pattern between papillae, and within papillae and early taste buds. This provides evidence for a contribution of NC to lingual epithelium. Together with previous reports for the origin of taste bud cells from local epithelium in postnatal mouse, we propose that NC cells migrate into and reside in the epithelium of the tongue primordium at an early embryonic stage, acquire epithelial cell phenotypes, and undergo cell proliferation and differentiation that is involved in the development of taste papillae and taste buds. Our findings lead to a new concept about derivation of taste bud cells that include a NC origin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Recognition of mannose 6-phosphate ligands by dystrophic rat retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnowski, B.; Shepherd, V.; McLaughlin, B.

    1986-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) phagocytize discarded rod outer segments (ROS) during normal eye function. In the dystrophic rat, an animal model for retinitis pigmentosa in humans, ROS phagocytosis is defective. Dystrophic RPE can phagocytize particles other than ROS, suggesting that the defect may be in the RPE phagocytic recognition. They are currently investigating the recognition markers on RPE in dystrophic rats. In studies using ligand-coated latex beads, no uptake of mannose-coated beads was found in dystrophic rat RPE. They found that dystrophic RPE could specifically phagocytize phosphomannan-coated beads. Studies were begun to examine the presence and function of a phosphomannan receptor (PMR) on dystrophic RPE. α-Mannosidase, isolated from D. discoideum has been shown to be an efficient ligand for the PMR in fibroblasts and macrophages. It is also recognized by the macrophage mannose receptor. Dystrophic rat RPE and retina explants were placed in culture dishes (5-7/well). 125 I-Labelled α-mannosidase was added to each well in the presence or absence of 10 mM mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) or yeast mannan (lmg/ml). Explants were incubated at 37 0 for 2 hr., washed and bound 125 I-mannosidase quantitated. Approximately 2-3% of total counts added were bound to the RPE via a M6P-inhibitable recognition process. The binding to RPE was not blocked by mannan. No mannan or M6P-specific binding was found in retina explants. These results support the findings of specific uptake of phosphomannan-coated beads and demonstrate the presence of a specific PMR on dystrophic RPE phagocytic membranes

  12. Lipid droplets, perilipins and cytokeratins--unravelled liaisons in epithelium-derived cells.

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    Hans Heid

    Full Text Available Lipid droplets (LDs are spherical accumulations of apolar lipids and other hydrophobic substances and are generally surrounded by a thin cortical layer of specific amphiphilic proteins (APs. These APs segregate the LDs from the mostly polar components of the cytoplasm. We have studied LDs in epithelium-derived cell cultures and in particular characterized proteins from the perilipin (PLIN gene family - in mammals consisting of the proteins Perilipin, Adipophilin, TIP47, S3-12 and MLDP/OXPAT (PLIN 1-5. Using a large number of newly generated and highly specific mono- and polyclonal antibodies specific for individual APs, and using improved LD isolation methods, we have enriched and characterized APs in greater detail and purity. The majority of lipid-AP complexes could be obtained in the top layer fractions of density gradient centrifugation separations of cultured cells, but APs could also be detected in other fractions within such separations. The differently sized LD complexes were analyzed using various biochemical methods and mass spectrometry as well as immunofluorescence and electron- in particular immunoelectron-microscopy. Moreover, by immunoprecipitation, protein-protein binding assays and by immunoelectron microscopy we identified a direct linkage between LD-binding proteins and the intermediate-sized filaments (IF cytokeratins 8 and 18 (also designated as keratins K8 and K18. Specifically, in gradient fractions of higher density supposedly containing small LDs, we received as co-precipitations cytidylyl-, palmitoyl- and cholesterol transferases and other specific enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. So far, common proteomic studies have used LDs from top layer fractions only and did not report on these transferases and other enzymes. In addition to findings of short alternating hydrophobic/hydrophilic segments within the PLIN protein family, we propose and discuss a model for the interaction of LD-coating APs with IF proteins.

  13. Early colonizing Escherichia coli elicits remodeling of rat colonic epithelium shifting toward a new homeostatic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Julie; Reygner, Julie; Mayeur, Camille; Ducroc, Robert; Bouet, Stephan; Bridonneau, Chantal; Cavin, Jean-Baptiste; Thomas, Muriel; Langella, Philippe; Cherbuy, Claire

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of early colonizing bacteria on the colonic epithelium. We isolated dominant bacteria, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Lactobacillus intestinalis, Clostridium innocuum and a novel Fusobacterium spp., from the intestinal contents of conventional suckling rats and transferred them in different combinations into germfree (GF) adult rats. Animals were investigated after various times up to 21 days. Proliferative cell markers (Ki67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, phospho-histone H3, cyclin A) were higher in rats monocolonized with E. coli than in GF at all time points, but not in rats monocolonized with E. faecalis. The mucin content of goblet cells declined shortly after E. coli administration whereas the mucus layer doubled in thickness. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses revealed that E. coli resides in this mucus layer. The epithelial mucin content progressively returned to baseline, following an increase in KLF4 and in the cell cycle arrest-related proteins p21(CIP1) and p27(KIP1). Markers of colonic differentiated cells involved in electrolyte (carbonic anhydrase II and slc26A3) and water (aquaglyceroporin3 (aqp3)) transport, and secretory responses to carbachol were modulated after E. coli inoculation suggesting that ion transport dynamics were also affected. The colonic responses to simplified microbiotas differed substantially according to whether or not E. coli was combined with the other four bacteria. Thus, proliferation markers increased substantially when E. coli was in the mix, but very much less when it was absent. This work demonstrates that a pioneer strain of E. coli elicits sequential epithelial remodeling affecting the structure, mucus layer and ionic movements and suggests this can result in a microbiota-compliant state.

  14. Spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium

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    Toshiaki Mochizuki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cell proliferation is a key regulator of tissue morphogenesis. We examined cell proliferation and cell division in zebrafish lens epithelium by visualizing cell-cycle phases and nuclear positions, using fluorescent-labeled geminin and histone proteins. Proliferation was low in the anterior region of lens epithelium and higher in the marginal zone anterior to the equator, suggesting that the proliferation zone, called the germinative zone, is formed in zebrafish lens. Interestingly, cell-division orientation was biased longitudinally in the anterior region, shifted from longitudinal to circumferential along the anterior–posterior axis of lens sphere, and was biased circumferentially in the peripheral region. These data suggest that cell-division orientation is spatially regulated in zebrafish lens epithelium. The Hertwig rule indicates that cells tend to divide along their long axes. Orientation of long axes and cell division were biased similarly in zebrafish lens epithelium, suggesting that cell geometry correlates with cell-division orientation. A cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin, is expressed in lens epithelium. In a zebrafish e-cadherin mutant, the long axes and cell-division orientation were shifted more longitudinally. These data suggest that E-cadherin is required for the spatial pattern of cell geometry and cell-division orientation in zebrafish lens epithelium.

  15. Topographical organization of TRPV1-immunoreactive epithelium and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve terminals in rodent tongue

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    M. Kawashima

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 (TRPV1 is activated by capsaicin, acid, and heat and mediates pain through peripheral nerves. In the tongue, TRPV1 expression has been reported also in the epithelium. This indicates a possibility that sensation is first received by the epithelium. However, how nerves receive sensations from the epithelium remains unclear. To clarify the anatomical basis of this interaction, we performed immunohistochemical studies in the rodent tongue to detect TRPV1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP, a neural marker. Strong expression of TRPV1 in the epithelium was observed and was restricted to the apex of the tongue. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that CGRP-expressing nerve terminals were in close apposition to the strongly TRPV1-expressing epithelium of fungiform papilla in the apex of rodent tongues. These results suggest that the TRPV1-expressing epithelium monitors the oral environment and acquired information may then be conducted to the adjacent CGRPexpressing terminals.

  16. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

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    Dariusz Dobrowolski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision.

  17. Basolateral Cl- channels in the larval bullfrog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillyard, Stanley D.; Rios, K.; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2002-01-01

    The addition of 150 U/ml nystatin to the mucosal surface of isolated skin from larval bullfrogs increases apical membrane permeability and allows a voltage clamp to be applied to the basolateral membrane. With identical Ringer's solutions bathing either side of the tissue the short-circuit curren...

  18. Management of a Septic Open Abdomen Patient with Spontaneous Jejunal Perforation after Emergent C/S with Confounding Factor of Mild Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisir, Fahri; Sarer, Akgün Ebru; Acar, Hasan Zafer; Osmanoglu, Gokhan; Özer, Mehmet; Yaylak, Faik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We report the management of a septic Open Abdomen (OA) patient by the help of negative pressure therapy (NPT) and abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA) system in pregnant woman with spontaneous jejunal perforation after emergent cesarean section (C/S) with confounding factor of mild acute pancreatitis (AP). Presentation of Case. A 29-year-old and 34-week pregnant woman with AP underwent C/S. She was arrested after anesthesia induction and responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). There were only ash-colored serosanguinous fluid within abdomen during C/S. After C/S, she was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) with vasopressor support. On postoperative 1st day, she underwent reoperation due to fecal fluid coming near the drainage. Leakage point could not be identified exactly and operation had to be deliberately abbreviated due to hemodynamic instability. NPT was applied. Two days later source control was provided by conversion of enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF) to jejunostomy. ABRA was added and OA was closed. No hernia developed at 10-month follow-up period. Conclusion. NPT application in septic OA patient may gain time to patient until adequate source control could be achieved. Using ABRA in conjunction with NPT increases the fascial closure rate in infected OA patient.

  19. Management of a Septic Open Abdomen Patient with Spontaneous Jejunal Perforation after Emergent C/S with Confounding Factor of Mild Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Yetisir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We report the management of a septic Open Abdomen (OA patient by the help of negative pressure therapy (NPT and abdominal reapproximation anchor (ABRA system in pregnant woman with spontaneous jejunal perforation after emergent cesarean section (C/S with confounding factor of mild acute pancreatitis (AP. Presentation of Case. A 29-year-old and 34-week pregnant woman with AP underwent C/S. She was arrested after anesthesia induction and responded to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. There were only ash-colored serosanguinous fluid within abdomen during C/S. After C/S, she was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU with vasopressor support. On postoperative 1st day, she underwent reoperation due to fecal fluid coming near the drainage. Leakage point could not be identified exactly and operation had to be deliberately abbreviated due to hemodynamic instability. NPT was applied. Two days later source control was provided by conversion of enteroatmospheric fistula (EAF to jejunostomy. ABRA was added and OA was closed. No hernia developed at 10-month follow-up period. Conclusion. NPT application in septic OA patient may gain time to patient until adequate source control could be achieved. Using ABRA in conjunction with NPT increases the fascial closure rate in infected OA patient.

  20. Characterization of a spontaneously generated murine retinal pigmented epithelium cell line; a model for in vitro experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaei Pirmardan, Ehsan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Ezzati, Razie; Naseri, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), the outermost layer of the retina, has a key role in maintaining retinal cells’ functions. Severity of the culture of RPE cells has exerted many limitations to both in vitro and in vivo studies and its therapeutic applications. Therefore, establishment of RPE cell lines with high proliferative potential can considerably improve study of RPE cell biology. Here we report generation of a spontaneously immortalized murine RPE cell line in primary mouse RPE cell culture. Founded colonized cells were picked up and expression of RPE and retinal progenitor cells’ (RPC) markers were studied using immunocytochemistry (ICC). Emerged cells cultured over 35 passages and population doubling times in different serum concentrations were calculated. We also investigated the ability of cells for becoming transfected by calcium-phosphate method and for becoming infected by adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) using flow cytometry. Data showed that the cobblestone constituent cells expressed RPE65, cytokeratin and ZO1 and moreover several progenitor markers such as Pax6, Sox2, Nestin and Chx10. It revealed that, despite primary RPE cells, the newly emerged cells were easily transfectable and were highly infectable when compared with HEK293T cells. Our data indicated that the emerged mouse RPE cell line pretended RPC-like phenotype and also simultaneously expressed RPE markers. It would be a promising model for leading studies on RPE and RPC cells and substantially confirmed the great RPE plasticity and its invaluable potential in research studies. - Highlights: • Isolation of a spontaneously generated retinal pigmented epithelium cell line is reported. • The cells express some of the retinal progenitor cell markers in addition to the RPE markers. • The aforesaid cell line is highly transfecable and considerably infectable by AAV2. • These results confirm the great RPE plasticity and its invaluable potential in research studies.

  1. Characterization of a spontaneously generated murine retinal pigmented epithelium cell line; a model for in vitro experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranaei Pirmardan, Ehsan [Department of Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soheili, Zahra-Soheila [Department of Molecular Medicine, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Samiei, Shahram [Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadieh, Hamid [Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mowla, Seyed Javad [Department of Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ezzati, Razie [Department of Molecular Medicine, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naseri, Marzieh [Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), the outermost layer of the retina, has a key role in maintaining retinal cells’ functions. Severity of the culture of RPE cells has exerted many limitations to both in vitro and in vivo studies and its therapeutic applications. Therefore, establishment of RPE cell lines with high proliferative potential can considerably improve study of RPE cell biology. Here we report generation of a spontaneously immortalized murine RPE cell line in primary mouse RPE cell culture. Founded colonized cells were picked up and expression of RPE and retinal progenitor cells’ (RPC) markers were studied using immunocytochemistry (ICC). Emerged cells cultured over 35 passages and population doubling times in different serum concentrations were calculated. We also investigated the ability of cells for becoming transfected by calcium-phosphate method and for becoming infected by adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) using flow cytometry. Data showed that the cobblestone constituent cells expressed RPE65, cytokeratin and ZO1 and moreover several progenitor markers such as Pax6, Sox2, Nestin and Chx10. It revealed that, despite primary RPE cells, the newly emerged cells were easily transfectable and were highly infectable when compared with HEK293T cells. Our data indicated that the emerged mouse RPE cell line pretended RPC-like phenotype and also simultaneously expressed RPE markers. It would be a promising model for leading studies on RPE and RPC cells and substantially confirmed the great RPE plasticity and its invaluable potential in research studies. - Highlights: • Isolation of a spontaneously generated retinal pigmented epithelium cell line is reported. • The cells express some of the retinal progenitor cell markers in addition to the RPE markers. • The aforesaid cell line is highly transfecable and considerably infectable by AAV2. • These results confirm the great RPE plasticity and its invaluable potential in research studies.

  2. Usefulness of jejunal biopsy in the study of intestinal malabsorption in the elderly Utilidad de la biopsia yeyunal en el estudio de la malabsorción intestinal en el anciano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lobo

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: small bowel structure and function are not different between elderly people and young people. Thus, in principle it is advisable to perform diagnostic investigation of elderly patients as well as younger patients when they present with symptoms suggestive of intestinal malabsorption. A key test for the etiologic diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption, jejunal biopsy, has not been specifically examined to assess its usefulness and risk of complications in this advanced age patients. Aim: to establish the usefulness of jejunal biopsy with the Watson's capsule in the elderly patients with suspected intestinal malabsorption. Patients: patients older than 65 years referred to our Unit for performance of a jejunal biopsy from 1996 to 2001 for suspicion of intestinal malabsorption. Results: forty-seven patients were included. Appropriate biopsy sample was obtained in 45 cases, although in 3 patients a second try was required. Histologic findings: partial villous atrophy in 10 cases (22.2%, complete villous atrophy in 5 cases (11.1%, intraepithelial lymphocytosis in 5 cases (11.1%, and single cases of intestinal lymphangiectasia, amyloidosis, unspecific jejunitis, and Whipple's disease. Histology was normal in 19 cases (42%. Definitive diagnosis was celiac disease in 14 patients, bacterial overgrowth in 3, jejunitis in 3, Whipple's disease in 1, lymphangiectasia in 1, atrophic gastritis in 3, amyloidosis in 1, and ischemic colitis in 1. Jejunal biopsy achieved an etiologic diagnosis in 20 patients. There were no cases of perforations or bleeding. Conclusion: jejunal biopsy is a useful and safe test for the etiologic diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption in elderly patients.Fundamento: la estructura y función del intestino delgado en el anciano sano y en el joven no difieren. Por este motivo ante la sospecha clínica de malabsorción intestinal en el anciano siempre deben realizarse las pruebas necesarias para identificar su causa. Una prueba

  3. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Effect of Periplocoside P from Periploca sepium on Brush Border Membrane Vesicles in Midgut Epithelium of Mythimna separata Larvae

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    Mingxing Feng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Periplocoside P (PSP, a novel compound isolated from Periploca sepium Bunge, possesses insecticidal activity against some lepidopterans, such as Mythimna separata. In M. separata, the brush border membrane vesicles of the midgut epithelium are the initial site of action of periplocosides. We conducted two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry analysis to analyze differentially expressed proteins (DEPs from periplocoside P (PSP-treated M. separata. We successfully isolated seven up-regulated and three down-regulated DEPs that have been previously identified, as well as a novel DEP. The DEPs are implicated in protein degradation, transporter, folding, and synthesis, and in juvenile hormone biosynthesis. DEPs involved in the oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism pathway are enriched. Through real-time polymerase chain reaction assay, we confirmed that vma1 expression is significantly up-regulated expression levels in PSP-treated M. separata larvae. Enzymology validation further indicated that PSP can significantly inhibit V-type ATPase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Given these results, we speculate that in M. separata, the V-type ATPase A subunit in the midgut epithelium is the putative target binding site of periplocosides. This finding provides preliminary evidence for the mode of action of periplocosides.

  4. The murine choroid plexus epithelium expresses the 2Cl-/H+-exchanger ClC-7 and Na+/H+ exchanger NHE6 in the luminal membrane domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkier, Helle H; Christensen, Henriette L; Christensen, Inga B

    2017-01-01

    , but the pH value seems nonetheless maintained within narrow limits, even when faced with acid/base challenges. The involvement of choroid plexus acid/base transporters in CSF pH regulation is highlighted by the expression of several acid/base transporters in the epithelium. The aim of the current study...... was to identify novel acid/base transporters expressed in the luminal membrane of the choroid plexus epithelium to pave the way for systematic investigations of each candidate transporter in the regulation of CSF pH. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteins from epithelial cells isolated by fluorescence activated...... cell sorting identified the Cl-/H+ exchangers ClC-3, -4, -5, and -7 in addition to known choroid plexus acid/base transporters. RT-PCR on FACS isolated epithelial cells confirmed the expression of the corresponding mRNAs, as well as NHE6 mRNA. Both NHE6 and ClC-7 were immunolocalized to the luminal...

  5. Muscarinic cholinergic and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the epithelium and muscularis of the human ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepor, H.; Rigaud, G.; Shapiro, E.; Baumann, M.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the binding and functional properties of muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the human ileum to provide insight into pharmacologic strategies for managing urinary and fecal incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments. MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites were characterized in the epithelium and muscularis of eight human ileal segments with 3H-N-methylscopolamine and 3H-rauwolscine, respectively. The dissociation constant for 3H-N-methylscopolamine in the epithelium and muscularis was 0.32 +/- 0.07 nmol/L and 0.45 +/- 0.10 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.32). The MCh receptor content was approximately eightfold greater in the muscularis compared with the epithelium (p = 0.008). The dissociation constant for 3H-rauwolscine in the muscularis and epithelium was 2.55 +/- 0.42 nmol/L and 2.03 +/- 0.19 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.29). The alpha 2-adrenoceptor density was twofold greater in the epithelium compared with the muscularis (p = 0.05). Noncumulative concentration-response experiments were performed with carbachol, an MCh agonist, and UK-14304, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic agonist. The epithelium did not contract in the presence of high concentrations of carbachol and UK-14304. The muscularis preparations were responsive only to carbachol. The muscularis contains primarily MCh receptors mediating smooth muscle contraction. The alpha 2-adrenoceptors are localized primarily to the epithelium and may regulate water secretion in the intestine. The distribution and functional properties of ileal MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors provide a theoretic basis for the treatment of incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments

  6. deltaNp63 has a role in maintaining epithelial integrity in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arason, Ari Jon; Jonsdottir, Hulda R; Halldorsson, Skarphedinn; Benediktsdottir, Berglind Eva; Bergthorsson, Jon Thor; Ingthorsson, Saevar; Baldursson, Olafur; Sinha, Satrajit; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Magnusson, Magnus K

    2014-01-01

    The upper airways are lined with a pseudostratified bronchial epithelium that forms a barrier against unwanted substances in breathing air. The transcription factor p63, which is important for stratification of skin epithelium, has been shown to be expressed in basal cells of the lungs and its ΔN isoform is recognized as a key player in squamous cell lung cancer. However, the role of p63 in formation and maintenance of bronchial epithelia is largely unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the expression pattern of the ΔN and TA isoforms of p63 and the role of p63 in the development and maintenance of pseudostratified lung epithelium in situ and in culture. We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line with basal cell characteristics (VA10) to model bronchial epithelium in an air-liquid interface culture (ALI) and performed a lentiviral-based silencing of p63 to characterize the functional and phenotypic consequences of p63 loss. We demonstrate that ΔNp63 is the major isoform in the human lung and its expression was exclusively found in the basal cells lining the basement membrane of the bronchial epithelium. Knockdown of p63 affected proliferation and migration of VA10 cells and facilitated cellular senescence. Expression of p63 is critical for epithelial repair as demonstrated by wound healing assays. Importantly, generation of pseudostratified VA10 epithelium in the ALI setup depended on p63 expression and goblet cell differentiation, which can be induced by IL-13 stimulation, was abolished by the p63 knockdown. After knockdown of p63 in primary bronchial epithelial cells they did not proliferate and showed marked senescence. We conclude that these results strongly implicate p63 in the formation and maintenance of differentiated pseudostratified bronchial epithelium.

  7. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nancy M.; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R.; Stefanski, Casey D.; Strubberg, Ashlee M.

