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Sample records for isokinetic contractions isokinetic

  1. Isokinetic sampler; Amostrador isocinetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Luis Cesar C. de; Santos, Antonio Carlos dos [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barrio, Lara B.A. del [AZ Armaturen do Brasil Ltda., Itatiba, SP (Brazil); Silva, Claudio B. da C. e; Silva, Ricardo R. da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2005-07-01

    The Center of Research Leopoldo A. Miguez de Melo - CENPES - in association with AZ Armaturen Company do Brasil and TRANSPETRO developed and tested an Isokinetic sampler. This work presents the sampling principles and the results and performance of the tests realized in the 'Sitio de Testes de Atalaia' and in one of the terminals of bunker transfer of TRANSPETRO - 'Terminal Aquaviario da Baia de Guanabara'. In the 'Sitio de Testes' the products used were oil and water with BSW from 5% to 97% and in the terminal were tested samplings of bunker with ranges viscosities between (MF 180 to 380). (author)

  2. Hyperventilation-induced respiratory alkalosis falls short of countering fatigue during repeated maximal isokinetic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Akihiro; Naito, Hisashi; Chow, Chin Moi

    2015-07-01

    Hyperventilation, implemented during recovery of repeated maximal sprints, has been shown to attenuate performance decrement. This study evaluated the effects of hyperventilation, using strength exercises, on muscle torque output and EMG amplitude. Fifteen power-trained athletes underwent maximal isokinetic knee extensions consisting of 12 repetitions × 8 sets at 60°/s and 25 repetitions × 8 sets at 300°/s. The inter-set interval was 40 s for both speeds. For the control condition, subjects breathed spontaneously during the interval period. For the hyperventilation condition, subjects hyperventilated for 30 s before each exercise set (50 breaths/min, PETCO2: 20-25 mmHg). EMG was recorded from the vastus medialis and lateralis muscles to calculate the mean amplitude for each contraction. Hyperventilation increased blood pH by 0.065-0.081 and lowered PCO2 by 8.3-10.3 mmHg from the control values (P < 0.001). Peak torque declined with repetition and set numbers for both speeds (P < 0.001), but the declining patterns were similar between conditions. A significant, but small enhancement in peak torque was observed with hyperventilation at 60°/s during the initial repetition phase of the first (P = 0.032) and fourth sets (P = 0.040). EMG amplitude also declined with set number (P < 0.001) for both speeds and muscles, which was, however, not attenuated by hyperventilation. Despite a minor ergogenic effect in peak torque at 60°/s, hyperventilation was not effective in attenuating the decrement in torque output at 300°/s and decrement in EMG amplitude at both speeds during repeated sets of maximal isokinetic knee extensions.

  3. The reliabilty of isokinetic strength measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Title: Reliability of isometric and isokinetic strength testing in the knee flexion and extension Objectives: To compare the reliability of isometric and isokinetic testing of the knee strength in flexion and extension Methods: I used intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: I have discovered that the reliability measured on isokinetic and isometric dynamometer is high. Furthermore the reliability of the maximum strength measurement was higher with-us...

  4. Isokinetic Leg Strength and Power in Elite Handball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ravé, José M.; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A.; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players. PMID:25114749

  5. Isokinetic leg strength and power in elite handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ravé, José M; Juárez, Daniel; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A; Clemente-Suarez, Vicente J; Martinez-Valencia, María A; Abian-Vicen, Javier

    2014-06-28

    Isokinetic strength evaluation of the knee flexion and extension in concentric mode of contraction is an important part of the comprehensive evaluation of athletes. The aims of this study were to evaluate the isokinetic knee peak torque in both the extension and flexion movement in the dominant and non-dominant leg, and the relationship with jumping performance. Twelve elite male handball players from the top Spanish handball division voluntary participated in the study (age 27.68 ± 4.12 years; body mass 92.89 ± 12.34 kg; body height 1.90 ± 0.05 m). The knee extensor and flexor muscle peak torque of each leg were concentrically measured at 60º/s and 180º/s with an isokinetic dynamometer. The Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump were performed on a force platform to determine power and vertical jump height. Non-significant differences were observed between legs in the isokinetic knee extension (dominant= 2.91 ± 0.53 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 2.70 ± 0.47 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.90 ± 0.31 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.83 ± 0.29 Nm/kg at 180º/s) and flexion peak torques (dominant = 1.76 ± 0.29 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.72 ± 0.39 Nm/kg at 60º/s; dominant = 1.30 ± 0.23 Nm/kg vs non-dominant = 1.27 ± 0.35 Nm/kg at 180º/s). Low and non-significant correlation coefficients were found between the isokinetic peak torques and vertical jumping performance (SJ = 31.21 ± 4.32 cm; CMJ = 35.89 ± 4.20 cm). Similar isokinetic strength was observed between the legs; therefore, no relationship was found between the isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torques as well as vertical jumping performance in elite handball players.

  6. Selected isokinetic tests in knee injury prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Pilis

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ensuing from isokinetic measurements, the conventional Hcon/Qcon ratio of muscle balance is used as an index for comparing proper relations between the values of strength of knee flexors and extensor muscle. Its abnormal values might indicate pathology of the musculotendinous complex. The aim of the study was to present the possibility of using this ratio as one of the objective identifiers enabling the assessment of knee injury risk in sports. All participants (n=48 were divided into 3 groups: group A (n=16, healthy competitors, group B (n=16, athletes with minor injuries, group C (n=16, competitors with serious injuries, depending on the degree of knee injury. All subjects performed an isokinetic test for knee extensors and flexors at angular velocities of 60°/s and 120°/s. Average peak torque (APT value of knee flexors and extensors, and the value of Hcon/Qcon ratio was analyzed. Both values were calculated in relation to body mass (Nm/kg. Bilateral comparison of isokinetic test parameters confirmed the decrease of quadriceps muscle strength values for the injured extremity in groups B and C. Statistically significant difference was noted for Hcon/Qcon ratio between group A and C, as well as B and C. Hence, the value of conventional Hcon/Qcon ratio can be used for the prevention of sports related injuries.

  7. Combined effects of myofeedback and isokinetic training on hand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined effects of myofeedback and isokinetic training on hand function in spastic hemiplegic children. ... Both groups received a designed physical therapy program with isokinetic training for the triceps brachii muscle for 60 min, in addition group B received myofeedback training. Results: The post treatment results ...

  8. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Beller, Noah A; Gonzalez, Adam M; Spatz, Gregory E; Hoffman, Jay R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects' peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s(-1) [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key pointsMultiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women.Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press (by

  9. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Beller, Noah A.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Spatz, Gregory E.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Ross, Ryan E.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key points Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women. Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press

  10. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength combined with transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation in primary fibromyalgia syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Wildschiødtz, Gordon; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1991-01-01

    Twenty women with primary fibromyalgia syndrome and 20 age matched healthy women were investigated. The subjects performed maximum voluntary isokinetic contractions of the right quadriceps in an isokinetic dynamometer. Maximum voluntary isometric contractions of the right quadriceps were performed...... of superimposed twitches was 65% in the patient group and 15% in the control group (p = 0.003). Patients with primary fibromyalgia have a lower maximum voluntary muscle strength than expected. The increased presence of superimposed electrically elicited twitches during maximum voluntary contraction indicates...... submaximal force application in primary fibromyalgia syndrome....

  11. Isokinetic Testing in Evaluation Rehabilitation Outcome After ACL Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Cvjetkovic, Dragana Dragicevic; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Talic, Goran; Radulovic, Tatjana Nozica; Kosanovic, Milkica Glogovac; Manojlovic, Slavko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous rehab protocols have been used in rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Isokinetic testing is an objective way to evaluate dynamic stability of the knee joint that estimates the quality of rehabilitation outcome after ACL reconstruction. Our investigation goal was to show importance of isokinetic testing in evaluation thigh muscle strength in patients which underwent ACL reconstruction and rehabilitation protocol. Subjects and methods: In prospective study, we evalua...

