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Sample records for isolated injection source

  1. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

  2. Patients experience of source isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Kamilla; Pedersen, Didde; Kragbak, Nina

    2014-01-01

    , Nursing education in Århus, Hedeager 2, 8200 Aarhus N, Denmark. Background: Medical treatment and care of patients with infections may include source isolation of the patient, to avoid spreading of the infection. However, isolation is a potential physiological and psychological stress factor...... of the patients perspectives of being isolated to identify areas of potential interest for developing new caring strategies to minimize the negative side effects of isolation. Methods: Literature was systematically searched in CINAHL, Nursing Reference Center, Social Care Online, SveMed+, The Cochrane Library...... of Care: The patients felt abandoned and forgotten by the nurses, because of fewer visits and time limited communication. This led to emotions such as frustrations, insecurity and neglect. While isolated the patients felt it difficult to achieve contact and have an optimal relation with the nurses...

  3. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sra, Kanwartej S; Thomson, Neil R; Barker, Jim F

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O8(2-), SO4(2-), Na(+), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for >10months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in [Formula: see text] indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M˙DIC increased by >100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Persulfate injection into a gasoline source zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sra, Kanwartej S.; Thomson, Neil R.; Barker, Jim F.

    2013-07-01

    One pore volume of unactivated sodium persulfate was delivered into an emplaced gasoline residual source zone at CFB Borden. Concentrations of inorganic species (S2O82 -, SO42 -, Na+, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC)) and selected gasoline compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene) were monitored across a transect equipped with 90 multilevel sampling points for > 10 months post-injection. Mass loading (M˙) of compounds constructed from the transect data was used for assessment purposes. Breakthrough of inorganic species was observed when the injection slug crossed the monitoring transect. An increase in M indicated persulfate consumption during oxidation of gasoline compounds or degradation due to the interaction with aquifer materials. M increased by > 100% suggesting some mineralization of gasoline compounds during treatment. Mass loading for all the monitored gasoline compounds reduced by 46 to 86% as the inorganic slug crossed the monitoring transect. The cumulative mass discharge across the monitoring transect was 19 to 58% lower than that expected without persulfate injection. After the inorganic injection slug was flushed from the source zone a partial rebound (40 to 80% of baseline levels) of mass discharge of the monitored gasoline compounds was observed. The ensemble of data collected provides insight into the fate and transport of the injected persulfate solution, and the accompanying treatment of a gasoline the source zone.

  5. The Advanced Photon Source injection timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Laird, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source consists of five accelerators. The injection timing system provides the signals required to cause a bunch emitted from the electron gun to navigate through intermediate accelerators to a specific bucket (1 out of 1296) within the storage ring. Two linacs and a positron accumulator ring operate at 60Hz while a booster synchrotron ramps and injects into the storage ring at 2Hz. The distributed, modular VME/VXI-based injection timing system is controlled by two EPICS-based input/output controllers (IOCs). Over 40 VME/VXI cards have been developed to implement the system. Card types range from 352MHz VXI timing modules to VME-based fiber optic fanouts and logic translators/drivers. All timing is distributed with fiber optics. Timing references are derived directly from machine low-level rf of 9.77MHz and 352MHz. The timing references provide triggers to programmable delay generators. Three grades of timing are provided. Precision timing is derived from commercial digital delay generators, intermediate precision timing is obtained from VXI 8-channel digital delay generators which provide timing with 25ns peak-to-peak jitter, and modest precision timing is provided by the APS event system. The timing system is fully integrated into the APS EPICS-based control system

  6. The Injection System of SAGA Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasaki, Yoshitaka; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Okajima, Toshihiro; Takabayashi, Yuichi; Tomimasu, Takio; Yoshida, Katuhide

    2005-01-01

    Saga light Source is a 1.4-GeV electron storage ring with a circumference of 75.6m. The injector is a 250-MeV linac producing 1 ms macro-pulse with a peak current of 12mA and repetition rate of 1Hz. The output beam from the linac is transported though a transport line, and injected into the ring though a septum magnet with a bending angle of 20-degree. The transport line consists of two bending magnets, two quadrupole doublelets, and a quadrupole singlet. The bump orbit is formed by four kicker magnets, two of which are installed at both sides of septum magnet, and other two are positioned apart by one magnet cell of the ring. They are excited by sinusoidal electric currents with a half width of 0.5 ms. The beam optics for the injection trajectory is computed and shown at control room, the parameters for which are provided directly from the power supply control server PC. The operator is able to see real-time result of the beam trajectory calculation. This tool is quite effective to optimize the magnets param...

  7. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  8. Development of the ion source for PDX neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Gardner, W.L.; Barber, G.C.; Haselton, H.H.; Ponte, N.S.; Ryan, P.M.; Schechter, D.E.; Stirling, W.L.; Whealton, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the development of the ion source for neutral beam injection heating of PDX plasma. After a brief description of the plasma generator, the performance characteristics of the source, with different types of grids, are described. Based on test stand results it is concluded that at least two different versions of the source should be able to meet and even exceed the neutral power and energy requirements expected out of PDX injectors

  9. Exploration of renewable sources for isolated systems

    OpenAIRE

    Apolo, Cristhian Agustin Apolo

    2017-01-01

    Providing universal access to electricity is a priority worldwide. Renewable Energy Sources (RES) play an important role in the supply of energy to rural and remote areas, where grid electricity is not available, or the cost of the grid extension is excessively. Isolated communities in the Amazon region of Ecuador are frequently far away from each other, formed by scattered housing, exhibit very low population density, and are surrounded by dense vegetation. Supplying such communities is typi...

  10. Tokamak startup using point-source dc helicity injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D J; Bongard, M W; Fonck, R J; Redd, A J; Sontag, A C

    2009-06-05

    Startup of a 0.1 MA tokamak plasma is demonstrated on the ultralow aspect ratio Pegasus Toroidal Experiment using three localized, high-current density sources mounted near the outboard midplane. The injected open field current relaxes via helicity-conserving magnetic turbulence into a tokamaklike magnetic topology where the maximum sustained plasma current is determined by helicity balance and the requirements for magnetic relaxation.

  11. Cosmic ray injection spectrum at the galactic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagutin, Anatoly; Tyumentsev, Alexander; Volkov, Nikolay

    The spectra of cosmic rays measured at Earth are different from their source spectra. A key to understanding this difference, being crucial for solving the problem of cosmic-ray origin, is the determination of how cosmic-ray (CR) particles propagate through the turbulent interstellar medium (ISM). If the medium is a quasi-homogeneous the propagation process can be described by a normal diffusion model. However, during a last few decades many evidences, both from theory and observations, of the existence of multiscale structures in the Galaxy have been found. Filaments, shells, clouds are entities widely spread in the ISM. In such a highly non-homogeneous (fractal-like) ISM the normal diffusion model certainly is not kept valid. Generalization of this model leads to what is known as "anomalous diffusion". The main goal of the report is to retrieve the cosmic ray injection spectrum at the galactic sources in the framework of the anomalous diffusion (AD) model. The anomaly in this model results from large free paths ("Levy flights") of particles between galactic inhomogeneities. In order to evaluate the CR spectrum at the sources, we carried out new calculation of the CR spectra at Earth. AD equation in terms of fractional derivatives have been used to describe CR propagation from the nearby (r≤1 kpc) young (t≤ 1 Myr) and multiple old distant (r > 1 kpc) sources. The assessment of the key model parameters have been based on the results of the particles diffusion in the cosmic and laboratory plasma. We show that in the framework of the anomalous diffusion model the locally observed basic features of the cosmic rays (difference between spectral exponents of proton, He and other nuclei, "knee" problem, positron to electron ratio) can be explained if the injection spectrum at the main galactic sources of cosmic rays has spectral exponent p˜ 2.85. The authors acknowledge support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grant No. 14-02-31524.

  12. Review of MEVVA ion source performance for accelerator injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Godechot, X.; Spaedtke, P.; Emig, H.; Rueck, D.M.; Wolf, B.H.

    1991-05-01

    The Mevva (metal vapor vacuum arc) ion source provides high current beams of multiply-charged metal ions suitable for use in heavy ion synchrotrons as well as for metallurgical ion implantation. Pulsed beam currents of up to several amperes can be produced at ion energies of up to several hundred keV. Operation has been demonstrate for 48 metallic ion species: Li, C, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Pd, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Pb, Bi, Th and U. When the source is operated optimally the rms fractional beam noise can be as low as 7% of the mean beam current; and when properly triggered the source operates reliably and reproducibly for many tens of thousands of pulses without failure. In this paper we review the source performance referred specifically to its use for synchrotron injection. 15 refs., 3 figs

  13. Thyristor based short circuit current injection in isolated grids

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Bjarte; Sharma, Pawan; Østrem, Trond

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a thyristor based short circuit current injector for providing short circuit current in isolated and weak grids, where sufficient fault current to trigger circuit breakers may not be available. This will allow the use of conventional miniature circuit breakers, which requires high fault current for instantaneous tripping. The method has been validated through experiments.

  14. Injection system of compact SR light source 'AURORA'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Takeshi; Yano, Takashi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Yasumitsu, Naoki

    1991-01-01

    A half-integer-resonance injection method is introduced for a superconducting SR-ring of 1 m orbit diameter, which is made of a weak focussing single-body magnet. The present method makes it possible to inject an electron beam of an energy of as high as 150 MeV into the ring of a magnetic field strength of 1 T. Several new injection devices are introduced in order to guide the beam under the strong magnetic fringing field, and to excite the half-integer-resonance. The field index of 0.73 is selected for the half-integer-resonance injection. The field index of 0.35 at the maximum magnetic field strength of 4.3 T is to get a sufficiently long quantum lifetime. A new device named resonance jumper is used to pass quickly several resonances of betatron motion without beam loss. The resonances occur when the magnetic field is ramped up and the field index decreases from 0.73 to 0.35. The injection devices except the inflector are air-core magnets in order to work in the strong magnetic field. In November of 1989, the beam was successfully injected and stored. The injection devices and the half-integer-resonance injection method were established. (author)

  15. Do Staphylococcus epidermidis Genetic Clusters Predict Isolation Sources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolo, Isaiah; Thomas, Jonathan C.; Fischer, Rebecca S. B.; Brown, Eric L.; Gray, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is a ubiquitous colonizer of human skin and a common cause of medical device-associated infections. The extent to which the population genetic structure of S. epidermidis distinguishes commensal from pathogenic isolates is unclear. Previously, Bayesian clustering of 437 multilocus sequence types (STs) in the international database revealed a population structure of six genetic clusters (GCs) that may reflect the species' ecology. Here, we first verified the presence of six GCs, including two (GC3 and GC5) with significant admixture, in an updated database of 578 STs. Next, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay was developed that accurately assigned 545 (94%) of 578 STs to GCs. Finally, the hypothesis that GCs could distinguish isolation sources was tested by SNP typing and GC assignment of 154 isolates from hospital patients with bacteremia and those with blood culture contaminants and from nonhospital carriage. GC5 was isolated almost exclusively from hospital sources. GC1 and GC6 were isolated from all sources but were overrepresented in isolates from nonhospital and infection sources, respectively. GC2, GC3, and GC4 were relatively rare in this collection. No association was detected between fdh-positive isolates (GC2 and GC4) and nonhospital sources. Using a machine learning algorithm, GCs predicted hospital and nonhospital sources with 80% accuracy and predicted infection and contaminant sources with 45% accuracy, which was comparable to the results seen with a combination of five genetic markers (icaA, IS256, sesD [bhp], mecA, and arginine catabolic mobile element [ACME]). Thus, analysis of population structure with subgenomic data shows the distinction of hospital and nonhospital sources and the near-inseparability of sources within a hospital. PMID:27076664

  16. A low loss Faraday isolator for squeezed vacuum injection in Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Ryan; Tanner, David; Mueller, Guido

    2016-03-01

    Using conventional interferometry, the strain sensitivity of Advanced LIGO is limited by a quantum noise floor known as the standard quantum limit (SQL). Injecting squeezed vacuum states into the output port of the interferometer allows for detector sensitivities below the SQL at frequencies within a band of observational interest. The effectiveness of squeezing in reducing quantum noise is strongly dependent upon the optical loss in the squeezed path. Thus, to combine the squeezed vacuum state with the interferometer output we require a Faraday isolator with both high power-throughput efficiency and high isolation ratio. A prototype isolator is currently being developed, and we will discuss the design goals and current status.

  17. Patient experience of source isolation: lessons for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Ruth Linda; Shaban, Ramon; Moyle, Wendy

    2011-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is now the leading antimicrobial-resistant organism of concern to clinicians worldwide. Preventing and controlling the increase and spread of MRSA within the health-care environment is therefore an important function of the infection control team. The prevention and control of MRSA requires strict use of both Standard and Additional Precautions, which include good hand hygiene practices, judicious antimicrobial prescribing, and source isolation. While few would dispute the need for these precautions for preventing the spread of MRSA and other infections, their use may result in adverse physical and psychological effects for the patient. In an age of quality and safety of health care, ensuring infection control practice such as source isolation and contact precautions adhere to fundamental human rights is paramount. This paper presents a review of the literature on the patient experience of source isolation for MRSA or other infectious diseases. The review yielded five major interconnected themes: (1) psychological effects of isolation; (2) coping with isolation; (3) social isolation; (4) communication and information provision; and (5) physical environment and quality of care. It found that the experience of isolation by patients has both negative and positive elements. Isolation may result in detrimental psychological effects including anxiety, stress and depression, but may also result in the patient receiving less or substandard care. However, patients may also benefit from the quietness and privacy of single rooms. Nurses and other healthcare workers must look for ways to improve the experience of isolation and contact precautions of patients in source isolation. Opportunities exist in particular in improving the environment and the patient's self-control of the situation and in providing adequate information.

  18. The ion source development for neutral injection heating at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakata, H.; Itoh, T.; Kondoh, U.; Matsuda, S.; Ohara, Y.; Ohga, T.; Shibata, T.; Sugawara, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1976-01-01

    The neutral beam research and development effort at JAERI has been mainly concentrated on design, construction and testing of ion sources needed for present and planned heating experiments. Fundamental characteristics of the ion sources developed are described

  19. Heavy Ion Injection Into Synchrotrons, Based On Electron String Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Donets, E E; Syresin, E M

    2004-01-01

    A possibility of heavy ions injection into synchrotrons is discussed on the base of two novel ion sources, which are under development JINR during last decade: 1) the electron string ion source (ESIS), which is a modified version of a conventional electron beam ion source (EBIS), working in a reflex mode of operation, and 2) the tubular electron string ion source (TESIS). The Electron String Ion Source "Krion-2" (VBLHE, JINR, Dubna) with an applied confining magnetic field of 3 T was used for injection into the superconducting JINR synchrotron - Nuclotron and during this runs the source provided a high pulse intensity of the highly charged ion beams: Ar16+

  20. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: koester@ill.fr; Arndt, O. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Franberg, H. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Joinet, A. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Jost, C. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kerkines, I.S.K. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Zografou 157 71, GR (Greece); Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Kirchner, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  1. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, U.; Arndt, O.; Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Franberg, H.; Joinet, A.; Jost, C.; Kerkines, I.S.K.; Kirchner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  2. ELECTRON CLOUD AT COLLIMATOR AND INJECTION REGION OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WANG, L.; HSEUH, H.-C.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPARIA, D.; WEI, J.; COUSINEAU, S.

    2005-01-01

    The beam loss along the Spallation Neutron Source's accumulator ring is mainly located at the collimator region and injection region. This paper studied the electron cloud build-up at these two regions with the three-dimension program CLOUDLAND

  3. Laser Ion Source Development for ISOL Systems at RIA

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuan; Beene, James R; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Brueck, Kim; Geppert, Christopher; Havener, Charles; Kessler, Thomas; Krause, Herbert F; Schultz, David R; Stracener, Dan; Vane, C R; Wendt, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    The isobaric purity of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) is of crucial importance to many experiments. Laser ion sources based on resonant photoionization have already proved to be of great value at existing ISOL RIB facilities. In these ion sources, ions of a selected isotope are produced by laser radiation via stepwise atomic resonant excitations followed by ionization in the last transition. Because each element has its own unique atomic energy levels, the resonant photoionization process can provide elemental selectivity of nearly 100%. We have initiated a research effort to develop a prototype laser ion source with the potential to achieve the high selectivity and high efficiency required for research with ISOL-generated RIBs at the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). A pilot experiment has been conducted to demonstrate resonant photoionization of three atomic species using all-solid-state tunable Ti:Sapphire lasers. Three Ti:Sapphire lasers were provided by the University of Mainz and used in the experiment for ...

  4. Intense negative hydrogen ion source for neutral injection into tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.; Sluyters, T.

    1975-01-01

    In this scheme negative ions are extracted from a plasma source, accelerated to the required energy and then neutralized by stripping in a gas, metal vapor or plasma jet. One of the most promising direct extraction sources is the magnetron source, operating in the mixed hydrogen-cesium mode. In the present source cathode current densities are up to 20 A/cm 2 at arc voltages between 100 V and 150 V. In order to utilize the discharge more efficiently multislit extraction geometry was adopted. Highest currents were obtained by using six slits, with a total extraction area of 1.35 cm 2 . At an extraction voltage of 18 kV negative hydrogen ion currents close to 1 A were obtained, which corresponds to current densities of about 0.7 A/cm 2 at the extraction aperture. Pulse length was 10-20 ms and the repetition rate 0.1 Hz. The total extracted current was usually 2-3 times the H - current

  5. Double input converters for different voltage sources with isolated charger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalash Sattayarak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the double input converters for different voltage input sources with isolated charger coils. This research aims to increase the performance of the battery charger circuit. In the circuit, there are the different voltage levels of input source. The operating modes of the switch in the circuit use the microcontroller to control the battery charge and to control discharge mode automatically when the input voltage sources are lost from the system. The experimental result of this research shows better performance for charging at any time period of the switch, while the voltage input sources work together. Therefore, this research can use and develop to battery charger for present or future.

  6. A compact rf driven H- ion source for linac injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rymer, J.P.; Engeman, G.A.; Hamm, R.W.; Potter, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A compact rf driven H - ion source has been developed for use as an injector for the AccSys radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linacs. A multicusp magnetic bucket geometry developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory confines the plasma created by an antenna driven by 35 kW (peak) of pulsed rf power at 1.8 MHz. A three electrode system is used to extract and accelerate the H - beam, which is then focused into the RFQ by an einzel lens. Permanent magnets in the extraction region sweep electrons onto the second electrode at energies up to half of the full acceleration voltage. A fast pulsed valve allows the hydrogen gas supply to be pulsed, thus minimizing the average gas flow rate into the system. The design features and performance data from the prototype are discussed

  7. Genetic characterization of Arcobacter isolates from various sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A H; Saleha, A A; Zunita, Z; Cheah, Y K; Murugaiyah, M; Korejo, N A

    2012-12-07

    Arcobacter is getting more attention due to its detection from wide host-range and foods of animal origin. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Arcobacter spp. in various sources at farm level and beef retailed in markets in Malaysia and to assess the genetic relatedness among them. A total of 273 samples from dairy cattle including cattle (n=120), floor (n=30), water (n=18) and milk (n=105) as well as 148 beef samples collected from retail markets were studied. The overall prevalence of Arcobacter in various sources was 15% (63/421). However, source-wise detection rate of Arcobacter spp. was recorded as 26.66% (8/30) in floor, 26.3% (39/148) in beef, 11.11% (2/18) in water, 7.6% (8/105) in milk and 6.66% (8/120) in cattle. Arcobacter butzleri was the frequently isolated species however, a total of 75%, 66.7%, 53.8%, 50% and 12.5%% samples from floor, milk, beef, water and cattle, respectively, were carrying more than one species simultaneously. One (12.5%) cattle and beef sample (2.5%) found to be carrying one Arcobacter spp., A. skirrowii, only. Typing of Arcobacter isolates was done though pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) after digested with Eag1 restriction endonuclease (RE). Digestion of genomic DNA of Arcobacter from various sources yielded 12 major clusters (≥ 50% similarity) which included 29 different band patterns. A number of closely related A. butzleri isolates were found from beef samples which indicate cross contamination of common type of Arcobacter. Fecal shedding of Arcobacter by healthy animals can contaminate water and milk which may act as source of infection in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tectonic isolation from regional sediment sourcing of the Paradox Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T. M.; Saylor, J.; Sundell, K. E.; Lapen, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Appalachian and Ouachita-Marathon mountain ranges were created by a series of tectonic collisions that occurred through the middle and late Paleozoic along North America's eastern and southern margins, respectively. Previous work employing detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated that fluvial and eolian systems transported Appalachian-derived sediment across the continent to North America's Paleozoic western margin. However, contemporaneous intraplate deformation of the Ancestral Rocky Mountains (ARM) compartmentalized much of the North American western interior and mid-continent. We employ lithofacies characterization, stratigraphic thickness, paleocurrent data, sandstone petrography, and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology to evaluate source-sink relationships of the Paradox Basin, which is one of the most prominent ARM basins. Evaluation of provenance is conducted through quantitative comparison of detrital zircon U-Pb distributions from basin samples and potential sources via detrital zircon mixture modeling, and is augmented with sandstone petrography. Mixing model results provide a measure of individual source contributions to basin stratigraphy, and are combined with outcrop and subsurface data (e.g., stratigraphic thickness and facies distributions) to create tectonic isolation maps. These maps elucidate drainage networks and the degree to which local versus regional sources influence sediment character within a single basin, or multiple depocenters. Results show that despite the cross-continental ubiquity of Appalachian-derived sediment, fluvial and deltaic systems throughout much of the Paradox Basin do not record their influence. Instead, sediment sourcing from the Uncompahgre Uplift, which has been interpreted to drive tectonic subsidence and formation of the Paradox Basin, completely dominated its sedimentary record. Further, the strong degree of tectonic isolation experienced by the Paradox Basin appears to be an emerging, yet common

  9. Isolation of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria from different ecological sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.J.; Choudri, S.F.; Hameed, A.

    1991-01-01

    Among the various samples from different ecological sources oil contaminated soil samples and waste from sugar processing industry were found to have bacterial populations with ability of utilizing oil. In addition to oil, molasses base medium was also used to study the utilizing ability. Selection was made on the basis on the high gas production, decrease in pH, percentage of oil consumed and bacterial counts. Fermented scum and oil contaminated soil from Sehala (Islamabad) were found to contain microbes having maximum oil degrading ability. The bacterial isolates belong to the genera of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Escherichia. (author)

  10. Jet flow analysis of liquid poison injection in a CANDU reactor using source term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Kyung Myung; Choi, Hang Bok; Rhee, Bo Wook

    2001-01-01

    For the performance analysis of Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor shutdown system number 2 (SDS2), a computational fluid dynamics model of poison jet flow has been developed to estimate the flow field and poison concentration formed inside the CANDU reactor calandria. As the ratio of calandria shell radius over injection nozzle hole diameter is so large (1055), it is impractical to develop a full-size model encompassing the whole calandria shell. In order to reduce the model to a manageable size, a quarter of one-pitch length segment of the shell was modeled using symmetric nature of the jet; and the injected jet was treated as a source term to avoid the modeling difficulty caused by the big difference of the hole sizes. For the analysis of an actual CANDU-6 SDS2 poison injection, the grid structure was determined based on the results of two-dimensional real- and source-jet simulations. The maximum injection velocity of the liquid poison is 27.8 m/s and the mass fraction of the poison is 8000 ppm (mg/kg). The simulation results have shown well-established jet flow field. In general, the jet develops narrowly at first but stretches rapidly. Then, the flow recirculates a little in r-x plane, while it recirculates largely in r-θ plane. As the time goes on, the adjacent jets contact each other and form a wavy front such that the whole jet develops in a plate form. his study has shown that the source term model can be effectively used for the analysis of the poison injection and the simulation result of the CANDU reactor is consistent with the model currently being used for the safety analysis. In the future, it is strongly recommended to analyze the transient (from helium tank to injection nozzle hole) of the poison injection by applying Bernoulli equation with real boundary conditions

  11. High-current negative hydrogen ion beam production in a cesium-injected multicusp source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O.

    1997-01-01

    A high-current negative hydrogen ion source has been developed, where 16.2 A of the H - current was obtained with a current density of 31 mA/cm 2 . The ion source is a multicusp source with a magnetic filter for negative ion production, and cesium vapor is injected into the arc chamber, leading to enhancement of the negative ion yields. The cesium-injection effects are discussed, based on the experimental observations. Although the surface production of the negative ions on the cesium-covered plasma grid is thought to be a dominant mechanism of the H - current enhancement, the cesium effects in the plasma volume, such as the cesium ionization and the electron cooling, are observed, and could contribute to the improved operation of the negative ion source. (author)

  12. Impact of three-dimensional geometry on the performance of isolated electron-injection infrared detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathipour, Vala; Jang, Sung Jun; Nia, Iman Hassani; Mohseni, Hooman, E-mail: hmohseni@northwestern.edu [Bio-Inspired Sensors and Optoelectronics Laboratory, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-01-12

    We present a quantitative study of the influence of three-dimensional geometry of the isolated electron–injection detectors on their characteristics. Significant improvements in the device performance are obtained as a result of scaling the injector diameter with respect to the trapping/absorbing layer diameters. Devices with about ten times smaller injector area with respect to the trapping/absorbing layer areas show more than an order of magnitude lower dark current, as well as an order of magnitude higher optical gain compared with devices of same size injector and trapping/absorbing layer areas. Devices with 10 μm injector diameter and 30 μm trapping/absorbing layer diameter show an optical gain of ∼2000 at bias voltage of −3 V with a cutoff wavelength of 1700 nm. Analytical expressions are derived for the electron-injection detector optical gain to qualitatively explain the significance of scaling the injector with respect to the absorber.

  13. An ion source upgrade for an axial injection based commercial cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnel, M.P.; Stewart, T.; Roeder, M.; Le Du, K.

    2005-01-01

    The TRIUMF H - volume-cusp ion source technology licensed by Dehnel Consulting Ltd ranges in output current from 1 to 15 mA with beam energies in the 22-30 keV range. For those Cyclone 30 cyclotrons installed with an early 1980's style Lawrence Berkeley Lab (LBL) volume-cusp ion source, an upgrade to a 5 mA TRIUMF H - volume-cusp ion source would pay dividends in terms of longer filament, filament post and ion source lens lifetime, as well as less eroded material build-up in the source. In addition, the 5 mA ion source would approximately double the beam current available to inject into the cyclotron while reducing the emittance by about a factor of four. The new system has the potential to significantly boost radioisotope production at Cyclone 30 facilities utilizing the older style LBL ion source

  14. Modification to the accelerator of the NBI-1B ion source for improving the injection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. S.; Jeong, S. H.; Chang, D. H.; In, S. R.; Park, M.; Jung, B. K.; Lee, K. W.; Wang, S. J.; Bae, Y. S.; Park, H. T.; Kim, J. S.; Cho, W.; Choi, D. J.

    2016-01-01

    Minimizing power loss of a neutral beam imposes modification of the accelerator of the ion source for further improvement of the beam optics. The beam optics can be improved by focusing beamlets. The injection efficiencies by the steering of ion beamlets are investigated numerically to find the optimum modification of the accelerator design of the NBI-1B ion source. The beam power loss was reduced by aperture displacement of three edge beamlets arrays considering power loadings on the beamline components. Successful testing and operation of the ion source at 60 keV/84% of injection efficiency led to the possibility of enhancing the system capability to a 2.4 MW power level at 100 keV/1.9 μP

  15. Bioelectromagnetic forward problem: isolated source approach revis(it)ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenroos, M; Sarvas, J

    2012-06-07

    Electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG and MEG) are non-invasive modalities for studying the electrical activity of the brain by measuring voltages on the scalp and magnetic fields outside the head. In the forward problem of EEG and MEG, the relationship between the neural sources and resulting signals is characterized using electromagnetic field theory. This forward problem is commonly solved with the boundary-element method (BEM). The EEG forward problem is numerically challenging due to the low relative conductivity of the skull. In this work, we revise the isolated source approach (ISA) that enables the accurate, computationally efficient BEM solution of this problem. The ISA is formulated for generic basis and weight functions that enable the use of Galerkin weighting. The implementation of the ISA-formulated linear Galerkin BEM (LGISA) is first verified in spherical geometry. Then, the LGISA is compared with conventional Galerkin and symmetric BEM approaches in a realistic 3-shell EEG/MEG model. The results show that the LGISA is a state-of-the-art method for EEG/MEG forward modeling: the ISA formulation increases the accuracy and decreases the computational load. Contrary to some earlier studies, the results show that the ISA increases the accuracy also in the computation of magnetic fields.

  16. Field demonstration of foam injection to confine a chlorinated solvent source zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portois, Clément; Essouayed, Elyess; Annable, Michael D; Guiserix, Nathalie; Joubert, Antoine; Atteia, Olivier

    2018-05-01

    A novel approach using foam to manage hazardous waste was successfully demonstrated under active site conditions. The purpose of the foam was to divert groundwater flow, that would normally enter the source zone area, to reduce dissolved contaminant release to the aquifer. During the demonstration, foam was pre generated and directly injected surrounding the chlorinated solvent source zone. Despite the constraints related to the industrial activities and non-optimal position of the injection points, the applicability and effectiveness of the approach have been highlighted using multiple metrics. A combination of measurements and modelling allowed definition of the foam extent surrounding each injection point, and this appears to be the critical metric to define the success of the foam injection approach. Information on the transport of chlorinated solvents in groundwater showed a decrease of contaminant flux by a factor of 4.4 downstream of the confined area. The effective permeability reduction was maintained over a period of three months. The successful containment provides evidence for consideration of the use of foam to improve traditional flushing techniques, by increasing the targeting of contaminants by remedial agents. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development and Characterization of a Metal Injection Molding Bio Sourced Inconel 718 Feedstock Based on Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Royer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The binder plays the most important role in the metal injection molding (MIM process. It provides fluidity of the feedstock mixture and adhesion of the powder to keep the molded shape during injection molding. The binder must provide strength and cohesion for the molded part and must be easy to remove from the molded part. Moreover, it must be recyclable, environmentally friendly and economical. Also, the miscibility between polymers affects the homogeneity of the injected parts. The goal of this study is to develop a feedstock of superalloy Inconel 718 that is environmentally friendly. For these different binders, formulations based on polyethylene glycol (PEG, because of his water solubility property, and bio sourced polymers were studied. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA were investigated as a bio sourced polymer due to its miscibility with the PEG. The result is compared to a standard formulation using polypropylene (PP. The chemical and rheological behavior of the binder formulation during mixing, injection and debinding process were investigated. The feedstock was characterized in the same way as the binders and the interactions between the powder and the binders were also studied. The results show the well adapted formulation of polymer binder to produce a superalloy Inconel 718 feedstock.

  18. Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for an Accelerator-driven Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Regis, M.J.; Wallig, J.G.; Wells, R.

    2007-01-01

    An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable of producing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm2 and with atomic fraction >90 percent was designed and tested with an electrostatic low energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source was incorporated into the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source (ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQ accelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gas target. In this design a 40 mA D+ beam is produced from a 6 mm diameter aperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5 electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into the RFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used to create ∼ 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HV breakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize the field in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguide to the plasma is done by an autotuner. We observed significant improvement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride liner inside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared with PBGUNS simulations

  19. Microwave Ion Source and Beam Injection for an Accelerator-Driven Neutron Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaa, J.H.; Gough, R.; Hoff, M.; Kwan, J.W.; Ludewigt, B.A.; Regis, M.J.; Wallig, J.G.; Wells, R.

    2007-01-01

    An over-dense microwave driven ion source capable of producing deuterium (or hydrogen) beams at 100-200 mA/cm 2 and with atomic fraction > 90% was designed and tested with an electrostatic low energy beam transport section (LEBT). This ion source was incorporated into the design of an Accelerator Driven Neutron Source (ADNS). The other key components in the ADNS include a 6 MeV RFQ accelerator, a beam bending and scanning system, and a deuterium gas target. In this design a 40 mA D + beam is produced from a 6 mm diameter aperture using a 60 kV extraction voltage. The LEBT section consists of 5 electrodes arranged to form 2 Einzel lenses that focus the beam into the RFQ entrance. To create the ECR condition, 2 induction coils are used to create ∼ 875 Gauss on axis inside the source chamber. To prevent HV breakdown in the LEBT a magnetic field clamp is necessary to minimize the field in this region. Matching of the microwave power from the waveguide to the plasma is done by an autotuner. They observed significant improvement of the beam quality after installing a boron nitride liner inside the ion source. The measured emittance data are compared with PBGUNS simulations

  20. Proton injection and RF capture in the national spallation neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luccio, A.U.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Maletic, D.

    1997-01-01

    The accelerator system for the 1 to 5 MW National Spallation Neutron Source (NSNS) consists of a linac followed by a 1 GeV proton accumulator ring. Since the ring is a very high current machine, the injection and rf capture of the protons is deeply affected by transverse and longitudinal space charge effects. Results of numerical simulation of the process are presented together with considerations on methods and results of space charge treatment in high intensity proton storage rings

  1. Plasma jet source parameter optimisation and experiments on injection into Globus-M spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, V.K.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Sakharov, N.V.; Semenov, A.A.; Voronin, A.V.

    2005-01-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental research on the plasma sources and injection of plasma and gas jet produced by the modified source into tokamak Globus-M are presented. An experimental test stand was developed for investigation of intense plasma jet generation. Optimisation of pulsed coaxial accelerator parameters by means of analytical calculations is performed with the aim of achieving the highest flow velocity at limited coaxial electrode length and discharge current. The optimal parameters of power supply to generate a plasma jet with minimal impurity contamination and maximum flow velocity were determined. A comparison of experimental and calculation results is made. Plasma jet parameters are measured, such as: impurity species content, pressure distribution across the jet, flow velocity, plasma density, etc. Experiments on the interaction of a higher kinetic energy plasma jet with the magnetic field and plasma of the Globus-M tokamak were performed. Experimental results on plasma and gas jet injection into different Globus-M discharge phases are presented and discussed. Results are presented on the investigation of plasma jet injection as the source for discharge breakdown, plasma current startup and initial density rise. (author)

  2. An RF driven H- source and a low energy beam injection system for RFQ operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; Chan, C.F.; McDonald, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    An RF driven H - source has been developed at LBL for use in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). To date, an H - current of ∼40 mA can be obtained from a 5.6-cm-diam aperture with the source operated at a pressure of about 12 m Torr and 50 kW of RF power. In order to match the accelerated H - beam into the SSC RFQ, a low-energy H - injection system has been designed. This injector produces an outgoing H - beam free of electron contamination, with small radius, large convergent angle and small projectional emittance

  3. Review of ISOL target-ion-source systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kirchner, R

    2003-01-01

    Any review of target-ion-source systems (TISS) is necessarily a variation of the ISOL-theme 'efficient, fast, selective'. In the first part, more than 30 years of TISS development are examined in view of these key characteristics. By looking at the lines of development that were successful, at the lines that were abandoned (partly for good, partly for less good reasons), the lines with the most promising perspectives emerge. The second part deals with on-line chemistry in the TISS and its possibly double benefits: enhanced selectivity or increased separation speed, or both in favourable cases, as the relatively new sulfide chemistry. For the group-IVa-elements germanium and tin, the separation as sulfide-ions does not only suppress strongly the contamination by the neighbouring elements. It also reduces the effusion part of the release by orders of magnitude to the level of the intrinsic delay caused by molecular flow. The homologue chemistry is likely to work for silicon, but not for lead. While selectivity ...

  4. Properties of humic substances isolated from different natural sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dolmaa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study was to determine properties of humic substances by combination of modern and traditional methods. Humic substances isolated from three different sources from Mongolia such as peloid from Lake Gurban nuur, coal from Baganuur deposit and oil shale from Shine khudag deposit. On the basis of determination H/C and O/C atomic ratios in humic substances by elemental analysis, confirmed existing of aromatic structures in the molecules and oxidized functional groups. Have been studied the structure of humic substances by spectral method. For example infrared spectrums showed that humic substances are characterizing with poly-structural components, with different quantity in the samples. Light adsorption of samples in the UV-Vis region, a decrease on the absorption intensity with an increase of the wave length was observed (Fig. 2. The high ratio Н/С, attributed to stretching of C=C bond of aromatic rings in IR spectrums, the high content of functional groups, lower extinction coefficients, confirmed that aromatic fragments to prevail than aliphatic chain fragments in structure of all studied HS. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.199 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p51-56

  5. Measurements on Pb27+ Sources for the CERN Heavy Ion Injection Chain

    CERN Document Server

    Chamings, J A

    2004-01-01

    CERN, the world's largest particle physics laboratory near Geneva, is currently in the process of building the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Lead-208 will be used in this accelerator and to meet the injection requirements much work is required to find a suitable and reliable heavy ion source. The work in this report covers two ion sources, the Laser Ion Source (LIS), and the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS). An emittance measurement, using a pepper pot and CCD camera, was completed on the recently re-installed LIS, measured and analysed to be 140mm.mrad un-normalised and 0.8mm.mrad normalised 4rms for the maximum intensity charge state, Pb27+. A Visual Basic Program was modified to allow Charge State Distribution (CSD) and other scans of the ECRIS at CERN to be taken. Chapter 5 presents the results of the CSD scans taken. This program provided a new method to take 1 dimensional transverse beam profiles. From this a direct emittance measurement was formed for the first time since the source was o...

  6. Gas Injection And Fast Pressure-Rise Measurements For The Linac4 H− Source

    CERN Document Server

    Mahner, E; Lettry, J; Mattei, S; O'Neil, M; Neupert, H; Pasquino, C; Schmitzer, C

    2013-01-01

    In the era of the Large Hadron Collider, the CERN injector complex comprising the 34 years old Linac2 with its primary proton source, is presently upgraded with a new linear accelerator for H− (Linac4). The design, construction, and test of volume production and cesiated RF-driven H− ion sources is presently ongoing with the final goal of producing an H− beam with 80 mA beam current, 45 keV beam energy, 500 s pulse length, and a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In order to have quantitative information of the hydrogen gas density at the moment of plasma ignition the dynamic vacuum properties of the plasma generator were studied experimentally. We describe the experimental setup and present fast pressure-rise measurements for different parameters of the gas injection system, such as gas species (H2, He, N2, Ar), piezo valve voltage pulse length (200 - 500 s), and injection pressure (400 - 2800 mbar). The obtained data are compared with a conductance model of the plasma generator.

  7. Performance and emission study in manifold hydrogen injection with diesel as an ignition source for different start of injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, N. [ERC-Engines, TATA Motors Ltd, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra 411018 (India); Nagarajan, G. [Internal Combustion Engineering Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600 025 (India)

    2009-01-15

    Over the past two decades there has been a considerable effort to develop and introduce alternative transportation fuels to replace conventional fuels, gasoline and diesel. Environmental issues are the principal driving forces behind this effort. To date the bulk of research has focused on the carbon-based fuels such as reformulated gasoline, methanol and natural gas. One alternative fuel to carbon-based fuels is hydrogen which is considered to be low polluting fuel. In the present experimental investigation hydrogen was injected into the intake manifold by using an injector. Using an electronic control unit (ECU) the injection timing and the duration were controlled. From the results it is observed that the optimum injection timing is at gas exchange top dead center (GTDC). The efficiency improved by about 15% with an increase in NO{sub X} emission by 3% compared to diesel. The smoke emission decreased by almost 100%. A net reduction in carbon emissions was also noticed due to the use of hydrogen. By adopting manifold injection technique the hydrogen-diesel dual fuel engine operates smoothly with a significant improvement in performance and reduction in emissions. (author)

  8. Determination of the effective source of particles associated with pellet injection. Application to ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehme, H.

    2009-11-01

    The determination of the effective source of particle associated with the injection of a pellet requires a thorough description of both pellet ablation and deposited material homogenization. The goal of this report is the description of such a study. In the first part, which is devoted to ablation physics, we first analyze the relative importance of the different processes shielding the pellet against the plasma heat flux, then present an attempt for validating the calculation of the over-ablation due to the suprathermal ion tail generated by the discharge heating systems and then estimate the influence of the initial shape of the pellet on the ablation rate. In the second part, which is devoted to the description of the drift of the pellet deposited material down the magnetic field gradient, we present a critical review of the drift models available up to now, then compare the measured characteristics of deposition profiles to our own simulations, showing a good agreement. This was done for data originating from different machines. Then, we describe the several improvements brought to our model and demonstrate - which is new, that there is a correlation between the location of the maximum of matter deposition and that of integer (and/or half-integer) q-surfaces. It must be noted that the underlying process is intrinsic to our modeling and that our calculations reproduce reasonably well the observed correlation for both the LFS (Low Field Side) and HFS (High Field Side) pellet data bases of Tore Supra and DIII-D. The last part reports on the modeling of pellet injection in ITER. First, from the present design of the pellet injection system, we estimate the expected deposition depth of the pellet material (ρ/a ∼ 0.85) and the flux to be injected for pacing the ELMs (Edge Localized Mode) and maintaining the core density (between 150 and 200 Pam 3 s -1 ). Then, we present a parametric study demonstrating that it is not possible to improve significantly the fuelling

  9. Commissioning and Operation of the FNAL Front end Injection Line and Ion Sources.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karns, Patrick R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This thesis documents the efforts made in commissioning and operating the RFQ Injection Line (RIL) as a replacement for the Cockcroft Walton front end. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) was assembled and tested with multiwire position and emittance monitor measurements. The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) commissioning was completed with the same measurements as well as output beam energy measurements that showed it initially accelerated beam only to 700 keV, which was 50 keV lower than the design energy. Working with the manufacturer solutions were found and instituted to continue testing. The Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was then connected as the RIL was installed as the new front end of Linac. Testing gave way to operation when the new front end was used as the source of all High Energy Physics (HEP) beam for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The magnetron ion source that provides the H- beam for the front end required several changes and eventual upgrades to operate well; such as new source operating points for vacuum pressure and cesium admixture, and new materials for critical source components. Further research was conducted on the cathode geometry and nitrogen doping of the hydrogen gas as well as using solid state switches for the extractor system high voltage.

  10. Genetic diversity of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from environmental, animal and clinical sources in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane S. Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis ranks as one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A strong epidemiological link has been reported between E. faecalis inhabiting animals and environmental sources. This study investigates the genetic diversity, antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants in E. faecalis from three sources in Malaysia. A total of 250 E. faecalis isolates were obtained consisting of 120 isolates from farm animals, 100 isolates from water sources and 30 isolates from hospitalized patients. Pulse-field gel electrophoresis-typing yielded 63 pulsotypes, with high diversity observed in all sources (D = ≥0.901. No pulsotype was common to all the three sources. Each patient room had its own unique PFGE pattern which persisted after six months. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of Vancomycin, Gentamicin, Penicillin, Tetracycline, Nitrofurantoin, Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and Fosfomycin were evaluated. Resistance to Tetracycline was most prevalent in isolates from farm animals (62% and water sources (49%. Water isolates (86% had a higher prevalence of the asa1 gene, which encodes for aggregation substance, whereas clinical (78% and farm animal isolates (87% had a higher prevalence of the esp gene, encoding a surface exposed protein. This study generates knowledge on the genetic diversity of E. faecalis with antibiotic resistance and virulence characteristics from various sources in Malaysia. Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Enterococcus faecalis, Genetic diversity, Molecular typing, Virulence markers

  11. Beam optics study of a negative ion source for neutral beam injection application at ASIPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jiang-Long; Liang, Li-Zhen [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Jiang, Cai-Chao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Xie, Ya-Hong, E-mail: xieyh@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, Chun-Dong; Li, Jun; Gu, Yu-Ming; Chen, Yu-Qian [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li, Jing-Yong; Wu, Ming-Shan [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-04-15

    In order to study the generation and extraction of negative ions for neutral beam injection application, a negative ion source is being designed and constructed at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). Through a four electrode grids system inside the accelerator, a negative ion beam will be extracted and accelerated up to −60 kV on a reduced scale extraction area of 12 × 50 cm{sup 2} (the area of PG apertures is 185 cm{sup 2}). The beam optics is a key issue for the accelerator design, and greatly determine the source experimental performance in term of beam current, heat load on the grid, beam divergence, and so on. In this paper, the trajectories of electrons and negative ions were simulated in the electrode grids of the negative ion source. The filter capability of electron deflection magnet on the co-extracted electrons is evaluated and confirmed. The negative ion beam optics was designed according to the calculated results of beam divergence and beam radius along the beamlet in different acceleration voltages. The deflection effect of the electron deflection magnet on the negative ion beam was investigated in the single beamlet case and multi-beamlets case.

  12. Anticipated transient without scram analysis of the simplified boiling water reactor following main steam isolation valve closure with boron injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.J.; Cheng, H.S.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1996-01-01

    The simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) operating in natural circulation is designed with many passive safety features. An anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) initiated by inadvertent closure of the main steam isolation valve (MSIV) in an SBWR has been analyzed using the RAMONA-4B code of Brookhaven National Laboratory. This analysis demonstrates the predicted performance of the SBWR during an MSIV closure ATWS, followed by shutdown of the reactor through injection of boron into the reactor core from the standby liquid control system

  13. Fault Diagnosis Of A Water For Injection System Using Enhanced Structural Isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Morten; Blanke, Mogens; Düstegör, Dilek

    2008-01-01

    A water for injection system supplies chilled sterile water as solvent to pharmaceutical products. There are ultimate requirements to the quality of the sterile water, and the consequence of a fault in temperature or in flow control within the process may cause loss of one or more batches...

  14. Operating characteristics of a new ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Chang, Doo-Hee; Lee, Kwang Won; In, Sang-Ryul

    2014-02-01

    A new positive ion source for the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research neutral beam injection (KSTAR NBI-1) system was designed, fabricated, and assembled in 2011. The characteristics of the arc discharge and beam extraction were investigated using hydrogen and helium gas to find the optimum operating parameters of the arc power, filament voltage, gas pressure, extracting voltage, accelerating voltage, and decelerating voltage at the neutral beam test stand at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute in 2012. Based on the optimum operating condition, the new ion source was then conditioned, and performance tests were primarily finished. The accelerator system with enlarged apertures can extract a maximum 65 A ion beam with a beam energy of 100 keV. The arc efficiency and optimum beam perveance, at which the beam divergence is at a minimum, are estimated to be 1.0 A/kW and 2.5 uP, respectively. The beam extraction tests show that the design goal of delivering a 2 MW deuterium neutral beam into the KSTAR Tokamak plasma is achievable.

  15. Isolation and Screening of Lipase Producing Microorganisms from Natural Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, M. G.; Chandraveer, C.; Tripathi, Abishek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-23 ISSN 0304-5250 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : lipase assay * natural sources * screening * submerged fermentation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  16. Simulations of effusion from ISOL target/ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of the low- and high-conductivity Target/Ion Source systems used at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for effusion measurements are performed. Comparisons with the corresponding experimental data for the different geometries are presented and discussed. Independent checks of the simulation using data for simple geometries and using the conductance approach well known in vacuum technology are performed. A simulation-based comparison between the low- and high-conductivity systems is also presented

  17. Glyphosate Utilization as the Source of Carbon: Isolation and Identification of new Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohsen Nourouzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed bacteria from oil palm plantation soil (OPS were isolated to investigate their ability to utilize glyphosate as carbon source. Results showed that approximately all of the glyphosate was converted to aminomethyl-phosphonic acid (AMPA (99.5%. It is worthy to note that mixed bacteria were able to degrade only 2% of AMPA to further metabolites. Two bacterial strains i.e. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Providencia alcalifaciens were obtained from enrichment culture. Bacterial isolates were cultured individually on glyphosate as a sole carbon source. It was observed that both isolates were able to convert glyphosate to AMPA.

  18. In-Source Laser Resonance Ionization at ISOL Facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Bruce; Feddosseev, Valentin

    Resonance ionization laser ion source development has been carried out at two radioactive ion beam facilities: ISOLDE (CERN, Switzerland) and the IGISOL facility (Jyvaskyla, Finland). The scope of the Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source has been extended to 27 elements with the development of new three-step ionization schemes for Sb, Sc, Dy, Y and Au. The efficiencies were determined to be in the range of 2 - 20 %. Additionally, a new two-step ionization scheme has been developed for bismuth in an off-line atomic beam unit. The scheme relies on ionization via a strong and broad auto-ionizing resonance at an energy of 63196.79 cm$^{−1}$. This scheme may offer an improvement over the existing RILIS efficiency and will be more convenient for use during resonance ionization spectroscopy of Bi isotopes. The RILIS can be used as a spectroscopic tool to probe features such as the hyperfine structures and the isotope-shifts of radioisotopes with low production rates. By coupling a laser scanning process that dire...