    2015-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl− and HCO3− efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3−)-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3−-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl− concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl− concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl− and HCO3− efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl− and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. PMID:26542396

  8. Identification of distinct layers within the stratified squamous epithelium of the adult human true vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, Jayme R; Sadow, Peter M; Hartnick, Christopher; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Mou, Hongmei; Zhao, Rui; Song, Phillip C; Franco, Ramon A; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2015-09-01

    A precise molecular schema for classifying the different cell types of the normal human vocal fold epithelium is lacking. We hypothesize that the true vocal fold epithelium has a cellular architecture and organization similar to that of other stratified squamous epithelia including the skin, cornea, oral mucosa, and esophagus. In analogy to disorders of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, a molecular definition of the normal cell types within the human vocal fold epithelium and a description of their geometric relationships should serve as a foundation for characterizing cellular changes associated with metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer. Qualitative study with adult human larynges. Histologic sections of normal human laryngeal tissue were analyzed for morphology (hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemical protein expression profile, including cytokeratins (CK13 and CK14), cornified envelope proteins (involucrin), basal cells (NGFR/p75), and proliferation markers (Ki67). We demonstrated that three distinct cell strata with unique marker profiles are present within the stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. We used these definitions to establish that cell proliferation is restricted to certain cell types and layers within the epithelium. These distinct cell types are reproducible across five normal adult larynges. We have established that three layers of cells are present within the normal adult stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. Furthermore, replicating cell populations are largely restricted to the parabasal strata within the epithelium. This delineation of distinct cell populations will facilitate future studies of vocal fold regeneration and cancer. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Cellular chloride and bicarbonate retention alters intracellular pH regulation in Cftr KO crypt epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Nancy M; Liu, Jinghua; Stein, Sydney R; Stefanski, Casey D; Strubberg, Ashlee M; Clarke, Lane L

    2016-01-15

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), an anion channel providing a major pathway for Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux across the apical membrane of the epithelium. In the intestine, CF manifests as obstructive syndromes, dysbiosis, inflammation, and an increased risk for gastrointestinal cancer. Cftr knockout (KO) mice recapitulate CF intestinal disease, including intestinal hyperproliferation. Previous studies using Cftr KO intestinal organoids (enteroids) indicate that crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). We hypothesized that Cftr has a cell-autonomous role in downregulating pHi that is incompletely compensated by acid-base regulation in its absence. Here, 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein microfluorimetry of enteroids showed that Cftr KO crypt epithelium sustains an alkaline pHi and resistance to cell acidification relative to wild-type. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Cftr KO enteroids exhibit downregulated transcription of base (HCO3 (-))-loading proteins and upregulation of the basolateral membrane HCO3 (-)-unloader anion exchanger 2 (Ae2). Although Cftr KO crypt epithelium had increased Ae2 expression and Ae2-mediated Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchange with maximized gradients, it also had increased intracellular Cl(-) concentration relative to wild-type. Pharmacological reduction of intracellular Cl(-) concentration in Cftr KO crypt epithelium normalized pHi, which was largely Ae2-dependent. We conclude that Cftr KO crypt epithelium maintains an alkaline pHi as a consequence of losing both Cl(-) and HCO3 (-) efflux, which impairs pHi regulation by Ae2. Retention of Cl(-) and an alkaline pHi in crypt epithelium may alter several cellular processes in the proliferative compartment of Cftr KO intestine. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. An evaluation of heat on protein oxidation of soy protein isolate or soy protein isolate mixed with soybean oil and its consequences on redox status of broilers at early age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglun Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of heat treatment and soybean oil inclusion on protein oxidation of soy protein isolate (SPI and of oxidized protein on redox status of broilers at an early age. Methods SPI mixed with soybean oil (SPIO heated at 100°C for 8 h was used to evaluate protein oxidation of SPI. A total of two hundred and sixteen 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were divided into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 12 birds, receiving basal diet (CON, heat-oxidized SPI diet (HSPI or mixture of SPI and 2% soybean oil diet (HSPIO for 21 d, respectively. Results Increased protein carbonyl, decreased protein sulfhydryl of SPI were observed as heating time increased in all treatments (p<0.05. Addition of 2% soybean oil increased protein carbonyl of SPI at 8 h heating (p<0.05. Dietary HSPI and HSPIO decreased the average daily gain of broilers as compared with the CON (p<0.05. Broilers fed HSPI and HSPIO exhibited decreased glutathione (GSH in serum, catalase activity and total sulfhydryl in liver and increased malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonyl in serum, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs in liver and protein carbonyl in jejunal mucosa as compared with that of the CON (p<0.05. Additionally, broilers receiving HSPIO showed decreased glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px in serum, GSH and hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity in liver, GSH-Px activity in duodenal mucosa, GSH-Px activity and superoxide anion radical scavenging capacity in jejunal mucosa and increased AOPPs in serum, MDA and protein carbonyl in liver, MDA and AOPPs in jejunal mucosa (p<0.05. Conclusion Protein oxidation of SPI can be induced by heat and soybean oil and oxidized protein resulted in redox imbalance in broilers at an early age.

  11. The influence of arachidonic acid metabolites on cell division in the intestinal epithelium and in colonic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, F M; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1984-09-01

    Various metabolites of arachidonic acid are now known to influence cell division. In this paper the effects on cell proliferation of arachidonic acid, some inhibitors of arachidonic acid metabolism and some analogs of arachidonic acid metabolites is described. The epithelial cell proliferation rate in the jejunum, in the descending colon and in dimethylhydrazine-induced tumors of rat colon was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Administration of arachidonic acid resulted in retardation of cell proliferation in each of the tissues examined. A cyclooxygenase inhibitor (Flurbiprofen) prevented this effect of arachidonic acid in the jejunal crypts and in colonic tumors, but not in colonic crypts. In contrast, inhibitors of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase (Benoxaprofen and BW755c) prevented the effect of arachidonic acid in the colonic crypts and reduced its effect on colonic tumours but did not alter its effect on the jejunum. An inhibitor of thromoboxane A2 synthetase (U51,605) was also able to prevent the inhibitory effect of arachidonic acid on colonic tumors. Treatment with 16,16-dimethyl PGE2 inhibited cell proliferation in jejunal crypts and in colonic tumors, as did a thromboxane A2 mimicking agent, U46619. Nafazatrom, an agent that stimulates prostacyclin synthesis and inhibits lypoxygenase, promoted cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts and colonic crypts, but inhibited cell proliferation in colonic tumours.

  12. Expression of semaphorin 3A in the rat corneal epithelium during wound healing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishige, Naoyuki; Ko, Ji-Ae; Morita, Yukiko; Nishida, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    The neural guidance protein semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is expressed in corneal epithelial cells of the adult rat. We have now further investigated the localization of Sema3A in the normal rat corneal epithelium as well as changes in its expression pattern during wound healing after central corneal epithelial debridement. The expression pattern of Sema3A was compared with that of the tight-junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), the gap-junction protein connexin43 (Cx43), or the cell proliferation marker Ki67. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that Sema3A was present predominantly in the membrane of basal and wing cells of the intact corneal epithelium. The expression of Sema3A at the basal side of basal cells was increased in the peripheral epithelium compared with that in the central region. Sema3A was detected in all layers at the leading edge of the migrating corneal epithelium at 6 h after central epithelial debridement. The expression of Sema3A was markedly up-regulated in the basal and lateral membranes of columnar basal cells apparent in the thickened, newly healed epithelium at 1 day after debridement, but it had largely returned to the normal pattern at 3 days after debridement. The expression of ZO-1 was restricted to superficial epithelial cells and remained mostly unchanged during the wound healing process. The expression of Cx43 in basal cells was down-regulated at the leading edge of the migrating epithelium but was stable in the remaining portion of the epithelium. Ki67 was not detected in basal cells of the central epithelium at 1 day after epithelial debridement, when Sema3A was prominently expressed. Immunoblot analysis showed that the abundance of Sema3A in the central cornea was increased 1 day after epithelial debridement, whereas that of ZO-1 or Cx43 remained largely unchanged. This increase in Sema3A expression was accompanied by up-regulation of the Sema3A coreceptor neuropilin-1. Our observations have thus shown that the expression of

  13. Ancestral amphibian v2rs are expressed in the main olfactory epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Adnan S.; Sansone, Alfredo; Nadler, Walter; Manzini, Ivan; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptor families are segregated into different olfactory organs, with type 2 vomeronasal receptor (v2r) genes expressed in a basal layer of the vomeronasal epithelium. In contrast, teleost fish v2r genes are intermingled with all other olfactory receptor genes in a single sensory surface. We report here that, strikingly different from both lineages, the v2r gene family of the amphibian Xenopus laevis is expressed in the main olfactory as well as the vomeronasal epithelium. Interestingly, late diverging v2r genes are expressed exclusively in the vomeronasal epithelium, whereas “ancestral” v2r genes, including the single member of v2r family C, are restricted to the main olfactory epithelium. Moreover, within the main olfactory epithelium, v2r genes are expressed in a basal zone, partially overlapping, but clearly distinct from an apical zone of olfactory marker protein and odorant receptor-expressing cells. These zones are also apparent in the spatial distribution of odor responses, enabling a tentative assignment of odor responses to olfactory receptor gene families. Responses to alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones show an apical localization, consistent with being mediated by odorant receptors, whereas amino acid responses overlap extensively with the basal v2r-expressing zone. The unique bimodal v2r expression pattern in main and accessory olfactory system of amphibians presents an excellent opportunity to study the transition of v2r gene expression during evolution of higher vertebrates. PMID:23613591

  14. Binding of the aliphatic halides 1,2-dibromoethane and chloroform in the rodent vaginal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittebo, E.B.; Brandt, I.; Kowalski, B.

    1987-01-01

    Whole-body and light microscopic autoradiography were used to study the binding of 1,2-dibromo( 14 C)ethane ( 14 C-DBE) and 14 C-chloroform ( 14 C-CF) in the mouse and rat vaginal epithelium in vitro and in vivo. In pregnant mice, mice pretreated with pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG) or ovariectomized mice primed with medroxyprogesterone, a high level of bound 14 C-DBE metabolites were present in the epithelium, while in ovariectomized oestradiol-primed mice or intact oestradiol-primed mice, the binding was low. Similar results were obtained with 14 C-CF, although the level of binding generally was lower than that observed after 14 C-DBE-exposure. No binding of 14 C-DBE-metabolites was observed in the juvenile rat vaginal epithelium, whereas a high binding was present in the PMSG-primed adult rat vaginal epithelium. Collectively, these data show that 14 C-DBE and 14 C-CF are transformed in situ to metabolites that are irreversibly bound to the vaginal epithelium. The results also suggest that the activating enzyme is under endocrine control and has a low activity in the juvenile and oestradiol-primed adult animal. (author)

  15. Dynamic relationship of the epithelium and mesenchyme during salivary gland initiation: the role of Fgf10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kirsty L.; Gaete, Marcia; Matalova, Eva; Deutsch, Danny; Rice, David; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Salivary glands provide an excellent model for the study of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions. We have looked at the interactions involved in the early initiation and development of murine salivary glands using classic recombination experiments and knockout mice. We show that salivary gland epithelium, at thickening and initial bud stages, is able to direct salivary gland development in non-gland pharyngeal arch mesenchyme at early stages. The early salivary gland epithelium is therefore able to induce gland development in non-gland tissue. This ability later shifts to the mesenchyme, with non-gland epithelium, such as from the limb bud, able to form a branching gland when combined with pseudoglandular stage gland mesenchyme. This shift appears to involve Fgf signalling, with signals from the epithelium inducing Fgf10 in the mesenchyme. Fgf10 then signals back to the epithelium to direct gland down-growth and bud development. These experiments highlight the importance of epithelial–mesenchymal signalling in gland initiation, controlling where, when and how many salivary glands form. PMID:24167707

  16. Phagocytosis of Giardia muris by macrophages in Peyer's patch epithelium in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, R L; Allen, C L; Stevens, D P

    1981-08-01

    No mechanism for the initiation of immunological clearance of Giardia from the mammalian intestinal tract has been identified. In normal and nude mice experimentally infected with G. muris, we examined antigen-sampling epithelium over Peyer's patch follicles by electron microscopy for evidence of interaction between G. muris and lymphoid cells. Invading G. muris were found in the epithelium near dying or desquamating columnar cells. Macrophages beneath the basal lamina extended pseudopods into the epithelium, trapping invading G. muris and enclosing them in phagolysosomes. In normal mice, which clear G. muris in 4 to 6 weeks, macrophages containing digested G. muris were surrounded by rosettes of lymphoblasts in the epithelium. In nude mice deficient in lymphocytes, there was apparent hyperplasia of macrophages, which filled the follicle domes, resulting in more frequent entrapment of G. muris but no contact between macrophages and lymphoblasts in the epithelium. In nude mice, which require 6 months to control G. muris infection, lymphoblast contact with macrophages containing distinctive microtubular remnants of G. muris was only identified in the follicle dome. This close physical association of lymphoblasts and macrophages containing G. muris remnants suggests that this macrophage activity represents intraepithelial antigen processing as well as a defense against the effects of the uncontrolled entrance of microorganisms and other antigenic particles into Peyer's patch lymphoid follicles.

  17. Postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in bioengineered amelogenesis and dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Schiff, Michael D; Lee, Chang H; Kong, Kimi; Embree, Mildred C; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2014-02-01

    Rodent incisors provide a classic model for studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development. However, postnatal stem/progenitor cells in rodent incisors have not been exploited for tooth regeneration. Here, we characterized postnatal rat incisor epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells and found that they formed enamel- and dentin-like tissues in vivo. Epithelium and mesenchyme cells were harvested separately from the apical region of postnatal 4-5 day rat incisors. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were confirmed by immunocytochemistry, CFU assay and/or multi-lineage differentiation. CK14+, Sox2+ and Lgr5+ epithelium stem cells from the cervical loop enhanced amelogenin and ameloblastin expression upon BMP4 or FGF3 stimulation, signifying their differentiation towards ameloblast-like cells, whereas mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells upon BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a treatment robustly expressed Dspp, a hallmark of odontoblastic differentiation. We then control-released microencapsulated BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a in transplants of epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in the renal capsule of athymic mice in vivo. Enamel and dentin-like tissues were generated in two integrated layers with specific expression of amelogenin and ameloblastin in the newly formed, de novo enamel-like tissue, and DSP in dentin-like tissue. These findings suggest that postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells can be primed towards bioengineered tooth regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influência da vitamina C e da hidrocortisona sobre a tensão anastomótica jejunal em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroianu Andy

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da vitamina C e da hidrocortisona sobre os processos cicatriciais anastomóticos apresenta resultados conflitantes na literatura. Dessa forma, o presente trabalho teve o objetivo de comparar a resistência cicatricial de anastomoses jejunais em ratos, submetidos à administração de vitamina C e de hidrocortisona, em distintos períodos pós-operatórios. Foram estudados 40 ratos Wistar, submetidos a secção e subseqüente anastomose término-terminal de segmento jejunal, a 10 cm da flexura duodenojejunal. Os animais foram divididos em quatro grupos (n=10: Grupo I - controle; Grupo II - administração de vitamina C oral 100 mg/kg; Grupo III - administração de hidrocortisona intraperitoneal 10 mg/kg; Grupo IV - administração de vitamina C mais hidrocortisona nas doses e vias de administração acima. Avaliaram-se as pressões de ruptura anastomótica nos 5 º e 21º dias pós-operatórios. Os ratos que receberam vitamina C isolada ou associada a hidrocortisona tenderam a uma pressão de ruptura maior do que os demais grupos, tanto no 5º quanto no 21º dias pós-operatórios. Os resultados deste trabalho sugerem que a vitamina C contribui para aumentar a resistência das anastomoses jejunais dos ratos durante os primeiros 5 dias pós-operatórios. A resistência das anastomoses jejunais murinas foi pouco influenciada pela administração de corticóide intraperitoneal.

  19. One-Anastomosis Jejunal Interposition with Gastric Remnant Resection (Branco-Zorron Switch) for Severe Recurrent Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia after Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorron, Ricardo; Branco, Alcides; Sampaio, Jose; Bothe, Claudia; Junghans, Tido; Rasim, Gyurdzhan; Pratschke, Johann; Guel-Klein, Safak

    2017-04-01

    The anatomical and physiological changes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity can lead to severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia with neuroglycopenia in a small percentage of patients. The exact physiologic mechanism is not completely understood. Surgical reversal to the original anatomy and distal or total pancreatectomy are current therapeutic options to reverse the hypoglycemic effect, with substantial associated morbidity. Our group reports a pilot clinical series of a novel surgical technique using one-anastomosis jejunal interposition with gastric remnant resection (Branco-Zorron Switch). Patients with severe symptomatic hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia refractory to conservative therapy were treated using the technique. The procedure started with resection of the remnant stomach close to pylorus. The alimentary limb was sectioned at 20 cm from the gastrojejunal anastomosis, and the rest of the alimentary limb was resected until the Y-Roux anastomosis. A hand-sutured anastomosis was then performed with the proximal alimentary limb and the remnant antrum. Four patients were successfully submitted to the procedure with reversal of the symptomatology and normalization of insulin levels, postprandial glucose levels, and oral glucose tolerance test, with a mean follow-up of 24.3 months. Mean operative time was 188 min, and patients recovered without postoperative complications. Patients suffering from severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after gastric bypass may be efficiently treated by this innovative procedure, avoiding extreme surgical therapy such as pancreatectomy or restoring the gastric anatomy, while still maintaining sustained weight loss. Studies with larger series and longer follow-up are still needed to define the role of this therapy in managing this entity.

  20. DHT deficiency perturbs the integrity of the rat seminiferous epithelium by disrupting tight and adherens junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa, Agnieszka; Marchlewicz, Mariola; Wenda-Różewicka, Lidia; Wiszniewska, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In rats with a DHT deficiency induced by finasteride, morphological changes in the seminiferous epithelium were observed. The structural alterations were manifested by the premature germ cells sloughing into the lumen of seminiferous tubules. The etiology of this disorder could be connected with intercellular junctions disintegration. We showed in the immunohistochemical study the changes in expression of some proteins building tight and adherens junctions. The depression of N-cadherin, β-catenin and occludin immunoexpressions could be the reason for the release of immature germ cells from the seminiferous epithelium. However, the observed increase of the immunohistochemical reaction intensity of vinculin, one of the cadherin/catenin complex regulators, could be insufficient to maintain the proper function of adherens junctions. The hormonal imbalance appears to influence the pattern of expression of junctional proteins in the seminiferous epithelium. It could lead to untimely germ cells sloughing, and ultimately could impair fertility.

  1. Cytofluorophotometrical study of the DNA content of the uterine cervical carcinoma and the vaginal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumoto, Yoshiaki

    1987-01-01

    The Feulgen DNA content in cells of uterine cervical carcinoma and that of its adjacent vaginal epithelium were measured by microfluorophotometry. The Feulgen DNA content in cells of uterine cervical carcinoma was increased and showed a greater variation of its DNA values compared with diploid cells. The Feulgen DNA content in cells of normal vaginal epithelium adjacent to cervical carcinoma was also increased compared with diploid cells in 6 out of 8 cases. The relativity between the cellular DNA content of cervical carcinoma and that of its adjacent normal vaginal epithelium was found. In 10 out of 14 cases of uterine cervical carcinoma, the mean value of cellular DNA content was increased after by therapuetic irradiation with 10 Gy. Radiation effects on the DNA content of vaginal epithelial cells were similar to those on the DNA content of carcinoma cells. (author)

  2. Cell flux through S phase in the mouse duodenal epithelium determined by cell sorting and radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, M.; Cheng, H.

    1982-01-01

    An accumulation of cells in early S phase was observed in normal mouse duodenal epithelium studied with flow cytometry. To determine if this accumulation of cells was the result of a lower rate of DNA synthesis, animals were given a single injection of 3 H-thymidine and the epithelium collected one hour later. The epithelium was processed for flow cytometry. Seven sort windows were established in different portions of the DNA histogram. Cells from each window were sorted onto glass slides that were then processed for radioautography. The number of silver grains over the nuclei of each sorted population was counted. It was found that cells in early S phase had significantly fewer grains over their nuclei than did mid- or late-S phase cells. We conclude that the accumulation of cells in early S phase is due, at least in part, to a lower rate of DNA synthesis in early than in mid or late S phase

  3. Effect of coffee drinking on cell proliferation in rat urinary bladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, B A; Rutten, A A; Woutersen, R A

    1993-12-01

    A possible effect of freshly brewed drip coffee on urinary bladder carcinogenesis was investigated in male Wistar rats using cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium as the indicator of tumour promotion. Male rats were given either undiluted coffee brew (100% coffee), coffee diluted 10 times (10% coffee) or tap water (controls), as their only source of drinking fluid for 2 or 6 wk. Uracil, known to induce cell proliferation in urinary bladder epithelium, was included in the study as a positive control. In rats receiving 100% coffee, body weights, liquid intake and urinary volume were decreased. Neither histopathological examination of urinary bladder tissue nor the bromodeoxyuridine labelling index revealed biologically significant differences between rats receiving coffee and the tap water controls. Uracil increased the labelling index and induced hyperplasia of the urinary bladder epithelium, as expected. It was concluded that these results produced no evidence that drinking coffee predisposes to tumour development in the urinary bladder.

  4. Influência do ácido ascórbico em anastomoses e alças jejunais íntegras de rato Influence of ascorbic acid on anastomotic and jejunal resistance in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy PETROIANU

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Racional - O efeito do ácido ascórbico sobre os processos cicatriciais anastomóticos apresenta resultados conflitantes na literatura. Objetivo - Comparar a resistência cicatricial de anastomoses e de segmentos íntegros jejunais de ratos submetidos a administração de vitamina C, em distintos períodos pós-operatórios. Método - Foram estudados 50 ratos Wistar, submetidos a secção e subseqüente anastomose término-terminal de segmento jejunal, a 10 cm da flexura duodenojejunal. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos (n = 25: Grupo I - controle; Grupo II - administração de vitamina C oral, 100 mg/kg. Avaliaram-se as pressões de ruptura anastomótica e do segmento íntegro jejunal nos 3º, 5º, 7º, 21º e 28º dias pós-operatórios. Resultados - Os ratos que receberam vitamina C apresentaram uma pressão de ruptura anastomótica maior nos 5º, 7º e 28º dias pós-operatórios. O mesmo ocorreu com as pressões de ruptura do segmento íntegro jejunal dos ratos. Conclusões - A vitamina C aumentou a resistência das anastomoses jejunais dos ratos, tanto no pós-operatório imediato, quanto no tardio. Além disso, a resistência final dos segmentos jejunais íntegros dos ratos submetidos a administração de vitamina C foi significativamente maior do que no Grupo Controle.Backgroud - The effects of vitamin C on anastomotic healing process are controversial. Objective - To compare the jejunal anastomotic tension and in the upright segment in different postoperative periods. Method - Fifty male rats weighing 250 to 400 grams were submitted to laparotomy. The jejunum was transversally cut 10 cm from the duodenojejunal flexure, and subsequently anastomosed. The rats were divided into two groups (n = 25. Group I - control, Group II - oral administration of vitamin C (100 mg/kg. The anastomotic and the upright segment resistance was determined by using bursting pressure test on the 3rd, 5th , 7th , 21st and 28th postoperative days

  5. Metabolic activation of carbon tetrachloride by the cervico-vaginal epithelium in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittebo, E.B.; Brandt, I.

