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Sample records for isolate microorganisms capable

  1. Isolation of microorganisms with capability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PATH )

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, M.C; Ramirez, N.E; Rueda, S.M; Sanchez, F.N

    1996-01-01

    This paper summarizes a work conducted on the isolation of microorganisms of contaminated sediments with a high percentage of hydrocarbons aromatic polynuclear (Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons, PAHS) The methodology involved two selection systems called fast route and slow route in which exposure periods and contaminant concentrations are the key determinants. The microorganisms isolated through the slow route system are more likely to be successful in degrading high molecular weight PAH'S. The six strains obtained through the fast route system were able to grow on low molecular weight PAH's showing preference towards the first four compounds of the sixteen demanded by the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)

  2. Ammonia production by ruminal microorganisms and enumeration, isolation, and characterization of bacteria capable of growth on peptides and amino acids from the sheep rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenlauer, S C P; McKain, N; Walker, N D; McEwan, N R; Newbold, C J; Wallace, R J

    2002-10-01

    Excessive NH(3) production in the rumen is a major nutritional inefficiency in ruminant animals. Experiments were undertaken to compare the rates of NH(3) production from different substrates in ruminal fluid in vitro and to assess the role of asaccharolytic bacteria in NH(3) production. Ruminal fluid was taken from four rumen-fistulated sheep receiving a mixed hay-concentrate diet. The calculated rate of NH(3) production from Trypticase varied from 1.8 to 19.7 nmol mg of protein(-1) min(-1) depending on the substrate, its concentration, and the method used. Monensin (5 micro M) inhibited NH(3) production from proteins, peptides, and amino acids by an average of 28% with substrate at 2 mg/ml, compared to 48% with substrate at 20 mg/ml (P = 0.011). Of the total bacterial population, 1.4% grew on Trypticase alone, of which 93% was eliminated by 5 micro M monensin. Many fewer bacteria (0.002% of the total) grew on amino acids alone. Nineteen isolates capable of growth on Trypticase were obtained from four sheep. 16S ribosomal DNA and traditional identification methods indicated the bacteria fell into six groups. All were sensitive to monensin, and all except one group (group III, similar to Atopobium minutum), produced NH(3) at >250 nmol min(-1) mg of protein(-1), depending on the medium, as determined by a batch culture method. All isolates had exopeptidase activity, but only group III had an apparent dipeptidyl peptidase I activity. Groups I, II, and IV were most closely related to asaccharolytic ruminal and oral Clostridium and Eubacterium spp. Group V comprised one isolate, similar to Desulfomonas piger (formerly Desulfovibrio pigra). Group VI was 95% similar to Acidaminococcus fermentans. Growth of the Atopobium- and Desulfomonas-like isolates was enhanced by sugars, while growth of groups I, II, and V was significantly depressed by sugars. This study therefore demonstrates that different methodologies and different substrate concentrations provide an explanation

  3. Isolation and characterization of Arctic microorganisms decomposing bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek, Aneta K; Rymowicz, Waldemar; Strzelecki, Mateusz C; Kociuba, Waldemar; Franczak, Łukasz; Mirończuk, Aleksandra M

    2017-12-01

    The increasing amount of plastic waste causes significant environmental pollution. In this study, screening of Arctic microorganisms which are able to degrade bioplastics was performed. In total, 313 microorganisms were isolated from 52 soil samples from the Arctic region (Spitsbergen). Among the isolated microorganisms, 121 (38.66%) showed biodegradation activity. The ability of clear zone formation on emulsified poly(butylene succinate-co-adipate) (PBSA) was observed for 116 microorganisms (95.87%), on poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) for 73 microorganisms (60.33%), and on poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) for 102 microorganisms (84.3%). Moreover, the growth of microorganisms on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) agar plates was observed for 56 microorganisms (46.28%). Based on the 16S rRNA sequence, 10 bacterial strains which showed the highest ability for biodegradation were identified as species belonging to Pseudomonas sp. and Rhodococcus sp. The isolated fungal strains were tested for polycaprolactone films and commercial corn and potato starch bags degradation under laboratory conditions. Strains 16G (based on the analysis of a partial 18S rRNA sequence, identified as Clonostachys rosea) and 16H (identified as Trichoderma sp.) showed the highest capability for biodegradation. A particularly high capability for biodegradation was observed for the strain Clonostachys rosea, which showed 100% degradation of starch films and 52.91% degradation of PCL films in a 30-day shake flask experiment. The main advantage of the microorganisms isolated from Arctic environment is the ability to grow at low temperature and efficient biodegradation under this condition. The data suggest that C. rosea can be used in natural and laboratory conditions for degradations of bioplastics.

  4. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of microorganisms isolated from smoked and frozen fishes sold in Benin and Warri metropolis were investigated. Adopting microbiological standard techniques, the results of the bacterial counts and fungal counts ranged from 5.4 x 106 (Ekpan market) to 25.1 x 106 (Ekpan market) and 1.1 x 105 ...

  5. Identification of selected microorganisms from activated sludge capable of benzothiazole and benzotriazole transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Felis, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Benzothiazole (BT) and benzotriazole (BTA) are present in the environment - especially in urban and industrial areas, usually as anthropogenic micropollutants. BT and BTA have been found in the municipal and industrial wastewater, rivers, soil, groundwater, sediments and sludge. The origins of those substances' presence in the environment are various industry branches (food, chemical, metallurgical, electrical), households and surface runoff from industrial areas. Increasingly strict regulations on water quality and the fact that the discussed compounds are poorly biodegradable, make them a serious problem in the environment. Considering this, it is important to look for environmentally friendly and socially acceptable ways to remove BT and BTA. The aim of this study was to identify microorganisms capable of BT and BTA transformation or/and degradation in aquatic environment. Selected microorganisms were isolated from activated sludge. The identification of microorganisms capable of BT and BTA removal was possible using molecular biology techniques (PCR, DNA sequencing). Among isolated microorganisms of activated sludge are bacteria potentially capable of BT and BTA biotransformation and/or removal. The most common bacteria capable of BT and BTA transformation were Rhodococcus sp., Enterobacter sp., Arthrobacter sp. They can grow in a medium with BT and BTA as the only carbon source. Microorganisms previously adapted to the presence of the studied substances at a concentration of 10 mg/l, showed a greater rate of growth of colonies on media than microorganisms unconditioned to the presence of such compounds. Results of the biodegradation test suggest that BT was degraded to a greater extent than BTA, 98-100% and 11-19%, respectively.

  6. Biogenic amines degradation by microorganisms isolated from cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Butor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of microorganisms able to degrade biogenic amines and their identification. Individual microorganisms were obtained by isolation from commercially available foodstuffs and food produced in the technological laboratories of Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín and subsequently identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The results of MALDI-TOF MS identification were verified by 16S rRNA sequenation. In this work was studied the ability of 5 bacterial strains positive to biogenic amines degradation isolated from dairy products to decrease biogenic amines content in vitro and quantified reduction in the concentration of biogenic amines tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and tyramine. The level of degradation (decrease of biogenic amines was determined on the base of the ability to grow in media with biogenic amines as the sole source carbon and nitrogen. The isolated strains with the ability of degradation of one or more biogenic amines were cultured in medium supplemented with relevant biogenic amines, the media derivatized with dansyl chloride and these amines separated by HPLC at a wavelength of 254 nm. From five tested strains identified as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Enterobacter cloacae, Rhizobium radiobacter and Acinetobacter pitii, isolated from gouda type cheese, the greatest ability of degradation was observed in Bacillus subtilis, which was capable to degrade almost all amount of histamine, cadaverine and putrescine. Other four strains showed a lower rate of degradation than Bacillus subtilis, but the ability to degrade biogenic amines with these microorganisms was still significant.

  7. Antibiotic cytotoxic effects of microorganisms isolated from Jachymov uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuska, J.; Fuskova, A.

    1982-01-01

    Microorganisms were isolated from old relinquished uranium mines in Jachymov; they had been growing for several decades in darkness in temperatures of 5 to 12 degC and relative humidity from 80 to 100%. The concentration of uranium salts in mine waters varied from 10 -4 to 10 -5 g.l -1 , that of Rn in the atmosphere was from 0.04 to 40 Bq.l -1 . Of 324 cultures, 18.8% inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Candida pseudotropicalis and 16.6% that of HeLa cells. The frequency of microorganisms inhibiting the growth of HeLa or Ehrlich ascites cells was markedly higher in this set of cultures than among microorganisms kept in culture collections or isolated from other natural habitats. About 10% of the isolated cultures were mycelia sterilia. The following antibiotics were isolated from microorganisms obtained from uranium mines: frequentin, vermiculin, vermicillin, vermistatin, cytostipin and duclauxin. (author)

  8. Isolation and screening of microorganisms from a gari fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isolation and screening of microorganisms from a gari fermentation process for starter culture development. Vinodh A Edward, Moutairou Egounlety, Melanie Huch, Petrus J Van Zyl, Suren Singh, Naledzani D Nesengani, Vetja M Haakuria, Charles MAP Franz ...

  9. Isolation of microorganisms for biological control the moniliophthora roreri

    OpenAIRE

    suarez contreras, liliana yanet; Rangel Riaño, Alba Luz

    2014-01-01

    Moniliophlhora roreri is the causal agent of cocoa Moniliasis, which produces losses of up to 60% of the crop, as it affects only its commercial product, the cob. Biological control appears as an alternative management, using endophytic microorganisms. The reason because of this research came up was that it was aimed to isolate microorganisms with antagonist potential for biological control towards the phytopathogen M. roreri in Norte de Santander. This is done through isolation and identifica...

  10. Rate of biodegradation of crude oil by microorganisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of biodegradation of crude oil by micro-organisms isolated from crude oil sludge environment in Eket, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria was studied. Mineral salt medium supplemented with crude oil was used and three most abundant species isolated from a crude oil sludged soil - Micrococcus varians, Bacillus subtilis ...

  11. Radiosensitivity of microorganisms isolated from radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazso, Lajos

    2001-01-01

    Bacteria are much more diverse in comparison with plants and animals. Among the huge diversity of bacteria there are microorganisms capable to grow at or adapt to extreme conditions. Some bacteria grow at temperature above 100 deg. C, other thrive in high salinity such as 20-30% NaCl, still others can live at pH lower than 2 or pH higher than 10 or exhibit high radioresistance. Due to accelerated disarmament and nuclear energy activities, large quantities of radioactive waste and nuclear fuel are being placed in storage areas. The awareness the microbial activity could potentially effect the performance of a system for geological disposal of radioactive waste gained acceptance in the early to middle 1980s, and as a result many countries considering developing programmes to study and quantify microbial effects in terms of their own particular disposal concept. A new research programme was launched in 1995, sponsored by the NATO Scientific Affairs Division, for studying microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in radioactive waste repositories and spent fuel storage area. Our programme concerns several major items that may have an influence on the mobility of radionuclides in direct and indirect ways thereby being important for the safety analysis. They are uptake and transport of radionuclides by microorganisms, diversity and distribution of subterranean bacteria in typical repository environments, environmental limitation and bacterial activity, effect of bacterial activity on the mobility of radionuclides, microbial gas production and consumption, bacterial recombination of hydrogen and oxygen from radiolysis, and microbially induced corrosion of waste canister. The Permian Boda Claystone Formation in the Mecsek Hill area is being considered for high level waste disposal. Groundwater, technical water, rock and surface samples were collected aseptically from different depths. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of aerobic and anaerobe isolates were

  12. Antibiotic cytotoxic effects of microorganisms isolated from Jachymov uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuska, J.; Fuskova, A. (Slovenska Vysoka Skola Technicka, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Chemickotechnologicka Fakulta); Jilek, R. (Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia))

    1982-01-01

    Microorganisms were isolated from old relinquished uranium mines in Jachymov; they had been growing for several decades in darkness in temperatures of 5 to 12 degC and relative humidity from 80 to 100%. The concentration of uranium salts in mine waters varied from 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -5/ g.l/sup -1/, that of Rn in the atmosphere was from 0.04 to 40 Bq.l/sup -1/. Of 324 cultures, 18.8% inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Candida pseudotropicalis and 16.6% that of HeLa cells. The frequency of microorganisms inhibiting the growth of HeLa or Ehrlich ascites cells was markedly higher in this set of cultures than among microorganisms kept in culture collections or isolated from other natural habitats. About 10% of the isolated cultures were mycelia sterilia. The following antibiotics were isolated from microorganisms obtained from uranium mines: frequentin, vermiculin, vermicillin, vermistatin, cytostipin and duclauxin.

  13. Isolation and identification of the microorganisms most prevalent in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infections of the external eye account for a significant percentage of ocular inflammations, some of which lead to visual losses as result of corneal involvement. This study purely isolated and identified the microorganisms most prevalent in external eye infections in Owerri urban (as seen Mercy Eye clinic). With the aid of ...

  14. Color-Removal by Microorganisms Isolated from Human Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Ito

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are essential for human life. Microorganisms decompose the carbon compounds in dead animals and plants and convert them into carbon dioxide. Intestinal bacteria assist in food digestion. Some vitamins are produced by bacteria that live in the intestines. Sewage and industrial wastewater are treated by activated sludge composed of microbial communities. All of these are due to the ability of microbes to produce many enzymes that can degrade chemicals. How do teachers make students understand that microorganisms are always associated with humans, and that microorganisms have the ability to degrade chemicals? The presence of microorganisms on humans can be shown by incubating agar plates after they are touched by the hands of students. The ability of microorganisms to degrade chemicals can be shown by an analytical measurement of the degradation of chemicals. When the chemicals are dyes (colorants in water, microbial activity on degradation of dyes can be demonstrated by observing a decreasing degree of color as a result of the enzymatic activity (e.g., azoreductase. Dyes are widely used in the textile, food, and cosmetic industries. They are generally resistant to conventional biological wastewater treatment systems such as the activated sludge process (4. The discharge of wastewater containing dye pollutes surface water. The ability of microorganisms to decolorize and degrade dyes has been widely investigated to use for bioremediation purposes (5. The goal of this tip is to understand the presence of bacteria on human skin and the ability of bacteria to degrade colorant chemicals (decolorization. In this tip, students first cultivate and isolate bacteria on their hands, and then examine potential decolorization activity of each bacterium by observing the degree of color of the liquid in tubes in which bacteria isolated from students’ hands were inoculated. Decolorization activity of bacterial isolates from human skin has been

  15. Isolation of Electrogenic Microorganisms with Potential to Reduce Hexavalent Chromium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mora Collazos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolation of cultivable microorganisms was made from the biofilm formed on the anode of a microbial fuel cell put into operation for 30 days; isolated microorganisms were evaluated for their ability to produce energy and reduce the hexavalent chromium Cr (VI. Five microorganisms were isolated, which were characterized by analysis of 16S rRNA gene, placing them in four bacterial genera: Exiguobacterium (CrMFC1, Acinetobacter (CrMFC2, Aeromonas (CrMFC3 and CrMFC5 and Serratia (CrMFC4. All isolates showed electrogenic activity and ability to reduce hexavalent chromium; the Acinetobacter CrMFC1 strain showed the best electrochemical performance registering a maximum power density of 18.61 mW/m2; the other strains showed values of maximum power density between 4.6 mW/m2and 7.1 mW/m2. Strains Aeromonas CrMFC5 and Exiguobacterium CrMFC1 showed the best rates of chromium reduction being able to reduce 100 % of the Cr (VI in less than 24 hours, the Aeromonas CrMFC5 strain was the most efficient, reducing 100 % of Cr (VI in 10 hours; the other strains reduced 100% of the contaminant after 28 to 30 hours. The microorganisms isolated in this study are hardly known for their electrogenic capacity and for reducing Cr (VI; however, show promise for their use in combined systems involving energy production system coupled to bioremediation of chromium contaminated water.

  16. Antibacterial Effect of Copper on Microorganisms Isolated from Bovine Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Jara, Angelica; Cordero, Ninoska; Aguirre, Juan; Troncoso, Miriam; Figueroa, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    The antimicrobial properties of copper have been recognized for several years; applying these properties to the prevention of diseases such as bovine mastitis is a new area of research. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of copper on bacteria isolated from subclinical and clinical mastitis milk samples from two regions in Chile. A total of 327 microorganisms were recovered between March and September 2013, with different prevalence by sample origin (25 and 75% from the central and southern regions of Chile, respectively). In the central region, Escherichia coli and coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the most frequently detected in clinical mastitis cases (33%), while in the southern region S. uberis, S. aureus, and CNS were detected with frequencies of 22, 21, and 18%, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility studies revealed that 34% of isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the resistance profile was different between bacterial species and origins of isolation of the bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration of copper (MIC-Cu) was evaluated in all the isolates; results revealed that a concentration as low as 250 ppm copper was able to inhibit the great majority of microorganisms analyzed (65% of isolates). The remaining isolates showed a MIC-Cu between 375 and 700 ppm copper, and no growth was observed at 1000 ppm. A linear relationship was found between the logarithm of viable bacteria number and time of contact with copper. With the application of the same concentration of copper (250 ppm), CNS showed the highest tolerance to copper, followed by S. uberis and S. aureus; the least resistant was E. coli. Based on these in vitro results, copper preparations could represent a good alternative to dipping solutions, aimed at preventing the presence and multiplication of potentially pathogenic microorganisms involved in bovine mastitis disease. PMID:27199953

  17. Characterization of Microorganisms Isolated from Petroleum Hydrocarbon Polluted Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Criste

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bioremediation has received a great deal of attention, and bacteria isolated from polluted soil can be usedin that process. In this study, we performed an evaluation of the physiological groups of microorganisms fromsoil contaminated with petroleum. Bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated soil using the selectiveenrichment technique. Minimal Salt Media was used for serial dilutions to determine viable cell count. Thenumber of total viable cells and different types of microorganisms in the original sample was determined by serialdilution, agar plating procedure using selective media. The plates were incubated at 300C for 24-72 hours. Distinctcolonies growing on each plate were selected, and stored at freezing temperatures. The bacterial colonies werethen identified by Gram staining and biochemical tests. Following our research, it was observed that although thetotal microbial load of soil is relatively close in value, there are differences regarding the physiological group ofmicroorganisms. In the oil contaminated soil sample the largest group of microorganisms was the nitrous nitrifyingbacteria followed by nitrate bacteria. All bacterial strains that were isolated from soil samples contaminated withhydrocarbons but also the Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus subtillis strains can use diesel fuel as a food source.With the increase of diesel fuel concentration from culture medium, the majority of the bacterial strains that wereused in our experiments showed an increased value of absorbance. This fact suggests that these strains can be usedin bioremediation processes.

  18. Study of capability of microorganisms to develop on construction materials used in space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, N.; Svistunova, Y.; Novikova, N.

    One of the most topical issues nowadays in the whole set of space research is the study of microbiological risks (medical, technical, technological). Experiments held onboard MIR station and International Space Station (ISS) clearly demonstrated capacity of microorganisms to contaminate the environment, equipment and belonging of habitual compartments of space objects. In this connection microorganisms-biodestructors play an important role. In their vital functioning they are capable of causing biological damage of different polymers, biocorrosion of metals which can lead to serious difficulties in performing long-term flights, namely the planned mission to Mars. Our purpose was to study capability of growth and reproduction of microorganisms on construction materials of various chemical composition as the first stage of biodestruction process. In our research we used "flight" strains of bacteria (Bacillus subtilus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas pumilus etc.) recovered from the ISS environment in several missions. For control we used "earth" bacteria species with typical properties. To model the environment of the ISS we took construction materials which are widely used in the interior and equipment of the ISS. The results we've obtained show that some microorganisms are capable of living and reproducing themselves on construction materials and their capability is more pronounced than that of the "earth" species. The best capability for growth and reproduction was characteristic of Bacillus subtilus.

  19. Isolation of microorganisms from red pepper powder and their radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, E H; Kim, Y B; Lee, S R [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1977-01-01

    From samples of red pepper powder sold in Korea were isolated and identified 13 species of molds (Aspergillus amsteodami, Asp. chevalieri, Asp. clavatus, Asp. Flavus, Asp. janus var. effusus, Asp. oryzae, Asp. oryzae var. brevis, Asp. repens, Asp. sydowi, Asp. thomii, Asp. tubingensis, Penicillium thomii, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) and 5 species of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus, Bac. subtilis, Micrococus luteus, M. varians, Staphylococcus aureus). Radiosensitivity of these microorganisms was examined to give D/sub 10/ values of 14-41 krad for molds, 11-24 krad for bacterial vegetative cells and 190-250 krad for bacterial spores. The red pepper powder was contaminated with 2-3x10/sup 2/ mold counts/g and 3-6x10/sup 7/ bacterial counts/g, which would be sufficiently destroyed by irradiating 200 krad r-rays.

  20. Isolation of microorganisms from red pepper powder and their radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.H.; Kim, Y.B.; Lee, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    From samples of red pepper powder sold in Korea were isolated and identified 13 species of molds (Aspergillus amsteodami, Asp. chevalieri, Asp. clavatus, Asp. Flavus, Asp. janus var. effusus, Asp. oryzae, Asp. oryzae var. brevis, Asp. repens, Asp. sydowi, Asp. thomii, Asp. tubingensis, Penicillium thomii, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) and 5 species of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus, Bac. subtilis, Micrococus luteus, M. varians, Staphylococcus aureus). Radiosensitivity of these microorganisms was examined to give D 10 values of 14-41 krad for molds, 11-24 krad for bacterial vegetative cells and 190-250 krad for bacterial spores. The red pepper powder was contaminated with 2-3x10 2 mold counts/g and 3-6x10 7 bacterial counts/g, which would be sufficiently destroyed by irradiating 200 krad r-rays. (Author)

  1. Adsorption of aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and ochratoxin A by microorganisms isolated from Kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheur, Fadia Ben; Fedhila, Kais; Chaieb, Kamel; Kouidhi, Bochra; Bakhrouf, Amina; Abrunhosa, Luís

    2017-06-19

    A strategy to reduce the deleterious effects of mycotoxins is to use dietary supplements that contain microorganisms that bind mycotoxins and decrease their gastrointestinal absorption. Novel strains were isolated from a Kefir culture and assessed for their mycotoxin adsorption and biotransformation ability. The most active strains were identified using DNA sequencing, and the stability of microorganism/mycotoxin complexes was evaluated using buffer solutions to simulate the pH conditions in the gastrointestinal tract. Our results showed that the microorganism consortium of Kefir grains adsorbed 82 to 100% of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) when cultivated in milk. The main strains that were capable of mycotoxin adsorption were identified as Lactobacillus kefiri, Kazachstania servazzii and Acetobacter syzygii. The strain L. kefiri KFLM3 was the most active, adsorbing 80 to 100% of the studied mycotoxins when cultivated in milk. Nonetheless, the strain K. servazzii KFGY7 retained more mycotoxin after the desorption experiments (65, 69 and 67% for AFB1, OTA and ZEA, respectively). These findings suggest that Kefir consumption may help to reduce gastrointestinal absorption of these mycotoxins and consequently reduce their toxic effects. The isolated strains may be of interest for the development of fermented dairy products for human consumption that have a new probiotic characteristic, the adsorption of mycotoxins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiation-resistant micro-organisms isolated from textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristensen, H.; Christensen, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    Towels from private homes and public offices and underwear contaminated by being used by employees at a public health laboratory were examined for occurrence of radiation-resistant bacteria and fungi. Three different methods were used for isolation of the most resistant organisms, one with multiplication of the microbial population prior to an irradiation used for selection, and two witout this multiplication and with the organisms placed on membrane filters or in situ on the textiles, respectively. A total of 44 different strains were isolated. Differences in the three methods used for selection of the most radiation-resistant microorganisms were not reflected in the results. 16 pigmentproducing Gram-positive cocci, tentatively classified as Micrococcus radiodurans, were the most radiation-resistant and were isolated in about half of the examinations. Other Gram-positive cocci, nonspore forming rods, some Nocardia and Candida parapsilosis strains and two Bacillus strains constituted the rest of the collection. With few exceptions dose-response curves for the strains were upward convex. D-6 values determined to be between 1.5 megarad for the most radiation sensitive, a Candida, and 5.7 megarad for the most resistant, tentatively classified as M. radiodurans. The D-6 values for the Bacillus strains were in both cases 1.8 megarad, consistent with a D-value of 0.3 megarad. The same resistance is reported to be the maximum resistance for B. pumilus, strain E601, commonly used as reference strain in the literature on radiation sterilization of medical devices and supplies. (author)

  3. Radiation-resistant micro-organisms isolated from textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristensen, H; Christensen, E A [Statens Seruminstitut, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1981-01-01

    Towels from private homes and public offices and underwear contaminated by being used by employees at a public health laboratory were examined for occurrence of radiation-resistant bacteria and fungi. Three different methods were used for isolation of the most resistant organisms, one with multiplication of the microbial population prior to an irradiation used for selection, and two witout this multiplication and with the organisms placed on membrane filters or in situ on the textiles, respectively. A total of 44 different strains were isolated. Differences in the three methods used for selection of the most radiation-resistant microorganisms were not reflected in the results. 16 pigmentproducing Gram-positive cocci, tentatively classified as Micrococcus radiodurans, were the most radiation-resistant and were isolated in about half of the examinations. Other Gram-positive cocci, nonspore forming rods, some Nocardia and Candida parapsilosis strains and two Bacillus strains constituted the rest of the collection. With few exceptions dose-response curves for the strains were upward convex. D-6 values determined to be between 1.5 megarad for the most radiation sensitive, a Candida, and 5.7 megarad for the most resistant, tentatively classified as M. radiodurans. The D-6 values for the Bacillus strains were in both cases 1.8 megarad, consistent with a D-value of 0.3 megarad. The same resistance is reported to be the maximum resistance for B. pumilus, strain E601, commonly used as reference strain in the literature on radiation sterilization of medical devices and supplies.

  4. Assessment of impact of culture conditions on capability of wastewater's microorganisms to flocculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il'inskiy V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater is one of the significant sources of pollution of the aquatic ecosystems of the Kola North. Sewage coming to the ground waters, surface waters and near shore marine basin have a complex negative impact on the biocenosis of water objects. Considering the fact that basin self-purification process in climatic environment of the Far North is slow, it seems to be current problem to research influence of external factors on the native microorganisms involved in the biological transformation of most pollutants. Along with oxygenizing activity microorganisms are able to accumulate pollutant in the cells and to form floccules. As a result, microorganisms fix the dissolved contaminants that may be mechanically derived from water. Using the data on the chemical makeup of some urban and domestic sewage, nutrient media have been developed where microorganisms isolated from effluents have been cultivated. As major characteristics of the cultivation media affecting the intensity and direction of metabolic processes in microorganisms, the ratios C / N, C / P and N / P have been chosen. Intensity growth of bacteria in experimental nutrient media has been studied and the flocculating activity of bacterial suspensions has been determined. The rate of these microorganisms (Pseudomonas spp. and cultures of bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family average has been 70∙103 and 117∙103 cells/h respectively. The growth rate of each culture on different composition nutrient media has varied within three orders, and has correlated with the relative content of phosphates in the nutrient media. The flocculating potential does not depend on the ratio of biogenic elements C / N, C / P and N / P. Both cultures have shown the ability to precipitate suspended matter at the level of 50 % or more after cultivation on nutrient media similar in composition to habitat conditions.

  5. Diversity of microorganisms isolated from the soil sample surround Chroogomphus rutilus in the Beijing region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, P; Liu, Y; Yin, Y

    2011-01-01

    to isolate and classify beneficial microorganisms that could affect its growth, which could be used in future research on artificial cultivation. In total, 342 isolates were isolated from soil samples collected around a C. rutilus colony in the Beijing region. Of these, 22 bacterial and 14 fungal isolates...

  6. isolation and identification of the microorganisms most prevalent

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems presenting in eye clinics on a daily basis. With one or two ... microorganisms most prevalent in external eye infections in Owerri urban (as seen Mercy Eye clinic). With the aid of sterile .... through personal contacts. Consequently, the.

  7. Investigation and Isolation of Cellulase-Producing microorganisms in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Fatani, Siham

    2016-01-01

    Cellulolytic microorganisms are considered to be key players in biorefinery, especially for the utilization of plant biomass. These organisms have been isolated from various environments. The Red Sea is one of the seas with high biodiversity and a

  8. Identification of groundwater microorganisms capable of assimilating RDX-derived nitrogen during in-situ bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kun-Ching; Fuller, Mark E.; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a nitroamine explosive, is commonly detected in groundwater at military testing and training sites. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbial community capable of using nitrogen derived from the RDX or RDX intermediates during in situ bioremediation. Active groundwater microorganisms capable of utilizing nitro-, ring- or fully-labeled "1"5N-RDX as a nitrogen source were identified using stable isotope probing (SIP) in groundwater microcosms prepared from two wells in an aquifer previously amended with cheese whey to promote RDX biodegradation. A total of fifteen 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustered in Clostridia, β-Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes, were derived from the "1"5N-labeled DNA fractions, suggesting the presence of metabolically active bacteria capable of using RDX and/or RDX intermediates as a nitrogen source. None of the derived sequences matched RDX-degrading cultures commonly studied in the laboratory, but some of these genera have previously been linked to RDX degradation in site groundwater via "1"3C-SIP. When additional cheese whey was added to the groundwater samples, 28 sequences grouped into Bacteroidia, Bacilli, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria were identified. The data suggest that numerous bacteria are capable of incorporating N from ring- and nitro-groups in RDX during anaerobic bioremediation, and that some genera may be involved in both C and N incorporation from RDX. - Highlights: • Cheese whey addition resulted in 28 different clones associated with RDX degradation. • The 28 clones belong to Bacteroidia, Bacilli, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria. • SIP identified 15 clones using RDX and/or its metabolites as a nitrogen source. • The clones clustered in Clostridia, β-Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes

  9. Identification of groundwater microorganisms capable of assimilating RDX-derived nitrogen during in-situ bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kun-Ching [Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States); Fuller, Mark E.; Hatzinger, Paul B. [CB& I Federal Services, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (United States); Chu, Kung-Hui, E-mail: kchu@civil.tamu.edu [Zachry Department of Civil Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), a nitroamine explosive, is commonly detected in groundwater at military testing and training sites. The objective of this study was to characterize the microbial community capable of using nitrogen derived from the RDX or RDX intermediates during in situ bioremediation. Active groundwater microorganisms capable of utilizing nitro-, ring- or fully-labeled {sup 15}N-RDX as a nitrogen source were identified using stable isotope probing (SIP) in groundwater microcosms prepared from two wells in an aquifer previously amended with cheese whey to promote RDX biodegradation. A total of fifteen 16S rRNA gene sequences, clustered in Clostridia, β-Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes, were derived from the {sup 15}N-labeled DNA fractions, suggesting the presence of metabolically active bacteria capable of using RDX and/or RDX intermediates as a nitrogen source. None of the derived sequences matched RDX-degrading cultures commonly studied in the laboratory, but some of these genera have previously been linked to RDX degradation in site groundwater via {sup 13}C-SIP. When additional cheese whey was added to the groundwater samples, 28 sequences grouped into Bacteroidia, Bacilli, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria were identified. The data suggest that numerous bacteria are capable of incorporating N from ring- and nitro-groups in RDX during anaerobic bioremediation, and that some genera may be involved in both C and N incorporation from RDX. - Highlights: • Cheese whey addition resulted in 28 different clones associated with RDX degradation. • The 28 clones belong to Bacteroidia, Bacilli, and α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria. • SIP identified 15 clones using RDX and/or its metabolites as a nitrogen source. • The clones clustered in Clostridia, β-Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes.

  10. In vitro degradation of linamarin by microorganisms isolated from cassava wastewater treatment lagoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P Vasconcellos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at isolating and characterizing of microorganisms able to use linamarin as sole carbon source. Thirty one microbial strains were isolated from manipueira, a liquid effluent of cassava processing factories. Among these strains, Bacillus licheniformis (isolate 2_2 and Rhodotorulla glutinis (isolate L1 were able to degrade 71% and 95% of added linamarin, respectively, within 7 days, showing high biodegradation activity and great potential for detoxification of cassava processing wastewaters.

  11. Isolation and characterization of aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity in the gut of endogeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Kana; Yoshida, Seo

    2012-09-01

    The ability of earthworms to decompose lignocellulose involves the assistance of microorganisms in their digestive system. While many studies have revealed a diverse microbiota in the earthworm gut, including aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, it remains unclear which of these species contribute to lignocellulose digestion. In this study, aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity isolated from the gut of two endogeic earthworms, Amynthas heteropoda (Megascolecidae) and Eisenia fetida (Lumbricidae) were isolated by solid culture of gut homogenates using filter paper as a carbon source. A total of 48 strains, including four bacterial and four fungal genera, were isolated from two earthworm species. Characterization of these strains using enzyme assays showed that the most representative ones had exocellulase and xylanase activities, while some had weak laccase activity. These findings suggest that earthworms digest lignocellulose by exploiting microbial exocellulase and xylanase besides their own endocellulase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that among the cellulolytic isolates in both earthworm species Burkholderia and Chaetomium were the dominant bacterial and fungal members.

  12. Screening concepts for the isolation of biosurfactant producing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Vanessa; Syldatk, Christoph; Hausmann, Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of current methods for the isolation of biosurfactant producing microbes. The common screening methods for biosurfactants are presented. Sampling and isolation of bacteria are the basis for screening of biosurfactant producing microbes. Hydrocarbon-contaminated sites are the most promising for the isolation of biosurfactant producing microbes, but many strains have also been isolated from undisturbed sites. In subsequent steps the isolates have to be characterized in order to identify the strains which are interesting for a further investigation. Several techniques have been developed for identifying biosurfactant producing strains. Most of them are directly based on the surface or interfacial activity of the culture supernatant. Apart from that, some screening methods explore the hydrophobicity of the cell surface. This trait also gives an indication on biosurfactant production. In recent years automation and miniaturization have led to the development of high throughput methods for screening. High throughput screening (HTS) for analyzing large amounts of potential candidates or whole culture collections is reflected in the end. However, no new principals have been introduced by HTS methods.

  13. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Microorganisms Isolated from Orofacial Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan TOZOĞLU

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine an effective antimicrobial therapy ofcausative agents for orofacial abscesses. In order to do that, bacterial strains isolated from patientsamples were identified based on “bacterial fatty acid profiles” and determined the antimicrobialsusceptibilities by using disc diffusion test for aerobic bacteria, and E test for anaerobic bacteria.Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in 71 patients with a diagnosis oforofacial infections in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Atatürk University. Aerobic andanaerobic bacteria were isolated from 71 clinical specimens by Microbial Identification Systemand their antibiotic sensitivity was tested. Results: The most frequently isolated species were Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp.and Bacteroides spp. The highest rate of resistance was detected in the aerobic strains againstpenicillin (58.4%, followed by eriythromycin (46.7%, clindamycin (35.1%, tetracycline(32.5%, amoxycillin/clavulonic acid (31.1% and cefazoline (27.3%, respectively. The highestrate of resistance was detected in the anaerobic strains against to penicillin (60%, clindamycin(53.3%, metronidazole (30%, cefoxitin (20% piperacillin/tazobactam (11.6% and imipenem(0.3%, respectively. Conclusions: In order to treat orofacial infections more effectively, and to prevent antimicrobialresistance which has increased recently, antibiotic susceptility tests should be performedroutinely in regions where antibacterial resistance is high like our area.

  14. Radiation resistance of some microorganisms isolated from irradiated herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.; Shihab, A.; Farrag, H.A.; El-Sayed, Z.G.; Mahmoud, M.I.

    1997-01-01

    Three types of Egyptian medicinal herbs, sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were used in this study. The tested herbs were exposed to gamma radiation doses ranging from 1.0 to 10,0 kGy. The sublethal doses of radioresistant molds ranged from 1.0 to 2.0 kGy and the sublethal doses of radioresistant bacteria ranged from 7.0 to 8.0 kGy. The radioresistant molds isolated from sweet marjoram and spearmint herbs were identified as Aspergillus, whereas that isolated from thyme was identified as Aspergillus ochraceus. The radioresistant bacteria isolated from sweet marjoram, spearmint and thyme were identified as Bacillus megaterium, B.pantothenticus and B. brevis, respectively. All the radioresistant molds exhibited an exponential response. The D 15 v alue of Asp. ochraceus was 0.33 kGy, while that of Asp. niger were 0.45 and 0.5 kGy, respectively. All the bacterial species exhibited non-exponential response. The D 10 -values for B.megaterium, B. pantothenticus and B. brevis were found to be 2.58, 3.0 and 1.63 kGy, respectively

  15. Enhancement of Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluents by Local Isolated Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimaninanadegani, Mohammadreza; Manshad, Soheila

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the microorganisms associated with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Johor Bahru state, Malaysia. Biodegradation of palm oil mill effluents (POME) was conducted to measure the discarded POME based on physicochemical quality. The bacteria that were isolated are Micrococcus species, Bacillus species, Pseudomonas species, and Staphylococcus aureus, while the fungi that were isolated are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida species, Fusarium species, Mucor species, and Penicillium species. The autoclaved and unautoclaved raw POME samples were incubated for 7 days and the activities of the microorganisms were observed each 12 hours. The supernatants of the digested POME were investigated for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color (ADMI), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at the end of each digestion cycle. The results showed that the unautoclaved raw POME sample degraded better than the inoculated POME sample and this suggests that the microorganisms that are indigenous in the POME are more effective than the introduced microorganisms. This result, however, indicates the prospect of isolating indigenous microorganisms in the POME for effective biodegradation of POME. Moreover, the effective treatment of POME yields useful products such as reduction of BOD, COD, and color.

  16. Enhancement of Biodegradation of Palm Oil Mill Effluents by Local Isolated Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimaninanadegani, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the microorganisms associated with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in Johor Bahru state, Malaysia. Biodegradation of palm oil mill effluents (POME) was conducted to measure the discarded POME based on physicochemical quality. The bacteria that were isolated are Micrococcus species, Bacillus species, Pseudomonas species, and Staphylococcus aureus, while the fungi that were isolated are Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida species, Fusarium species, Mucor species, and Penicillium species. The autoclaved and unautoclaved raw POME samples were incubated for 7 days and the activities of the microorganisms were observed each 12 hours. The supernatants of the digested POME were investigated for the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), color (ADMI), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) at the end of each digestion cycle. The results showed that the unautoclaved raw POME sample degraded better than the inoculated POME sample and this suggests that the microorganisms that are indigenous in the POME are more effective than the introduced microorganisms. This result, however, indicates the prospect of isolating indigenous microorganisms in the POME for effective biodegradation of POME. Moreover, the effective treatment of POME yields useful products such as reduction of BOD, COD, and color. PMID:27433516

  17. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS DURING SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF MAIZE [Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mikroorganisme pada Fermentasi Spontan Jagung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati1,2

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize was traditionally the second most common staple food in Indonesia. Conversion to maize flour has been accomplished to improve its convenience. Traditionally, maize flour is produced by soaking the kernels in water followed by grinding. It was reported that final physicochemical characteristics of the maize flour were influenced by spontaneous fermentation which occurred during soaking. This research aimed to isolate and identify important microorganisms that grew during fermentation thus a standardized starter culture can be developed for a more controlled fermentation process. Soaking of maize grits was conducted in sterile water (grits:water=1:2, w/v in a closed container at room temperature (±28ºC for 72 hours. After 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 hours, water and maize grits were sampled and tested for the presence of mold, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Isolates obtained from the spontaneous fermentation were reinoculated into the appropriate media containing starch to observe their amylolytic activity. Individual isolate was then identified; mold by slide culture method, while yeast and LAB by biochemical rapid kits, i.e. API 20C AUX and API CH50, respectively. The number of each microorganism was plotted against time to obtain the growth curve of the microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation. The microorganisms were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, A. flavus, A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, R.oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Acremonium strictum, Candida famata, Kodamaea ohmeri, Candida krusei/incospicua, Lactobacillus plantarum 1a, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. brevis 1, L. plantarum 1b, and L. paracasei ssp paracasei 3. Four molds and one yeast were amylolytic while none of the LAB was capable of starch hydrolysis. The growth curve suggested that the amylolitic mold and yeast grew to hydrolyze starch during the course of fermentation, while the LABs benefited from the hydrolyzed products and dominated the later

  18. Hydrocarbon-degrading Capability of Bacteria isolated from a Maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrocarbon-degrading Capability of Bacteria isolated from a Maize-Planted, Kerosene-contaminated Ilorin Alfisol. ... also revealed that some bacteria survive and even thrive in kerosene contaminated soil and hence have the potential to be used in biodegradation and/or bioremediation of oil contaminated soils and water.

  19. Dissimilatory Sb(V) reduction by microorganisms isolated from Sb-contaminated sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovick, M. A.; Kulp, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    this isolate exhibited Sb(V)-dependent heterotrophic growth. These results suggest that the endogenous microbial community from this Sb-contaminated site includes anaerobic microorganisms capable of obtaining energy for growth by oxidizing heterotrophic electron donors using Sb(V) as the terminal electron acceptor. Ongoing work includes identification of the isolated organism using 16S rDNA phylogenetic markers as well as an inventory of known functional genes (e.g., arrA) within this isolate that may more typically encode for As(V)-reduction. These results elucidate the potentially significant role of microbiological transformations in controlling the speciation of Sb in the environment, and may help to identify potential bioremediation strategies for Sb contaminated waters.

  20. Isolation of microorganisms involved in reduction of crystalline iron(III) oxides in natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Tomoyuki; Aoyagi, Tomo; Itoh, Hideomi; Narihiro, Takashi; Oikawa, Azusa; Suzuki, Kiyofumi; Ogata, Atsushi; Friedrich, Michael W; Conrad, Ralf; Kamagata, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Reduction of crystalline Fe(III) oxides is one of the most important electron sinks for organic compound oxidation in natural environments. Yet the limited number of isolates makes it difficult to understand the physiology and ecological impact of the microorganisms involved. Here, two-stage cultivation was implemented to selectively enrich and isolate crystalline iron(III) oxide reducing microorganisms in soils and sediments. Firstly, iron reducers were enriched and other untargeted eutrophs were depleted by 2-years successive culture on a crystalline ferric iron oxide (i.e., goethite, lepidocrocite, hematite, or magnetite) as electron acceptor. Fifty-eight out of 136 incubation conditions allowed the continued existence of microorganisms as confirmed by PCR amplification. High-throughput Illumina sequencing and clone library analysis based on 16S rRNA genes revealed that the enrichment cultures on each of the ferric iron oxides contained bacteria belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria (mainly Geobacteraceae), followed by Firmicutes and Chloroflexi, which also comprised most of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified. Venn diagrams indicated that the core OTUs enriched with all of the iron oxides were dominant in the Geobacteraceae while each type of iron oxides supplemented selectively enriched specific OTUs in the other phylogenetic groups. Secondly, 38 enrichment cultures including novel microorganisms were transferred to soluble-iron(III) containing media in order to stimulate the proliferation of the enriched iron reducers. Through extinction dilution-culture and single colony isolation, six strains within the Deltaproteobacteria were finally obtained; five strains belonged to the genus Geobacter and one strain to Pelobacter. The 16S rRNA genes of these isolates were 94.8-98.1% identical in sequence to cultured relatives. All the isolates were able to grow on acetate and ferric iron but their physiological characteristics differed considerably in

  1. Characterization of cefalexin degradation capabilities of two Pseudomonas strains isolated from activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bokun; Lyu, Jinling; Lyu, Xian-jin; Yu, Han-qing; Hu, Zhong; Lam, James C W; Lam, Paul K S

    2015-01-23

    Pharmaceuticals have recently been regarded as contaminants of emerging concern. To date, there is limited knowledge about antibiotic-degrading microorganisms in conventional activated sludge treatment systems and their characteristics toward antibiotic degradation especially in the presence of a pharmaceutical mixture. As such, antibiotic-degrading microorganisms were investigated and isolated from the activated sludge, and their degradation capabilities were evaluated. Two strains of cefalexin-degrading bacteria CE21 and CE22 were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas sp. in the collected activated sludge. Strain CE22 was able to degrade over 90% of cefalexin, while CE21 was able to remove 46.7% of cefalexin after incubation for 24h. The removal efficiency of cefalexin by CE22, different from that of CE21, was not significantly affected by an increase in cefalexin concentration, even up to 10ppm, however the presence of 1ppm of other pharmaceuticals had a significant effect on the degradation of cefalexin by CE22, but no significant effect on CE21. The degradation product of cefalexin by the two strains was identified to be 2-hydroxy-3-phenyl pyrazine. Our results also indicated that CE21 and CE22 were able to degrade caffeine, salicylic acid and chloramphenicol. Moreover, CE21 was found to be capable of eliminating sulfamethoxazole and naproxen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from Vaginal Infections at a Tertiary Hospital in Bangalore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalakshmi Narayana-Swamy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vagina contains dozens of microbiological species in variable quantities and is, therefore, considered a complex environment. Among the microorganisms, bacteria have important repercussions on women’s health. The present study was conducted especially to elucidate this type of vaginal isolates and their sensitivity towards currently used antibiotics. Methods: This was a retrospective study conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sapthagiri Hospital, Bangalore, India from January 2012 to December 2013. All symptomatic women who had a high vaginal swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing were included in this study. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using disc diffusion method (modified Kirby-Bauer method. The antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated microorganisms were studied. Results: Out of 200 patients, 95% had positive vaginal cultures. Fifteen types of microorganisms were isolated. The highest frequency of infection was observed at the age of 20-30 years, followed by 41-50 years and 31-40 years, and a low frequency of infection was observed above 50 years of age. The most prevalent pathogen was Escherichia coli, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae and diphtheroids with equal incidence. Among the antibiotics tested, isolated pathogens were completely resistant to nalidixic acid and highly sensitive to meropenem and imepenem. Conclusion: The high prevalence of gynaecological infections demands that patients with symptoms undergo thorough investigation with cultures and sensitivity essays. Changes in treatment protocols are required to treat vaginal infections effectively.

  3. Isolation of phyllosilicate-iron redox cycling microorganisms from an illite-smectite rich hydromorphic soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelobolina, Evgenya; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Benzine, Jason; Xiong, Mai Yia; Wu, Tao; Blöthe, Marco; Roden, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate-Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite-smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate-Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms. The abundance of phyllosilicate-Fe reducing and oxidizing organisms was low compared to culturable aerobic heterotrophs. Both direct isolation and dilution-to-extinction approaches using structural Fe(II) in Bancroft biotite as a Fe(II) source, and O(2) as the electron acceptor, resulted in recovery of common rhizosphere organisms including Bradyrhizobium spp. and strains of Cupriavidus necator and Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition to oxidizing biotite and soluble Fe(II) with O(2), each of these isolates was able to oxidize Fe(II) in reduced NAu-2 smectite with [Formula: see text] as the electron acceptor. Oxidized NAu-2 smectite or amorphous Fe(III) oxide served as electron acceptors for enrichment and isolation of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, resulting in recovery of a strain related to Geobacter toluenoxydans. The ability of the recovered microorganisms to cycle phyllosilicate-Fe was verified in an experiment with native Shovelers Sink clay. This study confirms that Fe in the native Shovelers Sink clay is readily available for microbial redox transformation and can be cycled by the Fe(III)-reducing and Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms recovered from the soil.

  4. Isolation of Phyllosilicate–Iron Redox Cycling Microorganisms from an Illite–Smectite Rich Hydromorphic Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelobolina, Evgenya; Konishi, Hiromi; Xu, Huifang; Benzine, Jason; Xiong, Mai Yia; Wu, Tao; Blöthe, Marco; Roden, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The biogeochemistry of phyllosilicate–Fe redox cycling was studied in a Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass) dominated redoximorphic soil from Shovelers Sink, a small glacial depression near Madison, WI. The clay size fraction of Shovelers Sink soil accounts for 16% of the dry weight of the soil, yet contributes 74% of total Fe. The dominant mineral in the clay size fraction is mixed layer illite–smectite, and in contrast to many other soils and sediments, Fe(III) oxides are present in low abundance. We examined the Fe biogeochemistry of Shovelers Sink soils, estimated the abundance of Fe redox cycling microorganisms, and isolated in pure culture representative phyllosilicate–Fe oxidizing and reducing organisms. The abundance of phyllosilicate–Fe reducing and oxidizing organisms was low compared to culturable aerobic heterotrophs. Both direct isolation and dilution-to-extinction approaches using structural Fe(II) in Bancroft biotite as a Fe(II) source, and O2 as the electron acceptor, resulted in recovery of common rhizosphere organisms including Bradyrhizobium spp. and strains of Cupriavidus necator and Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition to oxidizing biotite and soluble Fe(II) with O2, each of these isolates was able to oxidize Fe(II) in reduced NAu-2 smectite with NO3- as the electron acceptor. Oxidized NAu-2 smectite or amorphous Fe(III) oxide served as electron acceptors for enrichment and isolation of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms, resulting in recovery of a strain related to Geobacter toluenoxydans. The ability of the recovered microorganisms to cycle phyllosilicate–Fe was verified in an experiment with native Shovelers Sink clay. This study confirms that Fe in the native Shovelers Sink clay is readily available for microbial redox transformation and can be cycled by the Fe(III)-reducing and Fe(II)-oxidizing microorganisms recovered from the soil. PMID:22493596

  5. Isolation and Identification of Phototrophic Microorganisms from Rudkhan Castle as a Biodeteriorating Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Mohammadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phototrophic microorganisms are the first residents of different surfaces of ancient buildings’ walls. These organisms can expand to provide the colonization of other microorganisms and to form microbial biofilms. During biofilm growth, acids and metabolites production bore the substratum and cause surfaces damages. Rudkan Castle, the historic monument located in Gilan province, an area with a humid climate has an appropriate surfaces to grow these microorganisms. Materials and methods: In this study, morphological identification of algae and cyanobacteria which was isolated from different areas of the brick walls of Castle has been investigated. Samples were taken from 24 different areas of Castle walls and were aseptically cultured into Blue Green Medium (BGM and Bolds Basal Medium (BBM, and colonies were observed using light microscopy. Results: The dominant organisms which were isolated and identified, were Cladophora, Trentepohlia, Klebsormidium, Trebouxia, Pleurastrum, Chlorococcum as chlorophyta order and Scytonema, Tolypothrix, Leptolyngbya, Plectolyngbya, Phormidium, Gloeocapsa, Microcoleus, Nostoc as a cyanobacteria order. Discussion and conclusion: As expected, diversity of a large number of cyanobacteria and algae phototrophs was isolated. Diversity of organisms on the surface of monuments depends on many factors, including the weather condition such as moisture, the amount of radiation absorbed by the surface, temperature of area, the materials used in the monuments, the biological acceptance of surface and presence of variety of organisms in the soil surface and the air on. Study of destructive factors is the first step toward the protection and restoration of ancient monuments.

  6. Isolation of radioresistant microorganisms from a Co/sup 60/ irradiation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezcano, Graciela

    1982-01-01

    The continuos exposition to low doses of gamma irradiation can produce changes in the microflora's radioresistance. In order to obtain information about these possible modifications, the water from the pool used as shielding of the source, as well as the air and the dust in the irradiation chamber of the semi-industrial irradiation plant existing at the Ezeiza Atomic Center were analyzed. The number of microorganisms was determined by filtration techniques and by dilutions. Radioresistance studies of the contaminating microflora were performed. The value of the D/sub 10/ dose was determined in the conditions of highest resistance. A pronounced decrease in the number of microorganisms was observed as a radiation effect in the samples of water and dust, but not in the air samples, this as a consequence of the extractors' action that continually renews the air and the flora in the chamber, thus preventing high-dose exposure. In the air samples no increase of the microorganisms' radioresistance was observed. In the pool water flora, the development of a great radioresistance was observed. A microorganism whose inactivation curve shows a shoulder of 3.2 Mrad was isolated. This high radioresistance could be the result of the continous exposure to low doses during six years. Contrarily, the microorganims of the irradiation chamber's dust did not increase their radioresistance wiht regard to the common contaminants. In the flora of the dust used as a target, two microorganims whose D/sub 10/ were in excess of 400 krad were found; these could be ocassional contaminants. The radioresistant microorganims were isolated and characterized according to Cowan's scheme, the water microorganisms being identified as belonging to the genus Corynebacterium and the earth ones to the genera Micrococcus and Corynebacterium. (author) [es

  7. Isolation of microorganisms with chinitase, protease and keratinase activities from petroleum contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes-Gonzalez, E.; Rojas-Avelizapa, L.; Cruz-Camarillo, R.; Rojas-Avelizapa, N.G.

    2005-01-01

    The most important part in one process of bio-remediation are the microorganisms with the capacities to degrade target compounds, this research is based to find microorganisms hydrocarbon-clastic with enzyme activities to degrade chicken feather (keratinolytic activity) which is also a contaminant and has been used such as sorbent of petroleum and can be composted after the oil spill cleanup is complete, the isolation was also to degrade shrimp waste (chitinolitic and proteolitic activity) which is waste material that can be used in compost or such as sorbent of petroleum too. We isolated mesofilic aerobic microorganisms from mexican soils located in Tabasco, Mexico. We achieved to isolate 105 bacteria from 10 soils, 90% was Bacillus Gram (-) which are common in soils and all were hydrocarbon-clastic, only 7 different bacteria had protease and chitinase activity and 12 bacteria had keratinase activity. So we found three fungi and one actinomycete with capacity to degrade hydrocarbons and presence of chitinase activity. The results of growth and enzyme activities in liquid culture showed that the protease activity was produced between 18 and 48 h in almost all bacteria, the chitinase activity started at 12 h but was slight , only 0.5 U/ml, and the keratinase activity was produced after 6 h of incubation and there were correlation between logarithmic phase of growth and enzymes production. With this study we showed the existence of some enzyme activities from microorganisms that live in hostile habitats. This, can be useful in bio-treatment soils by the possible use of this type of residues that can be bio-degraded at the same time that the hydrocarbons increasing the speed or the quality of cleanup in soils. (authors)

  8. Diversity of biosurfactant producing microorganisms isolated from soils contaminated with diesel oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes Bento, Fátima; de Oliveira Camargo, Flavio A; Okeke, Benedict C; Frankenberger, William T

    2005-01-01

    Biosurfactant production is a desirable property of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (HDM). We characterized biosurfactant producing microbial populations from a Long Beach soil, California (USA) and a Hong Kong soil (China), contaminated with diesel oil. A total of 33 hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms were isolated from the soils. Twelve isolates and three defined consortia were tested for biosurfactant production and emulsification activity. The highest reduction of surface tension was achieved with a consortium of L1, L2 and L3 isolates from a Long Beach soil (41.4mN m(-1)). Isolate L1 (Acinetobacter junii) displayed the highest reduction of surface tension (46.5 mN m(-1)). The emulsifying capacity evaluated by the E24 emulsification index was highest in the culture of isolate L5 (74%). No substantial emulsification was achieved with the cell-free extracts, indicating that the emulsifying activity was not extracellular. Based on surface tension and the E24 index results, isolates F1, F2, F3, F4, L1, L2, L3 and L4 were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Bacillus cereus, Bacillus sphaericus, B. fusiformis, Acinetobacter junii, a non-cultured bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. and B. pumilus, respectively. Cluster analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the bacterial isolates revealed 70% similarity amongst hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial community present in both soils. Five isolates (isolates F1, F2, F3, F4 and L4) belong to the Firmicutes order, two isolates (L1 and L3) belong to the Proteobacteria order and one isolate (L2) is an Actinomyces sp. Simpson's index (1 - D) and the Shannon-Weaver index (H) revealed more diversity of HDM in the Hong Kong soil, while evenness (E) and the equitability (J) data indicated that there was not a dominant population. Bacterial isolates displaying substantial potential for production of biosurfactants can be applied in the bioremediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons.

  9. Isolation and characterization of microorganisms and volatiles associated with Moroccan saffron during different processing treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancello, Francesco; Petretto, Giacomo; Sanna, Maria Lina; Pintore, Giorgio; Lage, Mounira; Zara, Severino

    2018-05-20

    Saffron may be spoiled by a variety of microorganisms during cultivation, harvesting, and post harvesting. As saffron can be dried and stored in different ways, this preliminary study explored the natural microbiota present in Moroccan saffron when subjected to different drying techniques. An analysis of the carotenoid-derived volatiles present in the saffron was also carried out. The culturable microbiota of the saffron samples dried using different methods, namely in the shade (also called natural), in the sun, or in the oven, were studied using classical and molecular approaches. The effect of the drying methods on head-space chemical volatiles was also determined. Eighty-two isolates grown in the different culture media were chosen from the colonies, and genotype analysis grouped the microorganisms into 58 clusters, revealing a wide diversity. Out of the 82 isolates, 75 belonged to the Bacillaceae family. The other isolates were distributed within the Dietziaceae, Paenibacillaceae and Carnobacteriaceae families. The dominant species was Bacillus simplex, which was detected in all samples, regardless of the drying method used. Lysinibacillus macroides was dominant in the sun-dried saffron. No pathogens were isolated, but an isolate belonging to Dietzia maris, a potential human pathogenic species, was detected. The biodiversity indexes were linked to the drying method and generally decreased as the intensity of the treatment increased. The results of this preliminary work show that the different drying methods strongly influenced the microbiota and affect the saffron volatile profile. Further analysis will be needed to determine possible effects of selected microbiota on saffron volatiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation and Isolation of Cellulase-Producing microorganisms in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Fatani, Siham

    2016-05-01

    Cellulolytic microorganisms are considered to be key players in biorefinery, especially for the utilization of plant biomass. These organisms have been isolated from various environments. The Red Sea is one of the seas with high biodiversity and a unique environment, characterized by high water temperature and high salinity . However, there is little information regarding cellulases in Red Sea environments. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the Red Sea as a gene resource for microbial cellulase. I first surveyed microbial cellulases in the Red Sea using a method called metagenomes, and then investigated their abundance and diversity. My survey revealed that the Red Sea biome has a substantial abundance and a wide range of cellulase enzymes with substantial abundance, when compared with those in other environments. Next, I tried to isolate cellulase-active microorganisms from the Red Sea and I successfully obtained seven strains of four different taxonomic groups. These strains showed a similarity of 99% identity to Aspergillus ustus, 99% to Staphylococcus pasteuri, 99% to Bacillus aerius and 99% to Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme assay I conducted, revealed that these strains actually secreted active cellulases. These results suggest that the Red Sea environment can be, indeed, an excellent gene resource of microbial cellulases.