  19. Study of the nonequilibrium state of superconductors by large quasiparticle injection from an external current source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, I.

    1977-01-01

    We have studied the nonequilibrium state of superconductors by injecting large numbers of quasiparticles from an external current source into a superconducting film of a tunnel junction with low tunnel resistance (typically 0.1--1 Ω for junction area approx. = 10 -4 cm 2 ). It was observed that there was a critical tunnel current density at which a voltage appeared locally in the part of a superconducting film confined to the junction area. Its values ranged from 10 2 to 10 3 A/cm 2 for bath temperatures well below T/sub c/. Followed by this voltage onset, a transition region corresponding to the nonequilibrium intermediate resistive state was also observed. For further increase of the tunnel current, the local film resistance developed beyond the value of its normal resistance, suggesting that the nonequilibrium state extends far beyond the voltage onset point. A theory based on the modified Rothwarf-Taylor equations and Parker's T* model is presented to compare with the experimental results. The calculated critical current density yielded almost the same order of magnitude as those found experimentally. The detailed behavior, however, deviates from the theoretical predictions although the film makes a second-order transition in the broad range of temperatures. It is also shown using four-terminal analysis that our observations and those by Wong, Yeh, and Langenberg are essentially the same

  20. A Review of Galvanically Isolated Impedance-Source DC–DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chub, Andrii; Vinnikov, Dmitri; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    Impedance-source converters, an emerging technology in electric energy conversion, overcome limitations of conventional solutions by the use of specific impedance-source networks. Focus of this paper is on the topologies of galvanically isolated impedance-source dc-dc converters. These converters...... isolated dc-dc converters according to the element that transfers energy from the input to the output: a transformer, a coupled inductor, or their combination. This classification reveals advantages and disadvantages, as well as a wide space for further research. This paper also outlines the most promising...

  1. Isolation, identification, characterization and antibiotic sensitivity profile of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila isolates from different water sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Subbaram

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Serious and fatal L. pneumophila infections may be transmitted through water. Legionella can survive under various conditions in various water sources. L. pneumophila is the important pathogen causing human disease. Great challenge prevails to health care professionals because these Legionellae acquired antibiotic resistance to many routinely prescribed antibiotics.

  2. A new high-temperature plasma ion source for the TRISTAN ISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, A.; Gill, R.L.; McDonald, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A vigorous program of ion-source development at TRISTAN has led to several types of ion sources that are especially suited to extended operation at a reactor-based ISOL facility. The latest of these is a high-temperature plasma ion source in which a 5-g /sup 235/U target is located in the cathode and can be heated to 2500 0 C. The ion source has a lifetime of > 1000 h and produces a wide array of elements, including palladium. Off-line investigations indicate that the source functions primarily in an electron impact mode of ionization and exhibits typical ionization efficiencies of > 30% for xenon

  3. A new high-temperature plasma ion source for the TRISTAN ISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, A.; Gill, R.L.; McDonald, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    A vigorous program of ion-source development at TRISTAN has led to several types of ion sources that are especially suited to extended operation at a reactor-based ISOL facility. The latest of these is a high-temperature plasma ion source in which a 5-g 235 U target is located in the cathode and can be heated to 2500 0 C. The ion source has a lifetime of >1000 h and produces a wide array of elements, including palladium. Off-line investigations indicate that the source functions primarily in an electron impact mode of ionization and exhibits typical ionization efficiencies of >30% for xenon. (orig.)

  4. New high temperature plasma ion source for the TRISTAN ISOL facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piotrowski, A.; Gill, R.L.; McDonald, D.C.

    1986-08-01

    A vigorous program of ion source development at TRISTAN has led to several types of ion sources that are especially suited to extended operation at a reactor-based ISOL facility. The latest of these is a high temperature plasma ion source in which a 5 gm 235 U target is located in the cathode and can be heated to 2500 0 C. The ion source has a lifetime of >1000 hours and produces a wide array of elements, including Pd. Off-line investigations indicate that the source functions primarily in an electron impact mode of ionization and exhibits typical ionzation efficiencies of >30% for Xe

  5. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw milk sources in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Kate; Moore, Sean C; McAuley, Catherine M; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2016-07-29

    Highly pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus can cause disease in both humans and animals. In animal species, including ruminants, S. aureus may cause severe or sub-clinical mastitis. Dairy animals with mastitis frequently shed S. aureus into the milk supply which can lead to food poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to use genotypic and immunological methods to characterize S. aureus isolates from milk-related samples collected from 7 dairy farms across Victoria. A total of 30 S. aureus isolates were collected from milk and milk filter samples from 3 bovine, 3 caprine and 1 ovine dairy farms across Victoria, Australia. Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) identified 11 distinct pulsotypes among isolates; all caprine and ovine isolates shared greater than 80 % similarity regardless of source. Conversely, bovine isolates showed higher diversity. Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) identified 5 different sequence types (STs) among bovine isolates, associated with human or ruminant lineages. All caprine and ovine isolates were ST133, or a single allele variant of ST133. Two new novel STs were identified among isolates in this study (ST3183 and ST3184). With the exception of these 2 new STs, eBURST analysis predicted all other STs to be founding members of their associated clonal complexes (CCs). Analysis of genetic markers revealed a diverse range of classical staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE) among isolates, with 11 different SEs identified among bovine isolates, compared with just 2 among caprine and ovine isolates. None of the isolates contained mecA, or were resistant to oxacillin. The only antibiotic resistance identified was that of a single isolate resistant to penicillin; this isolate also contained the penicillin resistance gene blaZ. Production of SE was observed at 16 °C and/or 37 °C in milk, however no SE production was detected at 12 °C. Although this study characterized a limited number of isolates, bovine-associated isolates

  6. Enterococci Isolated from Cypriot Green Table Olives as a New Source of Technological and Probiotic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios A. Anagnostopoulos

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Τable olive is one of the main fermented vegetable worldwide and can be processed as treated or natural product. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB are responsible for the fermentation of treated olives. The aim of this work was to study the technological characteristics and the potential probiotic properties of LAB isolated from Cypriot green table olives. This is the first comprehensive report on the isolation and characterization of LAB isolates retrieved from Cypriot green table olives. From a collection of 92 isolates from spontaneously fermenting green olives, 64 g positive isolates were firstly identified to genus level using biochemical tests, and secondly to species level using multiplex species specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplifications of the sodA gene. Moreover, each of our isolates were tested for their technological and probiotics properties, as well as for their safety characteristics, using biochemical and molecular methods, in order to be used as starter cultures. Finally, to discriminate the most promising isolates on the base of their technological and probiotics properties, Principal component analysis was used. All the isolates were identified as Enteroccocus faecium, having interesting technological properties, while pathogenicity determinants were absent. Principal component analysis showed that some isolates had a combination of the tested parameters. These findings demonstrate that enteroccoci from Cypriot table olives should be considered as a new source of potential starter cultures for fermented products, having possibly promising technological and probiotic attributes.

  7. Application of the guiding centre approximation to the transport of injected fast ions in a mirror based plasma neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpf, H.; Noack, K.

    1996-01-01

    The guiding centre approximation for the motion of charged particles in axially symmetric magnetic and electric fields is formulated and stopping as well as small angle scattering on a multicomponent plasma are included. The developed code has been applied to the design of a 14-MeV neutron source according to the concept of the Budker Institute Novosibirsk. It is demonstrated that the self-interaction of injected D and T ions by stopping, scattering and induced internal fields has to be taken into account, if the injected power exceeds a few megawatt. (orig.)

  8. Effect of growth condition on biofilm formation by phenoldegrading bacteria isolated from polluted and nonpolluted sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifah Khusnuryani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Our previous research have isolated four phenol degrading bacteria. There are ATA6, DOK135, and DL120 which isolated from polluted source (hospital wastewater, also HP3 which isolated from non polluted source (peat soil. The purpose of this research is to analyze the effect of some environmental factors on the ability of four isolates to form biofilm. The environment factors were varied, such as growth medium, incubation temperature, and medium pH. Biofilm formation was measured using microtiter plate and crystal violet method, and the absorbance was read with microtiter auto reader at wavelenght 490 nm. The result showed that ATA6 was a strong biofilm former, DOK135 and HP3 were moderate biofilm former, and DL120 was a weak biofilm former. The results indicate that there is variation in the ability of selected isolates to form biofilm on various environmental factors. Generally, the isolates formed thicker biofilm in TSB medium which is a complex medium that provide more complete nutrient and formed biofilm optimally at 30oC. ATA6 formed biofilm optimally at pH 7 and HP3 at pH 9, while pH treatment did not affect on isolates DOK135 and DL120 to form biofilm.

  9. A high voltage gain quasi Z-source isolated DC/DC converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    A compact quasi-Z-source DC/DC converter is presented with high voltage gain, isolated output, and improved efficiency. The improvements in size and performance were achieved by using a square wave inverter with only two output switches driving an isolating transformer in push-pull mode, followed...... by a voltage doubling output rectifier. The converter is well-suited to applications requiring a high voltage gain, especially renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic and fuel-cell power supplies. To demonstrate the converter's performance a prototype designed to output 400 V at 500 W was constructed...

  10. Genetic relatedness of Legionella longbeachae isolates from human and environmental sources in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanser, J.A.; Doyle, R.; Sangster, N.; Steele, T.W.; Adams, M.

    1990-01-01

    The genetic relatedness of Legionella longbeachae isolated in Australia since 1987 was investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and allozyme electrophoresis. Three radiolabeled probes were used in Southern hybridizations for the RFLP studies. They were Escherichia coli 16S and 23S rRNA and cloned fragments of L. longbeachae selected empirically from genomal banks in lambda and a cosmid. The legionellae included in the study comprised 11 Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 organisms isolated form humans, 28 L. longbeachae serogroup 1 isolates from environmental sources, 3 L. longbeachae serogroup 2 environmental isolates. These were compared with the American Type Culture Collection reference strains of both serogroups and some other related Legionella species. Results of allozyme and RFLP analysis showed that all the isolates from humans and all but three of the environmental L. longbeachae serogroup 1 isolates were closely related. They were also closely related to L. longbeachae serogroup 1 ATCC 33462. There was wider variation among the three L. longbeachae serogroup 2 environmental isolates. One of these was closely related to L. longbeachae serogroup 2 ATCC 33484. RFLP studies with the rRNA probe provided the most discrimination among isolates but did not distinguish between the two serogroups

  11. Performance and emission studies on port injection of hydrogen with varied flow rates with Diesel as an ignition source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saravanan, N.; Nagarajan, G.

    2010-01-01

    Automobiles are one of the major sources of air pollution in the environment. In addition CO 2 emission, a product of complete combustion also has become a serious issue due to global warming effect. Hence the search for cleaner alternative fuels has become mandatory. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problems of air pollution and greenhouse gas problems (carbon dioxide), thereby protecting the environment. Hence in the present work, an experimental investigation has been carried out using hydrogen in the dual fuel mode in a Diesel engine system. In the study, a Diesel engine was converted into a dual fuel engine and hydrogen fuel was injected into the intake port while Diesel was injected directly inside the combustion chamber during the compression stroke. Diesel injected inside the combustion chamber will undergo combustion first which in-turn would ignite the hydrogen that will also assist the Diesel combustion. Using electronic control unit (ECU), the injection timings and injection durations were varied for hydrogen injection while for Diesel the injection timing was 23 o crank angle (CA) before injection top dead centre (BITDC). Based on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics, the optimized injection timing was found to be 5 o CA before gas exchange top dead centre (BGTDC) with injection duration of 30 o CA for hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation. The optimum hydrogen flow rate was found to be 7.5 lpm. Results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency in hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation increases by 15% compared to Diesel fuel at 75% load. The NO X emissions were higher by 1-2% in dual fuel operation at full load compared to Diesel. Smoke emissions are lower in the entire load spectra due to the absence of carbon in hydrogen fuel. The carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions were lesser in hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation compared to Diesel. The use of hydrogen

  12. Performance and emission studies on port injection of hydrogen with varied flow rates with Diesel as an ignition source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravanan, N. [ERC Engines, Tata Motors, Pimpri, Pune (India); Nagarajan, G. [Internal Combustion Engineering Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Guindy, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2010-07-15

    Automobiles are one of the major sources of air pollution in the environment. In addition CO{sub 2} emission, a product of complete combustion also has become a serious issue due to global warming effect. Hence the search for cleaner alternative fuels has become mandatory. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the most important fuels in the near future for solving the problems of air pollution and greenhouse gas problems (carbon dioxide), thereby protecting the environment. Hence in the present work, an experimental investigation has been carried out using hydrogen in the dual fuel mode in a Diesel engine system. In the study, a Diesel engine was converted into a dual fuel engine and hydrogen fuel was injected into the intake port while Diesel was injected directly inside the combustion chamber during the compression stroke. Diesel injected inside the combustion chamber will undergo combustion first which in-turn would ignite the hydrogen that will also assist the Diesel combustion. Using electronic control unit (ECU), the injection timings and injection durations were varied for hydrogen injection while for Diesel the injection timing was 23 crank angle (CA) before injection top dead centre (BITDC). Based on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics, the optimized injection timing was found to be 5 CA before gas exchange top dead centre (BGTDC) with injection duration of 30 CA for hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation. The optimum hydrogen flow rate was found to be 7.5 lpm. Results indicate that the brake thermal efficiency in hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation increases by 15% compared to Diesel fuel at 75% load. The NO{sub X} emissions were higher by 1-2% in dual fuel operation at full load compared to Diesel. Smoke emissions are lower in the entire load spectra due to the absence of carbon in hydrogen fuel. The carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions were lesser in hydrogen Diesel dual fuel operation compared to Diesel. The use of

  13. Draft Genome Sequences of 37 Salmonella enterica Strains Isolated from Poultry Sources in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Useh, Nicodemus M; Ngbede, Emmanuel O; Akange, Nguavese; Thomas, Milton; Foley, Andrew; Keena, Mitchel Chan; Nelson, Eric; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Tomita, Masaru; Suzuki, Haruo; Scaria, Joy

    2016-05-05

    Here, we report the availability of draft genomes of several Salmonella serotypes, isolated from poultry sources from Nigeria. These genomes will help to further understand the biological diversity of S. enterica and will serve as references in microbial trace-back studies to improve food safety. Copyright © 2016 Useh et al.

  14. Magnetically coupled high-gain Y-source isolated DC/DC converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    A new form of magnetically coupled DC/DC converter is proposed for medium power applications (250 W to 2 kW), requiring a high-voltage gain, short inductive charging time and galvanic isolation. The proposed converter can be realised using a unique Y-source impedance network and a two-switch push...

  15. Advanced injection seeder for various applications: form LIDARs to supercontinuum sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzes, Pawel

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an injection seeder driver (prototype) for a directly modulated semiconductor laser diode. The device provides adjustable pulse duration and repetition frequency to shape an output signal. A temperature controller stabilizes a laser diode spectrum. Additionally, to avoid a back oscillation, redundant power supply holds a generation until next stages shut down. Low EMI design and ESD protection guarantee stable operation even in a noisy environment. The controller is connected to the PC via USB and parameters of the pulse are digitally controlled through a graphical interface. The injection seeder controller can be used with a majority of commercially available laser diodes. In the experimental setup a telecommunication DFB laser with 4 GHz bandwidth was used. It allows achieving subnanosecond pulses generated at the repetition rate ranging from 1 kHz to 50 MHz. The developed injection seeder controller with a proper laser diode can be used in many scientific, industrial and medical applications.

  16. Antibiotic susceptibility profiling and virulence potential of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from different sources in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Fariha Masood; Akram, Muhammad; Noureen, Nighat; Noreen, Zobia; Bokhari, Habib

    2015-03-01

    To determine antibiotic resistance patterns and virulence potential of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) isolates from clinical human diarrheal infections, cattle and healthy broilers. Antibiotic sensitivity patterns of C. jejuni isolates were determined by Kirby Bauer Disc Diffusion assay. These isolates were then subjected to virulence profiling for the detection of mapA (membrane-associated protein), cadF (fibronectin binding protein), wlaN (beta-l,3-galactosyltransferase) and neuAB (sialic acid biosynthesis gene). Further C. jejuni isolates were grouped by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) profiling. A total of 436 samples from poultry (n=88), cattle (n=216) and humans (n=132) from different locations were collected. Results revealed percentage of C. jejuni isolates were 35.2% (31/88), 25.0% (54/216) and 11.3% (15/132) among poultry, cattle and clinical human samples respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility results showed that similar resistance patterns to cephalothin was ie. 87.0%, 87.1% and 89%among humans, poultry and cattle respectively, followed by sulfamethoxazole+trimethoprim 40.0%, 38.7% and 31.0% in humans, poultry and cattle and Ampicillin 40%, 32% and 20% in humans, poultry and cattle respectively. Beta-lactamase activity was detected in 40.00% humans, 20.37% cattle and 32.25% in poultry C. jejuni isolates. CadF and mapA were present in all poultry, cattle and human C. jejuni isolates, wlaN was not detected in any isolate and neuAB was found in 9/31 (36%) poultry isolates. RAPD profiling results suggested high diversity of C. jejuni isolates. Detection of multidrug resistant C. jejuni strains from poultry and cattle is alarming as they can be potential hazard to humans. Moreover, predominant association of virulence factors, cadF and mapA (100% each) in C. jejuni isolates from all sources and neuAB (36%) with poultry isolates suggest the potential source of transmission of diverse types of C. jejuni to humans. Copyright © 2015 Hainan

  17. A bremsstrahlung gamma-ray source based on stable ionization injection of electrons into a laser wakefield accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Döpp, A., E-mail: andreas.doepp@polytechnique.edu [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, École polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Centro de Laseres Pulsados, Parque Cientfico, 37185 Villamayor, Salamanca (Spain); Guillaume, E.; Thaury, C.; Lifschitz, A. [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, École polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Sylla, F. [SourceLAB SAS, 86 rue de Paris, 91400 Orsay (France); Goddet, J-P.; Tafzi, A.; Iaquanello, G.; Lefrou, T.; Rousseau, P. [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, École polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Conejero, E.; Ruiz, C. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de laMerced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Ta Phuoc, K.; Malka, V. [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, École polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2016-09-11

    Laser wakefield acceleration permits the generation of ultra-short, high-brightness relativistic electron beams on a millimeter scale. While those features are of interest for many applications, the source remains constraint by the poor stability of the electron injection process. Here we present results on injection and acceleration of electrons in pure nitrogen and argon. We observe stable, continuous ionization-induced injection of electrons into the wakefield for laser powers exceeding a threshold of 7 TW. The beam charge scales approximately with the laser energy and is limited by beam loading. For 40 TW laser pulses we measure a maximum charge of almost 1 nC per shot, originating mostly from electrons of less than 10 MeV energy. The relatively low energy, the high charge and its stability make this source well-suited for applications such as non-destructive testing. Hence, we demonstrate the production of energetic radiation via bremsstrahlung conversion at 1 Hz repetition rate. In accordance with GEANT4 Monte-Carlo simulations, we measure a γ-ray source size of less than 100 μm for a 0.5 mm tantalum converter placed at 2 mm from the accelerator exit. Furthermore we present radiographs of image quality indicators.

  18. Rapid isolation of biomarkers for compound specific radiocarbon dating using high-performance liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Smittenberg, R.H.; Hopmans, E.C.; Schouten, S.

    2002-01-01

    Repeated semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC was performed to isolate selected biomarkers from sediment extracts for radiocarbon analysis. Flow injection analysis mass spectrometry was used for rapid analysis of collected fractions to evaluate the separation procedure, taking only 1 min per fraction.

  19. Plasma injection from the independent SHF-source in the open configuration 2. Magnetic fields of magnetic mirror configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beriya, Z.R.; Gogashvili, G.E.; Nanobashvili, S.I.

    1992-01-01

    The investigation was aimed at studying the characteristics and properties of plasma injected from independent stationary SHF source into an open magnetic trap of mirror geometry within a wide range of change in the experimental conditions. The investigations were primarily based on measurements of the distribution of charged particles in a plasma along the trap and on the dependence of the concentration on plasma production conditions in a SHF source. It is shown that the aggregate of the experimental data enables a conclusion that independent of SHF plasma can be succesfully used for filling on open magnetic trap of mirror configuration with plasma

  20. Characteristics of a long-pulse (30-s), high-power (4-MW) ion source for neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Combs, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    A quasi-steady-state ion source has been developed for neutral beam injection applications. It is of the duoPIGatron type designed for delivering 50 A of hydrogen ions at 80 keV for 30-s-long pulses. Ion beams of 40 A at 75 keV were extracted for pulse lengths up to 30 s, maintaining excellent optical quality in the beam for the entire pulse duration. The design features and operational characteristics of the ion source are elaborated

  1. Recent developments of target and ion sources to produce ISOL beams

    CERN Document Server

    Stora, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    In this review on target and ion sources for ISOL (Isotope Separation OnLine) beams, important develop- ments from the past five years are highlighted. While at precedent EMIS conferences, a particular focus was given to a single topics, for instance specifically on ion sources or on chemical purification tech- niques, here each of the important elements present in an ISOL production unit is discussed. Fast diffus- ing nanomaterials, uranium-based targets, high power targets for next generation facilities, purification by selective adsorption, new ion sources are all part of this review. For each of these selected topics, the reported results lead to significant gains in intensity, purity, or quality of the delivered beam, or in the production of new isotope beams. Often the outcome resulted from the combination of original ideas with state-of-the-art investigations; this was carried out using very different scientific disciplines, lead- ing to understanding of the underlying chemical or physical mechanisms a...

  2. Antibiotic resistance profiling and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from aquatic sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumide A. Odeyemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate antibiotics resistance pattern and phenotyping of Aeromonas species isolated from different aquatic sources in Melaka, Malaysia. A total of 53 Aeromonas species were isolated from the following sources: sediment (n = 13, bivalve (n = 10, sea cucumber (n = 16 and sea water (n = 14 and resistance to 12 antibiotics – Tetracycline (30 μg, Kanamycin (30 μg, Oxytetracycline (30 μg, Ampicillin (10 μg, Streptomycin (10 μg, Gentamicin (10 μg, Sulphamethoxazole (25 μg, Nalixidic acid (30 μg, Trimethoprim (1.25 μg, Novobiocin (5 μg, Penicilin (10 μg and Chloramphenicol (10 μg was tested. The results obtained from this study reveal multi drug resistance pattern among the isolates. All the isolates were completely resistant to Ampicillin, Novobiocin, Sulphamethoxazole and Trimethoprim, respectively but susceptible to Tetracycline (100%, Kanamycin (5.7%, Gentamicin (5.7% and Oxytetracycline (24.5%. Antibiotics phenotyping of the bacteria revealed 21 different phenotypes among the isolates.

  3. Microwave plasma source for neutral-beam injection systems. Quarterly technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The overall program is described and the technical and programmatic reasons for the decision to pursue both the RFI and ECH sources into the current hydrogen test stage is discussed. We consider the general characteristics of plasma sources in the parameter regime of interest for neutral beam applications. The operatonal characteristics, advantages and potential problems of RFI and ECH sources are discussed. In these latter two sections we rely heavily on experience derived from developing RFI and ECH ion engine sources for NASA

  4. Plume persistence caused by back diffusion from thin clay layers in a sand aquifer following TCE source-zone hydraulic isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Beth L; Chapman, Steven W; Guilbeault, Martin A

    2008-11-14

    This paper concludes that back diffusion from one or a few thin clayey beds in a sand aquifer can cause contaminant persistence above MCLs in a sand aquifer long after the source zone initially causing the plume is isolated or removed. This conclusion is based on an intensive case study of a TCE contaminated site in Florida, with the processes evaluated using numerical modeling. At this site, the TCE DNAPL zone formed decades ago, and was hydraulically isolated by means of an innovative system performing groundwater extraction, treatment and re-injection. Treated water is re-injected in a row of injection wells situated a short distance downgradient of the extraction wells, creating a clean-water displacement front to efficiently flush the downgradient plume. This scheme avoids the creation of stagnation zones typical of most groundwater pump-and-treat systems, thereby minimizing the time for aquifer flushing and therefore downgradient cleanup. The system began operation in August 2002 and although the performance monitoring shows substantial declines in concentrations, detectable levels of TCE and degradation products persist downgradient of the re-injection wells, long after the TCE should have disappeared based on calculations assuming a nearly homogenous sand aquifer. Three hypotheses were assessed for this plume persistence: 1) incomplete source-zone capture, 2) DNAPL occurrence downgradient of the re-injection wells, and 3) back diffusion from one or more thin clay beds in the aquifer. After careful consideration, the first two hypotheses were eliminated, leaving back diffusion as the only plausible hypothesis, supported by detailed measurements of VOC concentrations within and near the clay beds and also by numerical model simulations that closely represent the field site hydrogeologic conditions. The model was also used to simulate a more generalized, hypothetical situation where more thin clayey beds occur in a sand aquifer with an underlying aquitard

  5. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry

  6. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: A modular vacuum ultraviolet source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloan Roberts, F.; Anderson, Scott L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Utah, 315 S. 1400 E., Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a “soft” photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  7. Note: Hollow cathode lamp with integral, high optical efficiency isolation valve: a modular vacuum ultraviolet source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, F Sloan; Anderson, Scott L

    2013-12-01

    The design and operating conditions of a hollow cathode discharge lamp for the generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation, suitable for ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) application, are described in detail. The design is easily constructed, and modular, allowing it to be adapted to different experimental requirements. A thin isolation valve is built into one of the differential pumping stages, isolating the discharge section from the UHV section, both for vacuum safety and to allow lamp maintenance without venting the UHV chamber. The lamp has been used both for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy of surfaces and as a "soft" photoionization source for gas-phase mass spectrometry.

  8. Precipitation regions on the Earth of high energy electrons, injected by a point source moving along a circular Earth orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, E. K.; Klyushnikov, G. N.

    2018-05-01

    In the paper we continue the study of precipitation regions of high-energy charged particles, carried out by the authors since 2002. In contrast to previous papers, where a stationary source of electrons was considered, it is assumed that the source moves along a low circular near-earth orbit with a constant velocity. The orbit position is set by the inclination angle of the orbital plane to the equatorial plane and the longitude of the ascending node. The total number of injected electrons is determined by the source strength and the number of complete revolutions that the source makes along the circumference. Construction of precipitation regions is produced using the computational algorithm based on solving of the system of ordinary differential equations. The features of the precipitation regions structure for the dipole approximation of the geomagnetic field and the symmetrical arrangement of the orbit relative to the equator are noted. The dependencies of the precipitation regions on different orbital parametres such as the incline angle, the ascending node position and kinetic energy of injected particles have been considered.

  9. Antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from different food sources: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyan Stratev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Aeromonas hydrophila is a Gram-negative, oxidase-positive, facultative, anaerobic, opportunistic aquatic pathogen. A. hydrophila produces virulence factors, such as hemolysins, aerolysins, adhesins, enterotoxins, phospholipase and lipase. In addition to isolation from aquatic sources, A. hydrophila has been isolated from meat and meat products, milk and dairy products, and vegetables. However, various studies showed that this opportunistic pathogen is resistant to commercial antibiotics. This is attributed to factors such as the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in aquaculture, plasmids or horizontal gene transfer. In this report, we highlight the occurrence, prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of A. hydrophila isolated from different food samples. The presence of antimicrobial-resistant A. hydrophila in food poses threats to public and aquatic animal health. Keywords: A. hydrophila, Antimicrobial resistance, Microbial food safety

  10. Dynamical injections as the source of near geostationary quiet time particle spatial boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauk, B.H.; Meng, C.I.

    1983-01-01

    To test our understanding of quasi-stationary magnetospheric particle convection, we address here a particular class of particle feature (plasma dropouts at 0 eV to 5 keV) observed regularly by near geostationary satellites in the noon to dusk quadrant, often during the apparent absence of recent (hours) substorm activity. At first consideration the feature appears to result from the passage of the satellites toward and into the so-called ''forbidden zones'' of the quasi-stationary particle convection patterns. It is demonstrated here that the energy dispersion of the feature cannot be explained by simple stationary convection models even when loss processes are imposed on those particles that penetrate most closely to the earth. Also, the radial position of the feature does not vary with geomagnetic activity as expected from steady convection models. It is concluded that dynamical processes are responsible. However, models based on the modification of the so-called cross-tail field configuration against initial stationary convection patterns are rejected here because these models preserve the qualitative sense of the energy dispersions of the initial patterns. It is proposed that the spatial structures of pase (24 hours) dynamical, nightside particle injections determine to a great extent the character of the feature. It is shown that detailed simulations based on the double-spiraled ''injection boundary'' concept (used previously to reproduce the fast changing nighttime features) reproduce very well the character and dispersion senses of the noon-to-dusk feature by allowing the distributions to evolve for many hours. It is emphasized that the portion of the original injection boundary which gives rise to this feature of interest is the decidely ''non-Alfvenic'' portion

  11. Simulation Study Using an Injection Phase-locked Magnetron as an Alternative Source for SRF Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haipeng [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Plawski, Tomasz E. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Rimmer, Robert A. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As a drop-in replacement for the CEBAF CW klystron system, a 1497 MHz, CW-type high-efficiency magnetron using injection phase lock and amplitude variation is attractive. Amplitude control using magnetic field trimming and anode voltage modulation has been studied using analytical models and MATLAB/Simulink simulations. Since the 1497 MHz magnetron has not been built yet, previously measured characteristics of a 2.45GHz cooker magnetron are used as reference. The results of linear responses to the amplitude and phase control of a superconducting RF (SRF) cavity, and the expected overall benefit for the current CEBAF and future MEIC RF systems are presented in this paper.

  12. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration versus endoscopic injection sclerotherapy for isolated gastric varices: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emori, Keigo; Toyonaga, Atsushi; Oho, Kazuhiko; Kumamoto, Masafumi; Haruta, Tsuyoshi; Inoue, Hiroto; Morita, Yukihiko; Mitsuyama, Keiichi; Tsuruta, Osamu; Sata, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Isolated gastric varices (IGV) have a lower risk of bleeding than esophageal varices, however IGV bleeding is associated with a higher mortality than bleeding of esophageal varices. In recent years, two widely used treatments for IGV have been balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) using cyanoacrylate or ethanolamine oleate (EO). This study compared these two treatment methods for IGV. The subjects were 112 patients who were treated at our hospital for IGV bleeding between October 1990 and December 2003. Forty-nine (49) patients were treated with B-RTO and 63 patients with EIS. These two patient groups were compared as regards content of treatment, post-treatment incidence of variceal bleeding, incidence of IGV rebleeding, survival rate, cause of death, and complications. Multivariate analysis was performed on post-treatment variceal bleeding and survival. Although EO was used in higher amounts in the B-RTO group than in the EIS group, the B-RTO group had a significantly lower number of treatment sessions and a significantly shorter treatment period (pIGV rebleeding after treatment than the B-RTO group. Treatment method was the only independent prognostic factor of IGV bleeding after treatment (p=0.024). The two groups did not differ significantly in the percentage of patients with aggravated esophageal varices after treatment. Bleeding from ectopic varices was not observed in any patient. There was no significant difference in survival by treatment method. The presence of hepatocellular carcinoma was the only independent prognostic factor for survival (p=0.003). It is concluded that B-RTO was more effective than EIS in the eradication of IGV and prevention of IGV recurrence and rebleeding.

  13. Development of the High Current Ion Source for Neutral Beam Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hun Ju; Kim, S. H.; Jang, D. H. [Jae Ju University, Jaeju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    The scope of the 1st year research is to design an 140keV deuterium ion source which has a beam current of 30-40A. According to the collected data, the model of an ion source for NBI of KSTAR was established. The negative ion source, which has good neutralization effecting in high energy, was selected. To generate a plasma, the thoriated tungsten filament was adopted. To increase the efficiency of plasma, the multi cusp type magnetic field was attached. The magnetic field was calculated by POISSON code. The extraction structure was designed with EGUN code, to extract the high quality ion beam. The design of a high current ion source for NBI was carried out. To develop the high current ion source with the high operational stability and the long lifetime, the parameters including an arc current, gas pressure and extraction voltage should be optimized. If designed ion source would be fabricated, its parameters could be optimized experimentally. Through the optimization of the ion source parameter, the core technology for NBI is established and the experiment of current drive in the fusion device can be performed. This technology also can be applied to the synthesis of new material and semiconductor industry. 18 refs., 11 tabs., 19 figs. (author)

  14. Rapid isolation of biomarkers for compound specific radiocarbon dating using high-performance liquid chromatography and flow injection analysis-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittenberg, Rienk H; Hopmans, Ellen C; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S

    2002-11-29

    Repeated semi-preparative normal-phase HPLC was performed to isolate selected biomarkers from sediment extracts for radiocarbon analysis. Flow injection analysis-mass spectrometry was used for rapid analysis of collected fractions to evaluate the separation procedure, taking only 1 min per fraction. In this way 100-1000 microg of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, sterol fractions and chlorophyll-derived phytol were isolated from typically 100 g of marine sediment, i.e., in sufficient quantities for radiocarbon analysis, without significant carbon isotopic fractionation or contamination.

  15. Determination of the effective source of particles associated with pellet injection. Application to ITER; Calcul de la source de matiere effective associee a l'alimentation par injection de glacon. Application a ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehme, H.

    2009-11-15

    The determination of the effective source of particle associated with the injection of a pellet requires a thorough description of both pellet ablation and deposited material homogenization. The goal of this report is the description of such a study. In the first part, which is devoted to ablation physics, we first analyze the relative importance of the different processes shielding the pellet against the plasma heat flux, then present an attempt for validating the calculation of the over-ablation due to the suprathermal ion tail generated by the discharge heating systems and then estimate the influence of the initial shape of the pellet on the ablation rate. In the second part, which is devoted to the description of the drift of the pellet deposited material down the magnetic field gradient, we present a critical review of the drift models available up to now, then compare the measured characteristics of deposition profiles to our own simulations, showing a good agreement. This was done for data originating from different machines. Then, we describe the several improvements brought to our model and demonstrate - which is new, that there is a correlation between the location of the maximum of matter deposition and that of integer (and/or half-integer) q-surfaces. It must be noted that the underlying process is intrinsic to our modeling and that our calculations reproduce reasonably well the observed correlation for both the LFS (Low Field Side) and HFS (High Field Side) pellet data bases of Tore Supra and DIII-D. The last part reports on the modeling of pellet injection in ITER. First, from the present design of the pellet injection system, we estimate the expected deposition depth of the pellet material (rho/a approx 0.85) and the flux to be injected for pacing the ELMs (Edge Localized Mode) and maintaining the core density (between 150 and 200 Pam{sup 3}s{sup -1}). Then, we present a parametric study demonstrating that it is not possible to improve significantly

  16. Efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid injections and exercise-based rehabilitation programme, administered as isolated or integrated therapeutic regimens for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccomanno, Maristella F; Donati, Fabrizio; Careri, Silvia; Bartoli, Matteo; Severini, Gabriele; Milano, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    To assess the efficacy of intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) injections and exercise-based rehabilitation (EBR) programme, administered as isolated or integrated for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis. One hundred sixty-five patients affected by moderate degrees of knee OA were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (HA) underwent three HA injections (one every 2 weeks); group 2 (EBR) underwent 20 treatment sessions in a month of an individualized programme; and group 3 (HA + EBR) received both treatments simultaneously. Primary outcome was the Italian version of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index; secondary outcome was the evaluation of active range of movement (AROM). All patients were evaluated before and 1, 3 and 6 months after treatment. Significance was set at p injections and individualized rehabilitation programmes administered in isolation or in combination are effective in improving knee function and pain relief. The combined treatment showed the greatest pain relief at 1-month follow-up compared to either in isolation. Compared to the previous studies, this is the first study, which proposed an EBR programme tailored to the compartment of the knee joint most involved in the degenerative process. I.

  17. Development of ion source with a washer gun for pulsed neutral beam injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, T; Yamaguchi, N; Kajiya, H; Takahashi, T; Imanaka, H; Takase, Y; Ono, Y; Sato, K N

    2008-06-01

    A new type of economical neutral beam source has been developed by using a single washer gun, pulsed operation, and a simple electrode system. We replaced the conventional hot filaments for arc-discharge-type plasma formation with a single stainless-steel washer gun, eliminating the entire dc power supply for the filaments and the cooling system for the electrodes. Our initial experiments revealed successful beam extraction up to 10 kV and 8.6 A, based on spatial profile measurements of density and temperature in the plasma source. The system also shows the potential to control the beam profile by controlling the plasma parameters in the ion accumulation chamber.

  18. Development of an ion source for long-pulse (30-s) neutral beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a long-pulse positive ion source that has been designed to provide high brightness deuterium beams (divergence approx. = 0.25 0 rms, current density approx. = 0.15 A cm -2 ) of 40 to 45 A, at a beam energy of 80 keV, for pulse lengths up to 30 s. The design and construction of the ion source components are described with particular emphasis placed on the long-pulse cathode assembly and ion accelerator

  19. Y-source impedance-network-based isolated boost DC/DC converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Town, Graham; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2014-01-01

    A dc-dc converter with very high voltage gain is proposed in this paper for any medium-power application requiring a high voltage boost with galvanic isolation. The proposed converter topology can be realized using only two switches. With this topology a very high voltage boost can be achieved even...... with a relatively low duty cycle of the switches, and the gain obtainable is presently not matched by any existing impedance network based converter operated at the same duty ratio. The proposed converter has a Y-source impedance network to boost the voltage at the intermediate dc-link side and a push......-pull transformer for square-wave AC inversion and isolation. The voltage-doubler rectifier provides a constant dc voltage at the output stage. A theoretical analysis of the converter is presented, supported by simulation and experimental results. A 250 W down-scaled prototype was implemented in the laboratory...

  20. Injection of a Phase Modulated Source into the Z-Beamlet Laser for Increased Energy Extraction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambo, Patrick K.; Armstrong, Darrell J.; Schwarz, Jens; Smith, Ian C; Shores, Jonathon; Speas, Christopher; Porter, John L.

    2014-11-01

    The Z-Beamlet laser has been operating at Sandia National Laboratories since 2001 to provide a source of laser-generated x-rays for radiography of events on the Z-Accelerator. Changes in desired operational scope have necessitated the increase in pulse duration and energy available from the laser system. This is enabled via the addition of a phase modulated seed laser as an alternative front-end. The practical aspects of deployment are discussed here.

  1. Diversity of Clostridium perfringens isolates from various sources and prevalence of conjugative plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Miseon; Deck, Joanna; Foley, Steven L; Nayak, Rajesh; Songer, J Glenn; Seibel, Janice R; Khan, Saeed A; Rooney, Alejandro P; Hecht, David W; Rafii, Fatemeh

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important pathogen, causing food poisoning and other mild to severe infections in humans and animals. Some strains of C. perfringens contain conjugative plasmids, which may carry antimicrobial resistance and toxin genes. We studied genomic and plasmid diversity of 145 C. perfringens type A strains isolated from soils, foods, chickens, clinical samples, and domestic animals (porcine, bovine and canine), from different geographic areas in the United States between 1994 and 2006, using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and/or pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). MLVA detected the genetic diversity in a majority of the isolates. PFGE, using SmaI and KspI, confirmed the MLVA results but also detected differences among the strains that could not be differentiated by MLVA. All of the PFGE profiles of the strains were different, except for a few of the epidemiologically related strains, which were identical. The PFGE profiles of strains isolated from the same domestic animal species were clustered more closely with each other than with other strains. However, a variety of C. perfringens strains with distinct genetic backgrounds were found among the clinical isolates. Variation was also observed in the size and number of plasmids in the strains. Primers for the internal fragment of a conjugative tcpH gene of C. perfringens plasmid pCPF4969 amplified identical size fragments from a majority of strains tested; and this gene hybridized to the various-sized plasmids of these strains. The sequences of the PCR-amplified tcpH genes from 12 strains showed diversity among the tcpH genes. Regardless of the sources of the isolates, the genetic diversity of C. perfringens extended to the plasmids carrying conjugative genes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Thermotolerant yeasts capable of producing bioethanol: isolation from natural fermented sources, identification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azam Talukder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the demands of biofuels have increased, because of their significant role in reducing various pollutants created by fossil fuels. Here, we have collected 25 samples containing various thermotolerant microorganisms from the nine natural fermented sources of Bangladesh, such as Boiled potato (Bp, Decomposed foods (Df, Municipal liquid waste (Mlw, Municipal solid waste (Msw, Sugarcane juice (Sc, Pantavat (Pv, Sugar molasses (Sm, Tari (Tari and Watermelon juice (Wm for bioethanol production. Among them, 18 isolates are capable of producing bioethanol. Cultural, morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic analyses were carried out under various physiological conditions. Ethanol fermentation was checked by different carbon sources, temperatures and pH. All of the isolates could grow well in the medium containing Dextrose and Arabinose and only two strains Pv-1 and Bp-2 could ferment Xylose as a sole carbon source. At 42 °C, the highest ethanol concentration 6.58% (v/v was obtained by a strain Wm-1 isolated from Watermelon juice. At 37 °C, maximal ethanol concentrations of 6.74% (v/v, 6.50% (v/v and 6.22% (v/v were obtained by the strains Bp-2, Wm-l and Pv-1, respectively. Among the various pH tested, the highest ethanol concentration 6.6% (v/v was obtained at pH 4.5 by a strain named Tari-2. Finally, yeast 26S rDNA sequencing information identified the strains Sc-2 as Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pv-2, Tari-2 and Df-1 as Pichia kudriavzevii, Mlw-l and Bp-2 as Candida tropicalis, Pv-1 as Pichia guilliermondii and Df-2 as Candida rugosa.

  3. Isolation of whiskers from natural sources and their dispersed in a non-aqueous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vestena, Mauro; Gross, Idejan Padilha; Pires, Alfredo Tiburcio Nunes; Muller, Carmen Maria Olivera, E-mail: mauro@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Federal Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Whiskers have been used as a nano material dispersed in polymer matrices to modify the microscopic and macroscopic properties of the polymer. These nanomaterials can be isolated from cellulose, one of the most abundant natural renewable sources of biodegradable polymer. In this study, whiskers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse and corn cob straw fibers. Initially, the cellulose fiber was treated through an alkaline/oxidative process followed by acid hydrolysis. Dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide were used to replace the aqueous medium for the dispersion of the whiskers. For the solvent exchange, dimethylformamide or dimethyl sulfoxide was added to the aqueous dispersion and the water was then removed by fractional distillation. FTIR, TGA, XRD, TEM, Zeta and DLS techniques were used to evaluate the efficiency of the isolation process as well as the morphology and dimensions of the whiskers. The dimensions of the whiskers are comparable with values reported in the literature, maintaining the uniformity and homogeneity in both aqueous and non-aqueous solvents. (author)

  4. Isolation of whiskers from natural sources and their dispersed in a non-aqueous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Vestena

    Full Text Available Abstract Whiskers have been used as a nanomaterial dispersed in polymer matrices to modify the microscopic and macroscopic properties of the polymer. These nanomaterials can be isolated from cellulose, one of the most abundant natural renewable sources of biodegradable polymer. In this study, whiskers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse and corn cob straw fibers. Initially, the cellulose fiber was treated through an alkaline/oxidative process followed by acid hydrolysis. Dimethylformamide and dimethyl sulfoxide were used to replace the aqueous medium for the dispersion of the whiskers. For the solvent exchange, dimethylformamide or dimethyl sulfoxide was added to the aqueous dispersion and the water was then removed by fractional distillation. FTIR, TGA, XRD, TEM, Zeta and DLS techniques were used to evaluate the efficiency of the isolation process as well as the morphology and dimensions of the whiskers. The dimensions of the whiskers are comparable with values reported in the literature, maintaining the uniformity and homogeneity in both aqueous and non-aqueous solvents.

  5. Design of power supply system for the prototype RF-driven negative ion source for neutral beam injection application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Caichao; Hu, Chundong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wei, Jianglong, E-mail: jlwei@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xie, Yahong; Xu, Yongjian; Liang, Lizhen; Chen, Shiyong; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Zhimin; Xie, Yuanlai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A supporting power supply system was designed in details for a RF-driven prototype negative ion source at ASIPP. • The RF power supply for plasma generation adopts an all-solid-state power supply structure. • The extraction grid power supply adopts the pulse step modulator (PSM) technology. - Abstract: In order to study the generation and extraction of negative ions for neutral beam injection application, a prototype RF-driven negative ion source and the corresponding test bed are under construction at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). The target of the negative ion source is extracting a negation ion beam of 350 A/m{sup 2} for 3600 s plasma duration and 100 s beam duration. According to the required parameters of test bed, the design of power supply system is put forward for earlier study. In this paper, the performance requirements and design schemes of RF power supply for plasma generation, impedance matching network, bias voltage power supply, and extraction voltage power supply for negative beam extraction are introduced in details. The schemes provide a reference for the construction of power supply system and lay a foundation for the next phase of experimental operation.

  6. Isolation of thermotolerant Vermamoeba vermiformis strains from water sources in Lanzarote Island, Canary Islands, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Batlle, María; Wagner, Carolina; Zamora-Herrera, Jonadab; Vargas-Mesa, Alejandro; Sifaoui, Ines; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2016-09-01

    In this study, twenty water samples were collected in the island of Lanzarote, Canary Islands, Spain in order to check for the presence of V. vermiformis strains in these samples. Water samples were cultured on 2% Non-Nutrient Agar (NNA) plates covered with a thin layer of heat killed E. coli and checked daily for the presence of Vermamoeba. After a week, V. vermiformis amoebae were observed in 2 of the 20 processed samples (10%) incubated at room temperature and 37°C. Molecular characterization was carried out by amplifying the 18S rDNA gene and DNA sequencing in order to confirm the identity of the isolated amoebic strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of FLA in environmental sources in Lanzarote Island and the first report of Vermamoeba vermiformis in water sources in this island. Furthermore, the two strains isolated in this study were collected in recreational areas with close contact with humans and thus awareness should be raised.

  7. Glycerol as a carbon source for xantan production by Xanthomonas campestris isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Bojana Ž.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of xanthan biosynthesis depends on several factors, most importantly the genetic potential of the production microorganism and cultivation media composition. Cultivation media composition affects the yield and quality of the desired product as well as production costs. This is why many studies focus on finding cheap alternative raw materials, especially carbon sources, to replace commercially used glucose and sucrose. In addition to the Xanthomonas campestris ATCC 13951 which is the primary industrial production microorganism, other Xanthomonas strains can produce xanthan as well. Under the same conditions, different strains produce different amounts of the biopolymer of varying quality. The aim of this paper is to compare producibility of phytopathogenic X. campestris strains, isolated from the environment with the reference X. campestris ATCC 13951 strain and to estimate the possibility of xanthan production using alternative glycerol-based media than the synthetic glucose-based media. Submerged cultivation on the medium based on glucose or glycerol (2.0 %w/v was performed using the reference strain and eight isolated X. campestris strains. In order to assess the success of biosynthesis, xanthan yield and rheological properties were determined. Strains isolated from the environment produced yields between 2.98 g/L and 12.17 g/L on the glucose-based medium and 1.68 g/L and 6.31 g/L on the glycerol-based medium. Additionally, X. campestris ATCC 13951 provided the highest yield when using glucose (13.24 g/L, as well as glycerol-based medium (7.44 g/L. The obtained results indicate that in the applied experimental conditions and using all tested strains, glycerol is viable as a carbon source for the production of xanthan.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Yeast Strains Isolated from Different Sources by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M. S.; Latif, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Various molecular techniques like analysis of the amplified rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS), intragenic spacers and total ITS region analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) has been introduced for yeast identification but there are limited databases to identify yeast species on the basis of 5.8S rDNA. In this study, twenty nine yeast strains from various sources including spoiled fruits, vegetables, foodstuffs, and concentrated juices were characterized by PCR-RFLP. PCR-RFLP has been used to characterize yeasts present in different spoiled food samples after isolation of the yeasts. By using this technique, the isolated yeast strains were characterized by direct 5.8S-ITS rDNA region amplification. RFLP analysis was applied to each of the amplification products (varied from 400bp to 800bp) detected, and the corresponding yeast identifications were made according to each specific restriction patterns obtained after treatment with two endonucleases TaqI and HaeIII which yielded a specific banding pattern for each species. For further confirmation amplified products of eleven selected isolates were sequenced and blast on NCBI. Both RFLP and sequence analyses of the strains with accession nos. KF472163, KF472164, KF472165, KF472166, KF472167, KF472168, KF472169, KF472170, KF472171, KF472172, KF472173 gave significantly similar results. The isolates were found to belong five different yeast species including; Candida spp., Pichia spp., Kluyveromyces spp., Clavispora spp. and Hanseniaspora spp. This method provides a fast, easy, reliable and authentic way for determining yeast population present in different type of samples, as compared to traditional characterization technique. (author)

  9. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G; Becker, R; Hamm, R W; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged (238)U(40+) (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  10. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G., E-mail: gerosro@gmail.com; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi (India); Becker, R. [Institut fur Angewandte Physik der Universitaet, D-60054 Frankfurt/M (Germany); Hamm, R. W. [R and M Technical Enterprises, Inc., 4725 Arlene Place, Pleasanton, California 94566 (United States); Baskaran, R. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu (India)

    2014-02-15

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged {sup 238}U{sup 40+} (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  11. The direct injection of intense ion beams from a high field electron cyclotron resonance ion source into a radio frequency quadrupole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, G.; Becker, R.; Hamm, R. W.; Baskaran, R.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.