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism and binding of 14 C-labelled carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ) in the genital tract of female adult or juvenile NMRI-mice and Sprague-Dawly rats (mainly in the pro-oestrous/oestrous stage) and an adult New Zealand rabbit were studied. A marked irreversible binding of radioactivity in the squamous cervico-vaginal epithelium of mice given intravenous injections of 14 C-CCl 4 was revealed by autoradiography of solvent-extracted tissue. The localization of binding in the mouse genital tract incubated with 14 C-CCl 4 under air was similar to that observed in vivo. Bound radioactivity was also present in the cylindrical epithelium of the rabbit vagina incubated with 14 C-CCl 4 in vitro. For a comparison, no preferential binding of radiolabelled diethylstilbestrol or ethinylestradiol was observed in the mouse cervico-vaginal epithelium. The level of irreversible binding to PMSG-primed (pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin) vaginal epithelial 100 x g supernatants of mice and rats incubated with 14 C-CCl 4 under air was low. Addition of the reducing agent dithionite to the incubations increased the binding in the vaginal epithelium 20-fold. In juvenile mice and rats injected with 14 C-CCl 4 , the levels of metabolites in the epithelium were low, whereas PMSG-primed juvenile rats contained a higher level of metabolites. The results show that the cervico-vaginal epithelium can metabolically activate CCl 4 to reactive metabolites and suggest that the metabolism is under endocrine control. (author)

  6. Effects of x-irradiation on cell kinetics of oral epithelium in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnouchi, Kenichi

    1982-01-01

    The acute radiation effects on the tongue and lip mucosa epithelium were cytokinetically investigated after the local irradiation at the head part of C 3 Hf/He mice with single dose of 516 mC/kg(2000R) of X rays. The microautoradiographic study was performed for these two kinds of oral epithelium at various times after the pulse-labeling with 3 H-thymidine, which followed immediately after the irradiation. The cell kinetics of irradiated as well as unirradiated basal cells were investigated by observing the changes in frequencies of the labeled cells and the labeled mitoses in the epithelium along the time course after irradiation. The results of the analysis of the percent frequencies of mitotic cells as a function of time after the labeling and the irradiation showed that the movement of the labeled cells were blocked at G 2 phase for about 6 hr and that the cell cycle time after the 1st post irradiation mitoses became shorter than that of the unirradiated cells. However, no change was found in the migration rate of the tongue epithelium, i.e., the time required for labeled cells to migrate from basal cell layer to prickle-granular cell layer. On the other hand, only 25% of labeled cells in the lip mucosa epithelium migrated into prickle-granular cell layer until 40 hr after irradiation, and it was hardly observed that the labeled cells moved into mitotic phase. These results suggest that basal cell of the lip mucosa is more radiosensitive than that of the tongue epithelium. (author)

  7. Effects of the Loss of Conjunctival Muc16 on Corneal Epithelium and Stroma in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Kumi; Okada, Yuka; Cheon, Dong-Joo; Miyajima, Masayasu; Behringer, Richard R.; Yamanaka, Osamu; Saika, Shizuya

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the role of conjunctival Muc16 in the homeostasis of the ocular surface epithelium and stroma using Muc16-null knockout (KO) mice. Methods. We used KO mice (n = 58) and C57/BL6 (WT) mice (n = 58). Histology and immunohistochemistry were employed to analyze the phenotypes in the ocular surface epithelium. The expression of phospho-Stat3, AP-1 components, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) in the cornea and conjunctiva was examined. The shape of the nuclei of corneal epithelial cells was examined to evaluate intraepithelial cell differentiation. Epithelial cell proliferation was studied using bromo-deoxyuridine labeling. Finally, the wound healing of a round defect (2-mm diameter) in the corneal epithelium was measured. The keratocyte phenotype and macrophage invasion in the stroma were evaluated after epithelial repair. Results. The loss of Muc16 activated Stat3 signal, affected JunB signal, and upregulated the expression of IL-6 in the conjunctiva. Basal-like cells were observed in the suprabasal layer of the corneal epithelium with an increase in proliferation. The loss of Muc16 accelerated the wound healing of the corneal epithelium. The incidence of myofibroblast appearance and macrophage invasion were more marked in KO stroma than in WT stroma after epithelial repair. Conclusions. The loss of Muc16 in the conjunctiva affected the homeostasis of the corneal epithelium and stroma. The mechanism might include the upregulation of the inflammatory signaling cascade (i.e., Stat3 signal, and IL-6 expression in the KO conjunctiva). Current data provides insight into the research of the pathophysiology of dry eye syndrome. PMID:24812549

  8. Importance of Absent Neoplastic Epithelium in Patients Treated With Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enblad, Malin; Birgisson, Helgi; Wanders, Alkwin; Sköldberg, Filip; Ghanipour, Lana; Graf, Wilhelm

    2016-04-01

    The importance of absent neoplastic epithelium in specimens from cytoreductive surgery (CRS) is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and prognostic value of histopathology without neoplastic epithelium in patients treated with CRS and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Data were extracted from medical records and histopathology reports for patients treated with initial CRS and HIPEC at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, between 2004 and 2012. Patients with inoperable disease and patients undergoing palliative non-CRS surgery were excluded from the study. Patients lacking neoplastic epithelium in surgical specimens from CRS, with or without mucin, were classified as "neoplastic epithelium absent" (NEA), and patients with neoplastic epithelium were classified as "neoplastic epithelium present" (NEP). The study observed NEA in 78 of 353 patients (22 %). Mucin was found in 28 of the patients with NEA. For low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasms and adenomas, the 5-year overall survival rate was 100 % for NEA and 84 % for NEP, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 100 % for NEA and 59 % for NEP. For appendiceal/colorectal adenocarcinomas (including tumors of the small intestine), the 5-year overall survival rate was 61 % for NEA and 38 % for NEP, and the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 60 % for NEA and 14 % for NEP. Carcinoembryonic antigen level, peritoneal cancer index, and completeness of the cytoreduction score were lower in patients with NEA. A substantial proportion of patients undergoing CRS and HIPEC have NEA. These patients have a favorable prognosis and a decreased risk of recurrence. Differences in patient selection can affect the proportion of NEA and hence explain differences in survival rates between reported series.

  9. Engineering Functional Epithelium for Regenerative Medicine and In Vitro Organ Models: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrana, Nihal E.; Lavalle, Philippe; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Dehghani, Fariba; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the fields of microfabrication, biomaterials, and tissue engineering have provided new opportunities for developing biomimetic and functional tissues with potential applications in disease modeling, drug discovery, and replacing damaged tissues. An intact epithelium plays an indispensable role in the functionality of several organs such as the trachea, esophagus, and cornea. Furthermore, the integrity of the epithelial barrier and its degree of differentiation would define the level of success in tissue engineering of other organs such as the bladder and the skin. In this review, we focus on the challenges and requirements associated with engineering of epithelial layers in different tissues. Functional epithelial layers can be achieved by methods such as cell sheets, cell homing, and in situ epithelialization. However, for organs composed of several tissues, other important factors such as (1) in vivo epithelial cell migration, (2) multicell-type differentiation within the epithelium, and (3) epithelial cell interactions with the underlying mesenchymal cells should also be considered. Recent successful clinical trials in tissue engineering of the trachea have highlighted the importance of a functional epithelium for long-term success and survival of tissue replacements. Hence, using the trachea as a model tissue in clinical use, we describe the optimal structure of an artificial epithelium as well as challenges of obtaining a fully functional epithelium in macroscale. One of the possible remedies to address such challenges is the use of bottom-up fabrication methods to obtain a functional epithelium. Modular approaches for the generation of functional epithelial layers are reviewed and other emerging applications of microscale epithelial tissue models for studying epithelial/mesenchymal interactions in healthy and diseased (e.g., cancer) tissues are described. These models can elucidate the epithelial/mesenchymal tissue interactions at the

  10. Seminal epithelium in prostate biopsy can mimic malignant and premalignant prostatic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arista-Nasr, J; Trolle-Silva, A; Aguilar-Ayala, E; Martínez-Benítez, B

    2016-01-01

    In most prostate biopsies, the seminal epithelium is easily recognised because it meets characteristic histological criteria. However, some biopsies can mimic malignant or premalignant prostatic lesions. The aims of this study were to analyse the histological appearance of the biopsies that mimic adenocarcinomas or preneoplastic prostatic lesions, discuss the differential diagnosis and determine the frequency of seminal epithelia in prostate biopsies. We consecutively reviewed 500 prostate puncture biopsies obtained using the sextant method and selected those cases in which we observed seminal vesicle or ejaculatory duct epithelium. In the biopsies in which the seminal epithelium resembled malignant or premalignant lesions, immunohistochemical studies were conducted that included prostate-specific antigen and MUC6. The most important clinical data were recorded. Thirty-six (7.2%) biopsies showed seminal epithelium, and 7 of them (1.4%) resembled various prostate lesions, including high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations, adenocarcinomas with papillary patterns and poorly differentiated carcinoma. The seminal epithelium resembled prostate lesions when the lipofuscin deposit, the perinuclear vacuoles or the nuclear pseudoinclusions were inconspicuous or missing. Five of the 7 biopsies showed mild to moderate cellular atypia with small and hyperchromatic nuclei, and only 2 showed cellular pleomorphism. The patients were alive and asymptomatic after an average of 6 years of progression. The seminal epithelium resembles prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atypical acinar proliferations and various types of prostatic adenocarcinomas in approximately 1.4% of prostate biopsies. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Prolonged phonation impairs the integrity and barrier function of porcine vocal fold epithelium: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Paddock, Kieran; Chou, Adriana; Scholp, Austin; Gong, Ting; Jiang, Jack J

    2018-04-18

    Voice abuse is known to be a common risk factor of voice disorders and prolonged; high-intensity phonation has been shown to damage the vocal fold epithelium. We aim to evaluate the effects of phonation on the integrity and barrier function of vocal fold epithelium using a porcine laryngeal model. Ex vivo porcine larynges were phonated at low intensity or high intensity for 15, 30, or 60 min within 4 h after harvest. Vocal fold epithelium was visualized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The barrier function of vocal fold epithelium was evaluated by measuring the permeability to model molecules, fluorescein (376 Da), and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-dextrans of 4000 and 10,000 Da (FD4, FD10), in a Franz diffusing cell. Cell death and dilated intercellular space after phonation were observed using TEM. Thickness of vocal fold epithelium was significantly reduced after low-intensity phonation for 30 and 60 min and high-intensity phonation for 15, 30, and 60 min. Epithelial permeability to fluorescein was significantly increased after low-intensity phonation for 30 and 60 min, and high-intensity phonation. Permeability to FD4 was significantly increased after high-intensity phonation for 30 and 60 min. Phonation did not alter the permeability to FD10 significantly. Long-duration phonation destroys the integrity and barrier function of vocal fold epithelium. These effects likely make vocal folds more vulnerable to other environmental irritants, such as tobacco smoke, reflux components, allergens, and inhaled pollutants. Destroyed barrier function may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of voice lesions related to voice abuse.

  12. Growth of normal or irradiated vaginal epithelium in in vivo cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tileva, M.

    1975-01-01

    Growth of normal or irradiated vaginal epithelium was studied by the method of F.M.Lazarenko (1959). Pieces of vaginal mucosa from immature albino rats, normal or exposed to 1000 or 2000 R, were embedded in celloidin and implanted into the abdominal wall of female immature rats. Implants were recovered for histological examinations from day 1 to day 10 after surgery. At day 1 post implantation, vaginal epithelium was found to have dedifferentiated. Cells showed a high mitotic index (MI = 16.2%). Cell proliferation progressed further to attain a peak rate at 3 days (MI = 32.7%). At 5 days, newly formed structures began to differentiate, and concurrently manifested a gradual decrease in cell proliferative activity (at 10 days, MI = 15.6%). Following exposure to 1000 R, vaginal epithelium displayed a similar pattern of growth and differentiation, the only difference from non-irradiated epithelium being that there was a transient mitotic delay over the first 3 days; mitotic rates reached a peak at 5 days (MI = 47.0%), were still high at 7 days (MI = 31.3%), and fell to 19% at 10 days. With this longer proliferation period, newly formed structures appeared ''luxuriant''. After a dose of 2000 R, vaginal epithelium failed to show any signs of growth at all investigated time intervals. These data are in agreement with evidence obtained by K.M.Svetikova (1961) and L.I.Chekulaeva (1969, 1974) for a good restitutional ability of epithelia of epidermal origin following exposure to 1200 R X-rays. By Warren' rule (1944), i.e., that cells should be considered radiosensitive if severely damaged by less than 2500 R, vaginal epithelium cells may be designated as relatively susceptible to radiation. (author)

  13. [Structure of the epithelium of the parasitic turbellaria Notenera ivanovi (Turbellaria: Fecampiida)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornakova, E E; Marchenkov, A V

    2000-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the epithelium in Notentera ivanovi (Turbellaria, Fecampiida) has been studied. Notentera ivanovi lacks the digestive system but has a pad of the epidermal cells on the dorsal side of the body, which seems to be similar to the digestive epidermis on LM. Both the ventral and dorsal epithelium are cellular, ciliated and not insunk (fig. 1, a). The ultrastructure of the ventral and dorsal epithelium is similar in essential features. The cells bear abundant microvilli, cilia and are very rich in mitochondria, but the cytoplasm does not contain lysosomes and shows no other indications of phago- or pinocytosis. The basal membrane of epithelial cells forms deep invaginations (fig. 1, [symbol: see text]), partly with dilations (fig. 1, a; 2, a) containing the lamellated material (3, [symbol: see text]). In the basal part of the cells the numerous Golgi apparatus and rare cysternae of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum were observed (fig. 2, a, [symbol: see text]). The epithelium consists of several types of cells, which differ in the structure of secretory granules. The most abundant type of cells contains the granules with the rough-fibrillated content (fig. 1, a; 2, [symbol: see text]; 3, a). The cells of this type cover most part of the body. In some cells the content of such granules becomes condensed and electron-dense granules appear (fig. 3, a, [symbol: see text]). Another type of cells contains the giant granules with the rough-fibrillated content (fig. 3, [symbol: see text]). Third type of the secret is the granules with the finely fibrillated content which is ejected by exocytosis. The cells of the second and third types form a separate areas of the epithelium of the dorsal side of the body but occasionally were observed in the ventral epithelium too. The epithelium of N. ivanovi differs from that in Kronborgia by the abundance and diversity of secretory contents. The role of the epithelium in the digestion remains conjectural. It seems to be

  14. Effect of irradiation on unscheduled DNA synthesis induced by 4-nitroquinoline in tracheal epithelium of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Kennedy, R.; Brooks, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    Unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) was determined in rat epithelium by autoradiographic techniques to determine the influence of prior irradiation on the ability of the cells to repair mutagenic damage induced by 4-nitroquionoline (4NQO). UDS was stimulated by in vitro exposure to 4NPO. However, prior whole-body irradiation of rats with either 50 or 300 rad did not alter the UDS induced by 4NQO. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that irradiation can induce DNA repair enzymes in respiratory tract epithelium. 5 references, 3 figures

  15. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck Nielsen, H; Rømer Rassing, M; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    cell culture model, and human and porcine buccal epithelium were compared. The esterase activity in the intact cell culture model and in the porcine buccal mucosa was compared. Further, the TR146 cell culture model was used to study the permeability rate and metabolism of leu-enkephalin. The activity...... of the three enzymes in the TR146 homogenate supernatants was in the same range as the activity in homogenate supernatants of human buccal epithelium. In the TR146 cell culture model, the activity of aminopeptidase (13.70+/-2.10 nmol/min per mg protein) was approx. four times the activity of carboxypeptidase...

  16. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Verhoef, J C; Ponec, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium with respect to the permeability of test substances with different molecular weights (M(w)). For this purpose, the apparent permeability (P(app)) values for mannitol...... and for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled dextrans (FD) with various M(w) (4000-40000) were compared to the P(app) values obtained using porcine buccal mucosa as an in vitro model of the human buccal epithelium. The effect of 10 mM sodium glycocholate (GC) on the P(app) values was examined. To identify...

  17. Comparative quantitative studies on the radiosensitivity of the oral cavity epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyubenov, T.

    1986-01-01

    A series of 146 patients with miscellaneous localizations of malignant tumors in the head and neck area, in whom different portions of the oral cavity epithelium came within the field subject to irradiation were included in the study. Using the Kirk's formula for cumulative radiation effect, quantitative relationships in the manifestation of radioepithelitis were searched for. With increasing the intervals of the cumulative radiation effect, the number of patients and the number of interruptions in treatment with different localizations of the tumor depended on epithelium radiosensitivity

  18. Organ Culture as a Model System for Studies on Enterotoxin Interactions with the Intestinal Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Ulver Spangsberg; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies on bacterial enterotoxin-epithelium interactions require model systems capable of mimicking the events occurring at the molecular and cellular levels during intoxication. In this chapter, we describe organ culture as an often neglected alternative to whole-animal experiments or enterocyte......-like cell lines. Like cell culture, organ culture is versatile and suitable for studying rapidly occurring events, such as enterotoxin binding and uptake. In addition, it is advantageous in offering an epithelium with more authentic permeability/barrier properties than any cell line, as well...

  19. Fine structure and function of the alimentary epithelium in Artemia salina nauplii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, S R; Conte, F P

    1974-01-01

    The fine structure of the alimentary tract in the second instar nauplius of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been described. The foregut and hindgut of the larva are composed of cuboidal epithelium which is cuticularized. The epithelium of the midgut and gastric caeca is columnar and is characterized by apical microvilli, basal membrane infolds, and abundant mitochondria. The structural characteristics of the midgut cells correlate with previous physiological and biochemical evidence on both adult and larval brine shrimp which indicates that the midgut plays an important role in absorption and osmoregulation in these animals.

  20. Gut microbiota and probiotics in modulation of epithelium and gut-associated lymphoid tissue function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Yolanda; De Palma, Giada

    2009-01-01

    The intestinal tract mucosa is exposed to a vast number of environmental antigens and a large community of commensal bacteria. The mucosal immune system has to provide both protection against pathogens and tolerance to harmless bacteria. Immune homeostasis depends on the interaction of indigenous commensal and transient bacteria (probiotics) with various components of the epithelium and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. Herein, an update is given of the mechanisms by which the gut microbiota and probiotics are translocated through the epithelium, sensed via pattern-recognition receptors, and activate innate and adaptive immune responses.

  1. Optical properties of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelium cells investigated with adaptive optics optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuolin

    Human vision starts when photoreceptors collect and respond to light. Photoreceptors do not function in isolation though, but share close interdependence with neighboring photoreceptors and underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. These cellular interactions are essential for normal function of the photoreceptor-RPE complex, but methods to assess these in the living human eye are limited. One approach that has gained increased promise is high-resolution retinal imaging that has undergone tremendous technological advances over the last two decades to probe the living retina at the cellular level. Pivotal in these advances has been adaptive optics (AO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) that together allow unprecedented spatial resolution of retinal structures in all three dimensions. Using these high-resolution systems, cone photoreceptor are now routinely imaged in healthy and diseased retina enabling fundamental structural properties of cones to be studied such as cell spacing, packing arrangement, and alignment. Other important cell properties, however, have remained elusive to investigation as even better imaging performance is required and thus has resulted in an incomplete understanding of how cells in the photoreceptor-RPE complex interact with light. To address this technical bottleneck, we expanded the imaging capability of AO-OCT to detect and quantify more accurately and completely the optical properties of cone photoreceptor and RPE cells at the cellular level in the living human retina. The first objective of this thesis was development of a new AO-OCT method that is more precise and sensitive, thus enabling a more detailed view of the 3D optical signature of the photoreceptor-RPE complex than was previously possible (Chapter 2). Using this new system, the second objective was quantifying the waveguide properties of individual cone photoreceptor inner and outer segments across the macula (Chapter 3). The third objective extended the AO

  2. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Human Respiratory Epithelium Affected by Invasive Candida Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aun Muhammad

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is potentially life-threatening systemic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans. Candida enters the blood stream and disseminate throughout the body and it is often observed in hospitalized patients, immunocompromised individuals or those with chronic diseases. This infection is opportunistic and risk starts with the colonization of C. albicans on mucocutaneous surfaces and respiratory epithelium. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which are involved in the regulation of virtually every cellular process. They regulate and control the levels of mRNA stability and post-transcriptional gene expression. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been associated in many disease states, and miRNA-based therapies are in progress. In this study, we investigated possible variations of miRNA expression profiles of respiratory epithelial cells infected by invasive Candida species. For this purpose, respiratory epithelial tissues of infected individuals from hospital laboratory were accessed before their treatment. Invasive Candida infection was confirmed by isolation of Candia albicans from the blood cultures of the same infected individuals. The purity of epithelial tissues was assessed by flow cytometry (FACSCalibur cytometer; BD Biosciences, Heidelberg, Germany using statin antibody (S-44. TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR (in a TaqMan Low Density Array format was used for miRNA expression profiling. MiRNAs investigated, the levels of expression of 55 miRNA were significantly altered in infected tissues. Some miRNAs showed dramatic increase (miR-16-1 or decrease of expression (miR-17-3p as compared to control. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these miRNA-targeted genes suggests that Candidal infection affect many important biological pathways. In summary, disturbance in miRNA expression levels indicated the change in cascade of pathological processes and the regulation of respiratory epithelial functions

  3. Expression and Role of Oct3/4 in Injury-Repair Process of Rat Alveolar Epithelium after 5-Fu Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-ya Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to investigate how the embryonic stem cell-related gene Oct3/4 changes during the injury-repair process of distal pulmonary epithelium induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu. Methods. We have developed the lung injury model induced by 5-Fu and observed the dynamic changes of Oct3/4 by indirect immunofluorescence, Western blot, and quantitative real-time PCR. Immunofluorescence double staining was used to compare the positions of Oct3/4(+ cells and other reported alveolar epithelial stem cells. Results. Oct3/4(+ cells were not found in normal rat lung epithelial cells. However, after treatment with 5-Fu, Oct3/4(+ cells appeared at 12 h, reached the peak at 24 h, then decreased at 48 h, and eventually disappeared at 72 h. Oct3/4 was localized in the nucleus. We found that the sites of Clara cell secretory protein and surfactant protein-C dual positive cells were apparently different from Oct3/4(+ cells. Conclusions. Our results revealed that, in rat alveolar epithelium, expression of Oct3/4 could be induced after treatment with 5-Fu, then decreased gradually, and was silenced following the alveolar epithelial differentiation. We hold that Oct3/4(+ cells are lung stem cells, which can provide new evidence for identification and isolation of lung epithelial stem cells.

  4. Giant fluctuations and structural effects in a flocking epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Malinverno, Chiara; Corallino, Salvatore; Ginelli, Francesco; Scita, Giorgio; Cerbino, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    Epithelial cells cultured in a monolayer are very motile in isolation but reach a near-jammed state when mitotic division increases their number above a critical threshold. We have recently shown that a monolayer can be reawakened by over-expression of a single protein, RAB5A, a master regulator of endocytosis. This reawakening of motility was explained in terms of a flocking transition that promotes the emergence of a large-scale collective migratory pattern. Here we focus on the impact of this reawakening on the structural properties of the monolayer. We find that the unjammed monolayer is characterised by a fluidisation at the single cell level, and by enhanced non-equilibrium large-scale number fluctuations at a larger length scale. Also, with the help of numerical simulations, we trace back the origin of these fluctuations to the self-propelled active nature of the constituents, and to the existence of a local alignment mechanism, leading to the spontaneous breaking of the orientational symmetry.

  5. Giant fluctuations and structural effects in a flocking epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giavazzi, Fabio; Cerbino, Roberto; Malinverno, Chiara; Corallino, Salvatore; Scita, Giorgio; Ginelli, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Epithelial cells cultured in a monolayer are very motile in isolation but reach a near-jammed state when mitotic division increases their number above a critical threshold. We have recently shown that a monolayer can be reawakened by over-expression of a single protein, RAB5A, a master regulator of endocytosis. This reawakening of motility was explained in terms of a flocking transition that promotes the emergence of a large-scale collective migratory pattern. Here we focus on the impact of this reawakening on the structural properties of the monolayer. We find that the unjammed monolayer is characterised by a fluidisation at the single cell level, and by enhanced non-equilibrium large-scale number fluctuations at a larger length scale. Also, with the help of numerical simulations, we trace back the origin of these fluctuations to the self-propelled active nature of the constituents, and to the existence of a local alignment mechanism, leading to the spontaneous breaking of the orientational symmetry. (paper)

  6. Simple and efficient method for isolation and cultivation of endoscopically obtained human colonocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob B; Horn, Thomas; Nielsen, Ole H

    2003-01-01

    and where the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was later reached, were included. Seven colon biopsies were taken and incubated at varying time periods of 10-120 min and temperatures of 4-37 degrees C in a chelating buffer. The epithelium was then harvested and cultivated under three different......Few comparative and validated reports exist on the isolation and growth of colonoscopically obtained colonic epithelium. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a simple method for the cultivation of colonoscopically obtained colonocytes. Forty patients, who underwent routine colonoscopy...