  11. Corrosion of aluminum alloy 2024 by microorganisms isolated from aircraft fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Christopher J; Perry, Thomas D; Leard, Ryan; Bearce, Ktisten; Dante, James; Mitchell, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Microorganisms frequently contaminate jet fuel and cause corrosion of fuel tank metals. In the past, jet fuel contaminants included a diverse group of bacteria and fungi. The most common contaminant was the fungus Hormoconis resinae. However, the jet fuel community has been altered by changes in the composition of the fuel and is now dominated by bacterial contaminants. The purpose of this research was to determine the composition of the microbial community found in fuel tanks containing jet propellant-8 (JP-8) and to determine the potential of this community to cause corrosion of aluminum alloy 2024 (AA2024). Isolates cultured from fuel tanks containing JP-8 were closely related to the genus Bacillus and the fungi Aureobasidium and Penicillium. Biocidal activity of the fuel system icing inhibitor diethylene glycol monomethyl ether is the most likely cause of the prevalence of endospore forming bacteria. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and metallographic analysis of AA2024 exposed to the fuel tank environment indicated that the isolates caused corrosion of AA2024. Despite the limited taxonomic diversity of microorganisms recovered from jet fuel, the community has the potential to corrode fuel tanks.

  12. Phylogenetic and physiological diversity of microorganisms isolated from a deep greenland glacier ice core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miteva, V. I.; Sheridan, P. P.; Brenchley, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    We studied a sample from the GISP 2 (Greenland Ice Sheet Project) ice core to determine the diversity and survival of microorganisms trapped in the ice at least 120,000 years ago. Previously, we examined the phylogenetic relationships among 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences in a clone library obtained by PCR amplification from genomic DNA extracted from anaerobic enrichments. Here we report the isolation of nearly 800 aerobic organisms that were grouped by morphology and amplified rDNA restriction analysis patterns to select isolates for further study. The phylogenetic analyses of 56 representative rDNA sequences showed that the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: the high-G+C gram-positives, low-G+C gram-positives, Proteobacteria, and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. The most abundant and diverse isolates were within the high-G+C gram-positive cluster that had not been represented in the clone library. The Jukes-Cantor evolutionary distance matrix results suggested that at least 7 isolates represent new species within characterized genera and that 49 are different strains of known species. The isolates were further categorized based on the isolation conditions, temperature range for growth, enzyme activity, antibiotic resistance, presence of plasmids, and strain-specific genomic variations. A significant observation with implications for the development of novel and more effective cultivation methods was that preliminary incubation in anaerobic and aerobic liquid prior to plating on agar media greatly increased the recovery of CFU from the ice core sample.

  13. Polymer Film-Based Screening and Isolation of Polylactic Acid (PLA)-Degrading Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Yeon; Kim, Changman; Moon, Jungheun; Heo, Jinhee; Jung, Sokhee P; Kim, Jung Rae

    2017-02-28

    Polylactic acid (PLA) has been highlighted as an alternative renewable polymer for the replacement of petroleum-based plastic materials, and is considered to be biodegradable. On the other hand, the biodegradation of PLA by terminal degraders, such as microorganisms, requires a lengthy period in the natural environment, and its mechanism is not completely understood. PLA biodegradation studies have been conducted using mainly undefined mixed cultures, but only a few bacterial strains have been isolated and examined. For further characterization of PLA biodegradation, in this study, the PLA-degrading bacteria from digester sludge were isolated and identified using a polymer film-based screening method. The enrichment of sludge on PLA granules was conducted with the serial transference of a subculture into fresh media for 40 days, and the attached biofilm was inoculated on a PLA film on an agar plate. 3D optical microscopy showed that the isolates physically degraded the PLA film due to bacterial degradation. 16S rRNA gene sequencing identified the microbial colonies to be Pseudomonas sp. MYK1 and Bacillus sp. MYK2. The two isolates exhibited significantly higher specific gas production rates from PLA biodegradation compared with that of the initial sludge inoculum.

  14. Isolation of amoebic-bacterial consortia capable of degrading trichloroethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyndall, R.L.; Ironside, K.; Little, C.D.; Katz, S.; Kennedy, J.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater from a waste disposal site contaminated with chlorinated alkenes was examined for the presence of amoebic-bacterial consortia capable of degrading the suspected carcinogen, trichloroethylene (TCE). Consortia were readily isolated from all of four test wells. They contained free-living amoebae, and heterotrophic and methylotrophic bacteria. Electron microscopic examination showed bacteria localized throughout the amoebic cytoplasm and an abundance of hyphomicrobium, but not Type I methanotrophs. The presence of Type II methanotrophs was indirectly indicated by lipid analysis of one consortium. The consortia have been passaged for over two years on mineral salts media in a methane atmosphere, which would not be expected to maintain the heterotrophs or amoebae separately. The methanotrophic bacteria apparently provided a stable nutrient source, allowing the persistence of the various genera. By use of 14 C-radiotracer techniques, the degradation of TCE by the consortia was observed with 14 C eventuating predominantly in CO 2 and water-soluble products. In a more detailed examination of one consortia, the amoebae and heterotrohic components did not degrade TCE, while a mixed culture of heterotrophs and methanotrophs did degrade TCE, suggesting the latter component was the primary cause for the consortium's ability to degrade TCE. Amoebic-bacterial consortia may play a role in stabilizing and preserving methylotrophic bacteria in hostile environments

  15. Atrazine- tolerant native microorganisms isolated from agricultural soils in the department of Cordoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Oviedo Z

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify and evaluate atrazine tolerant native microorganisms isolated from a soil destined to the maize crop for ensiling, where this pesticide is usually used as preemergence. To determine their tolerance, they were subjected to growth at different concentrations of atrazine, different temperatures (30 ° C, 37 ° C and 40 ° C and pH (5.0, 6.0 and 9.0. The results show native strains that tolerated concentrations of 1000 ppm atrazine, identified as Pseudomonas sp (strain 1L1a, Pseudomona sp (strain 1L2, Streptomyces sp and Arthrobacterium sp, which show higher growth at 37 °C (7. 98E+06 CFU/mL, lower at 30 °C (3.63E+06 CFU/mL and tolerance at 40 °C (5.80E+06 CFU/mL. The strain Streptomyces sp reached its highest growth (4.73E+06 UFC/mL at pH 9.0, while Pseudomonas sp strain 1L1a (3.43E+06 UFC/mL, Arthrobacter sp (3.40E+06 UFC/mL and Pseudomonas sp strain 1L2a (2.63E+06 CFU/mL was at pH 6.0. All microorganisms showed sensitivity to pH 5.0. The growths reached at different temperatures and pH are in agreement with the adaptation to the tropical climate predominant in the region and related to the genus of microorganisms. The study indicates that the native strains are able to tolerate high concentrations of atrazine and to mineralize it in soils with low content of organic matter and nutrients.

  16. Degradation of 14C-parathion 'in vitro' by microorganisms isolated from a gley humic soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M. de; Ruegg, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    It was determined 'in vitro' the degradation of Parathion by a bacterium and a fungus isolated from a sample of Gley Humic soil previously treated with repeated applications of the insecticide. In a qualitative colorimetric assay hydrolisis of parathion to p-nitrophenol just the bacterium gave a positive answer. In quantitative assays of 14 C-parathion degradation in culture media containing both microorganisms, organic solvents extractions resulted in organic and aqueous phases, which were analysed by liquid scintillation counting and thin-layer chromatography. In a mineral salts medium plus buffer, the bacterium and the fungus behaved differently from the control, because part of the 14 C-insecticide was metabolized to, at least, one metabolite and besides, the microorganisms presented smaller percentages of total recovery. The largest percentage of the radio carbon recovery from the extracts of the medium containing the fungus plus extract of yeast, was obtained from the aqueous phase and the existence of other metabolite was demonstrated by chromatograms of the organic phase. (Author) [pt

  17. Screening and Isolation of Associated Bioactive Microorganisms from Fasciospongia cavernosa from of Visakhapatnam Coast, Bay of Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shamsher Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature, especially the marine environment, provides the most effective drugs used in human therapy. Among the metazoans, the marine sponges produce the most potent and highly selective bioactive secondary metabolites. These animals (or their associated symbiotic microorganisms synthesize secondary metabolites whose activity and selectivity has developed during their long evolutionary history. During the course of exploitation of these resources two marine sponges, Fasciospongia cavernosa doc var.brown (dark brown Fasciospongia cavernosa doc var.yellow (yellow collected from the visakhapatnam coast of Bay of Bengal were investigated in order to assess the potential of these microorganisms for the production of antimicrobial compounds. The aqueous and organic extracts of both the sponges showed broad spectrum antibiotic activity. In this study a total of 178 microorganisms were isolated from different parts of two sponges and most of them from middle part of the sponge. The isolates were investigated in order to assess the potential of these microorganisms for the production of antimicrobial compounds. Testing for antimicrobial activities were performed against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, fungi (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and 10 pathogenic organisms. Resulting mean diameter of inhibition zones revealed isolates B4 & B6 were the most potent of all the isolates. The present study has revealed the presence of high numbers of diverse culturable microorganisms associated with the marine sponges from Visakhapatnam Coast of Bay of Bengal as well as their potential to produce bioactive metabolites.

  18. Efficacy of a marine bacterial nuclease against biofilm forming microorganisms isolated from chronic rhinosinusitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Shields

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistent colonization of paranasal sinus mucosa by microbial biofilms is a major factor in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS. Control of microorganisms within biofilms is hampered by the presence of viscous extracellular polymers of host or microbial origin, including nucleic acids. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of extracellular DNA in biofilm formation by bacteria associated with CRS. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obstructive mucin was collected from patients during functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Examination of the mucous by transmission electron microscopy revealed an acellular matrix punctuated occasionally with host cells in varying states of degradation. Bacteria were observed in biofilms on mucosal biopsies, and between two and six different species were isolated from each of 20 different patient samples. In total, 16 different bacterial genera were isolated, of which the most commonly identified organisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus and α-haemolytic streptococci. Twenty-four fresh clinical isolates were selected for investigation of biofilm formation in vitro using a microplate model system. Biofilms formed by 14 strains, including all 9 extracellular nuclease-producing bacteria, were significantly disrupted by treatment with a novel bacterial deoxyribonuclease, NucB, isolated from a marine strain of Bacillus licheniformis. Extracellular biofilm matrix was observed in untreated samples but not in those treated with NucB and extracellular DNA was purified from in vitro biofilms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate that bacteria associated with CRS form robust biofilms which can be reduced by treatment with matrix-degrading enzymes such as NucB. The dispersal of bacterial biofilms with NucB may offer an additional therapeutic target for CRS sufferers.

  19. Uptake and distribution of 137Cs and stable Cs by microorganisms isolated from mushroom substrata in the Japanese forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwahara, Chikako; Fukumoto, Atsushi; Kato, Fumio; Sugiyama, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    The pH values of wild mushroom substrata, the influence of pH in medium on the appearance frequencies of microorganisms from mushroom substrata, and growth and Cs uptake by several microorganisms were investigated. The results showed that the pH values of 42 mushroom substrata were slightly acidic. There was no remarkable difference in the appearance frequencies of filamentous actinomycetes and planktonic bacteria at pH 5, 6 and 7, except in the samples of mushroom substrata from Mt. Fuji. The values of Cs concentration ratio (CR) for microorganisms isolated from mushroom substrata and for mushrooms were almost the same level, suggesting that those microorganisms could take up Cs in substrata and reserve Cs in their cells. (author)

  20. Formation of harmful compounds in biotransformation of lilial by microorganisms isolated from human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Afshari, Shima; Esmaeili, Davood

    2015-01-01

    The biotransformation of lilial results in an acid that is used in the dairy industry, in perfumery, as an intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, and as a food additive for enhancing taste. This study investigates the biotransformation of lilial by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, two bacterial species isolated from human skin. Both species of Staphylococcus were isolated in samples taken from the skin of individuals living in a rural area of Iran. The pH of the culture medium was optimized, and after culturing the microorganisms, the bacteria were added to a flask containing a nutrient broth and incubated for several hours. The flasks of bacteria were combined with lilial, and various biochemical tests and diagnostics were performed, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The S. aureus produced isobutyric acid (2-methylpropanoic acid) after 72 h (71% of the total products yielded during biotransformation), whereas the S. epidermidis produced terpenoid alcoholic media after 24 h (90% of total products obtained). The results obtained indicate that biotransformation of lilial by S. aureus is more desirable than by S. epidermidis due to the highly efficient production of a single product. Bourgeonal and liliol were two toxic compounds produced during biotransformation, which indicates that the use of lilial in cosmetics can be harmful to the skin.

  1. Effect of probiotic microorganisms isolated from Hypostomus plecostomus in Oreochromis sp juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Vela-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the behavior of red tilapia juveniles (Oreochromis sp. in presence of the possible probiotic microorganisms isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of panche fish (Hypostomus plecostomus. Materials and methods. During the phase of assessment of probiotics, 120 red tilapia (Oreochromis sp juveniles were selected, with average weight of 1.28±0.22 g and average length of 2.99±0.27 cm. Three experimental treatments were formulated taking into account the nourishment needs of red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.. The statistical method employed was a completely random design. Results. The three strains of Lactobacillus genus (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus isolated from the digestive tract of H. plecostomus, yielded diverse results in the biometrical variables considered, as well as in the SGR, PER, AE, AC. Conclusions. The best rapports regarding the gain in length were for the treatment with native probiotics, and it is deduced that they were easily settled in the intestines of the fish (Oreochromis sp.. It is also determined that there are significant differences in the results or gain in length for the Control Concentrate feed (CC against Concentrate feed plus Native Probiotic (CNP for red tilapia (Oreochromis sp. in the juvenile stag for a 30 day time span.

  2. Thermotolerant yeasts capable of producing bioethanol: isolation from natural fermented sources, identification and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Azam Talukder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the demands of biofuels have increased, because of their significant role in reducing various pollutants created by fossil fuels. Here, we have collected 25 samples containing various thermotolerant microorganisms from the nine natural fermented sources of Bangladesh, such as Boiled potato (Bp, Decomposed foods (Df, Municipal liquid waste (Mlw, Municipal solid waste (Msw, Sugarcane juice (Sc, Pantavat (Pv, Sugar molasses (Sm, Tari (Tari and Watermelon juice (Wm for bioethanol production. Among them, 18 isolates are capable of producing bioethanol. Cultural, morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic analyses were carried out under various physiological conditions. Ethanol fermentation was checked by different carbon sources, temperatures and pH. All of the isolates could grow well in the medium containing Dextrose and Arabinose and only two strains Pv-1 and Bp-2 could ferment Xylose as a sole carbon source. At 42 °C, the highest ethanol concentration 6.58% (v/v was obtained by a strain Wm-1 isolated from Watermelon juice. At 37 °C, maximal ethanol concentrations of 6.74% (v/v, 6.50% (v/v and 6.22% (v/v were obtained by the strains Bp-2, Wm-l and Pv-1, respectively. Among the various pH tested, the highest ethanol concentration 6.6% (v/v was obtained at pH 4.5 by a strain named Tari-2. Finally, yeast 26S rDNA sequencing information identified the strains Sc-2 as Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pv-2, Tari-2 and Df-1 as Pichia kudriavzevii, Mlw-l and Bp-2 as Candida tropicalis, Pv-1 as Pichia guilliermondii and Df-2 as Candida rugosa.

  3. Isolation of β-1,3-Glucanase-Producing Microorganisms from Poria cocos Cultivation Soil via Molecular Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulan Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available β-1,3-Glucanase is considered as a useful enzymatic tool for β-1,3-glucan degradation to produce (1→3-linked β-glucan oligosaccharides with pharmacological activity properties. To validly isolate β-1,3-glucanase-producing microorganisms, the soil of Wolfiporia extensa, considered an environment rich in β-1,3-glucan-degrading microorganisms, was subjected to high throughput sequencing. The results demonstrated that the genera Streptomyces (1.90% and Arthrobacter (0.78% belonging to the order Actinomycetales (8.64% in the phylum Actinobacteria (18.64% were observed in soil for P. cocos cultivation (FTL1. Actinomycetes were considered as the candidates for isolation of glucan-degrading microorganisms. Out of 58 isolates, only 11 exhibited β-1,3-glucan-degrading activity. The isolate SYBCQL belonging to the genus Kitasatospora with β-1,3-glucan-degrading activity was found and reported for the first time and the isolate SYBC17 displayed the highest yield (1.02 U/mg among the isolates. To check the β-1,3-glucanase contribution to β-1,3-glucan-degrading activity, two genes, 17-W and 17-Q, encoding β-1,3-glucanase in SYBC17 and one gene QLK1 in SYBCQL were cloned and expressed for verification at the molecular level. Our findings collectively showed that the isolates able to secrete β-1,3-glucanase could be obtained with the assistance of high-throughput sequencing and genes expression analysis. These methods provided technical support for isolating β-1,3-glucanase-producing microorganisms.

  4. Influence of Natural Food Preservatives Combined with Gamma Radiation on Certain Microorganisms Isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. The nine bacteria strains were identified as Micrococcus agilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii, and Streptococcus pedococcus while the yeast strains were Debaryomyces sp., Kluveromyces sp .and Pichia sp. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp. to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μ g/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays.; P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 2 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μ g/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively .The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also, the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level of 4 kGy combined with 200 μ g/ml. nisin

  5. Screening of cloud microorganisms isolated at the Puy de Dôme (France) station for the production of biosurfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Pascal; Canet, Isabelle; Sancelme, Martine; Wirgot, Nolwenn; Deguillaume, Laurent; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2016-09-01

    A total of 480 microorganisms collected from 39 clouds sampled at the Puy de Dôme station (alt. 1465 m; 45°46'19'' N, 2°57'52'' E; Massif Central, France) were isolated and identified. This unique collection was screened for biosurfactant (surfactants of microbial origin) production by measuring the surface tension (σ) of the crude extracts, comprising the supernatants of the pure cultures, using the pendant drop technique. The results showed that 41 % of the tested strains were active producers (σ biosurfactant producers (σ biosurfactant production (45biosurfactants. We observed some correlations between the chemical composition of cloud water and the presence of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, suggesting the "biogeography" of this production. Moreover, the potential impact of the production of biosurfactants by cloud microorganisms on atmospheric processes is discussed.

  6. Microbial quality and molecular identification of cultivable microorganisms isolated from an urban drinking water distribution system (Limassol, Cyprus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsaris, George; Kanetis, Loukas; Slaný, Michal; Parpouna, Christiana; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2015-12-01

    Microorganisms can survive and multiply in aged urban drinking water distribution systems, leading to potential health risks. The objective of this work was to investigate the microbial quality of tap water and molecularly identify its predominant cultivable microorganisms. Tap water samples collected from 24 different households scattered in the urban area of Limassol, Cyprus, were microbiologically tested following standard protocols for coliforms, E. coli, Pseudomonas spp., Enterococcus spp., and total viable count at 22 and 37 °C. Molecular identification was performed on isolated predominant single colonies using 16SrRNA sequencing. Approximately 85% of the household water samples were contaminated with one or more microorganisms belonging to the genera of Pseudomonas, Corynebacterium, Agrobacterium, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Delftia, Acinetobacter, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, and Aeromonas. However, all samples tested were free from E. coli. This is the first report in Cyprus molecularly confirming specific genera of relevant microbial communities in tap water.

  7. Characterization of micro-organisms isolated from dairy industry after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine and peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, E; Langsrud, S

    2005-01-01

    To characterize micro-organisms isolated from Norwegian dairy production plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection with alkyl amine/peracetic acid and to indicate reasons for survival. Microbial samples were collected from five dairy plants after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Isolates from two of these production plants, which used fogging with alkylamino acetate (plant A), and peracetic acid (plant B), were chosen for further characterization. The sequence of the 16S ribosomal DNA, fatty acid analysis and biochemical characteristics were used to identify isolates. Three isolates identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis, Methylobacterium rhodesianum and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa were isolated from plant A and one Sphingomonas sp. and two M. extorquens from plant B. Different patterns of resistance to seven disinfectants in a bactericidal suspension test and variable degree of attachment to stainless steel were found. The strains with higher disinfectant resistance showed lower degree of attachment than susceptible strains. The study identifies and characterizes micro-organisms present after cleaning and fogging disinfection. Both surface attachment and resistance were shown as possible reasons for the presence of the isolates after cleaning and disinfection. These results contribute to the awareness of disinfectant resistance as well as attachment as mechanisms of survival in dairy industry. It also strengthens the argument of frequent alternation of disinfectants in the food processing industry to avoid the establishment of resistant house strains.

  8. Screening for isolation and characterisation of microorganisms and enzymes with usefull potential for degradation of celullose and hemicelluose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Mikán Venegas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A practical, applied microbiology and biotechnology model is presented for isolating and characterising micro-organisms, this being a tiny part of the immense biodiversity of tropical soils. These microbes' ability to produce depolymerases and accessory hydrolases degrading xyloglucans-pectates or glucoarabinoxylans is analysed to evaluate their potential for degrading plant material. We propose culturing micro-organisms on the cell wall as main carbon source and as hydrolitic activity inducer. The same cell walls can be used for cross-linking xylan and for rapid, low cost purification of cellulose and hemicellose degrading enzymes. A 500% xylanase purification yield was obtained in a single step with these affinity supports. Out of the 65 isolates obtained were finally selected for characterising isoenzymes for cellulase and xylanase activities. The five strains are suggested as being potentially useful in different industrial processes regarding degrading cellulose and hemicellulose. Key words: Cellulase, hemicellulase, affinity chromatography, cross-linked substrate, microbiological diversity, composting

  9. Scrubber capabilities to remove airborne microorganisms and other aerial pollutants from the exhaust air of animal houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnink, A.J.A.; Landman, W.J.M.; Melse, R.W.; Zhao, Y.; Ploegaert, J.P.M.; Huynh, T.T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to assess the efficiency of air scrubbers to reduce airborne microorganisms in the exhaust air from animal houses. First, in a field study, the effects of a bio-scrubber and an acid scrubber on total bacterial counts were assessed. Higher bacterial counts were found in the

  10. Influence of natural food preservatives combined with gamma radiation on certain microorganisms isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fouly, M.Z.; Hussein, H.A.; Abu El-Naga, M.N.; Haroun, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. They were identified as Micrococcus agilis. Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, Debaryomyces sp., Pichia sp., S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Kluveromyces sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii,and Streptococcus pedococcus. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp.to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μg/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays. P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μg/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively. The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level 4 kGy by combination with 200 μg/ml. nisin completely inhibited their growth

  11. Biodegradation of international jet A-1 aviation fuel by microorganisms isolated from aircraft tank and joint hydrant storage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itah, A Y; Brooks, A A; Ogar, B O; Okure, A B

    2009-09-01

    Microorganisms contaminating international Jet A-1 aircraft fuel and fuel preserved in Joint Hydrant Storage Tank (JHST) were isolated, characterized and identified. The isolates were Bacillus subtillis, Bacillus megaterium, Flavobacterium oderatum, Sarcina flava, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus brevis. Others included Candida tropicalis, Candida albicans, Saccharomyces estuari, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium resinae, Penicillium citrinum and Penicillium frequentans. The viable plate count of microorganisms in the Aircraft Tank ranged from 1.3 (+/-0.01) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.2 (+/-1.6) x 104 cfu/mL for bacteria and 102 cfu/mL to 1.68 (+/-0.32) x 103 cfu/mL for fungi. Total bacterial counts of 1.79 (+/-0.2) x 104 cfu/mL to 2.58 (+/-0.04) x 104 cfu/mL and total fungal count of 2.1 (+/-0.1) x 103 cfu/mL to 2.28 (+/-0.5) x 103 cfu/mL were obtained for JHST. Selected isolates were re-inoculated into filter sterilized aircraft fuels and biodegradation studies carried out. After 14 days incubation, Cladosporium resinae exhibited the highest degradation rate with a percentage weight loss of 66 followed by Candida albicans (60.6) while Penicillium citrinum was the least degrader with a weight loss of 41.6%. The ability of the isolates to utilize the fuel as their sole source of carbon and energy was examined and found to vary in growth profile between the isolates. The results imply that aviation fuel could be biodegraded by hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. To avert a possible deterioration of fuel quality during storage, fuel pipe clogging and failure, engine component damage, wing tank corrosion and aircraft disaster, efficient routine monitoring of aircraft fuel systems is advocated.

  12. Comparison of the fuel oil biodegradation potential of hydrocarbon-assimilating microorganisms isolated from a temperate agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaineau, C.H.; Dupont, J.; Bury, E.; Oudot, J.; Morel, J.

    1999-01-01

    Strains of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from an agricultural soil in France. In a field, a portion was treated with oily cuttings resulting from the drilling of an onshore well. The cuttings which were spread at the rate of 600 g HC m -2 contained 10% of fuel oil hydrocarbons (HC). Another part of the field was left untreated. Three months after HC spreading, HC adapted bacteria and fungi were isolated at different soil depths in the two plots and identified. The biodegradation potential of the isolated strains was monitored by measuring the degradation rate of total HC, saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and resins of the fuel. Bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Brevundimonas, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Corynebacterium and fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Beauveria, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Trichoderma were identified. The most active strains in the assimilation of saturates and aromatics were Arthrobacter sp., Sphingomonas spiritivorum, Acinetobacter baumanii, Beauveria alba and Penicillum simplicissimum. The biodegradation potential of the hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms isolated from polluted or unpolluted soils were similar. In laboratory pure cultures, saturated HC were more degraded than aromatic HC, whereas resins were resistant to microbial attack. On an average, individual bacterial strains were more active than fungi in HC biodegradation. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Using the second law of thermodynamics for enrichment and isolation of microorganisms to produce fuel alcohols or hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Richard A; Kim, Seon-Woo

    2015-10-07

    Fermentation of crops, waste biomass, or gases has been proposed as a means to produce desired chemicals and renewable fuels. The second law of thermodynamics has been shown to determine the net direction of metabolite flow in fermentation processes. In this article, we describe a process to isolate and direct the evolution of microorganisms that convert cellulosic biomass or gaseous CO2 and H2 to biofuels such as ethanol, 1-butanol, butane, or hexane (among others). Mathematical models of fermentation elucidated sets of conditions that thermodynamically favor synthesis of desired products. When these conditions were applied to mixed cultures from the rumen of a cow, bacteria that produced alcohols or alkanes were isolated. The examples demonstrate the first use of thermodynamic analysis to isolate bacteria and control fermentation processes for biofuel production among other uses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodegradation Capability of Some Bacteria Isolates to Use Lubricant Oil in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahda, Y.; Azhar, M.; Fitri, L.; Afnida, A.; Adha, G. S.; Alifa, W. N.; Handayani, D.; Putri, D. H.; Irdawati, I.; Chatri, M.

    2018-04-01

    Our previous study identified three species of bacteria, i.e. Alcaligenes sp., Bacillus spl, and Bacillus sp2 isolated from using lubricant oil-contaminated soil in a Padang’s workshop. However, its ability to degrade hydrocarbon were not known yet. In this extension study, we explore a wider area to find more hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria and examined its capability to degrade hydrocarbon in vitro. Seventeen isolates were characterized its capability using NA + used lubricant oil + tween + neutral red medium. Isolates A1, B2, D1 and D4 shows the high degradation index, whereas isolates A2, A3, A5, D2, B1, B3 and isolates A4, B4, D3 have medium and low degradation index, respectively. These potential hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria need in situ characterization to know their actual activities for bioremediation.

  15. Isolation of gallic acid-producing microorganisms and their use in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total number of eighty gallic acid producing strains were isolated from forest soil or plant samples. Among these strains, thirteen isolates were selected for gallic acid production and these isolates were Aspergillus niger 1, A. niger 2, A. niger 3, Penicillium canescens (3), P. frequentans (2), P. spinulosum (2), ...

  16. Organic acids production by rhizosphere microorganisms isolated from a Typic Melanudands and its effects on the inorganic phosphates solubilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo José Serna Posso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been established that organic acid secretion by rhizosphere microorganisms is one of the mechanisms to solubilize the phosphorus (P attached to insoluble mineral compounds in soil. This action is an important biotechnological alternative, especially in those soils where high fixation of this nutrient occurs, a very common situation in the tropics. This research evaluated the ability performed by five bacterial and five fungal isolates from Typic Melanudands soil to produce organic acids and generate available phosphorus from insoluble P sources. Given these concerns, the selected microorganisms were replicated for 7 days in liquid medium Pikovskaya (PVK modified sources tricalcium phosphate (P-Ca, aluminum phosphate (P-Al and iron phosphate (P-Fe. The results indicated that phosphorus availability in the media, correlates positively with the organic acids production in each of the sources used (P-Ca (0.63, P-Al (0.67 and P-Fe (0.63. In turn, the chemical processes linked to the phosphates solubilization (e.g., Ca availability affected the development of the microorganisms tested. Both, fungi and bacteria varied in their ability production and type of metabolized organic acids, the most frequent were as follows: citric and gluconic acid.

  17. Antimicrobial blue light inactivation of biofilms formed by clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Espada, Raquel; Fang, Yanyan; Dai, Tianhong

    2018-02-01

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the most serious threats to public health. It is estimated that at least 23,000 people die each year in the USA as a direct result of antibiotic-resistant infections. In addition, many antibiotic-resistant microorganisms develop biofilms, surface-associated microbial communities that are extremely resistant to antibiotics and the immune system. A light-based approach, antimicrobial blue light (aBL), has attracted increasing attention due to its intrinsic antimicrobial effect without the involvement of exogenous photosensitizers. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of this non-antibiotic approach against biofilms formed by multidrug-resistant (MDR) microorganisms. MDR Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms were grown either in 96-well microtiter plates for 24 h or in a CDC biofilm reactor for 48 h, and then exposed to aBL at 405 nm emitted from a light-emitting diode (LED). We demonstrated that, for the biofilms grown in the CDC biofilm reactor, approximately 1.88 log10 CFU reduction was achieved in A. baumannii, 2.78 log10 CFU in E. coli and 3.18 log10 CFU in P. aeruginosa after 162 J/cm2 , 576 J/cm2 and 500 J/cm2 aBL were delivered, respectively. For the biofilms formed in the 96-well microtiter plates, 5.67 and 2.46 log10 CFU reduction was observed in P. aeruginosa and C. albicans polymicrobial biofilm after an exposure of 216 J/cm2 . In conclusion, aBL is potentially an alternative non-antibiotic approach against MDR biofilm-related infections. Future studies are warranted to investigate other important MDR microorganisms, the mechanism of action of aBL, and aBL efficacy in vivo.

  18. Differentiation of enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like microorganisms isolated from various environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bogusławska-Wąs

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determinate enzymatic activity of yeast-like organisms - Candida lipolytica, Rhodotorula rubra, Trichosporon beigelii, Zygosaccharomyces sp. - isolated from the Szczecin Lagoon and herring salads. We have shown that lipolytic activity was higher than protcolytic for every strain tested. The lowest activity level was found out for amylolytic hydrolases. The results also demonstrated that yeast-like organisms isolated from the Szczecin Lagoon revealed much higher average enzymatic activity compared to tbe same species isolated from herring salads, excepting C. lipolytica.

  19. [Periodontal microbiota and microorganisms isolated from heart valves in patients undergoing valve replacement surgery in a clinic in Cali, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sandra; Parra, Beatriz; Botero, Javier E; Moreno, Freddy; Vásquez, Daniel; Fernández, Hugo; Alba, Sandra; Gallego, Sara; Castillo, Gilberto; Contreras, Adolfo

    2017-12-01

    Periodontitis is an infectious disease that affects the support tissue of the teeth and it is associated with different systemic diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Microbiological studies facilitate the detection of microorganisms from subgingival and cardiovascular samples. To describe the cultivable periodontal microbiota and the presence of microorganisms in heart valves from patients undergoing valve replacement surgery in a clinic in Cali. We analyzed 30 subgingival and valvular tissue samples by means of two-phase culture medium, supplemented blood agar and trypticase soy agar with antibiotics. Conventional PCR was performed on samples of valve tissue. The periodontal pathogens isolated from periodontal pockets were: Fusobacterium nucleatum (50%), Prevotella intermedia/ nigrescens (40%), Campylobacter rectus (40%), Eikenella corrodens (36.7%), Gram negative enteric bacilli (36.7%), Porphyromonas gingivalis (33.3%), and Eubacterium spp. (33.3%). The pathogens isolated from the aortic valve were Propionibacterium acnes (12%), Gram negative enteric bacilli (8%), Bacteroides merdae (4%), and Clostridium bifermentans (4%), and from the mitral valve we isolated P. acnes and Clostridium beijerinckii. Conventional PCR did not return positive results for oral pathogens and bacterial DNA was detected only in two samples. Periodontal microbiota of patients undergoing surgery for heart valve replacement consisted of species of Gram-negative bacteria that have been associated with infections in extraoral tissues. However, there is no evidence of the presence of periodontal pathogens in valve tissue, because even though there were valve and subgingival samples positive for Gram-negative enteric bacilli, it is not possible to maintain they corresponded to the same phylogenetic origin.

  20. Microbial reduction of uranium(VI) by anaerobic microorganisms isolated from a former uranium mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Ulrike; Krawczyk-Baersch, Evelyn [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry; Arnold, Thuro [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Scheinost, Andreas C. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Molecular Structures

    2017-06-01

    The former uranium mine Koenigstein (Germany) is currently in the process of controlled flooding by reason of remediation purposes. However, the flooding water still contains high concentrations of uranium and other heavy metals. For that reason the water has to be cleaned up by a conventional waste water treatment plant. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between anaerobic microorganisms and uranium for possible bioremediation approaches, which could be an great alternative for the intensive and expensive waste water treatment. EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) measurements were performed and revealed a complete reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) only by adding 10 mM glycerol.

  1. Microbial reduction of uranium(VI) by anaerobic microorganisms isolated from a former uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, Ulrike; Krawczyk-Baersch, Evelyn; Arnold, Thuro; Scheinost, Andreas C.

    2017-01-01

    The former uranium mine Koenigstein (Germany) is currently in the process of controlled flooding by reason of remediation purposes. However, the flooding water still contains high concentrations of uranium and other heavy metals. For that reason the water has to be cleaned up by a conventional waste water treatment plant. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between anaerobic microorganisms and uranium for possible bioremediation approaches, which could be an great alternative for the intensive and expensive waste water treatment. EXAFS (extended X-ray absorption fine structure) and XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) measurements were performed and revealed a complete reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) only by adding 10 mM glycerol.

  2. Sustainability of High-Level Isolation Capabilities among US Ebola Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herstein, Jocelyn J; Biddinger, Paul D; Gibbs, Shawn G; Le, Aurora B; Jelden, Katelyn C; Hewlett, Angela L; Lowe, John J

    2017-06-01

    To identify barriers to maintaining and applying capabilities of US high-level isolation units (HLIUs) used during the Ebola virus disease outbreak, during 2016 we surveyed HLIUs. HLIUs identified sustainability challenges and reported the highly infectious diseases they would treat. HLIUs expended substantial resources in development but must strategize models of sustainability to maintain readiness.

  3. Isolation and screening of microorganisms from a gari fermentation process for starter culture development

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edward, VA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available and hygienic safety of the food are vitally important for less toxic products to be obtained. Quality, safety and acceptability of traditional fermented foods may be improved through the use of starter cultures. There has been a trend recently to isolate wild...

  4. Specific single-cell isolation and genomic amplification of uncultured microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Thomas; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Lasken, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    We in this study describe a new method for genomic studies of individual uncultured prokaryotic organisms, which was used for the isolation and partial genome sequencing of a soil archaeon. The diversity of Archaea in a soil sample was mapped by generating a clone library using group-specific pri......We in this study describe a new method for genomic studies of individual uncultured prokaryotic organisms, which was used for the isolation and partial genome sequencing of a soil archaeon. The diversity of Archaea in a soil sample was mapped by generating a clone library using group......-specific primers in combination with a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profile. Intact cells were extracted from the environmental sample, and fluorescent in situ hybridization probing with Cy3-labeled probes designed from the clone library was subsequently used to detect the organisms...... of interest. Single cells with a bright fluorescent signal were isolated using a micromanipulator and the genome of the single isolated cells served as a template for multiple displacement amplification (MDA) using the Phi29 DNA polymerase. The generated MDA product was afterwards used for 16S rRNA gene...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of pure platelet-rich plasma against microorganisms isolated from oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Lorenzo; Bortolin, Monica; Vassena, Christian; Taschieri, Silvio; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2013-02-25

    Autologous platelet concentrates (PCs) have been extensively used in a variety of medical fields to promote soft and hard tissue regeneration. The significance behind their use lies in the abundance of growth factors in platelets α-granules that promotes wound healing. In addition, antibacterial properties of PCs against various bacteria have been recently pointed out. In this study, the antimicrobial effect of pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) was evaluated against oral cavity microorganisms such as Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus oralis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Blood samples were obtained from 17 patients who underwent oral surgery procedures involving the use of P-PRP. The antibacterial activity of P-PRP, evaluated as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), was determined through the microdilution twofold serial method. P-PRP inhibited the growth of Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans, Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus oralis, but not of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. P-PRP is a potentially useful substance in the fight against postoperative infections. This might represent a valuable property in adjunct to the enhancement of tissue regeneration.

  6. Identification of Microorganisms Isolated From Counterfeit and Unapproved Decorative Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, Adrian D; Penno, Katie L; Brzezinski, Jennifer L

    2018-03-01

    All contact lenses (corrective/noncorrective) are considered Class II or Class III medical devices under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which also states that contact lenses can only be obtained with a prescription. The Forensic Chemistry Center of the US Food & Drug Administration has examined over 300 decorative, noncorrective contact lenses obtained without a prescription. Our observations indicate that 60% of the counterfeit lenses and 27% of the unapproved lenses examined were positive for microbial contamination. Twenty-nine different brands of noncorrective contact lenses were examined, and 48% of them had at least one sample positive for microbial contamination. Each microorganism was further identified using DNA sequencing. Contaminated contact lenses are associated with numerous health risks, including ocular infections and conjunctivitis leading to permanent visual impairment or blindness. These results support the contention that acquiring contact lenses without a prescription is a considerable threat to consumer health and safety. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Isolation and characterization of yeasts capable of efficient utilization of hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as the carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassa-Barbosa, L A; Procópio, R E L; Matos, I T S R; Filho, S A

    2015-09-28

    Few yeasts have shown the potential to efficiently utilize hemicellulosic hydrolyzate as the carbon source. In this study, microorganisms isolated from the Manaus region in Amazonas, Brazil, were characterized based on their utilization of the pentoses, xylose, and arabinose. The yeasts that showed a potential to assimilate these sugars were selected for the better utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Two hundred and thirty seven colonies of unicellular microorganisms grown on hemicellulosic hydrolyzate, xylose, arabinose, and yeast nitrogen base selective medium were analyzed. Of these, 231 colonies were subjected to sugar assimilation tests. One hundred and twenty five of these were shown to utilize hydrolyzed hemicellulose, xylose, or arabinose as the carbon source for growth. The colonies that showed the best growth (N = 57) were selected, and their internal transcribed spacer-5.8S rDNA was sequenced. The sequenced strains formed four distinct groups in the phylogenetic tree, and showed a high percentage of similarity with Meyerozyma caribbica, Meyerozyma guilliermondii, Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans, Trichosporon loubieri, Pichia kudriavzevii, Candida lignohabitans, and Candida ethanolica. The discovery of these xylose-fermenting yeasts could attract widespread interest, as these can be used in the cost-effective production of liquid fuel from lignocellulosic materials.

  8. Isolation of a human intestinal anaerobe, Bifidobacterium sp. strain SEN, capable of hydrolyzing sennosides to sennidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akao, T; Che, Q M; Kobashi, K; Yang, L; Hattori, M; Namba, T

    1994-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium capable of metabolizing sennosides was isolated from human feces and identified as Bifidobacterium sp., named strain SEN. The bacterium hydrolyzed sennosides A and B to sennidins A and B via sennidin A and B 8-monoglucosides, respectively. Among nine species of Bifidobacterium having beta-glucosidase activity, only Bifidobacterium dentium and B. adolescentis metabolized sennoside B to sennidin B, suggesting that the sennoside-metabolizing bacteria produce a novel type of beta-glucosidase capable of hydrolyzing sennosides to sennidins. PMID:8161172

  9. Bioaccumulation of 137Cs by microorganisms isolated from soils contaminated with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipiska, M.; Hornik, M.; Augustin, J.

    2003-01-01

    With the aim to evaluate the possibility of utilisation of autochtone population of soil organisms, alone or with participation of higher plants, in the processes of bioremediation the authors quantitatively determined a number of psychrophyllic and mezophyllic germs in the soils contaminated by low-level activities of Cs-137 (0.08 - 2.8 kBq/g). Hereafter they gained isolates of clean cultures of mushrooms and actinomycetes and they determined their bioacumulative activity of Cs-137 at growing conditions. The authors found out, that a number of reproductionable psychrophyllic and mezophyllic germs are significantly lower in the soils with the highest contamination by radionuclides than in the soils with low contamination. They gained the clean cultures of 5 isolates of micromycetes and 3 isolates of actinomycetes from contaminated soil. The micromycetes demonstrated the highest values of bioaccumulation of caesium 39 nmol/g of wet biomass at the growing conditions. In actionoomycetes these values were 4.7 nmol/g (approximately in one order lower). The significant part of cesium accumulated by cell matter at growing conditions were localised in cell matter and it could not be removed by washing with 0.9 percent of NaCl solution. The determined values of bioconcentration factor BCF recalculated on dry weight of biomass were in the range from 16.04 to 26.20 in micromycetes and 3.24 in actinomycetes. From this situation arise, that autochtone population of soil micromycetes and actionomycetes, which is found in contaminated soil, can relevantly participate in the processes of binding of biologically accessible forms of Cs-137 after a creation of suitable conditions for grow. (author)

  10. Distribution of pathogenic microorganisms isolated from dental hospital workers in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jung Kim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available With the significant rise in hospital infection management in dental hospitals as well as in hospitals, and in order to identify the distribution of pathogenic bacteria on hands and nasal cavity of workers in a dental hospital, bacteria from the hands and nasal cavities of six dentists and 44 dental hygienists from four dental hospitals were investigated. The results showed Staphylococcus aureus (13, Staphylococcus capitis (1, Staphylococcus epidermidis (12, Staphylococcus hominis (4, Staphylococcus warneri (3, Staphylococcus xylosus (14, Staphylococcus. Lugdunensis (1, and Neisseria spp. (2 were isolated from the nasal cavity and Staphylococcus aureus (9, Staphylococcus capitis (4, Staphylococcus epidermidis (16, Staphylococcus hominis (8, Staphylococcus warneri (5, Staphylococcus xylosus (22, Staphylococcus leutus (3, Micrococcus spp. (4, Staphylococcus cohnii (1, Serratia marcescens (2, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (3, Klebsiella pneumonia (2 and Pseudomonas pneumotropica (1 from the hands. An antimicrobial disk diffusion test was conducted on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the hands and nasal cavity to detect MRSA by means of oxacillin. Two strains were detected. When the genes of penicillin binding protein 2 (mecA were detected from the 2 strains, MRSA was found from both strains. The results of this investigation on the distribution of various pathogenic bacteria and MRSA on hands and nasal cavity of workers of a dental hospital, will contribute to the basic data for the future infection management in a dental hospital.

  11. Enhancing pesticide degradation using indigenous microorganisms isolated under high pesticide load in bioremediation systems with vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Diaz, Jean Manuel; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Núñez, Rafael; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-08-01

    In biobed bioremediation systems (BBSs) with vermicomposts exposed to a high load of pesticides, 6 bacteria and 4 fungus strains were isolated, identified, and investigated to enhance the removal of pesticides. Three different mixtures of BBSs composed of vermicomposts made from greenhouse (GM), olive-mill (OM) and winery (WM) wastes were contaminated, inoculated, and incubated for one month (GMI, OMI and WMI). The inoculums maintenance was evaluated by DGGE and Q-PCR. Pesticides were monitored by HPLC-DAD. The highest bacterial and fungal abundance was observed in WMI and OMI respectively. In WMI, the consortia improved the removal of tebuconazole, metalaxyl, and oxyfluorfen by 1.6-, 3.8-, and 7.7-fold, respectively. The dissipation of oxyfluorfen was also accelerated in OMI, with less than 30% remaining after 30d. One metabolite for metalaxyl and 4 for oxyfluorfen were identified by GC-MS. The isolates could be suitable to improve the efficiency of bioremediation systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation of a human intestinal anaerobe, Bifidobacterium sp. strain SEN, capable of hydrolyzing sennosides to sennidins.

    OpenAIRE

    Akao, T; Che, Q M; Kobashi, K; Yang, L; Hattori, M; Namba, T

    1994-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic bacterium capable of metabolizing sennosides was isolated from human feces and identified as Bifidobacterium sp., named strain SEN. The bacterium hydrolyzed sennosides A and B to sennidins A and B via sennidin A and B 8-monoglucosides, respectively. Among nine species of Bifidobacterium having beta-glucosidase activity, only Bifidobacterium dentium and B. adolescentis metabolized sennoside B to sennidin B, suggesting that the sennoside-metabolizing bacteria produce a nove...

  13. Effect of heavy metals ondecolorization of reactive brilliant red by newly isolated microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosheen, S.; Arshad, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study involves aerobic decolorisation of reactive azo dye reactive brilliant red 2KBP by newly isolated microbial strains (two bacterial and one fungal strain) in presence of heavy metals including cobalt chloride, ferric chloride, zinc sulphate, copper sulphate and nickel chloride. Many heavy metals are necessary for microbial growth and are required in very small amounts however at higher levels they become toxic. So was the objective of present work to check the effect of concentration of heavy metals on the potential of microbial strains to decolorize azo dyes. All the heavy metals under consideration were added in range of 0.5 gl-1-2.5gl/sup -1/. All heavy metals showed inhibitory effect on decolorization capacity of bacterial as well as fungal strain .At optimum conditions bacterial strains named as B1 and B2 removed 84% and 78% while fungal strain decolorized 90.4% of dye. Cobalt and nickel showed greater inhibitors on% decolorization of dyes than Zinc and iron. Fungal strain showed greater negative effect. Heavy metals might affect enzyme activities and thus reducing removal of dye. (author)

  14. Microbiological and chemical properties of kefir manufactured by entrapped microorganisms isolated from kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T-H; Wang, S-Y; Chen, K-N; Liu, J-R; Chen, M-J

    2009-07-01

    In this study, various yeasts (Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces turicensis, Pichia fermentans) and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefiri, Leuconostoc mesenteroides) were entrapped in 2 different microspheres using an entrapment ratio for the strains that was based on the distribution ratio of these organisms in kefir grains. The purpose of this study was to develop a new technique to produce kefir using immobilized starter cultures isolated from kefir grains. An increase in cell counts with fermentation cycles was observed for both the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, whereas the cell counts of kefir grains were very stable during cultivation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the short-chain lactobacilli and lactococci occupied the surface of the LAB microspheres, whereas the long-chain lactobacilli were inside the microspheres. When the yeasts were analyzed, cells at a high density were entrapped in cracks on the surface and within the microspheres, where they were surrounded by the short-chain lactobacilli. The distribution of the LAB and yeast species in kefir produced from grains and microspheres showed that there was no significant difference between the kefirs produced by the 2 methods; moreover, Leu. mesenteroides and K. marxianus were the predominating microflora in both types of kefir. There was no significant difference in the ethanol and exopolysaccharide contents between the 2 kefirs, although the acidity was different.

  15. Determination of the hydrocarbon-degrading metabolic capabilities of tropical bacterial isolates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez-Rocha, F.J.; Olmos-Soto, J. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, San Diego, CA (United States). Departamento de Biotecnologia Marina; Rosano-Hernandez, M.A.; Muriel-Garcia, M. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, CD Carmen Camp (Mexico). Zona Marina/Tecnologia Ambiental

    2005-01-01

    Of more than 20 bacteria isolated from a tropical soil using minimal medium supplemented with hydrocarbons, 11 grew well on diesel as sole carbon source, and another 11 grew in the presence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ten isolates were identified phenotypically as Pseudomonas sp. and eight as Bacillus sp. Gene sequences representing the catabolic genes (alkM, todM, ndoM, and xylM) and 16S rRNA gene sequences characteristic for Pseudomona and Bacillus were amplified by PCR, using DNA recovered from the supernatant of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil suspensions. Based on their rapid growth characteristics in the presence of hydrocarbons and the formation of PCR products for the catabolic genes alkM and ndoM six isolates were selected for biodegradation assays. After 30 days a mixed culture of two isolates achieved close to 70% hydrocarbon removal and apparent mineralization of 16% of the hydrocarbons present in the soil. Biodegradation rates varied from 275 to 387 mg hydrocarbon kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}. Several bacterial isolates obtained in this study have catabolic capabilities for the biodegradation of alkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons including PAHs. (author)

  16. Isolation of a Bacillus sp. capable of transforming isoeugenol to vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoni, E; Ravid, U; Shoham, Y

    2000-02-28

    Natural aroma compounds are of major interest to the flavor and fragrance industry. Due to the limited sources for natural aromas, there is a growing interest in developing alternative sources for natural aroma compounds, and in particular aromatic aldehydes. In several microbial species aromatic aldehydes are detected as intermediates in the degradation pathway of phenylpropanoids. Thus, bioconversion of phenylpropanoids is one possible route for the production of these aroma compounds. The present work describes the isolation of microbial strains, capable of producing vanillin from isoeugenol. Bacterial strains isolated from soil, were screened for their ability to transform isoeugenol to vanillin. One of these strains, strain B2, was found to produce high amounts of vanillin when grown in the presence of isoeugenol, and was also capable of growing on isoeugenol as the sole carbon source. Based on its fatty acids profile, strain B2 was identified as a Bacillus subtilis sp. The bioconversion capabilities of strain B2 were tested in growing cultures and cell free extracts. In the presence of isoeugenol, a growing cultures of B. subtilis B2 produced 0.61 g l-1 vanillin (molar yield of 12.4%), whereas cell free extracts resulted in 0.9 g l-1 vanillin (molar yield of 14%).

  17. Human cultured cells are capable to incorporate isolated plant mitochondria loaded with exogenous DNA

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    Laktionov P. P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the possibility of human cultured cells to incorporate isolated mitochondria together with exogenous DNA introduced into organelles. Methods. Two approaches were used for this purpose, fluorescent labelling of mitochondria and/or DNA with subsequent analysis of the cells subjected to incubation by microscopy or by quantitative PCR. Results. We have shown that human cultured cells lines, HeLa and HUVEC, are capable to uptake isolated plant mitochondria and that this process depends on the incubation time and concentration of organelles present in medium. The incorporated mitochondria can serve as vehicles to deliver exogenous DNA into human cells, this DNA is then distributed in different cell compartments. Conclusions. These results are preliminary and need further investigations, including testing the possibility of human cells to incorporate the mitochondria of human or animal origin and creating genetic construction which could provide certain selectivity or stability of the transferred exogenous DNA upon cell uptake of the mitochondria as vectors.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF THE BIODIVERSITY OF SAMPLES USED FOR ISOLATION OF MICROBIAL STRAINS CAPABLE OF CONVERTING STRAW DESTINED AS A SUBSTRATE FOR BIOGAS PLANT

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    Krystyna Cybulska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In biogas plants, almost any type of organic matter can be used as a substrate to produce biogas. To make the process of methane fermentation more effective, these materials are pretreated. This applies in particular to a group of difficult substrates. Straw, due to its hemicellulose structure and saturation, is hardly fermented by biogas reactor microorganisms. The methods of post-harvest residue preparation for anaerobic digestion being applied so far are expensive, while their application has a negative effect on methanoegenic bacteria. Therefore, the microorganisms being able to degrade straw hemicellulose structure, utilisation of which could precede the proper fermentation process, have been searched for. This paper presents the results of microbial biodiversity analysis in the environmental samples being lupin, cereal, rape and maize straw as well as hay and haylage at different degradation stages. The analysis of biodiversity will help at a further stage of study to isolate active microbial strains showing cellulolytic, hemicellulolytic or ligninolytic activity which are desirable in the process of straw biodegradation. Analysis of the microbial count was performed by the method of deep inoculation on different microbiological culture media. The conducted tests include determination of the number of fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of the analysed samples for isolation of microbial strains capable of converting straw preceding the biogas production.

  19. Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics of Agave Sap (Agave salmiana after Its Inoculation with Microorganisms Isolated from Agave Sap Concentrate Selected to Enhance Anticancer Activity

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    Luis M. Figueroa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Saponins have been correlated with the reduction of cancer cell growth and the apoptotic effect of agave sap concentrate. Empirical observations of this artisanal Mexican food have shown that fermentation occurs after agave sap is concentrated, but little is known about the microorganisms that survive after cooking, or their effects on saponins and other metabolites. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in metabolites found in agave (A. salmiana sap after its fermentation with microorganisms isolated from agave sap concentrate, and demonstrate its potential use to enhance anticancer activity. Microorganisms were isolated by dilution plating and identified by 16S rRNA analysis. Isolates were used to ferment agave sap, and their corresponding butanolic extracts were compared with those that enhanced the cytotoxic activity on colon (Caco-2 and liver (Hep-G2 cancer cells. Metabolite changes were investigated by mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Among 69 isolated microorganisms, the actinomycetes Arthrobacter globiformis and Gordonia sp. were used to analyze the metabolites, along with bioactivity changes. From the 939 ions that were mainly responsible for variation among fermented samples at 48 h, 96 h, and 192 h, four were correlated to anticancer activity. It was shown that magueyoside B, a kammogenin glycoside, was found at higher intensities in the samples fermented with Gordonia sp. that reduced Hep-G2 viability better than controls. These findings showed that microorganisms from agave sap concentrate change agave sap metabolites such as saponins. Butanolic extracts obtained after agave sap fermentation with Arthrobacter globiformis or Gordonia sp. increased the cancer cell growth inhibitory effect on colon or liver cancer cells, respectively.

  20. First isolation of microorganisms from the gut diverticulum of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae: new perspectives for an insect-bacteria association

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    Desiely Silva Gusmão

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We show for the first time that the ventral diverticulum of the mosquito gut (impermeable sugar storage organ harbors microorganisms. The gut diverticulum from newly emerged and non-fed Aedes aegypti was dissected under aseptic conditions, homogenized and plated on BHI medium. Microbial isolates were identified by sequencing of 16S rDNA for bacteria and 28S rDNA for yeast. A direct DNA extraction from Ae. aegypti gut diverticulum was also performed. The bacterial isolates were: Bacillus sp., Bacillus subtilis and Serratia sp. The latter was the predominant bacteria found in our isolations. The yeast species identified was Pichia caribbica.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of semi-quantitative and quantitative culture techniques for the diagnosis of catheter-related infections in newborns and molecular typing of isolated microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riboli, Danilo Flávio Moraes; Lyra, João César; Silva, Eliane Pessoa; Valadão, Luisa Leite; Bentlin, Maria Regina; Corrente, José Eduardo; Rugolo, Ligia Maria Suppo de Souza; da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes Ribeiro de Souza

    2014-05-22

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) have become the most common cause of healthcare-associated bloodstream infections in neonatal intensive care units (ICUs). Microbiological evidence implicating catheters as the source of bloodstream infection is necessary to establish the diagnosis of CR-BSIs. Semi-quantitative culture is used to determine the presence of microorganisms on the external catheter surface, whereas quantitative culture also isolates microorganisms present inside the catheter. The main objective of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of these two techniques for the diagnosis of CR-BSIs in newborns from a neonatal ICU. In addition, PFGE was used for similarity analysis of the microorganisms isolated from catheters and blood cultures. Semi-quantitative and quantitative methods were used for the culture of catheter tips obtained from newborns. Strains isolated from catheter tips and blood cultures which exhibited the same antimicrobial susceptibility profile were included in the study as positive cases of CR-BSI. PFGE of the microorganisms isolated from catheters and blood cultures was performed for similarity analysis and detection of clones in the ICU. A total of 584 catheter tips from 399 patients seen between November 2005 and June 2012 were analyzed. Twenty-nine cases of CR-BSI were confirmed. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the most frequently isolated microorganisms, including S. epidermidis as the most prevalent species (65.5%), followed by S. haemolyticus (10.3%), yeasts (10.3%), K. pneumoniae (6.9%), S. aureus (3.4%), and E. coli (3.4%). The sensitivity of the semi-quantitative and quantitative techniques was 72.7% and 59.3%, respectively, and specificity was 95.7% and 94.4%. The diagnosis of CR-BSIs based on PFGE analysis of similarity between strains isolated from catheter tips and blood cultures showed 82.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The semi-quantitative culture method showed higher

  2. The impact of the types of microorganisms isolated from blood and wounds on the results of treatment in burn patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glik, Justyna; Kawecki, Marek; Gaździk, Tadeusz; Nowak, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Despite development of combustiology, infections continue to be the most important cause of death among patients with burns. Sepsis is the most severe clinical presentation of infection in patients after thermal injuries who require immediate treatment. Early diagnosis and proper treatment of sepsis are important in the clinical management that is often hampered for multiple reasons, e.g. impaired patient immunity, problems with microorganisms with multi-antibacterial drug resistance. The aim of the study was to assess effect of type of a microorganism isolated from blood and wound on results of treatment of sepsis in patients with burns. Effect of type of microorganisms isolated from blood and wound on the result of treatment of sepsis was studied in 338 patients hospitalized immediately after an injury in Centre for Burn Treatment in Siemianowice Śląskie in years 2003 - 2004 (at the age of 18 - 96 years, 66 women and 272 men). Clinical symptoms of generalized infection were found in all study subjects. The study group was divided into two subgroups: cured patients and patients who died of sepsis. The following parameters were assessed in both subgroups: type of microorganism isolated from blood, type of microorganism isolated from wound as well as occurrence of the same and different infections of blood and burn wound. positive blood cultures were found in 165 patients (48.8%), 106 (64.2%) were cured, 59 (35.8%) died. The most commonly isolated microorganisms in cured patients were Gram(+) Staphylococcus epidermidis MRSE (19.81%) and Staphylococcus aureus MRSA (18.87%). Gram(-) intestinal rods were least commonly isolated from this group. The most commonly isolated microorganisms from blood of patients who were to die, included non-fermenting Gram(-) rods Acinetobacter baumannii (35.59%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.03%). Mixed bacterial flora was found in the blood of 22.03% patients. Among patients who were to die, the same microorganisms were found in the

  3. Microorganism immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compere, Alicia L.; Griffith, William L.

    1981-01-01

    Live metabolically active microorganisms are immobilized on a solid support by contacting particles of aggregate material with a water dispersible polyelectrolyte such as gelatin, crosslinking the polyelectrolyte by reacting it with a crosslinking agent such as glutaraldehyde to provide a crosslinked coating on the particles of aggregate material, contacting the coated particles with live microorganisms and incubating the microorganisms in contact with the crosslinked coating to provide a coating of metabolically active microorganisms. The immobilized microorganisms have continued growth and reproduction functions.