    2014-02-01

    The ion current achievable from high intensity ECR sources for highly charged ions is limited by the high space charge. This makes classical extraction systems for the transport and subsequent matching to a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator less efficient. The direct plasma injection (DPI) method developed originally for the laser ion source avoids these problems and uses the combined focusing of the gap between the ion source and the RFQ vanes (or rods) and the focusing of the rf fields from the RFQ penetrating into this gap. For high performance ECR sources that use superconducting solenoids, the stray magnetic field of the source in addition to the DPI scheme provides focusing against the space charge blow-up of the beam. A combined extraction/matching system has been designed for a high performance ECR ion source injecting into an RFQ, allowing a total beam current of 10 mA from the ion source for the production of highly charged 238U40+ (1.33 mA) to be injected at an ion source voltage of 60 kV. In this design, the features of IGUN have been used to take into account the rf-focusing of an RFQ channel (without modulation), the electrostatic field between ion source extraction and the RFQ vanes, the magnetic stray field of the ECR superconducting solenoid, and the defocusing space charge of an ion beam. The stray magnetic field is shown to be critical in the case of a matched beam.

  12. α-Amylase inhibitors: a review of raw material and isolated compounds from plant source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Paloma Michelle; Souza, Paula Monteiro; Simeoni, Luiz Alberto; Silveira, Damaris

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of α-amylase, enzyme that plays a role in digestion of starch and glycogen, is considered a strategy for the treatment of disorders in carbohydrate uptake, such as diabetes and obesity, as well as, dental caries and periodontal diseases. Plants are an important source of chemical constituents with potential for inhibition of α-amylase and can be used as therapeutic or functional food sources. A review about crude extracts and isolated compounds from plant source that have been tested for α-amylase inhibitory activity has been done. The analysis of the results shows a variety of crude extracts that present α-amylase inhibitory activity and some of them had relevant activity when compared with controls used in the studies. Amongst the phyto-constituents that have been investigated, flavonoids are one of them that demonstrated the highest inhibitory activities with the potential of inhibition related to number of hydroxyl groups in the molecule of the compound. Several phyto-constituents and plant species as α-amylase inhibitors are being reported in this article. Majority of studies have focused on the anti-amylase phenolic compounds.

  13. Revised Earthquake Catalog and Relocated Hypocenters Near Fluid Injection Wells and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edel, S.; Bilek, S. L.; Garcia, K.

    2014-12-01

    Induced seismicity is a class of crustal earthquakes resulting from human activities such as surface and underground mining, impoundment of reservoirs, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground cavities. Within the Permian basin in southeastern New Mexico lies an active area of oil and gas production, as well as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a geologic nuclear waste repository located just east of Carlsbad, NM. Small magnitude earthquakes have been recognized in the area for many years, recorded by a network of short period vertical component seismometers operated by New Mexico Tech. However, for robust comparisons between the seismicity patterns and the injection well locations and rates, improved locations and a more complete catalog over time are necessary. We present results of earthquake relocations for this area by using data from the 3-component broadband EarthScope Flexible Array SIEDCAR experiment that operated in the area between 2008-2011. Relocated event locations tighten into a small cluster of ~38 km2, approximately 10 km from the nearest injection wells. The majority of events occurred at 10-12 km depth, given depth residuals of 1.7-3.6 km. We also present a newly developed more complete catalog of events from this area by using a waveform cross-correlation algorithm and the relocated events as templates. This allows us to detect smaller magnitude events that were previously undetected with the short period network data. The updated earthquake catalog is compared with geologic maps and cross sections to identify possible fault locations. The catalog is also compared with available well data on fluid injection and production. Our preliminary results suggest no obvious connection between seismic moment release, fluid injection, or production given the available monthly industry data. We do see evidence in the geologic and well data of previously unidentified faults in the area.

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG RESISTANCE IN STRAINS OF Escherichia coli ISOLATED FROM FOOD SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Uddin Rasheed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A variety of foods and environmental sources harbor bacteria that are resistant to one or more antimicrobial drugs used in medicine and agriculture. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli is of particular concern because it is the most common Gram-negative pathogen in humans. Hence this study was conducted to determine the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolated from different types of food items collected randomly from twelve localities of Hyderabad, India. A total of 150 samples comprising; vegetable salad, raw egg-surface, raw chicken, unpasteurized milk, and raw meat were processed microbiologically to isolate E. coli and to study their antibiotic susceptibility pattern by the Kirby-Bauer method. The highest percentages of drug resistance in isolates of E. coli were detected from raw chicken (23.3% followed by vegetable salad (20%, raw meat (13.3%, raw egg-surface (10% and unpasteurized milk (6.7%. The overall incidence of drug resistant E. coli was 14.7%. A total of six (4% Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL producers were detected, two each from vegetable salads and raw chicken, and one each from raw egg-surface and raw meat. Multidrug resistant strains of E. coli are a matter of concern as resistance genes are easily transferable to other strains. Pathogen cycling through food is very common and might pose a potential health risk to the consumer. Therefore, in order to avoid this, good hygienic practices are necessary in the abattoirs to prevent contamination of cattle and poultry products with intestinal content as well as forbidding the use of untreated sewage in irrigating vegetables.

  15. Problems of heat sources modeling on stage of isolated power systems expansion planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenkov, A.V.; Reshetnikova, L.N.; Sergeev, Yu.A.

    1998-01-01

    It is necessary to use computer codes for evaluation of possible applications and role of nuclear district heating plants in the local self-balancing power and heating systems, which are to be located in the remote isolated and hardly accessible regions in the Far North of Russia. Key factors in determining system configurations and its performances are: (1) interdependency of electricity, heat and fuel supply; (2) long distance between energy consumer centres (from several tens up to some hundred kilometers); and (3) difficulty in export and import of the electricity, especially the fuel in and from neighbouring and remote regions. The problem to challenge is to work out an optimum expansion plan of the local electricity and heat supply system. The ENPEP (ENergy and Power Evaluation Program) software package, which was developed by IAEA together with the USA Argonne National Laboratory, was chosen for this purpose. The Chaun-Bilibino power system (CBPS), an isolated power system in far North-East region of Russia, was selected as the first case of the ENPEP study. ENPEP allows a complex approach in the system expansion optimization planning in the time frame of planning period of up to 30 years. The key ENPEP module, ELECTRIC, considers electricity as the only product. The cogeneration part (heat production) must be considered outside the ELECTRIC model and then the results to be transfer ed to ELECTRIC. The ENPEP study on the Chaun-Bilibino isolated power system has shown that the modelling of the heat supply sources in ENPEP is not a trivial problem. It is very important and difficult to correctly represent specific features of cogeneration process at the same time. (author)

  16. Growth of locally isolated microalga in POME to produce lipid as alternative energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvitriana; Munir, E.; Delvian; Wahyuningsih, H.

    2018-04-01

    Purpose of this study was to find the best growth of locally isolated microalgae that produce lipids from Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) as an alternative energy source. Microalgae was cultivated in POME in glass vessel at room temperature using a lighting intensity of 13,000 lux and continuously aeration for 24 and 12 hours, respectively. Biomass of microalgae were analyzed daily to get their growth by spectrophotometry at 624 nm wavelength, whereas Modified Bligh and Dyer method determined lipid content. Results show that the best growth occurred at 10% inoculum with lighting cycle and aeration of 24 hours (on/off) and resulting highest biomass content of 0.99 g dry weight/L followed by the decrease of organic substances in POME. The percentage reduction of COD, BOD, TSS, and oil at POME reached above 92%, while phosphate concentration reached 89.2%. Cultivation of microalgae in POME for 12 days showed its ability to reduce organic substances and nutrients in POME and produced biomass with lipid content of 35%. These results reached to the conclusion that locally isolated microalgae has an ability to treat POME safely for environment and POME can be used as a growing medium of microalgae that produces lipids.

  17. Investigating the Keratinolytic Activities of the Bacteria Isolated from Different Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. X.

    2017-12-01

    Background InformationThe development of microbial keratinase has gained increasing attention over the million tons of keratinous wastes generated by the worldwide livestock population. Keratinous wastes not only serve as the niche for pathogenic microorganisms, but also they collapse environmental balance for being the source of air, soil, and water pollutions. Conversely, microbial keratinases can convert the unexploited keratinous wastes into bioaccessible animal feed. However, because of the recalcitrant structure of keratin, the complete keratin degradation is difficult to achieve with one keratinase as opposed to recombinant keratinases. Therefore, this study is designed to isolate the bacteria from different sources and to evaluate their keratinolytic activities using azokeratin substrates. Materials and Methods Soil, horse hooves, penguin stool, and chicken stool are collected from different sites. These samples are serially diluted and then streaked on feather-meal agar plates. Single colonies are screened for the ability to hydrolyze keratin. The isolate of single colonies is cultivated in a whole-feather medium. The sample is then centrifuged, and the supernatant is used for crude enzyme preparation. Azokeratin is synthesized by coupling bristle keratin with diazotized laurent's acid, and it is used as a substrate for assaying keratinase activity by using a spectrophotometer. ConclusionThis study will compare the keratinase activities on bristle azokeratin substrates from three different samples and thus evaluate the bacterium with the best ability to hydrolyze keratin amongst the three. Further steps will be taken to produce a blend of enzymes generated and select the optimum combination that can most efficiently degrade keratin.

  18. Genetic diversity and antibiogram profile of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes isolated from human, animal, foods and associated environmental sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Dhaka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infectious diarrhoea particularly due to pathogenic bacteria is a major health problem in developing countries, including India. Despite significant reports of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC pathotypes around the globe, studies which address genetic relatedness, antibiogram profile and their correlation with respect to their isolation from different sources are sparse. The present study determines isolation and identification of DEC pathotypes from different sources, their genetic characterisation, antibiogram profile and their correlation if any. Materials and methods: A total of 336 samples comprising diarrhoeic stool samples from infants (n=103, young animal (n=106, foods (n=68 and associated environmental sources (n=59 were collected from Bareilly region of India. All the samples were screened by using standard microbiological methods for the detection of E. coli. The identified E. coli were then confirmed as DEC pathotypes using polymerase chain reaction–based assays. Those DEC pathotypes identified as Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC were further confirmed using HEp-2 adherence assay. All the isolated DEC pathotypes were studied for their genetic diversity using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by using disc diffusion method as per Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results and discussion: Of the four DEC pathotypes investigated, EAEC was found to be the predominant pathogen with an isolation rate of 16.5% from infants, 17.9% from young animals, 16.2% from foods and 3.4% from the associated environmental sources. These EAEC isolates, on further characterisation, revealed predominance of ‘atypical’ EAEC, with an isolation rate of 10.7% from infants, 15.1% from young animals, 16.2% from foods, and 3.4% from the associated environmental sources. On PFGE analysis, discrimination was evident within DEC pathotypes as 52 unique pulsotypes were

  19. Isolation and Genotyping of Acanthamoeba Strains from Environmental Sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, Southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahdar, M; Niyyati, M; Salehi, M; Feghhi, M; Makvandi, M; Pourmehdi, M; Farnia, S

    2012-01-01

    Background Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amoebae commonly found in the environmental sources such as water, soil, and air. This ubiquitous amoeba is the causative agent of amoebic keratitis (AK). The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in water and soil sources in Ahvaz City, Khuzestan Province, southern Iran. Methods In general, 110 samples of water and soil were taken from different localities of Ahvaz including agricultural canals, rivers, and swimming pools. Filtration and cultivation were carried out on non-nutrient agar medium (NNA). Axenic cultivation was performed for all of positive isolates. PCR analysis was conducted on positive samples. Sequencing was done for 15 PCR products. Genotypes were identified by Blast search and homology analysis. Results Acanthamoeba spp. was found in 43 (71.6%) of samples of water and 13 (26%) soil samples. Genotyping of 15 samples proved that Acanthamoeba belonged to T4 (86.6%), T2 (6.6%), and T5 (6.6%) genotypes. Conclusion TYI-S-33 medium could be better than PYG medium for Acanthamoeba axenic culture. PMID:23323088

  20. Source terms; isolation and radiological consequences of carbon-14 waste in the Swedish SFR repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesboel, R.; Puigdomenech, I.; Evans, S.

    1990-01-01

    The source term, isolation capacity, and long-term radiological exposure of 14 C from the Swedish underground repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR) is assessed. The prospective amount of 14 C in the repository is assumed to be 5 TBq. Spent ion exchange resins will be the dominant source of 14 C. The pore water in the concrete repository is expected to maintain a pH of >10.5 for a period of at least 10 6 y. The cement matrix of the repository will retain most of the 14 CO 3 2- initially present. Bacterial production of CO 2 and CH 4 from degradation of ion-exchange resins and bitumen may contribute to 14 C release to the biosphere. However, CH 4 contributes only to a small extent to the overall carbon loss from freshwater ecosystems. The individual doses to local and regional individuals peaked with 5x10 -3 and regional individuals peaked with 5x10 -3 and 8x10 -4 μSv y -1 respectively at about 2.4x10 4 years. A total leakage of 8.4 GBq of 14 C from the repository will cause a total collective dose commitment of 1.1 manSv or 130 manSv TBq -1 . (authors)

  1. Isolation and characterization of yeasts capable of efficient utilization of hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassa-Barbosa, L A; Procópio, R E L; Matos, I T S R; Filho, S A

    2015-09-28

    Few yeasts have shown the potential to efficiently utilize hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as the carbon source. In this study, microorganisms isolated from the Manaus region in Amazonas, Brazil, were characterized based on their utilization of the pentoses, xylose, and arabinose. The yeasts that showed a potential to assimilate these sugars were selected for the better utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Two hundred and thirty seven colonies of unicellular microorganisms grown on hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, xylose, arabinose, and yeast nitrogen base selective medium were analyzed. Of these, 231 colonies were subjected to sugar assimilation tests. One hundred and twenty five of these were shown to utilize hydrolyzed hemicellulose, xylose, or arabinose as the carbon source for growth. The colonies that showed the best growth (N = 57) were selected, and their internal transcribed spacer-5.8S rDNA was sequenced. The sequenced strains formed four distinct groups in the phylogenetic tree, and showed a high percentage of similarity with Meyerozyma caribbica, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans, Trichosporon loubieri, Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida lignohabitans, and Candida ethanolica. The discovery of these xylose-fermenting yeasts could attract widespread interest, as these can be used in the cost-effective production of liquid fuel from lignocellulosic materials.

  2. Low levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmqvist, Niklas; Stenroth, Patrik; Berglund, Olof; Nystroem, Per; Olsson, Karin; Jellyman, Don; McIntosh, Angus R.; Larsson, Per

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organic pesticides (i.e., DDTs) were measured in long finned eels (Anguilla dieffenbachii) in 17 streams on the west coast of South Island, New Zealand. Very low levels of PCBs and low levels of ppDDE were found. The concentrations of PCBs and ppDDE were not correlated within sites indicating that different processes determined the levels of the two pollutants in New Zealand eels. The PCBs probably originate from atmospheric transport, ppDDE levels are determined by land use and are higher in agriculture areas. The low contamination level of these aquatic systems seems to be a function of a low input from both long and short-range transport as well as few local point sources. No correlation could be found between lipid content and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) concentration (as shown in previous studies) in the eels which could be explained by low and irregular intake of the pollutants. - Low levels of PCBs found in New Zealand eels reflect isolation from atmospheric sources while DDTs levels are determined by land use

  3. Isolation and characterization of (15Z)-lycopene thermally generated from a natural source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, Munenori, E-mail: takehara@mat.usp.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hassaka, Hikone 522-8533 (Japan); Kuwa, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori; Kitamura, Chitoshi [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture, Hassaka, Hikone 522-8533 (Japan); Honda, Masaki [Research & Development Division, Kagome Co., Ltd., Nishitomiyama, Nasushiobara 329-2762 (Japan)

    2015-11-06

    (15Z)-Lycopene was prepared by thermal isomerization of (all-E)-lycopene derived from tomatoes, and isolated by using a series of chromatographies. The fine red crystalline powder of (15Z)-lycopene was obtained from 556 mg of (all-E)-lycopene with a yield of 0.6 mg (purity: reversed-phase HPLC, 97.2%; normal-phase HPLC, ≥99.9%), and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra of the isomer were fully assigned. More refined computational analyses that considered differences in the energy levels of the conformers involved in isomerization have also determined the stabilities of (15Z)-lycopene and other geometric isomers, along with the activation energies during isomerization from the all-E form. The fine control of conditions for HPLC separation and an advanced theoretical insight into geometric isomerization have led to the discovery of the 15Z-isomer generated from a natural source. - Highlights: • (15Z)-lycopene, isomerized from the all-E form of a natural source, was purified. • The obtained (15Z)-lycopene was structurally identified by an NMR analysis. • A modified theoretical study accounted for the generation of the 15Z-isomer. • This study demonstrated the occurrence of the isomer from a natural origin.

  4. Isolation and characterization of (15Z)-lycopene thermally generated from a natural source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehara, Munenori; Kuwa, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori; Kitamura, Chitoshi; Honda, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    (15Z)-Lycopene was prepared by thermal isomerization of (all-E)-lycopene derived from tomatoes, and isolated by using a series of chromatographies. The fine red crystalline powder of (15Z)-lycopene was obtained from 556 mg of (all-E)-lycopene with a yield of 0.6 mg (purity: reversed-phase HPLC, 97.2%; normal-phase HPLC, ≥99.9%), and 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of the isomer were fully assigned. More refined computational analyses that considered differences in the energy levels of the conformers involved in isomerization have also determined the stabilities of (15Z)-lycopene and other geometric isomers, along with the activation energies during isomerization from the all-E form. The fine control of conditions for HPLC separation and an advanced theoretical insight into geometric isomerization have led to the discovery of the 15Z-isomer generated from a natural source. - Highlights: • (15Z)-lycopene, isomerized from the all-E form of a natural source, was purified. • The obtained (15Z)-lycopene was structurally identified by an NMR analysis. • A modified theoretical study accounted for the generation of the 15Z-isomer. • This study demonstrated the occurrence of the isomer from a natural origin.

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Carbon Nanoparticles Isolated from Natural Sources against Pathogenic Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, S.; Jose, S.; Varghese, S.; Kuriakose, S.; Jose, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) from kitchen soot, characterization of the CNPs by UV/visible spectroscopy, SEM and XRD, and their antimicrobial action. The antibacterial activity of the isolated carbon nanoparticles was tested against various pathogenic bacterial strains such as Gram-negative Proteus refrigere and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus haemolyticus. The inhibition zones were measured, and it was found that the carbon nanoparticles isolated from natural sources are active against these Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains

  6. Near-Source Error Sensor Strategies for Active Vibration Isolation of Machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijers, C.A.J.; Basten, T.G.H.; de Boer, Andries; van den Brink, D.R.; Verheij, J.W.; Sas, P; de Munck, M.

    2004-01-01

    Due to lightweight construction of vehicles and ships, the reduction of structure borne interior noise problems with passive isolation of engine vibrations might be not sufficient. To improve the isolation, a combination of passive and active isolation techniques can be used (so-called hybrid

  7. Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

    2014-08-19

    One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation.

  8. Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 isolated from Antarctica: a suitable renewable lipid source for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuo; Gong, Yangmin; Fang, Xiantao; Hu, Hanhua

    2012-11-01

    Microalgal lipids are promising alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1, an oil-rich freshwater microalga isolated from Antarctica, was identified to be a suitable candidate to produce biodiesel in this study. This strain could grow at temperatures ranging from 4 to 35 °C. With regular decrease in nitrate concentration in the medium, large quantities of triacylglycerols accumulated under batch culture conditions detected by thin layer chromatography and BODIPY 505/515 fluorescent staining. Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 achieved the average biomass productivity of 0.105 g l⁻¹ d⁻¹ (dry weight) and nearly the highest lipid content (35 % of dry cell weight) was reached at day 28 in the batch culture. Neutral lipids accounted for 78 % of total lipids, and C18:1 (n-9), C16:0 were the major fatty acids in total lipids, composing 37 and 20 % of total fatty acids of Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 grown for 36 days, respectively. These results suggested that Scenedesmus sp. NJ-1 was a good source of microalgal oils for biodiesel production.

  9. Flavor and Functional Characteristics of Whey Protein Isolates from Different Whey Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T J; Foegeding, E A; Drake, M A

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated flavor and functional characteristics of whey protein isolates (WPIs) from Cheddar, Mozzarella, Cottage cheese, and rennet casein whey. WPIs were manufactured in triplicate. Powders were rehydrated and evaluated in duplicate by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile compounds were extracted by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Functional properties were evaluated by measurement of foam stability, heat stability, and protein solubility. WPI from Cheddar and Cottage cheese whey had the highest cardboard flavor, whereas sweet aromatic flavor was highest in Mozzarella WPI, and rennet casein WPI had the lowest overall flavor and aroma. Distinct sour taste and brothy/potato flavor were also noted in WPI from Cottage cheese whey. Consistent with sensory results, aldehyde concentrations were also highest in Cheddar and Cottage cheese WPI. Overrun, yield stress, and foam stability were not different (P > 0.05) among Cheddar, Mozzarella, and rennet casein WPI, but WPI foams from Cottage cheese whey had a lower overrun and air-phase fraction (P whey sources could be used in new applications due to distinct functional and flavor characteristics. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Rapid detection and E-test antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from seafood and environmental sources in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Othrubi, Saleh M; Hanafiah, Alfizah; Radu, Son; Neoh, Humin; Jamal, Rahaman

    2011-04-01

    To find out the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seafoods and environmental sources. The study was carried out at the Center of Excellence for Food Safety Research, University Putra Malaysia; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; Medical Molecular Biology Institute; and University Kebansaan Malaysia Hospital, Malaysia between January 2006 and August 2008. One hundred and forty-four isolates from 400 samples of seafood (122 isolates) and seawater sources (22 isolates) were investigated for the presence of thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh+) and TDH-related hemolysin (trh+) genes using the standard methods. The E-test method was used to test the antimicrobial susceptibility. The study indicates low occurrence of tdh+ (0.69%) and trh+ isolates (8.3%). None of the isolates tested posses both virulence genes. High sensitivity was observed against tetracycline (98%). The mean minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the isolates toward ampicillin increased from 4 ug/ml in 2004 to 24 ug/ml in 2007. The current study demonstrates a low occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the marine environment and seafood. Nonetheless, the potential risk of vibrio infection due to consumption of Vibrio parahaemolyticus contaminated seafood in Malaysia should not be neglected.

  11. Reduction of plasma density in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance experiment by using a helicon pre-ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossack, Aaron C.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Victor, Brian S.; Firman, Taylor; Prager, James R.; Ziemba, Timothy; Wrobel, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    A helicon based pre-ionization source has been developed and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance (HIT-SI) spheromak. The source initiates plasma breakdown by injecting impurity-free, unmagnetized plasma into the HIT-SI confinement volume. Typical helium spheromaks have electron density reduced from (2–3) × 10 19 m −3 to 1 × 10 19 m −3 . Deuterium spheromak formation is possible with density as low as 2 × 10 18 m −3 . The source also enables HIT-SI to be operated with only one helicity injector at injector frequencies above 14.5 kHz. A theory explaining the physical mechanism driving the reduction of breakdown density is presented

  12. Reduction of plasma density in the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance experiment by using a helicon pre-ionization source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossack, Aaron C.; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Victor, Brian S. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Firman, Taylor; Prager, James R.; Ziemba, Timothy [Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc., 119 W. Denny Way, Suite 210, Seattle, Washington 98119 (United States); Wrobel, Jonathan S. [979B West Moorhead Circle, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    A helicon based pre-ionization source has been developed and installed on the Helicity Injected Torus with Steady Inductance (HIT-SI) spheromak. The source initiates plasma breakdown by injecting impurity-free, unmagnetized plasma into the HIT-SI confinement volume. Typical helium spheromaks have electron density reduced from (2–3) × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3} to 1 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}. Deuterium spheromak formation is possible with density as low as 2 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3}. The source also enables HIT-SI to be operated with only one helicity injector at injector frequencies above 14.5 kHz. A theory explaining the physical mechanism driving the reduction of breakdown density is presented.

  13. Modelling of the source of particles associated with the injection of a pellet in a tokamak; Modelisation de la source de matiere associee a l'injection d'un glacon dans un Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, V

    2003-03-01

    The most suitable fuel supplying method of present tokamaks is the injection of cryogenic hydrogen pellets. The effectiveness of the system depends on both the poloidal location of the pellet launching point and ablation profile. Since the knowledge of the source of matter is a key parameter for building scenarios and analysing experiments, it is important to have at one's disposal a reliable modelling i) of the ablation process accounting for the fast ion and electron populations resulting from additional heating or current drive and ii) of the matter redistribution inside the discharge. This is the purpose of this thesis, which can be split in three main parts. First and foremost, the physical processes responsible for the extra-ablation due to the supra-thermal electrons and ions are analysed. It is shown that the large Larmor radius of the hot ions yields an increase of the section of the flux tube inside which the ion trajectory intercepts the ablation cloud (of cylindrical shape, along the magnetic field). Moreover, the particle entry into the cloud no longer remains essentially limited to the ends of the cylinder, what decreases the path the ions have to cover before reaching the pellet. These two geometrical effects result in an enhancement of the heat flux at the pellet surface, and thus in an extra-ablation in NBI or ICRH experiments. The second part of the work is devoted to the modelling of the homogenization of the ablated matter in the discharge. On each magnetic surface, the pellet deposits a spatially limited globule of cold and dense material where a charge separation takes place due to the electron and ion drifts in the toroidal magnetic field. Then a vertical electric field builds up, that is cause of the drift of the high density region towards the Low Field Side of the tokamak. This motion lasts as long as the pellet is in a situation of open-circuit and is the cause of the outward (respectively inward) displacement of the density increase

  14. Biofilm-Forming Abilities of Listeria monocytogenes Serotypes Isolated from Different Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doijad, Swapnil P.; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B.; Garg, Sandeep; Poharkar, Krupali V.; Kalorey, Dewanand R.; Kurkure, Nitin V.; Rawool, Deepak B.; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2015-01-01

    A total of 98 previously characterized and serotyped L. monocytogenes strains, comprising 32 of 1/2a; 20 of 1/2b and 46 of 4b serotype, from clinical and food sources were studied for their capability to form a biofilm. The microtiter plate assay revealed 62 (63.26%) strains as weak, 27 (27.55%) strains as moderate, and 9 (9.18%) strains as strong biofilm formers. Among the strong biofilm formers, 6 strains were of serotype 1/2a and 3 strains were of serotype 1/2b. None of the strain from 4b serotype exhibited strong biofilm formation. No firm correlation (p = 0.015) was noticed between any serotype and respective biofilm formation ability. Electron microscopic studies showed that strong biofilm forming isolates could synthesize a biofilm within 24 h on surfaces important in food industries such as stainless steel, ceramic tiles, high-density polyethylene plastics, polyvinyl chloride pipes, and glass. Cell enumeration of strong, moderate, and weak biofilm was performed to determine if the number of cells correlated with the biofilm-forming capabilities of the isolates. Strong, moderate, and weak biofilm showed 570±127× 103 cells/cm2, 33±26× 103 cells/cm2, 5±3× 103 cells/cm2, respectively, indicating that the number of cells was directly proportional to the strength of the biofilm. The hydrophobicity index (HI) analysis revealed higher hydrophobicity with an increased biofilm formation. Fatty acid methyl esterase analysis revealed the amount of certain fatty acids such as iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, and anteiso-C17:0 fatty acids correlated with the biofilm-forming capability of L. monocytogenes. This study showed that different strains of L. monocytogenes form biofilm of different intensities which did not completely correlate with their serotype; however, it correlated with the number of cells, hydrophobicity, and amount of certain fatty acids. PMID:26360831

  15. Biofilm-Forming Abilities of Listeria monocytogenes Serotypes Isolated from Different Sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil P Doijad

    Full Text Available A total of 98 previously characterized and serotyped L. monocytogenes strains, comprising 32 of 1/2a; 20 of 1/2b and 46 of 4b serotype, from clinical and food sources were studied for their capability to form a biofilm. The microtiter plate assay revealed 62 (63.26% strains as weak, 27 (27.55% strains as moderate, and 9 (9.18% strains as strong biofilm formers. Among the strong biofilm formers, 6 strains were of serotype 1/2a and 3 strains were of serotype 1/2b. None of the strain from 4b serotype exhibited strong biofilm formation. No firm correlation (p = 0.015 was noticed between any serotype and respective biofilm formation ability. Electron microscopic studies showed that strong biofilm forming isolates could synthesize a biofilm within 24 h on surfaces important in food industries such as stainless steel, ceramic tiles, high-density polyethylene plastics, polyvinyl chloride pipes, and glass. Cell enumeration of strong, moderate, and weak biofilm was performed to determine if the number of cells correlated with the biofilm-forming capabilities of the isolates. Strong, moderate, and weak biofilm showed 570±127× 103 cells/cm2, 33±26× 103 cells/cm2, 5±3× 103 cells/cm2, respectively, indicating that the number of cells was directly proportional to the strength of the biofilm. The hydrophobicity index (HI analysis revealed higher hydrophobicity with an increased biofilm formation. Fatty acid methyl esterase analysis revealed the amount of certain fatty acids such as iso-C15:0, anteiso-C15:0, and anteiso-C17:0 fatty acids correlated with the biofilm-forming capability of L. monocytogenes. This study showed that different strains of L. monocytogenes form biofilm of different intensities which did not completely correlate with their serotype; however, it correlated with the number of cells, hydrophobicity, and amount of certain fatty acids.

  16. Mechanical design of injection line for VEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, C.; Bandopadhyay, D.K.; Pal, G.; Sharma, R.N.; Mallik, C.; Chaudhuri, J.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    A 14.5 GHz ECR ion source along with its analyzing section was earlier installed at VECC for injecting multiply charged gaseous and metallic ions into the existing K 130 cyclotron. The injection line from this ECR ion source was connected to the vertical section of the existing injection line for integrating it with the K 130 cyclotron. The injection line comprises two solenoid magnets, a steering magnet, and a bending magnet. In between the solenoid magnets a length about 1.5 metres has been provided for future atomic physics experimental applications. Two gate valves are used to isolate this area. For beam diagnostics, two Faraday cups, designed and fabricated in this centre, have been installed

  17. Isolation and characterization of a bacterium which utilizes polyester polyurethane as a sole carbon and nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima-Kambe, T; Onuma, F; Kimpara, N; Nakahara, T

    1995-06-01

    Various soil samples were screened for the presence of microorganisms which have the ability to degrade polyurethane compounds. Two strains with good polyurethane degrading activity were isolated. The more active strain was tentatively identified as Comamonas acidovorans. This strain could utilize polyester-type polyurethanes but not the polyether-type polyurethanes as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. Adipic acid and diethylene glycol were probably the main degradation products when polyurethane was supplied as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. When ammonium nitrate was used as nitrogen source, only diethylene glycol was detected after growth on polyurethane.

  18. Selective cultures for the isolation of biosurfactant producing bacteria: comparison of different combinations of environmental inocula and hydrophobic carbon sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Patrícia M; Louvado, António; Oliveira, Vanessa; Coelho, Francisco J C R; Almeida, Adelaide; Gomes, Newton C M; Cunha, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The potential of estuarine microniches as reservoirs of biosurfactant-producing bacteria was evaluated by testing different combinations of inocula and hydrophobic carbon sources. Selective cultures using diesel, petroleum, or paraffin as hydrophobic carbon sources were prepared and inoculated with water from the surface microlayer, bulk sediments, and sediment of the rhizosphere of Halimione portulacoides. These inocula were compared regarding the frequency of biosurfactant-producing strains among selected isolates. The community structure of the selective cultures was profiled using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of the 16S rRNA gene fragments at the end of the incubation. The DGGE profiles corresponding to the communities established in selective cultures at the end of the incubation revealed that communities were different in terms of structural diversity. The highest diversity was observed in the selective cultures containing paraffin (H (') = 2.5). Isolates were obtained from the selective cultures (66) and tested for biosurfactant production by the atomized oil assay. Biosurfactant production was detected in 17 isolates identified as Microbacterium, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, and Serratia. The combination of estuarine surface microlayer (SML) water as inoculum and diesel as carbon source seems promising for the isolation of surfactant-producing bacteria. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology to view the supplemental file.

  19. Ribotyping for differentiating Flavobacterium meningosepticum isolates from clinical and environmental sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, H; Bangsborg, J; Fiehn, N E

    1994-01-01

    RI), a discriminatory index of 0.95 to 0.97 was found. The value of ribotyping in an epidemiological setting was assessed for three clinical isolates of F. meningosepticum from an outbreak of meningitis and bacteremia in the neonatal intensive care unit, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. The three clinical isolates...

  20. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated from natural sources of water from rural areas of East Sikkim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubra Poonia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Contamination of water, food, and environment with antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a serious public health issue. Objective: The objective was to study the bacterial pollution of the natural sources of water in east Sikkim and to determine the antimicrobial profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 samples, 75 each during winter, summer, and monsoon season were collected from the same source in every season for bacteriological analysis by membrane filtration method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 19 bacterial species of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Serratia were isolated and their antimicrobial sensitivity tested. Generally, most bacterial isolates except Salmonella and Shigella species were found resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (57.5%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxaole (39.1%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (37.4%, cefixime (34.5%, tetracycline (29.1%, ceftazidime (26.3%, ofloxacin (25.9%, amikacin (8.7%, and gentamicin (2.7% but sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Natural sources of water in east Sikkim are grossly contaminated with bacteria including enteropathogens. The consumption of untreated water from these sources might pose health risk to consumers.

  1. Aspects of constitutive and acquired antibioresistance in Aeromonas hydrophila strains isolated from water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balotescu, Carmen; Israil, Anca; Radu, Roxana; Alexandru, Ionela; Dobre, Georgeta

    2003-01-01

    without a direct medical impact, however they could play an indirect one remaining permanent sources of R genes for bacterial strains with pathogenic abilities implicated in human pathology (i.e. Aeromonas infections in man related to different professional activities such as fishing, surfing, swimming, diving, etc.). The purpose of this work was to determine the aspects related to constitutive and acquired antibioresistance in 35 A. hydrophila strains isolated in aquatic environment of Danube Delta (10 salmaster waters, 5 aquatic plants, 5 fish intestinal content, 5 fish sapling, 5 snake and oyster shells). The strains were biochemically identified by using API20E and API20NE kits. The antibioresistance spectrum was determined by disk diffusion method following NCCLS 2000 recommendations. The choice and disposal of antibiotics on the Mueller Hinton plate was done to allow the interpretive reading and the phenotypic detection of different antibioresistance mechanisms, as follows: beta-lactamases (PEN, ME, AMX, AMC, CAZ) and carbapenemase (IMP) production; porin deficiency (FOX); efflux mechanism (C, TE, NOR). All tested strains exhibited high resistance to penicillin, aspect pleading for constitutive penicillinase production in Aeromonas strains. With reference to other penicillins (ME, AMX, AMC) and cephalosporins (CAZ, FOX) the tested strains exhibited 2 different antibioresistance patterns: AMX-R, AMC-S, CAZ-S (65%) indicating the presence of beta-lactamase sensitive to inhibitors and AMX-R, AMC-R, CAZ-S (22%) indicating the presence of beta-lactamase resistant to inhibitors. Resistance to FOX in 8% of strains signifies a phenotypical marker for the presence of porin deficiency. Only one Aeromonas strain (2.8%) was resistant to IMP. Three strains (8%) were simultaneous resistant to TE and TMP/SMX, NOR and CHL probably due to the presence of a resistance plasmid (codifying an efflux/ enzymatic mechanism). These aspects are pleading for the necessity to investigate the

  2. English-language videos on YouTube as a source of information on self-administer subcutaneous anti-tumour necrosis factor agent injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Sena; Yurdakul, Ozan Volkan; Basaran, Betul; Rezvani, Aylin

    2018-05-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability, content, and quality of videos for patients available on YouTube for learning how to self-administer subcutaneous anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) injections. We searched for the terms Humira injection, Enbrel injection, Simponi injection, and Cimzia injection. Videos were categorised as useful information, misleading information, useful patient opinion, and misleading patient opinion by two physicians. Videos were rated for quality on a 5-point global quality scale (GQS; 1 = poor quality, 5 = excellent quality) and reliability and content using the 5-point DISCERN scale (higher scores represent greater reliability and more comprehensive videos). Of the 142 English videos, 24 (16.9%) videos were classified as useful information, 6 (4.2%) as misleading information, 47 (33.1%) as useful patient opinion, and 65 (45.8%) as misleading patient opinion. Useful videos were the most comprehensive and had the highest reliability and quality scores. The useful information and useful patient opinion videos had the highest numbers of views per day (median 8.32, IQR: 3.40-14.28 and 5.46, IQR: 3.06-14.44), as compared with 2.32, IQR: 1.63-6.26 for misleading information videos and 2.15, IQR: 1.17-7.43 for misleading patient opinion videos (p = 0.001). Almost all (91.5%) misleading videos were uploaded by individual users. There are a substantial number of English-language YouTube videos, with high quality, and rich content and reliability that can be sources of information on proper technique of anti-TNF self-injections. Physicians should direct patients to the reliable resources of information and educate them in online resource assessment, thereby improving treatment outcomes.

  3. Recovery of a Burkholderia thailandensis-like isolate from an Australian water source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkins Patricia P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia thailandensis, a close relative of Burkholderia pseudomallei, has previously been reported only from Southeast Asia and North America. It is biochemically differentiated from B. pseudomallei by the ability to utilize arabinose. During the course of environmental sampling for B. pseudomallei in the Northern Territory of Australia, an isolate, MSMB 43, was recovered that is arabinose positive. Results Genetic analysis using 16S rDNA sequencing and DNA/DNA hybridization indicates that MSMB 43 is most similar to B. thailandensis although multi-locus sequence typing indicates that this isolate is divergent from both B. pseudomallei and other described B. thailandensis. Conclusion We report the isolation and initial characterization of strain MSMB 43, which is a B. thailandensis-like isolate recovered in Australia.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates from clinical and environmental sources of a metropolitan city.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Velayati

    Full Text Available While NTM infection is mainly acquired from environmental exposure, monitoring of environmental niches for NTM is not a routine practice. This study aimed to find the prevalence of environmental NTM in soil and water in four highly populated suburbs of Tehran, Iran.A total of 4014 samples from soil and water resources were collected and studied. Sediments of each treated sample were cultured in Lowenstein-Jensen medium and observed twice per week for growth rate, colony morphology, and pigmentation. Colonies were studied with phenotypic tests. Molecular analysis was performed on single colonies derived from subculture of original isolates. Environmental samples were compared with 34 NTM isolates from patients who were residents of the study locations.Out of 4014 samples, mycobacteria were isolated from 862 (21.4% specimens; 536 (62.1% belonged to slow growing mycobacteria (SGM and 326 (37.8% were rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM. The five most frequent NTM were M. farcinogens (105/862; 12.1%, M. fortuitum (72/862; 8.3%, M. senegalense (58/862; 6.7%, M. kansasii (54/862; 6.2%, and M. simiae (46/862; 5.3%. In total, 62.5% (539/862 of mycobacterial positive samples were isolated from water and only 37.4% (323/862 of them were isolated from soil samples (P<0.05. Out of 5314 positive clinical samples for mycobacteria, 175 (3.2% isolates were NTM. The trend of NTM isolates increased from 1.2% (13 out of 1078 in 2004 to 3.8% (39 out of 1005 in 2014 (P = 0.0001. The major clinical isolates were M. simiae (51; 29.1%, M. kansasii (26; 14.8%, M. chelonae (28; 16%, and M. fortuitum (13; 7.4%.Comparing the distribution pattern of environmental NTM isolates with clinical isolates suggests a possible transmission link, but this does not apply to all environmental NTM species. Our study confirms an increasing trend of NTM isolation from clinical samples that needs further investigation.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates from clinical and environmental sources of a metropolitan city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velayati, Ali Akbar; Farnia, Parissa; Mozafari, Mohadese; Malekshahian, Donya; Seif, Shima; Rahideh, Snaz; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    While NTM infection is mainly acquired from environmental exposure, monitoring of environmental niches for NTM is not a routine practice. This study aimed to find the prevalence of environmental NTM in soil and water in four highly populated suburbs of Tehran, Iran. A total of 4014 samples from soil and water resources were collected and studied. Sediments of each treated sample were cultured in Lowenstein-Jensen medium and observed twice per week for growth rate, colony morphology, and pigmentation. Colonies were studied with phenotypic tests. Molecular analysis was performed on single colonies derived from subculture of original isolates. Environmental samples were compared with 34 NTM isolates from patients who were residents of the study locations. Out of 4014 samples, mycobacteria were isolated from 862 (21.4%) specimens; 536 (62.1%) belonged to slow growing mycobacteria (SGM) and 326 (37.8%) were rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM). The five most frequent NTM were M. farcinogens (105/862; 12.1%), M. fortuitum (72/862; 8.3%), M. senegalense (58/862; 6.7%), M. kansasii (54/862; 6.2%), and M. simiae (46/862; 5.3%). In total, 62.5% (539/862) of mycobacterial positive samples were isolated from water and only 37.4% (323/862) of them were isolated from soil samples (Pdistribution pattern of environmental NTM isolates with clinical isolates suggests a possible transmission link, but this does not apply to all environmental NTM species. Our study confirms an increasing trend of NTM isolation from clinical samples that needs further investigation.

  6. Isolation of saprophytic Leptospira spp. from a selected environmental water source of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialfa, Exequiel; Grune, Sylvia; Brihuega, Bibiana; Aguirre, Pablo; Rivero, Marina

    2017-11-29

    Ten Leptospira spp. strains were isolated from water samples from Nievas stream, Olavarría, Buenos Aires province (Argentina). The isolates showed the typical motility and morphology of the genus Leptospira under dark field microscopy, developing in liquid EMJH medium after eight days of incubation at 13°C and 30°C. All isolates were negative by the Multiple Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis (MLVA). Molecular identification by 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified all isolates as nonpathogenic leptospires. Four isolates showed a genetic profile identical to that of the reference strain Leptospira biflexa serovar Patoc, and six isolates revealed sequence similarities within the 97-98% range, closely related to Leptospira yanagawae and Leptospira meyeri, respectively. Strains ScialfaASA42, ScialfaASA45, ScialfaASA44, ScialfaASA47, ScialfaASA49, ScialfaASA50 and ScialfaASA51 possibly represent a novel species of the genus Leptospira. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and Identification of Pyrene Mineralizing Mycobacterium spp. from Contaminated and Uncontaminated Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lease, C.W.M; Bentham, R.H; Gaskin, S.E; Juhasz, A.L

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium isolates obtained from PAH-contaminated and uncontaminated matrices were evaluated for their ability to degrade three-, four- and five-ring PAHs. PAH enrichment studies were prepared using pyrene and inocula obtained from manufacturing gas plant (MGP) soil, uncontaminated agricultural soil, and faeces from Macropus fuliginosus (Western Grey Kangaroo). Three pyrene-degrading microorganisms isolated from the corresponding enrichment cultures had broad substrate ranges, however, isolates could be differentiated based on surfactant, phenol, hydrocarbon and PAH utilisation. 16S rRNA analysis identified all three isolates as Mycobacterium sp. The Mycobacterium spp. could rapidly degrade phenanthrene and pyrene, however, no strain had the capacity to utilise fluorene or benzo[a]pyrene. When pyrene mineralisation experiments were performed, 70-79% of added 14 C was evolved as 14 CO 2 after 10 days. The present study demonstrates that PAH degrading microorganisms may be isolated from a diverse range of environmental matrices. The present study demonstrates that prior exposure to PAHs was not a prerequisite for PAH catabolic activity for two of these Mycobacterium isolates.

  8. Target and ion source developments for a helium-jet type ISOL at the Kyoto university reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Yoichi; Okano, Kotoyuki; Funakoshi, Yoshihiro

    1985-01-01

    A target system and ion sources for a He-jet type ISOL have been successfully constructed and the characteristics have been studied. The beam intensities of short-lived fission products have been much improved by increasing the He gas pressure owing to a range effect of fission products in the He gas and a short transport time effect of aerosols in a target chamber and a capillary. An oscillating electron ion source has been coupled with the He-jet system and ten kinds of elements have been ionized with efficiencies of 0.4-2.4%. A high temperature thermal ion source has been studied to ionize the alkali, alkaline-earth and rare-earth elements. The effects of the He-jet on the ion source have been discussed. (orig.)

  9. Galvanically Isolated Quasi-Z-Source DC–DC Converter With a Novel ZVS and ZCS Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husev, Oleksandr; Liivik, Liisa; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the galvanically isolated quasi-Z-source dc-dc converter with a novel zero voltage and zero current switching technique. The unique feature of the impedance network lies in combining the buck-boost operation capability with the short- and open-circuit immunity of transistors......; at the same time, it can perform zero voltage and zero current switching on the primary side. The boundary conduction mode of the current in the second inductor of the quasi-Z-source network was used along with snubber capacitors in the two out of four transistors and a special control algorithm to achieve...

  10. Isolate-specific conidiation in Trichoderma in response to different nitrogen sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Johanna M; Weld, Richard J; Stewart, Alison

    2010-01-01

    A characteristic feature of Trichoderma is the production of concentric rings of conidia in response to alternating light/dark conditions and a single ring of conidia in response to a single burst of light. In this study, conidiation was investigated in four biocontrol isolates (T. hamatum, T. atroviride, T. asperellum, T. virens) and one isolate from the mushroom pathogen species, T. pleuroticola. All five isolates produced concentric conidial rings under alternating light/dark conditions on potato-dextrose agar (PDA), however, in response to a 15min burst of blue light, only T. asperellum and T. virens produced a clearly defined conidial ring. Both T. pleuroticola and T. hamatum photoconidiated in a disk-like fashion and T. atroviride produced a broken ring with a partially filled in appearance. In the presence of primary nitrogen, T. asperellum and T. pleuroticola conidiated in a disk, whereas, when grown in the presence of secondary nitrogen, a ring of conidia was produced. Primary nitrogen promoted photoconidiation and competency to conidiate in response to light appeared dependent on the nitrogen catabolite repression state of the cell. Mycelial injury was also investigated in the same five isolates of Trichoderma on PDA and under different nitrogen statuses. For the first time, we report that conidiation in response to injury is differentially regulated in different isolates/species of Trichoderma. Copyright © 2009 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of L-band and C-band rf guns as sources for inline-injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, J.C.; Kirk, H.G.; Meyerer, T.