  7. High efficiency non-viral transfection of retinal and iris pigment epithelial cells with pigment epithelium-derived factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thumann, G; Stöcker, M; Maltusch, C; Salz, A K; Barth, S; Walter, P; Johnen, S

    2010-02-01

    Transplantation of pigment epithelial cells in patients with age-related macular degeneration and Parkinson's disease has the potential to improve functional rehabilitation. Genetic modification of cells before transplantation may allow the delivery of neuroprotective factors to achieve functional improvement. As transplantation of cells modified using viral vectors is complicated by the possible dissemination of viral particles and severe immune reactions, we have explored non-viral methods to insert genetic material in pigment epithelial cells. Using lipofection or nucleofection ARPE-19 cells, freshly isolated and primary retinal and iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells were transfected with plasmids encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) and with three plasmids encoding recombinant pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) and GFP. Transfection efficiency was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and stability of protein expression by immunoblotting. Pigment epithelial cells were successfully transfected with plasmid encoding GFP. Expression of GFP in ARPE-19 was transient, but was observed for up to 1 year in IPE cells. Analysis of pigment epithelial cells transfected with PEDF plasmids revealed that PEDF fusion proteins were successfully expressed and functionally active. In conclusion, efficient transfer of genetic information in pigment epithelial cells can be achieved using non-viral transfection protocols.

  8. Differentiation/Purification Protocol for Retinal Pigment Epithelium from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Research Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Iwasaki

    Full Text Available To establish a novel protocol for differentiation of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE with high purity from mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC.Retinal progenitor cells were differentiated from mouse iPSC, and RPE differentiation was then enhanced by activation of the Wnt signaling pathway, inhibition of the fibroblast growth factor signaling pathway, and inhibition of the Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase signaling pathway. Expanded pigmented cells were purified by plate adhesion after Accutase® treatment. Enriched cells were cultured until they developed a cobblestone appearance with cuboidal shape. The characteristics of iPS-RPE were confirmed by gene expression, immunocytochemistry, and electron microscopy. Functions and immunologic features of the iPS-RPE were also evaluated.We obtained iPS-RPE at high purity (approximately 98%. The iPS-RPE showed apical-basal polarity and cellular structure characteristic of RPE. Expression levels of several RPE markers were lower than those of freshly isolated mouse RPE but comparable to those of primary cultured RPE. The iPS-RPE could form tight junctions, phagocytose photoreceptor outer segments, express immune antigens, and suppress lymphocyte proliferation.We successfully developed a differentiation/purification protocol to obtain mouse iPS-RPE. The mouse iPS-RPE can serve as an attractive tool for functional and morphological studies of RPE.

  9. Beta-adrenergic activation of solute coupled water uptake by toad skin epithelium results in near-isosmotic transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    2007-01-01

    (V) with a [Na+] of the transported fluid of 130+/-24 mM ([Na+]Ringer's solution = 117.4 mM). Addition of bumetanide to the inside solution reduced J(V). Water was transported uphill and J(V) reversed at an excess outside osmotic concentration, deltaC(S,rev) = 28.9+/-3.9 mOsm, amiloride decreased delta......C(S,rev) to 7.5+/-1.5 mOsm. It is concluded that water uptake is accomplished by osmotic coupling in the lateral intercellular space (lis), and hypothesized that a small fraction of the Na+ flux pumped into lis is recirculated via basolateral NKCC transporters.......Transepithelial potential (V(T)), conductance (G(T)), and water flow (J(V)) were measured simultaneously with good time resolution (min) in isolated toad (Bufo bufo) skin epithelium with Ringer on both sides. Inside application of 5 microM isoproterenol resulted in the fast increase in G(T) from 1...

  10. Clearance of lead-212 ions from rabbit bronchial epithelium to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.C.; Greenhalgh, J.R.; Smith, H.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of 212 Pb ions from bronchial epithelium to blood has been investigated in anaesthetized rabbits. The 212 Pb ions were introduced by intubation either into the trachea or into smaller, more distal bronchi. Removal from lung was followed by external γ-counting. Mucociliary clearance to the GI tract was blocked by tracheostomy. Two distinct phases of clearance from bronchial epithelium to blood were observed. Approximately 20% of deposited 212 Pb was rapidly absorbed with a half-time of about 4 min, the remainder with a biological half-time of about 9 h, irrespective of the site of instillation in the bronchial tree. Two hours after deposition, the 212 Pb remaining in lung was found to be partitioned between mucus and the bronchial epithelium, with a substantial but minor fraction in the epithelium. Uptake of 212 Pb in the skeleton was estimated to be about 20% of the 212 Pb entering the blood circulation. Removal by the kidneys, at 25%, was comparable with skeletal uptake. These results are compared with previously published work using rodents, dogs and man which demonstrated either rapid or slow absorption but not both phases occurring together. (author)

  11. Morphological featuresof metaplasia and dysplasia of epithelium in Barret’s esophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Vitkovska S.V.

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the morphological features of metaplasia and dysplasia of epithelium in Barret’s esophagus. The role of biopsy in the diagnostic of Barret’s esophagus and results of morphological research in the choice of follow-up and treatment of patients is shown.

  12. [Quantitative image analysis in pulmonary pathology - digitalization of preneoplastic lesions in human bronchial epithelium (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, T; Müller, K M; Kämper, H

    1979-01-01

    The report concerns the first phase of a quantitative study of normal and abnormal bronchial epithelium with the objective of establishing the digitalization of histologic patterns. Preparative methods, data collecting and handling, and further mathematical analysis are described. In cluster and discriminatory analysis the digitalized histologic features can be used to separate and classify the individual cases into the respective diagnostic groups.

  13. Comparison of Effect of Hypoxia on Epithelium of Trachea and Terminal Bronchioles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uhlík, J.; Konrádová, V.; Vajner, L.; Adášková, Jana; Herget, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 9, Suppl. 3 (2003), s. 478-479 ISSN 1431-9276. [Microscopy Conference /31./. Dresden, 07.09.2003-12.09.2003] Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : airway epithelium * Clara cells * ciliated cells * hypoxia * electron microscopy Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.648, year: 2003

  14. Epithelial Cell Damage Activates Bactericidal/Permeability Increasing-Protein (BPI Expression in Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Balakrishnan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As the first line of defense against invading pathogen, intestinal epithelium produces various antimicrobial proteins (AMP that help in clearance of pathogen. Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI is a 55 kDa AMP that is expressed in intestinal epithelium. Dysregulation of BPI in intestinal epithelium is associated with various inflammatory diseases like Crohn’s Disease, Ulcerative colitis, and Infectious enteritis’s. In this paper, we report a direct correlation between intestinal damage and BPI expression. In Caco-2 cells, we see a significant increase in BPI levels upon membrane damage mediated by S. aureus infection and pore-forming toxins (Streptolysin and Listeriolysin. Cells detect changes in potassium level as a Danger-associated molecular pattern associated with cell damage and induce BPI expression in a p38 dependent manner. These results are further supported by in vivo findings that the BPI expression in murine intestinal epithelium is induced upon infection with bacteria which cause intestinal damage (Salmonella Typhimurium and Shigella flexneri whereas mutants that do not cause intestinal damage (STM ΔfliC and STM ΔinvC did not induce BPI expression. Our results suggest that epithelial damage associated with infection act as a signal to induce BPI expression.

  15. Epithelium-innate immune cell axis in mucosal responses to SIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, L; Duan, L; Perkey, K E; Wietgrefe, S; Zupancic, M; Smith, A J; Southern, P J; Johnson, R P; Haase, A T

    2017-03-01

    In the SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus)-rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type I) transmission to women, one hallmark of the mucosal response to exposure to high doses of SIV is CD4 T-cell recruitment that fuels local virus expansion in early infection. In this study, we systematically analyzed the cellular events and chemoattractant profiles in cervical tissues that precede CD4 T-cell recruitment. We show that vaginal exposure to the SIV inoculum rapidly induces chemokine expression in cervical epithelium including CCL3, CCL20, and CXCL8. The chemokine expression is associated with early recruitment of macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells that are co-clustered underneath the cervical epithelium. Production of chemokines CCL3 and CXCL8 by these cells in turn generates a chemokine gradient that is spatially correlated with the recruitment of CD4 T cells. We further show that the protection of SIVmac239Δnef vaccination against vaginal challenge is correlated with the absence of this epithelium-innate immune cell-CD4 T-cell axis response in the cervical mucosa. Our results reveal a critical role for cervical epithelium in initiating early mucosal responses to vaginal infection, highlight an important role for macrophages in target cell recruitment, and provide further evidence of a paradoxical dampening effect of a protective vaccine on these early mucosal responses.

  16. Expression of insulin signalling components in the sensory epithelium of the human saccule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degerman, Eva; Rauch, Uwe; Lindberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    signalling components in the inner ear is sparce. Our immunohistochemistry approach has shown that the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), protein kinase B (PKB) and insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) are expressed in the sensory epithelium of the human saccule, which also...

  17. Posttranslational regulation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in tongue epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biagiotti, E.; Bosch, K. S.; Ninfali, P.; Frederiks, W. M.; van Noorden, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity is high in tongue epithelium, but its exact function is still unknown, it may be related;either to the high proliferation rate of this tissue or to protection against oxidative stress. To elucidate its exact role, we localized

  18. DNA damage in lens epithelium of cataract patients in vivo and ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øsnes-Ringen, Oyvind; Azqueta, Amaia O; Moe, Morten C; Zetterström, Charlotta; Røger, Magnus; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Collins, Andrew R

    2013-11-01

    DNA damage has been described in the human cataractous lens epithelium, and oxidative stress generated by UV radiation and endogenous metabolic processes has been suggested to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of cataract. In this study, the aim was to explore the quality and relative quantity of DNA damage in lens epithelium of cataract patients in vivo and after incubation in a cell culture system. Capsulotomy specimens were analysed, before and after 1 week of ex vivo cultivation, using the comet assay to measure DNA strand breaks, oxidized purine and pyrimidine bases and UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. DNA strand breaks were barely detectable, oxidized pyrimidines and pyrimidine dimers were present at low levels, whereas there was a relatively high level of oxidized purines, which further increased after cultivation. The observed levels of oxidized purines in cataractous lens epithelium may support a theory consistent with light damage and oxidative stress as mediators of molecular damage to the human lens epithelium. Damage commonly associated with UV-B irradiation was relatively low. The levels of oxidized purines increased further in a commonly used culture system. This is of interest considering the importance and versatility of ex vivo systems in studies exploring the pathogenesis of cataract. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  19. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance study on the barrier function of pig corneal epithelium and endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoi, Norihiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Morimoto, Taketoshi; Yoshizaki, Kazuo.

    1995-01-01

    Using gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) as a tracer, the barrier function of the corneal epithelium and endothelium was evaluated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Whole pig eyes and cornea excised with scleral rim, which had been incubated in dextran-added Gd-DTPA solution, were subjected to T 1 relaxation measurement and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). After incubation, the T 1 relaxation rate (1/T 1 ) of the excised cornea increased to a steady value, whereas that of the cornea from the whole eye increased only slightly. These results indicated that the increase in the T 1 relaxation rate of the excised cornea was attributable to Gd-DTPA penetration from the corneal endothelium and that the corneal epithelium exhibited a strong barrier function against Gd-DTPA entry. The MRI study also confirmed the strong barrier, enhanced signals being detected within the aqueous fluid in the T 1 -weighted image only when the corneal epithelium was abraded. Since Gd-DTPA scarcely penetrates the intact corneal epithelium, Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI shows potential as a quantitative tracer in evaluating epithelial barrier disruption. (author)

  20. Sodium transport and intracellular sodium activity in cultured human nasal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Boucher, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

     human nasal epithelium (HNE). Under control conditions, intracellular Na+ activity (acNa) was 23 +/- 1 mM (n = 44 preparations, 393 impalements).Amiloride (10(-4) M) hyperpolarized the apical membrane and increased the fractional apical membrane resistance but did not affect acNa. Exposure to...

  1. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, M R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium with respect to the permeability enhancement by different pH values, different osmolality values or bile salts. For this purpose, the increase in the apparent permeability (P...

  2. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H M; Rassing, M R; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium. For this purpose, the permeability of water, mannitol and testosterone across the TR146 cell culture model was compared to the permeability across human, monkey...

  3. Aspiration cytology of radiation-induced changes of normal breast epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, L.

    1987-01-01

    From a case illustrated, it appears that irradiation may induce changes in normal breast epithelium indistinguishable from malignancy by means of aspiration cytology. This fact must be considered in the choice of diagnostic methods for the evaluation of lesions in irradiated breast tissue

  4. Impact of thymectomy and antilymphocytic serum on stem cells of the intestinal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparovich, G.G.; Trufakin, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The population of stem cells of the intestinal epithelium was studied under conditions of the disturbed balance in the immune system on F 1 (CBAxC57B1) mice. It has been shown that thymectomy in adult mice does not influence the stem region of the intestinal epithelium at early time of observation but causes a tendency to the changed number of epithelial stem cells in 4-6 months. Administration of specific sera against T-, B- and mixed lymphoid populations on the 1st day of observation produces an ambi us effect on the stem region and results in an increase of the number of epithelial stem cells on the 5th day. After administration of the antilymphocytic serum there have been determined morphological changes in the population of mature erythrocytes and undulatory fluctuations in the number of mitotic cells of the intestinal epithelium. These data suggest functional correlation of the intestinal epithelium and the state of the immunocompetent tissue [ru

  5. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  6. Immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinases in the rabbit corneal epithelium upon UVA and UVB irradiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ardan, Taras; Čejková, Jitka

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 6 (2012), s. 540-546 ISSN 0065-1281 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : cornea * corneal epithelium * eye Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.608, year: 2012

  7. Loss of Retinal Function and Pigment Epithelium Changes in a Patient with Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Halborg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID has only scarcely been associated with ocular symptoms and rarely with retinal disease. In this case we describe a patient with distinct morphological and functional alterations in the retina. The patient presents with characteristic changes in retinal pigment epithelium, autofluorescence, and electrophysiology.

  8. Increased Regenerative Capacity of the Olfactory Epithelium in Niemann–Pick Disease Type C1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Meyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Niemann–Pick disease type C1 (NPC1 is a fatal neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder. The mutation of the NPC1 protein affects the homeostasis and transport of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids from late endosomes/lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Since olfactory impairment is one of the earliest symptoms in many neurodegenerative disorders, we focused on alterations of the olfactory epithelium in an NPC1 mouse model. Previous findings revealed severe morphological and immunohistochemical alterations in the olfactory system of NPC1−/− mutant mice compared with healthy controls (NPC1+/+. Based on immunohistochemical evaluation of the olfactory epithelium, we analyzed the impact of neurodegeneration in the olfactory epithelium of NPC1−/− mice and observed considerable loss of mature olfactory receptor neurons as well as an increased number of proliferating and apoptotic cells. Additionally, after administration of two different therapy approaches using either a combination of miglustat, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and allopregnanolone or a monotherapy with HPβCD, we recorded a remarkable reduction of morphological damages in NPC1−/− mice and an up to four-fold increase of proliferating cells within the olfactory epithelium. Numbers of mature olfactory receptor neurons doubled after both therapy approaches. Interestingly, we also observed therapy-induced alterations in treated NPC1+/+ controls. Thus, olfactory testing may provide useful information to monitor pharmacologic treatment approaches in human NPC1.

  9. Ultrastructure of the external gill epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum with reference to ionic transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarial, M S; Wilkins, J H

    2003-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the external gill epithelium of the axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, has been examined using conventional transmission electron microscopy to elucidate its role in ionic transport. Four cell types are identified in the gill filament and primary gill bar epithelium. These are granular, ciliated, Leydig and basal cells. A fifth cell type, the flat mitochondria-rich cell is only found in the gill bar epithelium. The predominant granular cells display microvilli at their surface and their cytoplasm contains abundant mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complexes, vesicles and PAS+ secretory granules that are extruded at the surface, which along with secretions from the Leydig cells form a mucous coat. The granular cells are joined apically by junctional complexes consisting of zonulae occludens, zonulae adherens and desmosomes. The lateral membranes of granular cells enclose large intercellular spaces that are closed at the apical ends but remain open at the basal ends adjoining capillaries. In AgNO3-treated axolotl, the gills become darkly stained, the silver grains penetrate apical membranes and appear in the cytoplasm, accumulating near the lateral membranes and also enter the intercellular spaces. These findings are consistent with the dual role of the gill epithelium in mucus production and active ionic transport.

  10. A quest for the best retinal pigment epithelium (stem) cell replacement therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis the focus of study lies on the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a monolayer of pigmented cells that lie underneath the photoreceptors (PR). The PR are specialized type of neurons that are capable of converting the incoming light into electric and neurochemical signals to the brain.

  11. Radioautographic study of DNA synthesis on gingival epithelium of mice Mus musculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silveira Tarelho, Z.V. da; Hetem, S.

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of DNA-sinthetizing cells in the basal layer of the gingival epithelium of the first lower molar region of young and adult mice of both sexes was studied using 3 H-thymidine and radioautography. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Histology, Immunohistochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Bovine Palatine Tonsil with Special Emphasis on Reticular Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paired palatine tonsils are located at the junction of the nasopharynx and oropharynx; ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through either the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular and functional composi...

  13. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Kochman, Agata; Gamian, Elżbieta; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Lipiński, Tomasz; Seweryn, Ewa; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia) and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma). Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is a new marker

  14. Repair of tracheal epithelium by basal cells after chlorine-induced injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musah Sadiatu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlorine is a widely used toxic compound that is considered a chemical threat agent. Chlorine inhalation injures airway epithelial cells, leading to pulmonary abnormalities. Efficient repair of injured epithelium is necessary to restore normal lung structure and function. The objective of the current study was to characterize repair of the tracheal epithelium after acute chlorine injury. Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to chlorine and injected with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU to label proliferating cells prior to sacrifice and collection of tracheas on days 2, 4, 7, and 10 after exposure. Airway repair and restoration of a differentiated epithelium were examined by co-localization of EdU labeling with markers for the three major tracheal epithelial cell types [keratin 5 (K5 and keratin 14 (K14 for basal cells, Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP for Clara cells, and acetylated tubulin (AcTub for ciliated cells]. Morphometric analysis was used to measure proliferation and restoration of a pseudostratified epithelium. Results Epithelial repair was fastest and most extensive in proximal trachea compared with middle and distal trachea. In unexposed mice, cell proliferation was minimal, all basal cells expressed K5, and K14-expressing basal cells were absent from most sections. Chlorine exposure resulted in the sloughing of Clara and ciliated cells from the tracheal epithelium. Two to four days after chlorine exposure, cell proliferation occurred in K5- and K14-expressing basal cells, and the number of K14 cells was dramatically increased. In the period of peak cell proliferation, few if any ciliated or Clara cells were detected in repairing trachea. Expression of ciliated and Clara cell markers was detected at later times (days 7–10, but cell proliferation was not detected in areas in which these differentiated markers were re-expressed. Fibrotic lesions were observed at days 7–10 primarily in distal trachea. Conclusion

  15. An examination of surface epithelium structures of the embryo across the genus Poeciliopsis (Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhuis, Tami M; Fris, Megan; Tuhela, Laura; Kwan, Lucia

    2017-12-01

    In viviparous, teleost fish, with postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning, embryonic structures that facilitate maternal-fetal nutrient transfer are predicted to be present. For the family Poeciliidae, only a handful of morphological studies have explored these embryonic specializations. Here, we present a comparative morphological study in the viviparous poeciliid genus, Poeciliopsis. Using microscopy techniques, we examine the embryonic surface epidermis of Poeciliopsis species that vary in their level of postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning and placentation across two phylogenetic clades and three independent evolutionary origins of placentation. We focus on surface features of the embryo that may facilitate maternal-fetal nutrient transfer. Specifically, we studied cell apical-surface morphology associated with the superficial epithelium that covers the body and sac (yolk and pericardial) of embryos at different developmental stages. Scanning electron microscopy revealed common surface epithelial cells across species, including pavement cells with apical-surface microridges or microvilli and presumed ionocytes and/or mucus-secreting cells. For three species, in the mid-stage embryos, the surface of the body and sac were covered in microvillus epithelium. The remaining species did not display microvillus epithelium at any of the stages examined. Instead, their epithelium of the body and sac were composed of cells with apical-surface microridges. For all species, in the late stage embryos, the surface of the body proper was composed of apical-surface microridges in a "fingerprint-like arrangement." Despite the differences in the surface epithelium of embryos across Poeciliopsis species and embryonic developmental stages, this variation was not associated with the level of postfertilization maternal nutrient provisioning. We discuss these results in light of previous morphological studies of matrotrophic, teleost fish, phylogenetic

  16. Garlic ameliorates histological changes in the uterine epithelium of lead induced mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waseem, N.; Butt, S.A.; Hamid, S.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the protective role of garlic extract on the histology of the uterine epithelium exposed to lead acetate in an animal model. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized control trial. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Anatomy, Army Medical College in collaboration with National Institute of health from April to June 2013. Material and Methods: Thirty female BALBc mice were selected. Ten animals were placed in each group. Group A being the control was given normal diet. Group B was given lead acetate at a dose of 30 mg/kg/day. Group C was given lead acetate 30 mg/kg/day and garlic extract 500 mg/kg/day through oral gavage tube for 60 days. Animals were sacrificed and dissected at the end of 60 days. Right uterine horn was processed, embedded and stained for histological study. Height of epithelium was measured. It was taken from apical to basal end of the cells. Results: There was increase in height of the lining epithelium of uterus in group B, mean value 19.70 ± 4.81 meu m when compared to Group A, with mean value 13.25 ± 2.37 meu m. The height of the epithelium was relatively reduced in group C, with mean value 14.50 ± 2.30 meu m when compared with group B. In group C results were same as Group A. The p values were 0.001 when group A was compared to group B, 0.688 when group A was compared to group C and 0.005 when group B was compared to group C. Conclusion: The height of epithelium was markedly increased in lead acetate treated group which returned to normal when co treated with garlic extract. Hence garlic ameliorated the changes induced by lead. (author)

  17. Gene expression based evidence of innate immune response activation in the epithelium with oral lichen planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Guy R.; Yeung, Alexander C.F.; Stucki, Grant; Kolokythas, Antonia; Sroussi, Herve Y.; Cabay, Robert J.; Kuzin, Igor; Schwartz, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a disease of the oral mucosa of unknown cause producing lesions with an intense band-like inflammatory infiltrate of T cells to the subepithelium and keratinocyte cell death. We performed gene expression analysis of the oral epithelium of lesions in subjects with OLP and its sister disease, oral lichenoid reaction (OLR), in order to better understand the role of the keratinocytes in these diseases. Design Fourteen patients with OLP or OLR were included in the study, along with a control group of 23 subjects with a variety of oral diseases and a normal group of 17 subjects with no clinically visible mucosal abnormalities. Various proteins have been associated with OLP, based on detection of secreted proteins or changes in RNA levels in tissue samples consisting of epithelium, stroma, and immune cells. The mRNA level of twelve of these genes expressed in the epithelium was tested in the three groups. Results Four genes showed increased expression in the epithelium of OLP patients: CD14, CXCL1, IL8, and TLR1, and at least two of these proteins, TLR1 and CXCL1, were expressed at substantial levels in oral keratinocytes. Conclusions Because of the large accumulation of T cells in lesions of OLP it has long been thought to be an adaptive immunity malfunction. We provide evidence that there is increased expression of innate immune genes in the epithelium with this illness, suggesting a role for this process in the disease and a possible target for treatment. PMID:24581860

  18. TRANSCRIPTOMIC ANALYSIS OF F344 RAT NASAL EPITHELIUM SUGGESTS THAT THE LACK OF CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO GLUTARALDEHYDE IS DUE TO ITS GREATER TOXICITY COMPARED TO FORMALDEHYDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaldehyde is cytotoxic and carcinogenic to the rat nasal respiratory epithelium inducing tumors after 12 months. Glutaraldehyde is also cytotoxic but is not carcinogenic to nasal epithelium even after 24 months. Both aldehydes induce similar acute and subchronic histopathology...