  4. Lignite microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulankina, M.A.; Lysak, L.V.; Zvyagintsev, D.G. [Moscow MV Lomonosov State University, Moscow (Russian Federation). Faculty of Soil Science

    2007-03-15

    The first demonstration that samples of lignite at a depth of 10 m are considerably enriched in bacteria is reported. According to direct microscopy, the abundance of bacteria was about 10{sup 7} cells/g. About 70% of cells had intact cell membranes and small size, which points to their anabiotic state. The fungal mycelium length was no more than 1 m. Lignite inoculation onto solid glucose-yeast-peptone medium allowed us to isolate bacteria of the genera Bacillus, Rhodococcus, Arthrobacter, Micrococcus, Spirillum, and Cytophaga. Representatives of the genera Penicillium and Trichoderma were identified on Czapek medium. Moistening of lignite powder increased the microbial respiration rate and microbial and fungal abundance but did not increase their generic diversity. This finding suggests that the studied microorganisms are autochthonous to lignite.

  5. Isolation and identification of a novel strain of Pseudomonas chlororaphis capable of transforming isoeugenol to vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasana, Ramesh C; Sharma, Upendra K; Sharma, Nandini; Sinha, Arun K

    2007-06-01

    Vanillin is undoubtedly one of the most popular and widely used flavoring agents in the world. Taking into consideration the worldwide demand for natural vanillin and its limited supply, alternative routes for its production including biotransformation are being constantly explored. In this regard, a novel soil bacterium capable of converting isoeugenol to vanillin was isolated by conventional enrichment process from soils of Ocimum field. On the basis of morphological and physiochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolate was identified as Pseudomonas chlororaphis CDAE5 (EMBL # AM158279). Vanillin formation was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), and its structure was confirmed by GC-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. After 24-h reaction, the vanillin concentration reached 1.2 g L(-1) from 10 g L(-1) isoeugenol in 20-mL reaction solution at 25 degrees C and 180 rpm. The strain showed potential to be a good candidate for biotechnological production of vanillin from isoeugenol. Further studies for standardization and optimization for higher yield of vanillin production needs to be investigated.

  6. Power handling capability of Faraday rotation isolators for CO(2) laser radars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, C A; Dorschner, T A

    1989-03-01

    Faraday rotation isolators for CO(2) laser radars must be capable of handling substantial average power loads without degrading the beam quality or experiencing thermal runaway. For this reason, the semiconductorbased isolators, which are of promise for applications at 10.6 microm, must be cooled. This creates radial temperature gradients and, in conjunction with a nonuniform beam pattern, may lead to severe wavefront aberrations. It is the purpose of this paper to formulate simple procedures for assessing the impact of such aberrations in a cw regime and to provide a prescription on how to proceed in the context of designing or evaluating Faraday rotators for CO(2) laser systems. If it is a good approximation to describe the beam-induced temperature rise by means of a fourth-order even polynomial, the degradation in beam quality originates entirely from the quartic term deltaT(4)rho(4). Specifically, it is the spherical aberration factor S = deltaT(4) radicalvar[rho(4)] that best describes the combined impact of temperature profile and beam shape. The heat flow equation for cw-loaded, edge-cooled, or face-cooled cylindrical Faraday rotator elements can be formulated in a simple nondimensional manner, which demonstrates that (a) temperature variations causing optical distortion scale with betaP/K, i.e., linearly with the deposited power per unit path length and inversely with the thermal conductivity; (b) in a transmission mode of operation with edge cooling and no thermal runaway, the power handling capability is independent of the aperture diameter; and (c), in a double-pass reflection mode of operation that takes advantage of a face-cooled back surface, a significant reduction of the distortion requires Nusselt numbers of at least 10, which leads to a new figure of merit for characterizing the performance of Faraday rotator material candidates. Edge-cooled optical isolators described in the published literature then provide cases for exercising the formalism and

  7. Deterioration study of a material for encapsulation of radioactive wastes, the Portland cement, by heterotrophic microorganisms isolated from natural media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfettini, J.

    1989-01-01

    Soils and geologic formations selected for storage of radioactive waste storage contain microflora (nitrifying and sulfoxidizing bacteria, heterotrophic microorganisms) that can corrode cement through acidic metabolism products. Nutriments required for their development are also found in these biotopes. Corrosine effects of organic acids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms are: mass decrease, leaching (especially Ca), dissolution of portlandite crystals Ca (OH) 2 , increase of porosity and decrease of flexural strength. Excretion of corrosive organic acids by bacteria is promoted by high temperature and basic pH. Acidification by fungi requires also a high temperature but an acidic pH [fr

  8. Surface Disinfectants for Burn Units Evaluated by a New Double Method, Using Microorganisms Recently Isolated From Patients, on a Surface Germ-Carrier Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herruzo, Rafael; Vizcaino, Maria Jose; Herruzo, Irene; Sanchez, Manuel

    Assessment methods of surface disinfection based on international standards (Environmental Protection Agency, European Norms, etc) do not correspond to hospital reality. New evaluation methods of surfaces disinfection are proposed to choose the most suitable disinfectant to act against clinically relevant microorganisms detected on the surfaces of burn units. 1) "Immediate effect": 6 products were compared using a glass germ-carrier and 20 recently isolated microorganisms from different patients in the intensive care units. Disinfectants were applied with microfiber cloths. Log10 reductions were calculated for colony forming units produced after 15 minutes of disinfectant application. 2) "Residual effect": the glass germ-carriers were previously impregnated with one of the studied disinfectants. After a 30-minute wait period, they were then contaminated with 1 microorganism (from the 20 above-mentioned). After 15 minutes, the disinfectant was inhibited and the log10 reduction of colony forming units was assessed. The immediate effect (disinfection and microorganism dragging and transferring from the surface to the cloth) produced complete elimination of the inoculums for all products used except one (a diluted quaternary ammonium). The average residual effect found on the 20 microorganisms was moderate: 2 to 3 log10 colony forming unit reduction with chlorine dioxide or 0.5% chlorhexidine (and lower with the other products), obtaining surfaces refractory to recontamination, at least, during 30 minutes. Two tests should be performed before advising surface disinfectant: 1) direct effect and 2) residual efficacy. These characteristics should be considered when a new surface disinfectant is chosen. Chlorine dioxide has a similar or better direct effect than sodium hypochlorite and a similar residual effect than chlorhexidine.

  9. ATIVIDADE ENZIMÁTICA DE MICRORGANISMOS ISOLADOS DO JACATUPÉ (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM YAM BEAN LEGUME (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia L. Montenegro STAMFORD

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento e a identificação de microrganismos produtores de enzimas de interesse comercial, utilizando tubérculos de jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban, foi o objetivo principal deste trabalho. Isolaram-se microrganismos endofíticos e epifíticos identificados por observação micromorfológica. A avaliação da atividade enzimática das linhagens foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar. As sessenta e oito linhagens isoladas dos tubérculos de jacatupé foram cultivadas em meio sólido específico para amilase, lipase, protease e celulase por 96h a 280 C. Os microrganismos epifíticos encontrados foram Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% e Trichoderma (5,8%, e os endofíticos foram Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3%, Bacillus (19,0%, Staphylococcus (10,3% e Nocardiopsis (15%. As linhagens de Nocardiopsis sp. apresentaram atividade lipolítica superior à do padrão, porém a atividade amilolítica não apresentou diferença significativa comparada com o padrão. As linhagens de Mucor sp., Pithomyces sp. e Staphylococcus sp. produziram atividade proteolítica abaixo do padrão. Nenhum isolado apresentou atividade celulolítica.The isolation and identification of microorganisms that produce enzyme of commercial interest utilizing tubers of yam bean legume (Pachyrrizus erosus L. Urban was the main objective of this work. Endophytic and epiphytic microorganisms were isolated by micromorphologyc observation. The agar diffusion method was used to determine the enzymatic activity. Sixty-eight isolates from yam bean tubers were cultured at 280 C in solid medium specific to amylase, lipase, protease and cellulase for 96h. The epiphytic microorganisms Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% and Trichoderma (5,8% and the endophytic microorganisms Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3% Bacillus (19%, Staphylococcus (10,3% and Nocardiopsis (15% were isolated. Compared to the specific standard culture Nocardiopsis sp. showed

  10. In situ detection, isolation, and physiological properties of a thin filamentous microorganism abundant in methanogenic granular sludges: a novel isolate affiliated with a clone cluster, the green non-sulfur bacteria, subdivision I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Y; Takahashi, H; Kamagata, Y; Ohashi, A; Harada, H

    2001-12-01

    We previously showed that very thin filamentous bacteria affiliated with the division green non-sulfur bacteria were abundant in the outermost layer of thermophilic methanogenic sludge granules fed with sucrose and several low-molecular-weight fatty acids (Y. Sekiguchi, Y. Kamagata, K. Nakamura, A. Ohashi, H. Harada, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65:1280-1288, 1999). Further 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) cloning-based analysis revealed that the microbes were classified within a unique clade, green non-sulfur bacteria (GNSB) subdivision I, which contains a number of 16S rDNA clone sequences from various environmental samples but no cultured representatives. To investigate their function in the community and physiological traits, we attempted to isolate the yet-to-be-cultured microbes from the original granular sludge. The first attempt at isolation from the granules was, however, not successful. In the other thermophilic reactor that had been treating fried soybean curd-manufacturing wastewater, we found filamentous microorganisms to outgrow, resulting in the formation of projection-like structures on the surface of granules, making the granules look like sea urchins. 16S rDNA-cloning analysis combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization revealed that the projections were comprised of the uncultured filamentous cells affiliated with the GNSB subdivision I and Methanothermobacter-like cells and the very ends of the projections were comprised solely of the filamentous cells. By using the tip of the projection as the inoculum for primary enrichment, a thermophilic, strictly anaerobic, filamentous bacterium, designated strain UNI-1, was successfully isolated with a medium supplemented with sucrose and yeast extract. The strain was a very slow growing bacterium which is capable of utilizing only a limited range of carbohydrates in the presence of yeast extract and produced hydrogen from these substrates. The growth was found to be significantly stimulated when the strain was

  11. Rapid isolation of a facultative anaerobic electrochemically active bacterium capable of oxidizing acetate for electrogenesis and azo dyes reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nan; Yuan, Shi-Jie; Wu, Chao; Cheng, Yuan-Yuan; Song, Xiang-Ning; Li, Wen-Wei; Tong, Zhong-Hua; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-05-01

    In this study, 27 strains of electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) were rapidly isolated and their capabilities of extracellular electron transfer were identified using a photometric method based on WO3 nanoclusters. These strains caused color change of WO3 from white to blue in a 24-well agar plate within 40 h. Most of the isolated EAB strains belonged to the genera of Aeromonas and Shewanella. One isolate, Pantoea agglomerans S5-44, was identified as an EAB that can utilize acetate as the carbon source to produce electricity and reduce azo dyes under anaerobic conditions. The results confirmed the capability of P. agglomerans S5-44 for extracellular electron transfer. The isolation of this acetate-utilizing, facultative EBA reveals the metabolic diversity of environmental bacteria. Such strains have great potential for environmental applications, especially at interfaces of aerobic and anaerobic environments, where acetate is the main available carbon source.

  12. Sedimentibacter sp. With corrosive capability, Ferric-reducing, isolated from an oil separation tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Jimenez, G.; Loera, O.; Ramirez, F.; Monroy, O.; Fernandez-Linares, L. C.

    2009-01-01

    Bio corrosion is a common problem in oil and gas industry facilities. characterization of the microbial populations responsible for bio corrosion and the interactions between different microorganisms with metallic surfaces is required in order to implemented efficient monitoring and control strategies. (Author)

  13. Isolation of native soil microorganisms with potential for breaking down biodegradable plastic mulch films used in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Graham; Lind, Margaret; Ely, Andrew; Powell, Marianne; Moore-Kucera, Jennifer; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra; Brodhagen, Marion

    2013-05-10

    Fungi native to agricultural soils that colonized commercially available biodegradable mulch (BDM) films were isolated and assessed for potential to degrade plastics. Typically, when formulations of plastics are known and a source of the feedstock is available, powdered plastic can be suspended in agar-based media and degradation determined by visualization of clearing zones. However, this approach poorly mimics in situ degradation of BDMs. First, BDMs are not dispersed as small particles throughout the soil matrix. Secondly, BDMs are not sold commercially as pure polymers, but rather as films containing additives (e.g. fillers, plasticizers and dyes) that may affect microbial growth. The procedures described herein were used for isolates acquired from soil-buried mulch films. Fungal isolates acquired from excavated BDMs were tested individually for growth on pieces of new, disinfested BDMs laid atop defined medium containing no carbon source except agar. Isolates that grew on BDMs were further tested in liquid medium where BDMs were the sole added carbon source. After approximately ten weeks, fungal colonization and BDM degradation were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were identified via analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This report describes methods for fungal isolation, but bacteria also were isolated using these methods by substituting media appropriate for bacteria. Our methodology should prove useful for studies investigating breakdown of intact plastic films or products for which plastic feedstocks are either unknown or not available. However our approach does not provide a quantitative method for comparing rates of BDM degradation.

  14. Isolation of Native Soil Microorganisms with Potential for Breaking Down Biodegradable Plastic Mulch Films Used in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailes, Graham; Lind, Margaret; Ely, Andrew; Powell, Marianne; Moore-Kucera, Jennifer; Miles, Carol; Inglis, Debra; Brodhagen, Marion

    2013-01-01

    Fungi native to agricultural soils that colonized commercially available biodegradable mulch (BDM) films were isolated and assessed for potential to degrade plastics. Typically, when formulations of plastics are known and a source of the feedstock is available, powdered plastic can be suspended in agar-based media and degradation determined by visualization of clearing zones. However, this approach poorly mimics in situ degradation of BDMs. First, BDMs are not dispersed as small particles throughout the soil matrix. Secondly, BDMs are not sold commercially as pure polymers, but rather as films containing additives (e.g. fillers, plasticizers and dyes) that may affect microbial growth. The procedures described herein were used for isolates acquired from soil-buried mulch films. Fungal isolates acquired from excavated BDMs were tested individually for growth on pieces of new, disinfested BDMs laid atop defined medium containing no carbon source except agar. Isolates that grew on BDMs were further tested in liquid medium where BDMs were the sole added carbon source. After approximately ten weeks, fungal colonization and BDM degradation were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Isolates were identified via analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. This report describes methods for fungal isolation, but bacteria also were isolated using these methods by substituting media appropriate for bacteria. Our methodology should prove useful for studies investigating breakdown of intact plastic films or products for which plastic feedstocks are either unknown or not available. However our approach does not provide a quantitative method for comparing rates of BDM degradation. PMID:23712218

  15. Profile of antimicrobial susceptibility isolated microorganisms from hospitalized patients in PICU ward and detection of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ESBL-producing bacteria by phenotypic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Abbas Poor

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital-acquired infections are a major challenge to patient. A range of gram-negative organisms are responsible for hospital-acquired infections, the Enterobacteriaceae family being the most commonly identified group overall. Infections by ESBL producers are associated with severe adverse clinical outcomes that have led to increased mortality, prolonged hospitalization, and rising medical costs. The aim of this study was to survey profile of antimicrobial susceptibility isolated microorganisms from hospitalized patients in PICU ward and detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and ESBL-producing bacteria by phenotypic methods. Material and Methods: In this study participants were patients hospitalized in PICU part of Bahrami Hospital, Tehran, with attention to involved organ. For isolation of bacteria from patient’s samples, culture performed on different selective and differential media. After confirmation of bacteria by biochemical tests, susceptibility testing was performed by disc diffusion method. Phenotypic detection of MRSA strains was performed using cefoxcitin disc. ESBL producing strains were detected by ceftazidime (CAZ and ceftazidime/clavulanic acid (CAZ/CLA discs. Results: Among all isolated organisms from clinical samples, the most common isolated organisms were Escherichia coli (24 cases, Pseudomonas areoginosa (9 cases and Staphylococcus aureus (8 cases, respectively. Among eight MRSA isolated strains from different clinical samples, six strains (75% were MRSA. Among 52 isolated gram negative organisms, 5 strains (9/6% were ESBL. Conclusion: Standard interventions to prevent the transmission of antimicrobial resistance in health care facilities include hand hygiene, using barrier precautions in the care of colonized and infected patients, using dedicated instruments and equipment for these patients. The colonized or infected patients should be isolated in single rooms, multibed rooms or areas

  16. Isolation, Screening and Development of Local Bacterial Consortia With Azo Dyes Decolourising Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijah, O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1540 bacterial isolates were isolated and screened for their ability to degrade selected azo dyes. Of these, nine isolates were chosen for further studies based on their ability to degrade a wide spectrum of dyes efficiently and rapidly. Several microbial consortia were developed and tested for their effectiveness. Overall the consortia were able to degrade 70 - 100% colour within 72 hours compared to 60 – 97% colour removed by individual isolates. A microbial consortium labelled C15 showed good growth in agitation culture but the colour removal was best in static culture with 80 - 100% colour removed in less than 72 hours. Based on the 16S rRNA sequencing, two of the bacterial isolates in C15 belong to the Chryseobacterium genus while the other one belongs to Flavobacterium genus.

  17. Aerobic and facultative microorganisms isolated from corroded metallic structures in a hydroeletric power unit in the amazon region of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Amabel Fernandes; Segoviae, Jorge Federico Orellana; Bezerra, Roberto Messias; Gonçalves, Magda Celeste Alvares; Ornelas, Sócrates Souza; Silveira, Dâmaris; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Diniz, Sérgio Paulo Severo de Souza; Kanzaki, Luis Isamu Barros

    2010-01-01

    Aerobic and facultative bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, Corynebacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae families have been isolated from corroded metallic structures of a hydroelectric power unit in the Amazon region of Brazil. In addition to anamorphic dematiaceous and moniliaceous fungi, members of the archeobacteria kingdom were also detected in the same samples. Scanning electron micrographs of metal bars cultivated with consortia of the isolated micro...

  18. Ventilator-associated pneumonia at a tertiary-care center in a developing country: incidence, microbiology, and susceptibility patterns of isolated microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanafani, Zeina A; Kara, Layla; Hayek, Shady; Kanj, Souha S

    2003-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) complicates the course of up to 24% of intubated patients. Data from the Middle East are scarce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence, microbiology, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of isolated microorganisms in VAP in a developing country. Prospective observational cohort study. The American University of Beirut Medical Center, a tertiary-care center that serves as a major referral center for Lebanon and neighboring countries. All patients admitted to the intensive care and respiratory care units from March to September 2001, and who had been receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours, were included in the study. Results of samples submitted for culture were recorded and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolated pathogens was performed. Seventy patients were entered into the study. The incidence of VAP was 47%. Gram-negative bacilli accounted for 83% of all isolates. The most commonly identified organism was Acinetobacter anitratus, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fifty percent of all gram-negative bacterial isolates were classified as antibiotic resistant. Compared with patients without VAP, patients with VAP remained intubated for a longer period and stayed in the intensive care unit longer. VAP was not associated with an increased mortality rate. Compared with other studies, the results from this referral center in Lebanon indicate a higher incidence of VAP and a high prevalence of resistant organisms. These data are relevant because they direct the choice of empiric antibiotic therapy for VAP.

  19. Fermented corn flour poisoning in rural areas of China. III. Isolation and identification of main toxin produced by causal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W J; Chen, X M; Meng, H D; Meng, Z H

    1989-03-01

    Flavotoxin A was isolated from Pseudomonas cocovenenans subsp. farinofermentans culture in semisolid potato-dextrose-agar medium, which was isolated from fermented corn meal that had caused food poisoning outbreaks in China. The isolation, purification, and chemical structure of this toxin were studied. The NMR spectra, the uv spectra, and molar extinction coefficients, and the mass spectra of Flavotoxin A are in good agreement with those reported for bongkrekic acid. Therefore, Flavotoxin A and bongkrekic acid are the same organic chemical compound; the molecular formula is C28H38O7. The oral LD50 of the purified Flavotoxin A in mice was 3.16 mg/kg (1.53-6.15 mg/kg). The existence of bongkrekic acid in toxic fermented corn samples collected during food poisoning outbreaks was also confirmed. It is concluded that bongkrekic acid has played an important role in the outbreaks of fermented corn poisoning.

  20. Accompaniment of the biomass growth and synthesis of biosurfactants by microorganism isolated in oil wells; Acompanhamento do crescimento da biomassa e sintese de biosurfactantes por microorganismos isolados de pocos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, Ana Katerine de Carvalho Lima; Araujo, Manuelle Meike Silva de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica]. E-mail: manuelle@eq.ufrn.br; Macedo, Gorete Ribeiro de [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2003-07-01

    Biosurfactants are structurally diversified groups of active surface molecules synthesized by microorganisms as bacteria and fungi, cultivated in several carbon sources such as sucrose and hydrocarbons. These molecules, composed by a part hydrophilic and other hydrophobic one, they act preferentially in the interface among the flowing phases with different polarities linking interfaces oil/water or water/oil reducing the superficial tensions and interfacial among these phases. They have been used in environmental applications, such as bioremediation of soils, treatment of contaminated water fountains and in cleaning process of tanks and equipment. Oil reservoirs present conditions where some microorganisms can grow. These microorganisms when isolated and cultivated at laboratory can be characterized with relation to surfactants production. In this work, microorganisms were isolated of oil wells and the biosurfactants producers were selected, among the isolated ones, to form a culture bank with potential application in environmental pollution treatment and advanced oil recovery. A microorganism stump of the developed bank was cultivated in sucrose and hydrocarbon medium and the biosurfactant production was evaluated by superficial tension measurement. The microorganism biomass production was evaluated by optical density using a spectrophotometer and the substratum consumption by Dns method. (author)

  1. Degradation of /sup 14/C-parathion 'in vitro' by microorganisms isolated from a gley humic soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea, M.M. de; Ruegg, E.F. (Instituto Biologico, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Radioisotopos)

    It was determined 'in vitro' the degradation of Parathion by a bacterium and a fungus isolated from a sample of Gley Humic soil previously treated with repeated applications of the insecticide. In a qualitative colorimetric assay hydrolysis of parathion to p-nitrophenol just the bacterium gave a positive answer. In quantitative assays of /sup 14/C-parathion degradation in culture media containing both microorganisms, organic solvents extractions resulted in organic and aqueous phases, which were analysed by liquid scintillation counting and thin-layer chromatography. In a mineral salts medium plus buffer, the bacterium and the fungus behaved differently from the control, because part of the /sup 14/C-insecticide was metabolized to, at least, one metabolite and besides, the microorganisms presented smaller percentages of total recovery. The largest percentage of the radio carbon recovery from the extracts of the medium containing the fungus plus extract of yeast, was obtained from the aqueous phase and the existence of other metabolite was demonstrated by chromatograms of the organic phase.

  2. Bioremediation capability and characterization of bacteria isolated from petroleum contaminated soils in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golafarin Ghoreishi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to isolate bacteria for bioremediation of petroleum polluted soils. Five samples were used for isolation in this study. They were four soil samples in addition to one kerosene sample. The soil samples including soils contaminated by crude oil and gas oil and two soil samples with no outward contamination which were collected from Shiraz Oil Refinery sites. Seven strains were selected among the isolated colonies for further experiments. The selected isolates were cultured in standard succinate medium (SSM minimal medium in which 2.5% v/v kerosene was used as carbon source. In another bacterial SSM culture, carbon, sulfur or nitrogen source was removed and 20% v/v kerosene added to check the ability of isolates to utilizekerosene as sole source for C, N and S. Finally, cultures of four strains with higher growth in modified SSM cultures were selected for GC analysis. In this study they were named C2 and C4 which were isolated from crude oil contaminated soil and SI1 and SI2 isolated from soils with no outward contamination. GC analysis showed that C2 could degrade 69% of 5% v/v kerosene in 7 d, while C4 and SI1 degraded 48% and 42% of 5% v/v kerosene during this 7-d period respectively, and the degradation ability of SI2 was 38% after 7 d. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene showed that C2 was close to Citrobacter sedlakii, C4 and SI1 were related to Entrobacter hormeachei and SI2 was close to Entrobacter cloacae, respectively.

  3. Radioresistant microorganisms and food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, H [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1976-01-01

    This paper deals with Micrococcus radiodurans, Arthrobacter radiotolerance, etc., which were isolated and discovered as radioresistant microorganisms. As for the explanation of the mechanism of radioresistance of these microorganisms, the consideration that these organisms have marked repair power of the damaged DNA and have many opportunity to repair the damaged DNA because of their long fission term were cited. The relationship between the radioresistance of microorganisms and food irradiation was also mentioned.

  4. Transformation of the insecticide teflubenzuron by microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkelstein, Z.I.; Baskunov, B.P.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Boersma, M.G.; Vervoort, J.; Golovleva, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Transformation of teflubenzuron, the active component in the insecticide commercialized as Nomolt, by soil microorganisms was studied. It was shown that microorganisms, belonging to Bacillus, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter genera are capable to perform the hydrolytic cleavage of the

  5. A universal protocol for the combined isolation of metabolites, DNA, long RNAs, small RNAs, and proteins from plants and microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valledor, Luis; Escandón, M.; Meijón, M.; Nukarinen, E.; Jesús Cañal, M.; Weckwerth, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 1 (2014), s. 173-180 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0256 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : systems biology * combined isolation * RNA * small RNA * proteins * metabolites * Chlamydomonas reinhardtii * Arabidopsis thaliana * Populus sp. * Pinus sp. * technical advance Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  6. Isolation and lipid degradation profile of Raoultella planticola strain 232-2 capable of efficiently catabolizing edible oils under acidic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimori, Daisuke; Watanabe, Mika; Utsue, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    The lipids (fats and oils) degradation capabilities of soil microorganisms were investigated for possible application in treatment of lipids-contaminated wastewater. We isolated a strain of the bacterium Raoultella planticola strain 232-2 that is capable of efficiently catabolizing lipids under acidic conditions such as in grease traps in restaurants and food processing plants. The strain 232-2 efficiently catabolized a mixture (mixed lipids) of commercial vegetable oil, lard, and beef tallow (1:1:1, w/w/w) at 20-35 °C, pH 3-9, and 1,000-5,000 ppm lipid content. Highly effective degradation rate was observed at 35 °C and pH 4.0, and the 24-h degradation rate was 62.5 ± 10.5 % for 3,000 ppm mixed lipids. The 24-h degradation rate for 3,000 ppm commercial vegetable oil, lard, beef tallow, mixed lipids, and oleic acid was 71.8 %, 58.7 %, 56.1 %, 55.3 ± 8.5 %, and 91.9 % at pH 4 and 30 °C, respectively. R. planticola NBRC14939 (type strain) was also able to efficiently catabolize the lipids after repeated subculturing. The composition of the culture medium strongly influenced the degradation efficiency, with yeast extract supporting more complete dissimilation than BactoPeptone or beef extract. The acid tolerance of strain 232-2 is proposed to result from neutralization of the culture medium by urease-mediated decomposition of urea to NH(3). The rate of lipids degradation increased with the rates of neutralization and cell growth. Efficient lipids degradation using strain 232-2 has been achieved in the batch treatment of a restaurant wastewater.

  7. Of the 25 isolates studied, 88% had genes capable of killing insect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roderick L. Rolle

    2013-07-24

    Jul 24, 2013 ... observed under polarized microscopy for the presence of crystal proteins (Ejiofor ... and reverse primers were used to target 47 crystal and two cytolytic gene sequences in ... viewed using the imaging system Gel Doc 2000™ of BIO-RAD ... isolates. A MachTM –T1R E. coli strain was the competent cell line.

  8. Characterization of microorganisms isolated from the black dirt of toilet bowls and componential analysis of the black dirt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miho; Nagata, Yusuke; Niizeki, Kazuma; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    We have previously conducted a microflora analysis and examined the biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms. In the present investigation, to reveal the strain involved in the formation of black dirt in toilet bowls, we performed a microflora analysis of the bacteria and fungi isolated from the black dirt of toilet bowls at ten homes. Among samples from different isolation sites and sampling seasons, although a similar tendency was not seen in bacterial microflora, Exophiala sp. was detected in the fungal microflora from all samples of black dirt except for one, and constituted the major presence. By scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis of the formed black dirt, SEM image at × 1,000 and × 5,000 magnification showed objects like hyphae and many bacteria adhering to them, respectively. Micro fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (micro FT-IR) and SEM with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-XMA) were used to investigate the components of black dirt. IR spectra of micro-FT-IR showed typical absorptions associated with amide compounds and protein, and the elements such as C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, and Ba were detected with SEM-XMA. These results showed that black dirt had living body ingredients. Furthermore, Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains, which were observed at a high frequency, accumulated 2-hydroxyjuglone (2-HJ) and flaviolin as one of the intermediates in the melanin biosynthetic pathway by the addition of a melanin synthesis inhibitor (tricyclazole) at the time of cultivation. These results suggested strongly that the pigment of black dirt in toilet bowls was melanin produced by Exophiala sp. and Cladosporium sp. strains.

  9. Microorganisms of Grape Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kántor Attila

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Grape surface is an unstable habitat that changes greatly according to the stage of grape ripening. Different bacteria and yeasts can colonise the surface of grape berry and the diversity of microorganisms depends on the stage of ripening, pesticide application and health condition. The aim of this study was to study the microflora of the surface of grape berries. Altogether, 19 grape samples from Slovakia were collected. The spread plate method was applied and a 100 μL inoculum of each dilution (10−2, 10−3 was plated on TSA, MEA, and MRS agar for isolation of microorganisms from grapes. Proteins were extracted from cells by ethanol/formic acid extraction procedure. MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry was used for identification of microorganisms. In total, 11 genera of Gram-negative bacteria, 11 of Gram-positive bacteria and nine of yeasts were identified. Among 200 isolates, Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts represented 11%, 27% and 62% of the total number of isolates studied. The most common genera of isolated yeasts were Hanseniaspora (37%, Metschnikowia (31%, and Rhodotorula (10%. The most frequently isolated among Gram-negative bacteria were Acinetobacter (22%, Pseudomonas (22% and Sphingomonas (13%. The most common genera of Gram-positive bacteria were Bacillus (20%, Lactobacillus (19%, Leuconostoc and Staphylococcus (11%, respectively.

  10. Microorganisms isolated from cultures and infection focus and antibiotic treatments in febrile neutropenic children from Şanlıurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Z Canan; Koç, Ahmet; Ayçiçek, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy induced febrile neutropenia predisposes patients to life threatening infections. We aimed to determine the causative microorganisms, infection focus and antibiotic treatment success in febrile neutropenic children with leukemia. A total of 136 febrile neutropenic episodes in 48 leukemic children were reviewed retrospectively from records. Among 136 febrile neutropenic episodes, 68 (50%) episodes were microbiologically documented. Methicillin sensitive coagulase (-) Staphylococcus aureus were the most common isolates from hemoculture (20.5%). The most frequently documented infection focus was mucositis (31.9%). Ceftazidime plus amikacin was the most commonly used antimicrobial treatment for the empirical therapy (52.9%). The overall response rates were 70.5%, 86.9%, and 66.6% of first line, second line and third line therapies, respectively. The spectrum of isolates among febrile neutropenic children in our hematology clinic appears to be gram positive pathogens which are the most common agents. Therefore the, documentation of the flora in each unit could help to decide appropriate empirical therapy which is life saving.

  11. Isolation rooms for highly infectious diseases: an inventory of capabilities in European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusco, F M; Puro, V; Baka, A

    2009-01-01

    Isolation of patients with highly infectious diseases (HIDs) in hospital rooms with adequate technical facilities is essential to reduce the risk of spreading disease. The European Network for Infectious Diseases (EUNID), a project co-funded by European Commission and involving 16 European Union...... on prevailing circumstances. Sporadic HID cases can be managed in the available HIRs. HIRs could also have a role in the initial phases of an influenza pandemic. However, large outbreaks due to natural or to bioterrorist events will need management strategies involving healthcare facilities other than HIRs....

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Paracoccus sp. GSM2 Capable of Degrading Textile Azo Dye Reactive Violet 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun C. Bheemaraddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential bacterial strain GSM2, capable of degrading an azo dye Reactive Violet 5 as a sole source of carbon, was isolated from textile mill effluent from Solapur, India. The 16S rDNA sequence and phenotypic characteristics indicated an isolated organism as Paracoccus sp. GSM2. This strain exhibited complete decolorization of Reactive Violet 5 (100 mg/L within 16 h, while maximally it could decolorize 800 mg/L of dye within 38 h with 73% decolorization under static condition. For color removal, the most suitable pH and temperature were pH 6.0–9.0 and 25–40°C, respectively. The isolate was able to decolorize more than 70% of five structurally different azo dyes within 38 h. The isolate is salt tolerant as it can bring out more than 90% decolorization up to a salt concentration of 2% (w/v. UV-Visible absorption spectra before and after decolorization suggested that decolorization was due to biodegradation and was further confirmed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Overall results indicate the effectiveness of the strain GSM2 explored for the treatment of textile industry effluents containing various azo dyes. To our knowledge, this could be the first report on biodegradation of Reactive Violet 5 by Paracoccus sp. GSM2.

  13. Environmental Assessment for the Above Ground Storage Capability at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the nation’s only approved repository for the disposal of defense related/defense generated transuranic (TRU) and mixed hazardous TRU waste (henceforth called TRU waste). The mission of the WIPP Project is to realize the safe disposal of TRU waste from TRU waste generator sites in the Department of Energy waste complex. The WIPP Project was authorized by Title II, Section 213(a) of Public Law 96-164 (U. S. Congress 1979). Congress designated the WIPP facility “for the express purpose of providing a research and development facility to demonstrate the safe disposal of radioactive wastes resulting from the defense activities and programs of the United States exempted from regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).” The WIPP facility is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). Transuranic waste that is disposed in the WIPP facility is defined by Section 2(18) the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA) (U. S. Congress, 1992) as: “waste containing more than 100 nanocuries of alpha-emitting transuranic isotopes per gram of waste, with half-lives greater than 20 years, except for: (A) high-level radioactive waste; (B) waste that the Secretary has determined, with the concurrence of the Administrator, does not need the degree of isolation required by the disposal regulations; or (C) waste that the NRC has approved for disposal on a case-by-case basis in accordance with part 61 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR).

  14. Capability of the two microorganisms Bifidobacterium breve B632 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 to colonize the intestinal microbiota of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogna, Luca; Del Piano, Mario; Mogna, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The total number of bacteria present in the gut microbiota of a newborn is consistently lower than the average found in adults, with the extent of this difference being directly related to body weight and age. It could be assumed that a lower number of viable probiotic cells is necessary to achieve significant gut colonization in infants and children. This study assessed the capability of Bifidobacterium breve B632 (DSM 24706) and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 (DSM 16604), 2 strains able to significantly inhibit some gram-negative bacteria in vitro, to integrate into the intestinal microbiota of children. Ten healthy children aged an average of 5.7±2.6 were given an oily suspension containing B. breve B632 and B. breve BR03 for 21 consecutive days. The daily dose was 100 million live cells of each strain. Fecal specimens were collected and analyzed at the beginning (d0) and at the end of the study (d21). Total fecal bifidobacteria and coliforms have been quantified by microbiological plate counts. A significant increase in total fecal bifidobacteria (from 8.99 to 9.47 log10 CFU/g, P=0.042) and a parallel decrease in total coliforms (from 8.60 to 7.93 log10 CFU/g, P=0.048) was recorded after 21 days of supplementation. An oily suspension has proved an effective way of providing probiotics to children. A lower viable cells concentration was sufficient to mediate this effect in the light of the fact that the intestinal microbiota of children harbors a considerably smaller amount of total bacteria compared with adults. In addition to gut colonization in healthy children, B. breve B632 and B. breve BR03 were able to decrease total fecal coliforms, therefore supporting their potential specific use in colicky infants.

  15. Microbial iron cycling in acidic geothermal springs of Yellowstone National Park: Integrating molecular surveys, geochemical processes and isolation of novel Fe-active microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Kozubal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical, molecular, and physiological analyses of microbial isolates were combined to study the geomicrobiology of acidic iron oxide mats in Yellowstone National Park (YNP. Nineteen sampling locations from 11 geothermal springs were studied ranging in temperature from 53 to 84 °C and pH 2.4 to 3.6. All iron-oxide mats exhibited high diversity of crenarchaeal sequences from the Sulfolobales, Thermoproteales, and Desulfurococcales. The predominant Sulfolobales sequences were highly similar to Metallosphaera yellowstonensis str. MK1, previously isolated from one of these sites. Other groups of archaea were consistently associated with different types of iron oxide mats, including undescribed members of the phyla Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota. Bacterial sequences were dominated by relatives of Hydrogenobaculum spp. above 65-70 °C, but increased in diversity below 60 °C. Cultivation of relevant iron-oxidizing and iron-reducing microbial isolates included Sulfolobus str. MK3, Sulfobacillus str. MK2, Acidicaldus str. MK6, and a new candidate genus in the Sulfolobales referred to as Sulfolobales str. MK5. Strains MK3 and MK5 are capable of oxidizing ferrous iron autotrophically, while strain MK2 oxidizes iron mixotrophically. Similar rates of iron oxidation were observed for M. yellowstonensis str. MK1 and Sulfolobales str. MK5 cultures, and these rates are close to those measured in situ. Biomineralized phases of ferric iron varied among cultures and field sites, and included ferric oxyhydroxides, K-jarosite, goethite, hematite, and scorodite depending on geochemical conditions. Strains MK5 and MK6 are capable of reducing ferric iron under anaerobic conditions with complex carbon sources. The combination of geochemical and molecular data as well as physiological observations of isolates suggests that the community structure of acidic Fe mats is linked with Fe cycling across temperatures ranging from 53 to 88 oC.

  16. Historical isolation of the Galápagos carpenter bee (Xylocopa darwini despite strong flight capability and ecological amplitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Vargas

    Full Text Available Colonization across the Galápagos Islands by the carpenter bee (Xylocopa darwini was reconstructed based on distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes (cytochrome oxidase II (COII sequences and haplotype lineages. A total of 12 haplotypes were found in 118 individuals of X. darwini. Distributional, phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses suggest early colonization of most islands followed by historical isolation in two main groups: eastern and central-western islands. Evidence of recurrent inter-island colonization of haplotypes is largely lacking, despite strong flight capability and ecological amplitude of the species. Recent palaeogeographic data suggest that several of the current islands were connected in the past and thus the isolation pattern may have been even more pronounced. A contrast analysis was also carried out on 10 animal groups of the Galápagos Islands, and on haplotype colonization of seven animal and plant species from several oceanic archipelagos (the Galápagos, Azores, Canary Islands. New colonization metrics on the number of potential vs. inferred colonization events revealed that the Galápagos carpenter bee shows one of the most significant examples of geographic isolation.

  17. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  18. Progress in decontamination by halophilic microorganisms in saline wastewater and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Xuliang; Han Zhen; Bai Zhihui; Zhuang Guoqiang; Shim Hojae

    2010-01-01

    Environments with high-salt concentrations are often populated by dense microbial communities. Halophilic microorganisms can be isolated from different saline environments and different strains even belonging to the same genus have various applications. Wastewater and soil rich in both organic matter and salt are difficult to treat using conventional microorganisms typically found in wastewater treatment and soil bioremediation facilities. Studies on decontaminative capabilities and decontamination pathways of organic contaminants (i.e., aromatic compounds benzoate, cinnamate, 3-phenylpropionate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), heavy metals (i.e., tellurium, vanadium), and nutrients in the biological treatment of saline wastewater and soil by halophilic microorganisms are discussed in this review. - Review on the decontaminative capabilities of halophilic microorganisms in saline wastewater and soil.

  19. Progress in decontamination by halophilic microorganisms in saline wastewater and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang Xuliang, E-mail: xlzhuang@rcees.ac.c [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Bureau of Science and Technology for Resources and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100864 (China); Han Zhen [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Bai Zhihui; Zhuang Guoqiang [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100085 (China); Shim Hojae [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Macau, Macau (China)

    2010-05-15

    Environments with high-salt concentrations are often populated by dense microbial communities. Halophilic microorganisms can be isolated from different saline environments and different strains even belonging to the same genus have various applications. Wastewater and soil rich in both organic matter and salt are difficult to treat using conventional microorganisms typically found in wastewater treatment and soil bioremediation facilities. Studies on decontaminative capabilities and decontamination pathways of organic contaminants (i.e., aromatic compounds benzoate, cinnamate, 3-phenylpropionate, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), heavy metals (i.e., tellurium, vanadium), and nutrients in the biological treatment of saline wastewater and soil by halophilic microorganisms are discussed in this review. - Review on the decontaminative capabilities of halophilic microorganisms in saline wastewater and soil.

  20. Selection of mesophilic microorganisms with biodesulfuration capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madero, A; Mogollon, L. I; Mora, A.L; Osorio, L.F

    1998-01-01

    The development of bio desulfurization (BDS) processes for hydrocarbons requires fast and reliable methods for the screening of microorganisms. This work shows the results of the screening process for indigenous Colombian strains with a BDS potential capacity. The main criteria for the screening were the qualitative and quantitative determination of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) as the typical metabolite of the 4S specific pathway. Microorganisms were cultured by two methodologies, A and B, using DBT as the model compound. The quantitative determination of metabolites was made by HPLC. Thirteen strains were evaluated, including the strain Rhodococcus rhodocrous IGTS8, by methods A and B. In method A, the inoculum was exposed to DBT since the beginning of the culture. Method B, employed two stages: (i) Growth period under limiting sulfur conditions, (ii) Transforming period, in which the pre-grown inoculum was exposed to the organic sulfur substrate. The culture of mesophilic microorganisms isolated by method B, served to find a mechanism for the organic sulfur metabolism, and the evaluation of the sulfur removal capability of five indigenous strains. In the cultures of these strains, 2- hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) was detected as a byproduct of DBT metabolism, both qualitatively and quantitatively

  1. Ammonia Production by Ruminal Microorganisms and Enumeration, Isolation, and Characterization of Bacteria Capable of Growth on Peptides and Amino Acids from the Sheep Rumen

    OpenAIRE

    Eschenlauer, S. C. P.; McKain, N.; Walker, N. D.; McEwan, N. R.; Newbold, C. J.; Wallace, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    Excessive NH3 production in the rumen is a major nutritional inefficiency in ruminant animals. Experiments were undertaken to compare the rates of NH3 production from different substrates in ruminal fluid in vitro and to assess the role of asaccharolytic bacteria in NH3 production. Ruminal fluid was taken from four rumen-fistulated sheep receiving a mixed hay-concentrate diet. The calculated rate of NH3 production from Trypticase varied from 1.8 to 19.7 nmol mg of protein−1 min−1 depending on...

  2. Mycotoxin production capability of Penicillium roqueforti in strains isolated from mould-ripened traditional Turkish civil cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Songul; Gurses, Mustafa; Hayaloglu, A Adnan; Cetin, Bulent; Sekerci, Pinar; Dagdemir, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Mould-ripened civil is a traditional cheese produced mainly in eastern Turkey. The cheese is produced with a mixture of civil and whey curd cheeses (lor). This mixture is pressed into goat skins or plastic bags and is ripened for more than three months. Naturally occurring moulds grow on the surface and inside of the cheese during ripening. In this research, 140 Penicillium roqueforti strains were isolated from 41 samples of mould-ripened civil cheese collected from Erzurum and around towns in eastern Turkey. All strains were capable of mycotoxin production and were analysed using an HPLC method. It was established that all the strains (albeit at very low levels) produced roquefortine C, penicillic acid, mycophenolic acid and patulin. The amounts of toxins were in the ranges 0.4-47.0, 0.2-43.6, 0.1-23.1 and 0.1-2.3 mg kg(-1), respectively. Patulin levels of the samples were lower than the others. The lowest level and highest total mycotoxin levels were determined as 1.2 and 70.1 mg kg(-1) respectively. The results of this preliminary study may help in the choice of secondary cultures for mould-ripened civil cheese and other mould-ripened cheeses.

  3. Technological Potential of Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from Fermented Green Olives: In Vitro Studies with Emphasis on Oleuropein-Degrading Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Iorizzo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Technological properties of two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (B3 and B11 and one of Lactobacillus pentosus (B4, previously isolated from natural fermented green olives, have been studied in vitro. Acidifying ability, salt, temperature, and pH tolerances of all strains were found in the range reported for similar strains produced in Italy and optimal growth conditions were found to be 6.0–8.0 pH, 15–30°C temperature, and less than 6% NaCl. Moreover, all strains showed very good tolerance to common olive phenol content (0.3% total phenol and high oleuropein-degrading capability. It was found that medium composition affected the bacterial oleuropein degradation. B11 strain grown in a nutrient-rich medium showed a lower oleuropein-degrading action than when it was cultivated in nutrient-poor medium. Furthermore, enzymatic activity assays revealed that oleuropein depletion did not correspond to an increase of hydroxytyrosol, evidencing that bacterial strains could efficiently degrade oleuropein via a mechanism different from hydrolysis.

  4. Ecological aspects of microorganisms inhabiting uranium mill tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C.L.; Landa, E.R.; Updegraff, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Numbers and types of microorganisms in uranium mill tailings were determined using culturing techniques. Arthrobacter were found to be the predominant microorganism inhabiting the sandy tailings, whereas Bacillus and fungi predominated in the slime tailings. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, capable of leaching radium, were isolated in low numbers from tailings samples but were isolated in significantly high numbers from topsoil in contact with the tailings. The results are placed in the context of the magnitude of uranium mill tailings in the United States, the hazards posed by the tailings, and how such hazards could be enhanced or diminished by microbial activities. Patterns in the composition of the microbial population are evaluated with respect to the ecological variables that influence microbial growth. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  5. Bioremediation of trinitrotolulene by a ruminal microorganism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Taejin; Williamson, K.J.; Craig, A.M. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1995-10-01

    2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been widely used for the production of explosives because of its low boiling point, high stability, low impact sensitivity, and safe manufacture. More than 1,100 military facilities, each potentially contaminated with munitions waste, are expected to require treatment of more than one million cubic yards of contaminated soils. The cost associated with remediation of these sites has been estimated to be in excess of $1.5 billion. Recently, researchers have studied ruminal microorganisms in relation to their ability to degrade xenobiotic compounds. Many of these organisms are strict anaerobes with optimal redox potentials as low as -420 mV. Ruminal organisms have been shown capable of destroying some pesticides, such as parathion, p-nitrophenol, and biphenyl-type compounds; thiono isomers, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic plant toxins such as the pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Many of these compounds have structures similar to TNT. A TNT-degrading ruminal microorganism has been isolated from goat rumen fluid with successive enrichments on triaminotoluene (TAT) and TNT. The isolate, designated G.8, utilizes nitrate and lactate as the primary energy source. G.8 was able to tolerate and metabolite levels of TNT up to the saturation point of 125 mg/l.

  6. Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms isolated from waste vegetable oil contaminated soil using plate methodologies. Eugenia G. Ortiz Lechuga, Isela Quintero Zapata, Katiushka Arévalo Niño ...

  7. Crude oil degradation by Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microorganisms capable of degrading crude oil were isolated from soil compost in Kano, northwestern Nigeria. The work was carried out with the aim of determining crude-oil biodegradation potentials of Bacillus and Micrococcus species isolated from the soil compost as well as the assessment of the applicability of ...

  8. Producing Biosurfactants from Purified Microorganisms Obtained from Oil-contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Mokhtarian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of soil by crude oil can pose serious problems to ecosystems. Soil washing by solutions containing biosurfactants is one of the most efficient methods for the remediation of contaminated soil by crude oil because it removes not only the crude oil but also heavy metals. In this study, five soil samples were taken from fields exposed to oil compounds over the years in order to produce biosurfactants from microorganisms that were capable of degrading oil compounds. Sixteen such microorganisms were isolated. After cultivation, their emulsification strength was examined using E24 test. From among the experimental microorganisms, a gram-negative and rod-shape microorganism called A-12 showed the greatest value of the E24 test index (36%. For each liter of the culture medium containing 365 mg of microorganisms, 3 gr of the biosurfactant compound was produced and separated as dried powder. The purified biosurfactant was used in the soil washing process. Also, the insulated microorganisms were capable of degrading crude oil floating on wastewaters.

  9. Identification of subsurface microorganisms at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetzenbach, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    Bacteria isolated from ground water samples taken from 31 springs during 1993 were collected and processed according to procedures described in earlier reports. These procedures required aseptic collection of surface water samples in sterile screw-capped containers, transportation to the HRC microbiology laboratory, and culture by spread plating onto R2A medium. The isolates were further processed for identification using a gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) extracted from cell membranes. This work generated a presumptive identification of 113 bacterial species distributed among 45 genera using a database obtained from Microbial ID, Inc., Newark, Delaware (MIDI). A preliminary examination of the FAME data was accomplished using cluster analysis and principal component analysis software obtained from MIDI. Typically, bacterial strains that cluster at less than 10 Euclidian distance units have fatty acid patterns consistent among members of the same species. Thus an organism obtained from one source can be recognized if it is isolated again from the same or any other source. This makes it possible to track the distribution of organisms and monitor environmental conditions or fluid transport mechanisms. Microorganisms are seldom found as monocultures in natural environments. They are more likely to be closely associated with other genera with complementary metabolic requirements. An understanding of the indigenous microorganism population is useful in understanding subtle changes in the environment. However, classification of environmental organisms using traditional methods is not ideal because differentiation of species with small variations or genera with very similar taxonomic characteristics is beyond the capabilities of traditional microbiological methods

  10. Degradation of 2,4-D herbicide by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian contaminated soil Degradação do herbicida 2,4-D por microrganismos isolados de solo contaminado do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane M. Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to isolate microorganisms from Brazilian soil contaminated with 2,4-D herbicide, and analyze the efficiency for 2,4D degradation, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Serratia marcescens and Penicillium sp had never been reported as able to degrade 2,4-D. The isolated strains represent a great potential for bioremediation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar microrganismos de solo brasileiro contaminado com o herbicida 2,4-D, e analisar a eficiência da degradação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. Serratia marcescens e Penicillium sp jamais haviam sido relatadas como degradadoras de 2,4-D. As linhagens isoladas representam um grande potencial em biorremediação.

  11. Electrode Cultivation and Interfacial Electron Transport in Subsurface Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbelkar, A. A.; Jangir, Y.; Reese, B. K.; Wanger, G.; Anderson, C.; El-Naggar, M.; Amend, J.

    2016-12-01

    Continental subsurface environments can present significant energetic challenges to the resident microorganisms. While these environments are geologically diverse, potentially allowing energy harvesting by microorganisms that catalyze redox reactions, many of the abundant electron donors and acceptors are insoluble and therefore not directly bioavailable. Microbes can use extracellular electron transfer (EET) as a metabolic strategy to interact with redox active surfaces. This process can be mimicked on electrode surfaces and hence can lead to enrichment and quantification of subsurface microorganisms A primary bioelectrochemical enrichment with different oxidizing and reducing potentials set up in a single bioreactor was applied in situ to subsurface microorganisms residing in iron oxide rich deposits in the Sanford Underground Research Facility. Secondary enrichment revealed a plethora of classified and unclassified subsurface microbiota on both oxidizing and reducing potentials. From this enrichment, we have isolated a Gram-positive Bacillus along with Gram-negative Cupriavidus and Anaerospora strains (as electrode reducers) and Comamonas (as an electrode oxidizer). The Bacillus and Comamonas isolates were subjected to a detailed electrochemical characterization in half-reactors at anodic and cathodic potentials, respectively. An increase in cathodic current upon inoculation and cyclic voltammetry measurements confirm the hypothesis that Comamonas is capable of electron uptake from electrodes. In addition, measurements of Bacillus on anodes hint towards novel mechanisms that allow EET from Gram-positive bacteria. This study suggests that electrochemical approaches are well positioned to dissect such extracellular interactions that may be prevalent in the subsurface, while using physical electrodes to emulate the microhabitats, redox and geochemical gradients, and the spatially dependent interspecies interactions encountered in the subsurface. Electrochemical

  12. Isolation of novel bacteria within the Chloroflexi capable of reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3-trichloropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J; Rash, B A; Rainey, F A; Moe, W M

    2009-04-01

    Two strictly anaerobic bacterial strains were isolated from contaminated groundwater at a Superfund site located near Baton Rouge, LA, USA. These strains represent the first isolates reported to reductively dehalogenate 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Allyl chloride (3-chloro-1-propene), which is chemically unstable, was produced from 1,2,3-trichloropropane, and it was hydrolysed abiotically to allyl alcohol and also reacted with the sulfide- and cysteine-reducing agents in the medium to form various allyl sulfides. Both isolates also dehalogenated a variety of other vicinally chlorinated alkanes (1,2-dichloropropane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane) via dichloroelimination reactions. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) approach targeting 16S rRNA genes indicated that both strains couple reductive dechlorination to cell growth. Growth was not observed in the absence of hydrogen (H2) as an electron donor and a polychlorinated alkane as an electron acceptor. Alkanes containing only a single chlorine substituent (1-chloropropane, 2-chloropropane), chlorinated alkenes (tetrachlorothene, trichlorothene, cisdichloroethene, trans-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride) and chlorinated benzenes (1-chlorobenzene and 1,2- dichlorobenzene) were not dechlorinated. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence data showed these isolates to represent a new lineage within the Chloroflexi. Their closest previously cultured relatives are 'Dehalococcoides' strains, with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of only 90%.

  13. Isolation and characterization of a novel native Bacillus thuringiensis strain BRC-HZM2 capable of degrading chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songqing; Peng, Yan; Huang, Zhangmin; Huang, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Ivan, Gelbič; Guan, Xiong; Zhang, Lingling; Zou, Shuangquan

    2015-03-01

    Studies were carried out to isolate chlorpyrifos degrading Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from chlorpyrifos-contaminated samples. Six Bt strains (isolation rate 2.7%) were isolated by modified sodium acetate antibiotic heat treatment, and one novel strain (BRC-HZM2) was selected for further analysis. Phenotype and phylogeny analysis of this strain was conducted on the basis of biochemical reactions, antibiotic sensitivity, 16s rRNA genes, plasmid profile, insecticidal crystal protein profiles, and PCR-RFLP for cry and cyt genes. The degradation rate of chlorpyrifos in liquid culture was estimated during 48 h of incubation for the isolate BRC-HZM2. More than 50% of the initial chlorpyrifos concentration degraded within 12 h, 88.9% after 48 h. These results highlight the potential of the Bt strain for biological control and the bioremediation of environments contaminated with chlorpyrifos. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Microorganisms in food technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A H

    1981-11-01

    Man has been using microorganisms for thousands of years to make bread, cheese, beer, wine, etc. Today, microorganisms can be specially grown or genetically manipulated so as to synthesize high-quality proteins even from low-grade basic materials.

  15. Interactions of microorganisms isolated from gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis (Kaup).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrillón, M; Rico, R M; Arijo, S; Díaz-Rosales, P; Balebona, M C; Moriñigo, M A

    2005-09-01

    Four bacterial isolates from farmed gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata, included in a previous study as members of the Vibrionaceae and Pseudomonodaceae and the genus Micrococcus, have been evaluated for their adhesive ability to skin and intestinal mucus of farmed Senegalese sole, Solea senegalensis, and their antagonistic effect on Vibrio harveyi, a pathogen of sole. These isolates showed higher adhesion to sole mucus than the pathogenic strains of V. harveyi assayed. Only two of the isolates showed antagonistic activity to V. harveyi. Interactions of the four isolates with V. harveyi in respect of adhesion to skin and intestinal mucus under exclusion, competition and displacement conditions were studied. Three isolates were able to reduce the attachment to skin and intestinal sole mucus of a pathogenic strain of V. harveyi under displacement and exclusion conditions, but not under competition conditions. The in vivo probiotic potential of isolate Pdp11 was assessed by oral administration followed by challenge with the pathogenic V. harveyi strain Lg14/00. A group of 50 Senegalese sole received a commercial diet supplemented with 10(8) cfu g(-1) of lyophilized Lg14/00 for 15 days. A second group of fish received a non-supplemented commercial diet. After challenge the mortality of the fish receiving the diet supplemented with the potential probiotic isolate was significantly lower than that in the fish receiving the non-supplemented commercial diet. This study has shown that the ability to interfere with attachment of pathogens, as well as the adhesion to host surfaces, are suitable criteria for selection of candidate probiotics for use in the culture of Senegalese sole.