    1994-12-01

    We consider the beam dynamics associated with installing a BNL type 1 1/2 cell L-band or C-band rf gun before two TESLA L-band cryomodules. This system will deliver a 25 MeV electron beam with peak currents on the order of 100 A suitable for further magnetic compression. evaluate the injection systems utilizing the electron beam dynamic code PARMELA from the point of view of minimizing the transverse invariant emittance

  12. Vaccines Meet Big Data: State-of-the-Art and Future Prospects. From the Classical 3Is ("Isolate-Inactivate-Inject") Vaccinology 1.0 to Vaccinology 3.0, Vaccinomics, and Beyond: A Historical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Gianfredi, Vincenza; Villarini, Milena; Rosselli, Roberto; Nasr, Ahmed; Hussein, Amr; Martini, Mariano; Behzadifar, Masoud

    2018-01-01

    Vaccines are public health interventions aimed at preventing infections-related mortality, morbidity, and disability. While vaccines have been successfully designed for those infectious diseases preventable by preexisting neutralizing specific antibodies, for other communicable diseases, additional immunological mechanisms should be elicited to achieve a full protection. "New vaccines" are particularly urgent in the nowadays society, in which economic growth, globalization, and immigration are leading to the emergence/reemergence of old and new infectious agents at the animal-human interface. Conventional vaccinology (the so-called "vaccinology 1.0") was officially born in 1796 thanks to the contribution of Edward Jenner. Entering the twenty-first century, vaccinology has shifted from a classical discipline in which serendipity and the Pasteurian principle of the three I s (isolate, inactivate, and inject) played a major role to a science, characterized by a rational design and plan ("vaccinology 3.0"). This shift has been possible thanks to Big Data, characterized by different dimensions, such as high volume, velocity, and variety of data. Big Data sources include new cutting-edge, high-throughput technologies, electronic registries, social media, and social networks, among others. The current mini-review aims at exploring the potential roles as well as pitfalls and challenges of Big Data in shaping the future vaccinology, moving toward a tailored and personalized vaccine design and administration.

  13. Compost as a source of microbial isolates for the bioremediation of heavy metals: In vitro selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-García, María del Carmen; López, María José; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Moreno, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution has become a major environmental concern nowadays and the bioremediation of polluted habitats is an increasingly popular strategy due to both its efficiency and safety. A screening and selection protocol based on different composting processes was designed in order to isolate heavy metal-resistant microorganisms. A collection of 51 microorganisms was obtained and most of them showed the capability to tolerate heavy metals in multi-polluted aqueous systems (Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni, Pb, Zn(II)), as well as to remove them. The highest detoxification ratios were observed for Pb. Some of the isolates detoxifying more than a 90% of this metal, while the other metals were removed in a range between 20% and 60%. The best isolates (Graphium putredinis, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sp. and Penicillium chrysogenum) were further assayed in order to determine the predominant removal mechanism and the potential use of their dead biomass as a biosorbent. Intracellular accumulation was the prevalent mechanism for most isolates and metals, with the exception of Ni. In this case, the proportion removed by extracellular adsorption was similar or even higher than that removed by intracellular accumulation. Thus, the efficiency of living cells was higher than that of dead biomass except in the case of Ni. - Highlights: ► Composting is a good reservoir for the isolation of HM-resistant microorganisms. ► Pb was the most removed heavy metal in multi-polluted aqueous systems. ► Intracellular accumulation was the predominant mechanism for heavy metal removal. ► Graphium putredinis, which detoxifies organic pollutants, was the most efficient isolate.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence profile of enterococci isolated from poultry and cattle sources in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngbede, Emmanuel Ochefije; Raji, Mashood Abiola; Kwanashie, Clara Nna; Kwaga, Jacob Kwada Paghi

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, antimicrobial resistance and virulence of Enterococcus from poultry and cattle farms. Three hundred and ninety samples: cloacal/rectal swabs (n = 260) and manure (n = 130] were processed for recovery of Enterococcus species. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate, identify and characterize Enterococcus species for antimicrobial susceptibility and expression of virulence traits. Detection of antibiotic resistance and virulence genes was carried out by polymerase chain reaction. Enterococcus was recovered from 167 (42.8%) of the 390 samples tested with a predominance of Enterococcus faecium (27.7%). Other species detected were Enterococcus gallinarum, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus hirae, Enterococcus raffinosus, Enterococcus avium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus mundtii and Enterococcus durans. All the isolates tested were susceptible to vancomycin, but resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, ampicillin and gentamicin was also observed among 61.0, 61.0, 45.1 and 32.7% of the isolates, respectively. Sixty (53.1%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant presenting as 24 different resistance patterns with resistance to gentamicin-erythromycin-streptomycin-tetracycline (CN-ERY-STR-TET) being the most common (n = 11) pattern. In addition to expression of virulence traits (haemolysin, gelatinase, biofilm production), antibiotic resistance (tetK, tetL, tetM, tetO and ermB) and virulence (asa1, gelE, cylA) genes were detected among the isolates. Also, in vitro transfer of resistance determinants was observed among 75% of the isolates tested. Our data revealed poultry, cattle and manure in this area are hosts to varying Enterococcus species harbouring virulence and resistance determinants that can be transferred to other organisms and also are important for causing nosocomial infection.

  15. Compost as a source of microbial isolates for the bioremediation of heavy metals: In vitro selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Garcia, Maria del Carmen, E-mail: mcvargas@ual.es; Lopez, Maria Jose, E-mail: mllopez@ual.es; Suarez-Estrella, Francisca, E-mail: fsuarez@ual.es; Moreno, Joaquin, E-mail: jcasco@ual.es

    2012-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution has become a major environmental concern nowadays and the bioremediation of polluted habitats is an increasingly popular strategy due to both its efficiency and safety. A screening and selection protocol based on different composting processes was designed in order to isolate heavy metal-resistant microorganisms. A collection of 51 microorganisms was obtained and most of them showed the capability to tolerate heavy metals in multi-polluted aqueous systems (Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni, Pb, Zn(II)), as well as to remove them. The highest detoxification ratios were observed for Pb. Some of the isolates detoxifying more than a 90% of this metal, while the other metals were removed in a range between 20% and 60%. The best isolates (Graphium putredinis, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sp. and Penicillium chrysogenum) were further assayed in order to determine the predominant removal mechanism and the potential use of their dead biomass as a biosorbent. Intracellular accumulation was the prevalent mechanism for most isolates and metals, with the exception of Ni. In this case, the proportion removed by extracellular adsorption was similar or even higher than that removed by intracellular accumulation. Thus, the efficiency of living cells was higher than that of dead biomass except in the case of Ni. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting is a good reservoir for the isolation of HM-resistant microorganisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb was the most removed heavy metal in multi-polluted aqueous systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intracellular accumulation was the predominant mechanism for heavy metal removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphium putredinis, which detoxifies organic pollutants, was the most efficient isolate.

  16. Determination of the sources and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Salmonella isolated from the poultry industry in Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Reta Duguma; Mengstie, Fisseha; Beyi, Ashenafi Feyisa; Beyene, Takele; Waktole, Hika; Mammo, Bedasso; Ayana, Dinka; Abunna, Fufa

    2017-05-18

    Ethiopia set an ambitious masterplan to increase chicken meat and egg production from 2015 to 2020. Poultry breeding, multiplication and distribution centers in the country have received executive order to import, amplify and distribute commercial chickens to end users. The biosecurity and the pathogen fauna of the centers have not been evaluated as to whether the centers could implement the mission effectively without any risk. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the biosecurity practices and the pathogen prevalence, risk factors and their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) using Salmonella as case study. Routine farm workers of the centers were interviewed about the different management (biosecurity) practices using a checklist. Samples (n = 270) from different sources consisting of chicken's cloacal swab (n = 244), personnel hand swab (n = 9) and bedding (n = 17) were collected from three chicken multiplication centers. Standard bacteriological methods were used for the isolation of Salmonella. Disk diffusion method was used for drug sensitivity testing. Antimicrobials were often over prescribed without confirming the cause of ill health and without susceptibility testing. The general biosecurity and flock management practices were substandard. Salmonella was isolated from 45 (16.7%) of the 270 samples. Its prevalence was significantly (pSalmonella isolation from (i) bedding, (ii) personnel hand swabs (iii) chickens, (iv) presence of more MDR isolates, (v) coupled with poor biosecurity practices in the centers could pose a risk for spreading of pathogens and drug resistant genes to the smallholder chicken producers and the public. We conclude that the poultry breeding, multiplication and distribution centers in Ethiopia, as they stand currently, seem to be a source of pathogens and AMR isolates at least for Salmonella. Therefore, strict biosecurity, personnel safety, prudent drug use, regular monitoring and traceability of Salmonella serotypes or genotypes

  17. Antibiotic susceptibility of Legionella strains isolated from public water sources in Macau and Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lina; Yan, He; Shi, Lei; Mo, Ziyao

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of waterborne strains of Legionella to eight antimicrobials commonly used in legionellosis therapy. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 66 environmental Legionella strains, isolated from fountains and cooling towers of public facilities (hotels, schools, and shopping malls) in Macau and Guangzhou, were tested using the microdilution method in buffered yeast extract broth. The MIC 50 /MIC 90 values for erythromycin, cefotaxime (CTX), doxycycline (DOC), minocycline (MIN), azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin (LEV), and moxifloxacin were 0.125/0.5 mg/L, 4/8 mg/L, 8/16 mg/L, 4/8 mg/L, 0.125/0.5 mg/L, 0.031/0.031 mg/L, 0.031/0.031 mg/L, and 0.031/0.062 mg/L, respectively. Legionella isolates were inhibited by either low concentrations of macrolides and fluoroquinolones, or high concentrations of CTX and tetracycline drugs. LEV was the most effective drug against different Legionella species and serogroups of L. pneumophila isolates. The latter were inhibited in decreasing order by MIN > CTX >DOC, while non-L. pneumophila isolates were inhibited by CTX> MIN >DOC. In this study, we evaluated drug resistance of pathogenic bacteria from the environment. This may help predict the emergence of drug resistance, improve patient outcomes, and reduce hospitalization costs.

  18. Cryptococcus gattii VGIII isolates causing infections in HIV/AIDS patients in Southern California: identification of the local environmental source as arboreal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Springer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ongoing Cryptococcus gattii outbreaks in the Western United States and Canada illustrate the impact of environmental reservoirs and both clonal and recombining propagation in driving emergence and expansion of microbial pathogens. C. gattii comprises four distinct molecular types: VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV, with no evidence of nuclear genetic exchange, indicating these represent distinct species. C. gattii VGII isolates are causing the Pacific Northwest outbreak, whereas VGIII isolates frequently infect HIV/AIDS patients in Southern California. VGI, VGII, and VGIII have been isolated from patients and animals in the Western US, suggesting these molecular types occur in the environment. However, only two environmental isolates of C. gattii have ever been reported from California: CBS7750 (VGII and WM161 (VGIII. The incongruence of frequent clinical presence and uncommon environmental isolation suggests an unknown C. gattii reservoir in California. Here we report frequent isolation of C. gattii VGIII MATα and MATa isolates and infrequent isolation of VGI MATα from environmental sources in Southern California. VGIII isolates were obtained from soil debris associated with tree species not previously reported as hosts from sites near residences of infected patients. These isolates are fertile under laboratory conditions, produce abundant spores, and are part of both locally and more distantly recombining populations. MLST and whole genome sequence analysis provide compelling evidence that these environmental isolates are the source of human infections. Isolates displayed wide-ranging virulence in macrophage and animal models. When clinical and environmental isolates with indistinguishable MLST profiles were compared, environmental isolates were less virulent. Taken together, our studies reveal an environmental source and risk of C. gattii to HIV/AIDS patients with implications for the >1,000,000 cryptococcal infections occurring annually for which

  19. When tractography meets tracer injections: a systematic study of trends and variation sources of diffusion-based connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Dogu Baran; Jacobs, Russell; Dulawa, Stephanie; Thompson, Summer L; Francois, Maite Christi; Toga, Arthur W; Dong, Hongwei; Knowles, James A; Shi, Yonggang

    2018-04-16

    Tractography is a powerful technique capable of non-invasively reconstructing the structural connections in the brain using diffusion MRI images, but the validation of tractograms is challenging due to lack of ground truth. Owing to recent developments in mapping the mouse brain connectome, high-resolution tracer injection-based axonal projection maps have been created and quickly adopted for the validation of tractography. Previous studies using tracer injections mainly focused on investigating the match in projections and optimal tractography protocols. Being a complicated technique, however, tractography relies on multiple stages of operations and parameters. These factors introduce large variabilities in tractograms, hindering the optimization of protocols and making the interpretation of results difficult. Based on this observation, in contrast to previous studies, in this work we focused on quantifying and ranking the amount of performance variation introduced by these factors. For this purpose, we performed over a million tractography experiments and studied the variability across different subjects, injections, anatomical constraints and tractography parameters. By using N-way ANOVA analysis, we show that all tractography parameters are significant and importantly performance variations with respect to the differences in subjects are comparable to the variations due to tractography parameters, which strongly underlines the importance of fully documenting the tractography protocols in scientific experiments. We also quantitatively show that inclusion of anatomical constraints is the most significant factor for improving tractography performance. Although this critical factor helps reduce false positives, our analysis indicates that anatomy-informed tractography still fails to capture a large portion of axonal projections.

  20. Antiviral Potential of Algae Polysaccharides Isolated from Marine Sources: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azin Ahmadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From food to fertilizer, algal derived products are largely employed in assorted industries, including agricultural, biomedical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. Among different chemical compositions isolated from algae, polysaccharides are the most well-established compounds, which were subjected to a variety of studies due to extensive bioactivities. Over the past few decades, the promising results for antiviral potential of algae-derived polysaccharides have advocated them as inordinate candidates for pharmaceutical research. Numerous studies have isolated various algal polysaccharides possessing antiviral activities, including carrageenan, alginate, fucan, laminaran, and naviculan. In addition, different mechanisms of action have been reported for these polysaccharides, such as inhibiting the binding or internalization of virus into the host cells or suppressing DNA replication and protein synthesis. This review strives for compiling previous antiviral studies of algae-derived polysaccharides and their mechanism of action towards their development as natural antiviral agents for future investigations.

  1. Irradiation of Liquid Fungi Isolated Media from Contaminated Sources with Heavy Metals Additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawfiq, E.; Mohamed, A.A.; El-Kabbany, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational lead exposure is an important health issue in Egyptian workers, employees of paint factories, workers of copying centres, drivers, and tile making factories are in higher risk of lead toxicity. Wastewater, particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries, contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and bio sorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. Low level lead exposure can significantly induce motor dis functions and cognitive impairment in children. Seventy six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi with respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni with maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55 and 0.55 mg/g by fungi Pb 3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, C r 8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni 27 (A. niger), respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as bio sorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals. The F-ratio was 0.55 and gives non-significant as irradiated

  2. Transport of ions in presence of induced electric field and electrostatic turbulence - Source of ions injected into ring current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladis, J. B.; Francis, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    The transport of ions from the polar ionosphere to the inner magnetosphere during stormtime conditions has been computed using a Monte Carlo diffusion code. The effect of the electrostatic turbulence assumed to be present during the substorm expansion phase was simulated by a process that accelerated the ions stochastically perpendicular to the magnetic field with a diffusion coefficient proportional to the energization rate of the ions by the induced electric field. This diffusion process was continued as the ions were convected from the plasma sheet boundary layer to the double-spiral injection boundary. Inward of the injection boundary, the ions were convected adiabatically. By using as input an O(+) flux of 2.8 x 10 to the 8th per sq cm per s (w greater than 10 eV) and an H(+) flux of 5.5 x 10 to the 8th per sq cm per s (w greater than 0.63 eV), the computed distribution functions of the ions in the ring current were found to be in good agreement, over a wide range in L (4 to 8), with measurements made with the ISEE-1 satellite during a storm. This O(+) flux and a large part of the H(+) flux are consistent with the DE satellite measurements of the polar ionospheric outflow during disturbed times.

  3. Precision and broadband frequency swept laser source based on high-order modulation-sideband injection-locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Lu, Bin; Wang, Jian; Xu, Dan; Pan, Zhengqing; Chen, Dijun; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui

    2015-02-23

    A precision and broadband laser frequency swept technique is experimentally demonstrated. Using synchronous current compensation, a slave diode laser is dynamically injection-locked to a specific high-order modulation-sideband of a narrow-linewidth master laser modulated by an electro-optic modulator (EOM), whose driven radio frequency (RF) signal can be agilely, precisely controlled by a frequency synthesizer, and the high-order modulation-sideband enables multiplied sweep range and tuning rate. By using 5th order sideband injection-locking, the original tuning range of 3 GHz and tuning rate of 0.5 THz/s is multiplied by 5 times to 15 GHz and 2.5 THz/s respectively. The slave laser has a 3 dB-linewidth of 2.5 kHz which is the same to the master laser. The settling time response of a 10 MHz frequency switching is 2.5 µs. By using higher-order modulation-sideband and optimized experiment parameters, an extended sweep range and rate could be expected.

  4. Simple and highly discriminatory VNTR-based multiplex PCR for tracing sources of Aspergillus flavus isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus is second only to A. fumigatus in causing invasive aspergillosis and it is the major agent responsible for fungal sinusitis, keratitis and endophthalmitis in many countries in the Middle East, Africa and Southeast Asia. Despite the growing challenge due to A. flavus, data on the molecular epidemiology of this fungus remain scarce. The objective of the present study was to develop a new typing method based on the detection of VNTR (Variable number tandem repeat markers. Eight VNTR markers located on 6 different chromosomes (1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 8 of A. flavus were selected, combined by pairs for multiplex amplifications and tested on 30 unrelated isolates and six reference strains. The Simpson index for individual markers ranged from 0.398 to 0.818. A combined loci index calculated with all the markers yielded an index of 0.998. The MLVA (Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis technique proved to be specific and reproducible. In a second time, a total of 55 isolates from Chinese avian farms and from a Tunisian hospital have been evaluated. One major cluster of genotypes could be defined by using the graphing algorithm termed Minimum Spanning Tree. This cluster comprised most of the isolates collected in an avian farm in southern China. The MLVA technique should be considered as an excellent and cost-effective typing method that could be used in many laboratories without the need for sophisticated equipment.

  5. Field studies on two rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycete isolates as biofertilizer sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mba, Caroline C.

    1994-03-01

    Recently biotechnology is focusing attention on utilization of biological resources to solve a number of environmental problems such as soil fertility management. Results of microbial studies on earthworm compost in the University of Nigeria farm identified a number of rock phosphate solubilizing actinomycetes. Two of these, isclates 02 and 13, were found to be efficient rock phosphate (RP) solubilizers and fast-growing cellulolytic microbes producing extracellular hydrolase enzymes. In this preliminary field study the two microbial isolates were investigated with respect to their effects on the growth of soybean and egusi as well as their effect on the incidence of toxicity of poultry droppings. Application of these isolates in poultry manure-treated field plots, as microbial fertilizers, brought about yield increases of 43% and 17% with soybeans and 19% and 33% with egusi, respectively. Soil properties were also improved. With isolates 02 and 13, the soil available phosphorus increased at the five-leaf stage, while N-fixation in the soil increased by 45% or 11% relative to control. It was further observed that air-dried poultry manure after four days of incubation was still toxic to soybean. The toxic effect of the applied poultry manure was reduced or eliminated with microbial fertilizers 02 or 13, respectively. The beneficial effects of the microbial organic fertilizer are discussed. Justification for more intensive research on rock phosphate organic fertilizer is highlighted.

  6. Injection of auxiliary electrons for increasing the plasma density in highly charged and high intensity ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odorici, F., E-mail: fabrizio.odorici@bo.infn.it; Malferrari, L.; Montanari, A. [INFN—Bologna, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Rizzoli, R. [INFN—Bologna, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); CNR–Istituto per la Microelettronica ed i Microsistemi, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Neri, L. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Different electron guns based on cold- or hot-cathode technologies have been developed since 2009 at INFN for operating within ECR plasma chambers as sources of auxiliary electrons, with the aim of boosting the source performances by means of a higher plasma lifetime and density. Their application to microwave discharge ion sources, where plasma is not confined, has required an improvement of the gun design, in order to “screen” the cathode from the plasma particles. Experimental tests carried out on a plasma reactor show a boost of the plasma density, ranging from 10% to 90% when the electron guns are used, as explained by plasma diffusion models.

  7. Injection of auxiliary electrons for increasing the plasma density in highly charged and high intensity ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorici, F; Malferrari, L; Montanari, A; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Castro, G; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Neri, L

    2016-02-01

    Different electron guns based on cold- or hot-cathode technologies have been developed since 2009 at INFN for operating within ECR plasma chambers as sources of auxiliary electrons, with the aim of boosting the source performances by means of a higher plasma lifetime and density. Their application to microwave discharge ion sources, where plasma is not confined, has required an improvement of the gun design, in order to "screen" the cathode from the plasma particles. Experimental tests carried out on a plasma reactor show a boost of the plasma density, ranging from 10% to 90% when the electron guns are used, as explained by plasma diffusion models.

  8. A summary of the sources of input parameter values for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant final porosity surface calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values

  9. A summary of the sources of input parameter values for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant final porosity surface calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, B.M.

    1997-08-01

    A summary of the input parameter values used in final predictions of closure and waste densification in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal room is presented, along with supporting references. These predictions are referred to as the final porosity surface data and will be used for WIPP performance calculations supporting the Compliance Certification Application to be submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The report includes tables and list all of the input parameter values, references citing their source, and in some cases references to more complete descriptions of considerations leading to the selection of values.

  10. Design and preliminary characterization of a miniature pulsed RF APGD torch with downstream injection of the source of reactive species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveille, V; Coulombe, S

    2005-01-01

    The design of a miniature low-power atmospheric pressure glow discharge torch (APGD-t) and the results of its preliminary electrical and spectroscopic characterization are presented. A capacitively-coupled pulsed RF (13.56 MHz) helium plasma jet is formed in a converging confinement tube and O 2 is injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through a capillary electrode. With 1 SLM He, the APGD-t produced a non-thermal plasma jet of 500 μm-diameter and ∼2.5 mm-long at power levels ranging from 1 to 5 W. At ∼1 W, the gas temperature and He excitation temperature near the nozzle exit were ∼50 0 C and slightly below 2000 K, respectively. The breakdown voltage in 1 SLM He is approximately 220 V pk-to-0 . Careful electric probe measurements and circuit analysis revealed the strong effect of the voltage probe on the total load impedance. The injection of 10 SCCM O 2 through the capillary electrode led to the transport of atomic O further downstream in the plasma jet and to a slight increase of the He excitation temperature without significant effects on the electrical properties and jet length. Alternatively, the addition of an equivalent amount of O 2 (1 v/v%) to the plasma-forming gas affected the electrical properties slightly, but led to a drastic contraction of the plasma jet. The atomic oxygen production and transport conditions provided by the APGD-t are promising for precise bio-applications such as the treatment of skin tissues and cells

  11. Isolation of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica strains from different sources in Izmir region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozcal, Elif; Uzel, Atac; Aydemir, Sohret; Skurnik, Mikael

    2015-11-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a foodborne pathogen that is very rarely encountered in Turkey. In this work, several human, porcine, and environmental samples collected from Izmir region in Turkey were examined for the presence of Y. enterocolitica using different cultivation and enrichment methods. A total of nine pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains were isolated; five strains from pig stool and manure samples and four strains from waste water samples. On the other hand, no Y. enterocolitica was isolated from human diarrheal stool samples (n = 102) and from 12 gulf, canal, municipal pool, and well water samples. Biochemical and serological characterization of the nine Y. enterocolitica strains revealed that they belonged to three different bioserotypes: 4/O:3, 2/O:9, and 2/O:5,27. All the strains were deemed pathogenic based on virulence factor-specific PCR analysis. Detection of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains from the pig and waste water samples from the Izmir region indicates that Y. enterocolitica is a potential risk for public health.

  12. Characteristics of a high-power RF source of negative hydrogen ions for neutral beam injection into controlled fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdrashitov, G. F.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Gusev, I. A.; Ivanov, A. A.; Kondakov, A. A.; Sanin, A. L.; Sotnikov, O. Z., E-mail: O.Z.Sotnikov@inp.nsk.su; Shikhovtsev, I. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    An injector of hydrogen atoms with an energy of 0.5–1 MeV and equivalent current of up to 1.5 A for purposes of controlled fusion research is currently under design at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences. Within this project, a multiple-aperture RF surface-plasma source of negative hydrogen ions is designed. The source design and results of experiments on the generation of a negative ion beam with a current of >1 A in the long-pulse mode are presented.

  13. Isolation and Preparation of Nanoscale Bioapatites from Natural Sources: A Review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šupová, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2014), s. 546-563 ISSN 1533-4880 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/09/1000 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : bioapatites * calcium phosphate * hydroxyapatite * natural sources Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2014

  14. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  15. Bacillus spp. Isolated from Puba as a Source of Biosurfactants and Antimicrobial Lipopeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Karla J.; Viana, Jaime dos Santos; Lopes, Fernanda C.; Pereira, Jamile Q.; dos Santos, Daniel M.; Oliveira, Jamil S.; Velho, Renata V.; Crispim, Silvia M.; Nicoli, Jacques R.; Brandelli, Adriano; Nardi, Regina M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Several products of industrial interest are produced by Bacillus, including enzymes, antibiotics, amino acids, insecticides, biosurfactants and bacteriocins. This study aimed to investigate the potential of two bacterial isolates (P5 and C3) from puba, a regional fermentation product from cassava, to produce multiple substances with antimicrobial and surface active properties. Phylogenetic analyses showed close relation of isolates P5 and C3 with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and Bacillus thuringiensis, respectively. Notably, Bacillus sp. P5 showed antimicrobial activity against pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus, in addition to antifungal activity. The presence of genes encoding pre-subtilosin (sboA), malonyl CoA transacylase (ituD), and the putative transcriptional terminator of surfactin (sfp) were detected in Bacillus sp. P5, suggesting the production of the bacteriocin subtilosin A and the lipopeptides iturin A and surfactin by this strain. For Bacillus sp. C3 the presence of sboA and spas (subtilin) genes was observed by the first time in members of B. cereus cluster. Bacillus sp. P5 showed emulsifying capability on mineral oil, soybean biodiesel and toluene, while Bacillus sp. C3 showed emulsifying capability only on mineral oil. The reduction of the surface tension in culture medium was also observed for strain P5, confirming the production of surface-active compounds by this bacterium. Monoprotonated molecular species and adducts of sodium and potassium ions of surfactin, iturin, and fengycin were detected in the P5 culture medium. Comparative MS/MS spectra of the peak m/z 1030 (C14 surfactin A or C15 surfactin B [M+Na]+) and peak m/z 1079 (C15 iturin [M+Na]+) showed the same fragmentation profile of standards, confirming the molecular identification. In conclusion, Bacillus sp. P5 showed the best potential for the production of antifungal, antibacterial, and biosurfactant substances. PMID:28197131

  16. Economic analysis for the electricity production in isolated areas in Cuba using different renewable sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Salas, Joel; Moreno Figueredo, Conrado; Briesemeister, Ludwig; Arzola, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Despite the effort and commitment of the Cuban government in more of 50 year, there are houses without electricity in remote areas of the Electricity Network. These houses or communities have the promise and commitment of the local and national authorities to help them in improve his life quality. How the houses and communities are remote of the electricity network, the cost to extend the network is considerably high. For that reason, the use of renewable sources in these areas is an acceptable proposal. This article does an analysis to obtain different configurations depending to the number of houses. It do a proposal with the use of the Hydrothermal Carbonization process in the cases where is not feasible introduce different renewable source; a technology new in Cuba, and advantageous taking into consideration the kind of biomass that exist in Cuba. The study of the chemical process of the Hydrothermal Carbonization with the Cuban biomass should be further researched. (full text)

  17. Isolated and Skeptical: Social Engagement and Trust in Information Sources Among Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W.; Ackerson, Leland K.

    2011-01-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n=5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR)=2.08) and former smokers (OR=2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current s...

  18. Comparison of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from human, food, veterinary and environmental sources in Iceland using PFGE, MLST and fla-SVR sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnússon, S H; Guðmundsdóttir, S; Reynisson, E; Rúnarsson, A R; Harðardóttir, H; Gunnarson, E; Georgsson, F; Reiersen, J; Marteinsson, V Th

    2011-10-01

    Campylobacter jejuni isolates from various sources in Iceland were genotyped with the aim of assessing the genetic diversity, population structure, source distribution and campylobacter transmission routes to humans. A collection of 584 Campylobacter isolates were collected from clinical cases, food, animals and environment in Iceland in 1999-2002, during a period of national Campylobacter epidemic in Iceland. All isolates were characterized by pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and selected subset of 52 isolates representing the diversity of the identified PFGE types was further genotyped using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and fla-SVR sequencing to gain better insight into the population structure. The results show a substantial diversity within the Icelandic Campylobacter population. Majority of the human Campylobacter infections originated from domestic chicken and cattle isolates. MLST showed the isolates to be distributed among previously reported and common sequence type complexes in the MLST database. The genotyping of Campylobacter from various sources has not previously been reported from Iceland, and the results of the study gave a valuable insight into the population structure of Camp. jejuni in Iceland, source distribution and transmission routes to humans. The geographical isolation of Iceland in the north Atlantic provides new information on Campylobacter population dynamics on a global scale. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology No claim to Icelandic Government works.

  19. On the meniscus formation and the negative hydrogen ion extraction from ITER neutral beam injection relevant ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochalskyy, S; Wünderlich, D; Ruf, B; Fantz, U; Franzen, P; Minea, T

    2014-01-01

    The development of a large area (A source,ITER  = 0.9 × 2 m 2 ) hydrogen negative ion (NI) source constitutes a crucial step in construction of the neutral beam injectors of the international fusion reactor ITER. To understand the plasma behaviour in the boundary layer close to the extraction system the 3D PIC MCC code ONIX is exploited. Direct cross checked analysis of the simulation and experimental results from the ITER-relevant BATMAN source testbed with a smaller area (A source,BATMAN  ≈ 0.32 × 0.59 m 2 ) has been conducted for a low perveance beam, but for a full set of plasma parameters available. ONIX has been partially benchmarked by comparison to the results obtained using the commercial particle tracing code for positive ion extraction KOBRA3D. Very good agreement has been found in terms of meniscus position and its shape for simulations of different plasma densities. The influence of the initial plasma composition on the final meniscus structure was then investigated for NIs. As expected from the Child–Langmuir law, the results show that not only does the extraction potential play a crucial role on the meniscus formation, but also the initial plasma density and its electronegativity. For the given parameters, the calculated meniscus locates a few mm downstream of the plasma grid aperture provoking a direct NI extraction. Most of the surface produced NIs do not reach the plasma bulk, but move directly towards the extraction grid guided by the extraction field. Even for artificially increased electronegativity of the bulk plasma the extracted NI current from this region is low. This observation indicates a high relevance of the direct NI extraction. These calculations show that the extracted NI current from the bulk region is low even if a complete ion–ion plasma is assumed, meaning that direct extraction from surface produced ions should be present in order to obtain sufficiently high extracted NI current density. The calculated

  20. A LIMIT ON THE NUMBER OF ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS DETECTED IN THE ROSAT ALL-SKY-SURVEY BRIGHT SOURCE CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Monica L.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Letcavage, Ryan; Shevchuk, Andrew S. H.; Fox, Derek B.

    2010-01-01

    Using new and archival observations made with the Swift satellite and other facilities, we examine 147 X-ray sources selected from the ROSAT All-Sky-Survey Bright Source Catalog (RASS/BSC) to produce a new limit on the number of isolated neutron stars (INSs) in the RASS/BSC, the most constraining such limit to date. Independent of X-ray spectrum and variability, the number of INSs is ≤48 (90% confidence). Restricting attention to soft (kT eff < 200 eV), non-variable X-ray sources-as in a previous study-yields an all-sky limit of ≤31 INSs. In the course of our analysis, we identify five new high-quality INS candidates for targeted follow-up observations. A future all-sky X-ray survey with eROSITA, or another mission with similar capabilities, can be expected to increase the detected population of X-ray-discovered INSs from the 8-50 in the BSC, to (for a disk population) 240-1500, which will enable a more detailed study of neutron star population models.

  1. On the meniscus formation and the negative hydrogen ion extraction from ITER neutral beam injection relevant ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Ruf, B.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Minea, T.

    2014-10-01

    The development of a large area (Asource,ITER = 0.9 × 2 m2) hydrogen negative ion (NI) source constitutes a crucial step in construction of the neutral beam injectors of the international fusion reactor ITER. To understand the plasma behaviour in the boundary layer close to the extraction system the 3D PIC MCC code ONIX is exploited. Direct cross checked analysis of the simulation and experimental results from the ITER-relevant BATMAN source testbed with a smaller area (Asource,BATMAN ≈ 0.32 × 0.59 m2) has been conducted for a low perveance beam, but for a full set of plasma parameters available. ONIX has been partially benchmarked by comparison to the results obtained using the commercial particle tracing code for positive ion extraction KOBRA3D. Very good agreement has been found in terms of meniscus position and its shape for simulations of different plasma densities. The influence of the initial plasma composition on the final meniscus structure was then investigated for NIs. As expected from the Child-Langmuir law, the results show that not only does the extraction potential play a crucial role on the meniscus formation, but also the initial plasma density and its electronegativity. For the given parameters, the calculated meniscus locates a few mm downstream of the plasma grid aperture provoking a direct NI extraction. Most of the surface produced NIs do not reach the plasma bulk, but move directly towards the extraction grid guided by the extraction field. Even for artificially increased electronegativity of the bulk plasma the extracted NI current from this region is low. This observation indicates a high relevance of the direct NI extraction. These calculations show that the extracted NI current from the bulk region is low even if a complete ion-ion plasma is assumed, meaning that direct extraction from surface produced ions should be present in order to obtain sufficiently high extracted NI current density. The calculated extracted currents, both ions

  2. Antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of Enterococcus faecalis and faecium bacteria isolated from the human and the livestock sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Sharifi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococci have emerged as a major cause of nosocomial infections and within this group, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause the majority of human and livestock enterococcal infections. In this article, we tried to determine antibiotics and metals resistance patterns of E. faecalis and E. faecium strains. Methods: One hundred sixty different strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium were collected from livestock sewage and the human fecal waste during 15 months. Then bacterial antibiotics sensitivity tests were carried out using the Agar disc diffusion method. Results: Generally, 100% of E. faecalis strains separated from human and livestock sources (i.e. sheep showed penicillin (P/ kanamycin (K/ nitrofurantoin (N/ loracarbef (L/ Ciprofloxacin (Cc/ ampicillin (AN/ nalidixic acid (NA/ sulfamethoxazole (S antibiotics resistance patterns. In addition, 55% of isolated E. faecium showed P/S/AN/NA antibiotics resistance patterns. Each strain showed a resistance to at least two aminoglycoside antibiotics. However, E. faecalis strains from human and the livestock sources showed 94% and 100% of resistance to nitrofurantoin, respectively. The effects of different metal concentrations was evaluated in both strains. The agar dilution method was applied in this stage. Hg at 0.05 mmol/L of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC showed toxicity to both the human and livestock Enterococcus strains. Cadmium at 1 mmol/L and 0.5 mmol/L concentrations had the most toxicity to E. faecalis and E. faecium strains, respectively. Obviously, toxicity to bacteria is less than other metals. As a result, Zn/Ni/Cu/Co resistance pattern is suggested for both strains. Finally, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns were monitored simultaneously. Conclusion: Almost all E. faecalis strains isolated from humans and livestock showed antibiotics and heavy metals resistance patterns of P/K/L/Cc/S/AN/NA/Zn/Cu/Co simultaneously. Moreover, 55% of E

  3. Isolation, characterization and transcriptome analysis of a novel Antarctic Aspergillus sydowii strain MS-19 as a potential lignocellulosic enzyme source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Bailin; Wang, Nengfei; Liu, Shenghao; Liu, Feng; Yin, Xiaofei; Shen, Jihong

    2017-05-30

    With the growing demand for fossil fuels and the severe energy crisis, lignocellulose is widely regarded as a promising cost-effective renewable resource for ethanol production, and the use of lignocellulose residues as raw material is remarkable. Polar organisms have important value in scientific research and development for their novelty, uniqueness and diversity. In this study, a fungus Aspergillus sydowii MS-19, with the potential for lignocellulose degradation was screened out and isolated from an Antarctic region. The growth profile of Aspergillus sydowii MS-19 was measured, revealing that Aspergillus sydowii MS-19 could utilize lignin as a sole carbon source. Its ability to synthesize low-temperature lignin peroxidase (Lip) and manganese peroxidase (Mnp) enzymes was verified, and the properties of these enzymes were also investigated. High-throughput sequencing was employed to identify and characterize the transcriptome of Aspergillus sydowii MS-19. Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZyme)-annotated genes in Aspergillus sydowii MS-19 were compared with those in the brown-rot fungus representative species, Postia placenta and Penicillium decumbens. There were 701CAZymes annotated in Aspergillus sydowii MS-19, including 17 cellulases and 19 feruloyl esterases related to lignocellulose-degradation. Remarkably, one sequence annotated as laccase was obtained, which can degrade lignin. Three peroxidase sequences sharing a similar structure with typical lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase were also found and annotated as haem-binding peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase-peroxidase. In this study, the fungus Aspergillus sydowii MS-19 was isolated and shown to synthesize low-temperature lignin-degrading enzymes: lignin peroxidase (Lip) and manganese peroxidase (Mnp). These findings provide useful information to improve our understanding of low-temperature lignocellulosic enzyme production by polar microorganisms and to facilitate research and

  4. Isolated and Skeptical: Social Engagement and Trust in Information Sources Among Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W.; Ackerson, Leland K.

    2014-01-01

    Our study compared indicators of social engagement and trust among current, former, and never smokers. Multinomial regression analyses of data from the 2005 U.S. Health Information National Trends Survey (n=5586) were conducted to identify independent associations between social engagement, trust in health information sources, and smoking status. Never smokers (odds ratio (OR)=2.08) and former smokers (OR=2.48) were significantly more likely to belong to community organizations than current smokers. Never (OR=4.59) and former smokers (OR=1.96) were more likely than current smokers to attend religious services. Never smokers (OR=1.38) were significantly more likely than current smokers to use the Internet. Former smokers (OR=1.41) were more likely than current smokers to be married. Compared to current smokers, never smokers were significantly more likely to trust health care professionals (OR=1.52) and less likely to trust the Internet (OR=0.59) for health information. Current smokers are less socially engaged and less trusting of information resources than non-smokers. PMID:21340632

  5. A mode converter to generate a Gaussian-like mode for injection into the VENUS electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyneis, C., E-mail: CMLyneis@lbl.gov; Benitez, J.; Hodgkinson, A.; Strohmeier, M.; Todd, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Plaum, B. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie (IGVP), Stuttgart (Germany); Thuillier, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Université Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, Institut Polytechnique de Grenoble, 53 rue des martyrs 38026 Grenoble cedex (France)

    2014-02-15

    A number of superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources use gyrotrons at either 24 or 28 GHz for ECR heating. In these systems, the microwave power is launched into the plasma using the TE{sub 01} circular waveguide mode. This is fundamentally different and may be less efficient than the typical rectangular, linearly polarized TE{sub 10} mode used for launching waves at lower frequencies. To improve the 28 GHz microwave coupling in VENUS, a TE{sub 01}-HE{sub 11} mode conversion system has been built to test launching HE{sub 11} microwave power into the plasma chamber. The HE{sub 11} mode is a quasi-Gaussian, linearly polarized mode, which should couple strongly to the plasma electrons. The mode conversion is done in two steps. First, a 0.66 m long “snake” converts the TE{sub 01} mode to the TE{sub 11} mode. Second, a corrugated circular waveguide excites the HE{sub 11} mode, which is launched directly into the plasma chamber. The design concept draws on the development of similar devices used in tokamaks and stellerators. The first tests of the new coupling system are described below.

  6. Characterization of Escherichia coli isolates from different fecal sources by means of classification tree analysis of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seurinck, Sylvie; Deschepper, Ellen; Deboch, Bishaw; Verstraete, Willy; Siciliano, Steven

    2006-03-01

    Microbial source tracking (MST) methods need to be rapid, inexpensive and accurate. Unfortunately, many MST methods provide a wealth of information that is difficult to interpret by the regulators who use this information to make decisions. This paper describes the use of classification tree analysis to interpret the results of a MST method based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles of Escherichia coli isolates, and to present results in a format readily interpretable by water quality managers. Raw sewage E. coli isolates and animal E. coli isolates from cow, dog, gull, and horse were isolated and their FAME profiles collected. Correct classification rates determined with leaveone-out cross-validation resulted in an overall low correct classification rate of 61%. A higher overall correct classification rate of 85% was obtained when the animal isolates were pooled together and compared to the raw sewage isolates. Bootstrap aggregation or adaptive resampling and combining of the FAME profile data increased correct classification rates substantially. Other MST methods may be better suited to differentiate between different fecal sources but classification tree analysis has enabled us to distinguish raw sewage from animal E. coli isolates, which previously had not been possible with other multivariate methods such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis.

  7. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  8. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  9. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  10. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  11. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  12. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  13. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  14. Development of lean burn gas engines using pilot fuel for ignition source; Developpement d'un moteur a gaz avec pre-injection de carburant pour la source d'allumage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakonji, T.; Saito, H.; Sakurai, T. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Hirashima, T.; Kanno, K. [Nissan Diesel Motor Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    A development was conducted to investigate the performance of an open chamber gas engine with pilot fuel for ignition source. Experiments were conducted by using a gas engine equipped with a common-rail injection system. Main gas fuel is supplied to the engine cylinder, and then a small quantity of diesel fuel (approximately 1 % of total fuel energy input) was injected into the main chamber for ignition. The single cylinder prototype gas engine has demonstrated superior performance, such as, a shaft-end thermal efficiency of 36.7% with NO{sub x} level of 0.4 g/kW-h, which equals those of conventional spark ignited pre-chamber lean burn gas engines. For the next step, the multi-cylinder gas engine has been developed. That has 138 mm bore, 142 mm stroke, V8 configuration and 229 kW engine output 1500 rpm. This engine can also run with only diesel fuel for Standby-Power-Concurrent Co-generation. (authors)

  15. Biofilm formation by Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated from avian sources is partially related with their in vivo pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Karen Apellanis; Furian, Thales Quedi; de Souza, Sara Neves; Menezes, Rafaela; de Lima, Diane Alves; Fortes, Flávia Bornancini Borges; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Moraes, Hamilton Luiz Souza; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2018-03-22

    Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium are among the most prevalent serotypes isolated from salmonellosis outbreaks and poultry. Salmonella spp. have the capacity to form biofilms on several surfaces, which can favour survival in hostile environments, such as slaughterhouses. Salmonella strains present differences in pathogenicity. However, there is little information regarding the pathogenicity of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium isolated from avian sources and their relationship to biofilm production. The aim of this study was to use a novel pathogenicity index and a biofilm production assay to evaluate their relationships within these serotypes. In addition, we detected the presence of the spiA and agfA genes in these strains. Biofilm formation was investigated at two temperatures (37 °C and 28 °C) using microtiter plate assay, and the results were compared with the individual pathogenicity index of each strain. PCR was used to detect spiA and agfA, virulence genes associated with biofilm production. S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium strains were capable of producing biofilm at 37 °C and 28 °C. Sixty-two percent and 59.5% of S. Enteritidis and 73.8% and 46.2% of S. Typhimurium produced biofilm at 37 °C and 28 °C, respectively. Biofilm production at 37 °C was significantly higher in both serotypes. Only S. Enteritidis was capable of adhering strongly at both temperatures. Biofilm production was related to pathogenicity index only at 28 °C for S. Enteritidis. spiA and agfA were found in almost all strains and were not statistically associated with biofilm production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) to investigate genetic diversity of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from human, food, and veterinary sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateva, Gergana; Pedersen, Karl; Sørensen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    -locus variable-number of tandem repeats analysis (MLVA) and compared results with antimicrobial resistance (AMR) determinations for 100 S. Typhimurium strains isolated in Bulgaria during 2008-2012 (50 veterinary/food and 50 human isolates). Results showed that isolates were divided into 80 and 34 groups using......). No clustering of isolates related to susceptibility/resistance to antimicrobials, source of isolation, or year of isolation was observed. Some MLVA types were found in both human and veterinary/food isolates, indicating a possible route of transmission. A majority (83%) of the isolates were found...

  17. Immediate effects of isolated transmyocardial laser revascularization procedures combined with intramyocardial injection of autologous bone marrow stem cells in patients with terminal stage of coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo A. Bockeria

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions ― TMLR with intramyocardial autologous stem cells injections in patients with end-stage CAD is safe. This procedure can be done in the most severe group of patients who cannot be completely revascularized with either PCI or CABG surgery. Futher investigation is needed to assess the effectiveness of the procedure.

  18. Isolation and Selection of Microalgal Strains from Natural Water Sources in Viet Nam with Potential for Edible Oil Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thao, Tran Yen; Linh, Dinh Thi Nhat; Si, Vo Chi; Carter, Taylor W; Hill, Russell T

    2017-06-23

    Industrial vegetable oil production in Viet Nam depends on oil seeds and crude plant oils that are currently more than 90% imported. As the first step in investigating the feasibility of using microalgae to provide Viet Nam with a domestic source of oil for food and edible oil industries, fifty lipid-producing microalgae were isolated and characterized. The microalgae were isolated from water sources ranging from freshwater to brackish and marine waters from a wide geographic distribution in Viet Nam. Initial analyses showed that 20 of the 50 strains had good growth rates, produced high biomass and had high lipid content, ranging up to 50% of dry weight biomass. 18S rRNA gene sequence analyses of the 50 strains showed a great diversity in this assemblage of microalgae, comprising at least 38 species and representatives of 25 genera : Chlamydomonas , Poterioochromonas , Scenedesmus , Desmodesmus , Chlorella , Bracteacoccus , Monoraphidium , Selenastrum , Acutodesmus , Mychonastes , Ankistrodesmus , Kirchneriella , Raphidocelis , Dictyosphaerium , Coelastrella , Schizochlamydella , Oocystidium , Nannochloris , Auxenochlorella , Chlorosarcinopsis , Stichococcus , Picochlorum , Prasinoderma , Chlorococcum , and Marvania. Some of the species are closely related to well-known lipid producers such as Chlorella sorokiniana , but some other strains are not closely related to the strains found in public sequence databases and likely represent new species. Analysis of oil quality showed that fatty acid profiles of the microalgal strains were very diverse and strain-dependent. Fatty acids in the microalgal oils comprised saturated fatty acids (SFAs), poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). The main SFA was palmitic acid. MUFAs and PUFAs were dominated by oleic acid, and linoleic and linolenic acids, respectively. Some strains were especially rich in the essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid (ALA), which comprised more than 20% of the

  19. Effects of temperature, pH and carbon and nitrogen sources on growth of in vitro cultures of ectomycorrhizal isolates from Pinus heldreichii forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarević, J.; Stojičić, D.; Keča, N.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: This study aims to provide basic information about physiological characteristics of isolates of Lactarius deliciosus (L.) Gray, Russula sanguinaria (Schumach.) Rauschert, Suillus collinitus (Fr) Kuntze, Suillus granulatus (L.) Rousell, Tricholoma batchii Gulden and Tricholoma imbricatum (Fr.) Kumm. Area of study: The isolates are obtained from Pinus heldreichii H. Christ forest in the south-eastern part of Montenegro. Material and methods: The isolates were molecularly characterised by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. The effects of different temperatures (20, 22, 25°C), pHs (4, 4.5, 5.2, 5.8, 6.5, 7.5), and carbon (glucose, sucrose, dextrin, arabinose, xylose and starch) and nitrogen (NH4+, NO3- and protein) sources on their growth were examined under laboratory conditions. Main results: The studied factors established significant differences in the development of isolates. Isolates of R. sanguinaria, L. deliciosus and both Suillus, were characterised by faster growth at 22°C, while Tricholoma isolates grew faster at 25°C. S. granulatus, S. collinitus and T. imbticatum isolates grew well at lower pH values (4 - 5.2), while L. deliciosus, R. sanguinaria and T. bachii exhibited faster growth at pHs between 5.8 and 6.5. The examined isolates were able to utilize various carbohydrates as carbon sources. The biggest mycelial growth was characterised for sucrose, then glucose, dextrin, arabinose, starch and xylose. They grew on all examined nitrogen sources, while the biggest mycelia growth was achieved on ammonium, followed by nitrate and protein. Those characteristics varied amongst the species. Research highlights: Information about physiological characteristics of Tricholoma, Lactarius, Russula, as well as Suillus, are sparse. Hence, the data obtained in this study could contribute to the understanding of their function in ecosystems. (Author)

  20. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  1. Genotypic and phenotypic diversity of Ralstonia pickettii and Ralstonia insidiosa isolates from clinical and environmental sources including High-purity Water.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Michael P

    2011-08-30

    Abstract Background Ralstonia pickettii is a nosocomial infectious agent and a significant industrial contaminant. It has been found in many different environments including clinical situations, soil and industrial High Purity Water. This study compares the phenotypic and genotypic diversity of a selection of strains of Ralstonia collected from a variety of sources. Results Ralstonia isolates (fifty-nine) from clinical, industrial and environmental origins were compared genotypically using i) Species-specific-PCR, ii) PCR and sequencing of the 16S-23S rRNA Interspatial region (ISR) iii) the fliC gene genes, iv) RAPD and BOX-PCR and v) phenotypically using biochemical testing. The species specific-PCR identified fifteen out of fifty-nine designated R. pickettii isolates as actually being the closely related species R. insidiosa. PCR-ribotyping of the 16S-23S rRNA ISR indicated few major differences between the isolates. Analysis of all isolates demonstrated different banding patterns for both the RAPD and BOX primers however these were found not to vary significantly. Conclusions R. pickettii species isolated from wide geographic and environmental sources appear to be reasonably homogenous based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. R. insidiosa can at present only be distinguished from R. pickettii using species specific PCR. R. pickettii and R. insidiosa isolates do not differ significantly phenotypically or genotypically based on environmental or geographical origin.