  19. Hyperopic correction: clinical validation with epithelium-on and epithelium-off protocols, using variable fluence and topographically customized collagen corneal crosslinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis1 1LaserViison.gr Clinical and Research Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USAPurpose: To report novel application of topographically-customized collagen crosslinking aiming to achieve hyperopic refractive changes. Two approaches were evaluated, one based on epithelium-off and one based on epithelium-on (transepithelial. Methods: A peripheral annular-shaped topographically customizable design was employed for high-fluence ultraviolet (UV-A irradiation aiming to achieve hyperopic refractive changes. A total of ten eyes were involved in this study. In group-A (five eyes, a customizable ring pattern was employed to debride the epithelium by excimer laser ablation, while in group-B (also five eyes, the epithelium remained intact. In both groups, specially formulated riboflavin solutions were applied. Visual acuity, cornea clarity, keratometry, topography, and pachymetry with a multitude of modalities, as well as endothelial cell counts were evaluated. Results: One year postoperatively, the following changes have been noted: in group-A, average uncorrected distance visual acuity changed from 20/63 to 20/40. A mean hyperopic refractive increase of +0.75 D was achieved. There was some mild reduction in the epithelial thickness. In group-B, average uncorrected distance visual acuity changed from 20/70 to 20/50. A mean hyperopic refractive increase of +0.85 D was achieved. Epithelial thickness returned to slightly reduced levels (compared to baseline in group-A, whereas to slightly increased levels in group-B. Conclusion: We introduce herein the novel application of a topographically-customizable collagen crosslinking to achieve a hyperopic refractive effect. This novel technique may be applied either with epithelial removal, offering a more stable result or with a non-ablative and non-incisional approach, offering a minimally

  20. The influence of androgens, anti-androgens, and castration on cell proliferation in the jejunal and colonic crypt epithelia, and in dimethylhydrazine-induced adenocarcinoma of rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    Androgenic hormones have previously been shown to promote cell proliferation in the small intestine of rat and androgen receptors have been demonstrated in carcinomata of the large intestine of rat. In this study the influence of testosterone and of castration on epithelial cell proliferation in the small intestine, the large intestine and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic tumours is compared. Cell proliferation in the small intestine and in colonic tumours was accelerated by testosterone treatment, and cell proliferation in colonic tumours, but not in the small intestine, was retarded following castration. Cell proliferation in colonic tumours was also inhibited by the anti-androgenic drug, Flutamide. Testosterone and castration each failed to influence cell proliferation in the colonic crypt epithelium of both normal and carcinogen-treated animals.

  1. Protection of the Peyer's patch-associated crypt and villus epithelium against methotrexate-induced damage is based on its distinct regulation of proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renes, Ingrid B.; Verburg, Melissa; Bulsing, Nathalie P.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Büller, Hans A.; Dekker, Jan; Einerhand, Alexandra W. C.

    2002-01-01

    The crypt and villus epithelium associated with Peyer's patches (PPs) is largely spared from methotrexate (MTX)-induced damage, compared with the non-patch (NP) epithelium. To assess the mechanism(s) preventing damage to the PP epithelium after MTX treatment, epithelial proliferation, apoptosis, and

  2. Damage to lens fiber cells causes TRPV4-dependent Src family kinase activation in the epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidullah, M; Mandal, A; Delamere, N A

    2015-11-01

    The bulk of the lens consists of tightly packed fiber cells. Because mature lens fibers lack mitochondria and other organelles, lens homeostasis relies on a monolayer of epithelial cells at the anterior surface. The detection of various signaling pathways in lens epithelial cells suggests they respond to stimuli that influence lens function. Focusing on Src Family Kinases (SFKs) and Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 4 (TRPV4), we tested whether the epithelium can sense and respond to an event that occurs in fiber mass. The pig lens was subjected to localized freeze-thaw (FT) damage to fibers at posterior pole then the lens was incubated for 1-10 min in Krebs solution at 37 °C. Transient SFK activation in the epithelium was detectable at 1 min. Using a western blot approach, the ion channel TRPV4 was detected in the epithelium but was sparse or absent in fiber cells. Even though TRPV4 expression appears low at the actual site of FT damage to the fibers, SFK activation in the epithelium was suppressed in lenses subjected to FT damage then incubated with the TRPV4 antagonist HC067047 (10 μM). Na,K-ATPase activity was examined because previous studies report changes of Na,K-ATPase activity associated with SFK activation. Na,K-ATPase activity doubled in the epithelium removed from FT-damaged lenses and the response was prevented by HC067047 or the SFK inhibitor PP2 (10 μM). Similar changes were observed in response to fiber damage caused by injection of 5 μl hyperosmotic NaCl or mannitol solution beneath the surface of the posterior pole. The findings point to a TRPV4-dependent mechanism that enables the epithelial cells to detect remote damage in the fiber mass and respond within minutes by activating SFK and increasing Na,K-ATPase activity. Because TRPV4 channels are mechanosensitive, we speculate they may be stimulated by swelling of the lens structure caused by damage to the fibers. Increased Na,K-ATPase activity gives the lens greater capacity to

  3. Different alpha crystallin expression in human age-related and congenital cataract lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhou, Sheng; Guo, Minfei; Li, Yuting; Gu, Jianjun

    2016-05-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the different expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in human lens epithelium of age-related and congenital cataracts. The central part of the human anterior lens capsule approximately 5 mm in diameter together with the adhering epithelial cells, were harvested and processed within 6 hours after cataract surgery from age-related and congenital cataract patients or from normal eyes of fresh cadavers. The mRNA and soluble protein levels of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the human lens epithelium were detected by real-time PCR and western blots, respectively. The mRNA and soluble protein expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the lens epithelium were both reduced in age-related and congenital cataract groups when compared with the normal control group. However, the degree of α-crystallin loss in the lens epithelium was highly correlated with different cataract types. The α-crystallin expression of the lens epithelium was greatly reduced in the congenital cataract group but only moderately decreased in the age-related cataract group. The reduction of αA-crystallin soluble protein levels in the congenital cataract group was approximately 2.4 fold decrease compared with that of the age-related cataract group, while an mRNA fold change of 1.67 decrease was observed for the age-related cataract group. Similarly, the reduction of soluble protein levels of αB-crystallin in the congenital cataract group was approximately a 1.57 fold change compared with that of the age-related cataract group. A 1.75 fold change for mRNA levels compared with that of the age-related cataract group was observed. The results suggest that the differential loss of α-crystallin in the human lens epithelium could be associated with the different mechanisms of cataractogenesis in age-related versus congenital cataracts, subsequently resulting in different clinical presentations.

  4. The ELAM-1 ligand sialosyl-Le(X) is present on Langerhans cells isolated from stratified epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, K; Larsen, J K; Larsen, J

    1992-01-01

    In this study we show the expression of the newly identified carbohydrate ligand, sialosyl-Le(X) on Langerhans cells. The receptor for sialosyl-Le(X) is the endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) present on activated endothelial cells. Using flow cytometry, Langerhans cells were selec...... at investigating the importance of adhesion between sialosyl Le(X) and ELAM-1 in epithelial recruitment of Langerhans cells....

  5. Claudin expression in follicle-associated epithelium of rat Peyer's patches defines a major restriction of the paracellular pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, A G; Falchuk, E L; Kruglova, N M; Radloff, J; Amasheh, S

    2016-01-01

    Members of the tight junction protein family of claudins have been demonstrated to specifically determine paracellular permeability of the intestinal epithelium. In small intestinal mucosa, which is generally considered to be a leaky epithelium, Peyer's patches are a primary part of the immune system. The aim of this study was to analyse the tight junctional barrier of follicle-associated epithelium covering Peyer's patches (lymphoid follicles). Employing small intestinal tissue specimens of male Wistar rats, electrophysiological analyses including the Ussing chamber technique, marker flux measurements and one-path impedance spectroscopy were performed. Morphometry of HE-stained tissue sections was taken into account. Claudin expression and localization was analysed by immunoblotting and confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy. Almost twofold higher parameters of epithelial and transepithelial tissue resistance and a markedly lower permeability for the paracellular permeability markers 4 and 20 kDa FITC-dextran were detected in follicle-associated epithelium compared to neighbouring villous epithelium. Analysis of claudin expression and localization revealed a stronger expression of major sealing proteins in follicle-associated epithelium, including claudin-1, claudin-4, claudin-5 and claudin-8. Therefore, the specific expression and localization of claudins is in accordance with barrier properties of follicle-associated epithelium vs. neighbouring villous epithelium. We demonstrate that follicle-associated epithelium is specialized to ensure maximum restriction of the epithelial paracellular pathway in Peyer's patches by selective sealing of tight junctions. This results in an exclusive transcellular pathway of epithelial cells as the limiting and mandatory route for a controlled presentation of antigens to the underlying lymphocytes under physiological conditions. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. CT features of jejunal pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyland, R.; Chalmers, A.

    2007-01-01

    The imaging of duodenal and ileal diseases is well documented in radiological literature but the jejunum has been relatively neglected. The aim of this review is to outline the current methods of investigation of the jejunum, and provide a comprehensive review of common pathologies affecting the jejunum, with particular emphasis on investigation by computed tomography

  7. The role of natural growth stimulators in regulation of regeneration processes in small intestinal epithelium after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziekiewicz, M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, basing on recently published data, the influence of growth factors on small intestine epithelium regeneration after irradiation is presented. Our knowledge of growth control in the small intestine mucosa may become an accepted mode of radio-, chemotherapy and the treatment of acute radiation sickness in the future. Results of recent studies suggest that there are different factors which can modulate the process of epithelium regeneration. Some of them such as gastrin, enteroglucagon, CCK, EGF, FGF, TGF and IL-11 are able to enhance this process. In addition, other factor-PGE-2 is responsible for not only stimulation of small intestine epithelium growth but radioprotection as well. (author)

  8. Isolation World

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Martín, Eugeni

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.

  9. Oestrus synchronization treatment induces histomorphological changes on the uterine tube epithelium of the gilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Mosqueda, M L; Anzaldúa Arce, S R; Palma Lara, I; García Dalmán, C; Cornejo Cortés, M A; Córdova Izquierdo, A; Villaseñor Gaona, H; Trujillo Ortega, M E

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the histomorphological changes that occurred in response to two treatments for oestrus synchronization in three different regions of the gilt's uterine tubes epithelium: the ampulla (AMP), ampulla-isthmic junction (AIJ) and isthmus (IST). Nine prepuberal gilts were divided into three groups (n = 3): (1) eCG 400 IU and hCG 200 IU (eCG/hCG), (2) progesterone agonist (P4) and (3) control group. The number of secretory cells (stained with periodic acid-Schiff reaction or PAS-positive cells) decreased in the AMP in the P4 treated group when compared to the control group, whereas, no difference was observed in the number of PAS-negative cells in the AMP of the three groups. A significant decrease in the number of PAS-positive cells was observed in the AIJ and IST of the P4 treated group when compared to the eCG/hCG and control groups. An increase in the number of PAS-negative cells was observed in the AIJ and IST in the P4 treated group. The epithelium height in the AMP and AIJ was increased in the eCG/hCG group when compared to the control and P4 groups. In this last group, we observed a reduced height compared with the other two groups for the AIJ. In the IST, there were no significant changes in the epithelium height of the control or the other two groups (eCG/hCG and P4). The epithelial cells of the P4 treated group had the least amount of cytoplasmic granules and the lowest intensity of PAS staining in the AMP, AIJ and IST. Animals treated with eCG/hCG showed an intermediate number of cytoplasmic granules and intensity in all regions evaluated. These data show that P4 treatment for synchronization induces a significant (P epithelium. Moreover, eCG/hCG treatment increased the height of the epithelium in the AMP and AIJ, while in this last region, the P4 treatment decreased the epithelium height. These results show that synchronization treatments with P4 and in a smaller proportion with eCG/hCG can modify the amount of PAS

  10. In vitro studies on magnesium uptake by rumen epithelium using magnesium-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, H.; Harmeyer, J.; Breves, G.

    1976-01-01

    Magnesium-28 transfer across the rumen epithelium has been studied using surviving epithelia in an in vitro system. Net absorption of magnesium in the direction from lumen to blood could be observed as the result of two opposite unidirectional fluxes of different magnitude. Net uptake of magnesium occurred against an electrical potential difference, and was associated with the presence of an unaltered transmural potential difference in the mucosal tissue. Both the net transfer of magnesium and the transmural potential difference decreased during two hours of incubation. Unidirectional fluxes of magnesium and net efflux from the lumen were markedly reduced although not completely inhibited by the addition of ouabain (10 -4 mol/l). The findings suggest that the mechanism of magnesium absorption by the rumen epithelium can be considered as an active transport process, and that the rumen is the main area of magnesium absorption in the living animal. (author)

  11. Evidence for a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K H; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, R

    1999-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the possible existence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium and whether such a mechanism plays a role in the regulation of transepithelial Na+ transport. Cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) was measured with the probe...... in serosal Na+ were followed by stepwise changes in [Ca2+]i. These observations indicate the existence of a Na+/Ca2+ exchange mechanism in the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium. The transepithelial Na+ transport decreased from 13.2+/-1.8 to 9.2+/-1.5 microA cm-2 (n=8, P=0.049) when Na...

  12. Buccal Epithelium, Cigarette Smoking, and Lung Cancer: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Raya; Halytskyy, Oleksandr; Saleem, Nasir; Oliff, Ira A

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer is currently the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among men and women in the United States, and optimal screening methods are still lacking. The field effect is a well-supported phenomenon wherein a noxious stimulus triggers genetic, epigenetic and molecular changes that are widespread throughout the entire exposed organ system. The buccal epithelium is an easily accessible part of the respiratory tree that has good potential of yielding a surrogate marker for the field effect in cigarette smokers, and thus, a noninvasive, reliable lung cancer screening method. Herein, we review the literature on the relationship between the buccal epithelium, cigarette smoking, and lung cancer. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Transport mechanism of lipid covered saquinavir pure drug nanoparticles in intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Dengning; He, Yuan; Li, Qiuxia

    2018-01-01

    are transported. To improve cellular uptake and transport of pure nanodrug in cells, here, a lipid covered saquinavir (SQV) pure drug NP (Lipo@nanodrug) was designed by modifying a pure SQV NP (nanodrug) with a phospholipid bilayer. We studied their endocytosis, intracellular trafficking mechanism using Caco-2...... their intracellular processing, helping to improve drug transport across intestinal epithelium. To our knowledge, this is the first presentation of the novel phospholipid bilayer covered SQV pure drug NP design, and a mechanistic study on intracellular trafficking in in vitro cell models has been described......Pure drug nanoparticles (NPs) represent a promising formulation for improved drug solubility and controlled dissolution velocity. However, limited absorption by the intestinal epithelium remains challenge to their clinical application, and little is known about how these NPs within the cells...

  14. [Changes in the vitamin A status in dysplastic epithelium of the cervix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, J; van Rissenbeck, A; Blanke, M; Melchert, F; Schneider, A; Biesalski, H K

    1995-01-01

    In 34 patients with HVP-infection of the cervix and in 40 patients with CIN III standardised biopsies were taken from the involved area and normal cervical epithelium for determination of the local concentration of retinylester. In all cases diagnosis was confirmed colposcopically, cytologically and by histology. HPV infection was confirmed by in situ hybridisation. Determination of retinylester was performed by HPLC. No significant difference of local retinyl-plamitate concentration was detectable in HPV infected versus normal tissue. Retinyl-palmitate concentration was extremely lower in CIN III compared with normal cervical epithelium and HPV-infected tissue. The determination of plasma level of retinol showed no significant difference between the two groups. So it can be presumed that the reduction of retinyl-palmitat in CIN III is a local process and a local supplementation of Vitamin A might contribute to the prevention of cervical neoplasia.

  15. Species variation in biology and physiology of the ciliary epithelium: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Chi Wai; Civan, Mortimer M

    2009-04-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only strategy documented to delay the appearance and retard the progression of vision loss. One major approach for lowering IOP is to slow the rate of aqueous humor formation by the ciliary epithelium. As discussed in the present review, the transport basis for this secretion is largely understood. However, several substantive issues are yet to be resolved, including the integrated regulation of secretion, the functional topography of the ciliary epithelium, and the degree and significance of species variation in aqueous humor inflow. This review discusses species differences in net secretion, particularly of Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) secretion. Identifying animal models most accurately mimicking aqueous humor formation in the human will facilitate development of future novel initiatives to lower IOP.

  16. Microbiota promote secretory cell determination in the intestinal epithelium by modulating host Notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, Joshua V; Hamilton, M Kristina; Abel, Melissa L; Ganz, Julia; Bates, Jennifer M; Stephens, W Zac; Melancon, Ellie; van der Vaart, Michiel; Meijer, Annemarie H; Distel, Martin; Eisen, Judith S; Guillemin, Karen

    2018-02-23

    Resident microbes promote many aspects of host development, although the mechanisms by which microbiota influence host tissues remain unclear. We showed previously that the microbiota is required for allocation of appropriate numbers of secretory cells in the zebrafish intestinal epithelium. Because Notch signaling is crucial for secretory fate determination, we conducted epistasis experiments to establish whether the microbiota modulates host Notch signaling. We also investigated whether innate immune signaling transduces microbiota cues via the Myd88 adaptor protein. We provide the first evidence that microbiota-induced, Myd88-dependent signaling inhibits host Notch signaling in the intestinal epithelium, thereby promoting secretory cell fate determination. These results connect microbiota activity via innate immune signaling to the Notch pathway, which also plays crucial roles in intestinal homeostasis throughout life and when impaired can result in chronic inflammation and cancer. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Effects of the organophosphorous methyl parathion on the branchial epithelium of a freshwater fish Metynnis roosevelti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machado Marcelo Rubens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Gills are vital structures for fish, since they are the main site for gaseous exchange as well as partially responsible for osmorregulation, acid-basic balance, excretion of nitrogenous compounds and taste. Chemicals in the water may alter the morphology of branchial cells of fish that are, therefore, a useful model for environmental impact and ecotoxicology studies. In order to investigate the effects of an organophosphorous compound, methyl parathion, on the gills of the fish, samples of Metynnis roosevelti were exposed to lethal (7ppm and sublethal (1ppm doses of Mentox 600 CE. Through light and scanning electron microscopy, shrinking of the branchial epithelium, followed by detachment and hyperplasia were observed. Externally, the branchial filaments presented the gradual disappearance of microridges. Even in sublethal doses, the organophosphorous reduced the health and fitness of these fish, as consequence of secondary effects derived from changes in the branchial epithelium, impairing oxygenation and ionic balance of the organism.

  18. The use of scaning electron microscopy in postvaccinal evaluation of tracheal epithelium of Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santin Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the use of scanning electron microscopy in the study of the post-vaccinal respiratory reaction of the tracheal epithelium of quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica immunized against Newcastle disease. A number of 36 quails were distributed into four groups: T1 fraction three-quarters control birds (non-vaccinated; T2 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain; t3 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with B1 strain; t4 fraction three-quarters birds vaccinated with LaSota strain. Regardless the experimental group, birds did not show detectable clinical signs of post-vaccinal respiratory reaction. However, the analysis of tracheal fragments by scanning electron microscopy showed that birds vaccinated with B1 and LaSota strains developed epithelial sloughing of the trachea, whereas those vaccinated Ulster 2C strain did not develop this change, demonstrating intact tracheal epithelium, similar to the control group.

  19. Degeneration and recovery of rat olfactory epithelium following inhalation of dibasic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, C M; Kelly, D P; Bogdanffy, M S

    1990-08-01

    Dibasic esters (DBE) are solvent mixtures used in the paint and coating industry. To evaluate the potential subchronic toxicity of DBE, groups of male and female rats were exposed for periods of up to 13 weeks to DBE concentrations of 0, 20, 76, or 390 mg/m3. After approximately 7 and 13 weeks of exposure, 10 rats per sex per group were subjected to clinical chemical, hematological, and urine analyses. Following 7 or 13 weeks of exposure, 10 or 20 rats per sex per group, respectively, were euthanized. An additional 10 rats were euthanized following a 6-week recovery period. A standard profile of tissues, including four levels of nasal cavity, was evaluated histopathologically. After 7 weeks of exposure, slight degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was observed in both male and female rats at 76 and 390 mg/m3. After 13 weeks, degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was present at all DBE concentrations in female rats, but only at the mid and high concentrations in male rats. The severity and incidence of the lesions were concentration related for both sexes with female rats being more sensitive than males. Following the recovery period, histological changes compatible with repair in the olfactory mucosa included an absence of degeneration, focal disorganization of the olfactory epithelium, and respiratory metaplasia. All other tissues were macroscopically normal. No other signs of toxicity were indicated by the other parameters evaluated. Inhalation studies of other esters demonstrate similar pathology in the olfactory epithelium. Since olfactory mucosa is rich in carboxylesterase activity, acids may be the toxic metabolites of these compounds. This hypothetical mechanism may explain the sensitivity of olfactory tissue to the effects of DBE.

  20. A breakdown in communication? Understanding the effects of aging on the human small intestine epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Mabbott, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    In the intestine, a single layer of epithelial cells sealed together at their apical surfaces by tight junctions helps to prevent the luminal commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms and their toxins from entering host tissues. The intestinal epithelium also helps to maintain homoeostasis in the mucosal immune system by expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the steady state and inflammatory cytokines in response to pathogens. Although the function of the mucosal immune system is impaired ...

  1. Vitamin D Proliferates Vaginal Epithelium through RhoA Expression in Postmenopausal Atrophic Vagina tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Arum; Lee, Man Ryul; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Kim, Yeon-Suk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Enkhbold, Temuulee; Kim, Tae-Hee

    2017-09-30

    Postmenopausal atrophic vagina (PAV) is the thinning of the walls of the vagina and decreased lugae of the vagina. PAV is caused by decreased estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. However, the harmful effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) have resulted in considerable caution in its use. Various estrogen agonist treatment options are available. Vitamin D is influences the regulation of differentiation and proliferation of various cells, especially tissues lining stratified squamous epithelium, such as the vaginal epithelium. In this study, we hypothesized that vitamin D could provide an alternative and a safe treatment option for PAV by promoting the proliferation and differentiation of the vaginal epithelium. Thirty six patients were enrolled in this case-control study. Vitamin D associated proteins in a vitamin D and sex hormone treated vaginal epithelial cell line as well as normal and PAV tissues were measured. To confirm of cell-to-cell junction protein expression, cell line and tissue studies included RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry staining, and immunoblot analyses. The expression of cell-to-cell junction proteins was higher in women with symptoms of atrophic vagina tissue compared to women without the symptoms. Vitamin D stimulated the proliferation of the vaginal epithelium by activating p-RhoA and Erzin through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The results suggest that vitamin D positively regulates cell-to-cell junction by increasing the VDR/p-RhoA/p-Ezrin pathway. This is the first study to verify the relationship of the expression of RhoA and Ezrin proteins in vaginal tissue of PAV.