  16. Isolation and Screening of Microbes for The microorganism used as probiotics must be bio-safety, could be cheaply and easily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresnawati Purwadaria

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available produced, and suitable with the environment of the digestive track. Isolation was carried out from commercial culture (containing mixture of Bacillus spp., digestive tract (proventriculus, small intestine and large intestine of local and broiler chickens, and commercial yoghurts (fermented milk. Neutral and acidic nutrient agars (NA were used as the media at room temperature and in the aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Separate colonies were isolated, stained with Gram and spore staining and observed under the microscope. The bacteria which were Gram positive bacillus and can form spores were further identified. Eight different species of Bacillus spp.: B. laterosporus, B. coagulans, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. brevis B. bodius, B. pasteurii, and B. macroides were isolated from the commercial mixture. From the digestive tracts of local and broiler chickens, 13 bacteria and 2 yeasts were isolated, while 5 yeast were obtained from two commercial yoghurts. Those bacteria were facultative aerobic and only grew in neutral condition and not in acidic condition (pH 4.5, while the yeast were either facultative anaerobic also can grow in pH neutral and 4.5. The ability of each isolates to grow in the media containing mixture of minerals and glucose, sucrose or molasses were evaluated. Incubation was carried out in the shaker incubator at 40°C, 150 rpm for 48 hours. Dry matter of the biomass was determined as the growth parameter. All isolates of bacteria and yeast can grow in the substrate containing glucose, sucrose and molasses. Variance analyses show that there were interactions between kind of bacteria and carbon source or between kind of yeast and carbon source (P<0.05. Three isolates of bacteria that had highest production of biomass were B. coagulans on sucrose (the third for molasses, Sp. 9 on glucose, and B. apiarius on sucrose (the sixth on molasses. B. apiarius isolated from digestive tract of local chicken will be useful to be developed as

  17. Thermophilic microorganisms in biomining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Edgardo Rubén; Castro, Camila; Urbieta, María Sofía

    2016-11-01

    Biomining is an applied biotechnology for mineral processing and metal extraction from ores and concentrates. This alternative technology for recovering metals involves the hydrometallurgical processes known as bioleaching and biooxidation where the metal is directly solubilized or released from the matrix for further solubilization, respectively. Several commercial applications of biomining can be found around the world to recover mainly copper and gold but also other metals; most of them are operating at temperatures below 40-50 °C using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic microorganisms. Although biomining offers an economically viable and cleaner option, its share of the world´s production of metals has not grown as much as it was expected, mainly considering that due to environmental restrictions in many countries smelting and roasting technologies are being eliminated. The slow rate of biomining processes is for sure the main reason of their poor implementation. In this scenario the use of thermophiles could be advantageous because higher operational temperature would increase the rate of the process and in addition it would eliminate the energy input for cooling the system (bioleaching reactions are exothermic causing a serious temperature increase in bioreactors and inside heaps that adversely affects most of the mesophilic microorganisms) and it would decrease the passivation of mineral surfaces. In the last few years many thermophilic bacteria and archaea have been isolated, characterized, and even used for extracting metals. This paper reviews the current status of biomining using thermophiles, describes the main characteristics of thermophilic biominers and discusses the future for this biotechnology.

  18. Demulsification capabilities of a Microbacterium species for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mycomp

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... Key words: Biopolymer, demulsification, Microbacterium, demulsifier, ... demulsifier isolated from Microbacterium sp. on water ... Screening of microorganism ... Optimization of microbial demulsifier production using the.

  19. Glyphosate-Degrading Microorganisms from Industrial Activated Sludge

    OpenAIRE

    Balthazor, Terry M.; Hallas, Laurence E.

    1986-01-01

    A plating medium was developed to isolate N-phosphonomethylglycine (glyphosate)-degrading microorganisms, with glyphosate as the sole phosphorus source. Two industrial biosystems treating glyphosate wastes contained elevated microbial counts on the medium. One purified isolate metabolized glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid, mineralizing this accumulating intermediate during log growth. This microorganism has been identified as a Flavobacterium species.

  20. Microorganisms associated with the spoilage of avocado pear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microorganisms associated with the spoilage of Avocado pear, Persea americana fruits, purchased fresh from various markets in Benin City were investigated. The pour plate method was used for the isolation. A total of nine species of microorganisms were isolated and identified in this study. They comprise of seven ...

  1. A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou; Hou, Yubin

    2013-01-01

    We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d 31 coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices

  2. A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubin; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d31 coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices.

  3. A high-stability scanning tunneling microscope achieved by an isolated tiny scanner with low voltage imaging capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Hou, Yubin; Wang, Junting; Lu, Qingyou

    2013-11-01

    We present a novel homebuilt scanning tunneling microscope (STM) with high quality atomic resolution. It is equipped with a small but powerful GeckoDrive piezoelectric motor which drives a miniature and detachable scanning part to implement coarse approach. The scanning part is a tiny piezoelectric tube scanner (industry type: PZT-8, whose d31 coefficient is one of the lowest) housed in a slightly bigger polished sapphire tube, which is riding on and spring clamped against the knife edges of a tungsten slot. The STM so constructed shows low back-lashing and drifting and high repeatability and immunity to external vibrations. These are confirmed by its low imaging voltages, low distortions in the spiral scanned images, and high atomic resolution quality even when the STM is placed on the ground of the fifth floor without any external or internal vibration isolation devices.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Alkaliphilus metalliredigens Strain QYMF, an Alkaliphilic and Metal-Reducing Bacterium Isolated from Borax-Contaminated Leachate Ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, C; Copeland, A; Lucas, S; Lapidus, A; Barry, K; Detter, J C; Glavina Del Rio, T; Hammon, N; Israni, S; Dalin, E; Tice, H; Pitluck, S; Chertkov, O; Brettin, T; Bruce, D; Han, C; Schmutz, J; Larimer, F; Land, M L; Hauser, L; Kyrpides, N; Mikhailova, N; Ye, Q; Zhou, J; Richardson, P; Fields, M W

    2016-11-03

    Alkaliphilus metalliredigens strain QYMF is an anaerobic, alkaliphilic, and metal-reducing bacterium associated with phylum Firmicutes QYMF was isolated from alkaline borax leachate ponds. The genome sequence will help elucidate the role of metal-reducing microorganisms under alkaline environments, a capability that is not commonly observed in metal respiring-microorganisms. Copyright © 2016 Hwang et al.

  5. Isolation of reovirus T3D mutants capable of infecting human tumor cells independent of junction adhesion molecule-A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana J M van den Wollenberg

    Full Text Available Mammalian Reovirus is a double-stranded RNA virus with a distinctive preference to replicate in and lyse transformed cells. On that account, Reovirus type 3 Dearing (T3D is clinically evaluated as oncolytic agent. The therapeutic efficacy of this approach depends in part on the accessibility of the reovirus receptor Junction Adhesion Molecule-A (JAM-A on the target cells. Here, we describe the isolation and characterization of reovirus T3D mutants that can infect human tumor cells independent of JAM-A. The JAM-A-independent (jin mutants were isolated on human U118MG glioblastoma cells, which do not express JAM-A. All jin mutants harbour mutations in the S1 segments close to the region that encodes the sialic acid-binding pocket in the shaft of the spike protein. In addition, two of the jin mutants encode spike proteins with a Q336R substitution in their head domain. The jin mutants can productively infect a wide range of cell lines that resist wt reovirus T3D infection, including chicken LMH cells, hamster CHO cells, murine endothelioma cells, human U2OS and STA-ET2.1 cells, but not primary human fibroblasts. The jin-mutants rely on the presence of sialic-acid residues on the cell surface for productive infection, as is evident from wheat germ agglutinin (WGA inhibition experiments, and from the jin-reovirus resistance of CHO-Lec2 cells, which have a deficiency of sialic-acids on their glycoproteins. The jin mutants may be useful as oncolytic agents for use in tumors in which JAM-A is absent or inaccessible.

  6. CATHARE2 V1.4 capability to simulate the performance of isolation condenser systems with thermal valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, P.

    2001-01-01

    ENEA (Italy) in co-operation with CEA (France) has carried out an R and D activity aimed at increasing the reliability of Decay Heat Removal (DHR) passive systems that implement in-pool heat exchangers. The main outcome reached was the definition of a device, called Thermal Valve (TV), able to avoid the installation of mechanical valve on the primary circuit, thus reducing thermalmechanical constrains and thermal-hydraulic instabilities. This paper presents a preliminary assessment performed with CATHARE of this innovative device. In the first part the code capability to simulate in-pool heat exchangers is verified against experimental data of the PANDA facility, that are available within the frame of the ISP 42. In the second part a CATHARE calculation showing the performances of the PANDA passive condenser with TV (start-up and shutdown) is described.(author)

  7. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelecom, Alphonse

    2002-03-01

    After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  8. Secondary metabolites from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KELECOM ALPHONSE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available After 40 years of intensive research, chemistry of marine natural products has become a mature field. Since 1995, there are signals of decreased interest in the search of new metabolites from traditional sources such as macroalgae and octocorals, and the number of annual reports on marine sponges stabilized. On the contrary, metabolites from microorganisms is a rapidly growing field, due, at least in part, to the suspicion that a number of metabolites obtained from algae and invertebrates may be produced by associated microorganisms. Studies are concerned with bacteria and fungi, isolated from seawater, sediments, algae, fish and mainly from marine invertebrates such as sponges, mollusks, tunicates, coelenterates and crustaceans. Although it is still to early to define tendencies, it may be stated that the metabolites from microorganisms are in most cases quite different from those produced by the invertebrate hosts. Nitrogenated metabolites predominate over acetate derivatives, and terpenes are uncommon. Among the latter, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes and carotenes have been isolated; among nitrogenated metabolites, amides, cyclic peptides and indole alkaloids predominate.

  9. A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, V.A.; Ott, C.M.; Garcia, V.M.; John, J.; Buttner, M.P.; Cruz, P.; Pierson, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The determination of risk from infectious disease during long-duration missions is composed of several factors including the concentration and the characteristics of the infectious agent. Thus, a thorough knowledge of the microorganisms aboard spacecraft is essential in mitigating infectious disease risk to the crew. While stringent steps are taken to minimize the transfer of potential pathogens to spacecraft, several medically significant organisms have been isolated from both the Mir and International Space Station (ISS). Historically, the method for isolation and identification of microorganisms from spacecraft environmental samples depended upon their growth on culture media. Unfortunately, only a fraction of the organisms may grow on a culture medium, potentially omitting those microorganisms whose nutritional and physical requirements for growth are not met. Thus, several pathogens may not have been detected, such as Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of Legionnaire s disease. We hypothesize that environmental analysis using non-culture-based technologies will reveal microorganisms, allergens, and microbial toxins not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. The development of techniques for this flight experiment, operationally named SWAB, has already provided advances in NASA laboratory processes and beneficial information toward human health risk assessment. The translation of 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing for the identification of bacteria from the SWAB experiment to nominal operations has increased bacterial speciation of environmental isolates from previous flights three fold compared to previous conventional methodology. The incorporation of molecular-based DNA fingerprinting using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) into the capabilities of the laboratory has provided a methodology to track microorganisms between crewmembers and their environment. Both 16S ribosomal DNA

  10. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from sputum culture of patients with cystic fibrosis: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a serious concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazloomi Nobandegani, Narges; Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Hosseinpour Sadeghi, Reihaneh; Najafi Sani, Mehri; Farahmand, Fateme; Motamed, Farzaneh; Nabavizadeh Rafsanjani, Raheleh; Mamishi, Setareh

    2016-11-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Antimicrobial resistance of the bacterial spp. particularly methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus has caused a lot of attention. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia-complex as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in CF patients in an Iranian referral pediatrics Hospital. From March 2011 until February 2012, 172 samples were collected at the Children Medical Center (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital in Tehran, Iran. Sputum specimens were cultured for the following bacterial pathogens: P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. cepacia complex. Antimicrobial susceptibility was performed according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations. In our study, 54% of the patients (n = 93) harbored at least once S. aureus, 30% (n = 52) P. aeruginosa, and 2% (n = 3) Burkholderia cepacia. In 40 patients (23%), none of these organisms was grown. An increasing colonization rate of P. aeruginosa in the second decade of life was found. In contrast, the colonization rate of S. aureus was constant in both decades of life. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was detected in 40 isolates (43%). Among MRSA, no resistance against vancomycin, linezolid and quinupristin/dalfopristin occurred. The susceptibility of P. aeruginosa isolates to meropenem, imipenem, doripenem, levofloxacin and polymixin B were more than 90%. The prevalence of MRSA has been rising. Since its impact on clinical outcomes, optimal prevention and treatment strategies are unclear, further studies to expand the knowledge about the infection control strategies and MRSA treatment are highly recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation of the opdE gene that encodes for a new hydrolase of Enterobacter sp. capable of degrading organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino-Flores, Concepción; Dantán-González, Edgar; Vázquez-Ramos, Alejandra; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Díaz-Méndez, Rafael; Sánchez-Salinas, Enrique; Castrejón-Godínez, Maria Luisa; Ramos-Quintana, Fernando; Ortiz-Hernández, Maria Laura

    2012-06-01

    Microbial enzymes that can hydrolyze organophosphorus compounds have been isolated, identified and characterized from different microbial species in order to use them in biodegradation of organophosphorus compounds. We isolated a bacterial strain Cons002 from an agricultural soil bacterial consortium, which can hydrolyze methyl-parathion (MP) and other organophosphate pesticides. HPLC analysis showed that strain Cons002 is capable of degrading pesticides MP, parathion and phorate. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA amplification were performed for strain characterization and identification, respectively, showing that the strain Cons002 is related to the genus Enterobacter sp. which has a single chromosome of 4.6 Mb and has no plasmids. Genomic library was constructed from DNA of Enterobacter sp. Cons002. A gene called opdE (Organophosphate Degradation from Enterobacter) consists of 753 bp and encodes a protein of 25 kDa, which was isolated using activity methods. This gene opdE had no similarity to any genes reported to degrade organophosphates. When kanamycin-resistance cassette was placed in the gene opdE, hydrolase activity was suppressed and Enterobacter sp. Cons002 had no growth with MP as a nutrients source.

  12. In vitro minocycline activity on superinfecting microorganisms isolated from chronic periodontitis patients Atividade in vitro de minociclina sobre microrganismos superinfectantes isolados de pacientes com periodontite crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Fernandes de Oliveira

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis is the most common type of periodontitis and it is associated with various species of microorganisms. Enteric rods, Pseudomonas, Staphyloccocus and Candida have been retrieved from periodontal pockets of patients with chronic periodontitis and correlated to cases of superinfection. Local or systemic antibiotic therapy is indicated to reinforce the effects of the conventional mechanical therapy. Minocycline has been suggested as one of the most effective drugs against periodontal pathogens. The aim of this work was to evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of minocycline on superinfecting microorganisms isolated from the periodontal pocket and the oral cavity of individuals with chronic periodontitis. Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae (n = 25, Staphylococcus spp. (n = 25, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 9 and Candida spp. (n = 25 were included in the study. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC of minocycline were determined using the Müeller-Hinton agar dilution method. Staphylococcus spp. isolates were the most sensitive to minocycline with a MIC of 8 µg/mL, followed by Enterobacteriaceae with a MIC of 16 µg/mL. The concentration of 16 µg/mL inhibited 96% of Candida spp. isolates. The MIC for 88.8% of the isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 128 µg/mL. A concentration of 1,000 µg/mL was not enough to inhibit 100% of the tested isolates.Periodontite crônica é a forma mais comum de periodontite e está associada a diversas espécies de microrganismos. Enterobactérias, Pseudomonas, Staphyloccocus e Candida têm sido recuperados de bolsas periodontais de indivíduos com periodontite crônica e implicados em casos de superinfecção. A terapia antimicrobiana local ou sistêmica pode ser utilizada para reforçar os efeitos da terapia mecânica convencional, e a minociclina tem sido sugerida como antimicrobiano eficaz frente a periodontopatógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a concentração inibit

  13. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  14. Extracellular electron transfer mechanisms between microorganisms and minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Liang; Dong, Hailiang; Reguera, Gemma; Beyenal, Haluk; Lu, Anhuai; Liu, Juan; Yu, Han-Qing; Fredrickson, James K.

    2016-08-30

    Electrons can be transferred from microorganisms to multivalent metal ions that are associated with minerals and vice versa. As the microbial cell envelope is neither physically permeable to minerals nor electrically conductive, microorganisms have evolved strategies to exchange electrons with extracellular minerals. In this Review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms that underlie the ability of microorganisms to exchange electrons, such as c-type cytochromes and microbial nanowires, with extracellular minerals and with microorganisms of the same or different species. Microorganisms that have extracellular electron transfer capability can be used for biotechnological applications, including bioremediation, biomining and the production of biofuels and nanomaterials.

  15. Radiation resistance of microorganisms on unsterilized infusion sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, E. Ahrensburg; Kristensen, H.; Hoborn, J.

    1991-01-01

    Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor in a steriliza......Three different methods were used for detecting and isolating microorganisms with high radiation resistance from the microbial contamination on infusion sets prior to sterilization. By all three methods, microorganisms with a radiation resistance high enough to be a critical factor...

  16. Biosurfactants from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suppasil Maneerat

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are the surface-active molecules synthesized by microorganisms. With the advantage of environmental compatibility, the demand for biosurfactants has been steadily increasing and may eventually replace their chemically synthesized counterparts. Marine biosurfactants produced by some marine microorganisms have been paid more attention, particularly for the bioremediation of the sea polluted by crude oil. This review describes screening of biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, the determination of biosurfactant activity as well as the recovery of marine surfactant. The uses of marine biosurfactants for bioremediation are also discussed.

  17. Study of radioresistance of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrichova, D.

    1983-01-01

    Strain radiosensitivity was evaluated on the basis of the determination of inactivation curve parameters and the determination of the D 10 value. The course of curves was investigated for two 60 Co sources, RCHM-gamma-20 (USSR) with an activity of 2.54x10 14 Bq and AECL (type J-6000, Canada) with an activity of 4.92x10 16 Bq. The curve parameters were determined for microorganisms in buffer medium and for cultures in dehydrated condition. Coccus germs were irradiated with doses of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 kGy and aerobic sporulates with doses of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 kGy. For comparing the resistance of isolated strains the t-test was used. The most resistant of the isolated strains were Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus megatherium. (E.S.)

  18. Microorganisms involved in MIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, K. [Danish Technological Institute (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a widespread problem that is difficult to detect and assess because of its complex mechanism. This paper presents the involvement of microorganisms in MIC. Some of the mechanisms that cause MIC include hydrogen consumption, production of acids, anode-cathode formation and electron shuttling. A classic bio-corrosive microorganism in the oil and gas industry is sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP). Methanogens also increase corrosion rates in metals. Some of the phylogenetic orders detected while studying SRP and methanogens are archaeoglobales, clostridiales, methanosarcinales and methanothermococcus. There were some implications, such as growth of SRP not being correlated with growth of methanogens; methanogens were included in MIC risk assessment. A few examples are used to display how microorganisms are involved in topside corrosion and microbial community in producing wells. From the study, it can be concluded that, MIC risk assessment includes system data and empirical knowledge of the distribution and number of microorganisms in the system.

  19. False identification of other microorganisms as Staphylococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: 507 microorganisms which have been previously identified as S. aureus in 8 States in Southern Nigeria through characteristic morphology on blood agar, Gram staining, growth and fermentation on Mannitol Salt Agar and coagulase formation were collected. All the isolates were identified in this study through ...

  20. Micro-Organ Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  1. Enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, Takashi; Nakajima, Akira; Tsuruta, Takehiko [Miyazaki Medical Coll., Kiyotake (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Some microorganisms having excellent ability to accumulate uranium were isolated, from soil and water systems in and around the Ningyo-toge Station of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The enhancement of uranium-accumulating ability of microorganisms by electron-beam irradiation was examined, and the ability of JW-046 was increased 3-5% by the irradiation. The irradiation affect the growth of some of microorganisms tested. (author)

  2. Bioemulsan Production by Iranian Oil Reservoirs Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amiriyan, M Mazaheri Assadi, VA Saggadian, A Noohi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The biosurfactants are believed to be surface active components that are shed into the surrounding medium during the growth of the microorganisms. The oil degrading microorganism Acinetobacter calcoaceticus RAG-1 produces a poly-anionic biosurfactant, hetero-polysaccharide bioemulsifier termed as emulsan which forms and stabilizes oil-water emulsions with a variety of hydrophobic substrates. In the present paper results of the possibility of biosurfactant (Emulsan production by microorganisms isolated from Iranian oil reservoirs is presented. Fourthy three gram negative and gram positive, non fermentative, rod bacilli and coccobacilli shaped baceria were isolated from the oil wells of Bibi Hakimeh, Siri, Maroon, Ilam , East Paydar and West Paydar. Out of the isolated strains, 39 bacterial strains showed beta haemolytic activity, further screening revealed the emulsifying activity and surface tension. 11 out of 43 tested emulsifiers were identified as possible biosurfactant producers and two isolates produced large surface tension reduction, indicating the high probability of biosurfactant production. Further investigation revealed that, two gram negative, oxidase negative, aerobic and coccoid rods isolates were the best producers and hence designated as IL-1, PAY-4. Whole culture broth of isolates reduced surface tension from 68 mN /m to 30 and 29.1mN/m, respectively, and were stable during exposure to high salinity (10%NaCl and elevated temperatures(120C for 15 min .

  3. Application of thermotolerant microorganisms for biofertilizer preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Yann-Shying; Yang, Shang-Shyng

    2007-12-01

    Intensive agriculture is practised in Taiwan, and compost application is very popular as a means of improving the soil physical properties and supplying plant nutrition. We tested the potential of inoculation with thermotolerant microorganisms to shorten the maturity and improve the quality of biofertilizer prepared by composting. Thermotolerant microorganisms were isolated from compost and reinoculated for the preparation of biofertilizer. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the biofertilizer were determined during composting. The effects of biofertilizer application on the growth and yield of rape were also studied. Among 3823 colonies of thermotolerant microorganisms, Streptomyces thermonitrificans NTU-88, Streptococcus sp. NTU-130 and Aspergillus fumigatus NTU-132 exhibited high growth rates and cellulolytic and proteolytic activities. When a mixture of rice straw and swine manure were inoculated with these isolates and composted for 61 days, substrate temperature increased initially and then decreased gradually during composting. Substrate pH increased from 7.3 to 8.5. Microbial inoculation enhanced the rate of maturity, and increased the content of ash and total and immobilized nitrogen, improved the germination rate of alfalfa seed, and decreased the content of total organic carbon and the carbon/nitrogen ratio. Biofertilizer application increased the growth and yield of rape. Inoculation of thermotolerant and thermophilic microorganisms to agricultural waste for biofertilizer preparation enhances the rate of maturity and improves the quality of the resulting biofertilizer. Inoculation of appropriate microorganisms in biofertilizer preparation might be usefully applied to agricultural situations.

  4. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 0189 1731. Available online at ... Marketing of fish in Nigeria is mostly carried out by local fish .... 8 (34.8). E. coli. 8 (17.8). 4 (18.2). 4 (17.4). Pseudomonas sp. 4 (8.9). 3 (13.6). 1 (4.4) .... related mould generally grow faster and are more ...

  5. The isolation and characterization of endophytic microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungi were identified by distinguishing between reproductive structures using a microculture technique. While observing diaphanized root fragments, we found arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi in the fine and coarse roots of H. marrubioides. The endophytic CR was more ...

  6. Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Microorganisms Isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benin, Benin City. 2 Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University .... 8 (34.8). E. coli. 8 (17.8). 4 (18.2). 4 (17.4). Pseudomonas sp. 4 (8.9). 3 (13.6). 1 (4.4) .... Sengor, G.F, Kalafatogu, H. and Gun, H. (2004).

  7. Fossil Microorganisms in Archaean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafleva, Marina; Hoover, Richard; Rozanov, Alexei; Vrevskiy, A.

    2006-01-01

    Ancient Archean and Proterozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. The first of Archean fossil microorganisms from Baltic shield have been reported at the last SPIE Conference in 2005. Since this confeence biomorphic structures have been revealed in Archean rocks of Karelia. It was determined that there are 3 types of such bion structures: 1. structures found in situ, in other words microorganisms even-aged with rock matrix, that is real Archean fossils biomorphic structures, that is to say forms inhabited early formed rocks, and 3. younger than Archean-Protherozoic minerali microorganisms, that is later contamination. We made attempt to differentiate these 3 types of findings and tried to understand of burial of microorganisms. The structures belongs (from our point of view) to the first type, or real Archean, forms were under examination. Practical investigation of ancient microorganisms from Green-Stone-Belt of Northern Karelia turns to be very perspective. It shows that even in such ancient time as Archean ancient diverse world existed. Moreover probably such relatively highly organized cyanobacteria and perhaps eukaryotic formes existed in Archean world.

  8. Capability Paternalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/269266224

    A capability approach prescribes paternalist government actions to the extent that it requires the promotion of specific functionings, instead of the corresponding capabilities. Capability theorists have argued that their theories do not have much of these paternalist implications, since promoting

  9. Isolation and partial characterization of a new strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae capable of high 1,3 propanediol production from glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycerol is a promising feedstock for microbial cultivation and production of 1,3 propanediol (1,3 PDO. Here we report a newly isolated bacterial strain BA11 from soil, capable of fermenting glycerol to 1,3 PDO, and has been identified to be a strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Strain BA11 was fast growing showing peak 1,3 PDO production in 6 h of cultivation with productivity of 1.2 g/L-h without the addition of Vitamin B12. Based on the optimum glycerol utilization (75% and 1,3 PDO production (8.3 g/L and yield (0.56 mol/mol glycerol utilized, the most appropriate glycerol concentration for cultivation was 20 g/L. The strain BA11 could tolerate the pH range of 6 to 8.5 as no inhibitory effects were seen on growth as well as 1,3 PDO production. Strain BA11 was most active and could produce high 1,3 PDO in the incubation temperature range of 25 to 40 oC. The production of 1,3 PDO was maximum (9.3 g/L under aerobic condition with 95.8% glycerol utilization. Addition of glucose to the glycerol fermentation led to increased cell mass but no improvement in the 1,3 PDO production.

  10. Bioplastics from microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, José M; García, Belén; Sandoval, Angel; Naharro, Germán; Olivera, Elías R

    2003-06-01

    The term 'biomaterials' includes chemically unrelated products that are synthesised by microorganisms (or part of them) under different environmental conditions. One important family of biomaterials is bioplastics. These are polyesters that are widely distributed in nature and accumulate intracellularly in microorganisms in the form of storage granules, with physico-chemical properties resembling petrochemical plastics. These polymers are usually built from hydroxy-acyl-CoA derivatives via different metabolic pathways. Depending on their microbial origin, bioplastics differ in their monomer composition, macromolecular structure and physical properties. Most of them are biodegradable and biocompatible, which makes them extremely interesting from the biotechnological point of view.

  11. Motion of magnetotactic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, D.M.S.; Barros, H.G. de P.L. de.

    1985-01-01

    Magnetic moments for different magnetotactic microorganisms are obtained by electron microscopy analyses and studies of motion by optical microscopy. The results are analysed in terms of a model due to C.Bean. The considerations presented suggest that magnetotaxy is an efficient mechanism for orientation only if the time for reorientation is smaller than the cycles of environmental perturbations. (Author) [pt

  12. Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Invertebrates-Derived Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Jung, Jee H; Liu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    It is known that marine invertebrates, including sponges, tunicates, cnidaria or mollusks, host affluent and various communities of symbiotic microorganisms. The microorganisms associated with the invertebrates metabolized various biologically active compounds, which could be an important resource for the discovery and development of potentially novel drugs. In this review, the new compounds with antimicrobial activity isolated from marine invertebrate-derived microorganisms in the last decade (2004-2014) will be presented, with focus on the relevant antimicrobial activities, origin of isolation, and information of strain species. New compounds without antimicrobial activity were not revealed.

  13. The role of microorganisms in the formation of pitch deposits in pulp and paper mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranger-Johannessen, M

    1984-01-01

    The cause of pitch deposit formation seems still not fully understood. The work reported here demonstrates that microorganisms effect the agglomeration of emulgated resin droplets and the formation of sticky precipitates. Pitch deposits from mills consist mainly of ethanol-soluble resins. It is also the ethanol-soluble fraction of wood resins which forms stable emulsions and which is easily agglomerated by microorganisms. Pitch deposits, collected from various pulp and paper mills, were all found to contain large amounts of microorganisms. Sterile resin emulsions prepared from pitch deposits remained stable over long periods. After inoculation with microorganisms the emulsions were destabilized and the resins completely precipitated as sticky lumps. Various bacteria and fungi are capable of agglomerating the resins, but species isolated from water, pulp and slime in paper mills were usually most effective. Resins from fresh wood were precipitated at a faster rate than aged resins. Problems of pitch formation can be considerably reduced when microbial growth is kept under control in the production system. To be effective, the control measures, e.g. slimicides, must be applied at the right place and time, and in the correct concentrations. This presupposes a thorough knowledge of the plant's microbiological condition which can only be obtained by microbiological examination. Practical cases of the appropriate application of biocides in pulp and paper mill systems are discussed.

  14. Application of 13C-stable isotope probing to identify RDX-degrading microorganisms in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Kun-Ching; Lee, Do Gyun; Roh, HyungKeun; Fuller, Mark E.; Hatzinger, Paul B.; Chu, Kung-Hui

    2013-01-01

    We employed stable isotope probing (SIP) with 13 C-labeled hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) to identify active microorganisms responsible for RDX biodegradation in groundwater microcosms. Sixteen different 16S rRNA gene sequences were derived from microcosms receiving 13 C-labeled RDX, suggesting the presence of microorganisms able to incorporate carbon from RDX or its breakdown products. The clones, residing in Bacteroidia, Clostridia, α-, β- and δ-Proteobacteria, and Spirochaetes, were different from previously described RDX degraders. A parallel set of microcosms was amended with cheese whey and RDX to evaluate the influence of this co-substrate on the RDX-degrading microbial community. Cheese whey stimulated RDX biotransformation, altered the types of RDX-degrading bacteria, and decreased microbial community diversity. Results of this study suggest that RDX-degrading microorganisms in groundwater are more phylogenetically diverse than what has been inferred from studies with RDX-degrading isolates. Highlights: •SIP identified sixteen groundwater bacteria capable of using RDX and/or its metabolites as a carbon source. •The RDX degraders in groundwater are phylogenetically diverse and different from known RDX degraders. •Cheese whey induced community shift and altered diversity of the RDX-degrading microorganisms over time. -- RDX-degrading bacteria in contaminated groundwater, identified by SIP with 13 C-labeled RDX, are phylogenetically diverse and different from known RDX degraders

  15. Inactivation of Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzamora, Stella Maris; Guerrero, Sandra N.; Schenk, Marcela; Raffellini, Silvia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    Minimal processing techniques for food preservation allow better retention of product flavor, texture, color, and nutrient content than comparable conventional treatments. A wide range of novel alternative physical factors have been intensely investigated in the last two decades. These physical factors can cause inactivation of microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures (e.g., high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, ultrasound, pulsed light, and ultraviolet light). These technologies have been reported to reduce microorganism population in foods while avoiding the deleterious effects of severe heating on quality. Among technologies, high-energy ultrasound (i.e., intensities higher than 1 W/cm2, frequencies between 18 and 100 kHz) has attracted considerable interest for food preservation applications (Mason et al., 1996; Povey and Mason, 1998).

  16. Properties of thermophilic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Microorganisms are called thermophilic or extreme thermophilic (caldo-active) if they grow and reproduce over 47 0 C and 70 0 C, respectively. A survey of growth characteristics of thermophiles is presented and it includes those which also live at extreme pH. The prevalent but not completely emcompassing theory of the ability of thermophiles to grow at high temperatures is that they have macromolecules and cell organelles with high thermostability. Work on some proteins and cell organelles from thermophiles is reviewed. The thermostabilities of these components are compared with those of the living cells, and factors which may govern optimum as well as minimum growth temperatures of microorganisms are discussed. Examples are from the literature but also include enzymes involved in tetrahydrofolate metabolism and other proteins of acetogenic therhmophilic bacteria which are presently studied in the author's laboratory

  17. Metal-microorganism interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, Y.; Thouand, G.; Redercher, S.; Boualam, M.; Texier, A.Cl.; Hoeffer, R.

    1997-01-01

    The physico-chemical procedures of treating the metalliferous effluents are not always adapted to de polluting the slightly concentrated industrial wastes. An alternative idea was advanced, implying the ability of some microorganisms to fix in considerable amounts the metal ions present in aqueous solutions, possibly in a selective way. This approach has been investigated thoroughly during the last 30 years, particularly from a mechanistic point of view. The advantage of the microorganisms lies mainly in the large diversity of bacteria and in their chemical state dependent interaction with metals, as well as, in the possibilities of developing their selective and quantitative separation properties. A biomass from Mycobacterium smegmatis, an acidic alcoholic resistant bacteria, has been used to prepare a bio-sorption support allowing the preferential sorption of thorium as compared to uranium and lanthanum. These studies have been extended to biological polymers such as chitosan and to studies related to bioaccumulation mechanisms and/or to the microbial resistances towards metals

  18. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O; Vogel, Timothy M; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-08-01

    Correctly identifying nearest "neighbors" of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned with

  19. Functional Basis of Microorganism Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengsheng; Delmont, Tom O.; Vogel, Timothy M.; Bromberg, Yana

    2015-01-01

    Correctly identifying nearest “neighbors” of a given microorganism is important in industrial and clinical applications where close relationships imply similar treatment. Microbial classification based on similarity of physiological and genetic organism traits (polyphasic similarity) is experimentally difficult and, arguably, subjective. Evolutionary relatedness, inferred from phylogenetic markers, facilitates classification but does not guarantee functional identity between members of the same taxon or lack of similarity between different taxa. Using over thirteen hundred sequenced bacterial genomes, we built a novel function-based microorganism classification scheme, functional-repertoire similarity-based organism network (FuSiON; flattened to fusion). Our scheme is phenetic, based on a network of quantitatively defined organism relationships across the known prokaryotic space. It correlates significantly with the current taxonomy, but the observed discrepancies reveal both (1) the inconsistency of functional diversity levels among different taxa and (2) an (unsurprising) bias towards prioritizing, for classification purposes, relatively minor traits of particular interest to humans. Our dynamic network-based organism classification is independent of the arbitrary pairwise organism similarity cut-offs traditionally applied to establish taxonomic identity. Instead, it reveals natural, functionally defined organism groupings and is thus robust in handling organism diversity. Additionally, fusion can use organism meta-data to highlight the specific environmental factors that drive microbial diversification. Our approach provides a complementary view to cladistic assignments and holds important clues for further exploration of microbial lifestyles. Fusion is a more practical fit for biomedical, industrial, and ecological applications, as many of these rely on understanding the functional capabilities of the microbes in their environment and are less concerned

  20. Capability ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological theories, virtue ethics, or pragmatism. As I will argue in this chapter, at present the core of the capability approach is an account of value, which together with some other (more minor) normative comm...

  1. Dynamic Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Niels Nolsøe; Stenger, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The findings reveal a positive relationship between dynamic capabilities and innovation performance in the case enterprises, as we would expect. It was, however, not possible to establish a positive relationship between innovation performance and profitability. Nor was there any positive...... relationship between dynamic capabilities and profitability....

  2. Capability ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe capability approach is one of the most recent additions to the landscape of normative theories in ethics and political philosophy. Yet in its present stage of development, the capability approach is not a full-blown normative theory, in contrast to utilitarianism, deontological

  3. No evidential correlation between veterinary antibiotic degradation ability and resistance genes in microorganisms during the biodegradation of doxycycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Wu, Yinbao

    2018-01-01

    Biodegradation of antibiotic residues in the environment by microorganisms may lead to the generation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which are of great concern to human health. The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a relationship between the ability to degrade antibiotic doxycycline (DOX) and the development of resistance genes in microorganisms. We isolated and identified ten bacterial strains from a vegetable field that had received long-term manure application as fertilizer and were capable of surviving in a series of DOX concentrations (25, 50, 80, and 100mg/L). Our results showed no evidential correlation between DOX degradation ability and the development of resistance genes among the isolated microorganisms that had high DOX degradation capability (P > 0.05). This was based on the fact that Escherichia sp. and Candida sp. were the most efficient bacterial strains to degrade DOX (92.52% and 91.63%, respectively), but their tetracycline resistance genes showed a relatively low risk of antibiotic resistance in a 7-day experiment. Moreover, the tetM of the ribosomal protection protein genes carried by these two preponderant bacteria was five-fold higher than that carried by other isolates (P genes of three isolates, except for Escherichia sp. and Candida sp., showed remarkable negative correlations (P < 0.05), mainly because tetG markedly increased during the DOX degradation process. Our results concluded that the biodegradation of antibiotic residues may not necessarily lead to the development of ARGs in the environment. In addition, the two bacteria that we isolated, namely, Escherichia sp. and Candida sp., are potential candidates for the engineering of environmentally friendly bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution, Metabolism and Biotechnological Usage of Methylotrophic Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Mosin; Ignat Ignatov

    2014-01-01

    Methylotrophs – aerobic chemoheterotrophic microorganisms submitted by cocci and bacilli mobile forms, are inhabitants of reservoirs and soils of various type, where there are going on various processes of decomposition of organic substances with formation of the one-carbon С1-compounds and some С2-, and С3-compounds, capable to be assimilated by methylotrophs. These microorganisms assimilating carbon on ribuloso-5-monophospate and serine pathways, are allocated from soil ground, the sewage c...

  5. New micro-organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takakuwa, Masayoshi; Hashimoto, Gotaro

    1987-09-12

    Invention relates with a new organism for the coal liquefying desulfurization. This micro-organism conducts a good sporulation on a culture medium which contains a coal as an only carbon source. It belongs to Penicillium and named Penicillium MT-6001 registered at Fermentation Research Institute No. 8463. Coal powder is thrown into a reaction vessel which accommodated a culture solution of this bacteria, and the surface of the solution is covered with liquid paraffin; coal powder is treated of liquefaction for about 5 hours while maintaining the anaerobic condition and slowly agitating to form a transparent solution layer on the surface of the reactor together with liquid paraffin. Liquefied product shows an analysis pattern similar to naphthenic petroleum containing a lipid with polar radical. (2 figs)

  6. Proteolysis in hyperthermophilic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald E. Ward

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Proteases are found in every cell, where they recognize and break down unneeded or abnormal polypeptides or peptide-based nutrients within or outside the cell. Genome sequence data can be used to compare proteolytic enzyme inventories of different organisms as they relate to physiological needs for protein modification and hydrolysis. In this review, we exploit genome sequence data to compare hyperthermophilic microorganisms from the euryarchaeotal genus Pyrococcus, the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the bacterium Thermotoga maritima. An overview of the proteases in these organisms is given based on those proteases that have been characterized and on putative proteases that have been identified from genomic sequences, but have yet to be characterized. The analysis revealed both similarities and differences in the mechanisms utilized for proteolysis by each of these hyperthermophiles and indicated how these mechanisms relate to proteolysis in less thermophilic cells and organisms.

  7. Gossiping Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Martin; Frey, Davide; Guerraoui, Rachid

    Gossip-based protocols are now acknowledged as a sound basis to implement collaborative high-bandwidth content dissemination: content location is disseminated through gossip, the actual contents being subsequently pulled. In this paper, we present HEAP, HEterogeneity Aware gossip Protocol, where...... nodes dynamically adjust their contribution to gossip dissemination according to their capabilities. Using a continuous, itself gossip-based, approximation of relative capabilities, HEAP dynamically leverages the most capable nodes by (a) increasing their fanouts (while decreasing by the same proportion...... declare a high capability in order to augment their perceived quality without contributing accordingly. We evaluate HEAP in the context of a video streaming application on a 236 PlanetLab nodes testbed. Our results shows that HEAP improves the quality of the streaming by 25% over a standard gossip...

  8. Screening and characterization of useful microorganisms to arsenic removal

    OpenAIRE

    宮武, 宗利; 林, 幸男

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms were isolated from soil and their arsenic removal abilities were evaluated. Seven out of the 100 isolated strains showed more than 20% arsenic removal. Time courses of arsenic removal and cell growth were investigated in three of these isolated strains. Although the growth rates were different, the dependence of arsenic removal on cell growth was similar in three strains (A-84, 88, 89). Strain A-89 showed highest arsenic removal rate of 63% after first day. Strain A-88 was best...

  9. Identification of Microorganisms by Modern Analytical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszewski, Bogusław; Rogowska, Agnieszka; Pomastowski, Paweł; Złoch, Michał; Railean-Plugaru, Viorica

    2017-11-01

    Rapid detection and identification of microorganisms is a challenging and important aspect in a wide range of fields, from medical to industrial, affecting human lives. Unfortunately, classical methods of microorganism identification are based on time-consuming and labor-intensive approaches. Screening techniques require the rapid and cheap grouping of bacterial isolates; however, modern bioanalytics demand comprehensive bacterial studies at a molecular level. Modern approaches for the rapid identification of bacteria use molecular techniques, such as 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing based on polymerase chain reaction or electromigration, especially capillary zone electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing. However, there are still several challenges with the analysis of microbial complexes using electromigration technology, such as uncontrolled aggregation and/or adhesion to the capillary surface. Thus, an approach using capillary electrophoresis of microbial aggregates with UV and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS detection is presented.

  10. Assessment of microorganisms from Indonesian Oil Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadarwati, S.; Udiharto, M.; Rahman, M.; Jasjfi, E.; Legowo, E.H. [Research and Development Centre for Oil and Gas Technology LEMIGAS, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum resources have been the mainstay of the national development in Indonesia. However, resources are being depleted after over a century of exploitation, while the demand continues to grow with the rapid economic development of the country. In facing the problem, EOR has been applied in Indonesia, such as the steamflooding project in Duri field, but a more energy efficient technology would be preferable. Therefore, MEOR has been recommended as a promising solution. Our study, aimed at finding indigenous microorganisms which can be developed for application in MEOR, has isolated microbes from some oil fields of Indonesia. These microorganisms have been identified, their activities studied, and the effects of their metabolisms examined. This paper describes the research carried out by LEMIGAS in this respect, giving details on the methods of sampling, incubation, identification, and activation of the microbes as well as tests on the effects of their metabolites, with particular attention to those with potential for application in MEOR.

  11. Insecticides and soil microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, I.Y.; Helal, G.A.; El-Zawahry, Y.A.

    1991-01-01

    The enzymatic degradation of C-labelled methomyl in the culture media of Rihizobium leguminosarum (isolated from Vicia feba nodules), Aspergillus fumigatus, A.niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium notatum (isolated from Allium cepa rhizophere) was studied. The results revealed that 36.5, 28.6,27.9,32.5 and 20.1% of the applied doses were metabolized into hydrolytic products by the above organisms, respectively. The thin layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform and aqueous fractions of the media showed that C-labelled methomyl underwent a process of breakdown by these organisms into some metabolites.4 tab

  12. Study of the virulence and cross-neutralization capability of recent porcine parvovirus field isolates and vaccine viruses in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeuw, E J L; Leinecker, N; Herwig, V; Selbitz, H-J; Truyen, U

    2007-02-01

    The pathogenicity of two recent German field isolates of Porcine parvovirus (PPV-27a and PPV-143a) and two vaccine viruses [PPV-NADL-2 and PPV-IDT (MSV)], which are used for the production of inactivated vaccines, was investigated by inoculation of pregnant sows at day 40 of gestation. Post-infection sera of these sows as well as antisera prepared in rabbits by immunization with the four above-mentioned PPV isolates and with the virulent strain PPV-Challenge (Engl.) were tested for their homologous and heterologous neutralization activities. All antisera had high neutralization activity against the vaccine viruses, the PPV-Challenge (Engl.) virus and PPV-143a, but much lower activity against PPV-27a. These results suggest that PPV-27a represents a new antigenic variant or type of PPV and vaccines based on the established vaccine viruses may not be fully protective against this field isolate. PPV-27a has been characterized based on the amino acid sequences of the capsid protein as a member of a new and distinct PPV cluster (Zimmermann et al., 2006). Interestingly, the homologous neutralizing antibody titres of the sera of all three pigs and both rabbits inoculated or immunized with PPV-27a were 100- to 1000-fold lower than the heterologous titres against any of the other viruses. The low homologous neutralizing antibody titres suggest a possible, yet undefined, immune escape mechanism of this PPV isolate.

  13. Isolation and Cultivation of Anaerobes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aragao Börner, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic microorganisms play important roles in different biotechnological processes. Their complex metabolism and special cultivation requirements have led to less isolated representatives in comparison to their aerobic counterparts.In view of that, the isolation and cultivation of anaerobic...

  14. Polysaccharides from Extremophilic Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaus, B.; Moriello, V. Schiano; Lama, L.; Poli, A.; Gambacorta, A.

    2004-02-01

    Several marine thermophilic strains were analyzed for exopolysaccharide production. The screening process revealed that a significant number of thermophilic microorganisms were able to produce biopolymers, and some of them also revealed interesting chemical compositions. We have identified four new polysaccharides from thermophilic marine bacteria, with complex primary structures and with different repetitive units: a galacto-mannane type from strain number 4004 and mannane type for the other strains. The thermophilic Bacillus thermantarcticus produces two exocellular polysaccharides (EPS 1, EPS 2) that give the colonies a typical mucous character. The exopolysaccharide fraction was produced with all substrates assayed, although a higher yield 400 mg liter-1 was obtained with mannose as carbon and energy source. NMR spectra confirmed that EPS 1 was a heteropolysaccharide of which the repeating unit was constituted by four different α-D-mannoses and three different β-D-glucoses. It seems to be close to some xantan polymers. EPS 2 was a mannan. Four different α-D-mannoses were found as the repeating unit. Production and chemical studies of biopolymers produced by halophilic archaea, Haloarcula species were also reported.

  15. Capability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal; Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    Lærebogen er den første samlede danske præsentation af den af Amartya Sen og Martha Nussbaum udviklede Capability Approach. Bogen indeholder en præsentation og diskussion af Sen og Nussbaums teoretiske platform. I bogen indgår eksempler fra såvel uddannelse/uddannelsespolitik, pædagogik og omsorg....

  16. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from mercury contaminated sites in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and assessment of methylmercury removal capability of a Pseudomonas putida V1 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Lucélia; Giovanella, Patrícia; Gianello, Clésio; Bento, Fátima Menezes; Andreazza, Robson; Camargo, Flávio Anastácio Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is one of the most dangerous heavy metal for living organisms that may be found in environment. Given the crescent industrialization of Brazil and considering that mercury is a residue of several industrial processes, there is an increasing need to encounter and develop remediation approaches of mercury contaminated sites. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize methylmercury resistant bacteria from soils and sludge sewage from Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Sixteen bacteria were isolated from these contaminated sites and some isolates were highly resistant to methylmercury (>8.7 μM). All the isolates were identified by 16S rDNA. Pseudomonas putida V1 was able to volatilize approximately 90 % of methylmercury added to growth media and to resist to copper, lead, nickel, chromate, zinc, cobalt, manganese and barium. In the presence of high concentrations of methylmercury (12 μM), cell growth was limited, but P. putida V1 was still able to remove up to 29 % of this compound from culture medium. This bacterium removed an average of 77 % of methylmercury from culture medium with pH in the range 4.0-6.0. In addition, methylmercury was efficiently removed (>80 %) in temperature of 21-25 °C. Polymerase chain reactions indicated the presence of merA but not merB in P. putida V1. The growth and ability of P. putida V1 to remove methylmercury in a wide range of pH (4.0 and 8.0) and temperature (10-35 °C), its tolerance to other heavy metals and ability to grow in the presence of up to 11.5 μM of methylmercury, suggest this strain as a new potential resource for degrading methylmercury contaminated sites.

  17. Plant growth promoting capability and genetic diversity of bacteria isolated from mud volcano and lime cave of Andaman and Nicobar Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopu Venkadesaperumal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Pantoea agglomerans and EM9 (Exiguobacterium sp. of 24 studied isolates. Seeds (Chili and tomato inoculation with plant growth promoting strains resulted in increased percentage of seedling emergence, root length and plant weight. Results indicated that co-inoculation gave a more pronounced effects on seedling emergence, secondary root numbers, primary root length and stem length, while inoculation by alone isolate showed a lower effect. Our results suggest that the mixed inocula of OM5 and EM9 strains as biofertilizers could significantly increase the production of food crops in Andaman archipelago by means of sustainable and organic agricultural system.

  18. Plant growth promoting capability and genetic diversity of bacteria isolated from mud volcano and lime cave of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkadesaperumal, Gopu; Amaresan, Natrajan; Kumar, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Twenty four bacterial strains from four different regions of mud volcano and lime cave were isolated to estimate their diversity, plant growth promoting and biocontrol activities to use them as inoculant strains in the fields. An excellent antagonistic effect against four plant pathogens and plant growth promoting properties such as IAA production, HCN production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, starch hydrolysis and hydrolytic enzymes syntheses were identified in OM5 (Pantoea agglomerans) and EM9 (Exiguobacterium sp.) of 24 studied isolates. Seeds (Chili and tomato) inoculation with plant growth promoting strains resulted in increased percentage of seedling emergence, root length and plant weight. Results indicated that co-inoculation gave a more pronounced effects on seedling emergence, secondary root numbers, primary root length and stem length, while inoculation by alone isolate showed a lower effect. Our results suggest that the mixed inocula of OM5 and EM9 strains as biofertilizers could significantly increase the production of food crops in Andaman archipelago by means of sustainable and organic agricultural system.

  19. Isolation and characterization of true mesenchymal stem cells derived from human term decidua capable of multilineage differentiation into all 3 embryonic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Maria I; Grande, Jesús; Moreno, Ana; Domínguez, Irene; Bornstein, Rafael; Flores, Ana I

    2010-11-01

    The objective of the study was to isolate and characterize a population of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from human term placental membranes. We isolated an adherent cell population from extraembryonic membranes. Morphology, phenotype, growth characteristics, karyotype, and immunological and differentiation properties were analyzed. The isolated placental MSCs were from maternal origin and named as decidua-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs). DMSCs differentiated into derivatives of all germ layers. It is the first report about placental MSC differentiation into alveolar type II cells. Clonally expanded DMSCs differentiated into all embryonic layers, including pulmonary cells. DMSCs showed higher life span than placental cells from fetal origin and proliferated without genomic instability. The data suggest that DMSCs are true multipotent MSCs, distinguishing them from other placental MSCs. DMSCs could be safely used in the mother as a potential source of MSCs for pelvic floor dysfunctions and immunological diseases. Additionally, frozen DMSCs can be stored for both autologous and allogeneic tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Autecology of microorganisms of typical Ecuador biotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashyrev, O B; Pidgorskyi, V S; Toro, Miguel Naranjo; Gualoto, Miguel; Gladka, G V; Tashyreva, H O; Rokitko, P V; Romanovskaya, V A

    2014-01-01

    34 strains of aerobic chemoorganotrophic microorganisms were isolated from 23 soil and plant samples selected from highland biotopes of Ecuador-Andes massif (Papallacta, 4020 m), ash at the foot of the volcano Tungurahua, mountainous jungle (La Favorita, 1600 m), as well as in humid tropic botanical garden (state Puyo, 950 m). In mountain jungle samples the high number of bacteria--10(5)-10(7) CFU/g of sample were represented by 2-5 morphotypes. In highland (4020 m) samples the bacterial counts made from 10(2) to 10(7) CFU/g of sample. The current study describes resistance of isolated strains to high salinity, UV radiation and toxic metal ions. The majority of isolated strains were halotolerant. Isolates from volcanic ash showed high resistance level to UV radiation--LD99,99 made 1000-1440 J/m2; resistance level for isolates from the soil of Puyo Botanical Garden and isolates from rock lichen (Papallacta) LD99,99 made 1160 and 800 J/m2 respectively. Strains isolated from mountain jungle (La Favorita) showed lower UV-resistance. In highland biotopes of Ecuador occurred bacteria resistant to toxic metal ions. The highest resistance to Hg2+ was shown by isolate of lichen from mountain jungle, the maximal growth concentration was 0.025 g/L; to Cr(VI)--by isolate from lichen rock massif--3,0 g/L. Correlation between metal-resistance, halotolerace and UV resistance for studied strains was not detected, probably because of different microbial cell damage/repair mechanisms under the action of these factors.

  1. Monitoring of psychrotrophic microorganisms in raw milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radka Burdychová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The group of psychrotrophic microorganisms belongs to the microorganisms representing a risk for human health as well as a risk of milk and milk products spoilage. Some genus are considered to be significant producers of proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. In this work, we analysed raw milk samples (n = 109 originated from 26 different suppliers from the area of North and Middle Moravia. The screening was performed from March 2007 to February 2008. The total bacterial counts (TBC ranged between 3.2 × 103 to 8.3 × 106 CFU/ml. The psychrotrophic bacterial counts (PBC ranged between 1.0 × 103 to 8.2 × 106 CFU/ml. Total of 48.62 % and 48.62 % of samples exceeded the hygienic limit in raw milk for TBC and PBC, respectively. The correlation between TBC and PBC was highly significant (r = 0.87.Significantly higher (P < 0.05 numbers of psychrotrophic microorganisms were detected in summer months. The identification of isolates was carried out and all strains were sreened for ability to produce proteolytic and lipolytic enzymes. The most commonly identified genus in raw milk was of the genus Pseudomonas. The ability to produce proteases or lipases was found at 76 % identified bacterial strains.

  2. ENTREPRENEURIAL CAPABILITIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Nielsen, Thorkild

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse entrepreneurship from an action research perspective. What is entrepreneurship about? Which are the fundamental capabilities and processes of entrepreneurship? To answer these questions the article includes a case study of a Danish entrepreneur and his networ....... Finally, the article discuss, how more long term action research methods could be integrated into the entrepreneurial processes and the possible impacts of such an implementation?...

  3. Role of Microorganisms in the Removal of Radionuclides from Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashandy, A.S.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to radio nuclides and their accumulation by bacteria is a wide spread phenomenon that can be explored for the improvement of the environment. Metal resistant bacteria have developed very efficient and varying mechanisms for tolerating high levels of. toxic metals and thus hold potential for controlling heavy metal pollution. This property has been successfully applied for metal removal from soil. A total of 59 microorganisms were isolated from 5 locations in Sinai Desert. The microorganisms were examined for resistance to strontium, cobalt and cesium by spot technique on two kinds of media containing metals, Nutrient agar and King B agar. The resistant microorganisms were identified morphologically by Gram stain. The microorganisms were resistant to Sr and Cs at concentrations up to 200 mg/I and while Co proved to be toxic at a concentration of 100 mg/ I. The mechanisms of metal resistance to high concentrations were studied. Evidence show that the isolated microorganisms can uptake high concentrations of the studied elements. The results also, indicated that no binding proteins are released in the environment of the studied isolate

  4. Biosorption of Cd, Cr, Mn, and Pb from aqueous solutions by Bacillus sp strains isolated from industrial waste activate sludge

    OpenAIRE

    García, Rocío; Campos, Juan; Cruz, Julio Alfonso; Calderón, Ma. Elena; Raynal, Ma. Elena; Buitrón, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The microorganisms are capable of accumulating heavy metal ions from water as biosorbent agents, offering a potential alternative for the detoxification and recovery of toxic/precious metals in industrial wastewater. In the present work, metal-resistant bacterial strains were isolated and identified from activated sludge of a waste treatment plant in the Municipality of Santa Rosa Jauregui, Querétaro. To obtain bacteria tolerant to metals, 37 bacterial strains and two isolates were s...

  5. Sulfide Generation by Dominant Halanaerobium Microorganisms in Hydraulically Fractured Shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Anne E.; Borton, Mikayla A.; Daly, Rebecca A.; Welch, Susan A.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hoyt, David W.; Wilson, Travis; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wolfe, Richard A.; Sharma, Shikha; Mouser, Paula J.; Cole, David R.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Wilkins, Michael J.; McMahon, Katherine

    2017-07-05

    ABSTRACT

    Hydraulic fracturing of black shale formations has greatly increased United States oil and natural gas recovery. However, the accumulation of biomass in subsurface reservoirs and pipelines is detrimental because of possible well souring, microbially induced corrosion, and pore clogging. Temporal sampling of produced fluids from a well in the Utica Shale revealed the dominance ofHalanaerobiumstrains within thein situmicrobial community and the potential for these microorganisms to catalyze thiosulfate-dependent sulfidogenesis. From these field data, we investigated biogenic sulfide production catalyzed by aHalanaerobiumstrain isolated from the produced fluids using proteogenomics and laboratory growth experiments. Analysis ofHalanaerobiumisolate genomes and reconstructed genomes from metagenomic data sets revealed the conserved presence of rhodanese-like proteins and anaerobic sulfite reductase complexes capable of converting thiosulfate to sulfide. Shotgun proteomics measurements using aHalanaerobiumisolate verified that these proteins were more abundant when thiosulfate was present in the growth medium, and culture-based assays identified thiosulfate-dependent sulfide production by the same isolate. Increased production of sulfide and organic acids during the stationary growth phase suggests that fermentativeHalanaerobiumuses thiosulfate to remove excess reductant. These findings emphasize the potential detrimental effects that could arise from thiosulfate-reducing microorganisms in hydraulically fractured shales, which are undetected by current industry-wide corrosion diagnostics.

    IMPORTANCEAlthough thousands of wells in deep shale formations across the United States have been hydraulically fractured for oil and gas recovery, the impact of microbial metabolism within these environments is poorly understood. Our

  6. Screening of biosurfactants from cloud microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancelme, Martine; Canet, Isabelle; Traikia, Mounir; Uhliarikova, Yveta; Capek, Peter; Matulova, Maria; Delort, Anne-Marie; Amato, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    The formation of cloud droplets from aerosol particles in the atmosphere is still not well understood and a main source of uncertainties in the climate budget today. One of the principal parameters in these processes is the surface tension of atmospheric particles, which can be strongly affected by trace compounds called surfactants. Within a project devoted to bring information on atmospheric surfactants and their effects on cloud droplet formation, we focused on surfactants produced by microorganisms present in atmospheric waters. From our unique collection of microorganisms, isolated from cloud water collected at the Puy-de-Dôme (France),1 we undertook a screening of this bank for biosurfactant producers. After extraction of the supernatants of the pure cultures, surface tension of crude extracts was determined by the hanging drop technique. Results showed that a wide variety of microorganisms are able to produce biosurfactants, some of them exhibiting strong surfactant properties as the resulting tension surface decreases to values less then 35 mN.m-1. Preliminary analytical characterization of biosurfactants, obtained after isolation from overproducing cultures of Rhodococcus sp. and Pseudomonas sp., allowed us to identify them as belonging to two main classes, namely glycolipids and glycopeptides. 1. Vaïtilingom, M.; Attard, E.; Gaiani, N.; Sancelme, M.; Deguillaume, L.; Flossmann, A. I.; Amato, P.; Delort, A. M. Long-term features of cloud microbiology at the puy de Dôme (France). Atmos. Environ. 2012, 56, 88-100. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the French-USA ANR SONATA program and the French-Slovakia programs Stefanik and CNRS exchange.