  2. Thoraco-abdominal high-pitch dual-source CT angiography: Experimental evaluation of injection protocols with an anatomical human vascular phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puippe, Gilbert D., E-mail: gilbert.puippe@usz.ch [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Winklehner, Anna [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Hasenclever, Peter; Plass, André [Division of Cardiac and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Frauenfelder, Thomas; Baumueller, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland Raemistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To experimentally evaluate three different contrast injection protocols at thoraco-abdominal high-pitch dual-source computed tomography angiography (CTA), with regard to level and homogeneity of vascular enhancement at different cardiac outputs. Materials and methods: A uniphasic, a biphasic as well as an individually tailored contrast protocol were tested using a human vascular phantom. Each protocol was scanned at 5 different cardiac outputs (3–5 L/min, steps of 0.5 L/min) using an extracorporeal cardiac pump. Vascular enhancement of the thoraco-abdominal aorta was measured every 5 cm. Overall mean enhancement of each protocol and mean enhancement for each cardiac output within each protocol were calculated. Enhancement homogeneity along the z-axis was evaluated for each cardiac output and protocol. Results: Overall mean enhancement was significantly higher in the uniphasic than in the other two protocols (all p < .05), whereas the difference between the biphasic and tailored protocol was not significant (p = .76). Mean enhancement among each of the 5 cardiac outputs within each protocol was significantly different (all p < .05). Only within the tailored protocol mean enhancement differed not significantly at cardiac outputs of 3.5 L/min vs. 5 L/min (484 ± 25 HU vs. 476 ± 19 HU, p = .14) and 4 vs. 5 L/min (443 ± 49 HU vs. 476 ± 19 HU, p = .05). Both, uniphasic and tailored protocol yielded homogenous enhancement at all cardiac outputs, whereas the biphasic protocol failed to achieve homogenous enhancement. Conclusion: This phantom study suggests that diagnostic and homogenous enhancement at thoraco-abdominal high-pitch dual-source CTA is feasible with either a uniphasic or an individually tailored contrast protocol.

  3. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  4. Antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from roof-harvested rainwater tanks and urban pigeon faeces as the likely source of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidamba, Lizyben; Korsten, Lise

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the risks associated with the use of roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) and the implication of pigeons as the most likely source of contamination by testing for antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli. A total of 239 E. coli were isolated from thirty fresh pigeon faecal samples (130 isolates), 11 RHRW tanks from three sites in Pretoria (78) and two in Johannesburg (31). E. coli isolates were tested against a panel of 12 antibiotics which included ampicillin, amoxicillin, amikacin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cotrimoxazole, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline. In all samples, resistance to ampicillin (22.7.9%), gentamicin (23.6%), amikacin (24%), tetracycline (17.4) and amoxicillin (16.9%) were the most frequently encountered form of resistance. However, a relatively higher proportion of isolates from pigeon faeces (67.3%) were antibiotic resistant than those from RHRW (53.3%). The highest number of phenotypes was observed for single antibiotics, and no single antibiotic resistance was observed for chloramphenicol, ceftriaxone, gentamicin, cefoxitin, cotrimoxazole, although they were detected in multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) phenotypes. The highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) phenotypes were observed for a combination of four antibiotics, on isolates from JHB (18.8%), pigeon faeces (15.2%) and Pretoria (5.1%). The most abundant resistance phenotype to four antibiotics, Ak-Gm-Cip-T was dominated by isolates from pigeon faeces (6.8%) with Pretoria and Johannesburg isolates having low proportions of 1.3 and 3.1%, respectively. Future studies should target isolates from various environmental settings in which rainwater harvesting is practiced and the characterisation of the antibiotic resistance determinant genes among the isolates.

  5. Virulence Genes among Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Coastal Beaches and Human and Nonhuman Sources in Southern California and Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Ferguson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium are harmless to humans; however, strains harboring virulence genes, including esp, gelE, cylA, asa1, and hyl, have been associated with human infections. E. faecalis and E. faecium are present in beach waters worldwide, yet little is known about their virulence potential. Here, multiplex PCR was used to compare the distribution of virulence genes among E. faecalis and E. faecium isolated from beaches in Southern California and Puerto Rico to isolates from potential sources including humans, animals, birds, and plants. All five virulence genes were found in E. faecalis and E. faecium from beach water, mostly among E. faecalis. gelE was the most common among isolates from all source types. There was a lower incidence of asa1, esp, cylA, and hyl genes among isolates from beach water, sewage, septage, urban runoff, sea wrack, and eelgrass as compared to human isolates, indicating that virulent strains of E. faecalis and E. faecium may not be widely disseminated at beaches. A higher frequency of asa1 and esp among E. faecalis from dogs and of asa1 among birds (mostly seagull suggests that further studies on the distribution and virulence potential of strains carrying these genes may be warranted.

  6. Sedimentology and composition of sands injected during the seismic crisis of May 2012 (Emilia, Italy): clues for source layer identification and liquefaction regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, D.; Lugli, S.; Marchetti Dori, S.; Caputo, R.; Stefani, M.

    2015-07-01

    In May 2012 widespread sand blows formed along buried channels in the eastern sector of the Po Plain (Northern Italy) as a consequence of a series of seismic events with main shocks of Mw 6.1 and 5.9. At San Carlo (Ferrara) a trench dug a few week after the earthquakes exposed sand dikes cutting through an old Reno River channel-levee system that was diverted in the 18th century and was deposited starting from the 14th century (unit A). This sequence overlies a Holocene muddy floodplain deposits and contains scattered sandy channel deposits (unit B) and a Pleistocene channel sand unit (unit C). Sands with inverse and normal grading, concave layering and vertical lamination coexisting along the dikes suggest multiple rhythmic opening and closing of the fractures that were injected and filled by a slurry of sand during the compression pulses, and emptied during the extension phase. The pulse mechanism may have lasted for several minutes and formed well stratified sand volcanoes structures that formed at the top of the fractures. Sands from dikes and from the various units show well defined compositional fields from lithoarenitic to quartz-feldspar-rich compositions. Sands from the old Reno levee and channel fill (unit A) have abundant lithic fragments derived from the erosion of Apennine sedimentary carbonate and terrigenous successions. Composition of the sand filling the dikes show clear affinities with sand layers of the old Reno River channel (Unit A) and clearly differ from any sand from deeper Holocene and Pleistocene layers (Unit B and C), which are richer in quartz and feldspar and poorer in sedimentary lithic fragments. Sorting related to sediment flux variations did not apparently affect the sand composition across the sedimentary structures. Textural and compositional data indicate that the liquefaction processes originated from a relatively shallow source consisting of channel sands located within Unit A at 6.8.to 7.5 m depth.

  7. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  8. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  9. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  10. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  11. Water sources as reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae O1 and non-O1 strains in Bepanda, Douala (Cameroon): relationship between isolation and physico-chemical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoachere, Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla; Mbuntcha, Christelle Kwedjeu Pulcherie

    2014-07-30

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala since 1971. Most outbreaks start from Bepanda, an overcrowded neighbourhood with poor hygiene and sanitary conditions. We investigated water sources in Bepanda as reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, determined its antibiotic susceptibility and some physico-chemical characteristics that could maintain the endemicity of this organism in Bepanda. Three hundred and eighteen water samples collected from 45 wells, 8 taps and 1 stream from February to July 2009 were analyzed for V. cholerae using standard methods. Isolates were characterized morphologically, biochemically and serologically. The disc diffusion technique was employed to investigate antibiotic susceptibility. Differences in prevalence of organism between seasons were analysed. Correlation strength and direction of association between physico-chemical parameters and occurrence of V. cholerae was analyzed using the Kendall tau_b non-parametric correlation. This was further confirmed with the forward-stepwise binary logistic regression. Eighty-seven (27.4%) samples were positive for V. cholerae. Isolation was highest from wells. The organism was isolated in the rainy season and dry season but the frequency of isolation was significantly higher (χ2 = 7.009, df = 1, P = 0.008) in the rainy season. Of the 96 confirmed V. cholerae isolates, 32 (33.3%) belonged to serogroup O1 and 64 (66.6%) were serogroup non-O1/non-O139. Isolates from tap (municipal water) were non-O1/non-O139 strains. Salinity had a significant positive correlation with isolation in the dry season (+0.267, P = 0.015) and rainy season (+0.223, P = 0.028). The forward-stepwise method of binary logistic regression indicated that as pH (Wald = 11.753, df = 1), P = 0.001) increased, odds of isolation of V. cholerae also increased (B = 1.297, S.E = 0.378, Exp(B) = 3.657). All isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin. Multi-drug resistance was predominant among the non-O1/non

  12. Use of the isolated problem approach for multi-compartment BEM models of electro-magnetic source imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gencer, Nevzat G; Akalin-Acar, Zeynep

    2005-01-01

    The isolated problem approach (IPA) is a method used in the boundary element method (BEM) to overcome numerical inaccuracies caused by the high-conductivity difference in the skull and the brain tissues in the head. Haemaelaeinen and Sarvas (1989 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36 165-71) described how the source terms can be updated to overcome these inaccuracies for a three-layer head model. Meijs et al (1989 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36 1038-49) derived the integral equations for the general case where there are an arbitrary number of layers inside the skull. However, the IPA is used in the literature only for three-layer head models. Studies that use complex boundary element head models that investigate the inhomogeneities in the brain or model the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) do not make use of the IPA. In this study, the generalized formulation of the IPA for multi-layer models is presented in terms of integral equations. The discretized version of these equations are presented in two different forms. In a previous study (Akalin-Acar and Gencer 2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 5011-28), we derived formulations to calculate the electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography transfer matrices assuming a single layer in the skull. In this study, the transfer matrix formulations are updated to incorporate the generalized IPA. The effects of the IPA are investigated on the accuracy of spherical and realistic models when the CSF layer and a tumour tissue are included in the model. It is observed that, in the spherical model, for a radial dipole 1 mm close to the brain surface, the relative difference measure (RDM*) drops from 1.88 to 0.03 when IPA is used. For the realistic model, the inclusion of the CSF layer does not change the field pattern significantly. However, the inclusion of an inhomogeneity changes the field pattern by 25% for a dipole oriented towards the inhomogeneity. The effect of the IPA is also investigated when there is an inhomogeneity in the brain. In addition

  13. IncF Plasmids Are Commonly Carried by Antibiotic Resistant Escherichia coli Isolated from Drinking Water Sources in Northern Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Lyimo, Beatus; Buza, Joram; Subbiah, Murugan; Temba, Sylivester; Kipasika, Honest; Smith, Woutrina; Call, Douglas R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the replicon types of plasmids, conjugation efficiencies, and the complement of antibiotic resistance genes for a panel of multidrug resistant E. coli isolates from surface waters in northern Tanzania. Standard membrane filtration was used to isolate and uidA PCR was used to confirm the identity of strains as E. coli. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by breakpoint assay and plasmid conjugation was determined by filter-mating experiments. PCR and s...

  14. The Impact of the Shallow-Trench Isolation Effect on Flicker Noise of Source Follower MOSFETs in a CMOS Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, C C; Chiu, Y C; Liu, C; Lai, W W; Cheng, C H; Lin, D L; Li, G R; Lo, Y H; Chang, C W; Tsai, C C; Chang, C Y

    2018-06-01

    The flicker noise of source follower transistors is the dominant noise source in image sensors. This paper reports a systematic study of the shallow trench isolation effect in transistors with different sizes under high temperature conditions that correspond to the quantity of empty defect sites. The effects of shallow trench isolation sidewall defects on flicker noise characteristics are investigated. In addition, the low-frequency noise and subthreshold swing degrade simultaneously in accordance to the device gate width scaling. Both serious subthreshold leakage and considerable noise can be attributed to the high trap density near the STI edge. Consequently, we propose a coincidental relationship between the noise level and the subthreshold characteristic; its trend is identical to the experiments and simulation results.

  15. Temozolomide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... balance or coordination fainting dizziness hair loss insomnia memory problems pain, itching, swelling, or redness in the place where the medication was injected changes in vision Some side effects can be serious. If you ...

  16. Buprenorphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opiate partial agonists. It works to prevent withdrawal symptoms ... help. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, ...

  17. Risperidone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  18. Haloperidol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... haloperidol extended-release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... may help control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to keep appointments to receive ...

  19. Omalizumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is used to decrease the number of asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and ... about how to treat symptoms of a sudden asthma attack. If your asthma symptoms get worse or if ...

  20. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  1. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  2. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  3. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  4. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  5. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  6. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  7. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  8. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  9. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  10. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  11. Tigecycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as tigecycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  12. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  13. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  14. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  15. Telavancin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called lipoglycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as telavancin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  16. Doxycycline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called tetracycline antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  17. Vancomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  18. Octreotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carton and protect it from light. Dispose of multi-dose vials of the immediate-release injection 14 ... and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out ...

  19. Moxifloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using moxifloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  20. Delafloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using delafloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  1. Levofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tendon area, or inability to move or to bear weight on an affected area.Using levofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  2. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tendon area, or inability to move or bear weight on an affected area.Using ciprofloxacin injection ... muscle weakness) and cause severe difficulty breathing or death. Tell your doctor if you have myasthenia gravis. ...

  3. Alirocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Alirocumab injection may ...

  4. Evolocumab Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor monoclonal antibody. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body ... hives difficulty breathing or swallowing swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, and eyes Evolocumab injection may ...

  5. Acyclovir Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is also used to treat first-time genital herpes outbreaks (a herpes virus infection that causes sores ... in the body. Acyclovir injection will not cure genital herpes and may not stop the spread of genital ...

  6. Butorphanol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Butorphanol is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using butorphanol injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, shakiness, diarrhea, chills, ...

  7. Comprehensive low-dose imaging of carotid and coronary arteries with a single-injection dual-source CT angiography protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognolini, A.; Arellano, C.S.; Marfori, W.; Heidari, G.; Sayre, J.W.; Krishnam, M.S.; Ruehm, S.G.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess the feasibility of a fast single-bolus combined carotid and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol in asymptomatic patients. Materials and methods: Thirty-three consecutive patients (18 women and 15 men) with a median age of 61 ± 14 years old (range 37–87 years) with known or suspected atherosclerotic disease were enrolled in this prospective study. A single breath-hold, single biphasic injection protocol (50 ml at 3 ml/s, 50 ml at 5 ml/s, 50 ml saline flush at 5 ml/s) was used for combined CTA imaging of the supra-aortic (SAA) and coronary arteries (CA) on a 64-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) machine. Helical CTA acquisition of the SAA was followed by prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered coronary CTA. Subjective (four-point scale) image quality and objective signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) measurements were performed. Vascular disease was graded on a four-point scale (grade 1: absent; grade 2: mild, grade 3: moderate; grade 4: severe). The radiation dose was recorded for each patient. Results: The average enhancement and subjective quality score of SAA and CA segments were 396 HU/358 HU and 1.2 ± 0.3/1.72 ± 0.4, respectively. The SNR was 27.1 ± 1.7 in the SAA and 21.6 ± 1.6 in the CA (p < 0.0001). The CNR was 18.1 ± 1.2 and 15.9 ± 1.8, respectively (p = 0.4). Four percent of SAA and 14% of CA segments (mostly due to peri-venous streak artefacts and small calibre, respectively) produced non-diagnostic images. SAA findings were as follows: 26/33 (79%) patients showed no disease and 6/33 (18%) had grade 2 and 1/33 (3%) had grade 3 disease. CA findings were as follows: 25/33 (76%) showed no disease and 6/33 (18%) patients had grade 2 and 2/33 (6%) had grade 3 disease. Five patients had disease in both districts. The average radiation dose for the combined CTA angiogram was 4.3 ± 0.6 mSv. Conclusion: A fast, low-dose combined DSCT angiography protocol appears technically feasible for imaging carotid and

  8. Comprehensive low-dose imaging of carotid and coronary arteries with a single-injection dual-source CT angiography protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognolini, A; Arellano, C S; Marfori, W; Heidari, G; Sayre, J W; Krishnam, M S; Ruehm, S G

    2014-03-01

    To assess the feasibility of a fast single-bolus combined carotid and coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) protocol in asymptomatic patients. Thirty-three consecutive patients (18 women and 15 men) with a median age of 61 ± 14 years old (range 37-87 years) with known or suspected atherosclerotic disease were enrolled in this prospective study. A single breath-hold, single biphasic injection protocol (50 ml at 3 ml/s, 50 ml at 5 ml/s, 50 ml saline flush at 5 ml/s) was used for combined CTA imaging of the supra-aortic (SAA) and coronary arteries (CA) on a 64-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) machine. Helical CTA acquisition of the SAA was followed by prospective electrocardiography (ECG)-triggered coronary CTA. Subjective (four-point scale) image quality and objective signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) measurements were performed. Vascular disease was graded on a four-point scale (grade 1: absent; grade 2: mild, grade 3: moderate; grade 4: severe). The radiation dose was recorded for each patient. The average enhancement and subjective quality score of SAA and CA segments were 396 HU/358 HU and 1.2 ± 0.3/1.72 ± 0.4, respectively. The SNR was 27.1 ± 1.7 in the SAA and 21.6 ± 1.6 in the CA (p grade 2 and 1/33 (3%) had grade 3 disease. CA findings were as follows: 25/33 (76%) showed no disease and 6/33 (18%) patients had grade 2 and 2/33 (6%) had grade 3 disease. Five patients had disease in both districts. The average radiation dose for the combined CTA angiogram was 4.3 ± 0.6 mSv. A fast, low-dose combined DSCT angiography protocol appears technically feasible for imaging carotid and coronary atherosclerotic disease. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from different water sources in the Mmabatho locality, Northwest Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Njie Ateba

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic resistance profiles of Escherichia coli (E. coli, isolated from different water sources in the Mmabatho locality were evaluated. Water samples were collected from the local wastewater- and water-treatment plants, the Modimola Dam and homes in the area, and then analysed for the presence of E. coli, using standard methods. Presumptive isolates obtained were confirmed by the analytical profile index test. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion method. Of the 230 E. coli isolates tested, marked antibiotic resistances (over 70% were observed for erythromycin, tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol and norfloxacin. Multiple antibiotic resistance patterns were also compiled. Overall, the phenotype T-Ap-E was frequent for E. coli isolated from the local wastewater and water-treatment plants, Modimola Dam and tap water. Cluster analysis performed showed a unique antibiotic resistance pattern which suggested a link between isolates from all sampling points. The findings indicated that improper wastewater treatment may have a potential impact on the dissemination and survival of E. coli, as well as other pathogenic bacteria in water for human and animal consumption. This may result in water- and food-borne disease outbreaks with a negative effect on antibiotic therapy.

  10. Phenotype and envelope gene diversity of nef-deleted HIV-1 isolated from long-term survivors infected from a single source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sullivan John S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sydney blood bank cohort (SBBC of long-term survivors consists of multiple individuals infected with attenuated, nef-deleted variants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 acquired from a single source. Long-term prospective studies have demonstrated that the SBBC now comprises slow progressors (SP as well as long-term nonprogressors (LTNP. Convergent evolution of nef sequences in SBBC SP and LTNP indicates the in vivo pathogenicity of HIV-1 in SBBC members is dictated by factors other than nef. To better understand mechanisms underlying the pathogenicity of nef-deleted HIV-1, we examined the phenotype and env sequence diversity of sequentially isolated viruses (n = 2 from 3 SBBC members. Results The viruses characterized here were isolated from two SP spanning a three or six year period during progressive HIV-1 infection (subjects D36 and C98, respectively and from a LTNP spanning a two year period during asymptomatic, nonprogressive infection (subject C18. Both isolates from D36 were R5X4 phenotype and, compared to control HIV-1 strains, replicated to low levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. In contrast, both isolates from C98 and C18 were CCR5-restricted. Both viruses isolated from C98 replicated to barely detectable levels in PBMC, whereas both viruses isolated from C18 replicated to low levels, similar to those isolated from D36. Analysis of env by V1V2 and V3 heteroduplex tracking assay, V1V2 length polymorphisms, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis showed distinct intra- and inter-patient env evolution. Conclusion Independent evolution of env despite convergent evolution of nef may contribute to the in vivo pathogenicity of nef-deleted HIV-1 in SBBC members, which may not necessarily be associated with changes in replication capacity or viral coreceptor specificity.

  11. Rapid isolation of plutonium in environmental solid samples using sequential injection anion exchange chromatography followed by detection with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Jixin, E-mail: jixin.qiao@risoe.d [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hou Xiaolin; Roos, Per [Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Miro, Manuel [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km. 7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears (Spain)

    2011-01-31

    This paper reports an automated analytical method for rapid determination of plutonium isotopes ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu) in environmental solid extracts. Anion exchange chromatographic columns were incorporated in a sequential injection (SI) system to undertake the automated separation of plutonium from matrix and interfering elements. The analytical results most distinctly demonstrated that the crosslinkage of the anion exchanger is a key parameter controlling the separation efficiency. AG 1-x4 type resin was selected as the most suitable sorbent material for analyte separation. Investigation of column size effect upon the separation efficiency revealed that small-sized (2 mL) columns sufficed to handle up to 50 g of environmental soil samples. Under the optimum conditions, chemical yields of plutonium exceeded 90% and the decontamination factors for uranium, thorium and lead ranged from 10{sup 3} to 10{sup 4}. The determination of plutonium isotopes in three standard/certified reference materials (IAEA-375 soil, IAEA-135 sediment and NIST-4359 seaweed) and two reference samples (Irish Sea sediment and Danish soil) revealed a good agreement with reference/certified values. The SI column-separation method is straightforward and less labor intensive as compared with batch-wise anion exchange chromatographic procedures. Besides, the automated method features low consumption of ion-exchanger and reagents for column washing and elution, with the consequent decrease in the generation of acidic waste, thus bearing green chemical credentials.

  12. Population dynamics, antibiotics resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species isolated from aquatic sources in Northern Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Olumide A; Ahmad, Asmat

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to compare population dynamics, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation of Aeromonas and Vibrio species from seawater and sediment collected from Northern Malaysia. Isolates with different colony morphology were characterized using both biochemical and molecular methods before testing for antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation. Results obtained from this study showed that in Kedah, the population of Aeromonas isolated from sediment was highest in Pantai Merdeka (8.22 log CFU/ml), Pulau Bunting recorded the highest population of Aeromonas from sediment (8.43 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater and sediment were highest in Kuala Sanglang (9.21 log CFU/ml). In Kuala Perlis, the population of Aeromonas isolated from seawater was highest in Jeti (7.94 log CFU/ml). Highest population of Aeromonas from sediment was recorded in Kampong Tanah Baru (7.99 log CFU/g). It was observed that Vibrio species isolated from seawater was highest in Padang Benta (8.42 log CFU/g) while Jeti Kuala Perlis had highest population of Vibrio isolated from sediment. It was observed that location does not influence population of Aeromonas. The results of the independent t - test revealed that there was no significant relationship between location and population of Vibrio (df = 10, t = 1.144, p > 0.05). The occurrence of biofilm formation and prevalence of antibiotic resistant Aeromonas and Vibrio species in seawater and sediment pose danger to human and aquatic animals' health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in Virulence Between Legionella pneumophila Isolates From Human and Non-human Sources Determined in Galleria mellonella Infection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia S. Sousa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a ubiquitous bacterium in freshwater environments and in many man-made water systems capable of inducing pneumonia in humans. Despite its ubiquitous character most studies on L. pneumophila virulence focused on clinical strains and isolates from man-made environments, so little is known about the nature and extent of virulence variation in strains isolated from natural environments. It has been established that clinical isolates are less diverse than man-made and natural environmental strains, suggesting that only a subset of environmental isolates is specially adapted to infect humans. In this work we intended to determine if unrelated L. pneumophila strains, isolated from different environments and with distinct virulence-related genetic backgrounds, displayed differences in virulence, using the Wax Moth Galleria mellonella infection model. We found that all tested strains were pathogenic in G. mellonella, regardless of their origin. Indeed, a panoply of virulence-related phenotypes was observed sustaining the existence of significant differences on the ability of L. pneumophila strains to induce disease. Taken together our results suggest that the occurrence of human infection is not related with the increased capability of some strains to induce disease since we also found a concentration threshold above which L. pneumophila strains are equally able to cause disease. In addition, no link could be established between the sequence-type (ST and L. pneumophila pathogenicity. We envision that in man-made water distribution systems environmental filtering selection and biotic competition acts structuring L. pneumophila populations by selecting more resilient and adapted strains that can rise to high concentration if no control measures are implemented. Therefore, public health strategies based on the sequence based typing (STB scheme analysis should take into account that the major disease-associated clones of L

  14. Teduglutide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in a class of medications ... of the ingredients.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  15. Dexrazoxane Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are used to treat or prevent certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent or decrease heart damage caused by doxorubicin in women who are taking the medication to treat breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the ...

  16. Triptorelin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puberty too soon, resulting in faster than normal bone growth and development of sexual characteristics) in children 2 years and older. Triptorelin injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists. It works by decreasing the amount ...

  17. QnrS1- and Aac(6’-Ib-cr-producing Escherichia coli among isolates from animals of different sources: susceptibility and genomic characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eJones-Dias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli can inhabit humans and animals from multiple origins. These bacteria are often associated with gastroenteritis in animals, being a frequent cause of resistant zoonotic infections. In fact, bacteria from animals can be transmitted to humans through the food chain and direct contact. In this study, we aimed to assess the antibiotic susceptibility of a collection of S. enterica and E. coli recovered from animals of different sources, performing a genomic comparison of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR-producing isolates detected.Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed a high number of non wild-type isolates for fluoroquinolones among S. enterica recovered from poultry isolates. In turn, the frequency of non-wild-type E. coli to nalidixic acid and ciprofloxacin was higher in food-producing animals than in companion or zoo animals. Globally, we detected two qnrS1 and two aac(6’-Ib-cr in E. coli isolates recovered from animals of different origins. The genomic characterization of QnrS1-producing E. coli showed high genomic similarity (O86:H12 and ST2297, although they have been recovered from a healthy turtle dove from a Zoo Park, and from a dog showing symptoms of infection. The qnrS1 gene was encoded in a IncN plasmid, also carrying blaTEM-1-containing Tn3. Isolates harboring aac(6’-Ib-cr were detected in two captive bottlenose dolphins, within a time span of two years. The additional antibiotic resistance genes of the two aac(6’-Ib-cr-positive isolates (blaOXA-1, blaTEM-1, blaCTX-M-15, catB3, aac(3-IIa and tetA were enclosed in IncFIA plasmids that differed in a single transposase and 60 single nucleotide variants. The isolates could be assigned to the same genetic sublineage – ST131 fimH30-Rx (O25:H4, confirming clonal spread. PMQR-producing isolates were associated with symptomatic and asymptomatic hosts, which highlight the aptitude of E. coli to act as silent vehicles, allowing

  18. Prospective Source of Antimicrobial Compounds From Pigment Produced by Bacteria associated with Brown Alga ( Phaeophyceae ) Isolated from Karimunjawa island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunggani, A. T.; Darmanto, Y. S.; Radjasa, O. K.; Sabdono, A.

    2018-02-01

    Brown algae or Phaeophyceae characterized by their natural pigments that differ from other important algal classes. Several publications proves that brown algae - associated bacteria have great potential in developing marine pharmaceutical industry since they are capable to synthesized numerous bioactive metabolite compounds. However the potency of marine pigmented microbes associated with brown alga to produce natural pigments and antimicrobials has been less studied. Marine pigmented bacteria associated with brown algae collected from Karimunjawa Island were successfully isolated and screened for antimicrobial activity. The aim of this research was evaluated of the antimicrobial activity of pigments extracted from culturable marine pigmented bacteria on some pathogenic bacteria and yeast. The results showed that all isolates had antimicrobial activity and could be prospectively developed as antimicrobial agent producing pigments. The 6 marine pigmented bacteria was identified to genus level as Pseudoalteromonas, Sphingomonas, Serratia, Paracoccus, Vibrio.

  19. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ssp. plantarum F11 isolated from Algerian salty lake as a source of biosurfactants and bioactive lipopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daas, Mohamed Seghir; Acedo, Jeella Z; Rosana, Albert Remus R; Orata, Fabini D; Reiz, Béla; Zheng, Jing; Nateche, Farida; Case, Rebecca J; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Vederas, John C

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we identified a new Bacillus strain isolated from an Algerian salty lake that produces metabolites that are active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungal pathogens. The draft genome sequence of the strain is presented herein. Genome sequence analysis identified the strain to be B. amyloliquefaciens subspecies plantarum F11, and showed that the strain carries the gene clusters for the production of a number of bioactive and surface-active compounds. These include the lipopeptides surfactin and fengycin, antibacterial polyketides macrolactin and bacillaene, and a putative novel lanthipeptide, among others. Through an activity-guided purification method using hydrophobic interaction chromatographic techniques, we confirmed the ability of the strain to produce fengycin lipopeptides. The identities of the isolated fengycin homologs were ascertained through tandem mass spectrometry. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Economic and safe operation of isolated systems with significant contribution from renewable energy sources; Operacao economica e segura de sistemas isolados com grande penetracao de energias renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matos, M.A. [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal); Vlachos, A; Androutsos, A. [NTUA, Atenas (Greece); Bakirtzis, T. [AUTH, Salonica (Greece); Gigantidou, A. [DEI, Heraklio (Greece). E-mail: mmatos@inescn.pt; avlachos@power.ece.ntua.gr; bakiana@eng.auth.gr; deh_kkf@iraklio.netor.gr

    1999-07-01

    Medium and large size isolated systems with a significant contribution from renewable energy sources, specifically eolic energy, are not conveniently operated at the present, neither by the conventional ways of unit commitment/load dispatcher nor by the simplified procedures used in the small isolated power networks. This paper presents a new approaching, in the CARE framework which is financially supported by the European Union through the EEN-JOULE assistance program. The principal idea is to perform unit commitment on-line in the same dispatching cycle, by using the load forecasting and the more recent wind power. The process includes dynamic safety fast evaluation and a module for helping the decision making.

  1. Isolation of suberin from birch outer bark and cork using ionic liquids: A new source of macromonomers

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Rui; Garcia, Helga; Sousa, Andreia F.; Freire, Carmen S. R.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Rebelo, Luis Paulo N.; Pereira, Cristina Silva

    2013-01-01

    Cholinium hexanoate, a biocompatible and biodegradable ionic liquid, was recently demonstrated to efficiently and selectively extract suberin domains from cork, combining high extraction efficiency with isolation of a partial depolymerised material. In the present paper, we report a comparative study of the characterisation of suberin extracted from birch outer bark and from cork using cholinium hexanoate. It became apparent that both extracted suberin samples showed still a cross-linked natu...

  2. Determining the source of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banykó, J; Vyletelová, M

    2009-03-01

    Strain-specific detection of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk, and yoghurt during processing. Randomly selected isolates of Bacillus spp. were subjected to PCR analysis, where single primer targeting to the repetitive sequence Box elements was used to fingerprint the species. The isolates were separated into six different fingerprint patterns. The results show that isolates clustered together at about the 57% similarity level with two main groups at the 82% and 83% similarity levels, respectively. Contamination with identical strains both of B. cereus and B. licheniformis in raw and pasteurized milk was found as well as contaminated with different strains (in the case of raw milk and yoghurt/pasteurized milk and yoghurt). Several BOX types traced in processed milk samples were not discovered in the original raw milk. BOX-PCR fingerprinting is useful for characterizing Bacillus populations in a dairy environment. It can be used to confirm environmental contamination, eventually clonal transfer of Bacillus strains during the technological processing of milk. Despite the limited number of strains analysed, the two Bacillus species yielded adequately detectable banding profiles, permitting differentiation of bacteria at the strain level and showing their diversity throughout dairy processing.

  3. MATLAB-based algorithm to estimate depths of isolated thin dike-like sources using higher-order horizontal derivatives of magnetic anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an easy-to-use open source computer algorithm (code) for estimating the depths of isolated single thin dike-like source bodies by using numerical second-, third-, and fourth-order horizontal derivatives computed from observed magnetic anomalies. The approach does not require a priori information and uses some filters of successive graticule spacings. The computed higher-order horizontal derivative datasets are used to solve nonlinear equations for depth determination. The solutions are independent from the magnetization and ambient field directions. The practical usability of the developed code, designed in MATLAB R2012b (MathWorks Inc.), was successfully examined using some synthetic simulations with and without noise. The algorithm was then used to estimate the depths of some ore bodies buried in different regions (USA, Sweden, and Canada). Real data tests clearly indicated that the obtained depths are in good agreement with those of previous studies and drilling information. Additionally, a state-of-the-art inversion scheme based on particle swarm optimization produced comparable results to those of the higher-order horizontal derivative analyses in both synthetic and real anomaly cases. Accordingly, the proposed code is verified to be useful in interpreting isolated single thin dike-like magnetized bodies and may be an alternative processing technique. The open source code can be easily modified and adapted to suit the benefits of other researchers.

  4. Seismicity at Old Faithful Geyser: an isolated source of geothermal noise and possible analogue of volcanic seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Susan Werner

    1984-09-01

    Old Faithful Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., is a relatively isolated source of seismic noise and exhibits seismic behavior similar to that observed at many volcanoes, including "bubblequakes" that resemble B-type "earthquakes", harmonic tremor before and during eruptions, and periods of seismic quiet prior to eruptions. Although Old Faithful differs from volcanoes in that the conduit is continuously open, that rock-fracturing is not a process responsible for seismicity, and that the erupting fluid is inviscid H 2O rather than viscous magma, there are also remarkable similarities in the problems of heat and mass recharge to the system, in the eruption dynamics, and in the seismicity. Water rises irregularly into the immediate reservoir of Old Faithful as recharge occurs, a fact that suggests that there are two enlarged storage regions: one between 18 and 22 m (the base of the immediate reservoir) and one between about 10 and 12 m depth. Transport of heat from hot water or steam entering at the base of the recharging water column into cooler overlying water occurs by migration of steam bubbles upward and their collapse in the cooler water, and by episodes of convective overturn. An eruption occurs when the temperature of the near-surface water exceeds the boiling point if the entire water column is sufficiently close to the boiling curve that the propagation of pressure-release waves (rarefactions) down the column can bring the liquid water onto the boiling curve. The process of conversion of the liquid water in the conduit at the onset of an eruption into a two-phase liquid-vapor mixture takes on the order of 30 s. The seismicity is directly related to the sequence of filling and heating during the recharge cycle, and to the fluid mechanics of the eruption. Short (0.2-0.3 s), monochromatic, high-frequency events (20-60 Hz) resembling unsustained harmonic tremor and, in some instances, B-type volcanic earthquakes, occur when exploding or imploding

  5. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296 bp and G + C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria.

  6. Potential of xylose-fermented yeast isolated from sugarcane bagasse waste for xylitol production using hydrolysate as carbon source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumawadee Thancharoen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Xylitol is a high value sugar alcohol that is used as a sweetener. In the past years, the biological process of D-xylose from lignocellulosic material into xylitol has gained increasing interest as an alternative production method. In this study, sugarcane bagasse was used as raw material for xylitol production because of its high efficiency, reduced industrial cost, and high concentration of xylose. Pre-treatment of sugarcane bagasse with sulfuric acid was performed with various conditions. The results showed that the optimum condition was exhibited for 3.1% sulfuric acid at 126°C for 18 min producing 19 g/l xylose. Isolated yeasts from the sugarcane bagasse were selected and tested for xylitol ability from xylose. Results showed that Candida tropicalis KS 10-3 (from 72 isolates had the highest ability and produced 0.47 g xylitol/ g xylose in 96 hrs of cultivation containing 32.30 g/l xylose was used as the production medium.

  7. Exploring the potential of fungi isolated from PAH-polluted soil as a source of xenobiotics-degrading fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Patricia; Reina, Rocío; Calderón, Andrea; Wittich, Regina-Michaela; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading fungi adapted to polluted environments for further application in bioremediation processes. In this study, a total of 23 fungal species were isolated from a historically pyrogenic PAH-polluted soil in Spain and taxonomically identified. The dominant groups in these samples were the ones associated with fungi belonging to the Ascomycota phylum and two isolates belonging to the Mucoromycotina subphylum and Basiodiomycota phylum. We tested their ability to convert the three-ring PAH anthracene in a 42-day time course and analysed their ability to secrete extracellular oxidoreductase enzymes. Among the 23 fungal species screened, 12 were able to oxidize anthracene, leading to the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone as the main metabolite, a less toxic one than the parent compound. The complete removal of anthracene was achieved by three fungal species. In the case of Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, extracellular enzyme independent degradation of the initial 100 μM anthracene occurred, whilst in the case of the ligninolytic fungus Fomes (Basidiomycota), the same result was obtained with extracellular enzyme-dependent transformation. The yield of accumulated 9,10-anthraquinone was 80 and 91 %, respectively, and Fomes sp. could slowly deplete it from the growth medium when offered alone. These results are indicative for the effectiveness of these fungi for pollutant removal. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  8. Homologies between the amino acid sequences of some vertebrate peptide hormones and peptides isolated from invertebrate sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

    1990-01-01

    1. The 4K-prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) or bombyxin and the melanization-reddish coloration hormone of the silkworm Bombyx mori resemble insulin and insulin-like growth factors. 2. The family of adipokinetic/red pigment concentrating hormones has some similarity with glucagon. 3. Members of the FMRFamide family are found in vertebrates as well as in invertebrates. 4. In Locusta, a molecule immunologically and biologically related to amphibian melanophore stimulating hormone has been partially characterized. 5. Enkephalins and enkephalin-related peptides occur in insects and other invertebrates. 6. Peptides belonging to the tachykinin family have been isolated from molluscan (Octopus) salivary glands and from insect nervous tissue (Locusta migratoria). 7. Invertebrate arginine-vasotocin homologs have been isolated from an insect (Locusta migratoria) and from a mollusc (Conus). 8. In Leucophaea, Locusta and Drosophila, peptides resembling those of the vertebrate gastrin/cholecystokinin family have been identified. 9. As the number of different neuro-/gut peptides with possible function(s) as hormone, neurotransmitter or neuromodulator is now estimated to be of the order of a few hundred, more similarities will probably show up in the near future.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Oleaginous Yeast Isolated from Kefir and Its Ability to Accumulate Intracellular Fats in Deproteinated Potato Wastewater with Different Carbon Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieliszek, Marek; Jermacz, Karolina; Błażejak, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    The search for efficient oleaginous microorganisms, which can be an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels obtained from oilseed crops, has been going on for many years. The suitability of microorganisms in this regard is determined by their ability to biosynthesize lipids with preferred fatty acid profile along with the concurrent utilization of energy-rich industrial waste. In this study, we isolated, characterized, and identified kefir yeast strains using molecular biology techniques. The yeast isolates identified were Candida inconspicua, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kazachstania unispora, and Zygotorulaspora florentina. We showed that deproteinated potato wastewater, a starch processing industry waste, supplemented with various carbon sources, including lactose and glycerol, is a suitable medium for the growth of yeast, which allows an accumulation of over 20% of lipid substances in its cells. Fatty acid composition primarily depended on the yeast strain and the carbon source used, and, based on our results, most of the strains met the criteria required for the production of biodiesel. In particular, this concerns a significant share of saturated fatty acids, such as C16:0 and C18:0, and unsaturated fatty acids, such as C18:1 and C18:2. The highest efficiency in lipid biosynthesis exceeded 6.3 g L−1. Kazachstania unispora was able to accumulate the high amount of palmitoleic acid. PMID:29098157

  10. Identification and Characterization of Oleaginous Yeast Isolated from Kefir and Its Ability to Accumulate Intracellular Fats in Deproteinated Potato Wastewater with Different Carbon Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Gientka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for efficient oleaginous microorganisms, which can be an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels obtained from oilseed crops, has been going on for many years. The suitability of microorganisms in this regard is determined by their ability to biosynthesize lipids with preferred fatty acid profile along with the concurrent utilization of energy-rich industrial waste. In this study, we isolated, characterized, and identified kefir yeast strains using molecular biology techniques. The yeast isolates identified were Candida inconspicua, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kazachstania unispora, and Zygotorulaspora florentina. We showed that deproteinated potato wastewater, a starch processing industry waste, supplemented with various carbon sources, including lactose and glycerol, is a suitable medium for the growth of yeast, which allows an accumulation of over 20% of lipid substances in its cells. Fatty acid composition primarily depended on the yeast strain and the carbon source used, and, based on our results, most of the strains met the criteria required for the production of biodiesel. In particular, this concerns a significant share of saturated fatty acids, such as C16:0 and C18:0, and unsaturated fatty acids, such as C18:1 and C18:2. The highest efficiency in lipid biosynthesis exceeded 6.3 g L−1. Kazachstania unispora was able to accumulate the high amount of palmitoleic acid.

  11. Identification and Characterization of Oleaginous Yeast Isolated from Kefir and Its Ability to Accumulate Intracellular Fats in Deproteinated Potato Wastewater with Different Carbon Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gientka, Iwona; Kieliszek, Marek; Jermacz, Karolina; Błażejak, Stanisław

    2017-01-01

    The search for efficient oleaginous microorganisms, which can be an alternative to fossil fuels and biofuels obtained from oilseed crops, has been going on for many years. The suitability of microorganisms in this regard is determined by their ability to biosynthesize lipids with preferred fatty acid profile along with the concurrent utilization of energy-rich industrial waste. In this study, we isolated, characterized, and identified kefir yeast strains using molecular biology techniques. The yeast isolates identified were Candida inconspicua , Debaryomyces hansenii , Kluyveromyces marxianus , Kazachstania unispora , and Zygotorulaspora florentina . We showed that deproteinated potato wastewater, a starch processing industry waste, supplemented with various carbon sources, including lactose and glycerol, is a suitable medium for the growth of yeast, which allows an accumulation of over 20% of lipid substances in its cells. Fatty acid composition primarily depended on the yeast strain and the carbon source used, and, based on our results, most of the strains met the criteria required for the production of biodiesel. In particular, this concerns a significant share of saturated fatty acids, such as C16:0 and C18:0, and unsaturated fatty acids, such as C18:1 and C18:2. The highest efficiency in lipid biosynthesis exceeded 6.3 g L -1 . Kazachstania unispora was able to accumulate the high amount of palmitoleic acid.

  12. Alu polymerase chain reaction: A method for rapid isolation of human-specific sequences from complex DNA sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.L.; Ledbetter, S.A.; Corbo, L.; Victoria, M.F.; Ramirez-Solis, R.; Webster, T.D.; Ledbetter, D.H.; Caskey, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    Current efforts to map the human genome are focused on individual chromosomes or smaller regions and frequently rely on the use of somatic cell hybrids. The authors report the application of the polymerase chain reaction to direct amplification of human DNA from hybrid cells containing regions of the human genome in rodent cell backgrounds using primers directed to the human Alu repeat element. They demonstrate Alu-directed amplification of a fragment of the human HPRT gene from both hybrid cell and cloned DNA and identify through sequence analysis the Alu repeats involved in this amplification. They also demonstrate the application of this technique to identify the chromosomal locations of large fragments of the human X chromosome cloned in a yeast artificial chromosome and the general applicability of the method to the preparation of DNA probes from cloned human sequences. The technique allows rapid gene mapping and provides a simple method for the isolation and analysis of specific chromosomal regions

  13. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ricardo Rodrigues de; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Squina, Fábio Márcio; Ruller, Roberto; Sato, Helia Harumi

    Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296bp and G+C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical composition and source of fine and nanoparticles from recent direct injection gasoline passenger cars: Effects of fuel and ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fushimi, Akihiro; Kondo, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Shinji; Fujitani, Yuji; Saitoh, Katsumi; Takami, Akinori; Tanabe, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Particle number, mass, and chemical compositions (i.e., elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), elements, ions, and organic species) of fine particles emitted from four of the recent direct injection spark ignition (DISI) gasoline passenger cars and a port fuel injection (PFI) gasoline passenger car were measured under Japanese official transient mode (JC08 mode). Total carbon (TC = EC + OC) dominated the particulate mass (90% on average). EC dominated the TC for both hot and cold start conditions. The EC/TC ratios were 0.72 for PFI and 0.88-1.0 (average = 0.92) for DISI vehicles. A size-resolved chemical analysis of a DISI car revealed that the major organic components were the C20-C28 hydrocarbons for both the accumulation-mode particles and nanoparticles. Contribution of engine oil was estimated to be 10-30% for organics and the sum of the measured elements. The remaining major fraction likely originated from gasoline fuel. Therefore, it is suggested that soot (EC) also mainly originated from the gasoline. In experiments using four fuels at three ambient temperatures, the emission factors of particulate mass were consistently higher with regular gasoline than with premium gasoline. This result suggest that the high content of less-volatile compounds in fuel increase particulate emissions. These results suggest that focusing on reducing fuel-derived EC in the production process of new cars would effectively reduce particulate emission from DISI cars.

  15. Genotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates from Different Sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, Using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Njie Ateba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC polymerase chain reaction (PCR typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003 and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I–VIII were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91% between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  16. Genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from different sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateba, Collins Njie; Mbewe, Moses

    2014-05-30

    In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v) agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003) and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I-VIII) were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91%) between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  17. Lessons Learned from Characterization, Performance Assessment, and EPA Regulatory Review of the 1996 Actinide Source Term for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, K.W.; Moore, R.C.; Nowak, E.J.; Papenguth, H.W.; Jow, H.