  12. Isokinetic Testing in Evaluation Rehabilitation Outcome After ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvjetkovic, Dragana Dragicevic; Bijeljac, Sinisa; Palija, Stanislav; Talic, Goran; Radulovic, Tatjana Nozica; Kosanovic, Milkica Glogovac; Manojlovic, Slavko

    2015-02-01

    Numerous rehab protocols have been used in rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction. Isokinetic testing is an objective way to evaluate dynamic stability of the knee joint that estimates the quality of rehabilitation outcome after ACL reconstruction. Our investigation goal was to show importance of isokinetic testing in evaluation thigh muscle strength in patients which underwent ACL reconstruction and rehabilitation protocol. In prospective study, we evaluated 40 subjects which were divided into two groups. Experimental group consisted of 20 recreational males which underwent ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon and rehabilitation protocol 6 months before isokinetic testing. Control group (20 subjects) consisted of healthy recreational males. In all subjects knee muscle testing was performed on a Biodex System 4 Pro isokinetic dynamo-meter et velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s. We followed average peak torque to body weight (PT/BW) and classic H/Q ratio. In statistical analysis Student's T test was used. There were statistically significant differences between groups in all evaluated parameters except of the mean value of PT/BW of the quadriceps et velocity of 60°/s (p>0.05). Isokinetic testing of dynamic stabilizers of the knee is need in diagnostic and treatment thigh muscle imbalance. We believe that isokinetic testing is an objective parameter for return to sport activities after ACL reconstruction.

  13. Comparison of isokinetic and isometric strength training effects on hamstring and quadriceps torques and physical function in knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, T.; Khan, H.M.M.H.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of isokinetic and isometric strength trainings on hamstring and quadriceps average-peak-torques, physical performance, and pain. Methodology: Twenty athletes with knee pain were randomly assigned to two equal groups: Isokinetic training and isometric training. Both groups were trained on Biodex System 3 Pro for 10 sessions. Isokinetic-group received isokinetic training on 5 different velocities while isometric-group performed isometric contractions at 3 knee joint angles. Results: Hamstring isokinetic average-peak-torque was significantly higher at all velocities without significant improvement in quadriceps average-peak-torque except for at the slowest velocity. Isometric training did not cause significant change in isometric average-peak-torque at any knee angle for either hamstring or quadriceps. Agility, elastic leg strength, and pain improved significantly in both groups with no significant between-group differences. No significant statistical correlation was observed between pain and any other parameter after either type of training. Conclusions: Athletes participating in sports requiring dynamic hamstring strength should prefer isokinetic strength training for physical rehabilitation of knee pain. However, physical performance and pain can be improved with both isometric and isokinetic strength training. (author)

  14. Isokinetic Evaluation of the Hip Flexor and Extensor Muscles: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapparoli, Fabricio Yuri; Riberto, Marcelo

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic dynamometry testing is a safe and reliable method accepted as the "gold standard" in the evaluation of muscle strength in the open kinetic chain. Isokinetic hip examinations face problems in the standardization of the position of the equipment axis, in the individual being examined, and in the adjustment of the lever arm and in stabilization strategies for the patients during the tests. Identification of the methodologic procedures with best reproducibility is also needed. To review the literature to evaluate the parameters used for the isokinetic evaluation of the hip flexor and extensor muscles and its reproducibility. This is a systematic literature review of the Cochrane, LILACS, PEDro, PubMed, and SciELO databases. The inclusion criteria were articles on the evaluation of hip flexor and/or extensor muscular strength with an isokinetic dynamometer and articles that analyzed the ICC or Pearson's reproducibility. The information extracted was positioning of the patient; positioning of the dynamometer axis; positioning of the lever arm; angular speed; sample size, pathology; type of contraction; and ICC and Pearson's results. 204 articles were found, from which 14 were selected that evaluated hip flexor and extensor muscles, involving 550 individuals who were submitted to an isokinetic hip evaluation. Five articles obtained the best result in reproducibility and had their methodology analyzed. To obtain better reproducibility of the isokinetic evaluation of the hip flexor and extensor muscles, the following recommendations must be followed: the individual must be positioned in the supine position and the dynamometer axis must be aligned with the greater trochanter of the femur. The positioning of the lever arm must be in the most distal region of the thigh possible. The angular speed used to analyze torque peak and muscle work was 60°/s, and to evaluate the muscle power it was 180°/s, with concentric and eccentric contractions being analyzed.

  15. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Ratamess, Noah A. Beller, Adam M. Gonzalez, Gregory E. Spatz, Jay R. Hoffman, Ryan E. Ross, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Jie Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT or a non-exercising control group (CTL. The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON and 3-sec eccentric (ECC phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg, 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg, and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women.

  16. Enthalpy-entropy compensation and the isokinetic temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation supposes that differences in activation enthalpy delta-H-++ for different reactions (or, typically inbiochemistry, the same reaction catalysed by enzymes obtained from different species) may be compensated for bydifferences in activation entropy delta-S-++. At the isokinetic temperature the ...

  17. Isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength profiles of elite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Football players are at risk of lower limb injuries, specifically hamstring muscle strains and ACL injuries due to muscle imbalances. This was a descriptive study assessing the isokinetic hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength and endurance in 28 elite, male, South African football players. Muscle strength was tested at 60 ...

  18. Combined effects of myofeedback and isokinetic training on hand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khaled A. Olama

    2012-04-25

    Apr 25, 2012 ... Subjects and methods: Thirty spastic hemiplegic children from both sexes ranging in age from ... physical therapy program with isokinetic training for the triceps brachii muscle for 60 min, in ... The Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics ... than a third of all cases of CP, and the resulting impairments.

  19. Thoracic posture, shoulder muscle activation patterns and isokinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Shoulder injuries are the most severe injuries in rugby union players, accounting for almost 20% of injuries related to the sport and resulting in lost playing hours. Objective. To profile the thoracic posture, scapular muscle activation patterns and rotator cuff muscle isokinetic strength of semi-professional

  20. Posture and isokinetic shoulder strength in female water polo players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Being overhead athletes, water polo players can present with muscular imbalances of the shoulder, between the internal rotators (IR) and external rotators (ER), leading to changes in posture and an increased risk of injury. Objectives: To assess posture and isokinetic shoulder strength of female club-level ...

  1. Influence of visual feedback on knee extensor isokinetic concentric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Isokinetic normative data can be invaluable in identifying an individual's strengths and weaknesses, and thus lead to a more effective use of the individual's time to minimise or overcome his weaknesses while maintaining or improving existing strength. However, visual feedback (VF) may significantly affect the result of ...

  2. The reliability of data produced by isokinetic dynamometry (IKD) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To investigate the feasibility of using isolated knee performance to measure the f-v profile of human muscle in vivo, we were using isokinetic dynamometry (IKD) technique that span the entire f-v profile of skeletal muscle. With institutional ethics approval, eleven healthy males (mean ± SD: age, 24.9 ± 3.1 years; body mass, ...