  7. Medical Significance of Microorganisms in Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark

    2007-01-01

    Microorganisms can spoil food supplies, contaminate drinking water, release noxious volatile compounds, initiate allergic responses, contaminate the environment, and cause infectious diseases. International acceptability limits have been established for bacterial and fungal contaminants in air and on surfaces, and environmental monitoring is conducted to ensure compliance. Allowable levels of microorganism in water and food have also been established. Environmental monitoring of the space shuttle, the Mir, and the ISS have allowed for some general conclusions. Generally, the bacteria found in air and on interior surfaces are largely of human origin such as Staphylococcus spp., Micrococcus spp. Common environmental genera such as Bacillus spp. are the most commonly isolated bacteria from all spacecraft. Yeast species associated with humans such as Candida spp. are commonly found. Aspergillus spp., Penicillium spp., and Cladosporium spp. are the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi. Microbial levels in the environment differ significantly depending upon humidity levels, condensate accumulation, and availability of carbon sources. However, human "normal flora" of bacteria and fungi can result in serious, life-threatening diseases if human immunity is compromised. Disease incidence is expected to increase as mission duration increases.

  8. Effects of temperature on biological activity of permafrost microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyonova, L F; Novikova, M A; Subbotin, A M; Bazhin, A S

    2015-04-01

    The number and viability of microorganism specimens Bacillus spp. isolated from permafrost soil remained unchanged after incubation at temperatures of -16-37°C. Experiments on F1 CBA/Black-6 mice showed that incubation of bacteria at -5°C for 72 h promotes a decrease in their toxicity and an increase in their immunostimulating effect.

  9. Isolation and characterization of a native strain of Aspergillus niger ZRS14 with capability of high resistance to zinc and its supernatant application towards extracellular synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morahem Ashengroph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Zinc oxide nanoparticles have quite a few applications in the fields of biology, optics, mechanics, magnetism, energy, hygiene and medicine. Due to serious problems associated with physiochemical synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, including environmental pollution, complicated and costly processes, there is a growing need to develop a simple biological procedure for synthesis of nanoparticles to achieve the monodisperse-sized particles with a higher purity, low energy consumption and a cleaner environment. We conducted this investigation to screen and isolate native fungi strains capable of high zinc metal tolerance ability and a potential for extracellular synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles using fungal secretions as biological catalysts.Materials and methods: 15 different strains of fungi were isolated from soil samples collected from lead and zinc mines of Angoran-Zanjan using conventional enrichment process and characterized initially based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics and colony morphology. The intrinsic tolerance of the isolated strains to zinc toxic metal was measured in the synthetic and complex media using the agar dilution method. The supernatants of isolated fungi were incubated with zinc acetate solution in a shaker incubator for 72h; then, the strain that was able to synthesis ZnO nanoparticle was identified. The ZnO nanoparticles formation was investigated by using spectroscopic techniques and microscopic observations.Results: Among the 15 isolated strains, the strain ZRS14 had highest zinc metal tolerance ability and was selected and identified as Aspergillus niger strain ZRS14 (GenBank accession number KF414527 based on morphological and molecular phylogenetic analysis. For synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles by isolated A. niger ZRS14, fungal cell-free filtrate of the strain was collected and incubated in the presence of zinc acetate solution at a final concentration of 250 mg/l zinc metal ion at 28º C for

  10. Dregs of our forgotten ancestors: fermentative microorganisms in the prehistory of Europe, the steppes and Indo-Iranian Asia, and their contemporary use in traditional and probiotic beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermentative microorganisms in the yeast genera Debaryomyces, Hyphopichia, Kluyveromyces, Lachancea, Saccharomyces, and Wickerhamomyces (and in the bacterial genus Lactobacillus) have been isolated from a variety of fermented beverages. These same microorganisms were very likely unknowingly utilized...

  11. Isolation and characterization of bacteria capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organophosphorus pesticides from PAH-contaminated soil in Hilo, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Su; Keum, Young-Soo; Harada, Renee M; Li, Qing X

    2007-07-11

    Nineteen bacterial strains were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soil in Hilo, HI, and characterized by two different spray-plated methods, turbidity test in liquid medium, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Analysis of the soil showed 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a range from 0.6 to 30 mg/kg of dry weight each and 12 PAH metabolites. Five distinct bacterial strains (C3, C4, P1-1, JS14, and JS19b1) selected from preliminary plating and turbidity tests were further tested for PAH degradation through single PAH degradation assay. Strains C3, C4, and P1-1 degraded phenanthrene (40 mg/L) completely during 7 days of incubation. Strain JS14 degraded fluoranthene (40 mg/L) completely during 10 days of incubation. Strain JS19b1 degraded 100% of phenanthrene (40 mg/L) in 7 days, 77% of fluorene (40 mg/L) in 14 days, 97% of fluoranthene (40 mg/L) in 10 days, and 100% of pyrene (40 mg/L) in 14 days. Turbidity tests showed that strains P1-1, JS14, and JS19b1 utilized several organophosphorus pesticides as growth substrate. P1-1 can degrade carbofenothion, chlorfenvinphos, diazinon, fonofos, and pirimiphos-methyl. JS14 can transform chlorfenvinphos and diazinon. JS19b1 can break down diazinon, pirimiphos-methyl, and temephos.

  12. 'Different strokes for different folks': geographically isolated strains of Lymnaea stagnalis only respond to sympatric predators and have different memory forming capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael V; Hittel, Karla; Lukowiak, Ken

    2009-07-01

    Gaining insight into how natural trait variation is manifest in populations shaped by differential environmental factors is crucial to understanding the evolution, ecology and sensory biology of natural populations. We have demonstrated that lab-reared Lymnaea detect and respond to the scent of a crayfish predator with specific, appropriate anti-predator behavioral responses, including enhanced long-term memory (LTM) formation, and that such predator detection significantly alters the electrophysiological activity of RPeD1, a neuron that is a necessary site for LTM formation. Here we ask: (1) do distinct populations of wild Lymnaea stagnalis respond only to sympatric predators and if so, can these traits be quantified at both the behavioral and neurophysiological levels, and (2) does the presence of a non-sympatric predator elicit anti-predator behaviors including augmentation of LTM? We tested three different populations of wild (i.e. not lab-reared) snails freshly collected from their natural habitat: (1) polders near Utrecht in The Netherlands, (2) six seasonally isolated ponds in the Belly River drainage in southern Alberta, Canada and (3) a 20-year-old human-made dugout pond in southern Alberta. We found strain-specific variations in the ability to form LTM and that only a sympatric predator evoked anti-predatory behaviors, including enhanced LTM formation and changes in RPeD1 activity.

  13. Ammonia production by human faecal bacteria, and the enumeration, isolation and characterization of bacteria capable of growth on peptides and amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The products of protein breakdown in the human colon are considered to be detrimental to gut health. Amino acid catabolism leads to the formation of sulfides, phenolic compounds and amines, which are inflammatory and/or precursors to the formation of carcinogens, including N-nitroso compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of protein breakdown and the bacterial species involved. Results Casein, pancreatic casein hydrolysate (mainly short-chain peptides or amino acids were incubated in vitro with suspensions of faecal bacteria from 3 omnivorous and 3 vegetarian human donors. Results from the two donor groups were similar. Ammonia production was highest from peptides, followed by casein and amino acids, which were similar. The amino acids metabolized most extensively were Asp, Ser, Lys and Glu. Monensin inhibited the rate of ammonia production from amino acids by 60% (P = 0.001, indicating the involvement of Gram-positive bacteria. Enrichment cultures were carried out to investigate if, by analogy with the rumen, there was a significant population of asaccharolytic, obligately amino acid-fermenting bacteria (‘hyper-ammonia-producing’ bacteria; HAP in the colon. Numbers of bacteria capable of growth on peptides or amino acids alone averaged 3.5% of the total viable count, somewhat higher than the rumen. None of these were HAP, however. The species enriched included Clostridium spp., one of which was C. perfringens, Enterococcus, Shigella and Escherichia coli. Conclusions Protein fermentation by human faecal bacteria in the absence of sugars not only leads to the formation of hazardous metabolic products, but also to the possible proliferation of harmful bacteria. The kinetics of protein metabolism were similar to the rumen, but HAP bacteria were not found.

  14. Atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais em cepas isoladas de infecção urinária Antibacterial activity of essential oils on microorganisms isolated from urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Santos Pereira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A análise da atividade antibacteriana de óleos essenciais de ervas medicinais (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf. e Salvia officinalis, L. foi verificada frente a 100 cepas de bactérias isoladas de indivíduos da comunidade com diagnóstico de infecção urinária. Os microrganismos foram semeados em ágar Muller Hinton e os extratos aplicados com replicador de Steers e incubados a 37°C por 24 horas. Verificou-se que Salvia officinalis, L. apresentou ação inibitória superior às outras ervas, tendo eficácia de 100% quando testadas em espécies de Klebsiella e Enterobacter, 96% em Escherichia coli, 83% contra Proteus mirabilis e 75% contra Morganella morganii.The antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from medicinal plants (Ocimum gratissimum, L., Cybopogum citratus (DC Stapf., and Salvia officinalis, L. was assessed on bacterial strains derived from 100 urine samples. Samples were taken from subjects diagnosed with urinary tract infection living in the community. Microorganisms were plated on Müller Hinton agar. Plant extracts were applied using a Steers replicator and petri dishes were incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Salvia officinalis, L. showed enhanced inhibitory activity compared to the other two herbs, with 100% efficiency against Klebsiella and Enterobacter species, 96% against Escherichia coli, 83% against Proteus mirabilis, and 75% against Morganella morganii.

  15. LIQUID CULTURE FOR ISOLATING MICROORGANISMS WITH POTENTIAL TO DEGRADE METHYL PARATHION FROM AGRICULTURAL SOILS AND ORGANIC WASTE CULTIVO LÍQUIDO PARA AISLAR MICROORGANISMOS CON POTENCIAL PARA DEGRADAR METIL PARATIÓN A PARTIR DE SUELOS AGRÍCOLAS Y RESIDUOS ORGÁNICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Botero

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for microorganisms with high capacity for pesticide degradation is a very interesting attempt to approach bioremediation strategies in order to prevent contamination. This study evaluates the potential of agricultural soils and solid organic waste cultures microbial isolation as a strategy for screening microorganisms with potential for Methyl parathion (MP degradation. For the study, microbial consortia were recovered from the liquid fraction of suspension cultures of agricultural soils and solid organic waste. Then, the MP degradation ability and its toxic effect on microbial activity were determined during microbial incubations under laboratory controlled conditions. The results showed that it is not possible to recover the active microorganisms that have potential to degrade the MP from the agricultural soils. However, an active consortium that would degrade both MP and its degradation products was isolated from the organic solid waste.La búsqueda de microorganismos con alta capacidad de degradación de los plaguicidas es un intento muy interesante de acercarse a las estrategias de biorremediación con el fin de evitar la contaminación. Este estudio evalúa el potencial del cultivo de microorganismos de suelos agrícolas y de residuos sólidos orgánicos como una estrategia para la detección de microorganismos con potencial para el metil paratión (MP la degradación. Para el estudio, consorcios microbianos fueron recuperados de la fracción líquida de los cultivos en suspensión de los suelos agrícolas y los residuos sólidos orgánicos. La capacidad de degradación de la MP y su efecto tóxico sobre la actividad microbiana se determinó durante las incubaciones de los microorganismos en condiciones controladas de laboratorio. Los resultados mostraron que no es posible recuperar los microorganismos activos que tienen potencial para degradar el MP de los suelos agrícolas. Sin embargo, un consorcio activo que degradar

  16. Microbiological efficacy of lomefloxacin and other drug's regarding microorganisms isolated from the human conjunctiva Atividade biocida da lomefloxacina em relação aos microorganismos isolados de conjuntiva humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Hofling-Lima

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate and compare the in vitro susceptibility of human conjunctival bacterial isolates to various antimicrobial agents, including lomefloxacin, other fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin, aminoglycosides (gentamicin, tobramycin, and amicacin, and cephalosporin (cephalothin. Methods: Antibiotic susceptibility tests conducted over a period of 27 months with 613 bacterial isolates from the conjunctiva were retrospectively analyzed. Results: In relation to the total number of positive isolates, the fluoroquinolones showed greater in vitro effectiveness than the other analyzed antibiotics. All bacterial isolates showed significantly higher susceptibility to ciprofloxacin than to lomefloxacin. Conclusion: The fluoroquinolones are not only equally effective against all conjunctival bacterial isolates, but they also show superior antimicrobial activity in comparison to aminoglycosides and cephalothin. These results suggest that fluoroquinolones, such as lomefloxacin, can be beneficially prescribed for conjunctival infections and also as prophylaxis in ocular surgery.Objetivo: Avaliar e comparar a atividade biocida in vitro de bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva humana à lomefloxacina, a outras fluorquinolonas (ciprofloxacina, norfloxacina e ofloxacina, aos aminoglicosídeos (gentamicina, tobramicina e amicacina e à cefalosporina (cefalotina. Métodos: Foram analisados retrospectivamente os resultados dos antibio-gramas realizados no período de 27 meses com 613 bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva. Resultados: A eficácia in vitro das quinolonas de acordo com o total dos isolamentos positivos foi superior em relação aos outros antibióticos avaliados. A suscetibilidade do total de bactérias à ciprofloxacina foi significantemente mais alta quando comparada à lomefloxacina. Conclusão: Os resultados praticamente equivalentes da suscetibilidade de bactérias isoladas da conjuntiva a fluorquinolonas, associado

  17. Estimation of extracellular lipase enzyme produced by thermophilic bacillus sp. isolated from arid and semi-arid region of Rajasthan, India

    OpenAIRE

    Deeksha Gaur; Pankaj Kumar Jain; Yamini Singh Sisodia; Vivek Bajpai

    2012-01-01

    Thermophilic organisms can be defined as microorganisms which are adapted to live at high temperatures. The enzymes produce by thermophilic bacteria are capable of catalyzing biochemical reactions at high temperatures. Thermophilic bacteria are able to produce thermostable lipase enzymes capable of degradation of lipid at temperatures higher than those of mesophilic bacteria. Therefore, the isolation of thermophilic bacteria from natural sources and their identification are quite useful in te...

  18. Isolation, Optimization, and Investigation of Production of Linoleic Acid in Aspergillus niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushin Shafiei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Microorganisms that are capable of accumulating lipid up to 20% of their biomass are called oleaginous microorganisms. In this study, optimization in lipid and linolenic acid production was investigated in Aspergillus niger as an oleaginous filamentous fungi. Methods: In this study, at first different strains of filamentous fungi were isolated, and after staining of the isolates with Sudan Black, their oil was extracted using chloroform/methanol. Then, the isolates with oil/dry biomass ratio of more than 20% were considered as oleaginous filamentous fungi. After microscopic examination, the identified isolate was optimized in terms of oil production. Finally, the amount of linolenic acid was evaluated using gas chromatography. Results: At first, 20 filamentous fungi isolates were isolated. According to the results of Sudan Black staining, lipid inclusions were observed in all the fungal isolates. The amount of oil produced in all isolates, showed that the percentage of oil production in isolates 4, 5, and 16, was more than 20%. In microscopic examination, the isolate 5 was Aspergillus niger. The best pH, temperature, time, and carbon source for oil production by Aspergillus niger was 4.5, 30°C, 96 hours, and fructose, respectively. The amount of linolenic acid in Aspergillus niger was reported 22.4% using gas chromatography.   Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that Aspergillus niger is an appropriate filamentous fungi for linolenic acid production.   

  19. Biofuel production by recombinant microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, James C.; Atsumi, Shota; Cann, Anthony F.

    2017-07-04

    Provided herein are metabolically-modified microorganisms useful for producing biofuels. More specifically, provided herein are methods of producing high alcohols including isobutanol, 1-butanol, 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-phenylethanol from a suitable substrate.

  20. Airborne microorganisms from waste containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Sabrina S; Stravitz, David M; Lyman, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    In physician's offices and biomedical labs, biological waste is handled every day. This waste is disposed of in waste containers designed for holding red autoclave bags. The containers used in these environments are closed hands-free containers, often with a step pedal. While these containers protect the user from surface-borne microorganisms, the containers may allow airborne microorganisms to escape via the open/close mechanism because of the air current produced upon open/close cycles. In this study, the air current was shown to be sufficient to allow airborne escape of microorganisms held in the container, including Aspergillus niger. However, bacterial cultures, such as Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis did not escape. This may be due to the choice of bacterial cultures and the absence of solid waste, such as dust or other particulate matter in the waste containers, that such strains of bacteria could travel on during aerosolization. We compared these results to those obtained using a re-designed receptacle, which mimimizes air currents, and detected no escaping microorganisms. This study highlights one potential source of airborne contamination in labs, hospitals, and other environments that dispose of biological waste.

  1. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O.; Rioboo, C.; Herrero, C.; Cid, A.

    2006-01-01

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides

  2. Removal of triazine herbicides from freshwater systems using photosynthetic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Barreiro, O. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Rioboo, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Herrero, C. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, A. [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n. 15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: cid@udc.es

    2006-11-15

    The uptake of the triazine herbicides, atrazine and terbutryn, was determined for two freshwater photosynthetic microorganisms, the green microalga Chlorella vulgaris and the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus. An extremely rapid uptake of both pesticides was recorded, although uptake rate was lower for the cyanobacterium, mainly for atrazine. Other parameters related to the herbicide bioconcentration capacity of these microorganisms were also studied. Growth rate, biomass, and cell viability in cultures containing herbicide were clearly affected by herbicide uptake. Herbicide toxicity and microalgae sensitivity were used to determine the effectiveness of the bioconcentration process and the stability of herbicide removal. C. vulgaris showed higher bioconcentration capability for these two triazine herbicides than S. elongatus, especially with regard to terbutryn. This study supports the usefulness of such microorganisms, as a bioremediation technique in freshwater systems polluted with triazine herbicides.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of jasmine oil against oral microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweboon, S.; Thaweboon, B.; Kaypetch, R.

    2018-02-01

    Jasmine sambac is a species of jasmine indigenous to the tropical and warm temperature regions in particular West and Southeast Asia. Essential oil extracted from the flowers of J. sambac has been shown to have anti-oxidant activity. However, very little information regarding antimicrobial activity especially oral microorganisms exists. Objective: To investigate antimicrobial effect of essential oil extracted from flowers of J. sambac against various oral microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Oral microbial strains used in the study were Streptococcus mutans KPSK2, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 5638, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 6363, Klebsiella pneumoniae (clinical isolate), Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Candida krusei ATCC 6258, Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019, Candida tropicalis (clinical isolate), Candida glabrata ATCC 90030, Candida pseudotropicalis (clinical isolate) and Candida stellatoidia (clinical isolate). The potential of microbial growth inhibition of the oil was firstly screened by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and then the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined by agar dilution method. Results: Jasmine oil showed antimicrobial activities against S. mutans, L. casei, E. coli and all strains of Candida species with the zones of inhibition ranging from 9 to 26 mm and MIC values of 0.19-1.56 %v/v. Conclusion: Results from the present study are scientific evidence to demonstrate that jasmine oil could be employed as a natural antimicrobial agent against oral microorganisms.

  4. Compost supplementation with nutrients and microorganisms in composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Ospina, Diego A; Montoya, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The composting is an aerobic, microorganism-mediated, solid-state fermentation process by which different organic materials are transformed into more stable compounds. The product obtained is the compost, which contributes to the improvement of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soil. However, the compost usage in agriculture is constrained because of its long-time action and reduced supply of nutrients to the crops. To enhance the content of nutrients assimilable by the plants in the compost, its supplementation with nutrients and inoculation with microorganisms have been proposed. The objective of this work was to review the state of the art on compost supplementation with nutrients and the role played by the microorganisms involved (or added) in their transformation during the composting process. The phases of composting are briefly compiled and different strategies for supplementation are analyzed. The utilization of nitrogenous materials and addition of microorganisms fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere or oxidizing ammonia into more assimilable for plants nitrogenous forms are analyzed. Several strategies for nitrogen conservation during composting are presented as well. The supplementation with phosphorus and utilization of microorganisms solubilizing phosphorus and potassium are also discussed. Main groups of microorganisms relevant during the composting process are described as well as most important strategies to identify them. In general, the development of this type of nutrient-enriched bio-inputs requires research and development not only in the supplementation of compost itself, but also in the isolation and identification of microorganisms and genes allowing the degradation and conversion of nitrogenous substances and materials containing potassium and phosphorus present in the feedstocks undergoing the composting process. In this sense, most important research trends and strategies to increase nutrient content in the compost

  5. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avellaneda-Torres, Lizeth Manuela; Pulido, Claudia Patricia Guevara; Rojas, Esperanza Torres

    2014-01-01

    A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP), Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA) was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.

  6. Assessment of cellulolytic microorganisms in soils of Nevados Park, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizeth Manuela Avellaneda-Torres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A systematized survey was conducted to find soil-borne microbes that degrade cellulose in soils from unique ecosystems, such as the Superpáramo, Páramo, and the High Andean Forest in the Nevados National Natural Park (NNNP, Colombia. These high mountain ecosystems represent extreme environments, such as high levels of solar radiation, low atmospheric pressure, and extreme daily changes in temperature. Cellulolytic activity of the microorganisms was evaluated using qualitative tests, such as growth in selective media followed by staining with congo red and iodine, and quantitative tests to determine the activity of endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, exoglucanase, and total cellulase. Microorganisms were identified using molecular markers, such as the 16S rRNA gene for bacteria and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS of ribosomal DNA for fungi. Multivariate statistical analysis (MVA was used to select microorganisms with high cellulolytic capacity. A total of 108 microorganisms were isolated from the soils and, in general, the enzymatic activities of fungi were higher than those of bacteria. Our results also found that none of the organisms studied were able to degrade all the components of the cellulose and it is therefore suggested that a combination of bacteria and/or fungi with various enzymatic activities be used to obtain high total cellulolytic activity. This study gives an overview of the potential microorganism that could be used for cellulose degradation in various biotechnological applications and for sustainable agricultural waste treatment.

  7. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiña, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2016-02-18

    Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens), and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics) constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments.

  8. Biosurfactants Produced by Marine Microorganisms with Therapeutic Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo J. Gudiña

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine microorganisms possess unique metabolic and physiological features and are an important source of new biomolecules, such as biosurfactants. Some of these surface-active compounds synthesized by marine microorganisms exhibit antimicrobial, anti-adhesive and anti-biofilm activity against a broad spectrum of human pathogens (including multi-drug resistant pathogens, and could be used instead of existing drugs to treat infections caused by them. In other cases, these biosurfactants show anti-cancer activity, which could be envisaged as an alternative to conventional therapies. However, marine biosurfactants have not been widely explored, mainly due to the difficulties associated with the isolation and growth of their producing microorganisms. Culture-independent techniques (metagenomics constitute a promising approach to study the genetic resources of otherwise inaccessible marine microorganisms without the requirement of culturing them, and can contribute to the discovery of novel biosurfactants with significant biological activities. This paper reviews the most relevant biosurfactants produced by marine microorganisms with potential therapeutic applications and discusses future perspectives and opportunities to discover novel molecules from marine environments.

  9. Mini-review: Inhibition of biofouling by marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobretsov, Sergey; Abed, Raeid M M; Teplitski, Max

    2013-01-01

    Any natural or artificial substratum exposed to seawater is quickly fouled by marine microorganisms and later by macrofouling species. Microfouling organisms on the surface of a substratum form heterogenic biofilms, which are composed of multiple species of heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria, diatoms, protozoa and fungi. Biofilms on artificial structures create serious problems for industries worldwide, with effects including an increase in drag force and metal corrosion as well as a reduction in heat transfer efficiency. Additionally, microorganisms produce chemical compounds that may induce or inhibit settlement and growth of other fouling organisms. Since the last review by the first author on inhibition of biofouling by marine microbes in 2006, significant progress has been made in the field. Several antimicrobial, antialgal and antilarval compounds have been isolated from heterotrophic marine bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi. Some of these compounds have multiple bioactivities. Microorganisms are able to disrupt biofilms by inhibition of bacterial signalling and production of enzymes that degrade bacterial signals and polymers. Epibiotic microorganisms associated with marine algae and invertebrates have a high antifouling (AF) potential, which can be used to solve biofouling problems in industry. However, more information about the production of AF compounds by marine microorganisms in situ and their mechanisms of action needs to be obtained. This review focuses on the AF activity of marine heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi and covers publications from 2006 up to the end of 2012.

  10. Identification and Characterization of Extremophile Microorganisms with Significance to Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bej, Asim K.

    2003-01-01

    It is now well recognized that microorganisms thrive in extreme ecological conditions such as geothermal vents, polar region, acid and alkaline lakes, and the cold pressurized depth of the ocean floor of this planet. Morphological, physiological, biochemical and genetic adaptations to extreme environments by these extremophile microorganisms have generated immense interest amongst astrobiologists who increasingly believe in the existence of extraterrestrial life. The evidence collected by NASA's space probe Galileo suggested the presence of liquid water and volcanic activity on Mars and Jupiter's satellite Europa. Volcanic activity provides some of the heat necessary to keep the water on Europa from freezing that could provide important dissolved chemicals needed by living organisms. The possibility of the existence of hypersaline alkaline lakes and evaporites confined within closed volcanic basins and impact craters on Mars, and a layer of liquid water under the ice on Europa provide sufficient 'raison d'etre' to study microorganisms in similar extreme environments on Earth, which could provide us with a model that would help establish the existence of extraterrestrial life on other planetary bodies. The objectives of the summer research project were as follows: (1) application of molecular approaches to help establish new species of extremophile microorganisms isolated from a hypersaline alkaline lake; and (2) identification of a major cold-shock gene (cspA) homolog from a psychrotolerant microorganism, PmagG1.

  11. Use Of Amino Acid Racemization To Investigate The Metabolic Activity Of ?Dormant? Microorganisms In Siberian Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapin, A.; McDonald, G.

    2002-12-01

    search for extraterrestrial life or its remnants is based on studying the most probable environments in which life (extant or extinct) may be found, and determining the maximum period of time over which such life could be preserved. The terrestrial permafrost, inhabited by cold adapted microbes, can be considered as an extraterrestrial analog environment. The cells and their metabolic end-products in Earth's permafrost can be used in the search for possible ecosystems and potential inhabitants on extraterrestrial cryogenic bodies. The study of microorganisms (or their remnants) that were buried for a few million years in permafrost provides us with a unique opportunity to determine the long-term viability of (micro)organisms. We have analyzed the degree of racemization of aspartic acid in permafrost samples from Northern Siberia (Brinton et al. 2002, Astrobiology 2, 77), an area from which microorganisms of apparent ages up to a few million years have previously been isolated and cultured. We find that the extent of aspartic acid racemization in permafrost cores increases very slowly up to an age of approximately 25,000 years (around 5 m depth). The apparent temperature of racemization over the age range 0-25,000 years, determined using measured aspartic acid racemization rate constants, is ?19 C. This apparent racemization temperature is significantly lower than the measured environmental temperature (?11 to ?13 C), and suggests active recycling of D-aspartic acid in Siberian permafrost up to an age of around 25,000 years. This indicates that permafrost organisms are capable of repairing some molecular damage incurred while they are in a ?dormant? state over geologic time.

  12. [Ants as carriers of microorganisms in hospital environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rogério Dos Santos; Ueno, Mariko

    2008-01-01

    Concern exists regarding the real possibility of public health threats caused by pathogenic agents that are carried by urban ants. The present study had the objective of isolating and identifying the microorganisms that are associated with ants in hospital environments. One hundred and twenty-five ants of the same species were collected from different units of a university hospital. Each ant was collected using a swab soaked with physiological solution and was transferred to a tube containing brain heart infusion broth and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 hours. From each tube, with growth, inoculations were made into specific culturing media, to isolate any microorganisms. The ants presented a high capacity for carrying microorganism groups: spore-producing Gram-positive bacilli 63.5%, Gram-negative bacilli 6.3%, Gram-positive cocci 23.1%, filamentous fungi 6.7% and yeast 0.5%. Thus, it can be inferred that ants may be one of the agents responsible for disseminating microorganisms in hospital environments.

  13. Screening of microorganisms for microbial enhanced oil recovery processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonebayashi, H. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Yoshida, S. [Japan Food Research Laboratiories, Tokyo (Japan). Div. of Microbiology; Ono, K. [Japan National Oil Corp., Chiba (Japan). Tech. Research Center; Enomoto, H. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Geoscience and Tech.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to screen effective microorganisms for the Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery process (or simply as MEOR). Samples of drilling cuttings, formation water, and soil were collected from domestic drilling sites and oil fields. Moreover, samples of activated-sludge and compost were collected from domestic sewage treatment facility and food treatment facility. At first, microorganisms in samples were investigated by incubation with different media; then they were isolated. By two stage-screening based on metabolizing ability, 4 strains (Bacillus licheniformis TRC-18-2-a, Enterobacter cloacae TRC-322, Bacillus subtilis TRC-4118, and Bacillus subtilis TRC-4126) were isolated as effective microorganisms for oil recovery. B. licheniformis TRC-18-2-a is a multifunctional microorganism possessing excellent surfactant productivity, and in addition it has gas, acid and polymer productivities. E. cloacae TRC-332 has gas and acid producing abilities. B. subtilis TRC-4118 and TRC-4126 are effective biosurfactant producers, and they reduce the interfacial tension to 0.04 and 0.12 dyne/cm, respectively. (author)

  14. Microorganisms .

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and heat/pH-shift treatments. This technique resulted in 47% enzyme yield with a purification fac- tor of 12. Technique II which involved two extraction steps by' aqueous two - phase system. (APS) coupled with UF resulted in 62 % enzyme ...

  15. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  16. The useful micro-organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    Can man survive civilization? Academician Ivan Malek, Director of the Institute of Microbiology in Prague, a member of the Agency's Scientific Advisory Committee and for many years an adviser to the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Health Organization and UNESCO, believes he can, But he also considers that if man is to survive he must study and use all the resources at his disposal - including the micro-organisms of the planet earth. (author)

  17. PROBIOTICS BASED ON TRANSGENIC MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. А. Starovoitova

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern tendencies of recombinant microorganisms creation for obtaining on their basis a new effective biopreparations (probiotics with wider spectrum of biological and therapeutic properties were considered. A lot of attention was focused on the main genera of perspective bacteria for creation of recombinant probiotics particularly: Lactococcus, Bifidobac terium,Bacillus, Escherichia. The main created Ukrainian and foreign gene-modified strains, that are widely used today in creation of effective recombinant biopreparations were characterized. Some fundamental directions and methods of gene-modified strains obtaining, which are used in getting effective biopreparations that used for therapy and prophylactic illness were reported, under which this group of pharmaceutical drugs were not used earlier. The safety matters of probiotics using on basis of genemodified strains were examined. Medical and veterinary biopreparations on basis of recombinant microorganisms could be used directly and effectively for therapy and prophylaxis of different illness, beginning from disbacteriosis up to cardiovascular diseases. It is related with some probiotic microorganisms ability for lowering of serum cholesterol at the host organism.

  18. Microorganisms as sources of oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thevenieau France

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of microorganism belonging to the genera of yeast, fungi, bacteria and microalgae have ability to accumulate substantial amounts of oil, sometimes up to an even in excess of 70% of their biomass weight under specific cultivation conditions. For nearly 100 years, the commercial opportunities of using microorganisms as sources of oils have been continuously examined. Although it was evident that microbial oils could never compete commercially with the major commodity plant oils, there were commercially opportunities for the production of some of the higher valued oils. Today, with the great progress of metabolic and genetic engineering, the developments are focus on the high value oils containing important polyunsaturated or specific fatty acids. Such oils have the potential to be used in different applications area as food, feed and oleochemistry. This review is covering the related researches about different oleaginous microorganisms for lipids production and microbial oils biosynthesis process. In add, the lipid metabolism, metabolic engineering strategies to increase lipid production and the economics of microbial oils production are introduced.

  19. Screening para el aislamiento y caracterización de microorganismos y enzimas potencialmente útiles para la degradación de celulosas y hemicelulosas Screening for isolation and characterisation of microorganisms and enzymes with usefull potential for degradation of celullose and hemicelluose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikán Venegas José Fernando

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un modelo práctico de microbiología aplicada y biotecnología para aislar y caracterizar microorganismos, como una minús­cula muestra de la extensa biodiversidad de nuestros suelos. Se analiza su capacidad para producir depolimerasas e hidrolasas accesorias para la degradación de xiloglucanos-pectatos o glucoarabinoxilanos, con el fin de evaluar su potencial como degradadores de material vegetal. Se propone el uso del cultivo en paredes celulares vegetales como única fuente de carbono, como inductores de las actividades hidrolíticas, y el uso de las mismas paredes celulares y de xilano entrecruzado para purificar en forma rápida y económica enzimas degradadoras de celulosas y hemicelulosas. Con estos soportes de afinidad se logró un redimiento de purificación de xilanasas del 500% en un solo paso. Partiendo de 65 aislamientos se seleccionaron cinco, a los cuales se les hizo caracterización isoenzimática para celulasas y xilanasas. Se les sugiere como potencialmente útiles en compostaje y otros procesos industriales. Palabras clave: celulasas, hemicelulasas, cromatografía de afinidad, sustratos entrecruzados, diversidad microbiológica, compostaje.A practical, applied microbiology and biotechnology model is presented for isolating and characterising micro-organisms, this being a tiny part of the immense biodiversity of tropical soils. These microbes' ability to produce depolymerases and accessory hydrolases degrading xyloglucans-pectates or glucoarabinoxylans is analysed to evaluate their potential for degrading plant material. We propose culturing micro-organisms on the cell wall as main carbon source and as hydrolitic activity inducer. The same cell walls can be used for cross-linking xylan and for rapid, low cost purification of cellulose and hemicellose degrading enzymes. A 500% xylanase purification yield was obtained in a single step with these affinity supports. Out of the 65 isolates obtained were finally

  20. Does nanobiotechnology create new tools to combat microorganisms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinska-Górska, Marlena K.; Sawosz, Ewa; Górski, Konrad

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is still a crucial global problem related to the overuse of antibiotics and natural microorganism capability for rapid horizontal evolution. Even new generations of drugs are not able to overcome bacterial defence mechanisms. A novel solution for this immense medical...... challenge can be nanomaterials. Researchers indicate that modern nanoforms can effectively support and perhaps in the long-term replace traditional bactericidal agents. Because of their unique physicochemical properties, nanotechnology products can exert multiple actions against bacteria, which might...

  1. 40 CFR 725.85 - Microorganism identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microorganism identity. 725.85 Section... to Information § 725.85 Microorganism identity. (a) Claims applicable to the period prior to... specific microorganism identity at the time of submission of the information. This claim will apply only to...

  2. Analysis of bioremediation of pesticides by soil microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruml, Tomas; Klotz, Dietmar; Tykva, Richard

    1995-10-01

    The application of new pesticides requires careful monitoring of their distribution in the environment. The effect of the soil microflora on the stability of the [14C]- labelled juvenoid hormone analogue W-328 was estimated. The micro-organisms from two different soil samples were isolated and tested for their ability to decompose W-328. One bacterial strain, yeast and mold isolates, exhibited the degradation activity. The growth characteristics such as pH and temperature optima were determined. The degradation products were estimated using HPLC.

  3. Identification of beer spoilage microorganisms using the MALDI Biotyper platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turvey, Michelle Elizabeth; Weiland, Florian; Meneses, Jon; Sterenberg, Nick; Hoffmann, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Beer spoilage microorganisms present a major risk for the brewing industry and can lead to cost-intensive recall of contaminated products and damage to brand reputation. The applicability of molecular profiling using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in combination with Biotyper software was investigated for the identification of beer spoilage microorganisms from routine brewery quality control samples. Reference mass spectrum profiles for three of the most common bacterial beer spoilage microorganisms (Lactobacillus lindneri, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus damnosus), four commercially available brewing yeast strains (top- and bottom-fermenting) and Dekkera/Brettanomyces bruxellensis wild yeast were established, incorporated into the Biotyper reference library and validated by successful identification after inoculation into beer. Each bacterial species could be accurately identified and distinguished from one another and from over 5600 other microorganisms present in the Biotyper database. In addition, wild yeast contaminations were rapidly detected and distinguished from top- and bottom-fermenting brewing strains. The applicability and integration of mass spectrometry profiling using the Biotyper platform into existing brewery quality assurance practices within industry were assessed by analysing routine microbiology control samples from a local brewery, where contaminating microorganisms could be reliably identified. Brewery-isolated microorganisms not present in the Biotyper database were further analysed for identification using LC-MS/MS methods. This renders the Biotyper platform a promising candidate for biological quality control testing within the brewing industry as a more rapid, high-throughput and cost-effective technology that can be tailored for the detection of brewery-specific spoilage organisms from the local environment.

  4. Molecular identification of microorganisms associated to the rhizosphere of vanilla plants in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Lopez, Claudia Lucia; Osorio Vega, Nelson Walter; Marin Montoya, Mauricio Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The cultivation of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) is highly promising in Colombia, but more research is needed on its agronomical management and beneficial microorganisms that grow associated to its rhizosphere, on which the plant depends for its nutrition and growth. This study involved the identification of microorganisms associated to the rhizosphere of vanilla plants in a crop located in Sopetran, Colombia. The microbes were isolated in selective media for functional groups such as cellulolytic, proteolytic, inorganic and organic phosphate (phytate) solubilizers, and asymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria. After isolation and purification, 109 microbial isolates were obtained. DNA was extracted from 52 selected isolates for molecular identification based on its and 16s RDNA sequencing, for fungi and bacteria, respectively. The diversity of rhizosphere microorganisms found was significant. Bacteria such as Bacillus Megaterium, Pseudomonas koreensis and Acinetobacter sp., and the Fungus Plectosphaerella sp., may have a high potential to be used as biofertilizers to improve vanilla plant nutrition and growth.

  5. Effects of Atrazine on Soil Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the herbicide atrazine on soil microorganisms was investigated. Trials were set up in laboratory, on a clay loam soil. Atrazine was applied at 8.0, 40.0 and 80.0 mg/kg soil rates. The abundance of total microorganisms, fungi, actinomycetes, cellulolytic microorganisms and amino-heterotrophs was recorded. Soil samples were collected 1, 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days after atrazine treatment for microbiological analyses.The results showed that the intensity of atrazine effect on soil microorganisms depended on treatment rate, exposure time and group of microorganisms. Atrazine had an inhibiting effect on cellulolytic microorganisms and amino-heterotrophs. Initially, it inhibited fungiand actinomycetes but its effect turned into a stimulating one once a population recovered. Atrazine had a stimulating effect on total abundance of microorganisms.

  6. Marine microorganisms. Umi no biseibutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, U. (Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Applied Biological Science)

    1992-11-10

    This paper explains properties, interactions, and activities of marine microorganisms. Marine bacteria include bacteria of vibrio family of arteromonas genus, luminous bacteria, and aerobic photosynthetic bacteria. Majority of marine bacteria is halophilic, and many proliferate at 5[degree]C or lower. Some of them can proliferate at 20[degree]C to 30[degree]C, or as high temperature as 80[degree]C and higher. Spongiaria and tumicata have many symbiotic microorganisms, and genes equivalent to luminous bacteria genes were discovered in DNA of light emitting organs in luminous fishes. It was verified that animal groups in upwelling zones are supported by bacteria that assimilate inorganics supplied from ocean bottoms. Marine bacteria decompose almost all of organics brought in from land to sea, and those produced in sea. Marine bacteria engage in complex interrelations with other organisms for competition, antagonism, parasitism, and symbiosis. The bacteria make antibacterial substances, anti-algae bacteria, enzyme inhibitors, toxins, pharmacologically active substances, and such physiologically active substances as deposition promoting substances to undersea structures including shells and barnacles, and deposition blocking substances. 53 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Engineering of microorganisms towards recovery of rare metal ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Div. of Applied Life Sciences

    2010-06-15

    The bioadsorption of metal ions using microorganisms is an attractive technology for the recovery of rare metal ions as well as removal of toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. In initial attempts, microorganisms with the ability to accumulate metal ions were isolated from nature and intracellular accumulation was enhanced by the overproduction of metal-binding proteins in the cytoplasm. As an alternative, the cell surface design of microorganisms by cell surface engineering is an emerging strategy for bioadsorption and recovery of metal ions. Cell surface engineering was firstly applied to the construction of a bioadsorbent to adsorb heavy metal ions for bioremediation. Cell surface adsorption of metal ions is rapid and reversible. Therefore, adsorbed metal ions can be easily recovered without cell breakage, and the bioadsorbent can be reused or regenerated. These advantages are suitable for the recovery of rare metal ions. Actually, the cell surface display of a molybdate-binding protein on yeast led to the enhanced adsorption of molybdate, one of the rare metal ions. An additional advantage is that the cell surface display system allows high-throughput screening of protein/peptide libraries owing to the direct evaluation of the displayed protein/peptide without purification and concentration. Therefore, the creation of novel metal-binding protein/ peptide and engineering of microorganisms towards the recovery of rare metal ions could be simultaneously achieved. (orig.)

  8. Method and apparatus for detecting micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsky, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the presence and quantity of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and yeast, in a given sample. The apparatus includes two sealed containers, a portion of which may be penetrated by a sharp instrument, as for example, glass vials with flexible septum tops. One container includes a radioactive nutrient medium which is capable of supporting the life process of the microorganism whose presence is being tested. The second container includes a liquid scintillation solution which absorbs the product of metabolism of the organisms. The sample is introduced into the first sealed container, for example, by means of a standard syringe. Any microorganisms present will consume the radioactive nutrient and as a result produce radioactive waste. Means are then applied to penetrate the containers and allow the flow of the radioactive metabolic product from the first container to the second container while preventing any contamination from the ambient. The liquid scintillation solution will emit light in proportion to the amount of the product of metabolism collected from the first container. This light may be detected by standard liquid scintillation counters, thus providing a qualitative and quantitative measure of the microorganism in the tested sample

  9. Identification of anaerobic microorganisms for converting kitchen waste to biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirhossein Malakahmad; Shahrom Mohd Zain; Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri; Shamsul Rahman Mohamed Kutty; Mohd Hasnain Isa

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion process is one of the alternative methods to convert organic waste into methane gas which is a fuel and energy source. Activities of various kinds of microorganisms are the main factor for anaerobic digestion which produces methane gas. Therefore, in this study a modified Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) with working volume of 50 liters was designed to identify the microorganisms through biogas production. The mixture of 75% kitchen waste and 25% sewage sludge was used as substrate. Observations on microorganisms in the ABR showed that there exists a small amount of protozoa (5%) and fungi (2%) in the system, but almost 93% of the microorganism population consists of bacteria. It is definitely clear that bacteria are responsible for anaerobic biodegradation of kitchen waste. Results show that in the acidification zone of the ABR (front compartments of reactor) fast growing bacteria capable of growth at high substrate levels and reduced pH was dominant. A shift to slower growing scavenging bacteria that grow better at higher pH was occurring towards the end of the reactor. Due to the ability of activity in acetate environment the percentages of Methanococcus, Methanosarcina and Methanotrix were higher than other kinds of methane former in the system. (Author)

  10. Production of bio surfactants (Rhamnolipids) by pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from colombian sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimienta, A.L; Diaz M, M. P; Carvajal S, F.G; Grosso V, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The bio surfactant production by strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from Colombian hydrocarbon contaminated sludge has been determined. The methodology included the isolation of microorganisms, standardization of batch culture conditions for good surfactant production and characterization of the produced rhamnolipid. Several carbon sources were evaluated with regard to the growth and production curves. The stability of the rhamnolipid was also determined under variable conditions of pH, temperature and salt concentration. The strain Pseudomonas aeruginosa BS 3 showed bio surfactant production capabilities of rhamnolipid resulting in concentrations up to 2 g-dm with surface tensions of 30 - 32 mN-m in batch cultures with commercial nutrients

  11. Microbial Reduction of Fe(III) in Acidic Sediments: Isolation of Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5 Capable of Coupling the Reduction of Fe(III) to the Oxidation of Glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, Kirsten; Dorsch, Tanja; Acker, Georg; Stackebrandt, Erko

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the microbial populations involved in the reduction of Fe(III) in an acidic, iron-rich sediment, the anaerobic flow of supplemental carbon and reductant was evaluated in sediment microcosms at the in situ temperature of 12°C. Supplemental glucose and cellobiose stimulated the formation of Fe(II); 42 and 21% of the reducing equivalents that were theoretically obtained from glucose and cellobiose, respectively, were recovered in Fe(II). Likewise, supplemental H2 was consumed by acidic sediments and yielded additional amounts of Fe(II) in a ratio of approximately 1:2. In contrast, supplemental lactate did not stimulate the formation of Fe(II). Supplemental acetate was not consumed and inhibited the formation of Fe(II). Most-probable-number estimates demonstrated that glucose-utilizing acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacteria approximated to 1% of the total direct counts of 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained bacteria. From the highest growth-positive dilution of the most-probable-number series at pH 2.3 supplemented with glucose, an isolate, JF-5, that could dissimilate Fe(III) was obtained. JF-5 was an acidophilic, gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that completely oxidized the following substrates via the dissimilation of Fe(III): glucose, fructose, xylose, ethanol, glycerol, malate, glutamate, fumarate, citrate, succinate, and H2. Growth and the reduction of Fe(III) did not occur in the presence of acetate. Cells of JF-5 grown under Fe(III)-reducing conditions formed blebs, i.e., protrusions that were still in contact with the cytoplasmic membrane. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of JF-5 demonstrated that it was closely related to an Australian isolate of Acidiphilium cryptum (99.6% sequence similarity), an organism not previously shown to couple the complete oxidation of sugars to the reduction of Fe(III). These collective results indicate that the in situ reduction of Fe(III) in acidic sediments can be mediated by heterotrophic Acidiphilium

  12. Microbial reduction of Fe(III) in acidic sediments: isolation of Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5 capable of coupling the reduction of Fe(III) to the oxidation of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, K; Dorsch, T; Acker, G; Stackebrandt, E

    1999-08-01

    To evaluate the microbial populations involved in the reduction of Fe(III) in an acidic, iron-rich sediment, the anaerobic flow of supplemental carbon and reductant was evaluated in sediment microcosms at the in situ temperature of 12 degrees C. Supplemental glucose and cellobiose stimulated the formation of Fe(II); 42 and 21% of the reducing equivalents that were theoretically obtained from glucose and cellobiose, respectively, were recovered in Fe(II). Likewise, supplemental H(2) was consumed by acidic sediments and yielded additional amounts of Fe(II) in a ratio of approximately 1:2. In contrast, supplemental lactate did not stimulate the formation of Fe(II). Supplemental acetate was not consumed and inhibited the formation of Fe(II). Most-probable-number estimates demonstrated that glucose-utilizing acidophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacteria approximated to 1% of the total direct counts of 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained bacteria. From the highest growth-positive dilution of the most-probable-number series at pH 2. 3 supplemented with glucose, an isolate, JF-5, that could dissimilate Fe(III) was obtained. JF-5 was an acidophilic, gram-negative, facultative anaerobe that completely oxidized the following substrates via the dissimilation of Fe(III): glucose, fructose, xylose, ethanol, glycerol, malate, glutamate, fumarate, citrate, succinate, and H(2). Growth and the reduction of Fe(III) did not occur in the presence of acetate. Cells of JF-5 grown under Fe(III)-reducing conditions formed blebs, i.e., protrusions that were still in contact with the cytoplasmic membrane. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of JF-5 demonstrated that it was closely related to an Australian isolate of Acidiphilium cryptum (99.6% sequence similarity), an organism not previously shown to couple the complete oxidation of sugars to the reduction of Fe(III). These collective results indicate that the in situ reduction of Fe(III) in acidic sediments can be mediated by heterotrophic

  13. Dissimilatory antimonate reduction and production of antimony trioxide microcrystals by a novel microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abin, Christopher A; Hollibaugh, James T

    2014-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a metalloid that has been exploited by humans since the beginning of modern civilization. The importance of Sb to such diverse industries as nanotechnology and health is underscored by the fact that it is currently the ninth-most mined metal worldwide. Although its toxicity mirrors that of its Group 15 neighbor arsenic, its environmental chemistry is very different, and, unlike arsenic, relatively little is known about the fate and transport of Sb, especially with regard to biologically mediated redox reactions. To further our understanding of the interactions between microorganisms and Sb, we have isolated a bacterium that is capable of using antimonate [Sb(V)] as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, resulting in the precipitation of antimonite [Sb(III)] as microcrystals of antimony trioxide. The bacterium, designated strain MLFW-2, is a sporulating member of a deeply branching lineage within the order Bacillales (phylum Firmicutes). This report provides the first unequivocal evidence that a bacterium is capable of conserving energy for growth and reproduction from the reduction of antimonate. Moreover, microbiological antimonate reduction may serve as a novel route for the production of antimony trioxide microcrystals of commercial significance to the nanotechnology industry.

  14. Molecular Identification of Microorganisms Associated to the Rhizosphere of Vanilla Plants in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Lucía Álvarez López; Nelson Walter Osorio Vega; Mauricio Alejandro Marín Montoya

    2013-01-01

    The cultivation of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia) is highly promising in Colombia, but more research is needed on its agronomical management and beneficial microorganisms that grow associated to its rhizosphere, on which the plant depends for its nutrition and growth. This study involved the identification of microorganisms associated to the rhizosphere of vanilla plants in a crop located in Sopetrán, Colombia. The microbes were isolated in selective media for functional groups such as cellulol...

  15. Growth of hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Mavinkurve, S.

    Two isolates from marine mud having broad spectrum hydrocarbon utilizing profile were identified as Arthrobacter simplex and Candida tropicalis.Both the organisms grew exponentially on crude oil. The cell yield of the organisms was influenced...

  16. Microorganisms present on peripheral intravenous needleless connectors in the clinical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Karen; Cooke, Marie; Whitby, Michael; Fullerton, Fiona; Douglas, Joel; Hay, Jennine; Rickard, Claire

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify culturable microorganisms on needleless connectors (NCs) attached to peripheral intravenous catheters in hospitalized adult medical patients. Half (50%) of 40 NCs were contaminated with microorganisms commonly found on the skin or mouth. Staphylococcus capitis and Staphylococcus epidermidis were most commonly isolated. Emergency department insertion and higher patient dependency were statistically associated with positive NC microorganism growth. These results reaffirm the need for NC decontamination prior to access. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GREICE H.S. PEIL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r. Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  18. Bioprospecting of lipolytic microorganisms obtained from industrial effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peil, Greice H S; Kuss, Anelise V; Rave, Andrés F G; Villarreal, José P V; Hernandes, Yohana M L; Nascente, Patrícia S

    2016-01-01

    The lipases have ability to catalyze diverse reactions and are important in different biotechnological applications. The aim of this work was to isolate and characterize microorganisms that produce lipases, from different food industry effluents localized in Pelotas, RS/Brazil. Bacteria were identified using Gram stain and biochemical tests (Vitek 2(r)). Fungi were identified according to macro and micromorphology characteristics. The extracellular lipase production was evaluated using the Rhodamine B test and the enzymatic activity by titration. Twenty-one bacteria were isolated and identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella ornithinolytica and Raoultella planticola. Were characterized isolated filamentous fungi by the following genera: Alternaria sp., Fusarium sp., Geotrichum sp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp. and Trichoderma sp. Extracellular lipase production was observed in 71.43% of the bacteria and 57.14% of the fungi. The bacterium that presented better promising enzymatic activity was E. aerogenes (1.54 U/ml) however between fungi there was not significant difference between the four isolates. This study indicated that microorganisms lipase producers are present in the industrial effluents, as well as these enzymes have potential of biodegradation of lipid compounds.

  19. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUTH MELLIAWATI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong-Bogor were used. The selection step was carried out based on their capability of starch hydrolysis to reducing sugar. The best result indicates that the production of reducing sugar reached the highest 18.485 ppm and amyloglucosidase activities was 3.583 units by KTU-1 strain. The highest total acid obtained was 5.85 mg/mL by Rhizopus IFO.R5442. The cell biomass was obtained between 0.5 to 1.74 g dry weight/100 mL and pH of the final fermentation (72 h were 3.57 to 8.38.

  20. Susceptibility-resistance profile of micro-organisms isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-12-17

    Dec 17, 2007 ... coupled with the side effects of certain synthetic drug therapies, has ... The fungal strains were tested against the following discs: nystatin (N), 20 μg; ..... reports have described serious human infections caused by members of the ..... pable phenomenon exacerbated by the abuse, overuse and misuse of ...

  1. Isolation and Screening of Lipase Producing Microorganisms from Natural Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Singh, M. G.; Chandraveer, C.; Tripathi, Abishek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2017), s. 19-23 ISSN 0304-5250 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : lipase assay * natural sources * screening * submerged fermentation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7)

  2. Analysis of boron utilization in sample preparation for microorganisms detection by neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacha, Reinaldo; Crispim, Verginia R.

    2000-01-01

    The neutron radiography technique applied to the microorganisms detection is the study of a new and faster alternative for diagnosis of infectious means. This work presents the parameters and the effects involved in the use of the boron as a conversion agent, that convert neutrons in a particles, capable ones of generating latent tracks in a solid state nuclear tracks detector, CR-39. The collected samples are doped with the boron by the incubation method, propitiating an interaction microorganisms/boron, that will guarantee the identification of the images of those microorganisms, through your morphology. (author)

  3. Novel Poly[(R-3-Hydroxybutyrate]-Producing Bacterium Isolated from a Bolivian Hypersaline Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Marqués-Calvo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly[(R-3-hydroxybutyrate] (PHB constitutes a biopolymer synthesized from renewable resources by various microorganisms. This work focuses on finding a new PHB-producing bacterium capable of growing in conventional media used for industrial biopolymer production, its taxonomical identification, and characterization of its biopolymer. Thus, a bacterial isolation process was carried out from environmental samples of water and mud. Among the isolates, strain S29 was selected and used in a fed-batch fermentation to generate a biopolymer. This biopolymer was recovered and identified as PHB homopolymer. Surprisingly, it featured several fractions of different molecular masses, and thermal properties unusual for PHB. Hence, the microorganism S29, genetically identified as a new strain of Bacillus megaterium, proved to be interesting not only due to its growth and PHB accumulation kinetics under the investigated cultivation conditions, but also due to the thermal properties of the produced PHB.

  4. Cyanide utilization and degradation by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, C J

    1988-01-01

    Various microorganisms can produce (cyanogenesis) or degrade cyanide. They degrade cyanide either to detoxify it, or to use it as a source of nitrogen for growth. Significant amounts of cyanide are formed as a secondary metabolite by a wide range of fungi and a few bacteria by decarboxylation of glycine. When cyanide has been formed by the snow mould fungus it is degraded by conversion to carbon dioxide and ammonia via an unknown pathway. In contrast, cyanogenic bacteria either do not further catabolize cyanide or they convert it into beta-cyanoalanine by addition to cysteine or O-acetylserine. Several non-cyanogenic fungi that are pathogens of cyanogenic plants are known to degrade cyanide by hydration to formamide by the enzyme cyanide hydratase. Such fungi can be immobilized and used in packed-cell columns to continuously detoxify cyanide. ICI Biological Products Business market a preparation of spray-dried fungal mycelia, 'CYCLEAR', to detoxify industrial wastes. Novo Industri have also introduced a cyanidase preparation to convert cyanide directly into formate and ammonia. Bacteria have been isolated that use cyanide as a source of nitrogen for growth. Because cyanide, as KCN or NaCN, is toxic for growth, the bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) have to be grown in fed-batch culture with cyanide as the limiting nutrient. Cyanide is converted to carbon dioxide and ammonia (which is then assimilated) by an NADH-linked cyanide oxygenase system.

  5. MICROORGANISMS ANTIBIOTIC SENSITIVITY DETERMINATION IN URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapovalova O.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays Urinary tract infections (UTI are considered to be the most common bacterial infections. Escherichia coli is the most frequently uropathogen. Other microorganisms of the genera Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Proteus, Morganella, Citrobacter, Serratia, Pseudomonas, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Candida are also isolated with variable frequency. In recent years there has been a decreasing tendency of the causative agents of UTI sensitivity to various antibiotics, which causes growth of an inefficiency treatment risk. In connection with the above the investigations were carried out with the purpose to identify the actual causative agents of bacteriuria and their sensitivity to antibiotics and antifungal drugs. Materials and methods. Bacteriological examination of urine was performed at 42 patients of SI "Sytenko Institute of Spine and Joint Pathology, AMS of Ukraine" clinic. The bacteriological method for determining the number of bacteria in the test material, cultural and bacterioscopic methods for identifying microorganisms and disk-diffusion method for sensitivity of microorganisms to antibiotics determining were used. The clinical material for the study was an average portion of the morning urine or urine collected by catheter. The biological material collection and bacteriological examination was carried by quantitative method, the isolated microorganisms identification and their sensitivity to antibiotics determining was performed by standard methods in accordance with current guidelines. We used the following antibiotics group to determine the microorganisms sensitivity: penicillin, cephalosporin, karbapenems, tetracyclines, aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolones, oxazolidinones, macrolides, lincosamides, glycopeptides, antifungal antibiotics. Results and discussion. During the biological material study 55 isolates of bacterial and fungal pathogens were obtained. The microorganisms’ concentration in urine was in

  6. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding

  7. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  8. Impacts of Triclosan in Grey water on Soil Microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrow, D.I; Felker, J.M; Baker, K.H

    2011-01-01

    The use of grey water for irrigation is becoming a common practice in arid regions such as the Southwestern US, the Middle East, Australia, and China. While grey water supplies nutrients to soil ecosystems, the possible impact of trace contaminants, particularly pharmaceuticals and personal care products, has not been determined. This paper examined the impact of triclosan, an antibacterial agent commonly added to consumer products, on microbial populations and microbial diversity in soil irrigated with grey water. While there was no change in the total number of heterotrophic microorganisms in the soil, both the types and the antibiotic resistance of the microorganisms were significantly influenced by triclosan. The proportion of the microbial isolates resistant to antibiotics increased while at the same time, overall diversity of the microbial community decreased.