    1999-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a US Department of Energy (DOE) facility for the permanent disposal of transuranic waste from defense activities. In 1996, the DOE submitted the Title 40 CFR Part 191 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (CCA) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The CCA included a probabilistic performance assessment (PA) conducted by Sandia National Laboratories to establish compliance with the quantitative release limits defined in 40 CFR 191.13. An experimental program to collect data relevant to the actinide source term began around 1989, which eventually supported the 1996 CCA PA actinide source term model. The actinide source term provided an estimate of mobile dissolved and colloidal Pu, Am, U, Th, and Np concentrations in their stable oxidation states, and accounted for effects of uncertainty in the chemistry of brines in waste disposal areas. The experimental program and the actinide source term included in the CCA PA underwent EPA review lasting more than 1 year. Experiments were initially conducted to develop data relevant to the wide range of potential future conditions in waste disposal areas. Interim, preliminary performance assessments and actinide source term models provided insight allowing refinement of experiments and models. Expert peer review provided additional feedback and confidence in the evolving experimental program. By 1995, the chemical database and PA predictions of WIPP performance were considered reliable enough to support the decision to add an MgO backfill to waste rooms to control chemical conditions and reduce uncertainty in actinide concentrations, especially for Pu and Am. Important lessons learned through the characterization, PA modeling, and regulatory review of the actinide source term are (1) experimental characterization and PA should evolve together, with neither activity completely dominating the other, (2) the understanding of physical processes

  18. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  19. A multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very short-lived substances (TransCom-VSLS: linking oceanic emissions and tropospheric transport for a reconciled estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection of bromine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hossaini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The first concerted multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS has been performed, within the framework of the ongoing Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom. Eleven global models or model variants participated (nine chemical transport models and two chemistry–climate models by simulating the major natural bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2, over a 20-year period (1993–2012. Except for three model simulations, all others were driven offline by (or nudged to reanalysed meteorology. The overarching goal of TransCom-VSLS was to provide a reconciled model estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection (SGI of bromine from these gases, to constrain the current measurement-derived range, and to investigate inter-model differences due to emissions and transport processes. Models ran with standardised idealised chemistry, to isolate differences due to transport, and we investigated the sensitivity of results to a range of VSLS emission inventories. Models were tested in their ability to reproduce the observed seasonal and spatial distribution of VSLS at the surface, using measurements from NOAA's long-term global monitoring network, and in the tropical troposphere, using recent aircraft measurements – including high-altitude observations from the NASA Global Hawk platform. The models generally capture the observed seasonal cycle of surface CHBr3 and CH2Br2 well, with a strong model–measurement correlation (r  ≥  0.7 at most sites. In a given model, the absolute model–measurement agreement at the surface is highly sensitive to the choice of emissions. Large inter-model differences are apparent when using the same emission inventory, highlighting the challenges faced in evaluating such inventories at the global scale. Across the ensemble, most consistency is found within the tropics where most of the models (8 out of 11 achieve best agreement to

  20. Partial Characterization of α-Galactosidic Activity from the Antarctic Bacterial Isolate, . LX-20 as a Potential Feed Enzyme Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inkyung Park

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An Antarctic bacterial isolate displaying extracellular α-galactosidic activity was named Paenibacillus sp. LX-20 based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Optimal activity for the LX-20 α-galactosidase occurred at pH 6.0–6.5 and 45°C. The enzyme immobilized on the smart polymer Eudragit L-100 retained 70% of its original activity after incubation for 30 min at 50°C, while the free enzyme retained 58% of activity. The enzyme had relatively high specificity for α-D-galactosides such as p-nitrophenyl-α-galactopyranoside, melibiose, raffinose and stachyose, and was resistant to some proteases such as trypsin, pancreatin and pronase. Enzyme activity was almost completely inhibited by Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, and sodium dodecyl sulfate, but activity was not affected by β-mercaptoethanol or EDTA. LX-20 α-galactosidase may be potentially useful as an additive for soybean processing in the feed industry.

  1. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens:Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vergara-Galicia Jorge; Jimenez-Ramirez Luis ngel; Tun-Suarez Adrin; Aguirre-Crespo Francisco; Salazar-Gmez Anuar; Estrada-Soto Samuel; Sierra-Ovando ngel; Hernandez-Nuez Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Methods:An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. Results:All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium;the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. Conclusions: A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects.

  2. The Isolation and Detection of Staphylococcus aureus Enterotoxins A-E and TSST-1 Genes from Different Sources by PCR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norouzi J

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Enterotoxins and toxic shock syndrome toxin–1 (TSST-1 are an important virulence factor of S. aureus. The purpose of this study was to analyze the presence of S. aureus enterotoxin (sea-see and tst genes in the samples that collected from different sources with PCR method. Methods: During 5 months from 150 collected samples, 80 strains were identified as S. aureus. PCR reaction was used for investigation on the presence of genes for staphylococcal enterotoxins (A-E and toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1. Results: Fifty three samples (66.25% out of 80 samples were positive for one or more ETs and TSST-1 genes. of these positive strains, 17 (32.07% were positive for sea 39 (73.58% for seb, 30 (56.6% for sec, 2 (3.7% for sed, 21 (39.62% for see, and 14 (26.41% for tst. Enterotoxins and tst in 40 samples (75.47% observed.Conclusion: In this study, high prevalence of S. aureus, its enterotoxin, and tst genes were observed in clinical samples, food samples, and healthy people. This fact emphasizes on the role of human as original source and carrier of S. aureus. Also, use of PCR reaction for detection of these genes in S. aureus that isolated from various sources is recommended.

  3. Revalorization of selected municipal solid wastes as new precursors of "green" nanocellulose via a novel one-pot isolation system: A source perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, You Wei; Lee, Hwei Voon

    2018-02-01

    In the present work, four types of newly chosen municipal solid wastes (Panax ginseng, spent tea residue, waste cotton cloth, and old corrugated cardboard) were studied as the promising sources for nanocellulose, which has efficiently re-engineered the structure of waste products into highly valuable nanocellulose materials. The nanocellulose was produced directly via a facile one-pot oxidative hydrolysis process by using H 2 O 2 /Cr(NO 3 ) 3 solution as the bleaching agent and hydrolysis medium under acidic condition. The isolated nanocellulose products were well-characterized in terms of chemical composition, product yield, morphological structure and thermal properties. The study has found that the crystallinity index of the obtained nanocellulose products were significantly higher (62.2-83.6%) than that of its starting material due to the successive elimination of lignin, hemicellulose and amorphous regions of cellulose, which were in good agreement with the FTIR analysis. The evidence of the successful production of nanocellulose was given by TEM observation which has revealed the fibril widths were ranging from 15.6 to 46.2nm, with high cellulose content (>90%), depending on the cellulosic origin. The physicochemical properties of processed samples have confirmed that the isolation of high purity nanocellulose materials from different daily spent products is possible. The comparative study can help to provide a deep insight on the possibility of revalorizing the municipal solid wastes into nanocellulose via the simple and versatile one-pot isolation system, which has high potential to be used in commercial applications for sustainable development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  5. A multi purpose source chamber at the PLEIADES beamline at SOLEIL for spectroscopic studies of isolated species: cold molecules, clusters, and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Andreas; Söderström, Johan; Nicolas, Christophe; Robert, Emmanuel; Miron, Catalin

    2013-11-01

    This paper describes the philosophy and design goals regarding the construction of a versatile sample environment: a source capable of producing beams of atoms, molecules, clusters, and nanoparticles in view of studying their interaction with short wavelength (vacuum ultraviolet and x-ray) synchrotron radiation. In the design, specific care has been taken of (a) the use standard components, (b) ensuring modularity, i.e., that swiftly switching between different experimental configurations was possible. To demonstrate the efficiency of the design, proof-of-principle experiments have been conducted by recording x-ray absorption and photoelectron spectra from isolated nanoparticles (SiO2) and free mixed clusters (Ar/Xe). The results from those experiments are showcased and briefly discussed.

  6. A Microbiological Preparation Based on the Homofermentative Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum Isolated from the Natural Sources for Bioconservation of Plant Resources (Review of Studies between 2000 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Shurkhno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews studies performed by the author for improving the process of bioconservation of plant resources by creating an effective microbiological preparation based on the active strains of lactic acid bacteria. It is known that the problem of production of biological preservatives can be solved by using the basic principles of microbiological and biotechnological processes that contribute to the creation of biological preservatives ensuring the most optimal and efficient fermentation of plant mass, i.e., by using homofermentative lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from the natural ecological niches, as well as by conservation of plant mass with the help of lactic acid bacteria at the stage of high physiological activity. In view of the above features, а microbial preparation “Universal Silage Ferment – BIOAGRO” was developed on the basis of two new strains of Lactobacillus plantarum RS3 and L. plantarum RS4, both isolated from natural sources, and implemented in the industrial production. Indus-trial introduction and testing of the microbiological preparation was carried out for 3 years (2012–2014 in ten farms of eight districts of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russia. It was found that the use of the preparation along with an optimized technology of bioconservation of high-protein perennials, annual grasses, their mixtures and corn, and slightly dried herbs in anaerobic conditions improves the qualitative characteristics of silage and haylage, as well as increases their energy value and enhances the economic performance of technological processes of fodder conservation.

  7. Isolation and characterization of a mesophilic heavy-metals-tolerant sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfomicrobium sp. from an enrichment culture using phosphogypsum as a sulfate source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azabou, Samia; Mechichi, Tahar; Patel, Bharat K.C.; Sayadi, Sami

    2007-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium, was isolated from a 6 month trained enrichment culture in an anaerobic media containing phosphogypsum as a sulfate source, and, designated strain SA2. Cells of strain SA2 were rod-shaped, did not form spores and stained Gram-negative. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the isolate revealed that it was related to members of the genus Desulfomicrobium (average sequence similarity of 98%) with Desulfomicrobium baculatum being the most closely related (sequence similarity of 99%). Strain SA2 used thiosulfate, sulfate, sulfite and elemental sulfur as electron acceptors and produced sulfide. Strain SA2 reduced sulfate contained in 1-20 g/L phosphogypsum to sulfide with reduction of sulfate contained in 2 g/L phosphogypsum being the optimum concentration. Strain SA2 grew with metalloid, halogenated and non-metal ions present in phosphogypsum and with added high concentrations of heavy metals (125 ppm Zn and 100 ppm Ni, W, Li and Al). The relative order for the inhibitory metal concentrations, based on the IC 50 values, was Cu, Te > Cd > Fe, Co, Mn > F, Se > Ni, Al, Li > Zn

  8. Ongoing Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of Virulence Genes and papA Alleles among Escherichia coli Blood Isolates from Patients with Diverse-Source Bacteremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James R.; O'Bryan, Timothy T.; Kuskowski, Michael; Maslow, Joel N.

    2001-01-01

    The phylogenetic distributions of multiple putative virulence factors (VFs) and papA (P fimbrial structural subunit) alleles among 182 Escherichia coli blood isolates from patients with diverse-source bacteremia were defined. Phylogenetic correspondence among these strains, the E. coli Reference (ECOR) collection, and other collections of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) was assessed. Although among the 182 bacteremia isolates phylogenetic group B2 predominated, exhibited the greatest concentration of individual VFs, and contained the largest number of familiar virulent clones, other phylogenetic groups exhibited greater concentrations of certain VFs than did group B2 and included several additional virulent clones. Certain of the newly detected VF genes, e.g., fyuA (yersiniabactin; 76%) and focG (F1C fimbriae; 25%), were as prevalent or more prevalent than their more familiar traditional counterparts, e.g., iut (aerobactin; 57%) and sfaS (S fimbriae; 14%), thus possibly offering additional useful targets for preventive interventions. Considerable diversity of VF profiles was observed at every level within the phylogenetic tree, including even within individual lineages. This suggested that many different pathways can lead to extraintestinal virulence in E. coli and that the evolution of ExPEC, which involves extensive horizontal transmission of VFs and continuous remodeling of pathogenicity-associated islands, is a highly active, ongoing process. PMID:11500406

  9. Injection and lessons for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, C.; Barnes, M.J.; Bartmann, W.; Cornelis, K.; Drosdal, L.N.; Goddard, B.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and one nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the Transfer Line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking de-bunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by- shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular re-steering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches. (authors)

  10. Injection and lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Bartmann, W; Cornelis, K; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and a nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished during MD time. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the transfer line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking debunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by-shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular resteering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches.

  11. Effect of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources on Polygalacturonase Production by Trichoderma viride (BITRS-1001 Isolated from Tar Sand in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogunmolu, F. E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the various carbon and nitrogen substrates on the growth and polygalacturonase activity of Trichoderma viride (BITRS-1001 isolated from the tar sand deposit in Gbelejuloda-Irele Ondo State, Nigeria were investigated in submerged cultivation at 30 °C ± 2 °C. The commercial carbon and nitrogen substrates included sucrose, fructose, starch, maltose, lactose and peptone, sodium nitrate, urea and casein respectively. All the carbon substrates used supported the growth of T. viride (0.566 to 0.156 g/50 mL of culture medium with starch supporting the highest biomass yield and sucrose the least biomass yield. Maximum polygalacturonase activity of 3033 U/mL was recorded in maltose medium. Maximum biomass yield on the nitrogen sources was observed in the organic nitrogen namely peptone and casein with values not significantly different from each other at p ≤ 0.05. In the determination of the crude enzyme activity on the nitrogen sources, maximum polygalacturonase activity of 12,400 U/mL was recorded in peptone medium. Hence, a careful manipulation of these nutrient substrates could help to optimise the production of this enzyme on a large scale.

  12. Physics of the current injection process during localized helicity injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Edward Thomas

    An impedance model has been developed for the arc-plasma cathode electron current source used in localized helicity injection tokamak startup. According to this model, a potential double layer (DL) is established between the high-density arc plasma (narc ˜ 1021 m-3) in the electron source, and the less-dense external tokamak edge plasma (nedge ˜ 10 18 m-3) into which current is injected. The DL launches an electron beam at the applied voltage with cross-sectional area close to that of the source aperture: Ainj ≈ 2 cm 2. The injected current, Iinj, increases with applied voltage, Vinj, according to the standard DL scaling, Iinj ˜ V(3/2/ inj), until the more restrictive of two limits to beam density nb arises, producing Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj), a scaling with beam drift velocity. For low external tokamak edge density nedge, space-charge neutralization of the intense electron beam restricts the injected beam density to nb ˜ nedge. At high Jinj and sufficient edge density, the injected current is limited by expansion of the DL sheath, which leads to nb ˜ narc. Measurements of narc, Iinj , nedge, Vinj, support these predicted scalings, and suggest narc as a viable control actuator for the source impedance. Magnetic probe signals ≈ 300 degrees toroidally from the injection location are consistent with expectations for a gyrating, coherent electron beam with a compact areal cross-section. Technological development of the source has allowed an extension of the favorable Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj) to higher power without electrical breakdown.

  13. Water injection profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method of neutron-gamma logging is described, in which water, injected in a cased well borehole with peforations, is irradiated with neutrons of 10 MeV or greater, and subsequent gamma radiation is detected by a pair of detectors along the borehole. Counting rates of detectors are analyzed in terms of two gamma ray energy windows. Linear flow velocity of fluid moving downward within the casing is used in conjunction with count rate data to determine volume flow rates of water moving in other directions. Apparatus includes a sonde with a neutron source and appropriate gamma sensors

  14. Ten years of surveillance of the Yulong plague focus in China and the molecular typing and source tracing of the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Shi, Liyuan; Zhang, Fuxin; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhikai; Tan, Hongli; Cui, Zhigang; Ding, Yibo; Liang, Ying; Liang, Yun; Yu, Dongzheng; Xu, Jianguo; Li, Wei; Song, Zhizhong

    2018-03-01

    Plague, caused by Yersinia pestis, was classified as a reemerging infectious disease by the World Health Organization. The five human pneumonic plague cases in Yulong County in 2005 gave rise to the discovery of a Yulong plague focus in Yunnan province, China. Thereafter, continuous wild rodent plague (sylvatic plague) was identified as the main plague reservoir of this focus. In this study, the epizootics in Yulong focus were described, and three molecular typing methods, including the different region (DFR) analysis, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), and the multiple-locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) (14+12), were used for the molecular typing and source tracing of Y. pestis isolates in the Yulong plague focus. Simultaneously, several isolates from the vicinity of Yunnan were used as controls. The results showed that during the 10-year period from 2006 to 2016, an animal plague epidemic occurred in 6 of those years, and 5 villages underwent an animal plague epidemic within a 30-km2 area of the Yulong plague focus. Searching for dead mice was the most effective monitoring method in this plague focus. No positive sample has been found in 6937 captured live rodents thus far, suggesting that the virulence of strains in the Yulong plague focus is stronger and the survival time of mice is shorter after infection. Strains from Lijiang, Sichuan and Tibet were of the same complex based on a typing analysis of DFR and CRISPR. The genetic relationship of Y. pestis illustrated by MLVA "14+12" demonstrates that Tibet and Sichuan strains evolved from the strains 1.IN2 (Qinghai, 1970 and Tibet, 1976), and Lijiang strains are closer to Batang strains (Batang County in Sichuan province, 2011, Himalaya marmot plague foci) in terms of genetic or phylogenic relationships. In conclusion, we have a deeper understanding of this new plague focus throughout this study, which provides a basis for effective prevention and

  15. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  16. creation of unificed geoinformation system for monitoring social and economic developments of departamento quindio (colombia) on the basis of the isolated data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buravlev, V.; Sereshnikov, S. V.; Mayorov, A. A.; Vila, J. J.

    At each level of the state and municipal management the information resources which provide the support of acceptance of administrative decisions, usually are performed as a number of polytypic, untied among themselves electronic data sources, such as databases, geoinformation projects, electronic archives of documents, etc. These sources are located in the various organizations, they function in various programs, and are actualized according to various rules. Creation on the basis of such isolated sources of the uniform information systems which provide an opportunity to look through and analyze any information stored in these sources in real time mode, will help to promote an increase in a degree of adequacy of accepted administrative decisions. The Distributed Data Service technology - TrisoftDDS, developed by company Trisoft, Ltd, provides the construction of horizontal territorially distributed heterogeneous information systems (TeRGIS). Technology TrisoftDDS allows the quickly creation and support, easy modification of systems, the data sources for which are already existing information complexes, without any working capacity infringements of the last ones, and provides the remote regulated multi-user access to the different types of data sources by the Internet/Intranet. Relational databases, GIS projects, files of various types (documents MS Office, images, html documents, etc.) can be used as data sources in TeRGIS. TeRGIS is created as Internet/Intranet application representing three-level client-server system. Access to the information in existing data sources is carried out by means of the distributed DDS data service, the nucleus of which is the distributed data service server - the DSServer, settling down on an intermediate level. TrisoftDDS Technology includes the following components: Client DSBrowser (Data Service Browser) - the client application connected through the Internet/intranet to the DSServer and provides both - a choice and viewing of

  17. The new injection beamline at VERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priller, Alfred; Melber, Karl; Forstner, Oliver; Golser, Robin; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Wallner, Anton

    2010-01-01

    VERA has been operated for 12 years with one 40-cathode SNICS ion source. Since the number of isotopes investigated at VERA increased steadily, we decided to install a second ion source. Due to space restrictions, a new injection line had to be built and merged into the existing one. The major task was to build an electrostatic analyzer assembly to accommodate injection from two ion sources.

  18. TARA beamline and injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, R.S.; Brindza, P.; Coleman, J.W.; Torti, R.P.; Blackfield, D.T.; Goodrich, P.

    1983-01-01

    The TARA beamline for neutral beam injection will permit one to three sources to fire into each plug (60 degree or optional 90 degree injection with respect to the TARA axis) or into each anchor (90 degree injection only). The sources, pre-aimed on their mounting plate at the NB test stand, may be fired into neutralizer ducts or optionally through a magnesium curtain, and the unneutralized fraction is dumped by the TARA fringing field onto a receiver plate. The beamline is housed in a cylindrical tank with the beam axis along the tank diameter at the midplane. The tank will be sorption pumped using LN + T/sub I/ or N/sub B/ and/or e-beam gettering. The beam burial tank contains sed arrays and a thin foil dump which reaches sufficiently high temperatures during the shot to boil out gas between shots

  19. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  20. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  1. PLT neutral beam injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Barber, G.C.; Blue, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the Princeton Large Torus (PLT) neutral beam injection system is given and its performance characteristics are outlined. A detailed operational procedure is included, as are some tips on troubleshooting. Proper operation of the source is shown to be a crucial factor in system performance

  2. Comparative Analysis of Semiconductor Power Losses of Galvanically Isolated Quasi-Z-Source and Full-Bridge Boost DC-DC Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosenko Roman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares semiconductor losses of the galvanically isolated quasi-Z-source converter and full-bridge boost DC-DC converter with active clamping circuit. Operation principle of both converters is described. Short design guidelines are provided as well. Results of steady state analysis are used to calculate semiconductor power losses for both converters. Analytical expressions are derived for all types of semiconductor power losses present in these converters. The theoretical results were verified by means of numerical simulation performed in the PSIM simulation software. Its add-on module “Thermal module” was used to estimate semiconductor power losses using the datasheet parameters of the selected semiconductor devices. Results of calculations and simulation study were obtained for four operating points with different input voltage and constant input current to compare performance of the converters in renewable applications, like photovoltaic, where input voltage and power can vary significantly. Power loss breakdown is detailed and its dependence on the converter output power is analyzed. Recommendations are given for the use of the converter topologies in applications with low input voltage and relatively high input current.

  3. Evaluation of Lactococcus lactis Isolates from Nondairy Sources with Potential Dairy Applications Reveals Extensive Phenotype-Genotype Disparity and Implications for a Revised Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Daniel; Casey, Aidan; Altermann, Eric; Cotter, Paul D; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; McAuliffe, Olivia

    2015-06-15

    Lactococcus lactis is predominantly associated with dairy fermentations, but evidence suggests that the domesticated organism originated from a plant niche. L. lactis possesses an unusual taxonomic structure whereby strain phenotypes and genotypes often do not correlate, which in turn has led to confusion in L. lactis classification. A bank of L. lactis strains was isolated from various nondairy niches (grass, vegetables, and bovine rumen) and was further characterized on the basis of key technological traits, including growth in milk and key enzyme activities. Phenotypic analysis revealed all strains from nondairy sources to possess an L. lactis subsp. lactis phenotype (lactis phenotype); however, seven of these strains possessed an L. lactis subsp. cremoris genotype (cremoris genotype), determined by two separate PCR assays. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that strains with lactis and cremoris genotypes clustered together regardless of habitat, but it highlighted the increased diversity that exists among "wild" strains. Calculation of average nucleotide identity (ANI) and tetranucleotide frequency correlation coefficients (TETRA), using the JSpecies software tool, revealed that L. lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis differ in ANI values by ∼14%, below the threshold set for species circumscription. Further analysis of strain TIFN3 and strains from nonindustrial backgrounds revealed TETRA values of lactis taxonomy. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, P.

    1994-01-01

    External ion sources for cyclotrons are needed for polarised and heavy ions. This calls for injection systems, either radial or axial. Radial injection is also needed when a cyclotron works as a booster after another cyclotron or a linear accelerator (usually tandem). Requirements for injection differ from separated sector cyclotrons where there is plenty of room to house inflectors and/or strippers, to superconducting cyclotrons where the space is limited by a small magnet gap, and high magnetic field puts other limitations to the inflectors. Several extraction schemes are used in cyclotrons. Stripping injection is used for H - and also for heavy ions where the q/m ratio is usually doubled. For other cases, electric and magnetic deflection has to be used. To increase the turn separation before the first deflector, both resonant and non-resonant schemes are used. In this lecture, external injection systems are surveyed and some rules to thumb for injection parameters are given. Extraction schemes are also reviewed. (orig.)

  5. Injecting drug use: Gendered risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnow, Renee; Winstock, Adam R; Maier, Larissa J; Levy, Jay; Ferris, Jason

    2018-06-01

    Research demonstrates gender related differences in drug-use practices and risk behaviours. Females' structural vulnerability stemming from traditional gender roles and gender-power relations may enhance their propensity to experience injecting related risk. In this paper we explore gender differences in injection practices at the initiation event, during the first year of injecting and in the most recent 12-month period, to inform more effective harm reduction strategies. Data used in this study were drawn from the Global Drug Survey 2015. The study employs chi-square and logistic regression to assess gender differences in injection behaviours in a sample of current injectors residing in six global regions: North-West Europe; Southern Eastern Europe; North America. South America and Oceania. Females were more likely than males to report being injected by an intimate partner at initiation (OR = 4.4, 95%CI: 2.2-8.8), during the first year of injecting (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.4-9.3) and in the most recent 12-month period (OR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.0-6.2). Females reported greater difficulties accessing sterile equipment (X 2 (2,N = 453) = 8.2, p = 0.02) and were more likely to share injecting equipment than males (X 2 (1,N = 463) = 3.9, p = 0.05). Our findings highlight females' continued dependence on their intimate partner to administer the injection into the first year of their injecting career. Females remained more likely than males to rely on intimate partners for injection during the most recent 12-month period. Females report greater difficulties in sourcing sterile equipment and are more likely to share injecting equipment. We suggest that these findings reflect the broader social structure in which females are disempowered through traditional gender roles and the lack of gender appropriate harm reduction services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. CLINICAL ISOLATES OF MECA, METHICILLIN, VANCOMYCIN RESISTANCE S. AUREUS; ESBLs PRODUCING K.PNEUMONIA, E.COLI, P. AUREGENOSA FROM VARIOUS CLINICAL SOURCE AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Mahmud Ali, Amirthalingam R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Antimicrobial resistance has turned into a key medical and public health crisis globally since the injudicious use of magic bullets (drugs. Aim of this study is focused on the clinical isolate and their percentages of resistant to antibiotics in gram positive bacteria such as MRSA, VRSA, and MSSA are common causes of nosocomical, skin structure infections, bacteremia and infection of other systems; ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae (E. coli, Klebsiella spp. is common agent of urinary tract, bloodstream, pulmonary and intra-abdominal infections and carbapenem resistant P. aeruginosa with its complete antimicrobial patterns which are currently practiced in this population. Methods: There are one hundred and fourteen (114 various clinical isolates, isolated from various clinical samples like throat swab, urine, pus, sputum, and blood culture, identified as specific isolate with resistance patterns were analyzed by BD phoenix-100 the auto analyzer. Results: Off 114 clinical isolate, 6 mecA-mediated resistance (cefoxitin>8mgc/ml, 11 methicillin resistance, 18 β lactam/βlactamase inhibitor, 12 methicillin sensitive and 3 vancomycin (>16µg/ml resistance S. aureus have been isolated from overall 50 isolate of S.aureus. In addition, there are 27 P.aeruginosa, 15 ESBLs from overall of 25 K. pneumoniae and 7 ESBLs out of 12 Escherichia coli species have been isolated. The resistance and susceptibility pattern percentages have been graphically represented for each isolates. Conclusion: Current study revealed that the drug classes of β lactam/βlactamase inhibitor having high resistance rate with S.aureus, P.aureginosa, K. pneumoniae and E. coli isolate. Also, some of other drug classes such as cepham and tetracycline having higher resistance rate with P.aureginosa and K.pneumoniae. In addition, the vancomycin resistances S. aureus have been isolated and reported as first time in this population.

  7. "Injection first": a unique group of injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios M; Gallardo, Manuel; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Using baseline data from a study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico (N = 1,052), we identified social and behavioral factors associated with injecting at the same age or earlier than other administration routes of illicit drug use (eg, "injection first") and examined whether this IDU subgroup had riskier drug using and sexual behaviors than other IDUs. Twelve-percent "injected first." Characteristics independently associated with a higher odds of "injection first" included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin as their first drug, being alone at the first injection episode, and having a sexual debut at the same age or earlier as when they initiated drug use; family members' illicit drug use was associated with lower odds of injecting first. When adjusting for age at first injection and number of years injecting, "injection first" IDUs had lower odds of ever overdosing, and ever trading sex. On the other hand, they were less likely to have ever been enrolled in drug treatment, and more commonly obtained their syringes from potentially unsafe sources. In conclusion, a sizable proportion of IDUs in Tijuana injected as their first drug using experience, although evidence that this was a riskier subgroup of IDUs was inconclusive.  Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  8. DC injection into low voltage AC networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study investigating the impact of levels of injected DC current injections on a low voltage AC distribution network systems in order to recommend acceptable limits of DC from microgeneration. Relevant literature is reviewed, and the impact of DC levels in distribution transformers, transformer modelling, and instrumental transformers are discussed. The impact of DC in residual current devices (RCD) and in domestic electricity watt hour meters is examined along with DC enhanced corrosion, corrosion failure, and the measurement of DC current injection. Sources of DC injection outlined include DC from computer power supplies, network faults, geomagnetic phenomena, lighting circuits/dimmers, and embedded generators.

  9. The human clone ST22 SCCmec IV methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from swine herds and wild primates in Nepal: is man the common source?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marilyn C; Joshi, Prabhu Raj; Greninger, Alexander L; Melendez, Daira; Paudel, Saroj; Acharya, Mahesh; Bimali, Nabin Kishor; Koju, Narayan P; No, David; Chalise, Mukesh; Kyes, Randall C

    2018-05-01

    Swine nasal samples [n = 282] were collected from 12 randomly selected farms around Kathmandu, Nepal, from healthy animals. In addition, wild monkey (Macaca mulatta) saliva samples [n = 59] were collected near temples areas in Kathmandu using a non-invasive sampling technique. All samples were processed for MRSA using standardized selective media and conventional biochemical tests. MRSA verification was done and isolates characterized by SCCmec, multilocus sequence typing, whole genome sequencing [WGS] and antibiotic susceptibilities. Six (2.1%) swine MRSA were isolated from five of the different swine herds tested, five were ST22 type IV and one ST88 type V. Four (6.8%) macaques MRSA were isolated, with three ST22 SCCmec type IV and one ST239 type III. WGS sequencing showed that the eight ciprofloxacin resistant ST22 isolates carried gyrA mutation [S84L]. Six isolates carried the erm(C) genes, five isolates carried aacC-aphD genes and four isolates carried blaZ genes. The swine linezolid resistant ST22 did not carry any known acquired linezolid resistance genes but had a mutation in ribosomal protein L22 [A29V] and an insertion in L4 [68KG69], both previously associated with linezolid resistance. Multiple virulence factors were also identified. This is the first time MRSA ST22 SCCmec IV has been isolated from livestock or primates.

  10. Draft Genome Sequence of a Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae Isolate from a Clinical Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozer, Egon A.; Morris, Andrew R.; Krapp, Fiorella; Henry, Christopher S.; Tyo, Keith E.; Lathem, Wyndham W.; Hauser, Alan R.

    2016-05-26

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a multidrug-resistant clinical isolate ofKlebsiella quasipneumoniaesubsp.similipneumoniae, KP_Z4175. This strain, isolated as part of a hospital infection-control screening program, is resistant to multiple β-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  11. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  12. Subtyping Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis isolates from different sources by using sequence typing based on virulence genes and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fenyun; Kariyawasam, Subhashinie; Jayarao, Bhushan M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Ribot, Efrain M; Knabel, Stephen J; Dudley, Edward G

    2011-07-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne salmonellosis in the United States. Two major food vehicles for S. Enteritidis are contaminated eggs and chicken meat. Improved subtyping methods are needed to accurately track specific strains of S. Enteritidis related to human salmonellosis throughout the chicken and egg food system. A sequence typing scheme based on virulence genes (fimH and sseL) and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs)-CRISPR-including multi-virulence-locus sequence typing (designated CRISPR-MVLST)-was used to characterize 35 human clinical isolates, 46 chicken isolates, 24 egg isolates, and 63 hen house environment isolates of S. Enteritidis. A total of 27 sequence types (STs) were identified among the 167 isolates. CRISPR-MVLST identified three persistent and predominate STs circulating among U.S. human clinical isolates and chicken, egg, and hen house environmental isolates in Pennsylvania, and an ST that was found only in eggs and humans. It also identified a potential environment-specific sequence type. Moreover, cluster analysis based on fimH and sseL identified a number of clusters, of which several were found in more than one outbreak, as well as 11 singletons. Further research is needed to determine if CRISPR-MVLST might help identify the ecological origins of S. Enteritidis strains that contaminate chickens and eggs.

  13. Pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers are of the same subtype as pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from humans and may be a source of human infection in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Zhigang; Wang, Hua; Tang, Liuying; Yang, Jinchuan; Gu, Ling; Jin, Dong; Luo, Longze; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Xiong, Haiping; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi

    2010-05-01

    We isolated 326 Yersinia enterocolitica strains from 5,919 specimens from patients with diarrhea at outpatient clinics, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment in the cities of Nantong and Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the 12 pathogenic strains were of the O:3 serotype. Six strains were isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers and were found to be the primary carriers of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially in Xuzhou. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the pathogenic strains from dogs belonging to farmers showed that they shared the same patterns as strains from diarrhea patients isolated in 1994. This indicates that the strains from domestic dogs have a close correlation with the strains causing human infections.

  14. Broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, pigs and pork as sources of ExPEC related virulence genes and resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-dwelling humans and UTI patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, L; Spangholm, D. J.; Pedersen, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates...... causing UTI, bacteremia, and meningitis. The external sources of these ExPEC in the human intestine are unknown. The food supply may transmit ExPEC to humans. However, evidence of this hypothesis is limited. To assess this hypothesis, the objective of our study was to investigate the presence of Ex......PEC related virulence genes in E. coli isolates from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, meat, and production animals. Accordingly, we included 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n=102), community-dwelling humans (n=109), fresh Danish (n=197) and imported...

  15. Multiple sources of 1,2-diacylglycerol in isolated rat pancreatic acini stimulated by cholecystokinin. Involvement of phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matozaki, T.; Williams, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Changes in the cellular content of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) in isolated rat pancreatic acini in response to agonist stimulation were studied using a sensitive mass assay. When acini were stimulated by 10 nM COOH-terminal cholecystokinin-octapeptide (CCK8), the increase in DAG was biphasic, consisting of an early peak at 5 s and a second, larger, gradual increase that was maximal by 15 min. The basal level of DAG in acini was 1.04 nmol/mg of protein, which was increased to 1.24 nmol/mg of protein at 5 s and 2.76 nmol/mg of protein at 30 min. In comparison, the increase in DAG stimulated by 30 pM CCK8, a submaximal concentration for amylase release, was monophasic, increasing without an early peak but sustained to 60 min. Other Ca2+-mobilizing secretagogues such as carbamylcholine and bombesin increased DAG in acini, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide, which acts to increase cAMP, had no effect. Phorbol ester and Ca2+ ionophore also stimulated DAG production. Analysis of the mass level of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (1,4,5-IP3) showed that the generation of 1,4,5-IP3 stimulated by 10 nM CCK8 peaked at 5 s, a finding consistent with the early peak of DAG. The basal level was 4.7 pmol/mg of protein, which was increased to 144.6 pmol/mg of protein at 5 s by 10 nM CCK8. The levels of 1,4,5-IP3 then returned toward basal in contrast to the gradual and sustained increase of DAG. The dose dependencies of 1,4,5-IP3 and DAG formation at 5 s with respect to CCK8 were almost identical. This suggests that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate hydrolysis is a major source of the early increase in DAG but not of the sustained increase in DAG. Therefore, a possible contribution of phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis to DAG formation was examined utilizing acini prelabeled with [3H]choline. CCK8 (1 nM) maximally increased [3H]choline metabolite release by 133% of control at 30 min

  16. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  17. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  18. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  20. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  2. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  3. Broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, pigs and pork as sources of ExPEC related virulence genes and resistance in Escherichia coli isolates from community-dwelling humans and UTI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Spangholm, Daniel J; Pedersen, Karl; Jensen, Lars B; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hammerum, Anette M; Frimodt-Møller, Niels

    2010-08-15

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. UTI is primarily caused by extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) from the patients' own fecal flora. The ExPEC often belong to phylogroups B2 and D, the groups which include potent human ExPEC isolates causing UTI, bacteremia, and meningitis. The external sources of these ExPEC in the human intestine are unknown. The food supply may transmit ExPEC to humans. However, evidence of this hypothesis is limited. To assess this hypothesis, the objective of our study was to investigate the presence of ExPEC related virulence genes in E. coli isolates from UTI patients, community-dwelling humans, meat, and production animals. Accordingly, we included 964 geographically and temporally matched E. coli isolates from UTI patients (n=102), community-dwelling humans (n=109), fresh Danish (n=197) and imported broiler chicken meat (n=86), broiler chickens (n=138), fresh Danish (n=177) and imported pork (n=10), and pigs (n=145) in the study. All isolates were investigated for the presence of eight ExPEC related genes (kpsM II, papA, papC, iutA, sfaS, focG, afa, hlyD) using PCR. To investigate any similarities between isolates from the different origins, we performed a cluster analysis including antimicrobial resistance data previously published. We detected seven of the eight ExPEC related genes in isolates from broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs. Our findings suggest that broiler chicken meat, broiler chickens, pork and pigs could be the source of strains with these ExPEC related virulence genes in community-dwelling humans and UTI patients. Especially detection of ExPEC related virulence genes in isolates belonging to phylogroups B2 and D is very concerning and may have a significant medical impact. The cluster analysis of virulence gene and antimicrobial resistance profiles showed strong similarities between UTI patient, community-dwelling human isolates, meat, and

  4. Temperature stabilization of injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanese, A.

    1987-01-01

    Apparatus which stabilizes the temperature, and thereby the output wavelength, of an injection laser. Means monitor the laser terminal voltage across a laser and derive a voltage therefrom which is proportional to the junction voltage of the laser. Means compares the voltage to a reference value from source and a temperature controller adjusts the laser temperature in response to the results of the comparison. Further embodiments of the present invention vary the output wavelength of the laser by varying the reference value from source against which the laser junction voltage is compared. (author)

  5. Metabolic variations of fatty acid in isolated rat heart reperfused after a transient global ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gang; Michel Comet; Zhao Huiyang; Zhu Cuiying; Yuan Jimin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The fatty acid metabolism and the effect of glucose on it were studied in isolated and reperfused rat heat. Methods: 32 isolated working rat hearts were perfused in Langengdorff device with modified Krebs and were divided into normal and ischemia-reperfused group. Each group was also classified into two subgroups, modified krebs with or without glucose subgroup. 131 I-HA was injected into aorta of isolated working rat heart and then the radio-residue curves were acquired. Results: When the isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs plus glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid was significantly decreased in normal group, but a remarkable increase of fatty acid catabolism was found in ischemia-reperfused group. While the isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs without glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs without glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat heart was less than that in normal group. Conclusions: Transient ischemia damages the catabolism of myocardial fatty acid in mitochondria in some degree. In normal isolated working rat heart, the principal energy source is glucose. However, the major energy source is switched to catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat heart. This phenomenon may be related to compensative increase of fatty acid catabolism for replenishing the loss of energy during ischemia

  6. Development of a He/CdI$_2$ gas-jet system coupled to a surface-ionization type ion-source in JAEA-ISOL: towards determination of the first ionization potential of Lr (Z = 103)

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, T K; Sato, N; Tsukada, K; Toyoshima, A; Ooe, K; Miyashita, S; Kaneya, Y; Osa, A; Schädel, M; Nagame, Y; Ichikawa, S; Stora, T; Kratz, J V

    2015-01-01

    We report on development of a gas-jet transport system coupled to a surface ionization ion-source in the JAEA-ISOL (Isotope Separator On-Line) system. As a new aerosol material for the gas-jet system, CdI2, which has a low boiling point of 713 °C, is exploited to prevent deposition of the aerosol material on the surface of the ion-source. An additional filament is newly installed in the previous ion-source to provide uniform heating of an ionizer. The present system is applied to the measurement of absolute efficiencies of various short-lived lanthanide isotopes produced in nuclear reactions.

  7. Performance of the ALS injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.H.

    1993-05-01

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  8. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  9. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  10. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... and disorders: physiology of micturition, voiding dysfunction, urinary incontinence, urinary tract infections, and painful bladder syndrome. In: Lobo ...

  11. Production of accelerated electrons near an electron source in the plasma resonance region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Conditions of generation of plasma electrons accelerated and their characteristics in the vicinity of an electron source are determined. The electron source isolated electrically with infinitely conducting surface, being in unrestricted collisionless plasma ω 0 >>ν, where ω 0 - plasma frequency of nonperturbated plasma, ν - frequency of plasma electron collisions with other plasma particles, is considered. Spherically symmetric injection of electrons, which rates are simulated by ω frequency, occurs from the source surface. When describing phenomena in the vicinity of the electron source, one proceeds from the quasihydrodynamic equation set

  12. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  13. [Genetic characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from ready-to-eat food and pig-related sources in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Guo, Yunchang; Pei, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yujie; Bai, Li; Sun, Aiping; Liu, Jikai; Fu, Ping; Li, Fengqin

    2013-11-01

    To study the mecA gene distribution in 877 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the environment of pig farm and slaughter house, pig carcass and its iliac lymph nodes, and ready-to-eat foods in China as to screen the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of MRSA. A total of 877 strains of S. aureus that had been phenotypically identified by Gram staining, catalase test, ability to coagulate rabbit plasma, API STAPH as well as analysis of nuc gene, encoding for a S. aureus specific thermonu-clease were screened for MRSA by characterizing the mecA gene. The antimicrobial susceptibility of MRSA was tested in accordance with the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Of 877 S. aureus strains tested, 71 (8.1%, 71/887) were mecA positive and identified as MRSA, among which, 48 isolates were pig-associated and 23 isolates were ready-to-eat food-associated. The frequency of pig-associated MRSA was significantly higher than that of food-associated one (chi2 = 53.040, P food-associated MRSA (CIP: chi2 = 29.110, P food-associated matrixin China is very serious.

  14. Microscopic isolation and characterization of free living amoebae (FLA from surface water sources.in Birjand, the capital city of the South Khorasan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodreza Behravan

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: The results indicated that a significant percentage of surface water sources in Birjand city was contaminated with Acanthamoeba spp. It is necessary for physicians, therefore, to take into account the diseases caused by these infectious agents. Besides, local regional health professionals should take into consideration the potential role of surface stagnant water sources in transferring these infectious agents. Placing warning signs in areas contaminated with these infectious agents seems a useful measure.

  15. Electron injection in microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the methods of injecting electrons in the microtron is presented. A special attention is paid to efficient injection systems developed by Wernholm and Kapitza. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is made in relation to the purpose of the microtron. (author)

  16. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  17. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump inje...

  18. WIPP conceptual design report. Addendum D. A report to Holmes and Narver, Inc., Anaheim, California on alternative energy sources for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, Carlsbad, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    This report presents the results of a technical and economic analysis of alternative methods of meeting the energy needs of a proposed Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) to be located in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP is a facility for underground storage of radioactive wastes in a deep salt bed. The report analyzes a total of sixteen possible methods for meeting WIPP energy requirements, consisting of purchased electricity and on-site generation in various combinations from full purchased to full on-site

  19. Marine myxobacteria as a source of antibiotics--comparison of physiology, polyketide-type genes and antibiotic production of three new isolates of Enhygromyxa salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäberle, Till F; Goralski, Emilie; Neu, Edith; Erol, Ozlem; Hölzl, Georg; Dörmann, Peter; Bierbaum, Gabriele; König, Gabriele M

    2010-09-03

    Three myxobacterial strains, designated SWB004, SWB005 and SWB006, were obtained from beach sand samples from the Pacific Ocean and the North Sea. The strains were cultivated in salt water containing media and subjected to studies to determine their taxonomic status, the presence of genes for the biosynthesis of polyketides and antibiotic production. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed the type strain Enhygromyxa salina SHK-1(T) as their closest homolog, displaying between 98% (SWB005) and 99% (SWB004 and SWB006) sequence similarity. All isolates were rod-shaped cells showing gliding motility and fruiting body formation as is known for myxobacteria. They required NaCl for growth, with an optimum concentration of around 2% [w/v]. The G + C-content of genomic DNA ranged from 63.0 to 67.3 mol%. Further, the strains were analyzed for their potential to produce polyketide-type structures. PCR amplified ketosynthase-like gene fragments from all three isolates enhances the assumption that these bacteria produce polyketides. SWB005 was shown to produce metabolites with prominent antibacterial activity, including activity towards methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE).

  20. Marine Myxobacteria as a Source of Antibiotics—Comparison of Physiology, Polyketide-Type Genes and Antibiotic Production of Three New Isolates of Enhygromyxa salina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Bierbaum

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Three myxobacterial strains, designated SWB004, SWB005 and SWB006, were obtained from beach sand samples from the Pacific Ocean and the North Sea. The strains were cultivated in salt water containing media and subjected to studies to determine their taxonomic status, the presence of genes for the biosynthesis of polyketides and antibiotic production. 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed the type strain Enhygromyxa salina SHK-1T as their closest homolog, displaying between 98% (SWB005 and 99% (SWB004 and SWB006 sequence similarity. All isolates were rod-shaped cells showing gliding motility and fruiting body formation as is known for myxobacteria. They required NaCl for growth, with an optimum concentration of around 2% [w/v]. The G + C-content of genomic DNA ranged from 63.0 to 67.3 mol%. Further, the strains were analyzed for their potential to produce polyketide-type structures. PCR amplified ketosynthase-like gene fragments from all three isolates enhances the assumption that these bacteria produce polyketides. SWB005 was shown to produce metabolites with prominent antibacterial activity, including activity towards methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE.

  1. Spin Injection in Indium Arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eJohnson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a two dimensional electron system (2DES, coherent spin precession of a ballistic spin polarized current, controlled by the Rashba spin orbit interaction, is a remarkable phenomenon that’s been observed only recently. Datta and Das predicted this precession would manifest as an oscillation in the source-drain conductance of the channel in a spin-injected field effect transistor (Spin FET. The indium arsenide single quantum well materials system has proven to be ideal for experimental confirmation. The 2DES carriers have high mobility, low sheet resistance, and high spin orbit interaction. Techniques for electrical injection and detection of spin polarized carriers were developed over the last two decades. Adapting the proposed Spin FET to the Johnson-Silsbee nonlocal geometry was a key to the first experimental demonstration of gate voltage controlled coherent spin precession. More recently, a new technique measured the oscillation as a function of channel length. This article gives an overview of the experimental phenomenology of the spin injection technique. We then review details of the application of the technique to InAs single quantum well (SQW devices. The effective magnetic field associated with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is described, and a heuristic model of coherent spin precession is presented. The two successful empirical demonstrations of the Datta Das conductance oscillation are then described and discussed.

  2. Isolated galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, Maret

    1990-01-01

    To test for the possible presence of really isolated galaxies, which form a randomly distributed population in voids, we compare the distribution of most isolated galaxies in an observed sample with distributions of the same number of random points using the nearest neighbour test. The results show that the random population of really isolated galaxies does not exist - even the most isolated galaxies are connected with systems of galaxies, forming their outlying parts. (author)

  3. THE ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) RECOVERED FROM LOS ANGELES POTABLE WATER, A POSSIBLE SOURCE OF INFECTION IN AIDS PATIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Angeles water was investigated as a possible source of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in patients with AIDS. MAC consists of M.avium (MA), M. intracellulare (MI) and Mycobacterium X (MX)(positive for MAC by DNA probe but not MA or MI). The study included 13 reser...

  4. Design of a photonic integrated circuit (pic) in silicon on isolator (soi) technology for a novel chaotic integrated laser light source (chill)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerveld, W.J.

    2009-01-01

    A light source with the brightness of a laser but the bandwidth of a LED is required for different fields of applications, such as inspection and metrology in the semiconductor industry, data encryption in telecommunications and LIDAR. Currently, this issue is addressed by so-called coherence

  5. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2017-02-01

    Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. This study is a retrospective study describing patients who underwent an injection of botulinum toxin for laryngeal dyspnea in the ENT Department from 2005 to 2015 years. The inclusion criteria were a dyspnea associated with a laryngeal dysfunction, confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Information concerning the causes of the dyspnea, the botulinum toxin BT-A injections procedure, post-injection follow-up, and respiratory outcome were collected for all patients included. In the group of 13 patients included, the main cause identified as principal factor linked with the short breath was: a bilateral VF paralysis (Patel et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:686-689, 7), laryngeal dystonia (Balkissoon and Kenn, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:595-605, 2), Anxiety syndrome associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis or asthma (Marcinow et al., Laryngoscope 124:1425-1430, 3), and an isolated asthma (Zwirner et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254:242-245, 1). Nine out of the thirteen patients were improved by the injections. A BT-A-induced stable benefit for four patients led them to stop the injections in the follow-up. Good outcome was observed in five other patients (main cause: bilateral VP paralysis), allowing a progressive lengthening of the delay between BT-A injections. Four patients did not report a positive risk/benefit ratio after BT-A injections; two of them (with bilateral VF paralysis), because of respiratory side effects and

  6. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  7. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  8. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  9. Physiological and molecular studies of the resistance to ionizing radiations of hyper-thermophilic archaea isolated from deep ocean hydrothermal sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolivet, E.