  3. Isometric and isokinetic hip strength and agonist/antagonist ratios in symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Laura E; Wrigley, Tim V; Hinman, Rana S; Hodges, Paul W; O'Donnell, John; Takla, Amir; Bennell, Kim L

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated isometric and isokinetic hip strength in individuals with and without symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The specific aims were to: (i) determine whether differences exist in isometric and isokinetic hip strength measures between groups; (ii) compare hip strength agonist/antagonist ratios between groups; and (iii) examine relationships between hip strength and self-reported measures of either hip pain or function in those with FAI. Cross-sectional. Fifteen individuals (11 males; 25±5 years) with symptomatic FAI (clinical examination and imaging (alpha angle >55° (cam FAI), and lateral centre edge angle >39° and/or positive crossover sign (combined FAI))) and 14 age- and sex-matched disease-free controls (no morphological FAI on magnetic resonance imaging) underwent strength testing. Maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength of hip muscle groups and isokinetic hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) strength (20°/s) were measured. Groups were compared with independent t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. Participants with FAI had 20% lower isometric abduction strength than controls (p=0.04). There were no significant differences in isometric strength for other muscle groups or peak isokinetic ER or IR strength. The ratio of isometric, but not isokinetic, ER/IR strength was significantly higher in the FAI group (p=0.01). There were no differences in ratios for other muscle groups. Angle of peak IR torque was the only feature correlated with symptoms. Individuals with symptomatic FAI demonstrate isometric hip abductor muscle weakness and strength imbalance in the hip rotators. Strength measurement, including agonist/antagonist ratios, may be relevant for clinical management of FAI. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isokinetic evaluation of knee muscles in soccer players: discriminant analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fles Mazuquin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIntroduction:Muscle activity in soccer players can be measured by isokinetic dynamometer, which is a reliable tool for assessing human performance.Objectives:To perform isokinetic analyses and to determine which variables differentiate the under-17 (U17 soccer category from the professional (PRO.Methods:Thirty four players were assessed (n=17 for each category. The isokinetic variables used for the knee extension-flexion analysis were: peak torque (Nm, total work (J, average power (W, angle of peak torque (deg., agonist/ antagonist ratio (%, measured for three velocities (60°/s, 120°/s and 300°/s, with each series containing five repetitions. Three Wilks' Lambda discriminant analyses were performed, to identify which variables were more significant for the definition of each of the categories.Results:The discriminative variables at 60°/s in the PRO category were: extension peak torque, flexion total work, extension average power and agonist/antagonist ratio; and for the U17s were: extension total work, flexion peak torque and flexion average power. At 120°/s for the PRO category the discriminant variables were: flexion peak torque and extension average power; for the U17s they were: extension total work and flexion average power. Finally at 300°/s, the variables found in the PRO and U17 categories respectively were: extension average power and extension total work.Conclusion:Isokinetic variables for flexion and extension knee muscles were able to significantly discriminate between PRO and U17 soccer players.

  5. INTERSESSION RELIABILITY OF UPPER EXTREMITY ISOKINETIC PUSH-PULL TESTING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Davis, Sarah E; Huet, Kevin; Davies, George J

    2016-02-01

    Based on the frequency pushing and pulling patterns are used in functional activities, there is a need to establish an objective method of quantifying the muscle performance characteristics associated with these motions, particularly during the later stages of rehabilitation as criteria for discharge. While isokinetic assessment offers an approach to quantifying muscle performance, little is known about closed kinetic chain (CKC) isokinetic testing of the upper extremity (UE). To determine the intersession reliability of isokinetic upper extremity measurement of pushing and pulling peak force and average power at slow (0.24 m/s), medium (0.43 m/s) and fast (0.61 m/s) velocities in healthy young adults. The secondary purpose was to compare pushing and pulling peak force (PF) and average power (AP) between the upper extremity limbs (dominant, non-dominant) across the three velocities. Twenty-four physically active men and women completed a test-retest (>96 hours) protocol in order to establish isokinetic UE CKC reliability of PF and AP during five maximal push and pull repetitions at three velocities. Both limb and speed orders were randomized between subjects. High test-retest relative reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2, 1) were revealed for PF (.91-.97) and AP (.85-.95) across velocities, limbs and directions. PF typical error (% coefficient of variation) ranged from 6.1% to 11.3% while AP ranged from 9.9% to 26.7%. PF decreased significantly (p pushing were significantly greater than pulling at all velocities, however the push-pull differences in PF became less as velocity increased. There were no significant differences identified between the dominant and nondominant limbs. Isokinetically derived UE CKC push-pull PF and AP are reliable measures. The lack of limb differences in healthy normal participants suggests that clinicians can consider bilateral comparisons when interpreting test performance. The increase in pushing PF and

  6. Neuromuscular and muscle-tendon system adaptations to isotonic and isokinetic eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, G; Cornu, C; Guével, A

    2010-06-01

    To present the properties of an eccentric contraction and compare neuromuscular and muscle-tendon system adaptations induced by isotonic and isokinetic eccentric trainings. An eccentric muscle contraction is characterized by the production of muscle force associated to a lengthening of the muscle-tendon system. This muscle solicitation can cause micro lesions followed by a regeneration process of the muscle-tendon system. Eccentric exercise is commonly used in functional rehabilitation for its positive effect on collagen synthesis but also for resistance training to increase muscle strength and muscle mass in athletes. Indeed, eccentric training stimulates muscle hypertrophy, increases the fascicle pennation angle, fascicles length and neural activation, thus inducing greater strength gains than concentric or isometric training programs. Eccentric exercise is commonly performed either against a constant external load (isotonic) or at constant velocity (isokinetic), inducing different mechanical constraints. These different mechanical constraints could induce structural and neural adaptive strategies specific to each type of exercise. The literature tends to show that isotonic mode leads to a greater strength gain than isokinetic mode. This observation could be explained by a greater neuromuscular activation after IT training. However, the specific muscle adaptations induced by each mode remain difficult to determine due to the lack of standardized, comparative studies. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Test-Retest Reliability of Isokinetic Knee Strength Measurements in Children Aged 8 to 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Fritzson, Annelie; Drake, Anna Maria

    Isokinetic dynamometry is a useful tool to objectively assess muscle strength of children and adults in athletic and rehabilitative settings. This study examined test-retest reliability of isokinetic knee strength measurements in children aged 8 to 10 years and defined limits for the minimum difference (MD) in strength that indicates a clinically important change. Isokinetic knee strength measurements (using the Biodex System 4) in children will provide reliable results. Descriptive laboratory study. In 22 healthy children, 5 maximal concentric (CON) knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) contractions at 2 angular velocities (60 deg/s and 180 deg/s) and 5 maximal eccentric (ECC) KE/KF contractions at 60 deg/s were assessed 7 days apart. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2.1 ) was used to examine relative reliability, and the MD was calculated on the basis of standard error of measurement. ICCs for CON KE/KF peak torque measurements were fair to excellent (range, 0.49-0.81). The MD% values for CON KE and KF ranged from 31% to 37% at 60 deg/s and from 34% to 39% at 180 deg/s. ICCs in the ECC mode were good (range, 0.60-0.70), but associated MD% values were high (>50%). There was no systematic error for CON KE/KF and ECC KE strength measurements at 60 deg/s, but systematic error was found for all other measurements. The dynamometer provides a reliable analysis of isokinetic CON knee strength measurements at 60 deg/s in children aged 8 to 10 years. Measurements at 180 deg/s and in the ECC mode were not reliable, indicating a need for more familiarization prior to testing. The MD values may help clinicians to determine whether a change in knee strength is due to error or intervention.

  8. Muscle recruitment patterns of the subscapularis, serratus anterior and other shoulder girdle muscles during isokinetic internal and external rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Sylvain; Tremblay, Jonathan; Begon, Mickael

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in peak muscle activity and recruitment patterns during high- and low-velocity, concentric and eccentric, internal and external isokinetic shoulder rotations. Electromyographic activity of the rotator cuff and eight superficial muscles of the shoulder girdle was recorded on 25 healthy adults during isokinetic internal and external shoulder rotation at 60°/s and 240°/s. Peak muscle activity, electromyographic envelopes and peak isokinetic moments were analyzed using three-factor ANOVA and statistical parametric mapping. The subscapularis and serratus anterior showed moderate to high peak activity levels during each conditions, while the middle and posterior deltoids, upper, middle and lower trapezius, infraspinatus and supraspinatus showed higher peak activity levels during external rotations (+36.5% of maximum voluntary activation (MVA)). The pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi were more active during internal rotations (+40% of MVA). Only middle trapezius and pectoralis major electromyographic activity decreased with increasing velocity. Peak muscle activity was similar or lower during eccentric contractions, although the peak isokinetic moment increased by 35% on average. The subscapularis and serratus anterior appear to be important stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint and scapula. Isokinetic eccentric training at high velocities may allow for faster recruitment of the shoulder girdle muscles, which could improve joint stability during shoulder internal and external rotations.