  9. Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for the Production of Higher Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols. PMID:25182323

  10. Rights, goals, and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    This article analyses the relationship between rights and capabilities in order to get a better grasp of the kind of consequentialism that the capability theory represents. Capability rights have been defined as rights that have a capability as their object (rights to capabilities). Such a

  11. Synthesis of biosurfactants and their advantages to microorganisms and mankind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Makkar, Randhir S; Kaur, Jasminder; Mehta, S K

    2010-01-01

    Biosurfactants are surface-active compounds synthesized by a wide variety of microorganisms. They are molecules that have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains and are capable of lowering the surface tension and the interfacial tension of the growth medium. Biosurfactants possess different chemical structures--lipopeptides, glycolipids, neutral lipids and fatty acids. They are nontoxic biomolecules that are biodegradable. Biosurfactants also exhibit strong emulsification of hydrophobic compounds and form stable emulsions. The low water solubility of these hydrophobic compounds limits their availability to microorganisms, which is a potential problem for bioremediation of contaminated sites. Microbially produced surfactants enhance the bioavailability of these hydrophobic compounds for bioremediation. Therefore, biosurfactant-enhanced solubility of pollutants has potential applications in bioremediation. Not only are the biosurfactants useful in a variety of industrial processes, they are also of vital importance to the microbes in adhesion, emulsification, bioavailability, desorption and defense strategy. These interesting facts are discussed in this chapter.

  12. Potential applications of plant probiotic microorganisms in agriculture and forestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Porto de Souza Vandenberghe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture producers, pushed by the need for high productivity, have stimulated the intensive use of pesticides and fertilizers. Unfortunately, negative effects on water, soil, and human and animal health have appeared as a consequence of this indiscriminate practice. Plant probiotic microorganisms (PPM, also known as bioprotectants, biocontrollers, biofertilizers, or biostimulants, are beneficial microorganisms that offer a promising alternative and reduce health and environmental problems. These microorganisms are involved in either a symbiotic or free-living association with plants and act in different ways, sometimes with specific functions, to achieve satisfactory plant development. This review deals with PPM presentation and their description and function in different applications. PPM includes the plant growth promoters (PGP group, which contain bacteria and fungi that stimulate plant growth through different mechanisms. Soil microflora mediate many biogeochemical processes. The use of plant probiotics as an alternative soil fertilization source has been the focus of several studies; their use in agriculture improves nutrient supply and conserves field management and causes no adverse effects. The species related to organic matter and pollutant biodegradation in soil and abiotic stress tolerance are then presented. As an important way to understand not only the ecological role of PPM and their interaction with plants but also the biotechnological application of these cultures to crop management, two main approaches are elucidated: the culture-dependent approach where the microorganisms contained in the plant material are isolated by culturing and are identified by a combination of phenotypic and molecular methods; and the culture-independent approach where microorganisms are detected without cultivating them, based on extraction and analyses of DNA. These methods combine to give a thorough knowledge of the microbiology of the studied

  13. Halophilic microorganisms in deteriorated historic buildings: insights into their characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Gutarowska, Beata; Pietrzak, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Historic buildings are constantly being exposed to numerous climatic changes such as damp and rainwater. Water migration into and out of the material's pores can lead to salt precipitation and the so-called efflorescence. The structure of the material may be seriously threatened by salt crystallization. A huge pressure is produced when salt hydrates occupy larger spaces, which leads at the end to cracking, detachment and material loss. Halophilic microorganisms have the ability to adapt to high salinity because of the mechanisms of inorganic salt (KCl or NaCl) accumulation in their cells at concentrations isotonic to the environment, or compatible solutes uptake or synthesis. In this study, we focused our attention on the determination of optimal growth conditions of halophilic microorganisms isolated from historical buildings in terms of salinity, pH and temperature ranges, as well as biochemical properties and antagonistic abilities. Halophilic microorganisms studied in this paper could be categorized as a halotolerant group, as they grow in the absence of NaCl, as well as tolerate higher salt concentrations (Staphylococcus succinus, Virgibacillus halodenitrificans). Halophilic microorganisms have been also observed (Halobacillus styriensis, H. hunanensis, H. naozhouensis, H. litoralis, Marinococcus halophilus and yeast Sterigmatomyces halophilus). With respect to their physiological characteristics, cultivation at a temperature of 25-30°C, pH 6-7, NaCl concentration for halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms, 0-10% and 15-30%, respectively, provides the most convenient conditions. Halophiles described in this study displayed lipolytic, glycolytic and proteolytic activities. Staphylococcus succinus and Marinococcus halophilus showed strong antagonistic potential towards bacteria from the Bacillus genus, while Halobacillus litoralis displayed an inhibiting ability against other halophiles.

  14. SCREENING OF THERMOPHYLIC MICROORGANISM FROM IJEN CRATER BANYUWANGI AS PHYTASE ENZYME PRODUCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Puspita Kusumadjaja

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Phytase is enzyme which hydrolysis phytic acid to anorganic phosphate and myo-inositol pentakis-, tetrakis-, tris-, bis-, and monophosphate. The use of phytase in feed industry can overcome environment and nutrition problems which were arisen from unmetabolism phytic acid or its salt by poultry, swine and fish. The feed industry needs a thermostable enzyme due to the need of high temperature in pelleting process, i.e. 81 °C. By using thermostabile phytase, the pelleting process will not affect the enzyme activity. Thermostabile phytase can be isolated from microorganism live in hot spring water or volcano crater. In this study, the screening of thermophylic microorganism having thermostabile phytase activity in Ijen Crater, Banyuwangi, has been done. From this process, it was obtained 33 isolates that produce phytase enzyme. Isolate was code by AP-17 yields highest phytase activity, that is 0.0296 U/mL, so this isolate was choosen for further study. The activity of crude phytase enzyme was measured based on the amount of anorganic phosphate that was produced in enzymatic reaction using UV-VIS spectrophotometer at 392 nm. Based on morphology test to identify the gram type of microorganism, isolate AP-17 has a bacill cell type and identified as positive gram bacteria. This isolate was assumed as Bacillus type.   Keywords: Phytase, thermophilic microorganism, phytase activity

  15. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  16. Three-dimensional optofluidic device for isolating microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keloth, A.; Paterson, L.; Markx, G. H.; Kar, A. K.

    2015-03-01

    Development of efficient methods for isolation and manipulation of microorganisms is essential to study unidentified and yet-to-be cultured microbes originating from a variety of environments. The discovery of novel microbes and their products have the potential to contribute to the development of new medicines and other industrially important bioactive compounds. In this paper we describe the design, fabrication and validation of an optofluidic device capable of redirecting microbes within a flow using optical forces. The device holds promise to enable the high throughput isolation of single microbes for downstream culture and analysis. Optofluidic devices are widely used in clinical research, cell biology and biomedical engineering as they are capable of performing analytical functions such as controlled transportation, compact and rapid processing of nanolitres to millilitres of clinical or biological samples. We have designed and fabricated a three dimensional optofluidic device to control and manipulate microorganisms within a microfluidic channel. The device was fabricated in fused silica by ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) followed by selective chemical etching. The unique three-dimensional capability of ULI is utilized to integrate microfluidic channels and waveguides within the same substrate. The main microfluidic channel in the device constitutes the path of the sample. Optical waveguides are fabricated at right angles to the main microfluidic channel. The potential of the optical scattering force to control and manipulate microorganisms is discussed in this paper. A 980 nm continuous wave (CW) laser source, coupled to the waveguide, is used to exert radiation pressure on the particle and particle migrations at different flow velocities are recorded. As a first demonstration, device functionality is validated using fluorescent microbeads and initial trials with microalgae are presented.

  17. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface. Progress report, June 1, 1990--May 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1991-06-01

    This study seeks to determine numbers, diversity, and morphology of anaerobic microorganisms in 15 samples of subsurface material from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, in 18 samples from the Hanford Reservation and in 1 rock sample from the Nevada Test Site; set up long term experiments on the chemical activities of anaerobic microorganisms based on these same samples; work to improve methods for the micro-scale determination of in situ anaerobic microbial activity;and to begin to isolate anaerobes from these samples into axenic culture with identification of the axenic isolates.

  18. Few microorganisms associated with bacterial vaginosis may constitute the pathologic core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Poul; Jensen, Inge Panum; Jeune, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between various microorganisms isolated from the genital tract in pregnant women with bacterial vaginosis. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional population-based study among pregnant women addressed at their first antenatal visit before 24 full gestational weeks......) between the microorganisms isolated from the lower genital tract in pregnant women with and without clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. RESULTS: Three thousand five hundred ninety-six (3596) pregnant women were asked to participate. Of the 3596 pregnant women 3174 (88.4%) agreed to participate...

  19. Effective Microorganisms: Myth or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal F. Cóndor_Golec

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Th e increase in population has lead to intensifi cation of agricultural systems. Due to the use of pesticides the productivity of agricultural systems has increased but environmental deterioration and unsustainable systems are the consequences of these ways of management. Th e environmentally friendly Eff ective Microorganisms (EM technology claims an enormous amount of benefi ts (claimed by the companies. Th e use of EM as an addictive to manure or as a spray directly in the fi elds may increase the microfauna diversity of the soil and many benefi ts are derived from that increase. It seems that suffi cient information is available about this new technology. Th e aim of this project is to make an analysis of the literature about EM and answer the following questions: 1 how much is known about EM?, 2 how much research is done on EM?, 3 what are the principals of EM?, what are the socio-economic implications of EM?. We want to answer these questions in order to publish the facts about EM and its socio-economic implications.

  20. Systems Biology of Industrial Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Marta; Salazar, Margarita; Nielsen, Jens

    The field of industrial biotechnology is expanding rapidly as the chemical industry is looking towards more sustainable production of chemicals that can be used as fuels or building blocks for production of solvents and materials. In connection with the development of sustainable bioprocesses, it is a major challenge to design and develop efficient cell factories that can ensure cost efficient conversion of the raw material into the chemical of interest. This is achieved through metabolic engineering, where the metabolism of the cell factory is engineered such that there is an efficient conversion of sugars, the typical raw materials in the fermentation industry, into the desired product. However, engineering of cellular metabolism is often challenging due to the complex regulation that has evolved in connection with adaptation of the different microorganisms to their ecological niches. In order to map these regulatory structures and further de-regulate them, as well as identify ingenious metabolic engineering strategies that full-fill mass balance constraints, tools from systems biology can be applied. This involves both high-throughput analysis tools like transcriptome, proteome and metabolome analysis, as well as the use of mathematical modeling to simulate the phenotypes resulting from the different metabolic engineering strategies. It is in fact expected that systems biology may substantially improve the process of cell factory development, and we therefore propose the term Industrial Systems Biology for how systems biology will enhance the development of industrial biotechnology for sustainable chemical production.

  1. [Genome editing of industrial microorganism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Li, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Genome editing is defined as highly-effective and precise modification of cellular genome in a large scale. In recent years, such genome-editing methods have been rapidly developed in the field of industrial strain improvement. The quickly-updating methods thoroughly change the old mode of inefficient genetic modification, which is "one modification, one selection marker, and one target site". Highly-effective modification mode in genome editing have been developed including simultaneous modification of multiplex genes, highly-effective insertion, replacement, and deletion of target genes in the genome scale, cut-paste of a large DNA fragment. These new tools for microbial genome editing will certainly be applied widely, and increase the efficiency of industrial strain improvement, and promote the revolution of traditional fermentation industry and rapid development of novel industrial biotechnology like production of biofuel and biomaterial. The technological principle of these genome-editing methods and their applications were summarized in this review, which can benefit engineering and construction of industrial microorganism.

  2. Surfactant producing TNT-degrading microorganisms for bioremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobyov, A.; Marchenko, A.; Rudneva, O.; Borovick, R. [Research Center for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations, Serpukhov, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Radosevich, M. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark (United States). Dept. of Plant and Soil Sciences

    2003-07-01

    In general the biodegradation of nitroaromatic hydrocarbons is influenced by their bioavailability. 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene is very poorly soluble in water. TNT is easily adsorbed to clay or humus fractions in the soil, and pass very slowly to the aqueous phase, where microorganisms metabolize it. Biosurfactants that increase TNT solubility and improve its bioavailability can thereby accelerate degradation. Pure cultures of microorganisms-TNT degraders were isolated by the method of enrichment cultures from samples of different-type soil contaminated by TNT (soddy-podzol, black earth, and gray forest ones). From 28 soil samples 35 isolates of microorganisms degrading TNT were taken. The isolated soil samples had been tested for availability of microbial activity towards TNT. By10 g of air-dried soil, 10 ml of distilled water, and 2 mg of TNT were placed into 750 ml shaken flasks. The flasks were incubated at 150 rev/min and 24 C. Glucose, sodium succinate or sodium acetate had been used as co-substrates. The ability of the strains to produce surfactants was studied by drop collapsing test and direct measuring of surface tension of cultural liquid after cultivation with TNT. Cells of the strains were cultivated on solid and liquid nutrient media. For drop collapsing test the cells were cultivated on solid nutrient media; the separated colonies were suspended in distilled water. Drop sustainability test ws conducted on a standard 96-well plates coated with a thin layer of vaseline oil. Surface tension of cultural liquid ws measured after cultivation of strains in the presence of TNT with the use of a ring tensiometer. Before measuring of surface tension microbial cells were collected from liquid culture by centrifugation. (orig.)

  3. Biofouling of marbles by oxygenic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Zeki; Öztürk, Ayten; Çolak, Emel

    2015-08-01

    Phototrophic microorganisms disfigure the surfaces of different types of stone. Stone structure is damaged by the activity of photoautotrophic and other microorganisms. However, to date few, investigations have been undertaken into the relationship between microorganisms and the properties of different types of marble. In this study, biological activity of photoautotrophic microorganisms on three types of marble (Yatagan White, Giallo Anticato and Afyon White) was investigated under laboratory conditions over a short period of time. The three types of marble supported the growth of phototrophic microbial communities on their outer and inner layers, turning their original colour from white to a yellowish green colour. The porosity of the marble types facilitated filamentous microbial growth in the presence of water. Scanning electron microscope analysis revealed the accumulation of aggregates such as small spherical, fibrillar, calcified globular bodies on the inner surfaces of the marbles. This suggests that the microscopic characteristics of particular marble types may stimulate the growth of certain types of microorganisms.

  4. Optimization of bioethanol production from carbohydrate rich wastes by extreme thermophilic microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, A.F.

    2013-05-15

    Second-generation bioethanol is produced from residual biomass such as industrial and municipal waste or agricultural and forestry residues. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the microorganism currently used in industrial first-generation bioethanol production, is not capable of converting all of the carbohydrates present in these complex substrates into ethanol. This is in particular true for pentose sugars such as xylose, generally the second major sugar present in lignocellulosic biomass. The transition of second-generation bioethanol production from pilot to industrial scale is hindered by the recalcitrance of the lignocellulosic biomass, and by the lack of a microorganism capable of converting this feedstock to bioethanol with high yield, efficiency and productivity. In this study, a new extreme thermophilic ethanologenic bacterium was isolated from household waste. When assessed for ethanol production from xylose, an ethanol yield of 1.39 mol mol-1 xylose was obtained. This represents 83 % of the theoretical ethanol yield from xylose and is to date the highest reported value for a native, not genetically modified microorganism. The bacterium was identified as a new member of the genus Thermoanaerobacter, named Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus and was subsequently used to investigate some of the factors that influence secondgeneration bioethanol production, such as initial substrate concentration and sensitivity to inhibitors. Furthermore, T. pentosaceus was used to develop and optimize bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass using a range of different approaches, including combination with other microorganisms and immobilization of the cells. T. pentosaceus could produce ethanol from a wide range of substrates without the addition of nutrients such as yeast extract and vitamins to the medium. It was initially sensitive to concentrations of 10 g l-1 of xylose and 1 % (v/v) ethanol. However, long term repeated batch cultivation showed that the strain

  5. Capabilities for Strategic Adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Distel, Andreas Philipp

    This dissertation explores capabilities that enable firms to strategically adapt to environmental changes and preserve competitiveness over time – often referred to as dynamic capabilities. While dynamic capabilities being a popular research domain, too little is known about what these capabiliti...

  6. Effect of Mixing on Microorganism Growth in Loop Bioreactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Al Taweel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of mixing on the promotion of microorganism growth rate has been analyzed using a multiphase forced-circulation pipe-loop reactor model capable of identifying conditions under which it is possible to convert natural gas into Single-Cell Protein. The impact of mixing in the interphase mass transfer was found to exert a critical role in determining the overall productivity of the bioreactor, particularly at the high cell loadings needed to reduce the capital costs associated with the large-scale production needed for the production of relatively low-value SCP in a sustainable manner.

  7. MICROORGANISMS IN SELECTED CONFECTIONARY PRODUCTS DURING THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Petrová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality confectionery products during production. A total of 135 samples were analyzed: 45 samples of the punch balls, 45 Venček samples and 45 samples French cubes from home, school and private production. For microorganism cultivation VRBL agar for the isolation of coliform bacteria, DRBC and DG18 for microscopic fungi and yeasts, Plate Count Agar for total viable count, Meat peptone agar for mesophilic aerobic bacteria, XLD agar for Salmonella sp. and Baird Parker agar for Staphylococcus aureus were used. Following microbiological parameters were tested: total viable count, mesophilic anaerobic microorganisms, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic filamentous fungi, Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. Products are assessed according to the limit values of the number of microorganisms contained in the Codex Alimentary of the Slovak Republic. The overall assessment of the microbiological quality of the punch balls, we found that two samples from school factory and one sample from private producer did not meet CA SR for the total viable count. Comparing the microbiological quality of Venček with CA SR, we found that one sample of home production did not meet the requirements for this type of product. All the tested samples were Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. negative. Comparing the results of the samples with French cubes CA SR, we found that all the samples satisfy requirements.

  8. Periodontopathic microorganisms in peripheric blood after scaling and root planing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaurie, Gloria Inés; Mayorga-Fayad, Isabel; Torres, María Fernanda; Castillo, Diana Marcela; Aya, Maria Rosario; Barón, Alexandra; Hurtado, Paola Andrea

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of periodontopathic and other subgingival anaerobic and facultative bacteria in the bloodstream following scaling and root planing (SRP). Forty-two patients with severe generalized chronic periodontitis (GChP) and generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) were included in the study. Four samples of peripheric blood were drawn from the cubital vein at different times: Pre-treatment: immediately before the SRP procedure (T1), immediately after treatment (T2), 15 min. post-treatment (T3) and 30 min. post-treatment (T4). In order to identify the presence of microorganisms in blood, subcultures were conducted under anaerobic conditions. 80.9% of the patients presented positive cultures after SRP and it occurred more frequently immediately after treatment; however, 19% of the patients still had microorganisms in the bloodstream 30 min. after the procedure. The periodontopathic microorganisms more frequently identified were Porphyromonas gingivalis and Micromonas micros. Campylobacter spp., Eikenella corrodens, Tannerella forsythensis, Fusobacterium spp. and Prevotella intermedia were isolated less often. Actinomyces spp. were also found frequently during bacteraemia after SRP. SRP induced bacteraemia associated with anaerobic bacteria, especially in patients with periodontal disease.

  9. Growth response of microorganisms to different molecular fractions of lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polman, J.K.; Breckenridge, C.R.; Dugan, P.R.; Quigley, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Our research is primarily concerned with isolating and characterizing microbes which are able to dissimilate coal and convert it to other useful chemicals. This quarter, general growth responses of microorganisms cultivated in the presence of different molecular weight fractions of lignite coal were examined. Aerobic and anaerobic environmental samples from a variety of ecological niches were used as inocula. Growth of the microorganisms in these samples on the following types of media was tested: COAL medium, containing alkali-solubilized whole coal; THFI medium, containing the alkali-solubilized, tetrahydrofuran-insoluble, macromolecular portion of whole coal; THFS medium, containing the THF-soluble, low molecular weight portion of whole coal; and CON medium, void of any coal constituent. Overall results indicated that the presence of the THF-soluble, low molecular weight coal fraction enhanced the growth yield and the variety of aerobic microorganisms compared to the other coal fractions or the control medium. Conversely, anaerobic microbes grew best on media which contained the macromolecular fraction. 12 refs., 5 tabs.

  10. Avaliação da produção de lipases por diferentes cepas de microrganismos isolados em efluentes de laticínios por fermentação submersa Evaluation of lipase production using different strains of microorganisms isolated from dairy effluent through submerged fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Roveda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A produção enzimática é um dos campos mais promissores dentro das tecnologias para a síntese de compostos de alto valor agregado, estando em constante crescimento pela grande capacidade dos microrganismos de realizarem transformações químicas. As enzimas produzidas por processos fermentativos têm sido utilizadas para o controle ambiental. Muitas destas enzimas podem ser produzidas a partir de resíduos industriais, diminuindo os custos de produção. As lipases são enzimas que catalisam a hidrólise de triglicerídeos em glicerídeos e ácidos graxos. As lipases vêm sendo utilizadas na redução da concentração dos lipídios contidos nos efluentes, promovendo a hidrólise dos óleos e gorduras presentes. Objetivou-se avaliar a produção de lipases por fungos isolados a partir de efluentes de laticínios. Foram isolados 21 fungos, pertencentes aos gêneros Penicillium, Aspergillus, Trichoderma e Fusarium. Na etapa de seleção, 9 fungos foram selecionados devido à capacidade de crescimento em meio contendo azeite de oliva como substrato. Na fermentação submersa, os fungos E9 (Aspergillus, E21 (Aspergillus e E20 (Penicillium foram os que apresentaram as maiores atividades enzimáticas, de 1,250 a 2,250 U, utilizando-se como meio de cultivo o efluente coletado na saída do equalizador do sistema de tratamento de efluente.Enzymatic production is one of the most promising fields within technologies for the synthesis of high added value compounds, given their constant growth due to the great capacity of microorganisms to carry out chemical transformations. The enzymes produced from fermentation processes have been used for environmental control. Many of these enzymes can be produced from industrial residues, reducing the production cost. Lipases are a group of enzymes that catalyze hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerides and fatty acids. Lipases have been used to reduce the concentration of lipids contained in effluent, promoting

  11. Dynamic capabilities, Marketing Capability and Organizational Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Roseli Wünsch Takahashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study is to investigate the influence of dynamic capabilities on organizational performance and the role of marketing capabilities as a mediator in this relationship in the context of private HEIs in Brazil. As a research method we carried out a survey with 316 IES and data analysis was operationalized with the technique of structural equation modeling. The results indicate that the dynamic capabilities have influence on organizational performance only when mediated by marketing ability. The marketing capability has an important role in the survival, growth and renewal on educational services offerings for HEIs in private sector, and consequently in organizational performance. It is also demonstrated that mediated relationship is more intense for HEI with up to 3,000 students and other organizational profile variables such as amount of courses, the constitution, the type of institution and type of education do not significantly alter the results.

  12. Development of Novel Drugs from Marine Surface Associated Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhelen Egan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available While the oceans cover more than 70% of the Earth’s surface, marine derived microbial natural products have been largely unexplored. The marine environment is a habitat for many unique microorganisms, which produce biologically active compounds (“bioactives” to adapt to particular environmental conditions. For example, marine surface associated microorganisms have proven to be a rich source for novel bioactives because of the necessity to evolve allelochemicals capable of protecting the producer from the fierce competition that exists between microorganisms on the surfaces of marine eukaryotes. Chemically driven interactions are also important for the establishment of cross-relationships between microbes and their eukaryotic hosts, in which organisms producing antimicrobial compounds (“antimicrobials”, may protect the host surface against over colonisation in return for a nutrient rich environment. As is the case for bioactive discovery in general, progress in the detection and characterization of marine microbial bioactives has been limited by a number of obstacles, such as unsuitable culture conditions, laborious purification processes, and a lack of de-replication. However many of these limitations are now being overcome due to improved microbial cultivation techniques, microbial (meta- genomic analysis and novel sensitive analytical tools for structural elucidation. Here we discuss how these technical advances, together with a better understanding of microbial and chemical ecology, will inevitably translate into an increase in the discovery and development of novel drugs from marine microbial sources in the future.

  13. Formation of methylamine by rumen microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itabashi, Hisao; Kandatsu, Makoto.

    1978-01-01

    An unknown ninhydrin positive peak on the chromatograms of amino acid analyzer of alkalified rumen fluid distillate of goats was isolated as DNP-derivative and identified as methylamine. Under normal feeding condition, its concentration in the rumen ranged 0.1-3.9 mgN/100 ml of rumen fluid and the proportion of methylamine in total volatile base, or apparent ammonia, ranged 0.5-13% during post-feeding. When ammonium salt was administered into the rumen with hay-concentrate ration, these values were increased up to 8.1 mgN/100 ml and 25.8% respectively. Concentrations of ammonia and methylamine when aspartic acid or alanine was administered into the rumen in place of concentrate mixture (control) were not markedly different from the control. In the case of arginine, glutamic acid or glycine administration, these concentrations were depressed as compared to the control. There were no distinct differences in the concentration of methylamine between the faunated and unfaunated goats. 14 C from 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, U- 14 C-alanine, 2- 14 C-glycine or 14 C-sodium bicarbonate was incorporated into methylamine in invitro incubation with rumen micro-organisms. When the washed suspensions of rumen bacteria or protozoa were incubated with 14 C-chlorella protein hydrolyzates, the radioactivity in methylamine appeared only in the case of bacteria suspensions. After the addition of 15 N-ammonium citrate into the rumen, the incorporation of 15 N into methylamine was observed during 1-9 hr. (auth.)

  14. Biodegradation of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) by microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Theresa M; Seech, Alan G; Lee, Hung; Trevors, Jack T

    2005-08-01

    The organochlorine pesticide Lindane is the gamma-isomer of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Technical grade Lindane contains a mixture of HCH isomers which include not only gamma-HCH, but also large amounts of predominantly alpha-, beta- and delta-HCH. The physical properties and persistence of each isomer differ because of the different chlorine atom orientations on each molecule (axial or equatorial). However, all four isomers are considered toxic and recalcitrant worldwide pollutants. Biodegradation of HCH has been studied in soil, slurry and culture media but very little information exists on in situ bioremediation of the different isomers including Lindane itself, at full scale. Several soil microorganisms capable of degrading, and utilizing HCH as a carbon source, have been reported. In selected bacterial strains, the genes encoding the enzymes involved in the initial degradation of Lindane have been cloned, sequenced, expressed and the gene products characterized. HCH is biodegradable under both oxic and anoxic conditions, although mineralization is generally observed only in oxic systems. As is found for most organic compounds, HCH degradation in soil occurs at moderate temperatures and at near neutral pH. HCH biodegradation in soil has been reported at both low and high (saturated) moisture contents. Soil texture and organic matter appear to influence degradation presumably by sorption mechanisms and impact on moisture retention, bacterial growth and pH. Most studies report on the biodegradation of relatively low (< 500 mg/kg) concentrations of HCH in soil. Information on the effects of inorganic nutrients, organic carbon sources or other soil amendments is scattered and inconclusive. More in-depth assessments of amendment effects and evaluation of bioremediation protocols, on a large scale, using soil with high HCH concentrations, are needed.

  15. Using natural biomass microorganisms for drinking water denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Darleila Damasceno; Gomes, Anderson Albino; Fernandes, Mylena; Lopes da Costa Bortoluzzi, Roseli; Magalhães, Maria de Lourdes Borba; Skoronski, Everton

    2018-07-01

    Among the methods that are studied to eliminate nitrate from drinking water, biological denitrification is an attractive strategy. Although several studies report the use of denitrifying bacteria for nitrate removal, they usually involve the use of sewage sludge as biomass to obtain the microbiota. In the present study, denitrifying bacteria was isolated from bamboo, and variable parameters were controlled focusing on optimal bacterial performance followed by physicochemical analysis of water adequacy. In this way, bamboo was used as a source of denitrifying microorganisms, using either Immobilized Microorganisms (IM) or Suspended Microorganisms (SM) for nitrate removal. Denitrification parameters optimization was carried out by analysis of denitrification at different pH values, temperature, nitrate concentrations, carbon sources as well as different C/N ratios. In addition, operational stability and denitrification kinetics were evaluated. Microorganisms present in the biomass responsible for denitrification were identified as Proteus mirabilis. The denitrified water was submitted to physicochemical treatment such as coagulation and flocculation to adjust to the parameters of color and turbidity to drinking water standards. Denitrification using IM occurred with 73% efficiency in the absence of an external carbon source. The use of SM provided superior denitrification efficiency using ethanol (96.46%), glucose (98.58%) or glycerol (98.5%) as carbon source. The evaluation of the operational stability allowed 12 cycles of biomass reuse using the IM and 9 cycles using the SM. After physical-chemical treatment, only SM denitrified water remained within drinking water standards parameters of color and turbidity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Decomposition of diesel oil by various microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suess, A; Netzsch-Lehner, A

    1969-01-01

    Previous experiments demonstrated the decomposition of diesel oil in different soils. In this experiment the decomposition of /sup 14/C-n-Hexadecane labelled diesel oil by special microorganisms was studied. The results were as follows: (1) In the experimental soils the microorganisms Mycoccus ruber, Mycobacterium luteum and Trichoderma hamatum are responsible for the diesel oil decomposition. (2) By adding microorganisms to the soil an increase of the decomposition rate was found only in the beginning of the experiments. (3) Maximum decomposition of diesel oil was reached 2-3 weeks after incubation.

  17. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K

    2015-06-08

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  18. Isolation and identification of aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls degrading bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Fatemeh Nabavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify aerobic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs degrading bacteria. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in lab scale aerobic sequencing batch biofilm reactor. Polyurethane foams were used as bio-carrier and synthetic wastewater was prepared with PCBs in transformer oil as the main substrate (20-700 μg/l and acetone as a solvent for PCBs as well as microelements. After achieving to adequate microbial population and acclimation of microorganisms to PCB compounds with high efficiency of PCB removal, identification of degrading microbial species was performed by 16s rRNA gene sequencing of isolated bacteria. Results: Gene sequencing results of the isolated bacteria showed that Rhodococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Pseudoxanthomonas spp., Agromyces spp., and Brevibacillus spp. were dominant PCB-degrading bacteria. Conclusion: PCB compounds can be degraded by some microorganisms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions or at least be reduced to low chlorinated congeners, despite their chemical stability and toxicity. Based on the results of the study, five bacterial species capable of degrading PCBs in transformer oil have been identified.

  19. BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE BY A MICROORGANISM CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alimohammadi, A. R. Mesdaghinia, M. Mahmoodi, S. Nasseri, A. H. Mahvi and J. Nouri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE is one of the ether oxygenates which its use has been increased within the last twenty years. This compound is produced from isobutylene and methanol reaction that is used as octane index enhancer and also increases dissolved oxygen in gasoline and decreases carbon monoxide emission in four phased motors because of better combustion of gasoline. High solubility in water (52 g/L, high vapor pressure (0.54 kg/cm3, low absorption to organic carbon of soil and presence of MTBE in the list of potentially-carcinogens of U.S EPA has made its use of great concern. The culture media used in this study was Mineral Salt Medium (MSM. The study lasted for 236 days and in three different concentrations of MTBE of 200, 5 and 0.8 mg/L. A control sample was also used to compare the results. This research studied the isolation methods of microbial consortium in the MTBE polluted soils in Tehran and Abadan petroleum refinery besides MTBE degradation. The results showed the capability of bacteria in consuming MTBE as carbon source. Final microbial isolation was performed with several microbial passages as well as keeping consortium in a certain amount of MTBE as the carbon source.

  20. Isolation of phosphate solubiliser fungi from Araza rhizosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Diana Fernanda; Perez, Hernando; Valencia Hernando

    2002-01-01

    Araza is an eatable plant, original from the Amazon region, which has been described as a promising species for commercialization (Quevedo 1995). This plant has high productivity even in low content phosphate soil but the presence of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms may contribute to increase this element availability. In this study we report the isolation and characterization of solubilizing fungi processed using the soil washing method, from soil samples were araza is cultivated at two regions in Guaviare, Colombia. Eighteen isolates of fungi capable of solubilizing phosphate were obtained from 2 different sources. The most important species that solubilized phosphate from calcium were Trichoderma aureoviride, Aspergillus aculeatus, Trichoderma strain 1 y Trichoderma strain 2 and for phosphate from iron: Aspergillus oryzae, Paecilomyces strain 3, Gongronella butleri and Fusarium oxysporum

  1. Isolation of phosphate solubilizer fungi from Araza rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Fernanda Vera

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Araza is an eatable plant, original from the Amazon region which has been describedas a promising species for commercialization (Quevedo 1995. This plant has highproductivity even in low content phosphate soil but the presence of phosphatesolubilizazing microorganisms may contribute to increase this element availability.In this study we report the isolation and characterization of solubilizing fungiprocessed using the soil washing method, from soil samples were Araza is cultivated attwo regions in Guaviare, Colombia. Eighteen isolates of fungi capable of solubilizingphosphate were obtained from 2 different sources. The most importat species that solubilized phosphate from calcium were Trichodermaaureoviride, Aspergillus aculeatus,Trichodermastrain 1 y Trichodermastrain 2 and for phosphate from iron: Aspergillus oryzae,Paecilomycesstrain 3, Gongronella butleri& Fusarium oxysporum

  2. Tapping uncultured microorganisms through metagenomics for drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Microorganisms are major source of bioactive natural products, and several ... This review highlights the recent methodologies, limitations, and applications of metagenomics for the discovery of new drugs.

  3. Detection of extracellular enzymatic activity in microorganisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2015-09-18

    Sep 18, 2015 ... microorganisms with all three enzymatic activities, thereby establishing these techniques as ... supplemented at 1% with vegetable oils, including olive (OLI) ..... cepacia lipase for biodiesel fuel production from soybean oil.

  4. Microorganisms' mediated reduction of β-ketoesters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Whole cells usually express a multitude of enzymatic activities; therefore an ... Each microorganism was cultivated for the biomass development on specific medium ..... Ketoester reductase for conversion of keto acid esters to ...

  5. Defensive properties of pyrrolizidine alkaloids against microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.; Van Veen, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The understanding of the selection factors that drive chemical diversification of secondary metabolites of constitutive defence systems in plants, such as pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), is still incomplete. Historically, plants always have been confronted with microorganisms. Long before herbivores

  6. Genetic fingerprint of microorganisms associated with the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    inviting range of elements which microorganisms use in their ... ization and degradation of organic binders leading to struc- tural damage (Herrera et al. 2004). Microbial solubilization of materials involves the produc- ... architectural cement.

  7. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Macomber, Lee; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2011-01-01

    Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological co...

  8. Pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms in caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchez-Moral Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With today’s leisure tourism, the frequency of visits to many caves makes it necessary to know about possible potentially pathogenic microorganisms in caves, determine their reservoirs, and inform the public about the consequences of such visits. Our data reveal that caves could be a potential danger to visitors because of the presence of opportunistic microorganisms, whose existence and possible development in humans is currently unknown.

  9. A general method for selection of riboflavin-overproducing food grade micro-organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Burgess, Catherine M; Smid, Eddy J; Rutten, Ger; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background This study describes a strategy to select and isolate spontaneous riboflavin-overproducing strains of Lactobacillus (Lb.) plantarum, Leuconostoc (Lc.) mesenteroides and Propionibacterium (P.) freudenreichii. Results The toxic riboflavin analogue roseoflavin was used to isolate natural riboflavin-overproducing variants of the food grade micro-organisms Lb. plantarum, Lc. mesenteroides and P. freudenreichii strains. The method was successfully employed for strains of all thr...

  10. Native carbonoxidation microorganisms in bioremedetion Northern Caspian sea from oil pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gridneva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The 26 strains microorganisms - degradation oil have been isolated from shelf water North Caspian. The high emulsifying ability relative to benzine, kerosene and diesel-fuel oil relevantly were possessed the 11 strains. The 4 cultures exhibiting degradation of oil rates 43-49 %, respectively, were selected.

  11. Adaptation and monitoring of microorganisms in petroleum industry wastewater nitrification processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Madero

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Biological removal of ammonia nitrogen is carried out in two successive stages, nitrification and denitrification. This work studied the nitrification process on microorganisms isolated from different aquifer sources: a eutrophicate pond and residual waters from two treatment plants (petrochemical and domestic

  12. COUNTS OF MICROORGANISMS CAUSING BOVINE MASTITIS AND STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanessa Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused mainly by microorganisms, altering the characteristics of milk and results in significant economic losses for this production complex. The study aimed to determine the main causative agents of bovine mastitis in a dairy farm in Rio Pomba city, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, and evaluate the use of plant extract and antibiotics commonly used in the control of microorganisms that cause this disease. Raw milk samples coming from 47 dairy cow were individually collected for microbiological evaluation. We also evaluated the sensitivity of isolates from the plant extract and the antibiotics commonly used in the farm. It was found that 17.0 %, 31.9 %, 85.4 % and 38.3 % of the samples presented, respectively, Staphylococcus aureus, coliforms, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, most of the samples showed counts of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms and Streptococcus sp. between 104 and 105 CFU.mL-1, while the counts of S. aureus ranged between 102 and 103 CFU.mL-1 in most of samples. A higher efficacy of tetracycline on the isolates of S. aureus was verified and of ampicillin on the E. coli isolates. All isolates of the latter bacteria were resistant to plant extract. Due to the high incidence of microorganisms, we emphasize the need for implementation of Good Agricultural Practices in milk production, because these bacteria are coming from hair, skin, mucous membranes of animals and/or belonging to the enteric microbiota of mammals, respectively.

  13. THE ASPECTS OF INVESTIGATION OF MICROORGANISM ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE AT THE PRESENT STAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreeva I.A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. At the present stage for ensuring epidemic safety and prevention of nosocomial infections the complex of analytical study and managerial procedure to improve the epidemiological supervision over nosocomial infections through the introduction of infection control in health care practice are using. The microbiological monitoring is part of the infectious control and allows supervising circulation of microorganisms and their antimicrobial resistance by dynamic observation over structure and level of resistance to antibiotics that are used in the given particular hospital. Materials and methods. For the dynamic observation of the structure and the level of resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial agents the computer software WHONET recommended by WHO has been used. With using WHONET in Dnepropetrovsk Children's Hospital № 3 the computer database has been created. In this database the information about each patient, hospital department, samples under test and the date of its excretion, the data about the detected microorganism and its sensitivity/resistance to antimicrobial agents have been stored. The examination and analysis of antibiotic resistance of microorganisms has been provided for 2010- 2014 years, in total the data on 6168 isolates from 3876 patients have been analyzed. Results and discussion. By the total data the isolates belong to a wide spectrum of microorganisms (more than 40 different types. By means of the analysis of isolating of clinically significant microorganisms it has been established that one of the most frequent isolated were Escherichia coli (1-20 %, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4-18 %, Staphylococcus epidermidis (1-12 %, S. aureus (1-10 %, Enterobacter cloacae (2-9 %, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1-8 %. Detection of other microorganisms was irregular and its frequency is varied from 0 % to 10 %. As a result of examining the sensitivity of microorganisms it has been shown that tested strains of bacteria were

  14. Role of Proteolytic Enzymes in the Interaction of Phytopathogenic Microorganisms with Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valueva, T A; Zaichik, B Ts; Kudryavtseva, N N

    2016-12-01

    Various forms of participation of proteolytic enzymes in pathogenesis and defense in plants are reviewed. Along with extracellular proteinases, phytopathogenic microorganisms produce specific effectors having proteolytic activity and capable of acting on proteins inside plant cells. In turn, for defense against pathogens, plants use both extracellular and intracellular proteinases.

  15. The first collection of spacecraft-associated microorganisms: a public source for extremotolerant microorganisms from spacecraft assembly clean rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Rettberg, Petra; Pukall, Rüdiger

    2012-11-01

    For several reasons, spacecraft are constructed in so-called clean rooms. Particles could affect the function of spacecraft instruments, and for missions under planetary protection limitations, the biological contamination has to be restricted as much as possible. The proper maintenance of clean rooms includes, for instance, constant control of humidity and temperature, air filtering, and cleaning (disinfection) of the surfaces. The combination of these conditions creates an artificial, extreme biotope for microbial survival specialists: spore formers, autotrophs, multi-resistant, facultative, or even strictly anaerobic microorganisms have been detected in clean room habitats. Based on a diversity study of European and South-American spacecraft assembly clean rooms, the European Space Agency (ESA) has initialized and funded the creation of a public library of microbial isolates. Isolates from three different European clean rooms, as well as from the final assembly and launch facility in Kourou (French Guiana), have been phylogenetically analyzed and were lyophilized for long-term storage at the German Culture Collection facilities in Brunswick, Germany (Leibniz-Institut DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen). The isolates were obtained by either following the standard protocol for the determination of bioburden on, and around, spacecraft or the use of alternative cultivation strategies. Currently, the database contains 298 bacterial strains. Fifty-nine strains are Gram-negative microorganisms, belonging to the α-, β- and γ-Proteobacteria. Representatives of the Gram-positive phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi, and Firmicutes were subjected to the collection. Ninety-four isolates (21 different species) of the genus Bacillus were included in the ESA collection. This public collection of extremotolerant microbes, which are adapted to a complicated artificial biotope, provides a wonderful source for industry and research focused on

  16. Compost as a source of microbial isolates for the bioremediation of heavy metals: In vitro selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas-García, María del Carmen; López, María José; Suárez-Estrella, Francisca; Moreno, Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution has become a major environmental concern nowadays and the bioremediation of polluted habitats is an increasingly popular strategy due to both its efficiency and safety. A screening and selection protocol based on different composting processes was designed in order to isolate heavy metal-resistant microorganisms. A collection of 51 microorganisms was obtained and most of them showed the capability to tolerate heavy metals in multi-polluted aqueous systems (Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni, Pb, Zn(II)), as well as to remove them. The highest detoxification ratios were observed for Pb. Some of the isolates detoxifying more than a 90% of this metal, while the other metals were removed in a range between 20% and 60%. The best isolates (Graphium putredinis, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sp. and Penicillium chrysogenum) were further assayed in order to determine the predominant removal mechanism and the potential use of their dead biomass as a biosorbent. Intracellular accumulation was the prevalent mechanism for most isolates and metals, with the exception of Ni. In this case, the proportion removed by extracellular adsorption was similar or even higher than that removed by intracellular accumulation. Thus, the efficiency of living cells was higher than that of dead biomass except in the case of Ni. - Highlights: ► Composting is a good reservoir for the isolation of HM-resistant microorganisms. ► Pb was the most removed heavy metal in multi-polluted aqueous systems. ► Intracellular accumulation was the predominant mechanism for heavy metal removal. ► Graphium putredinis, which detoxifies organic pollutants, was the most efficient isolate.

  17. Compost as a source of microbial isolates for the bioremediation of heavy metals: In vitro selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Garcia, Maria del Carmen, E-mail: mcvargas@ual.es; Lopez, Maria Jose, E-mail: mllopez@ual.es; Suarez-Estrella, Francisca, E-mail: fsuarez@ual.es; Moreno, Joaquin, E-mail: jcasco@ual.es

    2012-08-01

    Heavy metal pollution has become a major environmental concern nowadays and the bioremediation of polluted habitats is an increasingly popular strategy due to both its efficiency and safety. A screening and selection protocol based on different composting processes was designed in order to isolate heavy metal-resistant microorganisms. A collection of 51 microorganisms was obtained and most of them showed the capability to tolerate heavy metals in multi-polluted aqueous systems (Cd(II), Cr(VI), Ni, Pb, Zn(II)), as well as to remove them. The highest detoxification ratios were observed for Pb. Some of the isolates detoxifying more than a 90% of this metal, while the other metals were removed in a range between 20% and 60%. The best isolates (Graphium putredinis, Fusarium solani, Fusarium sp. and Penicillium chrysogenum) were further assayed in order to determine the predominant removal mechanism and the potential use of their dead biomass as a biosorbent. Intracellular accumulation was the prevalent mechanism for most isolates and metals, with the exception of Ni. In this case, the proportion removed by extracellular adsorption was similar or even higher than that removed by intracellular accumulation. Thus, the efficiency of living cells was higher than that of dead biomass except in the case of Ni. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting is a good reservoir for the isolation of HM-resistant microorganisms. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb was the most removed heavy metal in multi-polluted aqueous systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Intracellular accumulation was the predominant mechanism for heavy metal removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Graphium putredinis, which detoxifies organic pollutants, was the most efficient isolate.

  18. Building Service Provider Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Kristin; Jaura, Manya; Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study whether and how the interaction between clients and the service providers contributes to the development of capabilities in service provider firms. In situations where such a contribution occurs, we analyze how different types of activities in the production process...... process. We find that clients influence the development of human capital capabilities and management capabilities in reciprocally produced services. While in sequential produced services clients influence the development of organizational capital capabilities and management capital capabilities....... of the services, such as sequential or reciprocal task activities, influence the development of different types of capabilities. We study five cases of offshore-outsourced knowledge-intensive business services that are distinguished according to their reciprocal or sequential task activities in their production...

  19. Current limiting capability of diffused resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedd, W.; Cappelli, J.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of the current limiting capability of dielectrically isolated diffused resistors at transient ionizing dose rates up to 6*10 12 rads(Si)/sec is presented. Existing theoretical predictions of the transient response of diffused resistors are summarized and compared to the experimentally measured values. The test resistors used allow the effects of sheet resistance and geometry on the transient response to be determined. The experimental results show that typical dielectrically isolated diffused resistors maintain adequate current limiting capability for use in radiation hardened integrated circuits

  20. Functional microorganisms for functional food quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbetti, M; Cagno, R Di; De Angelis, M

    2010-09-01

    Functional microorganisms and health benefits represent a binomial with great potential for fermented functional foods. The health benefits of fermented functional foods are expressed either directly through the interactions of ingested live microorganisms with the host (probiotic effect) or indirectly as the result of the ingestion of microbial metabolites synthesized during fermentation (biogenic effect). Since the importance of high viability for probiotic effect, two major options are currently pursued for improving it--to enhance bacterial stress response and to use alternative products for incorporating probiotics (e.g., ice cream, cheeses, cereals, fruit juices, vegetables, and soy beans). Further, it seems that quorum sensing signal molecules released by probiotics may interact with human epithelial cells from intestine thus modulating several physiological functions. Under optimal processing conditions, functional microorganisms contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. Overproduction of free amino acids and vitamins are two classical examples. Besides, bioactive compounds (e.g., peptides, γ-amino butyric acid, and conjugated linoleic acid) may be released during food processing above the physiological threshold and they may exert various in vivo health benefits. Functional microorganisms are even more used in novel strategies for decreasing phenomenon of food intolerance (e.g., gluten intolerance) and allergy. By a critical approach, this review will aim at showing the potential of functional microorganisms for the quality of functional foods.

  1. Microorganism identification technique using radioactive and fluorescent agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silman, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    A method for identifying microorganisms is claimed. An emissive agent is added to a specimen of microorganisms to produce a mix of emissive products. These products are detected and characteristic pattern functioning as an identifier for the microorganisms is derived. The identifier is then compared with identifiers representing known microorganisms

  2. Degradation and metabolism of synthetic plastics and associated products by Pseudomonas sp.: capabilities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, R A; Aristilde, L

    2017-09-01

    Synthetic plastics, which are widely present in materials of everyday use, are ubiquitous and slowly-degrading polymers in environmental wastes. Of special interest are the capabilities of microorganisms to accelerate their degradation. Members of the metabolically diverse genus Pseudomonas are of particular interest due to their capabilities to degrade and metabolize synthetic plastics. Pseudomonas species isolated from environmental matrices have been identified to degrade polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polyurethane, polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene succinate, polyethylene glycol and polyvinyl alcohol at varying degrees of efficiency. Here, we present a review of the current knowledge on the factors that control the ability of Pseudomonas sp. to process these different plastic polymers and their by-products. These factors include cell surface attachment within biofilms, catalytic enzymes involved in oxidation or hydrolysis of the plastic polymer, metabolic pathways responsible for uptake and assimilation of plastic fragments and chemical factors that are advantageous or inhibitory to the biodegradation process. We also highlight future research directions required in order to harness fully the capabilities of Pseudomonas sp. in bioremediation strategies towards eliminating plastic wastes. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Food fermentations: Microorganisms with technological beneficial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourdichon, François; Casaregola, Serge; Farrokh, Choreh

    2012-01-01

    Microbial food cultures have directly or indirectly come under various regulatory frameworks in the course of the last decades. Several of those regulatory frameworks put emphasis on “the history of use”, “traditional food”, or “general recognition of safety”. Authoritative lists of microorganism......, legumes, cereals, beverages, and vinegar). We have also reviewed and updated the taxonomy of the microorganisms used in food fermentations in order to bring the taxonomy in agreement with the current standing in nomenclature....... cultures in practical use. However, as the focus mainly was on commercially available dairy cultures, there was an unmet need for a list with a wider scope. We present an updated inventory of microorganisms used in food fermentations covering a wide range of food matrices (dairy, meat, fish, vegetables...

  4. Biosurfactants, bioemulsifiers and exopolysaccharides from marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K; Banat, Ibrahim M; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Chopade, Balu A

    2010-01-01

    Marine biosphere offers wealthy flora and fauna, which represents a vast natural resource of imperative functional commercial grade products. Among the various bioactive compounds, biosurfactant (BS)/bioemulsifiers (BE) are attracting major interest and attention due to their structural and functional diversity. The versatile properties of surface active molecules find numerous applications in various industries. Marine microorganisms such as Acinetobacter, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, Myroides, Corynebacteria, Bacillus, Alteromonas sp. have been studied for production of BS/BE and exopolysaccharides (EPS). Due to the enormity of marine biosphere, most of the marine microbial world remains unexplored. The discovery of potent BS/BE producing marine microorganism would enhance the use of environmental biodegradable surface active molecule and hopefully reduce total dependence or number of new application oriented towards the chemical synthetic surfactant industry. Our present review gives comprehensive information on BS/BE which has been reported to be produced by marine microorganisms and their possible potential future applications.

  5. Capability Handbook- offline metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido

    This offline metrological capability handbook has been made in relation to HiMicro Task 3.3. The purpose of this document is to assess the metrological capability of the HiMicro partners and to gather the information of all available metrological instruments in the one single document. It provides...

  6. Dynamic Capabilities and Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilden, Ralf; Gudergan, Siegfried P.; Nielsen, Bo Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    are contingent on the competitive intensity faced by firms. Our findings demonstrate the performance effects of internal alignment between organizational structure and dynamic capabilities, as well as the external fit of dynamic capabilities with competitive intensity. We outline the advantages of PLS...

  7. Developing Alliance Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimeriks, Koen H.; Duysters, Geert; Vanhaverbeke, Wim

    This paper assesses the differential performance effects of learning mechanisms on the development of alliance capabilities. Prior research has suggested that different capability levels could be identified in which specific intra-firm learning mechanisms are used to enhance a firm's alliance...

  8. Telematics Options and Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    This presentation describes the data tracking and analytical capabilities of telematics devices. Federal fleet managers can use the systems to keep their drivers safe, maintain a fuel efficient fleet, ease their reporting burden, and save money. The presentation includes an example of how much these capabilities can save fleets.

  9. Risk Assessment of Genetically Modified Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, B. L.; Wilcks, Andrea

    2001-01-01

    the industry, national administration and research institutions were gathered to discuss which elements should be considered in a risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms used as food or food ingredients. The existing EU and national regulations were presented, together with the experiences......The rapid development of recombinant DNA techniques for food organisms urges for an ongoing discussion on the risk assessment of both new as traditional use of microorganisms in food production. This report, supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers, is the result of a workshop where people from...... with risk assessment of these organisms in each Nordic country....

  10. Functional Properties of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods have unique functional properties imparting some health benefits to consumers due to presence of functional microorganisms, which possess probiotics properties, antimicrobial, antioxidant, peptide production, etc. Health benefits of some global fermented foods are synthesis of nutrients, prevention of cardiovascular disease, prevention of cancer, gastrointestinal disorders, allergic reactions, diabetes, among others. The present paper is aimed to review the information on some functional properties of the microorganisms associated with fermented foods and beverages, and their health-promoting benefits to consumers.

  11. Fossil micro-organisms evidenced by electronic microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prashnowsky, A.A.; Oberlies, F.; Burger, K.

    1983-04-01

    Fossil microorganisms in colonies and in the form of isolated cells (iron bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes etc.) were detected by electron microscopy of rocks containing remains of plant roots, carbonaceous substance, and strata of clay iron stone with ooids. These findings suggest an environment favourable to bacterial activity during sedimentation in the Upper Carboniferous and during the later processes of peat and coal formation. They also suggest that bacterial processes are an important factor in coal formation. Accurate data on coal formation can only be obtained by systematic biochemical studies. Analyses of the defined organic substances provide a better understanding of the conversion processes of the original substances. For example, the results of sterine analysis provide information on the mycoplancton, phytoplancton and zooplancton of the Upper Carboniferous. For some types of rock, the ratio of saponifiable to non-saponifiable constituents of the organic compounds yield information on stability under various geochemical conditions. The interactions between the various groups of microorganisms also play a major role in the solution of ecological problems.

  12. Biotechnical leaching of lean ores using heterotrophic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, W.; Naeveke, R.

    1980-01-01

    After reporting briefly on leaching with Thiobacillus, it is discussed whether in those cases where thiobacilli fail to work the limits of microbial leaching are reached or still other groups of microorganisms will be suitable. In this relation the great number of carbon-heterotrophic fungi and bacteria have to be considered which are partly oligotrophic and occur e.g. in weathering biotopes of rocks and minerals and which may even include heavy metals in the dissolving processes of weathering. The active agents are, as far as is known up to now, organic acids which are produced by microorganisms and given off to the medium where they may combine with metals to form water-soluble complex compounds. In order to detect and isolate suitable strains of fungi and bacteria it will be necessary to work out a screening program which proceeds from general to special selections. Experiments to identify the active agents and the conditions of their production will have to follow. It remains still an open question whether such studies will result in technical processes. Mass production processes which are possible with the carbon-autotrophic and acidophilic thiobacilli are less probable than special processes to get hold of rare and economically valuable metals whose extraction would be difficult by other means. (orig.) [de

  13. FMEF/experimental capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, C.A.; Dronen, V.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), under construction at the Hanford site north of Richland, Washington, will be one of the most modern facilities offering irradiated fuels and materials examination capabilities and fuel fabrication development technologies. Scheduled for completion in 1984, the FMEF will provide examination capability for fuel assemblies, fuel pins and test pins irradiated in the FFTF. Various functions of the FMEF are described, with emphasis on experimental data-gathering capabilities in the facility's Nondestructive and Destructive examination cell complex

  14. KSC Technical Capabilities Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nufer, Brian; Bursian, Henry; Brown, Laurette L.

    2010-01-01

    This document is the website pages that review the technical capabilities that the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has for partnership opportunities. The purpose of this information is to make prospective customers aware of the capabilities and provide an opportunity to form relationships with the experts at KSC. The technical capabilities fall into these areas: (1) Ground Operations and Processing Services, (2) Design and Analysis Solutions, (3) Command and Control Systems / Services, (4) Materials and Processes, (5) Research and Technology Development and (6) Laboratories, Shops and Test Facilities.

  15. Search for and characterization of microorganisms in deep geological compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barsotti, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the scientific community has shown a growing interest for deep geological compartments. However, these ecosystems remain largely unknown due to their inaccessibility. The aim of the present thesis was double; the first aim was to characterize, from a microbiological perspective, four terrestrial Triassic sedimentary formations located between 1700 and 2000 m depth in the Parisian Basin and collected by the ANDRA during a deep drilling campaign in 2008, and the second aim was to study the combined effects of temperature, pressure and salinity on the metabolic activity of anaerobic prokaryotes in order to predict their reaction to geological burial. Incubations in a large variety of media were carried out in order to stimulate the growth of the main trophic types found in such environments such as methanogens, fermenters and bacteria reducing sulphur compounds, however, no viable and cultivable microorganisms could be isolated. In parallel, a molecular approach was used to i) compare the efficacy of several DNA extractions methods and ii) analyse the bacterial diversity, using DGGE (Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis) and cloning, present in rock inner cores conserved either at atmospheric pressure or under pressure, in their initial states and following incubations in various media. The genetic exploration of these samples revealed a very low biomass and a poor diversity composed mainly of aerobic and mesophilic members of the Bacteria domain, a priori unadapted to such a deep, hot, saline and anoxic environment. This unexpected microbial community also found in many subsurface ecosystems as well as in extreme ecosystems could have partially originated from a paleo-recharge of the Trias aquifer with cold waters coming from the melting of ice formed during the last Pleistocene glaciation. The second objective was to study the combined effects of temperature (40, 55 and 70 C), pressure (1, 90 and 180 bars) and salinity (13, 50, 110, 180

  16. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  17. [DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS TO POLYHEXAMETHYLENEGUANIDINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysytsya, A V; Mandygra, Y M; Bojko, O P; Romanishyna, O O; Mandygra, M S

    2015-01-01

    Factors identified that affect the sensitivity of microorganisms to polyhexamethyleneguanidine (PHMG). Salts of PHMG chloride, valerate, maleate, succinate was to use. Test strains of Esherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Leptospira interrogans, Paenibacillus larvae, Mycobacterium bovis, M. avium, M. fortuitum, Aspergillus niger and some strains of viruses are taken as objects of research. We have determined that the cytoplasm membrane phospholipids is main "target" for the polycation molecules of PHMG. A differential sensitivity of the microorganisms to this drug is primarily determined by relative amount of lipids in membrane and their accessibility. Such trends exist: increase the relative contents of anionic lipids and more negative surface electric potential of membrane, and reduction of the sizes fat acid remainder of lipids bring to increase of microorganism sensitivity. Types of anion salt PHMG just have a certain value. Biocide activity of PHMG chloride is more, than its salts with organic acid. Feasibility of combining PHMG with other biocides in the multicomponent disinfectants studied and analyzed. This combination does not lead to a significant increase in the sensitivity of microorganisms tested in most cases. Most species of pathogenic bacteria can be quickly neutralized by aqueous solutions of PHMG in less than 1% concentrations.