    2002-10-01

    In this study, we have first tested in vivo the effect of gamma irradiation on Pyrococcus abyssi, a hyper-thermophilic archaeon, isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent. We have shown that this strain was as radioresistant as P. furiosus but less than Deinococcus radiodurans. The rates of double stranded breaks provoked into DNA following irradiation were monitored by the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis technique (P.F.G.E.) with P. abyssi, P. furiosus, D. radiodurans and Escherichia coli. Results clearly showed that all these rates were similar suggesting that no specific DNA protection system exits in Pyrococcus species. The growth of P. abyssi was efficiently recovered within two hours following the exposure to 2.5 kGy of gamma irradiation. As revealed by P.F.G.E., genomic DNA of P. abyssi totally fragmented after irradiation was efficiently restored within two hours presumably by inter chromosomal homologous recombination. The DNA replication in P. abyssi cells following irradiation at 2.5 kGy was blocked for 90 minutes that corresponds to the decay for repairing damaged DNA. Moreover, following irradiation P. abyssi actively expulse damaged DNA material before DNA replication resumes, preventing the amplification of genetic mutations. We have also showed that at least a subset cf P. abyssi DNA repair and replication proteins, such as RadA, RPA-41 and RFC-S. were constitutively expressed in chromatin bound forms in stationary phase cells. Our results were in agreement with the view that P. abyssi contains a very efficient DNA repair system, which is continuously ready to counteract the DNA damaged caused by the high temperature and/or ionizing radiation. For the first time, three novel hyper-thermophilic archaea species from deep-sea hydrothermal vents more radioresistant than P. abyssi were isolated and characterized, after 'y-irradiation exposures of some enrichment cultures. Thermococcus marinus, Thermococcus radiophilus and Thermococcus gammafolerans

  10. Mesorhizobium bacterial strains isolated from the legume Lotus corniculatus are an alternative source for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) to obtain bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-García, Marta; García-Fraile, Paula; Filipová, Alena; Menéndez, Esther; Mateos, Pedro F; Velázquez, Encarna; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Rivas, Raúl

    2017-07-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHAs) are natural polyesters that can be used to produce bioplastics which are biodegradable. Numerous microorganisms accumulate PHAs as energy reserves. Combinations of different PHAs monomers lead to the production of bioplastics with very different properties. In the present work, we show the capability of strains belonging to various phylogenetic lineages within the genus Mesorhizobium, isolated from Lotus corniculatus nodules, to produce different PHA monomers. Among our strains, we found the production of 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate, 3-hydroxydodecanoate, and 3-hydroxyhexadecanoate. Most of the PHA-positive strains were phylogenetically related to the species M. jarvisii. However, our findings suggest that the ability to produce different monomers forming PHAs is strain-dependent.

  11. Prevalence and genotypes of Campylobacter jejuni from urban environmental sources in comparison with clinical isolates from children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramonaite, Sigita; Kudirkiene, Egle; Tamuleviciene, Egle

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in potential contamination sources that are not regularly monitored such as free-living urban pigeons and crows, dogs, cats and urban environmental water and to assess the possible impact on the epidemiology of campylobacterio......This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in potential contamination sources that are not regularly monitored such as free-living urban pigeons and crows, dogs, cats and urban environmental water and to assess the possible impact on the epidemiology...... of campylobacteriosis in children using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Campylobacter spp. were detected in 36.2 % of faecal samples of free-living urban birds and in 40.4 % of environmental water samples. A low prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was detected in dogs and cats, with 7.9 and 9.1 %, respectively. Further...

  12. Hip joint injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine into the joint. The provider uses a real-time x-ray (fluoroscopy) to see where to place ... Wakefield RJ. Arthrocentesis and injection of joints and soft tissue. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, ...

  13. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  14. Imipenem and Cilastatin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imipenem and cilastatin injection is used to treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria, including ... area), gynecological, blood, skin, bone, and joint infections. Imipenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  15. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are in a class of medications called streptogramin antibiotics. They work by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as quinupristin and dalfopristin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  16. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox - larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography - guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy - guided botulinum toxin treatment; ...

  17. The PEP injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Avery, R.T.; Peterson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A system to transport 10-to-15-GeV electron and positron beams from the Stanford Linear Accelerator and to inject them into the PEP storage ring under a wide variety of lattice configurations has been designed. Optically, the transport line consists of three 360/degree/ phase-shift sections of FODO lattice, with bending magnets interspersed in such a way as to provide achromaticity, convenience in energy and emittance definition, and independent tuning of the various optical parameters for matching into the ring. The last 360/degree/ of phase shift has 88 milliradians of bend in a vertical plane and deposits the beam at the injection septum via a Lambertson magnet. Injection is accomplished by launching the beam with several centimeters of radial betatron amplitude in a fast bump provided by a triad of pulsed kicker magnets. Radiation damping reduces the collective amplitude quickly enough to allow injection at a high repetition rate

  18. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Simin; Hashemi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5) on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22%) among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76%) compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5%) as compared to uninoculated control soils (12%) at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil. PMID:23533452

  19. Study of the Bioremediation of Atrazine under Variable Carbon and Nitrogen Sources by Mixed Bacterial Consortium Isolated from Corn Field Soil in Fars Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansooreh Dehghani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine herbicide that is widely used in corn production is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on assessing the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources on atrazine biodegradation by mixed bacterial consortium and by evaluating the feasibility of using mixed bacterial consortium in soil culture. Shiraz corn field soil with a long history of atrazine application has been explored for their potential of atrazine biodegradation. The influence of different carbon compounds and the effect of nitrogen sources and a different pH (5.5–8.5 on atrazine removal efficiency by mixed bacterial consortium in liquid culture were investigated. Sodium citrate and sucrose had the highest atrazine biodegradation rate (87.22% among different carbon sources. Atrazine biodegradation rate decreased more quickly by the addition of urea (26.76% compared to ammonium nitrate. Based on the data obtained in this study, pH of 7.0 is optimum for atrazine biodegradation. After 30 days of incubation, the percent of atrazine reduction rates were significantly enhanced in the inoculated soils (60.5% as compared to uninoculated control soils (12% at the soil moisture content of 25%. In conclusion, bioaugmentation of soil with mixed bacterial consortium may enhance the rate of atrazine degradation in a highly polluted soil.

  20. Injection and Dump Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Barnes, M J; Carlier, E; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Performance and failures of the LHC injection and ex- traction systems are presented. In particular, a comparison with the 2010 run, lessons learnt during operation with high intensity beams and foreseen upgrades are described. UFOs, vacuum and impedance problems related to the injection and extraction equipment are analysed together with possible improvements and solutions. New implemented features, diagnostics, critical issues of XPOC and IQC applications are addressed.

  1. Optimizing the injection straight of PEP II asymmetric B Factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Bloom, E.; Davies-White, W.; Donald, M.; Fairfield, K.; Fieguth, T.; Godfrey, G.; Holtzapple, R.; Hutton, A.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.; Sukiennicki, B.; Wen, H.; Ronan, M.

    1992-04-01

    The asymmetric energy PEP II B Factory proposed as an upgrade of PEP at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center requires both a powerful low emittance source of e - e + and a very reliable and efficient injection system. The SLC linac fulfills the source requirement very well. We describe here the optimization of the optics of the injection straight to insure reliable and efficient injection

  2. Optimizing the injection straight of PEP II asymmetric B factory at SLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, F.; Bloom, E.; Davies-White, W.; Donald, M.; Fairfield, K.; Fieguth, T.; Godfrey, G.; Holtzapple, R.; Hutton, A.; Loew, G.; Miller, R.; Sukiennicki, B.; Wen, H.

    1992-01-01

    The asymmetric energy PEP II B Factory proposed as an upgrade of PEP at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center requires both a powerful low emittance source of e - e + and a very reliable and efficient injection system. The SLC linac fulfills the source requirement very well. We describe here the optimization of the optics of the injection straight to insure reliable and efficient injection

  3. OPTICALLY BASED CHARGE INJECTION SYSTEM FOR IONIZATION DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHEN, H.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; LEITE, M.A.L.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.

    2001-01-01

    An optically coupled charge injection system for ionization based radiation detectors which allows a test charge to be injected without the creation of ground loops has been developed. An ionization like signal from an external source is brought into the detector through an optical fiber and injected into the electrodes by means of a photodiode. As an application example, crosstalk measurements on a liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter readout electrodes were performed

  4. Uso de diferentes fontes de carbono por estirpes de Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isoladas de cana-de-açúcar Use of different carbon sources by strains of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolated from sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Alves Barbosa

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a população de Gluconactobacter diazotrophicus presente em plântulas de 34 variedades de cana-de-açúcar, e caracterizar os isolados quanto à capacidade de utilizar diversas fontes de carbono e formar pigmento róseo em presença de luz. A população de G. diazotrophicus foi quantificada pela técnica do número mais provável e isolada em meios de cultura semi-seletivos. A população de G. diazotrophicus foi maior no sistema radicular do que na parte aérea, e maior nas variedades brasileiras de cana-de-açúcar. Os isolados utilizaram poucas fontes de carbono, e aqueles obtidos do sistema radicular utilizaram maior número de fontes, em comparação aos da parte aérea. Apenas a estirpe padrão Ppe-4 e quatro outros isolados formam pigmento róseo em presença de luz. A baixa variação observada pode estar relacionada com o habitat ou com a adaptação dessa população às condições específicas do interior das plantas e, por isso, a estrutura genética da população dessas bactérias é limitada e conservada.The objective of this work was to quantify the population of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus present in plantlets of 34 sugarcane varieties and to characterize the isolates according to their capacity to use carbon sources and produce pink pigments under light. G. diazotrophicus population was estimated using the most probable number technique, and then, isolated in semi-selective culture media. The highest population number of G. diazotrophicus was found in the roots; Brazilian varieties presented the highest population. The isolates used little carbon sources, and those strains obtained from the root used the highest number of carbon sources. Only the strain Ppe-4 and four other ones produce pink pigments under light. The low variation observed may be related to the habitat or to the adaptation of this population to specific internal plant conditions, and for this reason, the

  5. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  6. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  7. Marine organisms as source of extracts to disrupt bacterial communication: bioguided isolation and identification of quorum sensing inhibitors from Ircinia felix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Quintana

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, 39 extracts from marine organisms were evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and the Brazilian Coast including 26 sponges, seven soft corals, five algae and one zooanthid. The results showed that crude extracts from the soft coral Eunicea laciniata, and the sponges Svenzea tubulosa, Ircinia felix and Neopetrosia carbonaria were the most promising source of quorum sensing inhibitors compounds without affecting bacterial growth, unlike the raw extracts of Agelas citrina, Agelas tubulata, Iotrochota arenosa, Topsentia ophiraphidites, Niphates caycedoi, Cliona tenuis, Ptilocaulis walpersi, Petrosia pellasarca, and the algae Laurencia catarinensis and Laurencia obtusa, which displayed potent antibacterial activity against the biosensors employed. The crude extract from the sponge I. felix was fractionated, obtaining furanosesterterpenes which were identified and evaluated as quorum sensing inhibitors, showing a moderate activity without affecting the biosensor's growth.

  8. High power neutral beam injection in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Nagaoka, K.

    2005-01-01

    The results of high power injection with a neutral beam injection (NBI) system for the large helical device (LHD) are reported. The system consists of three beam-lines, and two hydrogen negative ion (H - ion) sources are installed in each beam-line. In order to improve the injection power, the new beam accelerator with multi-slot grounded grid (MSGG) has been developed and applied to one of the beam-lines. Using the accelerator, the maximum powers of 5.7 MW were achieved in 2003 and 2004, and the energy of 189 keV reached at maximum. The power and energy exceeded the design values of the individual beam-line for LHD. The other beam-lines also increased their injection power up to about 4 MW, and the total injection power of 13.1 MW was achieved with three beam-lines in 2003. Although the accelerator had an advantage in high power beam injection, it involved a demerit in the beam focal condition. The disadvantage was resolved by modifying the aperture shapes of the steering grid. (author)

  9. Reactor water injection facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1997-05-02

    A steam turbine and an electric generator are connected by way of a speed convertor. The speed convertor is controlled so that the number of rotation of the electric generator is constant irrespective of the speed change of the steam turbine. A shaft coupler is disposed between the turbine and the electric generator or between the turbine and a water injection pump. With such a constitution, the steam turbine and the electric generator are connected by way of the speed convertor, and since the number of revolution of the electric generator is controlled to be constant, the change of the number of rotation of the turbine can be controlled irrespective of the change of the number of rotation of the electric generator. Accordingly, the flow rate of the injection water from the water injection pump to a reactor pressure vessel can be controlled freely thereby enabling to supply stable electric power. (T.M.)

  10. Commix: Automating Evaluation and Exploitation of Command Injection Vulnerabilities in Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Stasinopoulos, Anastasios; Ntantogian, Christoforos; Xenakis, Christos

    2018-01-01

    Despite the prevalence and the high impact of command injection attacks, little attention has been given by the research community to this type of code injections. Although there are many software tools to detect and exploit other types of code injections, such as SQL injections or Cross Site Scripting, there is no dedicated and specialized software that detects and exploits, automatically, command injection vulnerabilities. This paper proposes an open source tool that automates the process o...

  11. Fatal injection: a survey of modern code injection attack countermeasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Mitropoulos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available With a code injection attack (CIA an attacker can introduce malicious code into a computer program or system that fails to properly encode data that comes from an untrusted source. A CIA can have different forms depending on the execution context of the application and the location of the programming flaw that leads to the attack. Currently, CIAs are considered one of the most damaging classes of application attacks since they can severely affect an organisation’s infrastructure and cause financial and reputational damage to it. In this paper we examine and categorize the countermeasures developed to detect the various attack forms. In particular, we identify two distinct categories. The first incorporates static program analysis tools used to eliminate flaws that can lead to such attacks during the development of the system. The second involves the use of dynamic detection safeguards that prevent code injection attacks while the system is in production mode. Our analysis is based on nonfunctional characteristics that are considered critical when creating security mechanisms. Such characteristics involve usability, overhead, implementation dependencies, false positives and false negatives. Our categorization and analysis can help both researchers and practitioners either to develop novel approaches, or use the appropriate mechanisms according to their needs.

  12. Isolation of Fonsecaea pedrosoi from thorns of Mimosa pudica, a probable natural source of chromoblastomycosis Isolamento de Fonsecaea pedrosoi a partir de espinhos da planta Mimosa pudica, uma provável fonte natural de cromoblastomicose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Guedes Salgado

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available We report the isolation of Fonsecaea pedrosoi from thorns of the plant Mimosa pudica L. at the place of infection identified by one of our patients. Clinical diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis was established by direct microscopic examination and cultures from the patient's lesion. The same species was isolated from the patient and from the plant. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface of the thorns showed the characteristic conidial arrangement of F. pedrosoi. These data indicate that M. pudica could be a natural source of infection for the fungus F. pedrosoi.Este trabalho demonstra o isolamento de Fonsecaea pedrosoi de espinhos da planta Mimosa pudica L., a partir do local de suposta infecção identificado pela paciente infectada. O diagnóstico clínico de cromoblastomicose foi estabelecido pelo achado de corpos fumagóides no exame microscópico direto e pelas culturas de F. pedrosoi do material obtido da lesão da paciente. A mesma espécie foi isolada da paciente e da planta. A microscopia eletrônica de transmissão da superfície dos espinhos evidenciou a disposição conidial característica de F. pedrosoi. Estes dados indicam que a planta M. pudica deve ser uma fonte natural de infecção do fungo F. pedrosoi.

  13. Axial injection in Orsay superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depauw, J.; Kugler, M.F.; Legoff, A.; Potier, J.C.; Richomme, A.; Skowron, R.; Mandrillon, P.; Schapira, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    The compact superconducting cyclotron currently planned at IPN at Orsay is designed for light ion acceleration together with heavy ion acceleration. From the beginning, for this reason, a central geometry able to receive an inflector (to 90deg C) allowing the axial injection of low energy ion beams given by an outer source. The present study is aimed at showing the technical feasibility of theoretical results obtained on axial injection. First experimental study has been made of spatial repartition in three dimensions of electric potential developed by a central geometry of 3 electrodes. Then, the electric study of an electrostatic mirror has been made [fr

  14. Source mechanisms of micro-earthquakes induced in a fluid injection experiment at the HDR site Soultz-sous-Forêts (Alsace) in 2003 and their temporal and spatial variations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horálek, Josef; Jechumtálová, Zuzana; Dorbath, L.; Šílený, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 181, č. 3 (2010), s. 1547-1565 ISSN 0956-540X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300120911; GA ČR GA205/09/0724 Grant - others:EU(XE) MTKI-CT-2004-517242 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : downhole methods * hydrogeophysics * controlled source seismology * earthquake source observations * fracture and flow Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.411, year: 2010

  15. New method for the quality check of food proteins of the maintenance metabolism. 4. Investigation of isolated proteins as well as some protein sources of plant and animal origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, O; Hernandez, M; Bergner, H [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Tierproduktion und Veterinaermedizin

    1981-01-01

    Male adult rats (370 g body weight) were fed on maintenance level (460 kJ ME/kgsup(0,75). In a 10 days preliminary period they received a casein/methionine (95/5) diet supplemented with 10 mg /sup 15/N excess per 0.178 kg metabolic body weight in form of ammonium acetate. Thereafter the animals were put on 8 isonitrogenous diets containing as protein sources casein, soya protein, gelatine, whole-egg, fish meal, pea, wheat and yeast. The /sup 15/N excretion via urine and feces was used to evaluate the dietary proteins for maintenance. /sup 15/N in urine was lowest in animals fed on wheat diet and highest after feeding whole-egg diet. From these data a so called '/sup 15/N excretion biological valence (BV)' was calculated, which indicated the highest quality for wheat and soy protein in meeting the needs of the intermediary maintenance metabolism. On the other hand, dietary protein sources influence the loss of endogenous nitrogen as metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN). It was found to be lowest in animals fed on diets containing isolated proteins (6 mg MFN/100 g body weight) and highest after feeding protein sources of plant origin with a high content in crude fibre (10 mg MFN/100 g). Both, losses of /sup 15/N via urine and via feces were combined in a parameter called 'total BV'. According to this parameter the differences in quality for maintenance were only little between the protein sources tested (casein 100, soy protein 100, pea 99, wheat 99, whole egg 92, fish meal 89, gelatin 89). It was concluded that in the state of maintenance the supply with essential amino acids is not critical and that the supply with dispensable amino acids (or nonspecific nitrogen) is of great importance.

  16. Influence of fuel injection pressures on Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester fuelled direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanthagopal, K.; Ashok, B.; Karuppa Raj, R. Thundil

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of injection pressure of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel is investigated. • Engine characteristics of 100% Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been performed. • Calophyllum inophyllum is a non-edible source for biodiesel production. • Increase in injection pressure of biodiesel, improves the fuel economy. • Incylinder pressure characteristics of biodiesel follows similar trend as of diesel. - Abstract: The trend of using biodiesels in compression ignition engines have been the focus in recent decades due to the promising environmental factors and depletion of fossil fuel reserves. This work presents the effect of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester on diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics at different injection pressures. Experimental investigations with varying injection pressures of 200 bar, 220 bar and 240 bar have been carried out to analyse the parameters like brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, heat release rate and engine emissions of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with 100% biodiesel and compared with neat diesel. The experimental results revealed that brake specific fuel consumption of C. inophyllum methyl ester fuelled engine has been reduced to a great extent with higher injection pressure. Significant reduction in emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity have been observed during fuel injection of biodiesel at 220 bar compared to other fuel injection pressures. However oxides of nitrogen increased with increase in injection pressures of C. inophyllum methyl ester and are always higher than that of neat diesel. In addition the combustion characteristics of biodiesel at all injection pressures followed a similar trend to that of conventional diesel.

  17. Production of neutralizing antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) virus by intravenous injections of rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Lorenzen, Niels; LaPatra, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Rabbit antisera against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) produced by two immunization procedures were compared for neutralization and immunochemical properties against homologous and heterologous strains. The VHSV isolate used as the immunogen was a member of a serogroup not neutralized...... by previously available antisera. The results from this study suggested that frequent intravenous (IV) injections of rabbits with viral antigens were superior to adjuvant-mediated, combined subcutaneous and intraperitoneal (SC/IP) injections for the production of neutralizing antisera. All IV injected rabbits...... produced high neutralization titers against the homologous VHSV isolate but not against an isolate from a different serogroup. The SC/IP injected rabbits had no significant neutralization titers against either the homologous VHSV strain or two isolates of a heterologous VHSV strain. Sera from all injected...

  18. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  19. Water injection dredging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    2000-01-01

    Some twenty years ago WIS-dredging has been developed in the Netherlands. By injecting water into the mud layer, the water content of the mud becomes higher, it becomes fluid mud and will start to flow. The advantages of this system are that there is no need of transporting the mud in a hopper, and

  20. Botulinum Neurotoxin Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... botulinum neurotoxin as much art as it is science. It is in your best interest to locate the most well-trained and experienced doctor you can find. Before making an appointment to receive botulinum neuro toxin injections, ask the office personnel which doctor ...

  1. Piperacillin and Tazobactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called penicillin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection. Tazobactam is ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying piperacillin.Antibiotics ... injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  2. Meropenem and Vaborbactam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Vaborbactam is in a class ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying meropenem.Antibiotics such as meropenem and vaborbactam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  4. Pellet injection in WVIIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, H.; Wuersohing, E.; Weller, A.; Jaeckel, H.; Hartfuss, H.; Hacker, H.; Ringler, H.; Buechl, K.

    1986-01-01

    The results of pellet injection experiments in the Wendelstein VII A stellarator are presented. The injector was a single shot pneumatic gun using deuterium pellets. Experiments were carried out in both ECRH and NI plasmas. Data is shown for plasma density, energy confinement, penetration depth and pellet ablation. Results are compared to a neutral gas shielding model

  5. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, W.

    1988-01-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations

  6. RHIC injection kicker impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Trbojevic, D.; Zhang, W.

    1995-01-01

    The longitudinal impedance of the RHIC injection kicker is measured using the wire method up to a frequency of 3 GHz. The mismatch between the 50 ohm cable and the wire and pipe system is calibrated using the TRL calibration algorithm. Various methods of reducing the impedance, such as coated ceramic pipe and copper strips are investigated

  7. SPS injection kicker magnet

    CERN Document Server

    1975-01-01

    One of the first-generation SPS injection kicker magnets. Lifting the tank-lid reveals the inner structure. For a more detailed description see 7502072X. See also 7502074X and Annual Report 1975, p.162. To the left: Roland Tröhler; to the right: Giacomo Busetta.

  8. Radiotracer injections through microfilters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, H.; Maschek, G.; Pichler, R.; Giesen, I.; Hatzl-Griesenhofer, M.; Maschek, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Problems with the injection of radiotracers ( 99m Tc-HAMS, 99m Tc-DPD) to infants when administered through polar-filter-protected venous pathways caused us to get a closer look of what happens to a tracer in such a system. We simulated injections of the tracers mainly used at our institution in an in-vitro array and measured full and empty tracer syringes, filters (0.2 μm micropores) and the post-filter receptacle of the radioactivity. We calculated the percentage of filter-trapped activity and of activity in the receptacle. For several tracers we repeated this process with a neutral filter of the same pore size to get a comparison between the behavior in polarized and electrically inert filters. In general injection of a soluble radiotracer through a polar filter system means a dose loss in the filter of about 10 %, up to the tracer molecule size of IgG-antibodies. Suspended tracers, which consist of comparatively large particles, like RES- or pulmonary perfusion markers, are blocked by the filter, as can be foreseen with a particle size of >> 0.2 μm. DMSA and DPD (a biphosphonate), although both being soluble and rather small molecules, were blocked by the polar filter to a high extent, and by the neutral filter to a much lower, almost neglectable degree. The conclusions are: if possible avoid any use of a filter in your tracer injection pathway. Never use a filter with bone scan or DMSA applications. When doing uptake calculations you have to add the filter counts to the empty syringe value in the formula. If you cannot avoid to inject the radiotracer through a filter you have to replace the filter afterwards and treat the used filter as radioactive waste. The polarity of the filter material might severely affect retention of radiotracer in the filter. (author)

  9. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  10. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  11. Energetic electron injections and dipolarization events in Mercury's magnetotail: Substorm dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, R. M.; Slavin, J. A.; Raines, J. M.; Imber, S.; Baker, D. N.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    Despite its small size, Mercury's terrestrial-like magnetosphere experiences brief, yet intense, substorm intervals characterized by features similar to at Earth: loading/unloading of the tail lobes with open magnetic flux, dipolarization of the magnetic field at the inner edge of the plasma sheet, and, the focus of this presentation, energetic electron injection. We use the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer's high-time resolution (10 ms) energetic electron measurements to determine the relationship between substorm activity and energetic electron injections coincident with dipolarization fronts in the magnetotail. These dipolarizations were detected on the basis of their rapid ( 2 s) increase in the northward component of the tail magnetic field (ΔBz 30 nT), which typically persists for 10 s. We estimate the typical flow channel to be 0.15 RM, planetary convection speed of 750 km/s, cross-tail potential drop of 7 kV, and flux transport of 0.08 MWb for each dipolarization event, suggesting multiple simultaneous and sequential dipolarizations are required to unload the >1 MWb of magnetic flux typically returned to the dayside magnetosphere during a substorm interval. Indeed, while we observe most dipolarization-injections to be isolated or in small chains of events (i.e., 1-3 events), intervals of sawtooth-like injections with >20 sequential events are also present. The typical separation between dipolarization-injection events is 10 s. Magnetotail dipolarization, in addition to being a powerful source of electron acceleration, also plays a significant role in the substorm process at Mercury.

  12. Progress in Titanium Metal Powder Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall M. German

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Metal powder injection molding is a shaping technology that has achieved solid scientific underpinnings. It is from this science base that recent progress has occurred in titanium powder injection molding. Much of the progress awaited development of the required particles with specific characteristics of particle size, particle shape, and purity. The production of titanium components by injection molding is stabilized by a good understanding of how each process variable impacts density and impurity level. As summarized here, recent research has isolated the four critical success factors in titanium metal powder injection molding (Ti-MIM that must be simultaneously satisfied—density, purity, alloying, and microstructure. The critical role of density and impurities, and the inability to remove impurities with sintering, compels attention to starting Ti-MIM with high quality alloy powders. This article addresses the four critical success factors to rationalize Ti-MIM processing conditions to the requirements for demanding applications in aerospace and medical fields. Based on extensive research, a baseline process is identified and reported here with attention to linking mechanical properties to the four critical success factors.

  13. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  14. Ceramic injection molding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueda, Horacio; Russo, Diego

    1988-01-01

    Interest in making complex net-shape ceramic parts with good surface finishing and sharp tolerances without machining is a driving force for studying the injection molding technique. This method consists of softhening the ceramic material by means of adding some plastic and heating in order to inject the mixture under pressure into a relatively cold mold where solidification takes place. Essentially, it is the same process used in thermoplastic industry but, in the present case, the ceramic powder load ranges between 80 to 90 wt.%. This work shows results obtained from the fabrication of pieces of different ceramic materials (alumina, barium titanate ferrites, etc.) in a small scale, using equipments developed and constructed in the laboratory. (Author) [es

  15. Gaseous poison injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Ryuji; Sugisaki, Toshihiko; Inada, Ikuo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly control the chain reaction due to thermal neutrons in a reactor core by using gaseous poisons as back-up means for control rod drives. Constitution: Gaseous poisons having a large neutron absorption cross section are used as back-up means for control rod drives. Upon failure of control rod insertion, the gaseous poisons are injected into the lower portion of the reactor core to control the reactor power. As the gaseous poisons, vapors at a high temperature and a higher pressure than that of the coolants in the reactor core are injected to control the reactor power due to the void effects. Since the gaseous poisons thus employed rapidly reach the reactor core and form gas bubbles therein, the deccelerating effect of the thermal neutrons is decreased to reduce the chain reaction. (Moriyama, K.)

  16. SPEAR 3 INJECTION KICKER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The design of the SPEAR 3 injection kicker system is presented. This system will include three kicker magnets and their associated pulsers. The magnet design is based on the DELTA kicker magnets, which present a low RF impedance to the beam, and are relatively straight-forward to construct. The pulsers use cascaded IGBT stages that are based on the modulator pulsers developed by a SLAC/LLNL collaboration for the NLC. Design considerations and the results of prototype tests will be discussed

  17. Gallium arsenide injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.H.B.

    1975-01-01

    The semiconductor injection laser includes a thin inner GaAs p-n junction layer between two outer GaAlAs layers which are backed by further thin outer GaAlAs layers with a heavier doping of AlAs. This reduces optical losses. Optical energy is further confined within the inner layers and the lasing threshold reduced by added outer GaAs layers of low electrical and thermal resistivity

  18. Hydrogen pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Masahiro.

    1992-01-01

    In a hydrogen pellet injection device, a nozzle block having a hydrogen gas supply channel is disposed at the inner side of a main cryogenic housing, and an electric resistor is attached to the block. Further, a nozzle block and a hydrogen gas introduction pipe are attached by way of a thermal insulating spacer. Electric current is supplied to the resistor to positively heat the nozzle block and melt remaining solid hydrogen in the hydrogen gas supply channel. Further, the effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor is prevented from reaching the side of the hydrogen gas introduction pipe by the thermal insulation spacer. That is, the temperature of the nozzle block is directly and positively elevated, to melt the solid hydrogen rapidly. Preparation operation from the injection of the hydrogen pellet to the next injection can be completed in a shorter period of time compared with a conventional case thereby enabling to make the test more efficient. Further, only the temperature of the nozzle block is elevated with no effect of temperature elevation due to the resistor to other components by the thermal insulation flange. (N.H.)

  19. Variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric PM2.5 during winter haze period around 2014 Chinese Spring Festival at Nanjing: Insights of source changes, air mass direction and firework particle injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Li, Xuxu; Li, Li; Yin, Yan; Chen, Kui; Yuan, Liang; Zhang, Yingjie; Shan, Yunpeng; Ji, Yaqin

    2015-07-01

    Daily PM2.5 samples were collected at a suburban site of Nanjing around 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF) and analyzed for 18 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by GC-MS. Comparison of PAH concentrations during different periods, with different air mass origins and under different pollution situations was done. Sources were analyzed by diagnostics ratios and principal component analysis (PCA). The threat of PAHs was assessed by BaP equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). The averaged PAHs for pre-SF, SF and after SF periods were 50.6, 17.2 and 29 ng m(-3), indicating the variations of PAH sources, with reduced traffic, industrial and construction activities during SF and gradually re-starting of them after-SF. According to PAH mass concentrations, their relative abundance to particles, ratio of PAHs (3-ring+4-ring)/PAHs(5-ring+6-ring), mass concentrations of combustion-derived and carcinogenic PAHs, fireworks burning is an important source for PAHs during SF. The ILCR values for Chinese New Year day were 0.68 and 3.3 per 100,000 exposed children and adults. It suggested the necessity of controlling fireworks burning during Chinese SF period which was always companied with serious regional haze pollution. PAH concentrations exhibited decreasing trend when air masses coming from the following directions as North China Plain (63.9 ng m(-3))>Central China (53.0 ng m(-3))>Shandong Peninsula (46.6 ng m(-3))>Northwest China (18.8 ng m(-3))>Sea (15.8 ng m(-3)). For different pollution situations, they decreased as haze (44.5 ng m(-3))>fog-haze (28.4 ng m(-3))>clear (12.2 ng m(-3))>fog day (9.2 ng m(-3)). Coal combustion, traffic emission, industrial processes and petroleum (only for non-SF holiday periodss) were the main sources of PM2.5 associated PAHs. Fireworks burning contributed 14.0% of PAHs during SF period. Directly measurement of PAHs from fireworks burning is urgently needed for source apportionment studies in

  20. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G injection is used to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ...

  1. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  2. Efficacy of oral moxidectin against susceptible and resistant isolates of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTier, Tom L; Six, Robert H; Pullins, Aleah; Chapin, Sara; McCall, John W; Rugg, Douglas; Maeder, Steven J; Woods, Debra J

    2017-11-09

    Monthly topical and sustained-release injectable formulations of moxidectin are currently marketed; however, an oral formulation, while approved at a dose of 3 μg/kg, is not currently marketed in the United States. Although resistance of heartworms to all macrocyclic lactone (ML) heartworm preventives (ivermectin, milbemycin, selamectin and moxidectin) has been demonstrated, to date no data have been reported on the effectiveness of oral moxidectin against recent isolates of Dirofilaria immitis. A total of nine studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of moxidectin against a range of older and recently sourced heartworm isolates. Dogs (groups of three to eight) were inoculated with 50 D. immitis infective larvae (L3) from nine different isolates (MP3, Michigan, JYD-34, ZoeMO-2012, ZoeKy-2013, ZoeLA-2013, GCFL-2014, AMAL-2014 and ZoeAL-2015) and treated 28-30 days later with single oral doses of 3 μg/kg of moxidectin. Additionally, one group of dogs that was inoculated with JYD-34 was treated monthly for 3 consecutive months beginning 30 days post inoculation. Dogs were held for approximately 4 months after the initial (or only) treatment and then necropsied for recovery of adult heartworms. A single dose of 3 μg/kg of moxidectin was 100% effective in preventing the development of five of nine heartworm isolates (MP3, Michigan, ZoeKy, GCFL and ZoeAL isolates), confirming their susceptibility to oral moxidectin at this dose. MP3 and Michigan are isolates sourced from the field more than 9 years ago, while ZoeKy, ZoeAL and GCFL were isolated from the field within the past 2 to 3 years. Against JYD-34, ZoeMO, ZoeLA and AMAL isolates, a single dose of 3 μg/kg of moxidectin was not completely effective, with efficacies of 19%, 82%, 54% and 62%, respectively, demonstrating resistance of these heartworm isolates to oral moxidectin at this dosage. Three consecutive monthly doses of 3 μg/kg of moxidectin were also incompletely effective against the JYD

  3. Efficacy of oral moxidectin against susceptible and resistant isolates of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom L. McTier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Monthly topical and sustained-release injectable formulations of moxidectin are currently marketed; however, an oral formulation, while approved at a dose of 3 μg/kg, is not currently marketed in the United States. Although resistance of heartworms to all macrocyclic lactone (ML heartworm preventives (ivermectin, milbemycin, selamectin and moxidectin has been demonstrated, to date no data have been reported on the effectiveness of oral moxidectin against recent isolates of Dirofilaria immitis. Methods A total of nine studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of moxidectin against a range of older and recently sourced heartworm isolates. Dogs (groups of three to eight were inoculated with 50 D. immitis infective larvae (L3 from nine different isolates (MP3, Michigan, JYD-34, ZoeMO-2012, ZoeKy-2013, ZoeLA-2013, GCFL-2014, AMAL-2014 and ZoeAL-2015 and treated 28–30 days later with single oral doses of 3 μg/kg of moxidectin. Additionally, one group of dogs that was inoculated with JYD-34 was treated monthly for 3 consecutive months beginning 30 days post inoculation. Dogs were held for approximately 4 months after the initial (or only treatment and then necropsied for recovery of adult heartworms. Results A single dose of 3 μg/kg of moxidectin was 100% effective in preventing the development of five of nine heartworm isolates (MP3, Michigan, ZoeKy, GCFL and ZoeAL isolates, confirming their susceptibility to oral moxidectin at this dose. MP3 and Michigan are isolates sourced from the field more than 9 years ago, while ZoeKy, ZoeAL and GCFL were isolated from the field within the past 2 to 3 years. Against JYD-34, ZoeMO, ZoeLA and AMAL isolates, a single dose of 3 μg/kg of moxidectin was not completely effective, with efficacies of 19%, 82%, 54% and 62%, respectively, demonstrating resistance of these heartworm isolates to oral moxidectin at this dosage. Three consecutive monthly doses of 3 μg/kg of

  4. Large scale injection test (LASGIT) modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnedo, D.; Olivella, S.; Alonso, E.E.

    2010-01-01

    . In addition the horizontal interfaces between the bentonite blocks and the vertical interfaces corresponding to the host rock and the canister walls contacts are considered different materials but the properties are similar to the ones in the bentonite. Actually, this is done because interfaces are believed to be a potential preferential path for gas migration through the buffer. The host rock and the canister are not included in the model due to its high stiffness with respect to bentonite. A constitutive model that considers non-linear elasticity and visco-plasticity based on BBM model is adopted for the bentonite and the interfaces. An embedded fracture permeability model in which permeability and retention curve depend on strains through a fracture aperture is considered in the hydraulic problem. The following stages of the experiment are simulated: - Construction of the isolation barrier inside the deposition hole, - Hydration stage 1 in which the liquid pressure is increased at the Filter Mats and de canister Injection Filters up to 1.5 MPa in an initial stage and up to 2.35 MPa in a second stage in order to saturate the buffer, - Hydraulic test 1, - Gas injection test 1. The simulation results will be compared to the experimental record of different variables: total stresses and liquid pressure at the rock wall, at the canister wall, and at some points within the bentonite buffer. It will be interesting to try to explain if preferential paths develop and where. This is controlled by the swelling capacity of the buffer and its ability to seal the interfaces initially not closed between the clay and the wall and between the blocks. (authors)

  5. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  6. Extraordinary mullet growth through direct injection of foreign DNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aims to produce a genetically modified grey mullet, Mugil cephalus, with accelerated growth through direct injection of foreign DNA isolated from the liver of shark (Squalus acanthias L.) or African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) into muscles of fingerlings fish at the dose of 40 μg/fish. The results show a ...

  7. MKI UFOs at Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, T; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Carlier, E; Chanavat, C; Drosdal, L; Garrel, N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J; Zerlauth, M

    2011-01-01

    During the MD, the production mechanism of UFOs at the injection kicker magnets (MKIs) was studied. This was done by pulsing the MKIs on a gap in the circulating beam, which led to an increased number of UFOs. In total 43 UFO type beam loss patterns at the MKIs were observed during the MD. The MD showed that pulsing the MKIs directly induces UFO type beam loss patterns. From the temporal characteristics of the loss profile, estimations about the dynamics of the UFOs are made.

  8. SQL Injection Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Nystrom, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This Short Cut introduces you to how SQL injection vulnerabilities work, what makes applications vulnerable, and how to protect them. It helps you find your vulnerabilities with analysis and testing tools and describes simple approaches for fixing them in the most popular web-programming languages. This Short Cut also helps you protect your live applications by describing how to monitor for and block attacks before your data is stolen. Hacking is an increasingly criminal enterprise, and web applications are an attractive path to identity theft. If the applications you build, manage, or guar

  9. Groundwater monitoring for deep-well injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, Y.; Chiu, J.

    1994-01-01

    A groundwater monitoring system for detecting waste migration would not only enhance confidence in the long-term containment of injected waste, but would also provide early warnings of contamination for prompt responses to protect underground sources of drinking water (USDWs). Field experiences in Florida have demonstrated monitoring water quality and fluid pressure changes in overlying formations is useful in detecting the upward migration of injected waste. Analytical and numerical solutions indicate changes in these two monitoring parameters can vary on the basis of hydrogeologic characteristics, operation conditions, and the distances from the injection well to the monitoring wells and to the preferential hydrologic conduits. To detect waste migration through defects around the wellbore or the leaky containment interval, groundwater monitoring wells should be placed as close as possible to an injection well. In the vertical direction, a monitoring well completed in a permeable interbed within the containment interval is expected to have the highest potential for detecting upward migration. Another acceptable horizon for groundwater monitoring is the lower portion of the buffer brine aquifer immediately above the containment interval. Monitoring wells in USDWs may be needed when waste has been detected in deeper formations or when leakage out of well casings poses a concern. A monitoring well open to the injection interval is of little value in alleviating the concerns of long-term upward migration. Moreover, the installation of the well could create additional preferential pathways. Complications in groundwater monitoring may arise at existing injection sites, especially with prior releases. It is also important to recognize that monitoring in the vicinity of the wellbore may not be effective for detecting waste migration through unidentified unplugged wells or undetected transmissive fractures

  10. Noise cancellation in magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography with isolated reference sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Jr., Robert H.; Espy, Michelle A.; Matlachov, Andrei; Volegov, Petr

    2010-06-01

    An apparatus measures electromagnetic signals from a weak signal source. A plurality of primary sensors is placed in functional proximity to the weak signal source with an electromagnetic field isolation surface arranged adjacent the primary sensors and between the weak signal source and sources of ambient noise. A plurality of reference sensors is placed adjacent the electromagnetic field isolation surface and arranged between the electromagnetic isolation surface and sources of ambient noise.

  11. Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.

    2010-06-01

    Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

  12. Low energy, high power injection in JT-60 NBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Makoto; Dairaku, Masayuki; Horiike, Hiroshi

    1988-05-01

    JT-60 neutral beam injector (JT-60 NBI) is designed to inject 20 MW neutral hydrogen beam at energies of 70 ∼ 100 keV and the injection power decreases significantly at low energies (∼40 keV). For the extention of operation region aiming at the low density plasma heating and achieving H-mode by plasma periphery heating, increment of the injection power at low beam energies was required. The single-stage acceleration system was investigated in advance at the Prototype Injector Unit. From this result, the total injection power of 17 MW at 40 keV, 48 A per source was expected at the JT-60 NBI. This system was adopted in the JT-60 NBI from June, 1987 to July, 1987 and 17.6 MW neutral beam injection power was achieved. In the NB heating experiment, the H-mode transition phenomena was observed in JT-60 plasma. (author)

  13. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Baifang [Simpsonville, SC; Johnson, Thomas Edward [Greer, SC; Lacy, Benjamin Paul [Greer, SC; Ziminsky, Willy Steve [Simpsonville, SC

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  14. Isolation World

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Martín, Eugeni

    2012-01-01

    El trabajo de fin de grado tiene como nombre “Isolation World”, que en su traducción literal significa “Aislamiento del mundo”, un videojuego diseñado y creado desde cero en su totalidad, utilizando herramientas y conocimiento de lógica en programación que se han ido aprendiendo y desarrollando a lo largo de la carrera.

  15. Plasma heating by cluster injection: basic features and expected behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1976-08-01

    The main components of a cluster injection line intended for plasma heating is briefly discussed, that is the beam source, the cluster ionizer and the accelerating tube, as well as the behavior of clusters interacting with a plasma. Outlines of the experiment of cluster injection into TFR, in progress at Fontenay-aux-Roses, and expected results will be presented and discussed all along the paper

  16. Radiotracer investigations in oil production and water injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eapen, A.C.; Jain, S.K.; Kirti

    1977-01-01

    Injection of gamma emitting radiotracers into oil wells followed by logging provides information on several aspects such as the identification of zones of seepage of water in the water injection wells and also the location of source of water entering oil producting wells. The experience gained in the application of bromine-82 and rubidium-86 as radiotracers in such studies at the Ankleshwar and Kalol oil fields in Gujarat and Nazira in Assam has been briefly reported. (author)

  17. Target injection and engagement for neutron generation at 1 Hz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komeda, Osamu; Mori, Yoshitaka; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Target injection is a key technology to realizing inertial fusion energy. Here we present the first demonstration of target injection and neutron generation. We injected more than 600 spherical deuterated polystyrene (C 8 D 8 ) bead targets during 10 minutes at 1 Hz. After the targets fell for a distance of 18 cm, we applied the synchronized laser-diode-pumped ultra-intense laser HAMA and successfully generated neutrons repeatedly. The result is a step toward fusion power and also suggests possible industrial neutron sources. (author)

  18. Comparison analysis of microRNAs in response to dengue virus type 2 infection between the Vero cell-adapted strain and its source, the clinical C6/36 isolated strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiajia; Lin, Yao; Jiang, Liming; Xi, Juemin; Wang, Xiaodan; Guan, Jiaoqiong; Chen, Junying; Pan, Yue; Luo, Jia; Ye, Chao; Sun, Qiangming

    2018-05-02

    To elucidate the differences in microRNAs during dengue virus infection between Vero cell-adapted strain (DENV-2-Vero) and its source, the clinical C6/36 isolated strain (DENV-2-C6/36), a comparison analysis was performed in Vero cells by high throughput sequencing. The results showed that the expression of 16 known and 3 novel miRNAs exhibited marked differences. 5 known miRNAs were up-regulated in DENV-2-C6/36 group, while 11 known microRNAs were down-regulated in DENV-2-Vero group. The GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis showed that there was a distinct difference in regulating viral replication between two strains. In DENV-2-Vero infection group, significantly enriched GO terms included virion attachment to host cells, viral structural protein/genome processing and packaging. Meanwhile, the regulation of cell death and apoptosis between two groups were different in the early stage of infection. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that DENV-2-C6/36 infection induced more intense regulation of immune-related pathways, including Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, etc. DENV-2-Vero infection could partially alleviate the immune defense of Vero cells compared with DENV-2-C6/36. The results indicated that the distinct microRNA changes induced by two DENV-2 strains may be partly related to their infective abilities. Our data provide useful insights that help elucidate the host-pathogen interactions following DENV infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  20. MgO by injection CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrutis, A.; Kubilius, V.; Teiserkis, A.; Bigelyte, V.; Vengalis, B.; Jukna, A.; Butkute, R.

    1997-01-01

    Epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers with 45 in-plane orientation have been grown by injection CVD on MgO substrates polished off-axis to within 1.4-1.9 of the [100] direction. This new single-source CVD process is based on computer-controlled injection of precise microdoses of a metal-organic precursor solution into a CVD reactor. A wide range of solution compositions was tested to investigate compositional effects on phase purity, surface morphology, texturing and superconducting properties of the prepared films. The highest quality films with pure 45 texture had a smooth surface, zero resistance T c (R=0) of 88-89 K, and critical current density J c (77 K) above 10 6 A/cm 2 . (orig.) and critical current density J c (77 K) above 10 6 A/cm 2 . (orig.)

  1. Water injection profiling by nuclear logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to nuclear logging techniques for determining the volume flow rates and flow directions of injected water moving behind a wellbore casing. The apparatus includes a sonde equipped with a neutron source and dual radiation detectors. Oxygen in the neutron irradiated water is transmitted to 16 N and the resultant primary and Compton scattered gamma rays are detected in two energy windows by both detectors. Count rate data is analysed in terms of the windows to obtain linear flow velocities for water flow within and behind the casing. Volume flow rates are determined for upward and downward flow, and horizontal volume flow into the surrounding formation is calculated. A complete injection profile may thus be obtained. (U.K.)

  2. Numerical simulation in steam injection process by a mechanistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Souza, J.C.Jr.; Campos, W.; Lopes, D.; Moura, L.S.S. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-10-15

    Steam injection is a common thermal recovery method used in very viscous oil reservoirs. The method involves the injection of heat to reduce viscosity and mobilize oil. A steam generation and injection system consists primarily of a steam source, distribution lines, injection wells and a discarding tank. In order to optimize injection and improve the oil recovery factor, one must determine the parameters of steam flow such as pressure, temperature and steam quality. This study focused on developing a unified mathematical model by means of a mechanistic approach for two-phase steam flow in pipelines and wells. The hydrodynamic and heat transfer mechanistic model was implemented in a computer simulator to model the parameters of steam injection while trying to avoid the use of empirical correlations. A marching algorithm was used to determine the distribution of pressure and temperature along the pipelines and wellbores. The mathematical model for steam flow in injection systems, developed by a mechanistic approach (VapMec) performed well when the simulated values of pressures and temperatures were compared with the values measured during field tests. The newly developed VapMec model was incorporated in the LinVap-3 simulator that constitutes an engineering supporting tool for steam injection wells operated by Petrobras. 23 refs., 7 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Hydrogen ion species analysis and related neutral beam injection power assessment in the Heliotron E neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Fumimichi; Obiki, Tokuhiro; Sasaki, Akihiko; Iiyoshi, Atsuo; Uo, Koji

    1982-01-01

    The hydrogen ion species in a Heliotron E neutral beam injection system of maximum electric power 6.3 MW were analyzed in order to assess the neutral beam power injected into the torus. The masimum p roton ratio of the cylindrical bucket type ion source used was observed to be more than 90 percent assuming that the angular divergences for the respective species in the beam are the same. The experimental data are compared with calculations using a particle balance model. The analysis indicates that the net injection power reaches nearly 2.7 MW at the optimal conditions of the system considering the geometrical limitation of the neutral beam path. (author)

  4. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  5. Drug injecting and HIV risk among injecting drug users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Long, Thanh Nguyen; Huong, Phan Thi; Stewart, Donald Edwin

    2015-01-29

    Hai Phong, located in northern Vietnam, has become a high HIV prevalence province among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) since the infection shifted from the southern to the northern region of the country. Previous research indicates high levels of drug and sex related risk behaviour especially among younger IDUs. Our recent qualitative research provides a deeper understanding of HIV risk behaviour and highlights views and experiences of IDUs relating to drug injecting and sharing practices. Fifteen IDUs participated in semi-structured interviews conducted in September-October, 2012. Eligible participants were selected from those recruited in a larger scale behavioural research project and identified through screening questions. Interviews were conducted by two local interviewers in Vietnamese and were audiotaped. Ethical procedures, including informed consent and participants' understanding of their right to skip and withdraw, were applied. Transcripts were translated and double checked. The data were categorised and coded according to themes. Thematic analysis was conducted and a qualitative data analysis thematic framework was used. Qualitative analysis highlighted situational circumstances associated with HIV risks among IDUs in Hai Phong and revealed three primary themes: (i) places for injecting, (ii) injecting drugs in small groups, and (iii) sharing practices. Our results showed that shared use of jointly purchased drugs and group injecting were widespread among IDUs without adequate recognition of these as HIV risk behaviours. Frequent police raids generated a constant fear of arrest. As a consequence, the majority preferred either rail lines or isolated public places for injection, while some injected in their own or a friend's home. Price, a heroin crisis, and strong group norms encouraged collective preparation and group injecting. Risk practices were enhanced by a number of factors: the difficulty in getting new syringes, quick withdrawal management

  6. Enhancement of mouse germ cell-associated genes expression by injection of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into the testis of chemical-induced azoospermic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Feng Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Various methods are currently under investigation to preserve fertility in males treated with high-dose chemotherapy and radiation for malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUC-MSCs, which possess potent immunosuppressive function and secrete various cytokines and growth factors, have the potential clinical applications. As a potential alternative, we investigate whether injection of HUC-MSCs into the interstitial compartment of the testes to promote spermatogenic regeneration efficiently. HUC-MSCs were isolated from different sources of umbilical cords and injected into the interstitial space of one testis from 10 busulfan-treated mice (saline and HEK293 cells injections were performed in a separate set of mice and the other testis remained uninjected. Three weeks after MSCs injection, Relative quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the expression of 10 of germ cell associated, which are all related to meiosis, demonstrated higher levels of spermatogenic gene expression (2-8 fold in HUC-MSCs injected testes compared to the contralateral uninjected testes (five mice. Protein levels for germ cell-specific genes, miwi, vasa and synaptonemal complex protein (Scp3 were also higher in MSC-treated testes compared to injected controls 3 weeks after treatment. However, no different expression was detected in saline water and HEK293 cells injection control group. We have demonstrated HUC-MSCs could affect mouse germ cell-specific genes expression. The results also provide a possibility that the transplanted HUC-MSCs may promote the recovery of spermatogenesis. This study provides further evidence for preclinical therapeutic effects of HUC-MSCs, and explores a new approach to the treatment of azoospermia.