  2. Deterioration of epithelium mediated mechanisms in diabetic-antigen sensitized airways of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Saidullah; Swati, Omanwar; Kambadur, Muralidhar; Mohammad, Fahim

    2016-01-01

    The onset of diabetes causes disruption of respiratory epithelial mediators. The present study investigates whether diabetes modifies the epithelium mediated bronchial responses in hyper-reactive airway smooth muscle (ASM) primarily through nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase (COX), and epithelium derived hyperpolarizing factor (EpDHF) pathways. Experimental model of guinea pigs having hyper-reactive airways with or without diabetes were developed. The responses of tracheal rings to cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and isoproterenol (IP) in the presence and absence of epithelium and before and after incubation with NO, K + ATP and COX inhibitors, N-(ω)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 μM), glybenclamide (10 μM) and indomethacin (100 μM) were assessed. In diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways, a decrease in ACh induced bronchoconstriction was observed after epithelium removal and after incubation with L-NAME/indomethacin, suggesting damage to NO/COX pathways. Hyper-reactivity did not alter the response of trachea to ACh but affected the response to IP which was further reduced in hyper-reactive animals with diabetes. The ASM response to IP after glybenclamide treatment did not alter in hyper-reactive guinea pigs and diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways, suggesting damage to the EpDHF pathway. Treatment with indomethacin reduced IP response in the hyper-reactive model, and did not produce any change in diabetic model with hyper-reactive airways, indicating further disruption of the COX pathway. EpDHF pathway is damaged in hyper-reactive guinea pigs and in diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways. Diabetes further aggravates the NO and COX mediated pathways in diabetic guinea pigs with hyper-reactive airways.

  3. The crypt and cell size kinetics in the irradiated intestinal epithelium in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononenko, A.M.; Gagarin, A.U.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been made of changes in the average values of the axial cross-sectional area of the crypt and of cell area in this cross-section for eight days after a single whole-body exposure of male mice to 400 rad of X-rays. A small reduction in the crypt area in the destructive period gives way to a much greater increase in the normal dimensions of the area in the regenerative period. Two very considerable waves of anomalous increase are observed in the dimensions of the cryptal cell cross-sections, the first in the destructive and the second in the regenerative period. These fluctuations in cell dimensions do not occur around but above the control level, attaining the latter level only at the minimum (4th day). The size of the cryptal cells of the intact intestinal epithelium is evidently close to the minimum needed for enterocyte proliferation. The considerable increase in crypt dimensions in the regenerative period (beginning from the 6th day) is not due to the larger number of cells (they are even somewhat fewer than normal) but rather to a substantial increase in cell dimensions. Thus, according to these data, on the 6th-8th day after irradiation the intestinal epithelium deviates strongly from the stationary state. The index I sub(v), where I is the mitotic index and v the cell volume, was used to evaluate the changes in the value of the material stream, connected with proliferation, to the intestinal epithelium per cryptal cell. A considerable increase was found in this stream (hypertrophy of proliferative cells) in the intestinal epithelium restored after irradiation. (author)

  4. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohe, Shuichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tanaka, Toshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yanai, Hirotsugu [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Surgery, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Komai, Yoshihiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Omachi, Taichi [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Nakamura, Naohiro [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ohsugi, Haruyuki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Department of Urology and Andrology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki [Department of Dermatology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan); Ueno, Hiroo, E-mail: hueno@hirakata.kmu.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Pathology, Kansai Medical University, Osaka 573-1010 (Japan)

    2015-10-23

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. - Highlights: • The acral epithelium have two types of stem cells. • Lgr6-positive cells are rapid-cycling, short-term stem cells. • Bmi1-positive cells are slow-cycling stem cells that act as reserver stem cells. • Lgr5 may be a useful sweat gland marker in mice.

  5. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Shuichi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Komai, Yoshihiro; Omachi, Taichi; Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho; Nakamura, Naohiro; Ohsugi, Haruyuki; Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki; Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. - Highlights: • The acral epithelium have two types of stem cells. • Lgr6-positive cells are rapid-cycling, short-term stem cells. • Bmi1-positive cells are slow-cycling stem cells that act as reserver stem cells. • Lgr5 may be a useful sweat gland marker in mice.

  6. Bicarbonate-dependent transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of sheep rumen epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, F; Rackwitz, R; Benesch, F; Pfannkuche, H; Gäbel, G

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of HCO₃⁻ in the transport of acetate and butyrate across the basolateral membrane of rumen epithelium and to identify transport proteins involved. The effects of basolateral variation in HCO₃⁻ concentrations on acetate and butyrate efflux out of the epithelium and the transepithelial flux of these short-chain fatty acids were tested in Ussing chamber experiments using (14)C-labelled substrates. HCO₃⁻-dependent transport mechanisms were characterized by adding specific inhibitors of candidate proteins to the serosal side. Effluxes of acetate and butyrate out of the epithelium were higher to the serosal side than to the mucosal side. Acetate and butyrate effluxes to both sides of rumen epithelium consisted of HCO₃⁻-independent and -dependent parts. HCO₃⁻-dependent transport across the basolateral membrane was confirmed in studies of transepithelial fluxes. Mucosal to serosal fluxes of acetate and butyrate decreased with lowering serosal HCO₃⁻ concentrations. In the presence of 25 mm HCO₃⁻, transepithelial flux of acetate was inhibited effectively by p-hydroxymercuribenzoic acid or α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, while butyrate flux was unaffected by the blockers. Fluxes of both acetate and butyrate from the serosal to the mucosal side were diminished largely by the addition of NO₃⁻ to the serosal side, with this effect being more pronounced for acetate. Our results indicate the existence of a basolateral short-chain fatty acid/HCO₃⁻ exchanger, with monocarboxylate transporter 1 as a primary candidate for acetate transfer. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cellular distribution and function of ion channels involved in transport processes in rat tracheal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Anne; Faulhaber, Johannes; Srisawang, Lalita; Stortz, Andreas; Salomon, Johanna J; Mall, Marcus A; Frings, Stephan; Möhrlen, Frank

    2017-06-01

    Transport of water and electrolytes in airway epithelia involves chloride-selective ion channels, which are controlled either by cytosolic Ca 2+ or by cAMP The contributions of the two pathways to chloride transport differ among vertebrate species. Because rats are becoming more important as animal model for cystic fibrosis, we have examined how Ca 2+ - dependent and cAMP- dependent Cl - secretion is organized in the rat tracheal epithelium. We examined the expression of the Ca 2+ -gated Cl - channel anoctamin 1 (ANO1), the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl - channel, the epithelial Na + channel ENaC, and the water channel aquaporin 5 (AQP5) in rat tracheal epithelium. The contribution of ANO1 channels to nucleotide-stimulated Cl - secretion was determined using the channel blocker Ani9 in short-circuit current recordings obtained from primary cultures of rat tracheal epithelial cells in Ussing chambers. We found that ANO1, CFTR and AQP5 proteins were expressed in nonciliated cells of the tracheal epithelium, whereas ENaC was expressed in ciliated cells. Among nonciliated cells, ANO1 occurred together with CFTR and Muc5b and, in addition, in a different cell type without CFTR and Muc5b. Bioelectrical studies with the ANO1-blocker Ani9 indicated that ANO1 mediated the secretory response to the nucleotide uridine-5'-triphosphate. Our data demonstrate that, in rat tracheal epithelium, Cl - secretion and Na + absorption are routed through different cell types, and that ANO1 channels form the molecular basis of Ca 2+ -dependent Cl - secretion in this tissue. These characteristic features of Cl - -dependent secretion reveal similarities and distinct differences to secretory processes in human airways. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Microfluidic wound-healing assay to assess the regenerative effect of HGF on wounded alveolar epithelium.

    OpenAIRE

    Felder Marcel; Sallin Pauline; Barbe Laurent; Haenni Beat; Gazdhar Amiq; Geiser Thomas; Guenat Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We present a microfluidic epithelial wound healing assay that allows characterization of the effect of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on the regeneration of alveolar epithelium using a flow focusing technique to create a regular wound in the epithelial monolayer. The phenotype of the epithelial cell was characterized using immunostaining for tight junction (TJ) proteins and transmission electron micrographs (TEMs) of cells cultured in the microfluidic system a technique that is reported here ...

  9. Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer by Tumor Epithelium-Targeted Molecular Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    successful pregnancy outcome. *PIF Proprietary G-12 IL-33-responsive group 2 innate lymphoid cells are present in mouse uterine tissue and may play roles in... innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) that are responsive to IL-33 drive helminth immunity, type 2 immune responses, and tissue pathology and homeostasis in...16 (IL-16) secreted by immune cells . Inflammation of the ovary and tubal epithelium due to frequent ovulation leads to the development of oxidative

  10. Cytological changes in oral epithelium due to Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Awdah M. Al-hazimi; Shima Bushra Bakhet; Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the cytological changes in oral epithelium that might be induced by Sudanese homemade alcoholic beverages. Material and methods: Oral Exfoliative Cytology (OEFC) was applied to a case control study to assess the presence and severity of oral epithelial atypia (ET) in 300 subjects (150 alcohol abuse individuals (cases); 150 non-alcohol abuse individuals (controls)). All cases were using homemade alcoholic drinks, locally known as,...

  11. Production of active pigment epithelium-derived factor inE. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Guan, Ming; Lu, Yuan

    2005-03-01

    Human pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a neurotrophic factor, is the most potent natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. To produce the active PEDF, the gene coding for the human PEDF protein was expressed in E. coli. The rPEDF protein was expressed at 457 mg l-1 as a soluble protein. The yield of purified GST fusion protein was 14 mg l-1. Purified rPEDF inhibited tube formation in endothelial cells.

  12. Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugasundaram Nallasamy

    Full Text Available The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2(d/d, the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2(d/d mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy.

  13. Msx homeobox genes critically regulate embryo implantation by controlling paracrine signaling between uterine stroma and epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallasamy, Shanmugasundaram; Li, Quanxi; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian Msx homeobox genes, Msx1 and Msx2, encode transcription factors that control organogenesis and tissue interactions during embryonic development. We observed overlapping expression of these factors in uterine epithelial and stromal compartments of pregnant mice prior to embryo implantation. Conditional ablation of both Msx1 and Msx2 in the uterus resulted in female infertility due to a failure in implantation. In these mutant mice (Msx1/2(d/d)), the uterine epithelium exhibited persistent proliferative activity and failed to attach to the embryos. Gene expression profiling of uterine epithelium and stroma of Msx1/2(d/d) mice revealed an elevated expression of several members of the Wnt gene family in the preimplantation uterus. Increased canonical Wnt signaling in the stromal cells activated β-catenin, stimulating the production of a subset of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) in these cells. The secreted FGFs acted in a paracrine manner via the FGF receptors in the epithelium to promote epithelial proliferation, thereby preventing differentiation of this tissue and creating a non-receptive uterus refractory to implantation. Collectively, these findings delineate a unique signaling network, involving Msx1/2, Wnts, and FGFs, which operate in the uterus at the time of implantation to control the mesenchymal-epithelial dialogue critical for successful establishment of pregnancy.

  14. Mucinous Cystic Neoplasms Lined by Abundant Mucinous Epithelium Frequently Involve KRAS Mutations and Malignant Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hideki; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Norose, Tomoko; Isobe, Tomohide; Suzuki, Reika; Imai, Hideyuki; Shiokawa, Akira; Aoki, Takeshi; Murakami, Masahiko; Mizukami, Hiroki; Tanaka, Jun-Ichi; Takimoto, Masafumi

    2017-12-01

    Pancreatic and hepatic mucinous cyst neoplasms (MCNs) have a malignant potential, but indolent MCNs are not uncommon. The pathological and genetic characteristics of resected MCNs (n=15) categorized by the amount of mucin of the lining epithelium were investigated. MCNs were divided into two groups: (i) a rich (r)-MCN group (n=6), in which more than half of the epithelium was lined by abundant mucinous epithelium; and (ii) a poor (p)-MCN group (n=9), which consisted of the remaining cases. Three patients in the r-MCN group showed invasive carcinoma or high-grade dysplasia, whereas all patients in the p-MCN group showed low-grade dysplasia. Mutations of Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) were more frequent in the r-MCN group (83%) (p-MCN; 11%, p<0.05). Mucinous MCNs more frequently have KRAS mutations and higher risk of malignant progression. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Epithelium-Stroma Classification via Convolutional Neural Networks and Unsupervised Domain Adaptation in Histopathological Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yue; Zheng, Han; Liu, Chi; Ding, Xinghao; Rohde, Gustavo K

    2017-11-01

    Epithelium-stroma classification is a necessary preprocessing step in histopathological image analysis. Current deep learning based recognition methods for histology data require collection of large volumes of labeled data in order to train a new neural network when there are changes to the image acquisition procedure. However, it is extremely expensive for pathologists to manually label sufficient volumes of data for each pathology study in a professional manner, which results in limitations in real-world applications. A very simple but effective deep learning method, that introduces the concept of unsupervised domain adaptation to a simple convolutional neural network (CNN), has been proposed in this paper. Inspired by transfer learning, our paper assumes that the training data and testing data follow different distributions, and there is an adaptation operation to more accurately estimate the kernels in CNN in feature extraction, in order to enhance performance by transferring knowledge from labeled data in source domain to unlabeled data in target domain. The model has been evaluated using three independent public epithelium-stroma datasets by cross-dataset validations. The experimental results demonstrate that for epithelium-stroma classification, the proposed framework outperforms the state-of-the-art deep neural network model, and it also achieves better performance than other existing deep domain adaptation methods. The proposed model can be considered to be a better option for real-world applications in histopathological image analysis, since there is no longer a requirement for large-scale labeled data in each specified domain.

  16. Epithelium-Derived Wnt Ligands Are Essential for Maintenance of Underlying Digit Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeo, Makoto; Hale, Christopher S; Ito, Mayumi

    2016-07-01

    Clinically, many nail disorders accompany bone deformities, but whether the two defects are causally related is under debate. To investigate the potential interactions between the two tissue types, we analyzed epithelial-specific β-catenin-deficient mice, in which nail differentiation is abrogated. These mice showed regression of not only the nail plate but also of the underlying digit bone. Characterization of these bone defects revealed active bone resorption, which is suppressed by Wnt activation in osteoblast and osteoclast precursors. Furthermore, we found that Wntless expression, essential for Wnt ligand secretion, was lacking in the β-catenin-deficient nail epithelium and that genetic deletion of Wntless (Wls) in the nail epithelium led to the lack of Wnt activation in osteoblast and osteoclast precursors and subsequently led to defective regression of the underlying digit bone. Together, these data show that epithelial Wnt ligands can ultimately regulate Wnt signaling in osteoblast and osteoclast precursors, known to regulate bone homeostasis. These results reveal a critical role for the nail epithelium on the digit bone during homeostatic regeneration and show that Wnt/β-catenin signaling is critical for this interaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maintenance of sweat glands by stem cells located in the acral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, Shuichi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Komai, Yoshihiro; Omachi, Taichi; Kanno, Shohei; Tanaka, Kiyomichi; Ishigaki, Kazuhiko; Saiga, Kazuho; Nakamura, Naohiro; Ohsugi, Haruyuki; Tokuyama, Yoko; Atsumi, Naho; Hisha, Hiroko; Yoshida, Naoko; Kumano, Keiki; Yamazaki, Fumikazu; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Hiroo

    2015-10-23

    The skin is responsible for a variety of physiological functions and is critical for wound healing and repair. Therefore, the regenerative capacity of the skin is important. However, stem cells responsible for maintaining the acral epithelium had not previously been identified. In this study, we identified the specific stem cells in the acral epithelium that participate in the long-term maintenance of sweat glands, ducts, and interadnexal epidermis and that facilitate the regeneration of these structures following injury. Lgr6-positive cells and Bmi1-positive cells were found to function as long-term multipotent stem cells that maintained the entire eccrine unit and the interadnexal epidermis. However, while Lgr6-positive cells were rapidly cycled and constantly supplied differentiated cells, Bmi1-positive cells were slow to cycle and occasionally entered the cell cycle under physiological conditions. Upon irradiation-induced injury, Bmi1-positive cells rapidly proliferated and regenerated injured epithelial tissue. Therefore, Bmi1-positive stem cells served as reservoir stem cells. Lgr5-positive cells were rapidly cycled and maintained only sweat glands; therefore, we concluded that these cells functioned as lineage-restricted progenitors. Taken together, our data demonstrated the identification of stem cells that maintained the entire acral epithelium and supported the different roles of three cellular classes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Surface to nuclear distances in human bronchial epithelium: Relationships to penetration by Rn daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, F.; Hovey, A.; McEwen, T.; O'Connor, R.; Unruh, H.; Bowden, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer in U miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of particulate Rn daughters. Since the depth of penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium lining the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the study were to measure the thickness of the epithelium at all levels of the human bronchial tree, to determine the distances of epithelial nuclei from the mucociliary surface, and to compare these parameters in smokers and nonsmokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens were examined; 26 were from smokers. No significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers, allowing us to treat the 29 cases as a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness, and distances of nuclei from the surface are also less in the peripheral bronchi. Allowing for artefacts of tissue preparation, the mean distance from the mucociliary surface to the underlying nuclei varies between 17 and 38 microns

  19. Scanning electron microscopical study of the lingual epithelium of green iguana (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbate, F; Latella, G; Montalbano, G; Guerrera, M C; Levanti, M B; Ciriaco, E

    2008-08-01

    During the last few years, green iguanas (Iguana iguana) have turned out to be one of the most popular pets. They are omnivorous. In their way of feeding, this crucial function is performed by capturing of the preys and mostly, this is carried out by the tongue. The role of the tongue is also fundamental during the intra-oral transport and during the swallowing of food. This has been reported in several studies about chameleons, agamids and iguanids, nevertheless published data about the mechanisms of capturing and swallowing the prey, and the morphological descriptions about the tongue epithelium, are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this present study was to analyse the morphology of the lingual epithelium in green iguanas by scanning electron microscopy. Three different areas were demonstrated on the tongue surface: the tongue tip, characterized by a smooth epithelium without papillae, a foretongue, completely covered by numerous closely packed cylindriform papillae, and a hindtongue with conical-like papillae. Some taste buds were recognized on the middle and the posterior parts of the tongue. Different functional roles could be hypothesized for the three tongue areas: the tongue tip could have a role related to the movements of the prey immediately after the capturing, while the middle papillae and the hindtongue could have an important role concerning the swallowing phase.

  20. Histochemical localization of cholinesterase activity in the dental epithelium of guinea pig teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, C K; Takano, Y

    2004-07-01

    Cholinesterase is known for its remarkable diversity in distribution and function. An association of this enzyme with proliferative and morpho-differentiating tissues has been reported in several species. Here we report on the first evidence of the presence of cholinesterase in the enamel organ of continuously erupting incisors and molars of the guinea pig. Frozen sections of the incisors and molars of the guinea pig were incubated for histochemical demonstration of cholinesterase activity by means of the thiocholine method as described by Karnovsky and Root. The cholinesterase activity was observed in several types of cells of the dental epithelium; cells forming the basal portion of the enamel organ, outer enamel epithelium and maturation stage ameloblasts of both the incisors and molars. In the crown analogue side, the outer enamel epithelial cells gained strong reactions for cholinesterase and maintained the reaction throughout the secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis. In contrast, cholinesterase reactions were lacking in the inner enamel epithelium, pre-ameloblasts, and secretory ameloblasts. In the early stage of enamel maturation, ameloblasts began to show positive reactions for cholinesterase, which was upregulated in the incisal direction. Although both tooth types showed similar reactive patterns for cholinesterase at the growing ends, maturation ameloblasts depicted a different pattern of staining displaying the reactions only sporadically in molars. These data indicate the role of cholinesterase in the enamel organ in tooth morphogenesis and function of guinea pig teeth. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  1. Six1 is essential for differentiation and patterning of the mammalian auditory sensory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The organ of Corti in the cochlea is a two-cell layered epithelium: one cell layer of mechanosensory hair cells that align into one row of inner and three rows of outer hair cells interdigitated with one cell layer of underlying supporting cells along the entire length of the cochlear spiral. These two types of epithelial cells are derived from common precursors in the four- to five-cell layered primordium and acquire functionally important shapes during terminal differentiation through the thinning process and convergent extension. Here, we have examined the role of Six1 in the establishment of the auditory sensory epithelium. Our data show that prior to terminal differentiation of the precursor cells, deletion of Six1 leads to formation of only a few hair cells and defective patterning of the sensory epithelium. Previous studies have suggested that downregulation of Sox2 expression in differentiating hair cells must occur after Atoh1 mRNA activation in order to allow Atoh1 protein accumulation due to antagonistic effects between Atoh1 and Sox2. Our analysis indicates that downregulation of Sox2 in the differentiating hair cells depends on Six1 activity. Furthermore, we found that Six1 is required for the maintenance of Fgf8 expression and dynamic distribution of N-cadherin and E-cadherin in the organ of Corti during differentiation. Together, our analyses uncover essential roles of Six1 in hair cell differentiation and formation of the organ of Corti in the mammalian cochlea.

  2. Ex vivo generation of a functional and regenerative wound epithelium from axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Donald R; Satoh, Akira; Mandefro, Berhan; Cummings, Gillian M; Gardiner, David M; Rugg, Elizabeth L

    2010-10-01

    Urodele amphibians (salamanders) are unique among adult vertebrates in their ability to regenerate structurally complete and fully functional limbs. Regeneration is a stepwise process that requires interactions between keratinocytes, nerves and fibroblasts. The formation of a wound epithelium covering the amputation site is an early and necessary event in the process but the molecular mechanisms that underlie the role of the wound epithelium in regeneration remain unclear. We have developed an ex vivo model that recapitulates many features of in vivo wound healing. The model comprises a circular explant of axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) limb skin with a central circular, full thickness wound. Re-epithelialization of the wound area is rapid (typically <11 h) and is dependent on metalloproteinase activity. The ex vivo wound epithelium is viable, responds to neuronal signals and is able to participate in ectopic blastema formation and limb regeneration. This ex vivo model provides a reproducible and tractable system in which to study the cellular and molecular events that underlie wound healing and regeneration. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  3. Hyperspectral Image Enhancement and Mixture Deep-Learning Classification of Corneal Epithelium Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Siti Salwa Md; Michael, Kaleena; Marshall, Stephen; Ren, Jinchang

    2017-11-16

    In our preliminary study, the reflectance signatures obtained from hyperspectral imaging (HSI) of normal and abnormal corneal epithelium tissues of porcine show similar morphology with subtle differences. Here we present image enhancement algorithms that can be used to improve the interpretability of data into clinically relevant information to facilitate diagnostics. A total of 25 corneal epithelium images without the application of eye staining were used. Three image feature extraction approaches were applied for image classification: (i) image feature classification from histogram using a support vector machine with a Gaussian radial basis function (SVM-GRBF); (ii) physical image feature classification using deep-learning Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) only; and (iii) the combined classification of CNNs and SVM-Linear. The performance results indicate that our chosen image features from the histogram and length-scale parameter were able to classify with up to 100% accuracy; particularly, at CNNs and CNNs-SVM, by employing 80% of the data sample for training and 20% for testing. Thus, in the assessment of corneal epithelium injuries, HSI has high potential as a method that could surpass current technologies regarding speed, objectivity, and reliability.