  9. THE EFFECT OF CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON ATHLETE ISOKINETIC PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Faruk ŞİRİN; Suzan YALÇIN

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find the effects of Creatin Monohydrate (CrH2O) on athlete performance (isokinetic power measured as a total workout) used as an ergojenic aid in long-term (6 weeks) supplementation. There are 38 participants willing to join to the study. Their ages are between 20 and 27. All of them are choosed from active athletes. From the findings of this study; all the participants’ in the creatin group have increased the total workout production in all cycles of isokineti...

  10. Isokinetic Strength Profile of Elite Female Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xaverova Zuzana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic assessment of muscle strength of the lower extremities throughout the annual training cycle in athletes is crucial from a performance perspective for the optimization of the training process, as well as a health perspective with regard to injury prevention. The main aim of the present study was to determine isokinetic muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors in female handball players at the beginning of a preparatory period and to assess whether there were any differences between players of different performance levels. The performance level was expressed by means of membership of the Women’s Junior National Handball Team (JNT, n=8 or the Women’s National Handball Team (NT, n=9. The isokinetic peak torque during concentric and eccentric single-joint knee flexion and extension was measured at angular velocities of 60, 180, 240°/s (concentric and 60°/s (eccentric. The Mann- Whitney test showed no significant differences in the peak torques or ipsilateral ratios between the two groups. The bilateral force deficit (BFD for concentric extension at 240°/s was significantly higher in the JNT compared with the NT (p=0.04; d=1.02. However, the results of individual evaluation show that the BFD was more frequent in the NT in most measurements. A high BFD was evident in the eccentric mode in both groups highlighting a need for particular strengthening. With regard to low strength ratios a prevention programme should be suggested for both observed groups of professional female handball players to reduce the risk of injury.

  11. Isokinetic Strength Profile of Elite Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaverova, Zuzana; Dirnberger, Johannes; Lehnert, Michal; Belka, Jan; Wagner, Herbert; Orechovska, Karolina

    2015-12-22

    Systematic assessment of muscle strength of the lower extremities throughout the annual training cycle in athletes is crucial from a performance perspective for the optimization of the training process, as well as a health perspective with regard to injury prevention. The main aim of the present study was to determine isokinetic muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors in female handball players at the beginning of a preparatory period and to assess whether there were any differences between players of different performance levels. The performance level was expressed by means of membership of the Women's Junior National Handball Team (JNT, n=8) or the Women's National Handball Team (NT, n=9). The isokinetic peak torque during concentric and eccentric single-joint knee flexion and extension was measured at angular velocities of 60, 180, 240°/s (concentric) and 60°/s (eccentric). The Mann-Whitney test showed no significant differences in the peak torques or ipsilateral ratios between the two groups. The bilateral force deficit (BFD) for concentric extension at 240°/s was significantly higher in the JNT compared with the NT (p=0.04; d=1.02). However, the results of individual evaluation show that the BFD was more frequent in the NT in most measurements. A high BFD was evident in the eccentric mode in both groups highlighting a need for particular strengthening. With regard to low strength ratios a prevention programme should be suggested for both observed groups of professional female handball players to reduce the risk of injury.

  12. Shoulder rotator isokinetic strength profile in young swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Miguel Prazeres Batalha

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n5p545  Considering that some studies suggest that shoulder rotators muscle imbal­ances are related to joint pain and injury, and that there are no normative data for young swimmers, the aim of this study was: i to describe the muscle balance, fatigue and isokinetic strength profile of the shoulder rotators in young swimmers; ii to compare the results between swimmers and a group of young non-practitioners; iii to contribute to the acquisition of normative data of unilateral ratios of shoulder rotators. We evaluated the shoulder rotators concentric strength and unilateral ratios (ratio between torque of external and internal rotators of 60 swimmers (age: 14.55 ± 0.5 years old; body mass: 61.16 ± 7.08 kg and 60 non-practitioners (age: 14.62 ± 0.49 years old; body mass: 60.22 ± 10.01 kg. The evaluation was performed in the sitting position (90° abduction and elbow flexion at 60º.s-1 and 180º.s-1 angular speeds using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3. The results of the fatigue ratios revealed no differences between the groups. Swimmers showed unilateral ratios of 73.39 ± 17.26% in the dominant limb (DL and 77.89 ± 15,23% in the non-dominant limb (NDL for assessments at 60º.s-1. At 180º.s-1, ratios were 74.77± 13.99% for DL and 70.11 ± 14.57% for NDL. Swimmers presented greater muscle imbalance, and differed from non-practitioners in the ability to produce power with the internal rotators, which was significantly higher in the former group.

  13. Isokinetic muscle strength and readiness to return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: is there an association? A systematic review and a protocol recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undheim, Marit Baste; Cosgrave, Ciaran; King, Enda; Strike, Siobhán; Marshall, Brendan; Falvey, Éanna; Franklyn-Miller, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    Following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), strength is a key variable in regaining full function of the knee. Isokinetic strength is commonly used as part of the return to sport (RTS) criteria. We systematically reviewed the isokinetic strength evaluation protocols that are currently being used following ACLR. A secondary aim was to suggest an isokinetic protocol that could meet RTS criteria. Articles were searched using ScienceDirect, PubMed and Sage Journals Online, combined with cross-checked reference lists of the publications. Protocol data and outcome measurements and RTS criteria were extracted from each article included in the review. 39 studies met the inclusion criteria and reported their isokinetic strength evaluation protocol following ACLR. The variables that were most commonly used were concentric/concentric mode of contraction (31 studies), angular velocity of 60°/s (29 studies), 3-5 repetitions (24 studies), range of motion of 0-90° (6 studies), and using gravity correction (9 studies). 8 studies reported strength limb symmetry index scores as part of their RTS criteria. There was no standardised isokinetic protocol following ACLR; isokinetic strength measures have not been validated as useful predictors of successful RTS. We propose a standard protocol to allow consistency of testing and accurate comparison of future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The Advantages of Normalizing Electromyography to Ballistic Rather than Isometric or Isokinetic Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suydam, Stephen M; Manal, Kurt; Buchanan, Thomas S

    2017-07-01

    Isometric tasks have been a standard for electromyography (EMG) normalization stemming from anatomic and physiologic stability observed during contraction. Ballistic dynamic tasks have the benefit of eliciting maximum EMG signals for normalization, despite having the potential for greater signal variability. It is the purpose of this study to compare maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) to nonisometric tasks with increasing degrees of extrinsic variability, ie, joint range of motion, velocity, rate of contraction, etc., to determine if the ballistic tasks, which elicit larger peak EMG signals, are more reliable than the constrained MVIC. Fifteen subjects performed MVIC, isokinetic, maximum countermovement jump, and sprint tasks while EMG was collected from 9 muscles in the quadriceps, hamstrings, and lower leg. The results revealed the unconstrained ballistic tasks were more reliable compared to the constrained MVIC and isokinetic tasks for all triceps surae muscles. The EMG from sprinting was more reliable than the constrained cases for both the hamstrings and vasti. The most reliable EMG signals occurred when the body was permitted its natural, unconstrained motion. These results suggest that EMG is best normalized using ballistic tasks to provide the greatest within-subject reliability, which beneficially yield maximum EMG values.