  18. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  19. Mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macomber, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Summary Nickel has long been known to be an important human toxicant, including having the ability to form carcinomas, but until recently nickel was believed to be an issue only to microorganisms living in nickel-rich serpentine soils or areas contaminated by industrial pollution. This assumption was overturned by the discovery of a nickel defense system (RcnR/RcnA) found in microorganisms that live in a wide range of environmental niches, suggesting that nickel homeostasis is a general biological concern. To date, the mechanisms of nickel toxicity in microorganisms and higher eukaryotes are poorly understood. In this review, we summarize nickel homeostasis processes used by microorganisms and highlight in vivo and in vitro effects of exposure to elevated concentrations of nickel. On the basis of this evidence we propose four mechanisms of nickel toxicity: 1) nickel replaces the essential metal of metalloproteins, 2) nickel binds to catalytic residues of non-metalloenzymes; 3) nickel binds outside the catalytic site of an enzyme to inhibit allosterically, and 4) nickel indirectly causes oxidative stress. PMID:21799955

  20. Host Defense against Opportunist Microorganisms Following Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    Guide for Laboratory Animal, Resources, National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council. I ii t ___ ii A- KNOWLEDMENT The investigators express...and Candida albicans are the microorganisms which are most frequently associated with septic complica- tions in thermally injured patients. Management

  1. Atmospheric Sampling of Microorganisms with UAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, D. G., III

    2017-12-01

    Many microorganisms relevant to crops, domestic animals, and humans are transported over long distances through the atmosphere. Some of these atmospheric microbes catalyze the freezing of water at higher temperatures and facilitate the onset of precipitation. A few have crossed continents. New technologies are needed to study the movement of microorganisms in the atmosphere. We have used unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to study the transport of microorganisms tens to hundreds of meters above the ground. These UAS are equipped with unique devices for collecting microbes in the atmosphere during flight. Autonomous systems enable teams of UAS to perform complex atmospheric sampling tasks, and coordinate flight missions with one another. Data collected with UAS can be used to validate and improve disease forecasting models along highways in the sky, connecting transport scales across farms, states, and continents. Though terrestrial environments are often considered a major contributor to atmospheric microbial aerosols, little is known about aquatic sources of microbial aerosols. Droplets containing microorganisms can aerosolize from the water surface, liberating them into the atmosphere. We are using teams of unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) and UAS to study the aerosolization of microbes from aquatic environments. Controlled flume studies using highspeed video have allowed us to observe unique aerosolization phenomena that can launch microbes out of the water and into the air. Unmanned systems may be used to excite the next generation of biologists and engineers, and raise important ethical considerations about the future of human-robot interactions.

  2. Ecophysiology of microorganisms in microbial elctrolysis cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croese, E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main challenges for improvement of the microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) has been the reduction of the cost of the cathode catalyst. As catalyst at the cathode, microorganisms offer great possibilities. Previous research has shown the principle possibilities for the biocathode for H2

  3. Ecology and metagenomics of soil microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baldrian, Petr; Head, I. M.; Prosser, J. I.; Schloter, M.; Smalla, K.; Tebbe, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 1 (2011), s. 1-2 ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk(CZ) LA10001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : microorganism * bioremediation * biogenesis of soil Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.408, year: 2011

  4. Novel genome alteration system for microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daran, J.G.; Geertman, J.M.; Bolat, I.

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a set of targeting constructs, comprising a first construct comprising a recognition site for an endonuclease, a first region of homology with a target gene of a microorganism, and a first part of a selection marker, and a second construct comprising a second part of the

  5. The influence of selected nanomaterials on microorganisms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brandeburová, P.; Birošová, L.; Vojs, M.; Kromka, Alexander; Gál, M.; Tichý, J.; Híveš, J.; Mackul´ak, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 148, č. 3 (2017), s. 525-530 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-01687S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanomaterials * nanotechnologies * microorganisms * toxicity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  6. Artifical Microorganism Infection in Aviation Kerosene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Vallo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The fuel used in the aviation engineering has to be clean and dry, it may not contain mechanical impurities and water. Water inaviation kerosene may occur in soluble and insoluble form. The danger inheres in the insoluble form, which may drop out in the crystallineform and cause various failures, such as those caused by mechanical impurities. The water assists in the biological matter formation createdby various species of microorganisms (bacteria, mould fungi and yeast. The microorganisms, present in water phase occurring on thebottom of tanks or on the interface water phase – kerosene, grow and reproduce and subsequently may pollute (impair the fuel by thebiomass or by the products of their metabolism. There is a possibility to infect the fuel artificially by a selected reference microorganismstrain, which usually occur in contaminated fuel, or by microorganisms which cause a biological contamination of aviation kerosene.Out of the selected reference strains used in the experiments, the reference strains of Proteus vulgaris, Sacharamyces cerevisiae andClostridium perfringens were not cultivated in the sterile aviation kerosene and the propagating nutrient medium. The aviation kerosene actsas a biocide medium for the presented reference microorganism strains.

  7. Novel Industrial Enzymes from Uncultured Arctic Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Jan Kjølhede

    , and reduce the risk of contaminations. Cold- and alkaline-active enzymes can be found in microorganisms adapted to living in natural environments with these conditions, which are extremely rare but found in the unique ikaite columns from SW Greenland (4-6 °C, pH >10). It is estimated that less than 1...

  8. [Sorption of microorganisms by fiber materials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikovskaia, G N; Gordienko, A S; Globa, L I

    1986-01-01

    Candida guilliermondii and Escherichia coli cells were adsorbed on glass and basalt fibres with a similar specific surface, but with a different charge. The quantity of adsorbed microorganisms did not depend on the type and charge of a fibre surface. However, cells were adsorbed faster and more firmly on positively charged and uncharged fibres than on negatively charged fibres.

  9. Resources, constraints and capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhondt, S.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Schröder, A.

    2018-01-01

    Human and financial resources as well as organisational capabilities are needed to overcome the manifold constraints social innovators are facing. To unlock the potential of social innovation for the whole society new (social) innovation friendly environments and new governance structures

  10. a Capability approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    efforts towards gender equality in education as a means of achieving social justice. ... should mean that a lot of capability approach-oriented commentators are ... processes, their forms of exercising power, and their rules, unwritten cultures, ...

  11. Engineering Capabilities and Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Steve

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the engineering capabilities at Johnson Space Center, The presentation also reviews the partnerships that have resulted in successfully designed and developed projects that involved commercial and educational institutions.

  12. Antimicrobial activity screening of marine bacteria isolated from Port Klang and Port Tanjung Pelepas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nik Nuraznida Nik; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2018-04-01

    Over the past ten years, marine natural product researchers have expanded the scope of their studies from macroorganisms such as algae to marine microorganisms. The marine environment is believed to be able to provide novel lead against pathogenic microbes that are evolving and developing resistance to existing pharmaceutical agents. In this study, a total of 150 bacterial isolates isolated from Port Klang and Port Tanjung Pelepas were screened for antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Entrococcus, faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Methicillin-Resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Only 10 isolates: PW01, PW02, PB03, and PS (04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09, and 10) showed strong antibacterial activity. Based on the strongest activity, isolates PW01 and PW02 were selected for secondary screening using well diffusion assay. The dichloromethane extract of Pseudomonas sp. PW01 showed activity against S. aureus (15±0 mm), V. parahaemolyticus (25±1.63 mm) and MRSA (18±0.81 mm). Meanwhile, the diethyl ether extract of Pseudomonas sp. PW02 showed active activity against S. aureus (10±0 mm), V. parahaemolyticus (30±0.94 mm), MRSA (30±0.94 mm), E. coli (22±1.25 mm) and E. faecalis (26±0 mm). Through this study, it was suggested that marine microorganisms may represent an untapped reservoir of biodiversity capable of synthesizing antimicrobial molecules.

  13. Combination of microautoradiography and fluorescence in situ hybridization for identification of microorganisms degrading xenobiotic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanru; Zarda, Annatina; Zeyer, Josef

    2003-12-01

    One of the central topics in environmental bioremediation research is to identify microorganisms that are capable of degrading the contaminants of interest. Here we report application of combined microautoradiography (MAR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The method has previously been used in a number of systems; however, here we demonstrate its feasibility in studying the degradation of xenobiotic compounds. With a model system (coculture of Pseudomonas putida B2 and Sphingomonas stygia incubated with [14C] o-nitrophenol), combination of MAR and FISH was shown to be able to successfully identify the microorganisms degrading o-nitrophenol. Compared with the conventional techniques, MAR-FISH allows fast and accurate identification of the microorganisms involved in environmental contaminant degradation.

  14. A New Approach on Sampling Microorganisms from the Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, B.; Lehnen, J. N.; Prince, J.; Bering, E., III; Rodrigues, D.

    2017-12-01

    University of Houston's Undergraduate Student Instrumentation Project (USIP) astrobiology group will attempt to provide a cross-sectional analysis of microorganisms in the lower stratosphere by collecting living microbial samples using a sterile and lightweight balloon-borne payload. Refer to poster by Dr. Edgar Bering in session ED032. The purpose of this research is two-fold: first, to design a new system that is capable of greater mass air intake, unlike the previous iterations where heavy and power-intensive pumps are used; and second, to provide proof of concept that live samples are accumulated in the upper atmosphere and are viable for extensive studies and consequent examination for their potential weather-altering characteristics. Multiple balloon deployments will be conducted to increase accuracy and to provide larger set of data. This paper will also discuss visual presentation of the payload along with analyzed information of the captured samples. Design details will be presented to NASA investigators for professional studies

  15. Brandishing Cyberattack Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Advertising cyberwar capabilities may be helpful. It may back up a deterrence strategy. It might dissuade other states from conventional mischief or...to enable the attack.5 Many of the instruments of the attack remain with the target system, nestled in its log files, or even in the malware itself...debat- able. Even if demonstrated, what worked yesterday may not work today. But difficult does not mean impossible. Advertising cyberwar capabilities

  16. CASL Dakota Capabilities Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Brian M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simmons, Chris [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-10

    The Dakota software project serves the mission of Sandia National Laboratories and supports a worldwide user community by delivering state-of-the-art research and robust, usable software for optimization and uncertainty quantification. These capabilities enable advanced exploration and riskinformed prediction with a wide range of computational science and engineering models. Dakota is the verification and validation (V&V) / uncertainty quantification (UQ) software delivery vehicle for CASL, allowing analysts across focus areas to apply these capabilities to myriad nuclear engineering analyses.

  17. Antimicrobial Effects of Garcinia Mangostana on Cariogenic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardhanan, Sunitha; Mahendra, Jaideep; Girija, A S Smiline; Mahendra, Little; Priyadharsini, Vijayashree

    2017-01-01

    values were lowest for Lactobacillus acidophilus (MIC 25 mg/ml, MBC 50 mg/ml) and Streptococcus oralis (MIC 50 mg/ml, MBC 100 mg/ml). Mangosteen pericarp extract had a higher zone of inhibition against the tested microorganisms which suggests its potent antibacterial action against cariogenic organisms. However, further analytical studies are needed to isolate the key molecules of mangosteen pericarp, to explore its anticariogenic therapeutic potential on gram negative oral microorganisms.

  18. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  19. Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penkov, F.; Tuleushev, A.; Lisitsyn, V.; Kim, S.; Tuleushev, Yu.

    1996-01-01

    Objective of Investigations: Development and creation of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms which allows to evaluate, in a real temporal scale, variations in the state of water suspension of micro-organisms under the effect of chemical, physical and other external actions. Statement of the Problem The main problem is absence of reliable, accessible for users and simple, in view of application, Doppler speedometers for micro-organisms. Nevertheless, correlation Doppler spectrometry in the regime of heterodyning the supporting and cell-scattered laser radiation is welt known. The main idea is that the correlation function of photo-current pulses bears an information on the averages over the assembly of cell velocities. For solving the biological problems, construction of auto-correlation function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, function in the real-time regime with the delay time values comprising, nearly, 100 me (10 khz) or higher is needed. Computers of high class manage this problem using but the program software. Due to this, one can simplify applications of the proposed techniques provided he creates the Doppler speedometer for micro-organism on a base of the P entium . Expected Result Manufactured operable mock-up of the Doppler speedometer for micro-organisms in a form of the auxiliary computer block which allows to receive an information, in the real time scale, on the results of external effects of various nature on the cell assembly in transparent medium with a small volume of the studied cell suspension

  20. The presence of biofilm forming microorganisms on hydrotherapy equipment and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarząb, Natalia; Walczak, Maciej

    2017-10-01

    Hydrotherapy equipment provides a perfect environment for the formation and growth of microbial biofilms. Biofilms may reduce the microbiological cleanliness of hydrotherapy equipment and harbour opportunistic pathogens and pathogenic bacteria. The aims of this study were to investigate the ability of microorganisms that colonize hydrotherapy equipment to form biofilms, and to assess the influence of temperature and nutrients on the rate of biofilm formation. Surface swab samples were collected from the whirlpool baths, inhalation equipment and submerged surfaces of a brine pool at the spa center in Ciechocinek, Poland. We isolated and identified microorganisms from the swab samples and measured their ability to form biofilms. Biofilm formation was observed at a range of temperatures, in both nutrient-deficient and nutrient-rich environments. We isolated and identified microorganisms which are known to form biofilms on medical devices (e.g. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia). All isolates were classified as opportunistic pathogens, which can cause infections in humans with weakened immunity systems. All isolates showed the ability to form biofilms in the laboratory conditions. The potential for biofilm formation was higher in the presence of added nutrients. In addition, the hydrolytic activity of the biofilm was connected with the presence of nutrients.

  1. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  2. Improved Method for Direct Detection of Environmental Microorganisms Using an Amplification of 16S rDNA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, M.; Akutsu, J.; Zhang, Z.; Sasaki, M.; Tajima, H.; Kawarabayasi, Y.

    2004-12-01

    The thermostable proteins or enzymes were expected to be capable to be utilized in many areas of industries. Many thermophilic microorganisms, which possess the thermostable proteins or enzymes, were identified from the extreme environment. However, many unidentified and uncultivable microorganisms are still remaining in the environment on the earth. It is generally said that the cultivable microorganisms are less than 1% of entire microorganisms living in the earth, remaining over 99% are still uncultivable. As an approach to the uncultivable microorganisms, the PCR amplification of 16S rDNA region using primer sets designed from the conserved region has been generally utilized for detection and community analysis of microorganism in the environment. However, the facts, that PCR amplification introduces the mutation in the amplified DNA fragment and efficiency of PCR amplification is depend on the sequences of primer sets, indicated that the improving of PCR analysis was necessary for more correct detection of microorganisms. As the result of evaluation for the quality of DNA polymerases, sequences of primers used for amplification and conditions of PCR amplification, the DNA polymerase, the primer set and the conditions for amplification, which did not amplify the DNA fragment from the DNA contaminated within the DNA polymerase itself, were successfully selected. Also the rate of mutation in the DNA fragment amplified was evaluated using this conditions and the genomic DNA from cultivable microbes as a template. The result indicated the rate of mutation introduced by PCR was approximately 0.1% to 0.125%. The improved method using these conditions and error rate calculated was applied for the analysis of microorganisms in the geothermal environment. The result indicated that four kinds of dominant microorganisms, including both of bacteria and archaea, were alive within soil in the hot spring in Tohoku Area. We would like to apply this improved method to detection

  3. Campus Capability Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Arsenlis, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bailey, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bergman, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brase, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brenner, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Camara, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Carlton, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cheng, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chrzanowski, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Colson, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); East, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Farrell, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ferranti, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gursahani, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hansen, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Helms, L. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hernandez, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jeffries, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Larson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lu, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McNabb, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mercer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Skeate, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sueksdorf, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zucca, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Le, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ancria, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scott, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leininger, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gagliardi, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gash, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bronson, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chung, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hobson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Meeker, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sanchez, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zagar, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Quivey, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sommer, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Atherton, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Campus Capability Plan for 2018-2028. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is one of three national laboratories that are part of the National Nuclear Security Administration. LLNL provides critical expertise to strengthen U.S. security through development and application of world-class science and technology that: Ensures the safety, reliability, and performance of the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile; Promotes international nuclear safety and nonproliferation; Reduces global danger from weapons of mass destruction; Supports U.S. leadership in science and technology. Essential to the execution and continued advancement of these mission areas are responsive infrastructure capabilities. This report showcases each LLNL capability area and describes the mission, science, and technology efforts enabled by LLNL infrastructure, as well as future infrastructure plans.

  4. Technological Capability's Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence in configuration of the technological capability of companies in sectors with medium-low technological intensity. To achieve the goal proposed in this article a survey was carried out. Based on the framework developed by Lall (1992 which classifies firms in basic, intermediate and advanced level of technological capability; it was found that the predominant technological capability is intermediate, with 83.7% of respondent companies (plastics companies in Brazil. It is believed that the main contribution of this study is the finding that the dependent variable named “Technological Capability” can be explained at a rate of 65% by six variables: development of new processes; selection of the best equipment supplier; sales of internally developed new technology to third parties; design and manufacture of equipment; study of the work methods and perform inventory control; and improvement of product quality.

  5. Capabilities for innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter; Nielsen, Rene Nesgaard; Bamberger, Simon Grandjean

    2012-01-01

    is a survey that collected information from 601 firms belonging to the private urban sector in Denmark. The survey was carried out in late 2010. Keywords: dynamic capabilities/innovation/globalization/employee/employer cooperation/Nordic model Acknowledgment: The GOPA study was financed by grant 20080053113......Technological developments combined with increasing levels of competition related to the ongoing globalization imply that firms find themselves in dynamic, changing environments that call for dynamic capabilities. This challenges the internal human and organizational resources of firms in general...

  6. Human push capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ralph L; Liber, Theodore

    2006-02-22

    Use of unassisted human push capability arises from time to time in the areas of crowd and animal control, the security of locked doors, the integrity of railings, the removal of tree stumps and entrenched vehicles, the manoeuvering of furniture, and athletic pursuits such as US football or wrestling. Depending on the scenario, human push capability involves strength, weight, weight distribution, push angle, footwear/floor friction, and the friction between the upper body and the pushed object. Simple models are used to establish the relationships among these factors.

  7. The Capability Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Robeyns, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    textabstract In its most general description, the capability approach is a flexible and multi-purpose normative framework, rather than a precise theory of well-being, freedom or justice. At its core are two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary moral importance, and second, that freedom to achieve well-being is to be understood in terms of people’s capabilities, that is, their real opportunities to do and be what they have reason to value. Thi...

  8. Sandia QIS Capabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, Richard P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a broad set of capabilities in quantum information science (QIS), including elements of quantum computing, quantum communications, and quantum sensing. The Sandia QIS program is built atop unique DOE investments at the laboratories, including the MESA microelectronics fabrication facility, the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies (CINT) facilities (joint with LANL), the Ion Beam Laboratory, and ASC High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities. Sandia has invested $75 M of LDRD funding over 12 years to develop unique, differentiating capabilities that leverage these DOE infrastructure investments.

  9. Response of selected microorganisms to experimental planetary environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T. L.; Winans, L., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented on the anaerobic conversion of phosphite to phosphate. It is demonstrated that in the presence of both phosphite and hypophosphite, the phosphite is the preferred phosphorous source. An investigation in which P-32 labeled hypophosphite was added to the basal medium demonstrates that the labeled hypophosphite was incorporated into the metabolic reactions of the cell. Other data show that as cell growth occurs, the phosphite and/or hypophosphite levels decrease. The Bacillus sp. capable of anaerobic utilization of phosphite was isolated from Cape Canaveral soil samples, and it is partially characterized. Also included are continued investigations of omnitherms. The data presented show that some of these possess significant resistance to the Viking dry-heat cycle, and that they retain their omnithermic characteristic after recovery from the heat cycle. Other physiological characteristics of these isolates are also presented. It is demonstrated that omnitherms can be isolated from Cape Canaveral soil.

  10. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts

  11. UV inactivation of pathogenic and indicator microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, J.C.; Ossoff, S.F.; Lobe, D.C.; Dorfman, M.H.; Dumais, C.M.; Qualls, R.G.; Johnson, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Survival was measured as a function of the dose of germicidal UV light for the bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella sonnei, Streptococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis spores, the enteric viruses poliovirus type 1 and simian rotavirus SA11, the cysts of the protozoan Acanthamoeba castellanii, as well as for total coliforms and standard plate count microorganisms from secondary effluent. The doses of UV light necessary for a 99.9% inactivation of the cultured vegetative bacteria, total coliforms, and standard plate count microorganisms were comparable. However, the viruses, the bacterial spores, and the amoebic cysts required about 3 to 4 times, 9 times, and 15 times, respectively, the dose required for E. coli. These ratios covered a narrower relative dose range than that previously reported for chlorine disinfection of E. coli, viruses, spores, and cysts.

  12. Isolation of Thermophilic Lignin Degrading Bacteria from Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C. M. T.; Chua, H. B.; Danquah, M. K.; Saptoro, A.

    2017-06-01

    Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) is a potential and sustainable feedstock for bioethanol production due to its high cellulosic content and availability in Malaysia. Due to high lignin content of EFB and the lack of effective delignification process, commercial bioethanol production from EFB is presently not viable. Enzymatic delignification has been identified as one of the key steps in utilising EFB as a feedstock for bioethanol conversion. To date, limited work has been reported on the isolation of lignin degrading bacteria. Hence, there is a growing interest to search for new lignin degrading bacteria with greater tolerance to temperature and high level of ligninolytic enzymes for more effective lignin degradation. This study aimed to isolate and screen thermophilic ligninolytic microorganisms from EFB compost. Ten isolates were successfully isolated from EFB compost. Although they are not capable of decolorizing Methylene Blue (MB) dye under agar plate assay method, they are able to utilize lignin mimicked compound - guaiacol as a sole carbon on the agar plate assay. This infers that there is no correlation of ligninolytic enzymes with dye decolourization for all the isolates that have been isolated. However, they are able to produce ligninolytic enzymes (Lignin peroxidase, Manganese peroxidase, Laccase) in Minimal Salt Medium with Kraft Lignin (MSM-KL) with Lignin Peroxidase (LiP) as the predominant enzyme followed by Manganese Peroxidase (MnP) and Laccase (Lac). Among all the tested isolates, CLMT 29 has the highest LiP production up to 8.7673 U/mL following 24 h of growth.

  13. Influence of near ultraviolet light on microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraikin, G.Y.A.; Rubin, L.B.

    1980-01-01

    Our results and the recent literature data on the biological action of near ultraviolet light (300-380 nm) are examined in the review. Factual material is presented on the principles governing the manifestation of the following effects of near ultraviolet light in microorganisms: inactivation, delayed growth, photoreactivation, photoprotection, photoinduced sporulation (in fungi), and carotene synthesis. The mature and possible mechanisms of the effects examined are discussed

  14. Chemosensing in microorganisms to practical biosensors

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Surya K.; Kundu, Tapanendu; Sain, Anirban

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms like bacteria can sense concentration of chemo-attractants in its medium very accurately. They achieve this through interaction between the receptors on their cell surface and the chemo-attractant molecules (like sugar). But the physical processes like diffusion set some limits on the accuracy of detection which was discussed by Berg and Purcell in the late seventies. We have a re-look at their work in order to assess what insight it may offer towards making efficient, practica...

  15. [Succession of chitinolytic microorganisms in chernozem soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucharova, N A; Belova, E V; Vorob'ev, A V; Polianskaia, L M; Stepanov, A L

    2005-01-01

    The chitinolytic prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial complex of chernozem soil has been investigated in the course of a succession initiated by the introduction of chitin and humidification. The dynamics of the cell numbers of chitinolytic microorganisms and of their biomass was assessed by fluorescent microscopy and by inoculation of selective media. Emission of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, as well as dinitrogen fixation, was assessed by gas chromatography. It was found that, when the succession was initiated by the introduction of both chitin and humidification, it resulted in greater cell numbers and biomass of chitinolytic microorganisms and higher levels of CO2 and N2O emission and of nitrogen fixation than when the succession was initiated by humidification alone. As compared to the control samples, a significant (twofold) increase in the prokaryote cell number and biomass was found on the fourth day of the succession initiated by humidification and introduction of chitin. One week after the initiation of succession, the fungal biomass and length of mycelium were twice as high as those in the control samples. These results led to the conclusion that chitin utilization in chernozem soil starts during the initial stages of succession and is performed by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms.

  16. ISOPHOT - Capabilities and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, D.; Klaas, U.; Abolins, J.

    1996-01-01

    ISOPHOT covers the largest wavelength range on ISO from 2.5 to 240 mu m. Its scientific capabilities include multi filter and multi-aperture photometry, polarimetry, imaging and spectrophotometry. All modes can optionally include a focal plane chopper. The backbone of the photometric calibration...

  17. Capabilities for Intercultural Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The capabilities approach offers a valuable analytical lens for exploring the challenge and complexity of intercultural dialogue in contemporary settings. The central tenets of the approach, developed by Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum, involve a set of humanistic goals including the recognition that development is a process whereby people's…

  18. Capabilities and Special Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Christian Christrup

    into international consideration in relation to the implementation of the UN convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. As for the theoretical basis, the research makes use of the sociological open-ended and relational concepts of Pierre Bourdieu and the normative yardstick of the Capability Approach...

  19. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  20. The Capability Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.M. Robeyns (Ingrid)

    2011-01-01

    textabstract In its most general description, the capability approach is a flexible and multi-purpose normative framework, rather than a precise theory of well-being, freedom or justice. At its core are two normative claims: first, the claim that the freedom to achieve well-being is of primary

  1. Sensor Alerting Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Jakob; Bermudez, Luis; Satapathy, Goutam

    2013-04-01

    There is a large amount of sensor data generated today by various sensors, from in-situ buoys to mobile underwater gliders. Providing sensor data to the users through standardized services, language and data model is the promise of OGC's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) initiative. As the amount of data grows it is becoming difficult for data providers, planners and managers to ensure reliability of data and services and to monitor critical data changes. Intelligent Automation Inc. (IAI) is developing a net-centric alerting capability to address these issues. The capability is built on Sensor Observation Services (SOSs), which is used to collect and monitor sensor data. The alerts can be configured at the service level and at the sensor data level. For example it can alert for irregular data delivery events or a geo-temporal statistic of sensor data crossing a preset threshold. The capability provides multiple delivery mechanisms and protocols, including traditional techniques such as email and RSS. With this capability decision makers can monitor their assets and data streams, correct failures or be alerted about a coming phenomena.

  2. Magnetotaxy in microorganisms of Rio de Janeiro region: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, H.G. de P.L. de; Esquivel, D.M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Some characteristics of several magnetotactic microorganisms found in sediments collected in Rio de Janeiro region are presented. The study of magnetic characteristics of these microorganisms indicate some general properties of the magnetotaxy phenomenons. (L.C.) [pt

  3. Capitalizing on capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Dave; Smallwood, Norm

    2004-06-01

    By making the most of organizational capabilities--employees' collective skills and fields of expertise--you can dramatically improve your company's market value. Although there is no magic list of proficiencies that every organization needs in order to succeed, the authors identify 11 intangible assets that well-managed companies tend to have: talent, speed, shared mind-set and coherent brand identity, accountability, collaboration, learning, leadership, customer connectivity, strategic unity, innovation, and efficiency. Such companies typically excel in only three of these capabilities while maintaining industry parity in the other areas. Organizations that fall below the norm in any of the 11 are likely candidates for dysfunction and competitive disadvantage. So you can determine how your company fares in these categories (or others, if the generic list doesn't suit your needs), the authors explain how to conduct a "capabilities audit," describing in particular the experiences and findings of two companies that recently performed such audits. In addition to highlighting which intangible assets are most important given the organization's history and strategy, this exercise will gauge how well your company delivers on its capabilities and will guide you in developing an action plan for improvement. A capabilities audit can work for an entire organization, a business unit, or a region--indeed, for any part of a company that has a strategy to generate financial or customer-related results. It enables executives to assess overall company strengths and weaknesses, senior leaders to define strategy, midlevel managers to execute strategy, and frontline leaders to achieve tactical results. In short, it helps turn intangible assets into concrete strengths.

  4. Effect of helium-neon laser radiation on conventionally - pathogenous microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shesterina, M.V.; Kalyuk, A.N.; Maliev, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported of single and multiple irradiation with low-energy helium-neon lasers (different doses and regimens) on growth and properties of conventionally-pathogenous microflora isolated from patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and cultures of standard microorganisms. The above mentioned laser radiation produced an inhibitory effect on some strains of conventionally-pathogenous microflora manifested in inhibition of the growth properties of cultures as the energy dose increased

  5. Oligotrophic bacteria isolated from clinical materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Tada, Y; Ihmori, M; Yamaguchi, J

    1995-01-01

    Oligotrophic bacteria (oligotrophs) are microorganisms that grow in extremely nutritionally deficient conditions in which the concentrations of organic substances are low. Many oligotrophic bacteria were isolated from clinical materials including urine, sputum, swabbings of the throat, vaginal discharges, and others. Seventy-seven strains of oligotrophic bacteria from 871 samples of clinical material were isolated. A relatively higher frequency of isolation of oligotrophic bacteria was shown ...

  6. The Characterization of Psychrophilic Microorganisms and their potentially useful Cold-Active Glycosidases Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenchly, Jean E.

    2008-06-30

    Our studies of novel, cold-loving microorganisms have focused on two distinct extreme environments. The first is an ice core sample from a 120,000 year old Greenland glacier. The results of this study are particularly exciting and have been highlighted with press releases and additional coverage. The first press release in 2004 was based on our presentation at the General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology and was augmented by coverage of our publication (Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2005. Vol. 71:7806) in the Current Topics section of the ASM news journal, “Microbe.” Of special interest for this report was the isolation of numerous, phylogenetically distinct and potentially novel ultrasmall microorganisms. The detection and isolation of members of the ultrasmall population is significant because these cells pass through 0.2 micron pore filters that are generally used to trap microorganisms from environmental samples. Thus, analyses by other investigators that examined only cells captured on the filters would have missed a significant portion of this population. Only a few ultrasmall isolates had been obtained prior to our examination of the ice core samples. Our development of a filtration enrichment and subsequent cultivation of these organisms has added extensively to the collection of, and knowledge about, this important population in the microbial world.

  7. Radionuclides of foods in Japan and uptake of radio/stable elements by terrestrial food, microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, H.; Kuwahara, C.; Kato, F.

    2004-01-01

    According to our recent investigation from 2000 to 2003, radiocesium concentrations of foods in Japan imported from various foreign countries were low levels ( 137 Cs concentrations. And also, we obtained the data that wild mushrooms collected from four points of Japanese forests in 2002 had been still contaminated by 137 Cs ( 137 Cs to mushrooms is both a direct path way from soil and an indirect path way from the cells of soil microorganisms. We performed the culture experiments of the saprophytic edible mushroom (Pleurotus otsreatus) mycelia and one of the representative soil microorganisms isolated from wild mushroom substrata, using several stable elements. On the isolation of soil microorganisms from mushroom substrata, the appearance frequencies of planktonic bacteria and filamentous actinomycetes were affected by pH of isolation medium. Cs tolerance of the planktonic bacteria and the filamentous actinomycetes showed considerable difference; as far as tested 13 soil samples, planktonic bacteria being able to grow in the presence of 50 mM CsCl were present in all the samples at a higher density but no filamentous actinomycetes could grow in the presence of 50 mM. Accumulation of Cs in filamentous actinomycetes (Streptomyces sp. K202) were two to eight times higher than those in bacteria when they were incubated in the presence of 5 mM CsCl. (author)

  8. Biological potantial of some Iranian Trichoderma isolates in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... ... Iranian Trichoderma isolates in the control of soil borne plant pathogenic ... Although in many cases, these pesticides appear to be the most ... pathogens and nematodes by microorganisms has been considered a more ...

  9. Diversity and enzymatic characterization of Bacillus species isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermentation plays an important role in the production of cassava-based foods in West Africa. In Côte ... microorganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast and moulds ..... Bacillus species isolated from solid substrate fermentation of cassava for.

  10. Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Gudiksen, P.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1983-02-01

    The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) project is a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored real-time emergency response service available for use by both federal and state agencies in case of a potential or actual atmospheric release of nuclear material. The project, initiated in 1972, is currently evolving from the research and development phase to full operation. Plans are underway to expand the existing capability to continuous operation by 1984 and to establish a National ARAC Center (NARAC) by 1988. This report describes the ARAC system, its utilization during the past two years, and plans for its expansion during the next five to six years. An integral part of this expansion is due to a very important and crucial effort sponsored by the Defense Nuclear Agency to extend the ARAC service to approximately 45 Department of Defense (DOD) sites throughout the continental US over the next three years

  11. Group Capability Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejarski, Michael; Appleton, Amy; Deltorchio, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The Group Capability Model (GCM) is a software tool that allows an organization, from first line management to senior executive, to monitor and track the health (capability) of various groups in performing their contractual obligations. GCM calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI) by comparing actual head counts, certifications, and/or skills within a group. The model can also be used to simulate the effects of employee usage, training, and attrition on the GCI. A universal tool and common method was required due to the high risk of losing skills necessary to complete the Space Shuttle Program and meet the needs of the Constellation Program. During this transition from one space vehicle to another, the uncertainty among the critical skilled workforce is high and attrition has the potential to be unmanageable. GCM allows managers to establish requirements for their group in the form of head counts, certification requirements, or skills requirements. GCM then calculates a Group Capability Index (GCI), where a score of 1 indicates that the group is at the appropriate level; anything less than 1 indicates a potential for improvement. This shows the health of a group, both currently and over time. GCM accepts as input head count, certification needs, critical needs, competency needs, and competency critical needs. In addition, team members are categorized by years of experience, percentage of contribution, ex-members and their skills, availability, function, and in-work requirements. Outputs are several reports, including actual vs. required head count, actual vs. required certificates, CGI change over time (by month), and more. The program stores historical data for summary and historical reporting, which is done via an Excel spreadsheet that is color-coded to show health statistics at a glance. GCM has provided the Shuttle Ground Processing team with a quantifiable, repeatable approach to assessing and managing the skills in their organization. They now have a common

  12. Expeditionary Rubber Removal Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-31

    the modified spray unit or system with equivalent capabilities. 24 25 9.8. A pressure sensor or caster wheels should be incorporated into the...DISCUSSION 18 8.0 CONCLUSIONS 23 9.0 RECOMMENDATIONS 24 APPENDIX A – DETAILED LIST OF EQUIPMENT AND MODIFICATIONS 26 APPENDIX B – LIST OF SOURCES FOR...tall Weight – 4820 lb (No Attachments) Top Speed – 18 mph High Flow Hydraulics (Optional) – 26 gpm Steering – All Wheel Steering Cargo Max Load

  13. Atmospheric release advisory capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    The ARAC system (Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability) is described. The system is a collection of people, computers, computer models, topographic data and meteorological input data that together permits a calculation of, in a quasi-predictive sense, where effluent from an accident will migrate through the atmosphere, where it will be deposited on the ground, and what instantaneous and integrated dose an exposed individual would receive

  14. [Studies on metabolites from marine microorganism Aspergillus terreus collected from nature reserve region of mangrove].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yi; Zou, Jianhua; Dai, Jungui

    2011-09-01

    To search for new antitumor active lead compounds from marine microorganism. A marine strain, Aspergillus terreus, was cultured and up-scaled in artificial seawater media, from which the metabolites were isolated and elucidated by using modern spectroscopy techniques. Twelve compounds were isolated from mycelia and fermentation broth of A. terreus. Compounds 1-4 were steroids, compounds 5-8 were organic acids and esters, compound 9 was an alkaloid, compound 10 was an isocoumarin, compound 11 was ceramide, compound 12 was propenyl cyclic pentanediol.

  15. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia and Causative Microorganisms in Intensive Care Unit: A Two Year Retrospective Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Palabıyık

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is the most common nosocomial infection in the intensive care units (ICUs. It causes prolonged hospital stay and increases mortality. In this study, we aimed to investigate the rate of VAP, causative microorganisms, and their antibiotic susceptibilities in anaesthesiology and reanimation ICU (ARICU. Material and Method: This retrospective study included patients who were admitted to 12-bed ARICU between January 2013 and December 2014. The detection of VAP was done according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria. The rate of VAP, VAP ratio, and ventilator utilization ratio (VUR were calculated according to guidelines of Turkish National Infection Surveillance Control Group. Endotracheal aspiration samples were collected and cultivated. The identification of the isolates was performed by using VITEK-2 automated system. Antibiotic susceptibilities were determined by the disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. Results: VAP was determined in 16 of 359 patients who required invasive mechanic ventilation for longer than 48 hours and hospitalized in ARICU. VUR was 65%, VAP ratio was 4.5% and the rate of VAP was 3.3 per 1000 ventilator days. Seventeen microorganisms were isolated from endotracheal aspiration samples, including Acinetobacter baumannii (n=6, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=4, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (n=4, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae and Serratia marcescens. The most sensitive antibiotics for microorganisms are listed as follows; Acinetobacter baumannii: colistin, Pseudomonas aeruginosa: amikacin, carbapenems; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: linezolid, teicoplanin, vancomycin, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole; Klebsiella and Enterobacteriaceae species: carbapenems, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin. Conclusion: Intermittent analyses and antibiotic susceptibilities of VAP

  16. [Prevalence of associated microorganisms in genital discharge, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Sauka, Diego H; Alberto de Torres, Ramón

    2002-10-01

    There was a significant increase in the number of women demanding gynecological care in public hospital of the Great Buenos Aires, Argentina, between 1997 and 1998. It was necessary to update the prevalence of associated microorganisms in order to review the laboratory support and adjust prevention and control guidelines. Samples from vaginal and endocervical discharge, from total cases: 84 adolescents (15 to 19 years) and 784 adults (20-60 years) attended in 1997-1998, were studied. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Streptococcus agalactiae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Candida spp, and bacterial vaginosis, were diagnosed applying direct detection methods and specific culture isolation. Chlamydia trachomatis (antigen detection), Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis (culture) were also studied in part of the population. Patient care increased steadily from 1997 and there was an increase of 2.1 times from the first semester to the last one in 1998. Bacterial vaginosis was the most prevalent disease in the adult group, with 23.8%; followed by Candida spp 17.8%; S. agalactiae 5.6%; T.vaginalis 2.4%. In 50.3% of total adult cases neither bacterial vaginosis or presence of any sought microorganisms, was detected. In the adolescents group the most frequent detection was Candida spp with a 29.7%; bacterial vaginosis in 17.8%; followed by S. agalactiae 3.6%, T.vaginalis 2.4%. Also in this group on an important number of cases, 46.4%, none bacterial vaginosis or the presence of the sought microorganism were found. In some of the adult group, C. trachomatis (7/400) 1.76%, U. urealyticum (209/340) 61.4% and M. hominis (45/272) 16.5% were detected. Bacterial vaginosis and Candida spp prevalence is important in both groups. The absence of N. gonorrhoeae and lower prevalence of T. vaginalis and C. trachomatis is remarkable. A high prevalence of U. urealyticum and M. hominis were also detected, but the actual pathogenic role in adult women is still under discussion. The significant

  17. Biotransformation of Spanish coals by microorganisms; Biotransformacion de Carbones Espanoles por Microorganismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    some newly isolated microorganisms could solubilized different kinds of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite). Certain fungi and bacteria could solubilized lignite when growing in a mineral medium. However, to solubilized higher rank coals (hard coal and subbituminous coal) microorganisms require a complete medium. Microorganisms, which showed higher capacity to solubilized coal, were incubated in the presence of coal (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) at the optimal conditions to get coal liquefaction/solubilization. The resultant products were analysed by IR and UV/visible spectrometry. No major differences among the original coal, solubilized/liquefied coal and residual coal were detected. However, an increase in metallic carboxylate and a decrease in OH'- carboxylic groups were observed in the liquefied lignite. Humic acids derived from original lignite residual lignite and liquefied/solubilized lignite by microorganisms were analysed. Several differences were observed in the humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite, such as an increase in the total acidity and in the proportion of the phenolic groups. Differences on the humic acid molecular weight were observed too. Several fungal and bacterial strains were able to grow using humic acids as sole carbon source. Microorganisms growing in humic acid were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Besides, the coal solubilization capacity of several fungal strains (M2, m$ and AGI) growing in different culture media was assayed. In order to get some insight into the mechanisms of the liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) by these microorganisms, some features in the culture supernatants were studied: pH values; extracellular specific proteins; enzyme activities possibly related with coal solubilization and the presence of oxalate. M2 and M4 fungal strains grown in the presence of coal produced some specific extracellular proteins

  18. Biotransformation of Spanish coals by microorganisms; Biotransformacion de Carbones Espanoles por Microorganismos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    some newly isolated microorganisms could solubilized different kinds of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite). Certain fungi and bacteria could solubilized lignite when growing in a mineral medium. However, to solubilized higher rank coals (hard coal and subbituminous coal) microorganisms require a complete medium. Microorganisms, which showed higher capacity to solubilized coal, were incubated in the presence of coal (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) at the optimal conditions to get coal liquefaction/solubilization. The resultant products were analysed by IR and UV/visible spectrometry. No major differences among the original coal, solubilized/liquefied coal and residual coal were detected. However, an increase in metallic carboxylate and a decrease in OH'- carboxylic groups were observed in the liquefied lignite. Humic acids derived from original lignite residual lignite and liquefied/solubilized lignite by microorganisms were analysed. Several differences were observed in the humic acids extracted from the liquefied lignite, such as an increase in the total acidity and in the proportion of the phenolic groups. Differences on the humic acid molecular weight were observed too. Several fungal and bacterial strains were able to grow using humic acids as sole carbon source. Microorganisms growing in humic acid were observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Besides, the coal solubilization capacity of several fungal strains (M2, m$ and AGI) growing in different culture media was assayed. In order to get some insight into the mechanisms of the liquefaction/solubilization of Spanish coals (hard coal, subbituminous coal and lignite) by these microorganisms, some features in the culture supernatants were studied: pH values; extracellular specific proteins; enzyme activities possibly related with coal solubilization and the presence of oxalate. M2 and M4 fungal strains grown in the presence of coal produced some specific extracellular

  19. Changes in Gram Negative Microorganisms' Resistance Pattern During 4 Years Period in a Referral Teaching Hospital; a Surveillance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khalili

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose Surveillance studies evaluating antimicrobial susceptibilities are of great value in preventing the spread of resistant pathogens by elucidating the trend of resistance in commonly used antibiotics and as a consequence providing information for prescribing the most appropriate agent. This study is a longitudinal antimicrobial resistance surveillance study designed to evaluate the trend in antimicrobial resistance to gram negative microorganisms from 2007 to 2010. Method:During a four-year period (2007-2010 isolates derived from all patients admitted to infectious diseases ward of Imam Khomeini Hospital, the major referral center for infectious disease in Iran with the highest admission rates, were evaluated. Based on disk diffusion method and zone of inhibition size, the microorganism was regarded as to be sensitive, resistant or has intermediate susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents. Results:The widest spread Gram-negative microorganism in all of isolates taken together in our study was E.coli (30% followed by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia in 28.6% and Enterobacter spp. in 11.9%, respectively. The susceptibility to amikacin, imipenem, piperacillin/tazobactam, and nitrofurantoin was equal or above 50% for all microorganisms over four years. However, the susceptibility to ampicillin, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxim, and ceftriaxone was less than 50% in derived isolates during the study period.Conclusion:In conclusion, the finding of the present study revealed that resistance rate to common antimicrobial agents in Iran is growing and isolates were susceptible mostly to broadspectrum antibiotics including imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam

  20. A novel Bacillus pumilus-related strain from tropical landfarm soil is capable of rapid dibenzothiophene degradation and biodesulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzanello, Elizandra Bruschi; Rezende, Rachel Passos; Sousa, Fernanda Maria Oliveira; Marques, Eric de Lima Silva; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes

    2014-10-08

    The presence of organic sulfur-containing compounds in the environment is harmful to animals and human health. The combustion of these compounds in fossil fuels tends to release sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere, which leads to acid rain, corrosion, damage to crops, and an array of other problems. The process of biodesulfurization rationally exploits the ability of certain microorganisms in the removal of sulfur prior to fuel burning, without loss of calorific value. In this sense, we hypothesized that bacterial isolates from tropical landfarm soils can demonstrate the ability to degrade dibenzothiophene (DBT), the major sulfur-containing compound present in fuels. Nine bacterial isolates previously obtained from a tropical landfarm soil were tested for their ability to degrade dibenzothiophene (DBT). An isolate labeled as RR-3 has shown the best performance and was further characterized in the present study. Based on physiological aspects and 16 s rDNA sequencing, this isolate was found to be very closely related to the Bacillus pumillus species. During its growth, high levels of DBT were removed in the first 24 hours, and a rapid DBT degradation within the first hour of incubation was observed when resting cells were used. Detection of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), a marker for the 4S pathway, suggests this strain has metabolical capability for DBT desulfurization. The presence of MgSO4 in growth medium as an additional sulfur source has interfered with DBT degradation. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that a Bacillus strain can metabolize DBT via the 4S pathway. However, further evidences suggest RR-3 can also use DBT (and/or its derivative metabolites) as carbon/sulfur source through another type of metabolism. Compared to other reported DBT-degrading strains, the RR-3 isolate showed the highest capacity for DBT degradation ever described in quantitative terms. The potential application of this isolate for the biodesulfurization of this sulfur

  1. FOOD MICROORGANISMS INFLUENCING THE GROWTH OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GRAVES, R R; FRAZIER, W C

    1963-11-01

    Some 870 cultures of predominating micro-organisms were isolated from market samples of hamburger, fresh pork sausage, fresh fish fillets, stewing beef, frozen chicken pot pie, frozen corn, frozen peas, and pasteurized and raw milk, before and after storage at different temperatures. The isolates were screened for their ability to influence the growth of Staphylococcus aureus strain 196E by means of spot-plate tests on APT and nutrient agars at 25 C. The 438 cultures that influenced the growth of S. aureus were retested on spot plates at 15, 30, and 42 C. After elimination of replicates, the 143 remaining cultures were classified into species, genera, or groups, and 14 different cultures were tested for their influence on the growth of S. aureus in APT broth at 25 C. Over half of the effective cultures inhibited S. aureus and less than half were stimulatory. Pork sausage had the highest proportion of inhibitory cultures, and stewing beef had the lowest. APT agar was better than nutrient agar for screening, and incubation at 15 C gave more effector organisms than at 30 and 42 C. Most of the lactic acid bacteria were inhibitory, but other groups of bacteria contained more stimulatory cultures than inhibitory ones. The three Escherichia coli cultures were stimulatory, but most other Escherichia cultures were inhibitory. Aerobacter and Paracolobactrum isolates were mostly stimulatory. Cultures of other kinds of bacteria were more or less evenly distributed between inhibitory ones and stimulatory ones. Genera containing mostly inhibitory bacteria were Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, and Lactobacillus. Inhibitory species were E. freundii and E. intermedia. Tests with S. aureus in broth indicated that all cultures inhibitory according to spot plates were inhibitory in broth, but stimulation on spot plates did not always indicate the same phenomenon in broth.

  2. Microorganisms and methods for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Jennifer L.; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2017-12-26

    Microorganisms comprising modifications for producing pyruvate, ethanol, and other compounds. The microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate activity of one or more of pyruvate dehydrogenase, 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, phosphate acetyltransferase, acetate kinase, pyruvate oxidase, lactate dehydrogenase, cytochrome terminal oxidase, succinate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, pyruvate formate lyase, pyruvate formate lyase activating enzyme, and isocitrate lyase. The microorganisms optionally comprise modifications that enhance expression or activity of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase. The microorganisms are optionally evolved in defined media to enhance specific production of one or more compounds. Methods of producing compounds with the microorganisms are provided.

  3. Biosorption and bioaccumulation of thallium by thallium-tolerant fungal isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jialong; Zou, Xiao; Xiao, Tangfu; Jia, Yanlong; Ning, Zengping; Sun, Min; Liu, Yizhang; Jiang, Tao

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the biosorption and bioaccumulation capacity of thallium (Tl) by microorganisms that occur in Tl-polluted soil. The present study focused on characterizing the biosorption and bioaccumulation of Tl by Tl-tolerant fungi isolated from Tl-polluted soils. Preliminary data showed a positive correlation between the biomass and the biosorbed Tl content. The Tl-tolerant strains were capable of bioaccumulating Tl, up to 7189 mg kg(-1) dry weight. The subcellular distribution of Tl showed obvious compartmentalization: cytoplasm ≫ cell wall > organelle. The majority of Tl (up to 79%) was found in the cytoplasm, suggesting that intracellular compartmentalization appeared to be responsible for detoxification. These findings further suggest the applicability of the fungal isolates for cleanup of Tl in Tl-polluted water and soil.

  4. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of bacterial populations isolated from diesel-contaminated soil and treated by two bioremediation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta R, Olga M; Rivera R, Angela P; Rojano, Benjamin; Ruiz, Orlando; Correa, Margarita M; Cienfuegos Gallet, Astrid V; Arias, Lida; Cardona G, Santiago A

    2012-01-01

    In this study bioremediation is presented as an alternative for the recovery of contaminated ecosystems. In this work an experimental diesel spill on pasture land was remediated using two bioremediation technologies: natural attenuation, which is the natural capability of indigenous microorganisms to degrade a xenobiotic component in a determined time, and biostimulation, which consist in the acceleration of the degradation process through the stimulation of the metabolism of indigenous microorganisms by the addition of nutrients (P and N) to the media. Results of respirometry assays indicated that both treatments produced significant levels of hydrocarbon removal but the biostimulation treatment stranded out with 98.17% degradation. Seven bacterial isolates were obtained from these treatments which according to their molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis belong to the genus: Enterobacter, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Sanguibacter, Staphylococcus and Flavobacterium. All isolates were able to metabolize diesel as a carbon and energy source; for this reason and taking into account that for some of these microorganisms their role in bioremediation have not been extensively studied, it is recommended to continue with their evaluation to know their real potential for the solution of environmental problems.

  5. Impact of microorganism on polonium volatilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, N.; Ishida, A.; Fukuda, A.; Yoshinaga, C.

    2007-01-01

    Volatilization of polonium by microorganisms, Chromobacterium violaceum, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis was examined for pure cultures in LB medium at 30 deg C, showing relative Po emission intensity 100, 10 and 1, respectively. Chromobacterium violaceum pre-cultured in LB medium without Po and suspended in water with Po showed high Po volatilization in spite of poor nutriment condition. Antibiotics inhibit volatilization of Po and cultivation at low temperature greatly reduced volatilization. The results strongly support the biological effects on Po volatilization. (author)

  6. Microorganisms in human milk: lights and shadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civardi, Elisa; Garofoli, Francesca; Tzialla, Chryssoula; Paolillo, Piermichele; Bollani, Lina; Stronati, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    Human milk has been traditionally considered germ free, however, recent studies have shown that it represents a continuous supply of commensal and potentially probiotic bacteria to the infant gut. Mammary microbioma may exercise anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and metabolic properties. Moreover human milk may be a source of pathogenic microorganism during maternal infection, if contaminated during expression or in case of vaccination of the mother. The non-sterility of breast milk can, thus, be seen as a protective factor, or rarely, as a risk factor for the newborn.

  7. Microbial biogeography: putting microorganisms on the map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, Jennifer B Hughes; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Brown, James H; Colwell, Robert K; Fuhrman, Jed A; Green, Jessica L; Horner-Devine, M Claire; Kane, Matthew; Krumins, Jennifer Adams; Kuske, Cheryl R; Morin, Peter J; Naeem, Shahid; Ovreås, Lise; Reysenbach, Anna-Louise; Smith, Val H; Staley, James T

    2006-02-01

    We review the biogeography of microorganisms in light of the biogeography of macroorganisms. A large body of research supports the idea that free-living microbial taxa exhibit biogeographic patterns. Current evidence confirms that, as proposed by the Baas-Becking hypothesis, 'the environment selects' and is, in part, responsible for spatial variation in microbial diversity. However, recent studies also dispute the idea that 'everything is everywhere'. We also consider how the processes that generate and maintain biogeographic patterns in macroorganisms could operate in the microbial world.

  8. Microorganisms and biomolecules in space hard environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microorganisms and biomolecules exposed to space vacuum and to different intensities of selected wavelengths of solar ultraviolet radiation is studied. The influence of these factors, applied singly or simultaneously, on the integrity of microbial systems and biomolecules is measured. Specifically, this experiment will study in Bacillus subtilis spores (1) disturbances in subsequent germination, outgrowth, and colony formation; (2) photochemical reactions of the DNA and protein in vivo and in vitro and their role in biological injury; and (3) the efficiency of repair processes in these events.

  9. Engineering photosynthesis in plants and synthetic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurino, Veronica G; Weber, Andreas P M

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, algae, and plants, sustain life on earth by converting light energy, water, and CO(2) into chemical energy. However, due to global change and a growing human population, arable land is becoming scarce and resources, including water and fertilizers, are becoming exhausted. It will therefore be crucial to design innovative strategies for sustainable plant production to maintain the food and energy bases of human civilization. Several different strategies for engineering improved photosynthesis in crop plants and introducing novel photosynthetic capacity into microorganisms have been reviewed.

  10. Microorganisms as Indicators of Soil Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. N.; Winding, A.; Binnerup, S.

    ecosystem parameters representing policy relevant end points. It is further recommended to identify a specific minimum data set for specific policy relevant end points, to carefully establish baseline values, to improve scientific knowledge on biodiversity and modelling of soil data, and to implement new......Microorganisms are an essential part of living soil and of outmost importance for soil health. As such they can be used as indicators of soil health. This report reviews the current and potential future use of microbial indicators of soil health and recommends specific microbial indicators for soil...... indicators into soil monitoring programmes as they become applicable....

  11. The evolution of alliance capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimeriks, K.H.; Duysters, G.M.; Vanhaverbeke, W.P.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses the effectiveness and differential performance effects of learning mechanisms on the evolution of alliance capabilities. Relying on the concept of capability lifecycles, prior research has suggested that different capability levels could be identified in which different

  12. Physiologically anaerobic microorganisms of the deep subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, S.E. Jr.; Chung, K.T.

    1992-06-01

    A variety of different media were used to isolate facultatively (FAB) and obligately anaerobic bacteria (OAB). These bacteria were isolated from core subsamples obtained from boreholes at the Idaho National Engineering Lab. (INEL) or at the Hanford Lab. (Yakima). Core material was sampled at various depths to 600 feet below the surface. All core samples with culturable bacteria contained at least FAB making thisthe most common physiological type of anaerobic bacteria present in the deep subsurface at these two sites. INEL core samples are characterized by isolates of both FAB and OAB. No isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, or sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. Yakima core samples are characterized by a marked predominance of FAB in comparison to OAB. In addition, isolates of acetogenic, methanogenic, and sulfate reducing bacteria were obtained. The Yakima site has the potential for complete anaerobic mineralization of organic compounds whereas this potential appears to be lacking at INEL.

  13. Building Server Capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    2013-01-01

    Many western companies have moved part of their operations to China in order to take advantage of cheap resources and/or to gain access to a high potential market. Depending on motive, offshore facilities usually start either as “sales-only” of products exported by headquarters or “production......-only”, exporting parts and components back to headquarter for sales in the home country. In the course of time, the role of offshore subsidiaries in a company’s operations network tends to change and, with that, the capabilities, of the subsidiaries. Focusing on Danish subsidiaries in China, the objective...

  14. Building server capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeyemi, Oluseyi

    Many western companies have moved part of their operations to China in order to take advantage of cheap resources and/or to gain access to a high potential market. Depending on motive, offshore facilities usually start either as “sales-only” of products exported by headquarters or “production......-only”, exporting parts and components back to headquarter for sales in the home country. In the course of time, the role of offshore subsidiaries in a company’s operations network tends to change and, with that, the capabilities, of the subsidiaries. Focusing on Danish subsidiaries in China, the objective...

  15. Laboratory microfusion capability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the issues involved in developing a Laboratory Microfusion Capability (LMC) which is the major objective of the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program within the purview of the Department of Energy's Defense Programs. The study was initiated to support a number of DOE management needs: to provide insight for the evolution of the ICF program; to afford guidance to the ICF laboratories in planning their research and development programs; to inform Congress and others of the details and implications of the LMC; to identify criteria for selection of a concept for the Laboratory Microfusion Facility and to develop a coordinated plan for the realization of an LMC. As originally proposed, the LMC study was divided into two phases. The first phase identifies the purpose and potential utility of the LMC, the regime of its performance parameters, driver independent design issues and requirements, its development goals and requirements, and associated technical, management, staffing, environmental, and other developmental and operational issues. The second phase addresses driver-dependent issues such as specific design, range of performance capabilities, and cost. The study includes four driver options; the neodymium-glass solid state laser, the krypton fluoride excimer gas laser, the light-ion accelerator, and the heavy-ion induction linear accelerator. The results of the Phase II study are described in the present report

  16. Microorganisms as bioindicators of pollutants in soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Nada

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are the predominant portion of the soil's biological phase and they are indicators of soil health and quality. Soil microorganisms a take part in degradation of organic and inorganic compounds, b their activity, number and diversity may serve as bioindicators of toxic effects on soil biological activity, c some microbial species may be used for soil bioremediation and d some sensitive microbes are used in eco-toxicity tests. The primary microbial population starts to decompose herbicides several days after their arrival into the soil. The secondary population produces induced enzymes and decomposes herbicides after a period of adaptation. Certain microbial groups are indifferent to the applied herbicides. Effect of heavy metals on soil microbial activity depends on the element, their concentration, microbial species, as well as physical and chemical soil properties. Toxic level of individual pollutants depends on their origin and composition. However, combined application of chemicals makes room for the occurrence of synergistic toxic effects detrimental for the ecosystem and human health. .

  17. Identification of periodontopathogen microorganisms by PCR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milićević Radovan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth and is a major cause of tooth loss in adults. The onset and progression of periodontal disease is attributed to the presence of elevated levels of a consortium of pathogenic bacteria. Gram negative bacteria, mainly strict anaerobes, play the major role. OBJECTIVE The present study aimed to assess the presence of the main types of microorganisms involved in the aetiopathogenesis of periodontal disease: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, Treponema denticola, Tanerella forsythia and Prevotella intermedia in different samples collected from the oral cavity of 90 patients diagnosed with periodontitis. METHOD Bacterial DNA detection was performed in diverse biological materials, namely in dental plaque, gingival tissue and saliva, by means of multiplex PCR, a technique that allows simultaneous identification of two different bacterial genomes. RESULTS In the dental plaque of the periodontitis patients, Treponema denticola dominated. In the gingival tissue, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were the microbiota most frequently detected, whilst in saliva Treponema denticola and Eikenella corrodens were found with the highest percentage. CONCLUSION The identification of microorganisms by multiplex PCR is specific and sensitive. Rapid and precise assessment of different types of periodontopathogens is extremely important for early detection of the infection and consequently for the prevention and treatment of periodontal disease. In everyday clinical practice, for routine bacterial evaluation in patients with periodontal disease, the dental plaque is the most suitable biological material, because it is the richest in periodontal bacteria.