  4. Identification of Lgr5-Independent Spheroid-Generating Progenitors of the Mouse Fetal Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana C. Mustata

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Immortal spheroids were generated from fetal mouse intestine using the culture system initially developed to culture organoids from adult intestinal epithelium. Spheroid proportion progressively decreases from fetal to postnatal period, with a corresponding increase in production of organoids. Like organoids, spheroids show Wnt-dependent indefinite self-renewing properties but display a poorly differentiated phenotype reminiscent of incompletely caudalized progenitors. The spheroid transcriptome is strikingly different from that of adult intestinal stem cells, with minimal overlap of Wnt target gene expression. The receptor LGR4, but not LGR5, is essential for their growth. Trop2/Tacstd2 and Cnx43/Gja1, two markers highly enriched in spheroids, are expressed throughout the embryonic-day-14 intestinal epithelium. Comparison of in utero and neonatal lineage tracing using Cnx43-CreER and Lgr5-CreERT2 mice identified spheroid-generating cells as developmental progenitors involved in generation of the prenatal intestinal epithelium. Ex vivo, spheroid cells have the potential to differentiate into organoids, qualifying as a fetal type of intestinal stem cell.

  5. Macrophage/epithelium cross-talk regulates cell cycle progression and migration in pancreatic progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Mussar

    Full Text Available Macrophages populate the mesenchymal compartment of all organs during embryogenesis and have been shown to support tissue organogenesis and regeneration by regulating remodeling of the extracellular microenvironment. Whether this mesenchymal component can also dictate select developmental decisions in epithelia is unknown. Here, using the embryonic pancreatic epithelium as model system, we show that macrophages drive the epithelium to execute two developmentally important choices, i.e. the exit from cell cycle and the acquisition of a migratory phenotype. We demonstrate that these developmental decisions are effectively imparted by macrophages activated toward an M2 fetal-like functional state, and involve modulation of the adhesion receptor NCAM and an uncommon "paired-less" isoform of the transcription factor PAX6 in the epithelium. Over-expression of this PAX6 variant in pancreatic epithelia controls both cell motility and cell cycle progression in a gene-dosage dependent fashion. Importantly, induction of these phenotypes in embryonic pancreatic transplants by M2 macrophages in vivo is associated with an increased frequency of endocrine-committed cells emerging from ductal progenitor pools. These results identify M2 macrophages as key effectors capable of coordinating epithelial cell cycle withdrawal and cell migration, two events critical to pancreatic progenitors' delamination and progression toward their differentiated fates.

  6. Immunolocalization of osteopontin in dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas arising from oral epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Thara; Janardhanan, Mahija; Rakesh, S; Savithri, Vindhya; Unnikrishnan, U G

    2017-01-01

    Early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains one of the most efficient ways to ensure patient survival and improved quality of life. Although specific biomarkers related to OSCC have been investigated, a useful biomarker that assesses the transition potential of potentially malignant lesion to OSCC remains to be found. Osteopontin (OPN) has been recognized as an important factor in tumorigenesis and their expression in OSCC have been investigated earlier. In the present study, evaluation of OPN expression in premalignant and malignant lesions has been carried out to assess their possible role as a biomarker in the early diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of OPN as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. The study group consisted of archival paraffin-embedded blocks of ten cases each of varying grades of OSCC, oral epithelial dysplasias and epithelial hyperplasias. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for the biomarker OPN. A positive OPN expression was noticed in epithelial dysplasias and SCC arising from the oral epithelium. A progressive increase in the intensity of staining was seen with increasing grades of dysplasias and a decrease in OPN expression with an increase in grades was observed in OSCC. The expression of OPN in full thickness of epithelium in severe dysplasias, carcinoma in situ, and in the superficial epithelium of OSCC suggest the possibility of considering OPN expression in full epithelial thickness in dysplasias as an indicator for malignant transformation.

  7. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair eWalsham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC A/E lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  8. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsham, Alistair D S; MacKenzie, Donald A; Cook, Vivienne; Wemyss-Holden, Simon; Hews, Claire L; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  9. Antioxidant effect of minocycline in gingival epithelium induced by Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans serotype B toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernie Maduratna Setiawati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa serotype B has been associated with aggressive periodontitis. Gingival epithelial cell is exquisitely sensitive to the toxin and may lead to the epithel protective barrier disruption. Experimental models show that minocycline is not related to it’s antimicrobial effect and protection against neuron cell apoptosis of a number experimental models of brain injury and Parkinson’s disease. Purpose: This study, examined antioxidant effect of minocycline to inhibit apoptosis of gingival epithelium induced crude toxin bacteria Aa serotype B in mice. Methods: Thirty adult mice strain Swiss Webster (balb C were divided randomly into three groups: control group (group A, toxin group (group B and toxin and minocycline group (group C. The mice were taken at 24 hours after application, and then the tissue sections of gingival epithelium were stained with tunnel assay and immunohistochemistry. Result: Treatment with these toxin induced apoptosis of gingival epithelium and was associated with DNA fragmentation and reduced gluthatione (GSH. Minocycline 100 nM significantly increased GSH and reduced apoptosis (p < 0.05. Minocycline provides antioxidant effect against citotoxicity of bacteria Aa serotipe B. Conclusion: Nanomolar concentration of minocycline potential as new therapeutic agent to prevent progressivity of aggressiveness of periodontitis.

  10. Macrophage/epithelium cross-talk regulates cell cycle progression and migration in pancreatic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussar, Kristin; Tucker, Andrew; McLennan, Linsey; Gearhart, Addie; Jimenez-Caliani, Antonio J; Cirulli, Vincenzo; Crisa, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages populate the mesenchymal compartment of all organs during embryogenesis and have been shown to support tissue organogenesis and regeneration by regulating remodeling of the extracellular microenvironment. Whether this mesenchymal component can also dictate select developmental decisions in epithelia is unknown. Here, using the embryonic pancreatic epithelium as model system, we show that macrophages drive the epithelium to execute two developmentally important choices, i.e. the exit from cell cycle and the acquisition of a migratory phenotype. We demonstrate that these developmental decisions are effectively imparted by macrophages activated toward an M2 fetal-like functional state, and involve modulation of the adhesion receptor NCAM and an uncommon "paired-less" isoform of the transcription factor PAX6 in the epithelium. Over-expression of this PAX6 variant in pancreatic epithelia controls both cell motility and cell cycle progression in a gene-dosage dependent fashion. Importantly, induction of these phenotypes in embryonic pancreatic transplants by M2 macrophages in vivo is associated with an increased frequency of endocrine-committed cells emerging from ductal progenitor pools. These results identify M2 macrophages as key effectors capable of coordinating epithelial cell cycle withdrawal and cell migration, two events critical to pancreatic progenitors' delamination and progression toward their differentiated fates.

  11. Efficacy of iontophoresis-assisted epithelium-on corneal cross-linking for keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Zhen Jia

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Corneal cross-linking (CXL is a noninvasive therapeutic procedure for keratoconus that is aimed at improving corneal biomechanical properties by induction of covalent cross-links between stromal proteins. It is accomplished by ultraviolet A (UVA radiation of the cornea, which is first saturated with photosensitizing riboflavin. It has been shown that standard epithelium-off CXL (S-CXL is efficacious, and it has been recommended as the standard of care procedure for keratoconus. However, epithelial removal leads to pain, transient vision loss, and a higher risk of corneal infection. To avoid these disadvantages, transepithelial CXL was developed. Recently, iontophoresis has been adopted to increase riboflavin penetration through the epithelium. Several clinical observations have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of iontophoresis-assisted epithelium-on CXL (I-CXL for keratoconus. This review aimed to provide a comprehensive summary of the published studies regarding I-CXL and a comparison between I-CXL and S-CXL. All articles used in this review were mainly retrieved from the PubMed database. Original articles and reviews were selected if they were related to the I-CXL technique or related to the comparison between I-CXL and S-CXL.

  12. Genotoxic differences by sex in nasal epithelium and blood leukocytes in subjects residing in a highly polluted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortoul, T.I.; Valverde, M.; Lopez, M.C.; Avila-Costa, M.R.; Avila-Casado, M.C.; Mussali-Galante, P.; Gonzalez-Villalva, A.; Rojas, E.; Ostrosky-Shejet, P.

    2004-01-01

    We describe differences by sex in genotoxic damage found in a population of medical students exposed to a highly oxidative atmosphere, compared with a control group, measured by the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay and histological changes in nasal epithelium smears. Cells were obtained from the nasal epithelium and blood leukocytes. Higher DNA damage in nasal cells and leukocytes was found in males compared to females and control subjects. The percentage of squamous metaplastic changes in the nasal epithelium was also higher in males compared with females and controls. The commutation of normal nasal epithelium by squamous cells might modify its protective function in the nose, increasing the risk of damage to the lower respiratory tract. Although, as medical students, males and females were exposed to the same environment and activity patterns, male genotoxicity damage was higher in control and exposed subjects. More research should be done in order to identify direct or indirect sexual hormone intervention

  13. Phenotypic and physiologic variability in nasal epithelium cultured from smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of air-liquid interface (ALI) culturing of mammalian airway epithelium is a recent innovation for experimental modeling of airway epithelial development, function, and pathogenic mechanisms associated with infectious agent and irritant exposure. This construct provi...

  14. Recovery of the spermatogenetic epithelium in the mouse after irradiation with 1-MeV fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aardweg, G.J.M.J. van den.

    1983-01-01

    In this thesis the recovery of the spermatogenetic epithelium in the mouse is studied after damage with 1-MeV fission neutrons. A severe depletion of A-spermatogonia and radiosensitive stem cells occurs after neutron irradiation. Recovery of the epithelium is initiated by surviving radioresistant stem cells giving rise to colonies, which grow into the empty seminiferous tubules. After discussing properties of normal and irradiated spermatogenetic epithelium, the growth and the differentiation of spermatogenetic colonies in the mouse testis after irradiation, as well as response and kinetics of colony-forming spermatogonial stem cells in CBA mice up to 30 weeks after a first neutron dose and recovery of the epithelium after a second irradiation are investigated. These four subjects are dealt with in separate papers. Finally, a discussion and a summary of these studies is presented. (Auth.)

  15. Small Interfering RNA Pathway Modulates Initial Viral Infection in Midgut Epithelium of Insect after Ingestion of Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hanhong; Chen, Hongyan; Liu, Yuyan; Jiang, Chaoyang; Mao, Qianzhuo; Jia, Dongsheng; Chen, Qian; Wei, Taiyun

    2016-01-15

    Numerous viruses are transmitted in a persistent manner by insect vectors. Persistent viruses establish their initial infection in the midgut epithelium, from where they disseminate to the midgut visceral muscles. Although propagation of viruses in insect vectors can be controlled by the small interfering RNA (siRNA) antiviral pathway, whether the siRNA pathway can control viral dissemination from the midgut epithelium is unknown. Infection by a rice virus (Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus [SRBSDV]) of its incompetent vector (the small brown planthopper [SBPH]) is restricted to the midgut epithelium. Here, we show that the siRNA pathway is triggered by SRBSDV infection in continuously cultured cells derived from the SBPH and in the midgut of the intact insect. Knockdown of the expression of the core component Dicer-2 of the siRNA pathway by RNA interference strongly increased the ability of SRBSDV to propagate in continuously cultured SBPH cells and in the midgut epithelium, allowing viral titers in the midgut epithelium to reach the threshold (1.99 × 10(9) copies of the SRBSDV P10 gene/μg of midgut RNA) needed for viral dissemination into the SBPH midgut muscles. Our results thus represent the first elucidation of the threshold for viral dissemination from the insect midgut epithelium. Silencing of Dicer-2 further facilitated the transmission of SRBSDV into rice plants by SBPHs. Taken together, our results reveal the new finding that the siRNA pathway can control the initial infection of the insect midgut epithelium by a virus, which finally affects the competence of the virus's vector. Many viral pathogens that cause significant global health and agricultural problems are transmitted via insect vectors. The first bottleneck in viral infection, the midgut epithelium, is a principal determinant of the ability of an insect species to transmit a virus. Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is restricted exclusively to the midgut epithelium of an

  16. An autocrine ATP release mechanism regulates basal ciliary activity in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droguett, Karla; Rios, Mariana; Carreño, Daniela V; Navarrete, Camilo; Fuentes, Christian; Villalón, Manuel; Barrera, Nelson P

    2017-07-15

    Extracellular ATP, in association with [Ca 2+ ] i regulation, is required to maintain basal ciliary beat frequency. Increasing extracellular ATP levels increases ciliary beating in airway epithelial cells, maintaining a sustained response by inducing the release of additional ATP. Extracellular ATP levels in the millimolar range, previously associated with pathophysiological conditions of the airway epithelium, produce a transient arrest of ciliary activity. The regulation of ciliary beat frequency is dependent on ATP release by hemichannels (connexin/pannexin) and P2X receptor activation, the blockage of which may even stop ciliary movement. The force exerted by cilia, measured by atomic force microscopy, is reduced following extracellular ATP hydrolysis. This result complements the current understanding of the ciliary beating regulatory mechanism, with special relevance to inflammatory diseases of the airway epithelium that affect mucociliary clearance. Extracellular nucleotides, including ATP, are locally released by the airway epithelium and stimulate ciliary activity in a [Ca 2+ ] i -dependent manner after mechanical stimulation of ciliated cells. However, it is unclear whether the ATP released is involved in regulating basal ciliary activity and mediating changes in ciliary activity in response to chemical stimulation. In the present study, we evaluated ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and ciliary beating forces in primary cultures from mouse tracheal epithelium, using videomicroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. Extracellular ATP levels and [Ca 2+ ] i were measured by luminometric and fluorimetric assays, respectively. Uptake of ethidium bromide was measured to evaluate hemichannel functionality. We show that hydrolysis of constitutive extracellular ATP levels with apyrase (50 U ml -1 ) reduced basal CBF by 45% and ciliary force by 67%. The apyrase effect on CBF was potentiated by carbenoxolone, a hemichannel inhibitor, and oxidized ATP, an

  17. Ion Transport in Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelium, Capan-1 Cells, Is Regulated by Secretin, VIP, Acetylcholine, and Purinergic Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to establish a solid model of polarized epithelium for human pancreatic ducts, where electrical parameters could be measured as indicators of ion transport. Further, we aimed to determine functional expression of several receptors, in particular, puriner...... transport in human pancreatic duct epithelium, Capan-1 cells, is regulated by secretin, VIP, acetylcholine, adenosine, and purinergic P2 receptors; and this human model has a good potential for studies of physiology and pathophysiology of pancreatic duct ion transport....

  18. Comparison of Expression Profiles in Ovarian Epithelium In Vivo and Ovarian Cancer Identifies Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Disease Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Catherine; Gava, Natalie; Kennedy, Catherine; Balleine, Rosemary L.; Sharma, Raghwa; Wain, Gerard; Brand, Alison; Hogg, Russell; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; George, Joshy; Birrer, Michael J.; Clarke, Christine L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bowtell, David D. L.; Harnett, Paul R.; deFazio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Molecular events leading to epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood but ovulatory hormones and a high number of life-time ovulations with concomitant proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation, increases risk. We identified genes that are regulated during the estrous cycle in murine ovarian surface epithelium and analysed these profiles to identify genes dysregulated in human ovarian cancer, using publically available datasets. We identified 338 genes that are regulated in murine ovarian surface epithelium during the estrous cycle and dysregulated in ovarian cancer. Six of seven candidates selected for immunohistochemical validation were expressed in serous ovarian cancer, inclusion cysts, ovarian surface epithelium and in fallopian tube epithelium. Most were overexpressed in ovarian cancer compared with ovarian surface epithelium and/or inclusion cysts (EpCAM, EZH2, BIRC5) although BIRC5 and EZH2 were expressed as highly in fallopian tube epithelium as in ovarian cancer. We prioritised the 338 genes for those likely to be important for ovarian cancer development by in silico analyses of copy number aberration and mutation using publically available datasets and identified genes with established roles in ovarian cancer as well as novel genes for which we have evidence for involvement in ovarian cancer. Chromosome segregation emerged as an important process in which genes from our list of 338 were over-represented including two (BUB1, NCAPD2) for which there is evidence of amplification and mutation. NUAK2, upregulated in ovarian surface epithelium in proestrus and predicted to have a driver mutation in ovarian cancer, was examined in a larger cohort of serous ovarian cancer where patients with lower NUAK2 expression had shorter overall survival. In conclusion, defining genes that are activated in normal epithelium in the course of ovulation that are also dysregulated in cancer has identified a number of pathways and novel candidate genes that may contribute

  19. Apical serine protease activity is necessary for assembly of a high-resistance renal collecting duct epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Mette; Svenningsen, Per; Tinning, Anne R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract AIM: We hypothesized that the serine protease prostasin is necessary for differentiation of a high resistance renal collecting duct epithelium governed by glucocorticoid. METHODS: Postnatal rat kidney and adult human kidney was used to study expression and localization of prostasin......-cadherin distribution did not change. CONCLUSION: Apical, GPI-anchored, lipid raft-associated serine protease activity, compatible with prostasin, is necessary for development of a high-resistance collecting duct epithelium....

  20. Requirement of the Epithelium-specific Ets Transcription Factor Spdef for Mucous Gland Cell Function in the Gastric Antrum*

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, David; Gu, Xuesong; Bhasin, Manoj; Yang, Quanli; Verzi, Michael; Lin, Dongxu; Joseph, Marie; Zhang, Xiaobo; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping; Shivdasani, Ramesh A.; Libermann, Towia A.

    2010-01-01

    Mucus-secreting cells of the stomach epithelium provide a protective barrier against damage that might result from bacterial colonization or other stimuli. Impaired barrier function contributes to chronic inflammation and cancer. Knock-out mice for the epithelium-specific transcription factor Spdef (also called Pdef) have defects in terminal differentiation of intestinal and bronchial secretory cells. We sought to determine the physiologic function of Spdef in the stomach, another site of sig...

  1. Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Margaret A.; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Santos, Celia; Roberts, Kim L.; Bordonali, Elena; Subbarao, Kanta; Barclay, Wendy S.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C), avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human p...

  2. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long; Yang, Zhihua; Guo, Renfeng; Gu, Yongqing; Li, Ruoxi; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Du, Li; Zhou, Pingkun; Zhu, Maoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4 + CD25 + FoxP3 + regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis

  3. Loss of Melanin by Eye Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells Is Associated with Its Oxidative Destruction in Melanolipofuscin Granules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dontsov, A E; Sakina, N L; Ostrovsky, M A

    2017-08-01

    The effect of superoxide radicals on melanin destruction and degradation of melanosomes isolated from cells of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) of the human eye was studied. We found that potassium superoxide causes destruction of melanin in melanosomes of human and bovine RPE, as well as destruction of melanin from the ink bag of squid, with the formation of fluorescent decay products having an emission maximum at 520-525 nm. The initial kinetics of the accumulation of the fluorescent decay products is linear. Superoxide radicals lead simultaneously to a decrease in the number of melanosomes and to a decrease in concentration of paramagnetic centers in them. Complete degradation of melanosomes leads to the formation of a transparent solution containing dissolved proteins and melanin degradation products that do not exhibit paramagnetic properties. To completely degrade one melanosome of human RPE, 650 ± 100 fmol of superoxide are sufficient. The concentration of paramagnetic centers in a melanolipofuscin granule of human RPE is on average 32.5 ± 10.4% (p melanin undergoing a destruction process in these granules. RPE cells also contain intermediate granules that have an EPR signal with a lower intensity than that of melanolipofuscin granules, but higher than that of lipofuscin granules. This signal is due to the presence of residual melanin in these granules. Irradiation of a mixture of melanosomes with lipofuscin granules with blue light (450 nm), in contrast to irradiation of only melanosomes, results in the appearance of fluorescent melanin degradation products. We suggest that one of the main mechanisms of age-related decrease in melanin concentration in human RPE cells is its destruction in melanolipofuscin granules under the action of superoxide radicals formed during photoinduced oxygen reduction by lipofuscin fluorophores.

  4. Effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation on the transcriptional profile of bovine ruminal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Keogh

    Full Text Available Compensatory growth (CG is utilised worldwide in beef production systems as a management approach to reduce feed costs. However the underlying biology regulating the expression of CG remains to be fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of dietary restriction and subsequent re-alimentation induced CG on the global gene expression profile of ruminal epithelial papillae. Holstein Friesian bulls (n = 60 were assigned to one of two groups: restricted feed allowance (RES; n = 30 for 125 days (Period 1 followed by ad libitum access to feed for 55 days (Period 2 or (ii ad libitum access to feed throughout (ADLIB; n = 30. At the end of each period, 15 animals from each treatment were slaughtered and rumen papillae harvested. mRNA was isolated from all papillae samples collected. cDNA libraries were then prepared and sequenced. Resultant reads were subsequently analysed bioinformatically and differentially expressed genes (DEGs are defined as having a Benjamini-Hochberg P value of <0.05. During re-alimentation in Period 2, RES animals displayed CG, growing at 1.8 times the rate of their ADLIB contemporary animals in Period 2 (P < 0.001. At the end of Period 1, 64 DEGs were identified between RES and ADLIB, with only one DEG identified at the end of Period 2. When analysed within RES treatment (RES, Period 2 v Period 1, 411 DEGs were evident. Genes identified as differentially expressed in response to both dietary restriction and subsequent CG included those involved in processes such as cellular interactions and transport, protein folding and gene expression, as well as immune response. This study provides an insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the expression of CG in rumen papillae of cattle; however the results suggest that the role of the ruminal epithelium in supporting overall animal CG may have declined by day 55 of re-alimentation.

  5. Regulatory T Cells Promote β-Catenin–Mediated Epithelium-to-Mesenchyme Transition During Radiation-Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Shanshan; Pan, Xiujie; Xu, Long; Yang, Zhihua [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Guo, Renfeng [Department of Pathology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Gu, Yongqing; Li, Ruoxi; Wang, Qianjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Du, Li; Zhou, Pingkun [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Zhu, Maoxiang, E-mail: zhumx@nic.bmi.ac.cn [Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis results from thoracic radiation therapy and severely limits radiation therapy approaches. CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +}FoxP3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) as well as epithelium-to-mesenchyme transition (EMT) cells are involved in pulmonary fibrosis induced by multiple factors. However, the mechanisms of Tregs and EMT cells in irradiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the influence of Tregs on EMT in radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods and Materials: Mice thoraxes were irradiated (20 Gy), and Tregs were depleted by intraperitoneal injection of a monoclonal anti-CD25 antibody 2 hours after irradiation and every 7 days thereafter. Mice were treated on days 3, 7, and 14 and 1, 3, and 6 months post irradiation. The effectiveness of Treg depletion was assayed via flow cytometry. EMT and β-catenin in lung tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Tregs isolated from murine spleens were cultured with mouse lung epithelial (MLE) 12 cells, and short interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown of β-catenin in MLE 12 cells was used to explore the effects of Tregs on EMT and β-catenin via flow cytometry and Western blotting. Results: Anti-CD25 antibody treatment depleted Tregs efficiently, attenuated the process of radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis, hindered EMT, and reduced β-catenin accumulation in lung epithelial cells in vivo. The coculture of Tregs with irradiated MLE 12 cells showed that Tregs could promote EMT in MLE 12 cells and that the effect of Tregs on EMT was partially abrogated by β-catenin knockdown in vitro. Conclusions: Tregs can promote EMT in accelerating radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This process is partially mediated through β-catenin. Our study suggests a new mechanism for EMT, promoted by Tregs, that accelerates radiation-induced pulmonary fibrosis.