  15. Neural and morphological adaptations of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis muscles to isokinetic eccentric training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Azevedo Franke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Vastus lateralis (VL and vastus medialis (VM are frequently targeted in conditioning/rehabilitation programs due to their role in patellar stabilization during knee extension. This study assessed neural and muscular adaptations in these two muscles after an isokinetic eccentric training program. Twenty healthy men underwent a four-week control period followed by a 12-week period of isokinetic eccentric training. Ultrasound evaluations of VL and VM muscle thickness at rest and electromyographic evaluations during maximal isometric tests were used to assess the morphological and neural properties, respectively. No morphological and neural changes were found throughout the control period, whereas both muscles showed significant increases in thickness (VL = 6.9%; p .05 post-training. Isokinetic eccentric training produces neural and greater morphological adaptations in VM compared to VL, which shows that synergistic muscles respond differently to an eccentric isokinetic strength training program

  16. Dynamics of muscle strength improvement during isokinetic rehabilitation of athletes with ACL rupture and chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnica Bakrac, N

    2003-03-01

    To assess quantitatively dynamics and extent of the increase in muscle strength during isokinetic rehabilitation. daily measurements of muscle strength; detailed testing at the beginning and at the end of rehabilitation. Cybex Rehabilitation Center, Zagreb. 44 athletes (31 m, 13 F, age 16-35), 3 injury-defined groups: athletes with ACL rupture (non-reconstructed and reconstructed) and chondromalacia patellae. all subjects underwent isokinetic rehabilitation on Cybex Orthotron KT2 device, using individually designed protocols (extension and flexion exercises, concentric muscle contractions, 15 treatments). monitoring of daily progress on rehabilitation device and detailed testing on diagnostic device. All patients showed considerable improvement. Muscle strength improved on average 141% (SD=110) in ACL-reconstructed group, 144% (SD=130) for chondromalacia patellae group and 150% (SD=74) for ACL-non-reconstructed group, comparing to initial strength. Dynamic status tested on Cybex Otrhotron diagnostic device prior and after rehabilitation strongly correlated with final progress monitored on the rehabilitation device. Isokinetic rehabilitation is a quick and effective method in treating knee injuries in athletes. Both types of objective criteria have shown significant increase in muscle strength. The improvement of muscle strength was on the average 149% (SD=101), which is about 10% daily for 15 treatments. The greatest progress, 19% per day, occurred during first five days. The athletes were able to resume their sport activities as follows: patients from chondromalacia patellae group, and most of them from the non-reconstructed ACL group were back in competition within a month, while 75% from the ACL reconstructed group came back within 3 months, and the rest of them within 5 months.

  17. Isokinetic strength of shoulder internal and external rotators in cricket bowlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.M. Mabasa

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The strength of the shoulder internal and external rotators incricket bowlers, may not be sufficient to cope with the demands of bowling.As very little research has been done on cricketers, this study was done to establish the isokinetic strength profile of the shoulder internal andexternal rotators in cricket bowlers.Isokinetic, shoulder rotational strength was evaluated in thirty malecricket volunteers with a mean age of 23.9 years and mean body weight of 70.3 kgs. The Cybex 340 dynamometer multi joint system was used to collect data on shoulder rotation strength in a standing neutral position. Data were collected at four different speeds (60,90,180 and 300deg/sec and were computed for peak torque values for internal and external ratios for both dominant and non dominant shoulders.The results showed no statistically significant difference in the mean shoulder rotational torque between the bowlingand non-bowling shoulders for external rotation (p>0.05, and indicated statistically significant differences in themean shoulder rotational torque between the bowling and non-bowling shoulders for internal rotation (p<0.05. Therewas a significant decrease in isokinetic peak torque production for the external/internal rotator muscles as the speedof contraction increased (p<0.05. The peak torque ratio for the external/internal rotator muscles of the bowling armwere significantly less than of the non-bowling arm (p<0.05. These findings suggest that the strength ratios of thebowling arm need to be considered when managing young cricketers and their injuries.

  18. The Effects of Isokinetic Strength Training on Strength at Different Angular Velocities: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Kocahan

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: It was shown that angular velocity is important in isokinetic training, and that training at high angular velocities provides strength increases at lower angular velocities, but would not increase strength at angular velocities above the training level. For this reason, it is thought that in the preparation of an isokinetic strength training protocol, angular velocities need to be taken into account. For any athlete, the force at the angular velocity required in her/his sports branch needs to be considered.

  19. Validity of trunk extensor and flexor torque measurements using isokinetic dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Giroux, Caroline; Couturier, Antoine; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of trunk muscle strength testing performed with a latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer. Eccentric, isometric, and concentric peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles was measured in 15 healthy subjects. Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity were respectively correlated to peak torque and submaximal isometric torque for erector spinae and rectus abdominis muscles. Reliability of peak torque measurements was determined during test and retest sessions. Significant correlations were consistently observed between muscle CSA and peak torque for all contraction types (r=0.74-0.85; Ptorque (r ⩾ 0.99; Ptorque between test and retest ranged from -3.7% to 3.7% with no significant mean directional bias. Overall, our findings establish the validity of torque measurements using the tested trunk module. Also considering the excellent test-retest reliability of peak torque measurements, we conclude that this latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer could be used with confidence to evaluate trunk muscle function for clinical or athletic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training on functional parameters, gait, and the quality of life in patients with stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Büyükvural Şen, Sıdıka; Özbudak Demir, Sibel; Ekiz, Timur; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training applied to knee and ankle muscles on balance, functional parameters, gait, and the quality of in stroke patients. Methods: Fifty patients (33 M, 17 F) with subacute-chronic stroke and 30 healthy subjects were included. Stroke patients were allocated into isokinetic and control groups. Conventional rehabilitation program was applied to all cases; additionally maximal concentric isokinetic strengthening traini...

  1. The LISST-SL streamlined isokinetic suspended-sediment profiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John R.; Agrawal, Yogesh C.; Pottsmith, H. Charles

    2004-01-01

    The new manually deployed Laser In Situ Scattering Transmissometer-StreamLined profiler (LISST-SL) represents a major technological advance for suspended-sediment measurements in rivers. The LISST-SL is being designed to provide real-time data on sediment concentrations and particle-size distributions. A pressure sensor and current meter provide real-time depth and ambient velocity data, respectively. The velocity data are also used to control pumpage across an internal laser so that the intake velocity is constantly adjusted to match the ambient stream velocity. Such isokinetic withdrawal is necessary for obtaining representative sedimentary measurements in streamflow, and ensures compliance with established practices. The velocity and sediment-concentration data are used to compute fluxes for up to 32 particle-size classes at points, verticals, or in the entire stream cross section. All data are stored internally, as well as transmitted via a 2-wire conductor to the operator using a specially developed communication protocol. The LISST-SL's performance will be measured and compared to published sedimentological accuracy criteria, and a performance summary will be placed on-line.

  2. Isokinetic Extension Strength Is Associated With Single-Leg Vertical Jump Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Felix; Blank, Cornelia; Dünnwald, Tobias; Gföller, Peter; Herbst, Elmar; Hoser, Christian; Fink, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic strength testing is an important tool in the evaluation of the physical capacities of athletes as well as for decision making regarding return to sports after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in both athletes and the lay population. However, isokinetic testing is time consuming and requires special testing equipment. A single-jump test, regardless of leg dominance, may provide information regarding knee extension strength through the use of correlation analysis of jump height and peak torque of isokinetic muscle strength. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 169 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction were included in this study. Isokinetic testing was performed on the injured and noninjured legs. Additionally, a single-leg countermovement jump was performed to assess jump height using a jump accelerometer sensor. Extension strength values were used to assess the association between isokinetic muscle strength and jump height. The sample consisted of 60 female (mean age, 20.8 ± 8.3 years; mean weight, 61.7 ± 6.5 kg; mean height, 167.7 ± 5.3 cm) and 109 male (mean age, 23.2 ± 7.7 years; mean weight, 74.6 ± 10.2 kg; mean height, 179.9 ± 6.9 cm) patients. Bivariate correlation analysis showed an association ( r = 0.56, P jump height and isokinetic extension strength on the noninvolved side as well as an association ( r = 0.52, P jump height (beta = 0.49, P jump height having the strongest impact (beta = 0.49, P jump height. The study population encompassed various backgrounds, skill levels, and activity profiles, which might have affected the outcome. Even after controlling for age and sex, isokinetic strength was still moderately associated with jump height. Therefore, the jump technique and type of sport should be considered in future research.

  3. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance Tests used Pre- and Post-Spaceflight: Test-Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Loehr, James A.; Amonette, William E.