  18. Sterilization of Microorganisms by Ozone and Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnyj, V. V.; Klosovskij, A. V.; Panasko, T. A.; Shvets, O. M.; Semenova, O. T.; Taran, V. S.; Tereshin, V. I.

    2008-03-01

    The results of recent experimental methods of sterilization of microorganisms with the use of ozone and ultrasound are presented. The main aim was to optimize the process of sterilization in water solution taking into account the ozone concentration, the power of ultrasonic emitter and the temperature of water. In the present work, the ultrasonic cavitation with simultaneous ozone generation has been used. The high ozone concentration in water solution was achieved by two-barrier glow discharge generated at atmospheric pressure and a cooling thermo-electric module. Such a sterilizer consists of ozone generator in a shape of flat electrodes covered with dielectric material and a high-voltage pulsed power supply of 250 W. The sterilization camera was equipped with ultrasonic source operated at 100 W. The experiments on the inactivation of bacteria of the Bacillus Cereus type were carried out in the distilled water saturated by ozone. The ozone concentration in the aqueous solution was 10 mg/1, whereas the ozone concentration at the output of ozone generator was 30 mg/1. The complete inactivation of spores took 15 min. Selection of the temperature of water, the ozone concentrations and ultrasonic power allowed to determine the time necessary for destroying the row of microorganisms.

  19. Venturing into new realms? Microorganisms in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Cockell, Charles; Rettberg, Petra

    2016-09-01

    One of the biggest challenges of science is the determination of whether extraterrestrial life exists. Although potential habitable areas might be available for complex life, it is more likely that microbial life could exist in space. Many extremotolerant and extremophilic microbes have been found to be able to withstand numerous, combined environmental factors, such as high or low temperatures and pressures, high-salt conditions, high doses of radiation, desiccation or nutrient limitations. They may even survive the transit from one planet to another. Terrestrial Mars-analogue sites are one focus of researchers, in order to understand the microbial diversity in preparation for upcoming space missions aimed at the detection of life. However, such missions could also pose a risk with respect to contamination of the extraterrestrial environment by accidentally transferred terrestrial microorganisms. Closer to the Earth, the International Space Station is the most enclosed habitat, where humans work and live-and with them numerous microorganisms. It is still unknown how microbes adapt to this environment, possibly even creating a risk for the crew. Information on the microbiology of the ISS will have an impact on the planning and implementation of long-term human spaceflights in order to ensure a safe, stable and balanced microbiome on board. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effects of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria, native microorganisms, and rock dust on Jatropha curcas L. growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, E B; Marques, E L S; Dias, J C T

    2016-10-05

    Microorganisms with the ability to release nutrients to the soil from insoluble sources may be useful for plant cultivation. We evaluated the growth-promoting effect on Jatropha curcas L. of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and the native microbiota in soil with or without rock dust. J. curcas L. is important for biodiesel production. The experiments were performed in a greenhouse under a random-statistical design with 14 replicates. The soil received increasing dosages of rock dust. The presence of resident microorganisms and PSB inoculum was correlated with plant height, biomass production, and phosphorus content in plants for 120 days. Native soil microorganisms were detected and identified using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and DNA sequence analysis. Several bacterial populations belonged to the genus Bacillus. Populations associated with the phyla Chytridiomycota and Ascomycota were detected among the fungi. The best results for the variable plant height were correlated with the presence of resident microbiota and rock dust until the end of the experiment. The largest biomass production and the highest content of phosphorus occurred in the presence of soil-resident microbiota only up to 120 days. No significant effects were observed for biomass production with the use of PSB combined with rock dust. J. curcas L. under the influence of only resident microbiota showed the best plant growth results. Future research will focus on the specificity of resident microbiota activity in plant growth promotion and the isolation of these microorganisms to produce a new inoculum to be tested in various plants.

  1. Potentially pathogenic amoeba-associated microorganisms in cooling towers and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnier, Isabelle; Merchat, Michèle; La Scola, Bernard

    2009-06-01

    Cooling towers provide a favorable environment for the proliferation of microorganisms. Cooling towers generate a biofilm and often aerosolize contaminated water, thereby increasing the risk of microorganism dissemination by human inhalation. This pathogen dissemination was first revealed by the epidemics of Legionnaires' disease that were directly related to the presence of cooling towers, and since then, the ecology of Legionella pneumophila has been well studied. Each country has specific standards regarding the acceptable amount of microorganisms in cooling tower systems. However, those standards typically only concern L. pneumophila, even though many other microorganisms can also be isolated from cooling towers, including protozoa, bacteria and viruses. Microbiological control of the cooling tower system can be principally achieved by chemical treatments and also by improving the system's construction. Several new treatments are being studied to improve the efficiency of disinfection. However, as most of these treatments continue to focus solely on L. pneumophila, reports of other types of pathogens continue to increase. Therefore, how their dissemination affects the human populous health should be addressed now.

  2. Bisphenol A Removal by Submerged Macrophytes and the Contribution of Epiphytic Microorganisms to the Removal Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guosen; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Jinhui; Yang, Shao

    2017-06-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a typical endocrine disruptor, has been found in global aquatic environments, causing great concern. The capabilities of five common submerged macrophytes to remove BPA from water and the contributions of epiphytic microorganisms were investigated. Macrophytes removed 62%-100% of total BPA (5 mg/L) over 12 days; much higher rates than that observed in the control (2%, F = 261.511, p = 0.000). Ceratophyllum demersum was the most efficient species. C. demersum samples from lakes with different water qualities showed no significant differences in BPA removal rates. Moreover, removal, inhibition or re-colonization of epiphytic microorganisms did not significantly change the BPA removal rates of C. demersum. Therefore, the contributions of epiphytic microorganisms to the BPA removal process were negligible. The rate of BPA accumulation in C. demersum was 0.1%, indicating that BPA was mainly biodegraded by the macrophyte. Hence, submerged macrophytes, rather than epiphytic microorganisms, substantially contribute to the biodegradation of BPA in water.

  3. Application of molecular techniques for the assessment of microorganism diversity on cultural heritage objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlewska, Anna; Adamiak, Justyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2014-01-01

    As a result of their unpredictable ability to adapt to varying environmental conditions, microorganisms inhabit different types of biological niches on Earth. Owing to the key role of microorganisms in many biogeochemical processes, trends in modern microbiology emphasize the need to know and understand the structure and function of complex microbial communities. This is particularly important if the strategy relates to microbial communities that cause biodeterioration of materials that constitute our cultural heritage. Until recently, the detection and identification of microorganisms inhabiting objects of cultural value was based only on cultivation-dependent methods. In spite of many advantages, these methods provide limited information because they identify only viable organisms capable of growth under standard laboratory conditions. However, in order to carry out proper conservation and renovation, it is necessary to know the complete composition of microbial communities and their activity. This paper presents and characterizes modern techniques such as genetic fingerprinting and clone library construction for the assessment of microbial diversity based on molecular biology. Molecular methods represent a favourable alternative to culture-dependent methods and make it possible to assess the biodiversity of microorganisms inhabiting technical materials and cultural heritage objects.

  4. Final Technical Report: Viral Infection of Subsurface Microorganisms and Metal/Radionuclide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Karrie A.; Bender, Kelly S.; Li, Yusong

    2013-09-28

    Microbially mediated metabolisms have been identified as a significant factor either directly or indirectly impacting the fate and transport of heavy metal/radionuclide contaminants. To date microorganisms have been isolated from contaminated environments. Examination of annotated finished genome sequences of many of these subsurface isolates from DOE sites, revealed evidence of prior viral infection. To date the role that viruses play influencing microbial mortality and the resulting community structure which directly influences biogeochemical cycling in soils and sedimentary environments remains poorly understood. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the role of viral infection of subsurface bacteria and the formation of contaminant-bearing viral particles. This objective was approached by examining the following working hypotheses: (i) subsurface microorganisms are susceptible to viral infections by the indigenous subsurface viral community, and (ii) viral surfaces will adsorb heavy metals and radionuclides. Our results have addressed basic research needed to accomplish the BER Long Term Measure to provide sufficient scientific understanding such that DOE sites would be able to incorporate coupled physical, chemical and biological processes into decision making for environmental remediation or natural attenuation and long-term stewardship by establishing viral-microbial relationships on the subsequent fate and transport of heavy metals and radionuclides. Here we demonstrated that viruses play a significant role in microbial mortality and community structure in terrestrial subsurface sedimentary systems. The production of viral-like particles within subsurface sediments in response to biostimulation with dissolved organic carbon and a terminal electron acceptor resulted in the production of viral-like particles. Organic carbon alone did not result in significant viral production and required the addition of a terminal electron acceptor

  5. Removal of methylmercury and tributyltin (TBT) using marine microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seong Eon; Chung, Jin Wook; Won, Ho Shik; Lee, Dong Sup; Lee, Yong-Woo

    2012-02-01

    Two marine species of bacteria were isolated that are capable of degrading organometallic contaminants: Pseudomonas balearica, which decomposes methylmercury; and Shewanella putrefaciens, which decomposes tributyltin. P. balearica decomposed 97% of methylmercury (20.0 μg/L) into inorganic mercury after 3 h, while S. putrefaciens decomposed 88% of tributyltin (55.3 μg Sn/L) in real wastewater after 36 h. These data indicate that the two bacteria efficiently decomposed the targeted substances and may be applied to real wastewater.

  6. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  7. Diversity and ubiquity of bacteria capable of utilizing humic substances as electron donors for anaerobic respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, John D; Cole, Kimberly A; Chakraborty, Romy; O'Connor, Susan M; Achenbach, Laurie A

    2002-05-01

    simple volatile fatty acids such as propionate, butyrate, and valerate as well as simple organic acids such as lactate and pyruvate. Analysis of the complete sequences of the 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates were not closely related to each other and were phylogenetically diverse, with members in the alpha, beta, gamma, and delta subdivisions of the PROTEOBACTERIA: Most of the isolates were closely related to known genera not previously recognized for their ability to couple growth to HS oxidation, while one of the isolates represented a new genus in the delta subclass of the PROTEOBACTERIA: The results presented here demonstrate that microbial oxidation of HS is a ubiquitous metabolism in the environment. This study represents the first description of HS-oxidizing isolates and demonstrates that microorganisms capable of HS oxidation are phylogenetically diverse.

  8. Preliminary screening of bacterial isolates from mining wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodino S.,

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Developing innovative biotechnology for obtaining new resources of high tech critical metals is strongly influenced by the need to reduce the potential risk of shortages, to support the development of industry at European level. To set up these new technologies is essential to isolate strains with high potential in bioleaching of ore, tailings and mine wastes and bioaccumulation of high tech critical metals. Microorganisms are capable of mediating metal and mineral bioprecipitation. In this paper are presented preliminary studies performed for the isolation of strains existing in mining residues containing high tech critical metals. Were used samples collected from various depths in an area of mining wastes containing high tech critical metals. The samples were fine grounded and the powder was washed with sterile saline water. Exact quantities of samples were dispersed in sterile saline water, shaken for a period of 60 minutes, diluted and plated in triplicate on selective agar. After several steps were isolated 3 strains of gram negative bacteria.

  9. Monitoring of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms in surgical departments of Dniprodzerzhynsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Donets

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents monitoring results of the spread of opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms in patients of surgical departments of the Dniprodzerzhynsk city hospital No 7. 1464 strains of bacteria isolated from biological material of the patients from January to December 2012 were studied. Relevant standard methods of research and data interpretation in accordance with the regulatory guidelines were used. The microorganisms’ sensitivity to antibiotics was determined by the disk diffusion method. Assessment of the resistance of isolated microorganisms to antibiotics was made with the software Whonet 5.1. At the first stage of investigation sampling biological material and inoculation in the culture medium were made. The discharges of wounds, throat, nose, ears, vagina and urethra, and also urine from patients of surgical departments were sampled for bacteriological analysis. The main substratum was 5% blood agar. There may additionally be used the selective growth media (yolk-salt agar, Endo, and Saburo. At the second stage we identify microorganisms with bacterioscopic, bacteriological and biochemical methods. Identifying microorganisms of the genus Staphylococcus was made by the reaction of lecithinase presence, plasma-coagulation reaction and the mannitol oxidation reaction. For the identification of bacteria of the family Streptococcaceae the growth pattern in 0.5% sugar medium was used. It was differentiated from bacteria of the genus Enterococcus by plating onto egg yolk agar base and milk with 0.1% methylene blue. Identification of bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family was made by studying their colonies on dense differential diagnostic media. Suspicious colonies were transferred on a combined medium for primary identification (Olkenitsky's medium. Then the biochemical signs of enterobacteria were studied in the minimum number of tests. The third phase of the study included the determination of the sensitivity of

  10. Combined genetic and bioactivity-based prioritization leads to the isolation of an endophyte-derived antimycobacterial compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, A; Kalaitzis, J A; Sasia, B; Neilan, B A

    2016-05-01

    To initiate a genetic and bioactivity-based screening programme of culturable endophytes to identify micro-organisms capable of producing bioactive polyketides and peptides. Fungal endophytes were isolated from flowers, leaves and roots of Rhoeo spathacea, revealing a community consisting of Colletotrichum sp., Fusarium sp., Guignardia sp., Phomopsis sp., Phoma sp. and Microdochium sp. Genetic screening showed that all isolates had polyketide synthase (PKS) genes and most had nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. Ethyl acetate extracts of the fungal isolates exhibited antiproliferative activity against at least one of the seven bacterial and mycobacterial test strains. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance -guided fractionation of the crude extract from a Fusarium sp. strain which exhibited strong antiproliferative activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis resulted in the isolation of the polyketide javanicin. This compound was active against Myco. tuberculosis (MIC = 25 μg ml(-1)) and Mycobacterium phlei (MIC = 50 μg ml(-1)). The medicinal plant R. spathacea hosts a variety of fungal endophytes capable of producing antibacterial and antimycobacterial compounds. There is a positive correlation between the presence of PKS and/or NRPS encoding genes in endophytes and the bioactivity of their respective organic extracts. This is the first report on the fungal endophytic diversity of R. spathacea, and the isolation of an antimycobacterial compound from the plant which has been traditionally used for the treatment of tuberculosis symptoms. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Thermal effects on metabolic activities of thermophilic microorganisms from the thermal discharge point of Tuticorin thermal power plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthukkannan, N.; Murugesan, A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Metabolic activities of thermophilic microorganisms isolated from the thermal water discharge point at Tuticorin thermal power station were studied by growing the microorganisms in sterile medium and at various temperature regimes of 25, 35, 45, 55 and 65degC. The optimum temperature for the growth of the bacterium isolated from the thermal power plant station was 45 degC and beyond 65 degC the growth was gradually decreased. The bacteria isolated from open sea water were mesophiles with their growth optimum at 35 degC and microbes inhabiting the thermal discharge area were thermopiles as they were tolerant even at 55 degC. The amylase production, carbohydrate metabolism and lactose fermentation activities were optimum at 45 degC. At 25 degC and beyond 65 degC biochemical activities of the organisms were inhibited to a greater extent. (author)

  12. Isolation of two Kocuria species capable of growing on various ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... mg ml-1 yeast extract as additional carbon source, residual naphthalene extracted was 41 and .... 450 nm with reference wavelength 630 nm right after addition of WST- ... 16S rRNA identification of selected bacterial strains.

  13. Combining nonthermal technologies to control foodborne microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alexander I V; Griffiths, Mansel W; Mittal, Gauri S; Deeth, Hilton C

    2003-12-31

    Novel nonthermal processes, such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), ionizing radiation and ultrasonication, are able to inactivate microorganisms at ambient or sublethal temperatures. Many of these processes require very high treatment intensities, however, to achieve adequate microbial destruction in low-acid foods. Combining nonthermal processes with conventional preservation methods enhances their antimicrobial effect so that lower process intensities can be used. Combining two or more nonthermal processes can also enhance microbial inactivation and allow the use of lower individual treatment intensities. For conventional preservation treatments, optimal microbial control is achieved through the hurdle concept, with synergistic effects resulting from different components of the microbial cell being targeted simultaneously. The mechanisms of inactivation by nonthermal processes are still unclear; thus, the bases of synergistic combinations remain speculative. This paper reviews literature on the antimicrobial efficiencies of nonthermal processes combined with conventional and novel nonthermal technologies. Where possible, the proposed mechanisms of synergy is mentioned.

  14. Heterogeneity in isogenic populations of microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Egholm

    heterogeneity was detected when the culture had been propagated according to the guidelines of the Copenhagen School of Bacterial Growth Physiology. The L. lactis GFP reporter strain was more challenging to analyze. The population profile for this reporter strain was shown to be dependent on the type of medium...... values for quantifiable variables are used. The reproducibility of an experiment could thus be affected by the presence of subpopulations or high levels of phenotypic variations. Ole Maaløe and colleagues did in the late 1950’ties observe that the growth rate, RNA, DNA and protein synthesis and cell...... factor per unit of time. The use of a balanced growing culture is a cornerstone in the Copenhagen School of Bacterial Growth Physiology headed by Ole Maaløe. Due to the size of the microorganism it is challenging to measure a quantifiable variable in a single cell. However, fluorescence, whether being...

  15. Responsive Polydiacetylene Vesicles for Biosensing Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Lebègue

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Polydiacetylene (PDA inserted in films or in vesicles has received increasing attention due to its property to undergo a blue-to-red colorimetric transition along with a change from non-fluorescent to fluorescent upon application of various stimuli. In this review paper, the principle for the detection of various microorganisms (bacteria, directly detected or detected through the emitted toxins or through their DNA, and viruses and of antibacterial and antiviral peptides based on these responsive PDA vesicles are detailed. The analytical performances obtained, when vesicles are in suspension or immobilized, are given and compared to those of the responsive vesicles mainly based on the vesicle encapsulation method. Many future challenges are then discussed.

  16. Pathogenic microorganisms of medicinal herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All the parts of plants (root, leaf, flower naturally have a high level of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, especially molds. Microbial contamination could be a result of inappropriate harvesting, cleaning of the raw plant material, unhygienic processing of the plants, unsuitable transport and storage. After examination of over 40 dried medicinal plant species, the lowest microbial quality was determined for Maydis stigma, Mentha leaf and herb, Equisetum herb, Calendula flower, Urtica leaf, Melissa leaf, Serpylli herb, Chamomilla flower etc. Although mixed infections are recorded with different types of fungus, Fusarium was observed as the most dominant genus in most of the tested drugs, followed by Aspergillus and Alternaria. In addition to these fungi species from the following genera were identified: Phoma, Cephalosporium, Nigrospora, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Gliocladium, Myrothecium, Cercospora, Phomopsis, Verticillium, Dreschlera (=Bipolaris, Rhizoctonia, Septoria, Trichoderma, Curvularia, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Puccinia, Botrytis, Mucor and Rhizopus sp., depending on plant species.

  17. Synthetic biology expands chemical control of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tyler J; Silver, Pamela A

    2015-10-01

    The tools of synthetic biology allow researchers to change the ways engineered organisms respond to chemical stimuli. Decades of basic biology research and new efforts in computational protein and RNA design have led to the development of small molecule sensors that can be used to alter organism function. These new functions leap beyond the natural propensities of the engineered organisms. They can range from simple fluorescence or growth reporting to pathogen killing, and can involve metabolic coordination among multiple cells or organisms. Herein, we discuss how synthetic biology alters microorganisms' responses to chemical stimuli resulting in the development of microbes as toxicity sensors, disease treatments, and chemical factories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic engineering of microorganisms for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Qun; Shen, Qi; Zhan, Jumei; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, as one type of renewable energy, is an ideal substitute for petroleum-based diesel fuel and is usually made from triacylglycerides by transesterification with alcohols. Biodiesel production based on microbial fermentation aiming to establish more efficient, less-cost and sustainable biodiesel production strategies is under current investigation by various start-up biotechnology companies and research centers. Genetic engineering plays a key role in the transformation of microbes into the desired cell factories with high efficiency of biodiesel production. Here, we present an overview of principal microorganisms used in the microbial biodiesel production and recent advances in metabolic engineering for the modification required. Overexpression or deletion of the related enzymes for de novo synthesis of biodiesel is highlighted with relevant examples. PMID:23222170

  19. Interactions of phytoplankton, zooplankton and microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, L. R.; Paffenhöfer, G.-A.; Yoder, J. A.

    We present evidence that there are significant interactions between heterotrophic microorganisms, doliolids and Fritillaria within intrusions of nutrient-rich Gulf Stream water stranding on the continental shelf. During the summer of 1981 cold, nutrient-rich water from below the surface of the Gulf Stream was repeatedly intruded and stranded on the continental shelf off northeastern Florida. On August 6 old, stranded Gulf Stream water depleted of nitrate occupied the lower layer on the outer shelf. The upper water was continental shelf water, older but of undefined age. On August 6 free-living bacteria were >10 6ml -1 everywhere at all depths, an order of magnitude greater than normal bacterial numbers on the northeastern Florida continental shelf. Over 10 days the numbers of free bacteria doubled while bacteria attached to particles increased by a factor of four. The adenylate/chlorophyll ratio showed that phytoplankton dominated the lower layers of intruded water, while the surface water became increasingly dominated by heterotrophic microorganisms (bacteria and protozoa) over 10 days. There were significant, negative correlations between bacteria and doliolids and between bacteria and Fritillaria. Regions of maximum bacterial numbers did not coincide with locations of salp swarms. The increased numbers of bacteria at all depths in a highly stratified system in which most phytoplankton are in the lower layer suggests a diverse source of bacterial growth substrates, some of which involve zooplankton as intermediaries. Production of autotrophs is more than twice that of microheterotrophs on average, but because of their differential distribution, microheterotrophs are the dominant biomass in much of the surface water and may be significant in energy flux to metazoan consumers as well as competitors for mutually useable sources of nutrition.

  20. System for identification of microorganism and detection of infectious disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for the identification of microorganisms or infectious disorders are disclosed, comprising obtaining a suitable sample from sources such as persons, animals, plants, food, water or soil. The methods also comprise providing tailored nucleic acid substrate(s) designed to react with a type 1...... topoisomerase from one or more microorganism(s) or infectious agent(s), and incubating said substrate with said sample, or extracts or preparations from the sample, so that the substrate is processed by said topoisomerase if said microorganism(s) or infectious agent(s) is present in the sample. Finally......, processed substrates are identified and potentially quantified by one or more of a range of standard molecular biology methods and read-out systems. The identification and potential quantification of microorganisms and infectious agents, including but not limited to Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium...

  1. Acute appendicitis: most common clinical presentation and causative microorganism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.Y.; Shukr, I.; Mahmood, M.A.; Qasmi, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the most common clinical presentation and causative microorganism for acute appendicitis. Study Design: Descriptive. Place and duration of study: Department of Surgery, Combined Military Hospital Multan, from June 2002 to May 2004. Patients and Methods: Clinical features of all the patients, older than 5 years of age diagnosed with acute appendicitis were recorded. Patients presented with other pathology which mimic acute appendicitis were excluded from the study. Surgery was done under general anaesthesia. Appendices of all the patient as well as pus swabs from abdominal cavity were sent to the laboratory for histopathology and microbiological cultures to confirm the diagnoses of acute appendicitis and causative organism. Results: The mean age of 75 subjects was 32.56 +- 11.93 years. The most common symptom was pain in right iliac fossa (80 % cases) and the most common physical sign was tenderness (92% cases). Some of the patients(9.3%) had a histologically normal appendix. Maximum isolates on culture were E. coli. Conclusion: The most common presentation of acute appendicitis was pain in right iliac fossa while the most sensitive sign was tenderness. Proper history and sharp clinical examination is the key to diagnosis. The most frequent organism of appendicitis was Escherichia Coli. (author)

  2. Thermophilic subseafloor microorganisms from the 1996 North Gorda Ridge eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summit, Melanie; Baross, John A.

    1998-12-01

    High-temperature microbes were present in two hydrothermal event plumes (EP96A and B) resulting from the February-March 1996 eruptions along the North Gorda Ridge. Anaerobic thermophiles were cultured from 17 of 22 plume samples at levels exceeding 200 organisms per liter; no thermophiles were cultured from any of 12 samples of background seawater. As these microorganisms grow at temperatures of 50-90°C, they could not have grown in the event plume and instead most probably derived from a subseafloor environment tapped by the event plume source fluids. Event plumes are thought to derive from a pre-existing subseafloor fluid reservoir, which implies that these thermophiles are members of a native subseafloor community that was present before the eruptive event. Thermophiles also were cultured from continuous chronic-style hydrothermal plumes in April 1996; these plumes may have formed from cooling lava piles. To better understand the nutritional, chemical, and physical constraints of pre-eruptive crustal environments, seven coccoidal isolates from the two event plumes were partially characterized. Results from nutritional and phylogenetic studies indicate that these thermophiles are heterotrophic archaea that represent new species, and probably a new genus, within the Thermococcales.

  3. Evaluation of bacterial surfactant toxicity towards petroleum degrading microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Tânia M S; Procópio, Lorena C; Brandão, Felipe D; Leão, Bruna A; Tótola, Marcos R; Borges, Arnaldo C

    2011-02-01

    The acute toxicity of bacterial surfactants LBBMA111A, LBBMA155, LBBMA168, LBBMA191 and LBBMA201 and the synthetic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on the bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri was evaluated by measuring the reduction of light emission (EC(20)) by this microorganism when exposed to different surfactant concentrations. Moreover, the toxic effects of different concentrations of biological and synthetic surfactants on the growth of pure cultures of isolates Acinetobacter baumannii LBBMA04, Acinetobacter junni LBBMA36, Pseudomonas sp. LBBMA101B and Acinetobacter baumanni LBBMAES11 were evaluated in mineral medium supplemented with glucose. The EC(20) values obtained confirmed that the biosurfactants have a significantly lower toxicity to V. fischeri than the SDS. After 30 min of exposure, bacterial luminescence was almost completely inhibited by SDS at a concentration of 4710 mg L(-1). Growth reduction of pure bacterial cultures caused by the addition of biosurfactants to the growth medium was lower than that caused by SDS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Biodeterioration Risk Threatens the 3100 Year Old Staircase of Hallstatt (Austria): Possible Involvement of Halophilic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñar, Guadalupe; Dalnodar, Dennis; Voitl, Christian; Reschreiter, Hans; Sterflinger, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The prosperity of Hallstatt (Salzkammergut region, Austria) is based on the richness of salt in the surrounding mountains and salt mining, which is documented as far back as 1500 years B.C. Substantial archaeological evidence of Bronze and Iron Age salt mining has been discovered, with a wooden staircase (1108 B.C.) being one of the most impressive and well preserved finds. However, after its discovery, fungal mycelia have been observed on the surface of the staircase, most probably due to airborne contamination after its find. As a basis for the further preservation of this valuable object, the active micro-flora was examined to investigate the presence of potentially biodegradative microorganisms. Most of the strains isolated from the staircase showed to be halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms, due to the saline environment of the mine. Results derived from culture-dependent assays revealed a high fungal diversity, including both halotolerant and halophilic fungi, the most dominant strains being members of the genus Phialosimplex (synonym: Aspergillus). Additionally, some typical cellulose degraders, namely Stachybotrys sp. and Cladosporium sp. were detected. Numerous bacterial strains were isolated and identified as members of 12 different genera, most of them being moderately halophilic species. The most dominant isolates affiliated with species of the genera Halovibrio and Marinococcus. Halophilic archaea were also isolated and identified as species of the genera Halococcus and Halorubrum. Molecular analyses complemented the cultivation assays, enabling the identification of some uncultivable archaea of the genera Halolamina, Haloplanus and Halobacterium. Results derived from fungi and bacteria supported those obtained by cultivation methods, exhibiting the same dominant members in the communities. The results clearly showed the presence of some cellulose degraders that may become active if the requirements for growth and the environmental conditions

  5. Biodeterioration Risk Threatens the 3100 Year Old Staircase of Hallstatt (Austria: Possible Involvement of Halophilic Microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Piñar

    Full Text Available The prosperity of Hallstatt (Salzkammergut region, Austria is based on the richness of salt in the surrounding mountains and salt mining, which is documented as far back as 1500 years B.C. Substantial archaeological evidence of Bronze and Iron Age salt mining has been discovered, with a wooden staircase (1108 B.C. being one of the most impressive and well preserved finds. However, after its discovery, fungal mycelia have been observed on the surface of the staircase, most probably due to airborne contamination after its find.As a basis for the further preservation of this valuable object, the active micro-flora was examined to investigate the presence of potentially biodegradative microorganisms.Most of the strains isolated from the staircase showed to be halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms, due to the saline environment of the mine. Results derived from culture-dependent assays revealed a high fungal diversity, including both halotolerant and halophilic fungi, the most dominant strains being members of the genus Phialosimplex (synonym: Aspergillus. Additionally, some typical cellulose degraders, namely Stachybotrys sp. and Cladosporium sp. were detected. Numerous bacterial strains were isolated and identified as members of 12 different genera, most of them being moderately halophilic species. The most dominant isolates affiliated with species of the genera Halovibrio and Marinococcus. Halophilic archaea were also isolated and identified as species of the genera Halococcus and Halorubrum. Molecular analyses complemented the cultivation assays, enabling the identification of some uncultivable archaea of the genera Halolamina, Haloplanus and Halobacterium. Results derived from fungi and bacteria supported those obtained by cultivation methods, exhibiting the same dominant members in the communities.The results clearly showed the presence of some cellulose degraders that may become active if the requirements for growth and the environmental

  6. Evaluation of microorganisms with sulfidogenic metabolic potential under anaerobic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Kimiko Sakamoto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify groups of microorganisms that are capable of degrading organic matter utilizing sulfate as an electron acceptor. The assay applied for this purpose consisted of running batch reactors and monitoring lactate consumption, sulfate reduction and sulfide production. A portion of the lactate added to the batch reactors was consumed, and the remainder was converted into acetic, propionic and butyric acid after 111 hours of operation These results indicate the presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB catalyzing both complete and incomplete oxidation of organic substrates. The sulfate removal efficiency was 49.5% after 1335 hours of operation under an initial sulfate concentration of 1123 mg/L. The SRB concentrations determined by the most probable number (MPN method were 9.0x10(7 cells/mL at the beginning of the assay and 8.0x10(5 cells/mL after 738 hours of operation.

  7. The evolution of glutathione metabolism in phototrophic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Robert C.; Buschbacher, Ralph M.; Newton, Gerald L.

    1988-01-01

    The low molecular weight thiol composition of a variety of phototropic microorganisms is examined in order to ascertain how evolution of glutathione (GSH) production is related to the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis. Cells were extracted in the presence of monobromobimane (mBBr) to convert thiols (RSH) to fluorescent derivatives (RSmB) which were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Significant levels of GSH were not found in green sulfur bacteria. Substantial levels were present in purple bacteria, cyanobacteria, and eukaryotic algae. Other thiols measured included cysteine, gamma-glutamylcysteine, thiosulfate, coenzyme A, and sulfide. Many of the organisms also exhibited a marked ability to reduce mBBr to syn-(methyl,methyl)bimane, an ability which was quenched by treatment with 2-pyridyl disulfide or 5,5 prime-bisdithio - (2-nitrobenzoic acid) prior to reaction with mBBr. These observations indicate the presence of a reducing system capable of electron transfer to mBBr and reduction of reactive disulfides. The distribution of GSH in phototropic eubacteria indicates that GSH synthesis evolved at or around the time that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved.

  8. Final report for Assembling Microorganisms into Energy Converting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Ozgur

    2018-03-26

    The goal of this project was to integrate microorganisms capable of reversible energy transduction in response to changing relative humidity with non-biological materials to create hybrid energy conversion systems. While plants and many other biological organisms have developed structures that are extraordinarily effective in converting changes in relative humidity into mechanical energy, engineered energy transduction systems rarely take advantage of this powerful phenomenon. Rather than developing synthetic materials that can convert changes in relative humidity in to mechanical energy, we developed approaches to assemble bacterial spores into larger materials. These materials can convert energy from evaporation of water in dry atmospheric conditions, which we demonstrated by building energy harvesters from these materials. We have also developed experiments to investigate the interaction of water with the spore material, and to determine how this interaction imposes limits on energy conversion. In addition, we carried out theoretical calculations to investigate the limits imposed by the environmental conditions to the power available in the energy harvesting process. These calculations took into account heat and water vapor transfer in the atmosphere surrounding the spore based materials. Overall, our results suggest that biomolecular materials are promising candidates to convert energy from evaporation.

  9. Degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms and helminths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingthom Chung; Stevens, S.E. Jr. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Dept. of Biology)

    1993-11-01

    The degradation of azo dyes by environmental microorganisms, fungi, and helminths is reviewed. Azo dyes are used in a wide variety of products and can be found in the effluent of most sewage treatment facilities. Substantial quantities of these dyes have been deposited in the environment, particularly in streams and rivers. Azo dyes were shown to affect microbial activities and microbial population sizes in the sediments and in the water columns of aquatic habitats. Only a few aerobic bacteria have been found to reduce azo dyes under aerobic conditions, and little is known about the process. A substantial number of anaerobic bacteria capable of azo dye reduction have been reported. The enzyme responsible for azo dye reduction has been partially purified, and characterization of the enzyme is proceeding. The nematode Ascaris lumbricoides and the cestode Moniezia expanza have been reported to reduce azo dyes anaerobically. Recently the fungus Phanerochaete chrysoporium was reported to mineralize azo dyes via a peroxidation-mediated pathway. A possible degradation pathway for the mineralization of azo dye is proposed and future research needs are discussed.

  10. Study of molasses / vinasse waste ratio for single cell protein and total microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Luciana Cazetta

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Different molasses/ vinasse ratio were used as substrate to investigate single cell protein and total lipids production by five microorganisms: four yeasts strains: Candida lipolytica, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a yeast isolated from vinasse lake (denominated LLV98 and a bacterium strain, Corynebacterium glutamicum. The media utilized were: a 50% molasses and 50% vinasse; b 25% molasses and 75% vinasse and c 75% molasses and 25% vinasse. The objective of this work was to study the growth of microorganisms and also evaluate protein and lipids content in the biomass obtained from these by-products. The highest single cell protein production was obtained by S. cerevisiae, 50.35%, followed by R. mucilaginosa, 41.96%. The lowest productions were obtained by C. glutamicum. The higher total lipids productions, more than 26%, were founded in molasses plus vinasse at 50%/50% by S. cerevisiae and C. glutamicum.

  11. Plasma inactivation of food-related microorganisms in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsili, Lisa; Espie, Steven; Anderson, J.G.John G.; MacGregor, S.J.Scott J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on a plasma process that inactivates microorganisms in liquids through the application of high-voltage pulses. These pulses result in breakdown of the gas and liquid layers, producing many active species such as UV photons, ozone, free radicals and free electrons. Several test microorganisms representing a range of problematic microorganisms were investigated. Significant reductions in microbial population were achieved, demonstrating the effectiveness of using the plasma discharge process to treat contaminated liquids

  12. Aircraft Capability Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumaw, Randy; Feary, Mike

    2018-01-01

    This presentation presents an overview of work performed at NASA Ames Research Center in 2017. The work concerns the analysis of current aircraft system management displays, and the initial development of an interface for providing information about aircraft system status. The new interface proposes a shift away from current aircraft system alerting interfaces that report the status of physical components, and towards displaying the implications of degradations on mission capability. The proposed interface describes these component failures in terms of operational consequences of aircraft system degradations. The research activity was an effort to examine the utility of different representations of complex systems and operating environments to support real-time decision making of off-nominal situations. A specific focus was to develop representations that provide better integrated information to allow pilots to more easily reason about the operational consequences of the off-nominal situations. The work is also seen as a pathway to autonomy, as information is integrated and understood in a form that automated responses could be developed for the off-nominal situations in the future.

  13. Production capability and supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemenic, J.

    1977-01-01

    The strong market for uranium of recent years is about to usher in a new era in domestic uranium production. The spot market price of uranium has remained relatively stable at a little over $40/lb for more than 18 months. Many of the recent contracts for delivery in the early 1980s are calling for prices in the range of $40 to $65 per lb in year-of-delivery dollars. Low-grade, high-cost projects, such as uranium recovery from mill tailings and the reopening of ''mined-out'' ore bodies, have already been initiated. New underground mines to produce at greater depths, and new surface mines to recover lower grade ores, are being developed or seriously planned. In keeping with this movement to recover uranium from low-grade ore and other high cost materials, the Grand Junction Office has examined, for the first time, the production capability of the domestic industry assuming a $30/lb (or less) ''forward cost'' resource base. As in the past, keep in mind that the market price needed to stimulate full production of a given resource base may be significantly higher than the estimated forward cost of producing that resource. Results of the $30/lb study are presented

  14. LHC Capabilities for Quarkonia

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushanko, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of the charmonium and bottomonium resonances in nucleus-nucleus collisions provides crucial information on high-density QCD matter. First, the suppression of quarkonia production is generally agreed to be one of the most direct probes of quark-gluon plasma formation. The observation of anomalous J/$\\psi$ suppression at the CERN-SPS and at RHIC is well established but the clarification of some important remaining questions requires equivalent studies of the $\\Upsilon$ family, only possible at the LHC energies. Second, the production of heavy-quarks proceeds mainly via gluon-gluon fusion processes and, as such, is sensitive to saturation of the gluon density at low-x in the nucleus. Measured departures from the expected vacuum quarkonia cross-sections in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC will thus provide valuable information not only on the thermodynamical state of the produced partonic medium, but also on the initial-state modifications of the nuclear parton distribution functions. The capabilities ...

  15. Mobile systems capability plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This plan was prepared to initiate contracting for and deployment of these mobile system services. 102,000 cubic meters of retrievable, contact-handled TRU waste are stored at many sites around the country. Also, an estimated 38,000 cubic meters of TRU waste will be generated in the course of waste inventory workoff and continuing DOE operations. All the defense TRU waste is destined for disposal in WIPP near Carlsbad NM. To ship TRU waste there, sites must first certify that the waste meets WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The waste must be characterized, and if not acceptable, subjected to additional processing, including repackaging. Most sites plan to use existing fixed facilities or open new ones between FY1997-2006 to perform these functions; small-quantity sites lack this capability. An alternative to fixed facilities is the use of mobile systems mounted in trailers or skids, and transported to sites. Mobile systems will be used for all characterization and certification at small sites; large sites can also use them. The Carlsbad Area Office plans to pursue a strategy of privatization of mobile system services, since this offers a number of advantages. To indicate the possible magnitude of the costs of deploying mobile systems, preliminary estimates of equipment, maintenance, and operating costs over a 10-year period were prepared and options for purchase, lease, and privatization through fixed-price contracts considered

  16. Strength capability while kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslegrave, C M; Tracy, M F; Corlett, E N

    1997-12-01

    Work sometimes has to be carried out kneeling, particularly where jobs are performed in confined spaces as is common for miners, aircraft baggage handlers and maintenance workers. In order to assess the risks in performing forceful tasks under such conditions, data is needed on strength capabilities of kneeling subjects. A study was undertaken to measure isometric strength in single-handed exertions for male subjects and to investigate the effects on this of task layout factors (direction of force exertion, reach distance, height of the workpiece and orientation relative to the subject's sagittal plane). The data has been tabulated to show the degree to which strength may be reduced in different situations and analysis of the task factors showed their influence to be complex with direction of exertion and reach distance having the greatest effect. The results also suggest that exertions are weaker when subjects are kneeling on two knees than when kneeling on one knee, although this needs to be confirmed by direct experimental comparison.

  17. Isolation and identification of radiation resistant yeasts from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Cheon; Jeong, Yong Uk; Kim, Du Hong; Jo, Eun A

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to isolate radiation-resistant yeasts from sea water for development of application technology of radiation-resistant microorganism. · Isolation of 656 yeasts from sea water and selection of 2 radiation-resistant yeasts (D 10 value >3) · Identification of isolated yeasts as Filobasidium elegans sharing 99% sequence similarity · Characterization of isolated yeast with ability to repair of the DNA damage and membrane integrity to irradiation

  18. [Effects of copper on biodegradation mechanism of trichloroethylene by mixed microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanhui; Zhao, Tiantao; Xing, Zhilin; He, Zhi; Zhang, Lijie; Peng, Xuya

    2016-05-25

    We isolated and enriched mixed microorganisms SWA1 from landfill cover soils supplemented with trichloroethylene (TCE). The microbial mixture could degrade TCE effectively under aerobic conditions. Then, we investigated the effect of copper ion (0 to 15 μmol/L) on TCE biodegradation. Results show that the maximum TCE degradation speed was 29.60 nmol/min with 95.75% degradation when copper ion was at 0.03 μmol/L. In addition, genes encoding key enzymes during biodegradation were analyzed by Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). The relative expression abundance of pmoA gene (4.22E-03) and mmoX gene (9.30E-06) was the highest when copper ion was at 0.03 μmol/L. Finally, we also used MiSeq pyrosequencing to investigate the diversity of microbial community. Methylocystaceae that can co-metabolic degrade TCE were the dominant microorganisms; other microorganisms with the function of direct oxidation of TCE were also included in SWA1 and the microbial diversity decreased significantly along with increasing of copper ion concentration. Based on the above results, variation of copper ion concentration affected the composition of SWA1 and degradation mechanism of TCE. The degradation mechanism of TCE included co-metabolism degradation of methanotrophs and oxidation metabolism directly at copper ion of 0.03 μmol/L. When copper ion at 5 μmol/L (biodegradation was 84.75%), the degradation mechanism of TCE included direct-degradation and co-metabolism degradation of methanotrophs and microorganisms containing phenol hydroxylase. Therefore, biodegradation of TCE by microorganisms was a complicated process, the degradation mechanism included co-metabolism degradation of methanotrophs and bio-oxidation of non-methanotrophs.

  19. Esterase screening using whole cells of Brazilian soil microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, Simone M.; Oliveira, Luciana G. de; Marsaioli, Anita J., E-mail: anita@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    A miniaturized enzymatic assay using fluorescent probes to reveal esterase producing microorganisms was optimized and applied to screen 64 soil bacterial strains. The best results were validated using traditional non-fluorogenic assays with acetyl and propanoyl phenylethanol to confirm the miniaturized results. The most active microorganisms belong to the genus Bacillus showing esterase activity and good enantiomeric ratios for the resolution of phenylethanol derivatives (E > 30). Part of the microorganisms are kept in our laboratory in glycerol or freezedried and the best microorganisms will be deposited in the CBMAI/CPQBA/UNICAMP culture collection. (author)

  20. [Characteristics of proteins synthesized by hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volova, T G; Barashkov, V A

    2010-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the biological value of proteins synthesized by hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms--the hydrogen bacteria Alcaligenes eutrophus Z1 and Ralstonia eutropha B5786 and the CO-resistant strain of carboxydobacterium Seliberia carboxydohydrogena Z1062. Based on a number of significant parameters characterizing the biological value of a product, the proteins of hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms have been found to occupy an intermediate position between traditional animal and plant proteins. The high total protein in biomass of these microorganisms, their complete amino acid content, and availability to proteolytic enzymes allow for us to consider these microorganisms as potential protein producers.

  1. Bioremediation of Industrial Waste Through Enzyme Producing Marine Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaperumal, P; Kamala, K; Rajaram, R

    Bioremediation process using microorganisms is a kind of nature-friendly and cost-effective clean green technology. Recently, biodegradation of industrial wastes using enzymes from marine microorganisms has been reported worldwide. The prospectus research activity in remediation area would contribute toward the development of advanced bioprocess technology. To minimize industrial wastes, marine enzymes could constitute a novel alternative in terms of waste treatment. Nowadays, the evidence on the mechanisms of bioremediation-related enzymes from marine microorganisms has been extensively studied. This review also will provide information about enzymes from various marine microorganisms and their complexity in the biodegradation of comprehensive range of industrial wastes. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Increasing incidence of community-acquired pneumonia caused by atypical microorganisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazón-Varela, M A; Alonso-Valle, H; Muñoz-Cacho, P; Gallo-Terán, J; Piris-García, X; Pérez-Mier, L A

    2017-09-01

    Knowing the most common microorganisms in our environment can help us to make proper empirical treatment decisions. The aim is to identify those microorganisms causing community-acquired pneumonia. An observational, descriptive and prospective study was conducted, including patients over 14 years with a clinical and radiographic diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia during a 383 consecutive day period. A record was made of sociodemographic variables, personal history, prognostic severity scales, progress, and pathogenic agents. The aetiological diagnosis was made using blood cultures, detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila urinary antigens, sputum culture, influenza virus and Streptococcus pyogenes detection. Categorical variables are presented as absolute values and percentages, and continuous variables as their means and standard deviations. Of the 287 patients included in the study (42% women, mean age 66±22 years), 10.45% died and 70% required hospital admission. An aetiological diagnosis was achieved in 43 patients (14.98%), with 16 microorganisms found in 59 positive samples. The most frequently isolated pathogen was Streptococcus pneumonia (24/59, 41%), followed by gram-negative enteric bacilli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens and Enterobacter cloacae isolated in 20% of the samples (12/59), influenza virus (5/59, 9%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (3/59, 5%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2/59, 3%), Moraxella catarrhalis (2/59, 3%), Legionella pneumophila (2/59, 3%), and Haemophilus influenza (2/59, 3%). Polymicrobial infections accounted for 14% (8/59). A high percentage of atypical microorganisms causing community-acquired pneumonia were found. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Using microorganisms to aid in hydrocarbon degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, W.; Zamora, J.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are threatening the potable water supply and the aquatic ecosystem. Given the right microbial inhabitant(s), a large portion of these aliphatic hydrocarbons could be biodegraded before reaching the water supply. The authors' purpose is to isolate possible oil-degrading organisms. Soil samples were taken from hydrocarbon-laden soils at petroleum terminals, a petroleum refinery waste-treatment facility, a sewage-treatment plant grease collector, a site of previous bioremediation, and various other places. Some isolates known to be good degraders were obtained from culture collection services. These samples were plated on a 10w-30 multigrade motor oil solid medium to screen for aliphatic hydrocarbon degraders. The degrading organisms were isolated, identified, and tested (CO 2 evolution, BOD, and COD) to determine the most efficient degrader(s). Thirty-seven organisms were tested, and the most efficient degraders were Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter agglomerans

  4. In vitro digestibility of oil palm frond treated by local microorganism (MOL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafsin, M.; Khairani, Y.; Hanafi, N. D.; Yunilas

    2018-02-01

    Oil palm frond is by product from oil palm plantation and were found in large quantity in Indonesia. This research aims to examine the ability of local microorganisms and buffalo rumen isolates in improving the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter in vitro of oil palm frond. The research used experimental method with four treatments and three replications. The treatments were given: Oil palms without treatment (P0); Starbio (P2); Aspergillus niger + Saccharomyces cerevisiae (P3); Aspergillus niger + Saccharomyces cerevisiae + Isolate of buffalo rumen bacteria (P4). The results showed that the fermented Oil Palm Frond had higher (PAspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevisiae plus buffalo rumen bacterial isolates had higher (P<0.05) DMD and OMD than other treatments. It can be concluded that the utilisation of MOL can improve the digestibility of oil palm frond in vitro.

  5. Antibiotic resistance determinants in a Pseudomonas putida strain isolated from a hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Molina

    Full Text Available Environmental microbes harbor an enormous pool of antibiotic and biocide resistance genes that can impact the resistance profiles of animal and human pathogens via horizontal gene transfer. Pseudomonas putida strains are ubiquitous in soil and water but have been seldom isolated from humans. We have established a collection of P. putida strains isolated from in-patients in different hospitals in France. One of the isolated strains (HB3267 kills insects and is resistant to the majority of the antibiotics used in laboratories and hospitals, including aminoglycosides, ß-lactams, cationic peptides, chromoprotein enediyne antibiotics, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors, fluoroquinolones and quinolones, glycopeptide antibiotics, macrolides, polyketides and sulfonamides. Similar to other P. putida clinical isolates the strain was sensitive to amikacin. To shed light on the broad pattern of antibiotic resistance, which is rarely found in clinical isolates of this species, the genome of this strain was sequenced and analysed. The study revealed that the determinants of multiple resistance are both chromosomally-borne as well as located on the pPC9 plasmid. Further analysis indicated that pPC9 has recruited antibiotic and biocide resistance genes from environmental microorganisms as well as from opportunistic and true human pathogens. The pPC9 plasmid is not self-transmissible, but can be mobilized by other bacterial plasmids making it capable of spreading antibiotic resistant determinants to new hosts.

  6. Classification of root canal microorganisms using electronic-nose and discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özbilge Hatice

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root canal treatment is a debridement process which disrupts and removes entire microorganisms from the root canal system. Identification of microorganisms may help clinicians decide on treatment alternatives such as using different irrigants, intracanal medicaments and antibiotics. However, the difficulty in cultivation and the complexity in isolation of predominant anaerobic microorganisms make clinicians resort to empirical medical treatments. For this reason, identification of microorganisms is not a routinely used procedure in root canal treatment. In this study, we aimed at classifying 7 different standard microorganism strains which are frequently seen in root canal infections, using odor data collected using an electronic nose instrument. Method Our microorganism odor data set consisted of 5 repeated samples from 7 different classes at 4 concentration levels. For each concentration, 35 samples were classified using 3 different discriminant analysis methods. In order to determine an optimal setting for using electronic-nose in such an application, we have tried 3 different approaches in evaluating sensor responses. Moreover, we have used 3 different sensor baseline values in normalizing sensor responses. Since the number of sensors is relatively large compared to sample size, we have also investigated the influence of two different dimension reduction methods on classification performance. Results We have found that quadratic type dicriminant analysis outperforms other varieties of this method. We have also observed that classification performance decreases as the concentration decreases. Among different baseline values used for pre-processing the sensor responses, the model where the minimum values of sensor readings in the sample were accepted as the baseline yields better classification performance. Corresponding to this optimal choice of baseline value, we have noted that among different sensor response model and

  7. Probiotic features of two oral Lactobacillus isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Zavisic, Gordana; Petricevic, Sasa; Radulovic, Zeljka; Begovic, Jelena; Golic, Natasa; Topisirovic, Ljubisa; Strahinic, Ivana

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we checked lactobacilli strains of human origin for their potential as probiotic. Samples were collected from oral mucosa of 16 healthy individuals, out of which twenty isolates were obtained and two of them were selected and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (G1) and L. casei (G3). Both isolates exhibited antagonistic action towards pathogenic microorganisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Salmonella abony, and Clostridium sporogene...

  8. Physiological ecology of microorganisms in Subglacial Lake Whillans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trista J Vick-Majors

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Subglacial microbial habitats are widespread in glaciated regions of our planet. Some of these environments have been isolated from the atmosphere and from sunlight for many thousands of years. Consequently, ecosystem processes must rely on energy gained from the oxidation of inorganic substrates or detrital organic matter. Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW is one of more than 400 subglacial lakes known to exist under the Antarctic ice sheet; however, little is known about microbial physiology and energetics in these systems. When it was sampled through its 800 m thick ice cover in 2013, the SLW water column was shallow (~2 m deep, oxygenated, and possessed sufficient concentrations of C, N, and P substrates to support microbial growth. Here, we use a combination of physiological assays and models to assess the energetics of microbial life in SLW. In general, SLW microorganisms grew slowly in this energy-limited environment. Heterotrophic cellular carbon turnover times, calculated from 3H-thymidine and 3H-leucine incorporation rates, were long (60 to 500 days while cellular doubling times averaged 196 days. Inferred growth rates (average ~0.006 d-1 obtained from the same incubations were at least an order of magnitude lower than those measured in Antarctic surface lakes and oligotrophic areas of the ocean. Low growth efficiency (8% indicated that heterotrophic populations in SLW partition a majority of their carbon demand to cellular maintenance rather than growth. Chemoautotrophic CO2-fixation exceeded heterotrophic organic C-demand by a factor of ~1.5. Aerobic respiratory activity associated with heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic metabolism surpassed the estimated supply of oxygen to SLW, implying that microbial activity could deplete the oxygenated waters, resulting in anoxia. We used thermodynamic calculations to examine the biogeochemical and energetic consequences of environmentally imposed switching between aerobic and anaerobic metabolisms

  9. Characterization of Proteus mirabilis isolates from broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Proteus mirabilis is ubiquitous in the environment and is regarded as a part of the normal flora in human gastrointestinal tract. However, this bacterium is also an opportunistic human pathogen that causes urinary tract infections. Recently, this microorganism has been isolated from m...

  10. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities. Auxiliary capabilities: environmental health information science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    Sandia Laboratories is an engineering laboratory in which research, development, testing, and evaluation capabilities are integrated by program management for the generation of advanced designs. In fulfilling its primary responsibility to ERDA, Sandia Laboratories has acquired extensive research and development capabilities. The purpose of this series of documents is to catalog the many technical capabilities of the Laboratories. After the listing of capabilities, supporting information is provided in the form of highlights, which show applications. This document deals with auxiliary capabilities, in particular, environmental health and information science. (11 figures, 1 table) (RWR)

  11. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundergan, C.D.

    1975-12-01

    The testing capabilities at Sandia Laboratories are characterized. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs

  12. Sandia Laboratories technical capabilities: electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundergan, C.D.

    1975-12-01

    This report characterizes the electronics capabilities at Sandia Laboratories. Selected applications of these capabilities are presented to illustrate the extent to which they can be applied in research and development programs

  13. Novel Micro-organisms controlling plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.

    2009-01-01

    The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection

  14. Novel Micro-organisms controlling plant pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to control of pathogen caused diseases on leaves, fruits and ears in plants, such as apple scab (Venturia inaequalis by treatment of plant with an isolate of Cladosporium cladosporioides. The treatment is effective in both prevention and treatment of the fungal infection

  15. Structural Capability of an Organization toward Innovation Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Momeni, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    The scholars in the field of strategic management have developed two major approaches for attainment of competitive advantage: an approach based on environmental opportunities, and another one based on internal capabilities of an organization. Some investigations in the last two decades have...... indicated that the advantages relying on the internal capabilities of organizations may determine the competitive position of organizations better than environmental opportunities do. Characteristics of firms shows that one of the most internal capabilities that lead the organizations to the strongest...... competitive advantage in the organizations is the innovation capability. The innovation capability is associated with other organizational capabilities, and many organizations have focused on the need to identify innovation capabilities.This research focuses on recognition of the structural aspect...

  16. Isolation of Bacterial Strain for Biodegradation of Fats, Oil and Grease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhatib, M.F.; Mohd Zahangir Alam; Shabana, H.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fat, oil and grease (FOG) deposition is one of the major problems that harm the environment and cause dissatisfaction for human. Uncontrolled and un-pre-treated FOG removal from the kitchen could lead to its accumulation in the piping system. Problems include the interference of fat with the aerobic microorganisms that are responsible in treating the wastewater by reducing oxygen transfer rates and for anaerobic microorganisms; their efficiency could also be reduced due to the reduction of the transport of soluble substrates to the bacterial biomass. Biodegradation could be one of the effective means to treat FOG. The main objective of this study is to isolate bacterial strains from the FOG waste and identify the strains that are capable in biodegrading FOG waste. FOG sample was collected from a sewer manhole. Enrichment technique was applied, followed by isolation of bacterial strains to determine which strain is able to degrade the FOG deposition. Some morphology for the bacterial strain was done to determine its characteristics. (author)

  17. In Vitro Activity of Lactobacilli with Probiotic Potential Isolated from Cocoa Fermentation against Gardnerella vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Felipe Blohem Pessoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of the probiotic potential of microorganisms isolated from fermented foods has been increasing, especially studies related to lactobacilli. In intestinal models, lactobacilli have demonstrated beneficial properties, such as anti-inflammatory activity and increased antibody production, but the molecular mechanisms involving probiotic and antagonistic action as well as their effect on human vaginal cells have not yet been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional and antagonistic properties of three strains of lactobacilli isolated from cocoa fermentation (Lactobacillus fermentum 5.2, L. plantarum 6.2, and L. plantarum 7.1 against Gardnerella vaginalis. Our results show that the lactobacilli have potential use as probiotics, since they have high hydrophobicity and autoaggregation properties and effectively adhere to vaginal cells. Metabolites secreted into the culture medium and whole cells of the strains under study are capable of interfering with the growth of G. vaginalis to different degrees. The elucidation of the antagonistic mechanisms as well as their effect on human cells may be useful in the development of a product containing such microorganisms or products secreted by them.

  18. The Capability to Hold Property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, Rutger

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether a capability theory of justice (such as that of Martha Nussbaum) should accept a basic “capability to hold property.” Answering this question is vital for bridging the gap between abstract capability theories of justice and their institutional

  19. Soft rot decay capabilities and interactions of fungi and bacteria from fumigated utility poles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.J.K.; Worrall, J.J.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives were to (1) identify microfungi and bacterial associates isolated from fumigated southern pine poles from EPRI project RP 1471-72, (2) study the soft-rot capabilities of predominant fungi, and (3) study interactions among microorganisms in relation to wood decay. Methods for identification followed standard techniques using morphological and physiological criteria. Soft-rot by microfungi alone and with bacteria was determined as weight loss and anatomical examination of wood blocks using light microscopy and limited electron microscopy. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus was the predominant bacterium. Twenty-one species of microfungi were identified including four new species. A book entitled IDENTIFICATION MANUAL FOR FUNGI FROM UTILITY POLES IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES was published. An improved soft-rot test was devised. Fifty-one of 84 species (60%) of microfungi from poles tested were soft-rot positive; that is much greater than previously reported. Three types of anatomical damage of wood of pine or birch caused by soft-rot fungi were described. Interaction tests showed that, in some cases, there was a strong synergism between bacteria and fungi in causing weight loss, but results were inconsistent. Although soft rot is often most apparent under conditions of very high moisture, intermediate moisture levels appear to be optimal, as with basidiomycete decayers

  20. the economic importance of microorganism in food processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    This paper attempts to highlight the Economic Importance of microorganisms in food processing and manufacturing; it goes further to differentiate between the desirable ... Desirable importance are those cost saving and revenue generating activities ... Microorganism (yeast) play very useful role in the Bakery industries.