  7. Cooling water injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko.

    1989-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, ECCS system is constituted as a so-called stand-by system which is not used during usual operation and there is a significant discontinuity in relation with the usual system. It is extremely important that ECCS operates upon occurrence of accidents just as specified. In view of the above in the present invention, the stand-by system is disposed along the same line with the usual system. That is, a driving water supply pump for supplying driving water to a jet pump is driven by a driving mechanism. The driving mechanism drives continuously the driving water supply pump in a case if an expected accident such as loss of the function of the water supply pump, as well as during normal operation. That is, all of the water supply pump, jet pump, driving water supply pump and driving mechanism therefor are caused to operate also during normal operation. The operation of them are not initiated upon accident. Thus, the cooling water injection system can perform at high reliability to remarkably improve the plant safety. (K.M.)

  8. Injecting Artificial Memory Errors Into a Running Computer Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Benjamin J.; Granat, Robert A.; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2008-01-01

    Single-event upsets (SEUs) or bitflips are computer memory errors caused by radiation. BITFLIPS (Basic Instrumentation Tool for Fault Localized Injection of Probabilistic SEUs) is a computer program that deliberately injects SEUs into another computer program, while the latter is running, for the purpose of evaluating the fault tolerance of that program. BITFLIPS was written as a plug-in extension of the open-source Valgrind debugging and profiling software. BITFLIPS can inject SEUs into any program that can be run on the Linux operating system, without needing to modify the program s source code. Further, if access to the original program source code is available, BITFLIPS offers fine-grained control over exactly when and which areas of memory (as specified via program variables) will be subjected to SEUs. The rate of injection of SEUs is controlled by specifying either a fault probability or a fault rate based on memory size and radiation exposure time, in units of SEUs per byte per second. BITFLIPS can also log each SEU that it injects and, if program source code is available, report the magnitude of effect of the SEU on a floating-point value or other program variable.

  9. Isolation colling device for reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehara, Morihiko; Arai, Shigeki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent undesired operation of an emergency core cooling system due to excess lowering of water level in a reactor. Constitution: In an emergency facility adapted to drive a turbine, upon reactor isolation, with the excess steams of the reactor to operate a pump and thereby inject cooling water to the reactor, a water level detector is provided and connected to a pump exhaust valve control circuit, a turbine inlet valve control circuit and a by-pass valve control circuit. Valve ON-OFF is automatically controlled depending on the water level to thereby render the level constant. A by-pass pipe is branched from a pump exhaust pipe and connected to a condensate storage tank. When the water level rises due to water injection, the injecting water is returned to circulate by way of the by-pass pipe to the condensate storage tank under the ON-OFF for each of the valves while the turbine being kept to drive. Then, if the water level is lowered, water injection is started again by the ON-OFF for each of the valves. (Ikeda, J.)

  10. Vacuum Arc Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I.

    2013-12-16

    The vacuum arc ion source has evolved into a more or less standard laboratory tool for the production of high-current beams of metal ions, and is now used in a number of different embodiments at many laboratories around the world. Applications include primarily ion implantation for material surface modification research, and good performance has been obtained for the injection of high-current beams of heavy-metal ions, in particular uranium, into particle accelerators. As the use of the source has grown, so also have the operational characteristics been improved in a variety of different ways. Here we review the principles, design, and performance of vacuum arc ion sources.

  11. AGS polarized H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kponou, A.; Alessi, J.G.; Sluyters, T.

    1985-01-01

    The AGS polarized H - source is now operational. During a month-long experimental physics run in July 1984, pulses equivalent to 15 μA x 300 μs (approx. 3 x 10 10 protons) were injected into the RFQ preaccelerator. Beam polarization, measured at 200 MeV, was approx. 75%. After the run, a program to increase the H - yield of the source was begun and significant progress has been made. The H - current is now frequently 20 to 30 μA. A description of the source and some details of our operating experience are given. We also briefly describe the improvement program

  12. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  13. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  14. Determining How Magnetic Helicity Injection Really Works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul M Bellan

    2001-01-01

    OAK-B135 The goal of the Caltech program is to determine how helicity injection works by investigating the actual dynamics and topological evolution associated with magnetic relaxation. A new coaxial helicity injection source has been constructed and brought into operation. The key feature of this source is that it has maximum geometric simplicity. Besides being important for fusion research, this work also has astrophysical implications. Photos obtained using high-speed cameras show a clear sequence of events in the formation process. In particular, they show initial merging/reconnection processes, jet-like expansion, kinking, and separation of the plasma from the source. Various diagnostics have been developed, including laser induced fluorescence and soft x-ray detection using high speed diodes. Gas valves have been improved and a patent disclosure relating to puffed gas valves has been filed. Presentations on this work have been given in the form of invited talks at several university physics departments that were previously unfamiliar with laboratory plasma experiments

  15. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  16. Molecular dynamics simulation of chemical vapor deposition of amorphous carbon. Dependence on H/C ratio of source gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Atsushi M.; Takayama, Arimichi; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Saito, Seiki; Ohno, Noriyasu; Kajita, Shin

    2011-01-01

    By molecular dynamics simulation, the chemical vapor deposition of amorphous carbon onto graphite and diamond surfaces was studied. In particular, we investigated the effect of source H/C ratio, which is the ratio of the number of hydrogen atoms to the number of carbon atoms in a source gas, on the deposition process. In the present simulation, the following two source gas conditions were tested: one was that the source gas was injected as isolated carbon and hydrogen atoms, and the other was that the source gas was injected as hydrocarbon molecules. Under the former condition, we found that as the source H/C ratio increases, the deposition rate of carbon atoms decreases exponentially. This exponential decrease in the deposition rate with increasing source H/C ratio agrees with experimental data. However, under the latter molecular source condition, the deposition rate did not decrease exponentially because of a chemical reaction peculiar to the type of hydrocarbon in the source gas. (author)

  17. Waste isolation: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, L.H.

    1982-12-01

    This bibliography contains information on waste isolation included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from Janurary 1981 through November 1982. The abstracts are grouped by subject category as shown in the table of contents. Entries in the subject index also facilitate access by subject, e.g., Radioactive Waste Disposal/Salt Deposits. Within each category the arrangement is by report number for reports, followed by nonreports in reverse chronological order. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  18. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  19. A simple scheme for injection and extraction in compact rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H. S.; Huang, W. H.; Tang, C. X.

    2014-01-01

    There has been great interest in building compact synchrotrons for various applications, for example, inverse Compton scattering X-ray sources. However, the beam injection and extraction in compact rings require careful design for the lack of space. In this paper, we propose a simple combined injection-extraction scheme exploiting the fringe field of existing dipole magnets instead of additional septum magnets. This scheme is illustrated by using the 4.8 m ring proposed for Tsinghua Thomson scattering X-ray source as an example. Particle tracking is applied to demonstrate the validity of this scheme

  20. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  1. GANIL Workshop on Ion Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Renan

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the GANIL Workshop on Ion Sources held at GANIL - Caen on 18-19 March 1999 contains 13 papers aiming at improving the old source operation and developing new types of sources for nuclear research and studies of ion physics. A number of reports are devoted to applications like surface treatment, ion implantation or fusion injection. The 1+→n+ transformation, charged particle transport in ECR sources, addition of cesium and xenon in negative ion sources and other basic issues in ion sources are also addressed

  2. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  3. Outcome analysis of two different injection solutions for epidural injection in radicular lumbar backache syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqib, M.; Mukhtar, M.; Bhatti, S.N; Afridi, E.A.K.; Khan, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Backache is a significant source of disability and suffering in our society. The treatment modalities need continued enhancement in order to achieve the desired goals of lowering morbidity and financial losses while improving the response of the patient. Methods: This prospective comparative study was conducted at the department of Orthopaedics and Spine Surgery, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar from July 2013 to June 2015. Two interventional groups were designated; Group 1 was comprised of 54 patients who were injected with epidural bupivacaine plus methylprednisolone while Group 2 included 55 patients who were injected with bupivacaine only. Outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index (ODI). Results: Fifty-five female and 54 male patients with mean age 49.37 years+-10.46 SD, Mean symptoms duration was 15.01 months+-9.32 SD. Common presenting symptoms were backache (77.1 percent), lower limbs pain (66.1 percent), dermatomal paresthesias (54.1 percent) and neurogenic claudication in 57.8 percent patients. The mean visual analogue score (VAS) after injection was 3.18+-1.29 while mean ODI after injection was 23.615. There was a statistically significant reduction in VAS scores (2-sided p=0.003, OR =4.03, 95 percent CI: 1.535-10.60) following the injection. Conclusion: An epidural spinal injection is a viable option for achieving relief of pain and improves functioning in individuals with radicular backache. However, further research is advised in order to clarify the role of ESI for long-term relief. (author)

  4. A direct plasma injection system into an RFQ for clean and safe ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, T.; Katayama, T.; Okamura, M.; Yano, K.; Sakumi, A.; Hattori, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Jameson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    A new injection system, direct plasma injection system, was tested and its principle was proved successfully. We found that one of advantages of this injection system was efficient consumption of source materials. Large portions of induced ions can be injected into a first stage accelerator. This feature is quite useful for ion implantation applications, because toxic exhaust gas can be eliminated. In order to utilize this system for industrial application, the feasibility of a boron injection scheme using a Nd:YAG laser system was investigated

  5. A Study of Spill Control Characteristics of JP-8 and Conventional Diesel Fuel with a Common Rail Direct Injection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seomoon Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversification of energy sources is a key task for decreasing environmental impacts and global emission of gases. JP-8, a fuel derived from natural gas, coal, biomass, and waste plastics, is a bright prospect. JP-8 is considered a multi-source multi-purpose fuel, with several applications. A preliminary characterization of the JP-8 injection rate and injection quantity behavior was investigated based on the high-pressure common rail injection system used in a heavy-duty engine. According to the spill injection and injection pressure, a trade-off trend between injection rate and injection quantity was observed. As expected, pilot injection of JP-8 aviation fuel and diesel fuel affects the spray quantity and injection evolution of the subsequent operation without pilot injection. The difference in spilling between diesel and JP-8 aviation fuel is greater than the difference in injection amount per time; in the process of controlling the injector solenoid through ECU (Electric Control Units, the oil pressure valve and the needle valve operate to a higher extent in order to maintain the diesel fuel’s injection quantity volume. It was found that the total injection quantity was decreased by adding 20% pilot injection duration. Because the pilot injection quantity causes solenoid response, loss and needle lift stroke friction loss.

  6. VIBRATION ISOLATION SYSTEM PROBABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vladimir Alexandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the probability analysis for a vibration isolation system of high-precision equipment, which is extremely sensitive to low-frequency oscillations even of submicron amplitude. The external sources of low-frequency vibrations may include the natural city background or internal low-frequency sources inside buildings (pedestrian activity, HVAC. Taking Gauss distribution into account, the author estimates the probability of the relative displacement of the isolated mass being still lower than the vibration criteria. This problem is being solved in the three dimensional space, evolved by the system parameters, including damping and natural frequency. According to this probability distribution, the chance of exceeding the vibration criteria for a vibration isolation system is evaluated. Optimal system parameters - damping and natural frequency - are being developed, thus the possibility of exceeding vibration criteria VC-E and VC-D is assumed to be less than 0.04.

  7. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  9. CFD analysis of poison injection in AHWR calandria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, A.K.; Kamble, M.T.; Maheshwari, N.K.; Vijayan, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    The present work intends to give details of design and performance validation of SDS-2. The performance is evaluated on the basis of dispersion of poison in calandria in a given period of time. Location of injection tube and injection holes, size of jet hole and number of holes are some of the design parameters which greatly affect dispersion of poison in calandria. A Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) study for axial and radial injection of poison was carried out using open source CFD code OpenFOAM. CFD benchmarking was done using experiments performed by Johari (Johari et al. 1997) to identify suitable turbulence model for this problem. An experimental facility simulating poison injection in moderator in presence of calandria tubes was used to further validate the CFD model is shown in the paper. CFD analysis was carried out for axial as well as radial injection for AHWR geometry. CFD analysis using OpenFOAM has been carried out to study high pressure poison injection for single jet of Shut Down System - 2 (SDS- 2) of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) for various design options. CFD model used in analysis have been validated with experimental data available in literature as well as experiments performed for AHWR specific geometry. Various turbulence models are tested and their adequacy for such flow problems has been established. The CFD model is then used to simulate poison injection for two design options for AHWR and their performance is compared. (author)

  10. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  11. Deep-well injection of radioactive waste in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Russian federation, deep borehole injection of liquid radioactive waste has been established practice since at least 1963. The liquid is injected into sandy or other formations with high porosity, which are isolated by water-tight layers. This technique has also been used elsewhere for toxic liquid waste and residues from mining operations. Deep-well injection of radioactive waste is not currently used in any of the European Commission (EC) countries. In this paper the results of a EC-funded study were presented. The study is entitled 'Measurements, modelling of migration and possible radiological consequences at deep well injection sites for liquid radioactive waste in Russia', COSU-CT94-0099-UK. The study was carried out jointly by AEA Technology, CAG and the Research Institute for Nuclear Reactors (NIIAR) at Dimitrovgrad. Many scientists have contributed to the results reported here. The aims of the study are: Provision of extensive information on the deep-well injection repositories and their use in the former Soviet Union; Provision of a methodology to assess safety aspects of deep-well injection of liquid radioactive waste in deep geological formations; This will allow evaluation of proposals to use deep-well injection techniques in other regions; Support for Russian regulatory bodies through evaluation of the suitability of the sites, including estimates of the maximum amount of waste that can be safely stored in them; and Provision of a methodology to assess the use of deep-well injection repositories as an alternative disposal technique for EC countries. 7 refs

  12. High repetition rate driver circuit for modulation of injection lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, B.R.; Goel, J.; Wolkstein, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    An injection laser modulator comprises a self-biased field effect transistor (FET) and an injection laser to provide a quiescent state during which lasing of the injection laser occurs in response to a high repetition rate signal of pulse coded modulation (pcm). The modulator is d.c. coupled to an input pulse source of pcm rendering it compatible with an input pulse referenced to ground and not being subject to voltage level shifting of the input pulse. The modulator circuit in its preferred and alternate embodiments provides various arrangements for high impedance input and low impedance output matching. In addition, means are provided for adjusting the bias of the FET as well as the bias of the injection laser

  13. Effects of Lightning Injection on Power-MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celaya, Jose; Saha, Sankalita; Wysocki, Phil; Ely, Jay; Nguyen, Truong; Szatkowski, George; Koppen, Sandra; Mielnik, John; Vaughan, Roger; Goebel, Kai

    2009-01-01

    Lightning induced damage is one of the major concerns in aircraft health monitoring. Such short-duration high voltages can cause significant damage to electronic devices. This paper presents a study on the effects of lightning injection on power metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs). This approach consisted of pin-injecting lightning waveforms into the gate, drain and/or source of MOSFET devices while they were in the OFF-state. Analysis of the characteristic curves of the devices showed that for certain injection modes the devices can accumulate considerable damage rendering them inoperable. Early results demonstrate that a power MOSFET, even in its off-state, can incur considerable damage due to lightning pin injection, leading to significant deviation in its behavior and performance, and to possibly early device failures.

  14. Pseudorandom binary injection of levitons for electron quantum optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.

    2018-03-01

    The recent realization of single-electron sources lets us envision performing electron quantum optics experiments, where electrons can be viewed as flying qubits propagating in a ballistic conductor. To date, all electron sources operate in a periodic electron injection mode, leading to energy spectrum singularities in various physical observables which sometimes hide the bare nature of physical effects. To go beyond this, we propose a spread-spectrum approach where electron flying qubits are injected in a nonperiodic manner following a pseudorandom binary bit pattern. Extending the Floquet scattering theory approach from periodic to spread-spectrum drive, the shot noise of pseudorandom binary sequences of single-electron injection can be calculated for leviton and nonleviton sources. Our new approach allows us to disentangle the physics of the manipulated excitations from that of the injection protocol. In particular, the spread-spectrum approach is shown to provide better knowledge of electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel correlations and to clarify the nature of the pulse train coherence and the role of the dynamical orthogonality catastrophe for noninteger charge injection.

  15. The operation and monitoring of sewage disposal by stack injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, D.A. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co. (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A system that uses turbine exhaust to evaporate sewage, was described. The Alyeska Pipeline Service developed the system for isolated pump stations located in permafrost areas. The pumps moving the crude oil in the Trans Alaska Pipeline System (TAPS) were driven by simple cycle gas turbine engines which produce large amounts of waste heat. The waste heat was used to evaporate the sewage effluent, effectively destroying all pathogens in it. The process, known as `stack injection`, was recently upgraded to increase efficiency and safety. Stack injection was being used at five pump stations. Methods used to control operation of the stack injection system, and field data used to redesign the system were reviewed. 3 figs., 3 refs.

  16. Zinc injection on the EDF fleet monitoring the injection on 12 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Meur, Gaelle Harmand; Anne-Marie; Stutzmann, Agnes; Taunier, Stephane; Benfarah, Moez; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Alain, Rocher; Claeys, Myriam; Bonne, Sebastien

    2012-09-01

    After a first implementation of zinc injection at Bugey 2 and Bugey 4, EDF decided to extend the program to other units of its fleet. 14 more reactors from the French fleet of 58 were chosen in order to - Reduce the radiation sources for curative or preventive (after SGR) reasons - Mitigate stress corrosion cracking on nickel alloys and reduce the rate of generalized corrosion - Prevent the risk of CIPS, mainly after a fuel management change. Zinc injection started on 9 new units in 2011, 1 unit in 2012 and will be extended to 4 other units before the end of 2013. To monitor the injection, EDF has defined a complete program concerning chemistry, radiation protection (dose rate and deposited activities measurements), materials (statistical analysis of SG tube cracks), fuel (oxide measurements) and waste (radiochemical characterization of filters). Reference units were chosen for each field because of the size of the fleet. This paper will detail the different monitoring programs on the EDF plants injecting zinc. (authors)

  17. Development of injection moulded, ultrasonically welded immiscible phase filtration devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistrup, Kasper

    for ultrasonic welding, suitable for microfluidic systems. A methodology has been established where energy directors can be quickly added to existing mould inserts, using laser micromachining. The produced device was performance tested by isolating methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from bovine whole....... The device appliesmagnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction for nucleic acid extraction from biological samples, using the immiscible phase filtration (IPF) approach. Device development has employed injection moulding for part fabrication and ultrasonic welding for bonding. Rapid prototyping...

  18. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people with chronic ... severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Water feeding method upon reactor isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Koichi; Takahara, Kuniaki; Hamamura, Kenji; Arakawa, Masahiro.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of feeding water upon reactor isolation in a plural loop type reactor having a plurality of reactor cooling systems. Water can be injected to a plurality of pools even if the pressure between the pools is not balanced and the water level in the reactor cooling system is optimally controlled. That is, water can be injected in accordance with the amount required for each of the pools by setting the opening of a turbine inlet steam control valve to somewhat higher than the cooling system pressure of the highest pressure loop. Water feeding devices upon reactor isolation were required by the same number as that for the reactor cooling systems. Whereas since pumps and turbines are used in common without worsening the water injection controllability to each of the loops according to the method of this invention and, accordingly, the cost performance can be improved. Further, since the opening degree of the turbine inlet steam control valve is controlled while making the difference pressure constant between the turbine inlet pressure and the pump exhaust pressure, the amount of the turbine exhausted steams can be reduced and, further, water injection controllability of the flow rate control valve in the injection line is improved. (I.S.)

  20. Vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Vikash K

    2012-01-01

    Unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) can cause glottic insufficiency that can result in hoarseness, chronic cough, dysphagia, and/or aspiration. In rare circumstances, UVFP can cause airway obstruction necessitating a tracheostomy. The treatment options for UVFP include observation, speech therapy, vocal fold injection medialization laryngoplasty, thyroplasty, and laryngeal reinnervation. In this chapter, the author will discuss the technique of vocal fold injection for medialization of a UVFP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Accidental epidural injection of Atropine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udayan Bakshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal injection of drugs for anesthesia, regional analgesia, and chronic pain management are common practice now. Local anesthetic, adjuvants, and opioids are in common use. Human error in the Operation Theater and the Intensive Care Unit setup is also known and reported, due to stress and overwork. A case of unintentional atropine injection intrathecally, which was closely observed for any untoward effects, is reported here.

  2. BWR fuel experience with zinc injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, H.A.; Garcia, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    In 1982 a correlation between low primary recirculation system dose rates in BWR's and the presence of ionic zinc in reactor water was identified. The source of the zinc was primarily from Admiralty brass condensers. Plants with brass condensers are called ''natural zinc'' plants. Brass condensers were also a source of copper that was implicated in crude induced localized corrosion (CILC) fuel failures. In 1986 the first BWR intentionally injected zinc for the benefits of dose rate control. Although zinc alone was never implicated in fuel degradation of failures, a comprehensive fuel surveillance program was initiated to monitor fuel performance. Currently there are 14 plants that are injecting zinc. Six of these plants are also on hydrogen water chemistry. This paper describes the effect on both Zircaloy corrosion and the cruding characteristics as a result of these changes in water chemistry. Fuel rod corrosion was found to be independent of the specific water chemistry of the plants. The corrosion behavior was the same with the additions of zinc alone or zinc plus hydrogen and well within the operating experience for fuel without either of these additions. No change was observed in the amounts of crude deposited on the fuel rods, both for the adherent and loosely held deposits. One of the effects of the zinc addition was the trend to form more of the zinc rich iron spinel in the fuel deposits rather than the hematite deposits that are predominantly formed with non additive water chemistry

  3. Electrically Injected Twin Photon Emitting Lasers at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Autebert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available On-chip generation, manipulation and detection of nonclassical states of light are some of the major issues for quantum information technologies. In this context, the maturity and versatility of semiconductor platforms are important assets towards the realization of ultra-compact devices. In this paper we present our work on the design and study of an electrically injected AlGaAs photon pair source working at room temperature. The device is characterized through its performances as a function of temperature and injected current. Finally we discuss the impact of the device’s properties on the generated quantum state. These results are very promising for the demonstration of electrically injected entangled photon sources at room temperature and let us envision the use of III-V semiconductors for a widespread diffusion of quantum communication technologies.

  4. New injection recommendations for patients with diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frid, A.; Hirsch, L.; Gaspar, R.; Hicks, D.; Kreugel, G.; Liersch, J.; Letondeur, C.; Sauvanet, J. P.; Tubiana-Rufi, N.; Strauss, K.

    Aim: Injections administered by patients are one of the mainstays of diabetes management. Proper injection technique is vital to avoiding intramuscular injections, ensuring appropriate delivery to the subcutaneous tissues and avoiding common complications such as lipohypertrophy. Yet few formal

  5. Neutron particle injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Kiyoshi.

    1997-01-01

    Plasma particles are used as target particles for converting ions to neutral particles by a charge exchange reaction in a neutralization cell, and a neutralization cell is disposed in adjacent with drawing electrodes. In addition, a magnetic field generation means is disposed additionally for generating magnetic rays substantially in parallel with the drawing electrode at the downmost stream in the progressing direction of the ions. The intensity of electric fields between the drawing electrode at the downmost stream and the nearest electrode, among electrodes present at the upstream, is made smaller than the intensity of electric fields between other electrodes. Since magnetic rays substantially in parallel with the drawing electrode at the downmost stream in the progressing direction of the ions are generated, the ions are prevented from being accelerated in the direction reverse to the progressing direction thereby further enhancing the neutralization efficiency of the neutralizing cell. Then, there can be provided effects that the constitution of the electrode of NBI (Neutral particle Beam Injector) can be simplified and the power source for preventing acceleration of neutral particles can be saved. (N.H.)

  6. Performance of the DIII-D neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Callis, R.W.; Colleraine, A.P.; Cummings, J.; Glad, A.S.; Gootgeld, A.M.; Haskovec, J.S.; Hong, R.; Kellman, D.H.; Langhorn, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    During the upgrade of the Doublet III tokamak, the neutral beam injection system as also modified to accommodate long pulse sources and to utilize the larger entrance apertures to the torus vessel. All four beamlines on DIII-D are now in operation with a total of eight common long pulse sources. These have exhibited easier conditioning and good reproducibility. Performance results of the beamlines and supporting systems are presented, and the observed beam properties are discussed

  7. Temperature field distribution of coal seam in heat injection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Zhizhen; Peng Weihong; Shang Xiaoji; Wang Kun; Li Heng; Ma Wenming

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we present a natural boundary element method (NBEM) to solve the steady heat flow problem with heat sources in a coal seam. The boundary integral equation is derived to obtain the temperature filed distribution of the coal seam under the different injecting conditions.

  8. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  9. Proton accumulator ring injection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Protons may be created in an accelerator or storage ring by stripping electrons from neutral hydrogen atoms that have been injected into the machine. Because Liouville's theorem is violated by this type of injection, particles may be continually injected into a region of phase space that is already populated, and the density in that region increases with time. A computational investigation was made of the evolution of the distribution of particles in longitudinal phase space during such an injection process for a storage ring operating below the transition energy. In one calculation, an rf cavity is present in the ring and particles are injected into the stable phase region once each revolution. The purpose of this calculation is to determine the rf voltage necessary to overcome the longitudinal self-forces and contain the particles within the region of stable phase. In a second calculation, the rf is turned off, so that there is spreading in azimuth of the injected particles (i.e., de-bunching). The de-bunching occurs because of the initial energy spread and the action of the self-forces. One purpose of the calculation is to determine the total energy spread after a given number of revolutions. Another purpose is to elucidate the effect of finite resistance in the vacuum tank walls. For sufficiently high current, the finite resistance can cause bunching of a beam that is initially uniform in azimuth. Therefore it might be expected that the finite resistance would inhibit or prevent de-bunching once the number of particles injected reaches some threshold, and that this threshold would depend upon the energy spread in the beam

  10. Injection locking of optomechanical oscillators via acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani

    2018-04-01

    Injection locking is a powerful technique for synchronization of oscillator networks and controlling the phase and frequency of individual oscillators using similar or other types of oscillators. Here, we present the first demonstration of injection locking of a radiation-pressure driven optomechanical oscillator (OMO) via acoustic waves. As opposed to previously reported techniques (based on pump modulation or direct application of a modulated electrostatic force), injection locking of OMO via acoustic waves does not require optical power modulation or physical contact with the OMO and it can easily be implemented on various platforms. Using this approach we have locked the phase and frequency of two distinct modes of a microtoroidal silica OMO to a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). We have characterized the behavior of the injection locked OMO with three acoustic excitation configurations and showed that even without proper acoustic impedance matching the OMO can be locked to the PZT and tuned over 17 kHz with only -30 dBm of RF power fed to the PZT. The high efficiency, simplicity and scalability of the proposed approach paves the road toward a new class of photonic systems that rely on synchronization of several OMOs to a single or multiple RF oscillators with applications in optical communication, metrology and sensing. Beyond its practical applications, injection locking via acoustic waves can be used in fundamental studies in quantum optomechanics where thermal and optical isolation of the OMO are critical.

  11. Aptamer-based isolation and subsequent imaging of mesenchymal stem cells in ischemic myocard by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, R; Wiskirchen, J; Guo, K; Neumann, B; Kehlbach, R; Pintaske, J; Voth, V; Walker, T; Scheule, A M; Greiner, T O; Hermanutz-Klein, U; Claussen, C D; Northoff, H; Ziemer, G; Wendel, H P

    2007-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) seem to be a promising cell source for cellular cardiomyoplasty. We recently developed a new aptamer-based specific selection of MSC to provide "ready to transplant" cells directly after isolation. We evaluated MRI tracking of newly isolated and freshly transplanted MSC in the heart using one short ex vivo selection step combining specific aptamer-based isolation and labeling of the cells. Bone marrow (BM) was collected from healthy pigs. The animals were euthanized and the heart was placed in a perfusion model. During cold ischemia, immunomagnetic isolation of MSC from the BM by MSC-specific aptamers labeled with Dynabeads was performed within 2 h. For histological identification the cells were additionally stained with PKH26. Approx. 3 x 10(6) of the freshly aptamer-isolated cells were injected into the ramus interventricularis anterior (RIVA) and 5 x 10(5) cells were injected directly into myocardial tissue after damaging the respective area by freezing (cryo-scar). 3 x 10(6) of the aptamer-isolated cells were kept for further characterization (FACS and differentiation assays). 20 h after cell transplantation, MRI of the heart using a clinical 3.0 Tesla whole body scanner (Magnetom Trio, Siemens, Germany) was performed followed by histological examinations. The average yield of sorted cells from 120 ml BM was 7 x 10(6) cells. The cells were cultured and showed MSC-like properties. MRI showed reproducible artifacts within the RIVA-perfusion area and the cryo-scar with surprisingly excellent quality. The histological examination of the biopsies showed PKH26-positive cells within the areas which were positive in the MRI in contrast to the control biopsies. Immunomagnetic separation of MSC by specific aptamers linked to magnetic particles is feasible, effective and combines a specific separation and labeling technique to a "one stop shop" strategy.

  12. Rituals in nursing: intramuscular injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenway, Kathleen

    2014-12-01

    To consider to what extent intramuscular injection technique can be described to remain entrenched in ritualistic practice and how evidence-based practice should be considered and applied to the nursing practice of this essential skill. The notion of rituals within nursing and the value or futile impact they afford to this essential nursing skill will be critically reviewed. Discursive paper. Literature review from 2002-2013 to review the current position of intramuscular injection injections. Within the literature review, it became clear that there are several actions within the administration of an intramuscular injection that could be perceived as ritualistic and require consideration for contemporary nursing practice. The essential nursing skill of intramuscular injection often appears to fit into the description of a ritualised practice. By providing evidence-based care, nurses will find themselves empowered to make informed decisions based on clinical need and using their clinical judgement. For key learning, it will outline with rationale how site selection, needle selection, insertion technique and aspiration can be cited as examples of routinised or ritualistic practice and why these should be rejected in favour of an evidence-based approach. The effect on some student nurses of experiencing differing practices between what is taught at university and what is often seen in clinical practice will also be discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard II; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, Virginia 20151 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 {mu}g of plasma with density above 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 {mu}g has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  14. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, F Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J; Bomgardner, Richard; Phillips, Michael W; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 microg of plasma with density above 10(17) cm(-3) to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 microg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  15. A contoured gap coaxial plasma gun with injected plasma armature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Case, Andrew; Messer, Sarah J.; Bomgardner, Richard II; Phillips, Michael W.; Brockington, Samuel; Elton, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    A new coaxial plasma gun is described. The long term objective is to accelerate 100-200 μg of plasma with density above 10 17 cm -3 to greater than 200 km/s with a Mach number above 10. Such high velocity dense plasma jets have a number of potential fusion applications, including plasma refueling, magnetized target fusion, injection of angular momentum into centrifugally confined mirrors, high energy density plasmas, and others. The approach uses symmetric injection of high density plasma into a coaxial electromagnetic accelerator having an annular gap geometry tailored to prevent formation of the blow-by instability. The injected plasma is generated by numerous (currently 32) radially oriented capillary discharges arranged uniformly around the circumference of the angled annular injection region of the accelerator. Magnetohydrodynamic modeling identified electrode profiles that can achieve the desired plasma jet parameters. The experimental hardware is described along with initial experimental results in which approximately 200 μg has been accelerated to 100 km/s in a half-scale prototype gun. Initial observations of 64 merging injector jets in a planar cylindrical testing array are presented. Density and velocity are presently limited by available peak current and injection sources. Steps to increase both the drive current and the injected plasma mass are described for next generation experiments.

  16. Automated injection of slurry samples in flow-injection analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsman, M.H.F.M.; Hulsman, M.; Bos, M.; van der Linden, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of injectors are described for introducing solid samples as slurries in flow analysis systems. A time-based and a volume-based injector based on multitube solenoid pinch valves were built, both can be characterized as hydrodynamic injectors. Reproducibility of the injections of dispersed

  17. Effect of injection timing and injection pressure on the performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    This paper discusses the feasibility study on the utilization of biodiesel ester of Honge oil (EHO) in common rail direct injection. (CRDI) engine. Biodiesel of EHO has been obtained by transesterification process and characterization has been done. Existing single cylinder diesel engine fitted with conventional mechanical ...

  18. Robust, open-source removal of systematics in Kepler data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigrain, S.; Parviainen, H.; Roberts, S.; Reece, S.; Evans, T.

    2017-10-01

    We present ARC2 (Astrophysically Robust Correction 2), an open-source python-based systematics-correction pipeline, to correct for the Kepler prime mission long-cadence light curves. The ARC2 pipeline identifies and corrects any isolated discontinuities in the light curves and then removes trends common to many light curves. These trends are modelled using the publicly available co-trending basis vectors, within an (approximate) Bayesian framework with 'shrinkage' priors to minimize the risk of overfitting and the injection of any additional noise into the corrected light curves, while keeping any astrophysical signals intact. We show that the ARC2 pipeline's performance matches that of the standard Kepler PDC-MAP data products using standard noise metrics, and demonstrate its ability to preserve astrophysical signals using injection tests with simulated stellar rotation and planetary transit signals. Although it is not identical, the ARC2 pipeline can thus be used as an open-source alternative to PDC-MAP, whenever the ability to model the impact of the systematics removal process on other kinds of signal is important.

  19. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  20. Injection heating scenarios for TNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, J.A.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Holmes, J.A.

    1977-07-01

    Neutral beam injection heating is a prime contender for heating TNS. However, injection into a full bore high density plasma during start-up will not give adequate beam penetration even with deuteron energies up to 300 keV and Z/sub eff/ < 1.5. But low density start-up may be feasible with deuteron energies of approximately 150 keV if advantage is taken of the α-heating and flux surface shifts which occur when β is increased

  1. Beam Scraping for LHC Injection

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, H; Fischer, C; Gras, J-J; Koschik, A; Kramer, Daniel; Pedersen, S; Redaelli, S

    2007-01-01

    Operation of the LHC will require injection of very high intensity beams from the SPS to the LHC. Fast scrapers have been installed and will be used in the SPS to detect and remove any existing halo before beams are extracted, to minimize the probability for quenching of superconducting magnets at injection in the LHC. We briefly review the functionality of the scraper system and report about measurements that have recently been performed in the SPS on halo scraping and re-population of tails.

  2. Mastering Ninject for dependency injection

    CERN Document Server

    Baharestani, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection teaches you the most powerful concepts of Ninject in a simple and easy-to-understand format using lots of practical examples, diagrams, and illustrations.Mastering Ninject for Dependency Injection is aimed at software developers and architects who wish to create maintainable, extensible, testable, and loosely coupled applications. Since Ninject targets the .NET platform, this book is not suitable for software developers of other platforms. Being familiar with design patterns such as singleton or factory would be beneficial, but no knowledge of depende

  3. Pellet injection and toroidal confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    The proceedings of a technical committee meeting on pellet injection and toroidal confinement, held in Gut Ising, Federal Republic of Germany, 24-26 October, 1988, are given in this report. Most of the major fusion experiments are using pellet injectors; these were reported at this meeting. Studies of confinement, which is favorably affected, impurity transport, radiative energy losses, and affects on the ion temperature gradient instability were given. Studies of pellet ablation and effects on plasma profiles were presented. Finally, several papers described present and proposed injection guns. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Pathogenic Strains of Yersinia enterocolitica Isolated from Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris) Belonging to Farmers Are of the Same Subtype as Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica Strains Isolated from Humans and May Be a Source of Human Infection in Jiangsu Province, China ▿ ‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Zhigang; Wang, Hua; Tang, Liuying; Yang, Jinchuan; Gu, Ling; Jin, Dong; Luo, Longze; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Xiong, Haiping; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi

    2010-01-01

    We isolated 326 Yersinia enterocolitica strains from 5,919 specimens from patients with diarrhea at outpatient clinics, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment in the cities of Nantong and Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the 12 pathogenic strains were of the O:3 serotype. Six strains were isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers and were found to be the primary carriers of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially in Xuzhou. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the pathogenic strains from dogs belonging to farmers showed that they shared the same patterns as strains from diarrhea patients isolated in 1994. This indicates that the strains from domestic dogs have a close correlation with the strains causing human infections. PMID:20181899

  5. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.; Harding, J.; Kingsly, A.; Bradley, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  6. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  7. Sixty-five radiation hybrids for the short arm of human chromosome 6: their value as a mapping panel and as a source for rapid isolation of new probes using repeat element-mediated PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, H.Y.; McCall, A.E.; LeBorgne-Demarquoy, F.

    1991-01-01

    We have used an irradiation and fusion procedure to generate somatic cell hybrids that retain fragments of the short arm of human chromosome 6 (6p). To identify hybrids retaining human material, we performed repeat element-mediated PCR on crude lysates of cells from individual clones. Sixty-five hybrids were shown to contain human material and fifty of those contained one or more 6p-specific probes. Detailed characterization of these hybrids identified a subset that divides 6p into ten mapping intervals. Using repeat element-mediated PCR, we were able to isolate and map 61 new DNA fragments from specific regions of 6p. Fifteen of these fragments were used to screen for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and nine identified RFLPs with one or more enzymes. The radiation hybrids described in this study provide a valuable resource for high-resolution mapping of 6p and for the rapid isolation of region-specific markers

  8. INJECTION CARBON STRIPPING FOIL ISSUES IN THE SNS ACCUMULATOR RING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEEBE-WANG, J.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPARIA, D.; WEI, J.

    2001-01-01

    We are reporting the results of studies on issues related to the injection stripping foil in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accumulator ring. The problems related to foil heating and foil lifetime, such as current density distribution and temperature distribution in the foil, are investigated. The impact of injection errors on the beam losses at the foil is studied. The particle traversal rate and the beam losses due to scattering in the foil are summarized. Finally, SNS end-to-end simulation results of the foil-missing rate, the foil-hitting rate and the maximum foil temperature are presented

  9. Zinc injection in German PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, K.

    2004-01-01

    Operating experience acquired at PWR NNPs shows that zinc injection at low concentrations of 5 ppb is a very effective source term reduction measure. This method does not lead to any operating restrictions or other negative effects on plant systems and components. The nuclear industry has been very successful in reducing radiation exposures within the past two decades. Annual exposures could be significantly decreased and are now at a level of around 1 man-Sv per plant and year. This great success can mainly be attributed to the general commitment of plant operators to maintaining radiation exposures of workers in the controlled access area as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA principle). The ALARA principle, of course, also implies evaluation of the economic benefit of radiation protection measures. Radiation source term reduction has drawn increasing attention of plant operators in recent years. For the new PWRs cobalt-based alloys in the primary system have successively been eliminated already at the design and construction phase within the last decade. Use of wear-resistant cobalt-free substitute materials in combination with the general use of advanced alloys for the steam generator tubing of PWRs resulted in low values for the two most common sources of plant radiation fields, namely 58 Co and 60 Co. Investigations showed that the beneficial effect of zinc can be related to its high affinity for mixed spinel oxide phases, resulting in the following two basic effects: -Zinc is incorporated preferentially into the oxide layer on primary system surfaces and thus reduces pickup of 58 Co and 60 Co and - Zinc can displace cobalt isotopes from existing oxide layers. In German PWRs with Incoloy 800 steam generator tubing material (Ni-content -32%), the observed reductions correspond to a decrease in dose rates of around 10 to 15% per year and thus follow, as predicted, the half-life time of 60 Co. Overall reductions in high radiation areas are now in the range of

  10. Multi-shot type pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masaki; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Shitomi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To inject pellets at high speed without melting or sublimating not-injected pellets even at a long pellet injection interval. Constitution: In the conventional multi-shot pellet injection device, the pellet injection interval is set depending on the plasma retention time. However, as the pellet injection interval is increased, not-injected pellets are melted or sublimated due to the introduced heat of acceleration gases supplied from an acceleration gas introduction pipe to give an effect on the dimensional shape of the pellets. In view of the above, a plurality of pellet forming and injection portions each comprising a carrier, an injection pipe and a holder are disposed independently of each other and pellets are formed and injected independently to thereby prevent the thermal effects of the acceleration gases. (Kamimura, M.)

  11. Multi-shot type pellet injection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masaki; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Shitomi.

    1988-07-27

    Purpose: To inject pellets at high speed without melting or sublimating not-injected pellets even at a long pellet injection interval. Constitution: In the conventional multi-shot pellet injection device, the pellet injection interval is set depending on the plasma retention time. However, as the pellet injection interval is increased, not-injected pellets are melted or sublimated due to the introduced heat of acceleration gases supplied from an acceleration gas introduction pipe to give an effect on the dimensional shape of the pellets. In view of the above, a plurality of pellet forming and injection portions each comprising a carrier, an injection pipe and a holder are disposed independently of each other and pellets are formed and injected independently to thereby prevent the thermal effects of the acceleration gases. (Kamimura, M.).

  12. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita

    2009-01-01

    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  13. Gas injected washer plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, K.K.; John, P.I.; Punithavelu, A.M.; Rao, P.P.

    1980-01-01

    A plasma gun similar in geometry to the washer plasma gun has been operated with gas injected externally. hydrogen, nitrogen and argon plasmas have been ionised and accelerated to velocities of the order of 10 7 mm s -1 and densities 10 11 mm -3 . Higher parameter range is possible with higher electrical input power. (author)

  14. ENDOSCOPIC MACROPLASTIQUETM INJECTION FOR THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucosally 1 cm distal to the bladder neck at 3, 6 and 9 o' clock positions. In 26 cases the 12 o' clock position was chosen to ensure a good occlusion of the bladder neck. The mean volume of Macroplastique injected was 3 ml. Results At a mean ...

  15. Medical simulator with injection device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    medical simulator 611 comprises a vessel 609 representing a simulated blood vessel. The vessel comprises a simulated vessel wall capable of being punctured by an electrically conductive injection needle 503. The vessel wall comprises a first electrically conductive layer for closing an electric

  16. Preface to the injection tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Twelve groups of dogs received intravenous injections of various doses of 226 Ra, 239 Pu, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 90 Sr, 241 Am, 249 Cf, or 252 Cf at approximately 17 months of age. The animals were euthanized when death appeared imminent. Data are presented on the calculated radiation dose to the skeleton and pathological changes observed at autopsy

  17. Distribution of 15N-labeled urea injected into field-grown corn plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Madrmootoo, C.A.; Mackenzie, A.F.; Smith, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) assimilate supply to developing corn (Zea mays L.) ears plays a critical role in grain dry weight accumulation. The use of stem-perfused/injected 15N labeled compounds to determine the effects of an artificial N source on the subsequent distribution of injected N and grain weight of field-grown corn plants has not been reported previously. Our objective was to assess the distribution of N added via an artificial source. Three soil N fertilizer levels (0, 180, and 270 kg N ha-1) and three N solutions (distilled water control and 15N enriched urea at 15 and 30 mM N) were arranged in a split-plot design. Three N concentrations were injected using a pressurized stem injection technique. The injection started fifteen days after silking and continued until immediately prior to plant physiological maturity. The average uptake volume was 256 mL over the 30-day injection period. The N supplied via injection represented 1.5 to 3% of the total plant N. Neither soil applied N fertilizer nor injected N altered dry matter distribution among plant tissues. As the concentration of N in the injected solutions increased, N concentrations increased in the grain and upper stalks, and % 15N atom excess in ear+1 leaves and leaves increased. The relative degree of 15N enrichment for each of the tissues measured was injected internode grain upper stalks leaves lower stalks cob husk ear + 1 leaf ear leaf. This study indicated that the exogenous N supplied via stem-injection, was incorporated into all the measured plant parts, although not uniformly. The distribution of the injected 15N was affected both by the proximity of sinks to the point of injection and the strength of the various sinks

  18. Isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from the lung of a goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, F; Musarella, R

    2009-09-18

    This report describes the first isolation of Moellerella wisconsensis from the lung of a goat in Italy and represents the fourth isolation of this rare enterobacterial species from non-human sources reported in the literature. In fact, since its first isolation, M. wisconsensis has only been described in a few other occasions and often in clinical samples associated with cases of human enteritis.

  19. Regulatory controls and slurry fracture injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusseault, M. B.; Bilak, R. A.

    1997-01-01

    The technological and regulatory framework necessary for the safe operation of solid waste disposal using slurry fracture injection (SFI) in Saskatchewan and Alberta was studied. Seven current SFI sites were used as the source of experience. Regular audits of volumes, continuous pressure recording, careful deformation monitoring and analysis, and repeated evaluation of reservoir properties were considered to be the essential features. In the case of toxic wastes, microseismic monitoring and regular well interference or tracer tests might be additional measures used to increase confidence in the containment method. Given the recent introduction of SFI technology, guarding against over-regulation was recommended to allow SFI to operate under the most effective operating conditions, and to preserve its attractiveness as an environmentally attractive and safe waste disposal alternative. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  20. Injection locking of optomechanical oscillators via acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani

    2018-04-02

    Injection locking is an effective technique for synchronization of oscillator networks and controlling the phase and frequency of individual oscillators. As such, exploring new mechanisms for injection locking of emerging oscillators is important for their usage in various systems. Here, we present the first demonstration of injection locking of a radiation pressure driven optomechanical oscillator (OMO) via acoustic waves. As opposed to previously reported techniques (based on pump modulation or direct application of a modulated electrostatic force), injection locking of OMO via acoustic waves does not require optical power modulation or physical contact with the OMO and it can be easily implemented on various platforms to lock different types of OMOs independent of their size and structure. Using this approach we have locked the phase and frequency of two distinct modes of a microtoroidal silica OMO to a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). We have characterized the behavior of the injection locked OMO with three acoustic excitation configurations and showed that even without proper acoustic impedance, matching the OMO can be locked to the PZT and tuned over 17 kHz with only -30 dBm of RF power fed to the PZT. The high efficiency, simplicity, and scalability of the proposed approach paves the road toward a new class of photonic systems that rely on synchronization of several OMOs to a single or multiple RF oscillators with applications in optical communication, metrology, and sensing. Beyond its practical applications, injection locking via acoustic waves can be used in fundamental studies in quantum optomechanics where thermal and optical isolation of the OMO are critical.