    2009-01-01

    To assess changes in muscular strength and endurance after microgravity exposure, NASA measures isokinetic strength and endurance across multiple sessions before and after long-duration space flight. Accurate interpretation of pre- and post-flight measures depends upon the reliability of each measure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the NASA International Space Station (ISS) isokinetic protocol. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 M/12 F, 32.0 +/- 5.6 years) volunteered to participate. Isokinetic knee, ankle, and trunk flexion and extension strength as well as endurance of the knee flexors and extensors were measured using a Cybex NORM isokinetic dynamometer. The first weekly session was considered a familiarization session. Data were collected and analyzed for weeks 2-4. Repeated measures analysis of variance (alpha=0.05) was used to identify weekly differences in isokinetic measures. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (3,1). No significant differences were found between weeks in any of the strength measures and the reliability of the strength measures were all considered excellent (ICC greater than 0.9), except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion (ICC=0.67). Although a significant difference was noted in weekly endurance measures of knee extension (p less than 0.01), the reliability of endurance measure by week were considered excellent for knee flexion (ICC=0.97) and knee extension (ICC=0.96). Except for concentric ankle dorsi-flexion, the isokinetic strength and endurance measures are highly reliable when following the NASA ISS protocol. This protocol should allow accurate interpretation isokinetic data even with a small number of crew members.

  4. Effect of isokinetic training on strength, functionality and proprioception in athletes with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekir, Ufuk; Yildiz, Yavuz; Hazneci, Bulent; Ors, Fatih; Aydin, Taner

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on strength, joint position sense and functionality in recreational athletes with functional ankle instability (FAI). Strength, proprioception and balance of 24 recreational athletes with unilateral FAI were evaluated by using isokinetic muscle strength measurement, ankle joint position sense and one leg standing test. The functional ability was evaluated using five different tests. These were; single limb hopping course (SLHC), one legged and triple legged hop for distance (OLHD-TLHD), and six and cross six meter hop for time (SMHT-CSMHT). Isokinetic peak torque of the ankle invertor and evertor muscles were assessed eccentrically and concentrically at test speeds of 120 degrees /s. Isokinetic exercise protocol was carried out at an angular velocity of 120 degrees /s. The exercise session was repeated three times a week and lasted after 6 weeks. At baseline, concentric invertor strength was found to be significantly lower in the functionally unstable ankles compared to the opposite healthy ankles (p 0.05). Ankle joint position sense in the injured ankles declined significantly from 2.35 +/- 1.16 to 1.33 +/- 0.62 degrees for 10 degrees of inversion angle (p isokinetic exercise. One leg standing test score decreased significantly from 15.17 +/- 8.50 to 11.79 +/- 7.81 in the injured ankles (p isokinetic exercise protocol, all of the worsened functional test scores in the injured ankles as compared to the opposite healthy ankles displayed a significant improvement (p isokinetic exercise program used in this study had a positive effect on these parameters.

  5. Interseason variability in isokinetic strength and poor correlation with Nordic hamstring eccentric strength in football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, N; Witvrouw, E; Bahr, R

    2018-04-25

    In elite sport, the use of strength testing to establish muscle function and performance is common. Traditionally, isokinetic strength tests have been used, measuring torque during concentric and eccentric muscle action. A device that measures eccentric hamstring muscle strength while performing the Nordic hamstring exercise is now also frequently used. The study aimed to investigate the variability of isokinetic muscle strength over time, for example, between seasons, and the relationship between isokinetic testing and the new Nordic hamstring exercise device. All teams (n = 18) eligible to compete in the premier football league in Qatar underwent a comprehensive strength assessment during their periodic health evaluation at Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital in Qatar. Isokinetic strength was investigated for measurement error, and correlated to Nordic hamstring exercise strength. Of the 529 players included, 288 players had repeated tests with 1/2 seasons between test occasions. Variability (measurement error) between test occasions was substantial, as demonstrated by the measurement error (approximately 25 Nm, 15%), whether separated by 1 or 2 seasons. Considering hamstring injuries, the same pattern was observed among injured (n = 60) and uninjured (n = 228) players. A poor correlation (r = .35) was observed between peak isokinetic hamstring eccentric torque and Nordic hamstring exercise peak force. The strength imbalance between limbs calculated for both test modes was not correlated (r = .037). There is substantial intraindividual variability in all isokinetic test measures, whether separated by 1 or 2 seasons, irrespective of injury. Also, eccentric hamstring strength and limb-to-limb imbalance were poorly correlated between the isokinetic and Nordic hamstring exercise tests. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Comparison of Isokinetic Knee Strength and Power Output Ratios Between Female Basketball and Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabaciński Jarosław

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Tests such as the counter movement jump (CMJ and squat jump (SJ allow for determining the ratio of maximal power output generated during SJ to CMJ (S/C. The isokinetic peak torque ratio of the hamstrings contracting eccentrically to the quadriceps contracting concentrically (H/Q is defined as functional H/Q. The purpose of this study was to compare the S/C and functional H/Q between female basketball and volleyball players. Methods. The total of 14 female basketball players (age, 19.8 ± 1.4 years and 12 female volleyball players (age, 22.3 ± 4.2 years participated in the study. A piezoelectric force platform was used for the CMJ and SJ. Moreover, isokinetic tests of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscle torque during eccentric and concentric contraction were performed. Results. The results of the S/C and functional H/Q at 90 deg · s-1/60 deg · s-1 velocities were higher in basketball players (87.3 ± 9.1% and 91.4 ± 9.3%, respectively than in volleyball players (83.1 ± 9.8% and 83.6 ± 16.5%, respectively. No significant differences in S/C or functional H/Q values between the two groups were found (p > 0.05. Conclusions. Decreasing the S/C may result from an improvement in the power output during CMJ and a better utilization of the stretch-shortening cycle effect. Balancing the functional H/Q through increasing the eccentric hamstrings strength can provide dynamic knee joint stabilization.

  7. Relation between isokinetic muscle strength and functional capacity in recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Y; Aydin, T; Sekir, U; Cetin, C; Ors, F; Alp Kalyon, T

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effects of isokinetic exercise on pain and functional test scores of recreational athletes with chondromalacia patellae (CMP) and to examine the correlation between isokinetic parameters and functional tests or pain score. The functional ability of 30 recreational athletes with unilateral CMP was evaluated using six different tests. Pain scores were assessed during daily activities before and after the treatment protocol. Isokinetic exercise sessions were carried out at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s (25-90 degrees range of flexion) and 180 degrees /s (full range). These sessions were repeated three times a week for six weeks. Quadriceps and hamstring peak torque, total work, and endurance ratios had improved significantly after the treatment, as did the functional parameters and pain scores. There was a poor correlation between the extensor endurance ratio and one leg standing test. A moderate correlation between the visual analogue scale and the extensor endurance ratio or flexion endurance ratio was also found. The isokinetic exercise programme used in this study had a positive effect on muscle strength, pain score, and functional ability of knees with CMP. The improvement in the functional capacity did not correlate with the isokinetic parameters.

  8. Effects of Motor Learning on Clinical Isokinetic Test Performance in Knee Osteoarthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Messias Rodrigues-da-Silva

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze the effects of motor learning on knee extension-flexion isokinetic performance in knee osteoarthritis patients. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-six middle-aged and older sedentary individuals (111 women, 64.3±9.9 years with knee osteoarthritis (130 patients with bilateral and who had never performed isokinetic testing underwent two bilateral knee extension-flexion (concentric-concentric isokinetic evaluations (5 repetitions at 60°/sec. The tests were first performed on the dominant leg with 2 min of recovery between test, and following a standardized warm-up that included 3 submaximal isokinetic repetitions. The same procedure was repeated on the non-dominant leg. The peak torque, peak torque adjusted for the body weight, total work, coefficient of variation and agonist/antagonist ratio were compared between tests. RESULTS: Patients showed significant improvements in test 2 compared to test 1, including higher levels of peak torque, peak torque adjusted for body weight and total work, as well as lower coefficients of variation. The agonist/antagonist relationship did not significantly change between tests. No significant differences were found between the right and left legs for all variables. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that performing two tests with a short recovery (2 min between them could be used to reduce motor learning effects on clinical isokinetic testing of the knee joint in knee osteoarthritis patients.