  6. Effects of KCNQ channel modulators on the M-type potassium current in primate retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattnaik, Bikash R; Hughes, Bret A

    2012-03-01

    Recently, we demonstrated the expression of KCNQ1, KCNQ4, and KCNQ5 transcripts in monkey retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and showed that the M-type current in RPE cells is blocked by the specific KCNQ channel blocker XE991. Using patch-clamp electrophysiology, we investigated the pharmacological sensitivity of the M-type current in isolated monkey RPE cells to elucidate the subunit composition of the channel. Most RPE cells exhibited an M-type current with a voltage for half-maximal activation of approximately -35 mV. The M-type current activation followed a double-exponential time course and was essentially complete within 1 s. The M-type current was inhibited by micromolar concentrations of the nonselective KCNQ channel blockers linopirdine and XE991 but was relatively insensitive to block by 10 μM chromanol 293B or 135 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA), two KCNQ1 channel blockers. The M-type current was activated by 1) 10 μM retigabine, an opener of all KCNQ channels except KCNQ1, 2) 10 μM zinc pyrithione, which augments all KCNQ channels except KCNQ3, and 3) 50 μM N-ethylmaleimide, which activates KCNQ2, KCNQ4, and KCNQ5, but not KCNQ1 or KCNQ3, channels. Application of cAMP, which activates KCNQ1 and KCNQ4 channels, had no significant effect on the M-type current. Finally, diclofenac, which activates KCNQ2/3 and KCNQ4 channels but inhibits KCNQ5 channels, inhibited the M-type current in the majority of RPE cells but activated it in others. The results indicate that the M-type current in monkey RPE is likely mediated by channels encoded by KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 subunits.

  7. Lesion of the olfactory epithelium accelerates prion neuroinvasion and disease onset when prion replication is restricted to neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Crowell

    Full Text Available Natural prion diseases of ruminants are moderately contagious and while the gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of prion agent entry, other mucosae may be entry sites in a subset of infections. In the current study we examined prion neuroinvasion and disease induction following disruption of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucosa since this site contains environmentally exposed olfactory sensory neurons that project directly into the central nervous system. Here we provide evidence for accelerated prion neuroinvasion and clinical onset from the olfactory mucosa after disruption and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium and when prion replication is restricted to neurons. In transgenic mice with neuron restricted replication of prions, there was a reduction in survival when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation and there was >25% decrease in the prion incubation period. In a second model, the neurotropic DY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy was not pathogenic in hamsters by the nasal route, but 50% of animals exhibited brain infection and/or disease when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation. A time course analysis of prion deposition in the brain following loss of the olfactory epithelium in models of neuron-restricted prion replication suggests that neuroinvasion from the olfactory mucosa is via the olfactory nerve or brain stem associated cranial nerves. We propose that induction of neurogenesis after damage to the olfactory epithelium can lead to prion infection of immature olfactory sensory neurons and accelerate prion spread to the brain.

  8. Histological, Topographical and Ultrastructural Organization of Different Cells Lining the Olfactory Epithelium of Red Piranha, Pygocentrus nattereri (Characiformes, Serrasalmidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh S. K.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The structural characterization of the olfactory epithelium in Pygocentrus nattereri Kner, 1858 was studied with the help of light as well as scanning and transmission electron microscope. The oval shaped olfactory rosette consisted of 26–28 primary lamellae radiated from midline raphe. The olfactory epithelium of each lamella was well distributed by sensory and non-sensory epithelium. The sensory epithelium contained morphologically distinct ciliated and microvillous receptor cells, supporting cells and basal cells. The non-sensory epithelium was made up of labyrinth cells, mucous cells and stratified epithelial cells. According to TEM investigation elongated rod emerging out from dendrite end of the receptor cells in the free space. The dendrite process of microvillous receptor cells contained microvilli. The supporting cells had lobular nucleus with clearly seen electron dense nucleolus. The apex of the ciliated non-sensory cells was broad and provided with plenty of kinocilia. Basal cells provided with oval nucleus and contained small number of secretory granules. The mucous cells were restricted to the non-sensory areas and the nuclei situated basally and filled with about two-third of the vesicles. The functional significance of various cells lining the olfactory epithelium was discussed with mode of life and living of fish concerned.

  9. Lesion of the Olfactory Epithelium Accelerates Prion Neuroinvasion and Disease Onset when Prion Replication Is Restricted to Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Jenna; Wiley, James A.; Bessen, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural prion diseases of ruminants are moderately contagious and while the gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of prion agent entry, other mucosae may be entry sites in a subset of infections. In the current study we examined prion neuroinvasion and disease induction following disruption of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucosa since this site contains environmentally exposed olfactory sensory neurons that project directly into the central nervous system. Here we provide evidence for accelerated prion neuroinvasion and clinical onset from the olfactory mucosa after disruption and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium and when prion replication is restricted to neurons. In transgenic mice with neuron restricted replication of prions, there was a reduction in survival when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation and there was >25% decrease in the prion incubation period. In a second model, the neurotropic DY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy was not pathogenic in hamsters by the nasal route, but 50% of animals exhibited brain infection and/or disease when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation. A time course analysis of prion deposition in the brain following loss of the olfactory epithelium in models of neuron-restricted prion replication suggests that neuroinvasion from the olfactory mucosa is via the olfactory nerve or brain stem associated cranial nerves. We propose that induction of neurogenesis after damage to the olfactory epithelium can lead to prion infection of immature olfactory sensory neurons and accelerate prion spread to the brain. PMID:25822718

  10. Case report of severe Cushing's syndrome in medullary thyroid cancer complicated by functional diabetes insipidus, aortic dissection, jejunal intussusception, and paraneoplastic dysautonomia: remission with sorafenib without reduction in cortisol concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad M; Duaiji, Najla; Mutairi, Ghazi; Aklabi, Sabah; Qattan, Nasser; Abouzied, Mohei El-Din M; Sous, Mohamed W

    2015-09-09

    Normalization of cortisol concentration by multikinase inhibitors have been reported in three patients with medullary thyroid cancer-related Cushing's syndrome. Aortic dissection has been reported in three patients with Cushing's syndrome. Diabetes insipidus without intrasellar metastasis, intestinal intussusception, and paraneoplastic dysautonomia have not been reported in medullary thyroid cancer. An adult male with metastatic medullary thyroid cancer presented with hyperglycemia, hypernatremia, hypokalemia, hypertension, acne-like rash, and diabetes insipidus (urine volume >8 L/d, osmolality 190 mOsm/kg). Serum cortisol, adrenocorticoitropic hormone, dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate, and urinary free cortisol were elevated 8, 20, 4.4, and 340 folds, respectively. Pituitary imaging was normal. Computed tomography scan revealed jejunal intussusception and incidental abdominal aortic dissection. Sorafenib treatment was associated with Cushing's syndrome remission, elevated progesterone (>10 fold), normalization of dehydroepiandrostenedione sulfate, but persistently elevated cortisol concentration. Newly-developed proximal lower limb weakness and decreased salivation were associated with elevated ganglionic neuronal acetylcholine receptor (alpha-3) and borderline P/Q type calcium channel antibodies. Extreme cortisol concentration may have contributed to aortic dissection and suppressed antidiuretic hormone secretion; which combined with hypokalemia due cortisol activation of mineralocorticoid receptors, manifested as diabetes insipidus. This is the first report of paraneoplastic dysautonomia and jejunal intussusception in medullary thyroid cancer, they may be related to medullary thyroid cancer's neuroendocrine origin and metastasis, respectively. Remission of Cushing's syndrome without measurable reduction in cortisol concentration suggests a novel cortisol-independent mechanism of action or assay cross-reactivity. Normalization of dehydroepiandrostenedione

  11. Use of collagen gel as an alternative extracellular matrix for the in vitro and in vivo growth of murine small intestinal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaji, Ziyad; Sears, Connie M; Brinkley, Garrett J; Lei, Nan Ye; Joshi, Vaidehi S; Wang, Jiafang; Lewis, Michael; Stelzner, Matthias; Martín, Martín G; Dunn, James C Y

    2013-12-01

    Methods for the in vitro culture of primary small intestinal epithelium have improved greatly in recent years. A critical barrier for the translation of this methodology to the patient's bedside is the ability to grow intestinal stem cells using a well-defined extracellular matrix. Current methods rely on the use of Matrigel(™), a proprietary basement membrane-enriched extracellular matrix gel produced in mice that is not approved for clinical use. We demonstrate for the first time the capacity to support the long-term in vitro growth of murine intestinal epithelium in monoculture, using type I collagen. We further demonstrate successful in vivo engraftment of enteroids co-cultured with intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts in collagen gel. Small intestinal crypts were isolated from 6 to 10 week old transgenic enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP+) mice and suspended within either Matrigel or collagen gel; cultures were supported using previously reported media and growth factors. After 1 week, cultures were either lysed for DNA or RNA extraction or were implanted subcutaneously in syngeneic host mice. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to determine expansion of the transgenic eGFP-DNA and to determine the mRNA gene expression profile. Immunohistochemistry was performed on in vitro cultures and recovered in vivo explants. Small intestinal crypts reliably expanded to form enteroids in either Matrigel or collagen in both mono- and co-cultures as confirmed by microscopy and eGFP-DNA qPCR quantification. Collagen-based cultures yielded a distinct morphology with smooth enteroids and epithelial monolayer growth at the gel surface; both enteroid and monolayer cells demonstrated reactivity to Cdx2, E-cadherin, CD10, Periodic Acid-Schiff, and lysozyme. Collagen-based enteroids were successfully subcultured in vitro, whereas pure monolayer epithelial sheets did not survive passaging. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction

  12. A novel lens epithelium gene, LEP503, is highly conserved in different vertebrate species and is developmentally regulated in postnatal rat lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Y; Sachs, G; Athmann, C

    2000-02-01

    The development of the lens is dependent on the proliferation of lens epithelial cells and their differentiation into fiber cells near the lens bow/equator. Identification of genes specifically expressed in the lens epithelial cells and their functions may provide insight into molecular events that regulate the processes of lens epithelial cell differentiation. In this study, a novel lens epithelium gene product, LEP503, identified from rat by a subtractive cDNA cloning strategy was investigated in the genome organization, mRNA expression and protein localization. The genomic sequences for LEP503 isolated from rat, mouse and human span 1754 bp, 1694 bp and 1895 bp regions encompassing the 5'-flanking region, two exons, one intron and 3'-flanking region. All exon-intron junction sequences conform to the GT/AG rule. Both mouse and human LEP503 genes show very high identity (93% for mouse and 79% for human) to rat LEP503 gene in the exon 1 that contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 61 amino acid residues with a leucine-rich domain. The deduced protein sequences also show high identity (91% between mouse and rat and 77% between human and rat). Western blot shows that LEP503 is present as a specific approximately 6.9 kDa band in the water-insoluble-urea-soluble fraction of lens cortex where lens epithelium is included. Immuno-staining shows that LEP503 is localized in the epithelial cells along the entire anterior surface of rat lens. Developmentally, LEP503 is expressed at a low level at newborn, and then the expression level increases by about ten-fold around postnatal day 14 and remains at this high level for about 25 days before it drops back to the low level by postnatal day 84. These data suggest that the LEP503 may be an important lens epithelial cell gene involving the processes of epithelial cell differentiation. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. [Comparison of paired box genes 8 and 2 expression in epithelium tissues and the related tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Y; Huang, X; Shen, G H; Liu, X Y; Zhang, X

    2017-06-23

    Objective: To explore the expressional differences between paired box genes 2(Pax2) and 8 (Pax8) protein in different kinds of epitheliums and tumors, and to investigate the clinicopathologic significance. Methods: Expression levels of Pax2 and Pax8 protein were detected in 75 cases of different human epithelium tissues and 255 cases of different tumors on tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry. Results: Pax2 and Pax8 selectively expressed in different tissues. The positive rates of Pax8 protein expressed in the normal epithelium of the thyroid, urinary system and female reproductive system were 100% (2/2), 60.0% (3/5) and 76.9% (10/13), respectively. The positive rates of Pax2 expressed in the epithelium tissues of urinary system and the female reproductive system were 40.0% (2/5) and 38.5% (5/13) respectively. However, the expression of Pax2 protein was not detected in the normal thyroid epithelium. The positive rate of Pax8 protein expressing in the epithelium of reproductive system was significantly higher than that of Pax2 protein ( P <0.05). The tumors derived from different tissues also expressed different levels of protein Pax2 and Pax8. The positive rates of Pax8 in renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were 65.2% (15/23), 66.7% (10/15) and 80.0% (4/5), respectively. The positive rates of Pax2 in renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were 34.8% (8/23), 13.3% (2/15) and 20.0% (1/5), respectively. The positive rates of Pax8 protein expressed in renal cell carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were significantly higher than those of Pax2 protein ( P <0.05). The positive rates of Pax8 in ovarian serous carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma were 92.9% (26/28), 81.8% (9/11) and 82.4% (14/17), respectively. The positive rates of Pax2 in ovarian serous carcinoma, endometrial carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma were 28.6% (8/28), 9.1% (1/11) and 17.6% (3

  14. Taurine uptake by human retinal pigment epithelium: implications for the transport of small solutes between the choroid and the outer retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenkamp, Jost; Hussain, Ali A; Jackson, Timothy L; Cunningham, Joanna R; Marshall, John

    2004-12-01

    To characterize the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the taurine transporter (TT) in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) freshly isolated from human donor eyes. To identify the rate limiting compartment in the pathway of taurine delivery from the choroidal blood supply to the outer retina composed by Bruch's-choroid (BC) and the RPE in the human older age group. In human donor samples (4 melanoma-affected eyes, and 14 control eyes; age range, 62-93 years), radiochemical techniques were used to determine the RPE taurine accumulation at various exogenous concentrations. The transport capability of human RPE was obtained from a kinetic analysis of the high-affinity carrier over a substrate concentration of 1 to 60 microM taurine. Uptake of taurine into human RPE at a taurine concentration of 1 microM was independent of donor age (P > 0.05) and averaged at 2.83 +/- 0.27 (SEM) pmol/10 minutes per 6-mm trephine. Taurine transport by human RPE was mediated by a high-affinity carrier of K(m) 50 microM and V(max) of 267 pmol/10 minutes per 5-mm disc. In human donor RPE, uptake of taurine remained viable in the age range 62 to 93 years. Taurine transport rates in the RPE were lower than across the isolated BC complex, and thus the data suggest that the former compartment houses the rate-limiting step in the delivery of taurine to the outer retina.

  15. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-dependent survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien eFrançois

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs. However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226. We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population towards detection of environmental odorants.

  16. Nebulisation of receptor-targeted nanocomplexes for gene delivery to the airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manunta, Maria D I; McAnulty, Robin J; Tagalakis, Aristides D; Bottoms, Stephen E; Campbell, Frederick; Hailes, Helen C; Tabor, Alethea B; Laurent, Geoffrey J; O'Callaghan, Christopher; Hart, Stephen L

    2011-01-01

    Gene therapy mediated by synthetic vectors may provide opportunities for new treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) via aerosolisation. Vectors for CF must transfect the airway epithelium efficiently and not cause inflammation so they are suitable for repeated dosing. The inhaled aerosol should be deposited in the airways since the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) is expressed predominantly in the epithelium of the submucosal glands and in the surface airway epithelium. The aim of this project was to develop an optimised aerosol delivery approach applicable to treatment of CF lung disease by gene therapy. The vector suspension investigated in this study comprises receptor-targeting peptides, cationic liposomes and plasmid DNA that self-assemble by electrostatic interactions to form a receptor-targeted nanocomplex (RTN) of approximately 150 nm with a cationic surface charge of +50 mV. The aerodynamic properties of aerosolised nanocomplexes produced with three different nebulisers were compared by determining aerosol deposition in the different stages of a Next Generation Pharmaceutical Impactor (NGI). We also investigated the yield of intact plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and densitometry, and transfection efficacies in vitro and in vivo. RTNs nebulised with the AeroEclipse II BAN were the most effective, compared to other nebulisers tested, for gene delivery both in vitro and in vivo. The biophysical properties of the nanocomplexes were unchanged after nebulisation while the deposition of RTNs suggested a range of aerosol aerodynamic sizes between 5.5 µm-1.4 µm cut off (NGI stages 3-6) compatible with deposition in the central and lower airways. RTNs showed their ability at delivering genes via nebulisation, thus suggesting their potential applications for therapeutic interventions of cystic fibrosis and other respiratory disorders.

  17. Nebulisation of receptor-targeted nanocomplexes for gene delivery to the airway epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D I Manunta

    Full Text Available Gene therapy mediated by synthetic vectors may provide opportunities for new treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF via aerosolisation. Vectors for CF must transfect the airway epithelium efficiently and not cause inflammation so they are suitable for repeated dosing. The inhaled aerosol should be deposited in the airways since the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR is expressed predominantly in the epithelium of the submucosal glands and in the surface airway epithelium. The aim of this project was to develop an optimised aerosol delivery approach applicable to treatment of CF lung disease by gene therapy.The vector suspension investigated in this study comprises receptor-targeting peptides, cationic liposomes and plasmid DNA that self-assemble by electrostatic interactions to form a receptor-targeted nanocomplex (RTN of approximately 150 nm with a cationic surface charge of +50 mV. The aerodynamic properties of aerosolised nanocomplexes produced with three different nebulisers were compared by determining aerosol deposition in the different stages of a Next Generation Pharmaceutical Impactor (NGI. We also investigated the yield of intact plasmid DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis and densitometry, and transfection efficacies in vitro and in vivo.RTNs nebulised with the AeroEclipse II BAN were the most effective, compared to other nebulisers tested, for gene delivery both in vitro and in vivo. The biophysical properties of the nanocomplexes were unchanged after nebulisation while the deposition of RTNs suggested a range of aerosol aerodynamic sizes between 5.5 µm-1.4 µm cut off (NGI stages 3-6 compatible with deposition in the central and lower airways.RTNs showed their ability at delivering genes via nebulisation, thus suggesting their potential applications for therapeutic interventions of cystic fibrosis and other respiratory disorders.

  18. Neuropilin 1 Receptor Is Up-Regulated in Dysplastic Epithelium and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabi-Farahani, Shokoufeh; Gallottini, Marina; Martins, Fabiana; Li, Erik; Mudge, Dayna R; Nakayama, Hironao; Hida, Kyoko; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amore, Patricia A; Bielenberg, Diane R

    2016-04-01

    Neuropilins are receptors for disparate ligands, including proangiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor and inhibitory class 3 semaphorin (SEMA3) family members. Differentiated cells in skin epithelium and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma highly express the neuropilin-1 (NRP1) receptor. We examined the expression of NRP1 in human and mouse oral mucosa. NRP1 was significantly up-regulated in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NRP1 receptor localized to the outer suprabasal epithelial layers in normal tongue, an expression pattern similar to the normal skin epidermis. However, dysplastic tongue epithelium and OSCC up-regulated NRP1 in basal and proliferating epithelial layers, a profile unseen in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. NRP1 up-regulation is observed in a mouse carcinogen-induced OSCC model and in human tongue OSCC biopsies. Human OSCC cell lines express NRP1 protein in vitro and in mouse tongue xenografts. Sites of capillary infiltration into orthotopic OSCC tumors correlate with high NRP1 expression. HSC3 xenografts, which express the highest NRP1 levels of the cell lines examined, showed massive intratumoral lymphangiogenesis. SEMA3A inhibited OSCC cell migration, suggesting that the NRP1 receptor was bioactive in OSCC. In conclusion, NRP1 is regulated in the oral epithelium and is selectively up-regulated during epithelial dysplasia. NRP1 may function as a reservoir to sequester proangiogenic ligands within the neoplastic compartment, thereby recruiting neovessels toward tumor cells. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Chlamydia trachomatis Is Responsible for Lipid Vacuolation in the Amniotic Epithelium of Fetal Gastroschisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldkamp, Marcia L; Ward, Diane M; Pysher, Theodore J; Chambers, Christina T

    2017-07-17

    Vacuolated amniotic epithelium with lipid droplets in gastroschisis placentas is an unusual finding. Mass spectrometry of lipid droplets identified triglycerides, ester-linked to an unusual pattern of fatty acids. We hypothesize that these findings result from a Chlamydia trachomatis infection during the periconceptional period. The rising incidence of chlamydia infections has paralleled the increasing prevalence of gastroschisis among women less than 25 years of age. Histologically, young women are at greatest risk for a chlamydia infection due to their immature columnar epithelium, the preferential site for attachment of Chlamydia trachomatis infectious particle (elementary body). Chlamydia trachomatis survive in an inclusion, relying on its host to acquire essential nutrients, amino acids, and nucleotides for survival and replication. If essential nutrients are not available, the bacteria cannot replicate and may be trafficked to the lysosome for degradation or remain quiescent, within the inclusion, subverting innate immunologic clearance. Chlamydiae synthesize several lipids (phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphoatidylglycerol); however, their lipid content reveal eukaryotic lipids (sphingomyelin, cholesterol, phosphatidylcholine, and phosphatidylinositol), evidence that chlamydiae "hijack" host lipids for expansion and replication. The abnormal amniotic epithelial findings are supported by experimental evidence of the trafficking of host lipids into the chlamydiae inclusion. If not lethal, what harm will elementary bodies inflict to the developing embryo? Do these women have a greater pro-inflammatory response to an environmental exposure, whether cigarette smoking, change in partner, or a pathogen? Testing the hypothesis that Chlamydia trachomatis is responsible for amniotic epithelium vacuoles will be a critical first step. Birth Defects Research 109:1003-1010, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Repopulation of the seminiferous epithelium of the rhesus monkey after X irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Alphen, M.M.; van de Kant, H.J.; de Rooij, D.G.

    1988-01-01

    Repopulation of the seminiferous epithelium became evident from Day 75 postirradiation onward after doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 Gy of X rays. Cell counts in cross sections of seminiferous tubules revealed that during this repopulation the numbers of Apale (Ap) spermatogonia, Adark (Ad) spermatogonia, and B spermatogonia increased simultaneously. After 0.5 Gy the number of spermatogonia increased from approximately 10% of the control level at Day 44 to 90% at Day 200. After 1.0 and 2.0 Gy the numbers of spermatogonia increased from less than 5% at Day 44 to 70% at Days 200 and 370. The number of Ad and B spermatogonia, which are considered to be resting and differentiating spermatogonia, respectively, already had increased when the number of proliferating Ap spermatogonia was still very low. This early inactivation and differentiation of a large part of the population of Ap spermatogonia slows down repopulation of the seminiferous epithelium of the primates. By studying repopulating colonies in whole mounts of seminiferous tubules various types of colonies were found. In colonies consisting of only A spermatogonia, 40% of the A spermatogonia were found to be of the Ad type, which indicates that even before the colony had differentiated, 40% of the A spermatogonia were inactivated into Ad. Differentiating colonies were also found in which one or two generations of germ cells were missing. In some of those colonies it was found that the Ap spermatogonia did not form any B spermatogonia during one or two cycles of the seminiferous epithelium, while in other colonies all Ap spermatogonia present had differentiated into B spermatogonia. This indicates that the differentiation of Ap into B spermatogonia is a stochastic process