  9. Efficacy of isokinetic exercise on functional capacity and pain in patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaca, Ridvan; Yilmaz, Bilge; Goktepe, A Salim; Mohur, Haydar; Kalyon, Tunc Alp

    2002-11-01

    To assess the effect of an isokinetic exercise program on symptoms and functions of patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A total of 22 consecutive patients with the complaint of anterior knee pain who met the inclusion criteria were recruited to assess the efficacy of isokinetic exercise on functional capacity, isokinetic parameters, and pain scores in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome. A total of 37 knees were examined. Six-meter hopping, three-step hopping, and single-limb hopping course tests were performed for each patient with the measurements of the Lysholm scale and visual analog scale. Tested parameters were peak torque, total work, average power, and endurance ratios. Statistical analyses revealed that at the end of the 6-wk treatment period, functional and isokinetic parameters improved significantly, as did pain scores. There was not statistically significant correlation between different groups of parameters. The isokinetic exercise treatment program used in this study prevented the extensor power loss due to patellofemoral pain syndrome, but the improvement in the functional capacity was not correlated with the gained power.

  10. Tennis players show a lower coactivation of the elbow antagonist muscles during isokinetic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzucchi, Ilenia; Riccio, Maria Elena; Felici, Francesco

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have suggested that muscle coactivation could be reduced by a recurrent activity (training, daily activities). If this was correct, skilled athletes should show a specific muscle activation pattern with a low level of coactivation of muscles which are typically involved in their discipline. In particular, the aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that the amount of antagonist activation of biceps brachii (BB) and triceps brachii (TB) is different between tennis players and non-players individuals during maximal isokinetic contractions. Ten young healthy men and eight male tennis players participated in the study. The surface electromyographic signals (sEMG) were recorded from the BB and TB muscles during three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of elbow flexors and extensors and a set of three maximal elbow flexions and extensions at 15 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , 120 degrees , 180 degrees and 240 degrees /s. Normalized root mean square (RMS) of sEMG was calculated as an index of sEMG amplitude. Antagonist activation (%RMSmax) of TB was significantly lower in tennis players (from 14.0+/-7.9% at MVC to 16.3+/-8.9% at 240 degrees /s) with respect to non-players (from 27.7+/-19.7% at MVC to 38.7+/-17.6% at 240 degrees /s) at all angular velocities. Contrary to non-players, tennis players did not show any difference in antagonist activation between BB and TB muscles. Tennis players, with a constant practice in controlling forces around the elbow joint, learn how to reduce coactivation of muscles involved in the control of this joint. This has been shown by the lower antagonist muscular activity of triceps brachii muscle during isokinetic elbow flexion found in tennis players with respect to non-players.

  11. Reliability of Concentric, Eccentric and Isometric Knee Extension and Flexion when using the REV9000 Isokinetic Dynamometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Carvalho Froufe Andrade, Alberto César Pereira; Caserotti, Paolo; de Carvalho, Carlos Manuel Pereira

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of isokinetic and ISO knee extensor and flexor muscle strength when using the REV9000 (Technogym) isokinetic dynamometer. Moreover, the reliability of several strength imbalance indices and bilateral ratios were also examined. Twenty-four physic...

  12. Effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training on functional parameters, gait, and the quality of life in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükvural Şen, Sıdıka; Özbudak Demir, Sibel; Ekiz, Timur; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the bilateral isokinetic strengthening training applied to knee and ankle muscles on balance, functional parameters, gait, and the quality of in stroke patients. Fifty patients (33 M, 17 F) with subacute-chronic stroke and 30 healthy subjects were included. Stroke patients were allocated into isokinetic and control groups. Conventional rehabilitation program was applied to all cases; additionally maximal concentric isokinetic strengthening training was applied to the knee-ankle muscles bilaterally to the isokinetic group 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Biodex System 3 Pro Multijoint System isokinetic dynamometer was used for isokinetic evaluation. The groups were assessed by Functional Independence Measure, Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale, Timed 10-Meter Walk Test, Six-Minute Walk Test, Stair-Climbing Test, Timed up&go Test, Berg Balance Scale, and Rivermead Mobility Index. Compared with baseline, the isokinetic PT values of the knee and ankle on both sides significantly increased in all cases. PT change values were significantly higher in the isokinetic group than the control group (Pisokinetic group (Pisokinetic strengthening training in addition to conventional rehabilitation program after stroke seems to be effective on strengthening muscles on both sides, improving functional parameters, gait, balance and life quality.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF ISOKINETIC KNEE STRENGTH ON THE PROMPTNESS OF SOCCER PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Kerim Yilmaz; Menderes Kabadayi; Muhammet Hakan Mayda; Murşit Ceyhun Birinci; Mustafa Özdal

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of isokinetic knee strength on promptness. 15 soccer players with an average age of 22,80±2,14 years and 15 controls with an average age of 21,60±1,40 years participated in the study. Body composition, isokinetic knee strength measurement at angular speeds of 60o, 180o, 240o and 10 m sprint test were conducted respectively in the study. General warm-up procedure was carried out on the groups before measurements. In statistical analyses, Shap...

  14. [Progress in isokinetic technology in testing and training for assessment of muscle function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Ting; Fan, Li-Hua; Gao, Dong; Xia, Qing; Zhang, Min

    2013-02-01

    Isokinetic technology in testing and training is the most advanced practical technique in the evaluation of muscle function. This method is a continuous dynamic test in the full range of the joint motion which has strong pertinence at the aspect of assessing muscle strength, and is an objective and quantitative method for reflecting each point's muscle strength in the range of the joint motion. This article reviews the key concepts, brief history of development and influencing factors of isokinetic technology in testing and training, introduces the progress in the field of rehabilitation medicine and sport science, etc., and discusses the future exploration in forensic science.

  15. A Comparison of Isotonic, Isokinetic, and Plyometric Training Methods for Vertical Jump Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christine D.

    This annotated bibliography documents three training methods used to develop vertical jumping ability and power: isotonic, isokinetics, and plyometric training. Research findings on all three forms of training are summarized and compared. A synthesis of conclusions drawn from the annotated writings is presented. The report includes a glossary of…

  16. Use of isokinetic muscle strength as a measure of severity of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Lyngberg, K; Keiding, N

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the association between isokinetic muscle strength (IMS) and other clinical indicators of disability and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cohort of 36 RA patients was followed over a 1-year period with five measurements of disease...

  17. Relative differences in strength and power from slow to fast isokinetic velocities may reflect dynapenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Palmer, Ty B; Cochrane, Kristen C; Bergstrom, Haley C; Johnson, Glen O; Schmidt, Richard J; Cramer, Joel T

    2015-07-01

    We compared absolute and normalized values for peak torque (PT), mean power (MP), rate of velocity development, and electromyography (EMG) amplitude during maximal isometric and concentric isokinetic leg extension muscle actions, as well as the %decrease in PT and %increase in MP from 1.05 to 3.14 rad·s(-1) in younger versus older men. Measurements were performed twice for reliability. Isokinetic measurements were normalized to the isometric muscle actions. Absolute isometric PT, isokinetic PT and MP, and EMG amplitudes at 1.05 and 3.14 rad·s(-1) were greater in the younger men, although normalizing to isometric PT eliminated the age differences. The older men exhibited greater %decrease in PT (37.2% vs. 31.3%) and lower %increase in MP (87.6% vs. 126.4%) regardless of normalization. Normalization eliminated absolute differences in isokinetic strength and power, but the relative differences from slow to fast velocities may reflect dynapenia characterized by age-related decreases in fast-twitch fiber function. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Identification of cardiac repercussions after intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise in young sedentary people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Caroline; Kaux, Jean-François; Couffignal, Vincent; Coubard, Romain; Mélon, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Cardiopathies are the world's leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Although rare, cardiovascular accidents can occur during intense and infrequent sporting activity, particularly among those who are unaware of their heart condition. The development of cardiospecific biochemical markers has led to a reconsideration of the role of biology in the diagnosis of cardiovascular illnesses. The aim of this study therefore was, through the use of cardiac biomarker assays, to highlight the impact of sustained physical effort in the form of intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise and to research potential cardiovascular risks. Eighteen subjects participated in a maximal concentric isokinetic exercise involving 30 knee flexion-extensions for each leg. Five blood tests were taken to study the kinetics of the cardiac biomarkers. Haemodynamic parameters were measured continuously using a Portapres, and respiratory parameters were measured using a Sensormedics Vmax 29C. The results showed significant increases in the creatine kinase, myoglobin, homocysteine and haemoglobin cardiac markers. Evolutionary trends were also observed for the following biomarkers: NT-proBNP, myeloperoxydase and C-reactive protein. All the physiological parameters measured presented statistically significant changes. Isokinetic effort leads to the release of cardiac markers in the blood, but these do not exceed the reference values in healthy subjects. Maximal concentric isokinetic exercise does not, therefore, lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Assessment of isokinetic knee strength in elite young female basketball players: correlation with vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouis, M; Coudrat, L; Jaafar, H; Filliard, J-R; Vandewalle, H; Barthelemy, Y; Driss, T

    2015-12-01

    To explore the isokinetic concentric strength of the knee muscle groups, and the relationship between the isokinetic knee extensors strength and the vertical jump performance in young elite female basketball players. Eighteen elite female basketball players performed a countermovement jump, and an isokinetic knee test using a Biodex dynamometer. The maximal isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscles was recorded at four angular velocities (90°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s and 300°/s) for the dominant and non-dominant legs. The conventional hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q) was assessed at each angular velocity for both legs. There was no significant difference between dominant and non-dominant leg whatever the angular velocity (all P>0.05). However, the H/Q ratio enhanced as the velocity increased from 180°/s to 300°/s (Pvertical jump height. The highest one was found for the knee extensors peak torque at a velocity of 240°/s (r=0.88, Pvertical jump height. Interestingly, the H/Q ratio of the young elite female basketball players in the present study was unusual as it was close to that generally observed in regular sportsmen.

  20. Isokinetic trunk muscle performance in pre-teens and teens with and without back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J-C; Boudokhane, S; Pujol, A; Chaléat-Valayer, E; Le Blay, G; Deceuninck, J

    2014-02-01

    To assess with an isokinetic dynamometer the force and endurance of the spinal flexor and extensor muscles in pre-teens or teens aged 11 to 13 and 14 to 16 years with and without low back pain (LBP). The control group and the LBP group were homogeneous in terms of age, weight, height and Body Mass Index (BMI). Assessment was carried out with the isokinetic dynamometer Cybex Norm®. The spinal flexors and extensors were explored concentrically at speeds of 60°, 90° and 120°/sec. The parameters chosen were: maximal moment of force (MMF), mean power (MP), total work (TW), F/E ratios (between the flexors and the extensors for the aforesaid parameters). In the LBP groups, clinical information (pain, extensibility of the spinal and sub-pelvic muscles, sports practice) and sagittal radiological data were all measured. While no significant difference in isokinetic performance was found between asymptomatic and LBP children in the 11-to-13-year-old group, the isokinetic performances of the LBP children were influenced positively by BMI value, number of hours of physical activity and radiologic value of the lumbar lordosis. As regards these pre-teens, assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer does not highlight muscle characteristics that might explain LBP occurrence. As regards the 14-to-16-year-old group, muscle strength has been found to be correlated with age. LBP teens were showed to have weaker extensors and stronger flexors than the healthy teens. It is with regard to this age group that assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer clearly yields interesting results. Since we have yet to standardize our evaluation criteria (working speed, number of trials…), it is difficult to compare our results with those reported in the literature. This is a preliminary study involving a relatively low number of patients. That said, given the fact that numerous parameters are connected with the age and height of the subjects, assessment with an isokinetic dynamometer can be

  1. Myocellular enzyme leakage, polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation and delayed onset muscle soreness induced by isokinetic eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisier, J L; Camus, G; Deby-Dupont, G; Bertrand, F; Lhermerout, C; Crielaard, J M; Juchmès-Ferir, A; Deby, C; Albert, A; Lamy, M

    1996-01-01

    To address the question of whether delayed onset muscular soreness (DOMS) following intense eccentric muscle contraction could be due to increased production of the arachidonic acid derived product prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). 10 healthy male subjects were submitted to eccentric and concentric isokinetic exercises on a Kin Trex device at 60 degrees/s angular velocity. Exercise consisted of 8 stages of 5 maximal contractions of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups of both legs separated by 1 min rest phases. There was an interval of at least 30 days between eccentric and concentric testing, and the order of the two exercise sessions was randomly assigned. The subjective presence and intensity of DOMS was evaluated using a visual analogue scale, immediately, following 24 h and 48 h after each test. Five blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein: at rest before exercise, immediately after, after 30 min recovery, 24 h and 48 h after the tests. The magnitude of the acute inflammatory response to exercise was assessed by measuring plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase ([EL]), myeloperoxidase ([MPO]) and PGE2 ([PGE2]). Using two way analysis of variance, it appeared that only eccentric exercise significantly increased [EL] and DOMS, especially of the hamstring muscles. Furthermore, a significant decrease in eccentric peak torque of this muscle group only was observed on day 2 after eccentric work (- 21%; P < 0.002). Serum activity of creatine kinase and serum concentration of myoglobin increased significantly 24 and 48 h after both exercise tests. However, these variables reached significantly higher values following eccentric contractions 48 h after exercise. Mean [PGE2] in the two exercise modes remained unchanged over time and were practically equal at each time point. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that the magnitude of polymorphonuclear (PMN) activation, muscle damage, and DOMS are greater after eccentric than after concentric muscle

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOKINETIC KNEE STRENGTH AND JUMP CHARACTERISTICS FOLLOWING ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudner, Kevin; Evans, Daniel; Wong, Regan; Allen, Aaron; Kirsch, Tom; Long, Brian; Meister, Keith

    2015-06-01

    Clinicians are often challenged when making return-to-play decisions following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R). Isokinetic strength and jump performance testing are common tools used to make this decision. Unfortunately, vertical jump performance standards have not been clearly established and many clinicians do not have access to isokinetic testing equipment. To establish normative jump and strength characteristics in ACL-R patients cleared by an orthopedic physician to return-to-play and to determine if relationships exist between knee isokinetic strength measurements and jump characteristics described using an electronic jump map system. Descriptive laboratory study. Thirty-three ACL-R patients who had been cleared to return to athletic competition participated in this study. Twenty-six of these ACL-R participants were also matched to 26 asymptomatic athletes based on sex, limb, height, and mass to determine isokinetic strength and jump characteristic differences between groups. Jump tests consisted of single leg vertical, double leg vertical, and a 4-jump single leg vertical jump assessed using an electronic jump mat system. Independent t-tests were used to determine differences between groups and multiple regression analyses were used to identify any relationships between jump performance and knee strength (pjump capabilities and some bilateral knee strength deficiencies compared to the matched control group. The ACL-R group also showed several moderate-to-strong positive relationships for both knee extension and flexion strength with several jump performance characteristics, such as single and double leg vertical jump height. The current results indicate that ACL-R patients present with several knee strength and vertical jump differences compared to a matched control group at the time of return-to-play. Also, ACL-R patient's performance on an electronic jump mat system is strongly related to isokinetic knee strength measures. 2b.

  3. The isokinetic strength profile of elite soccer players according to playing position.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Śliwowski

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare isokinetic strength performance profiles in elite soccer players across different field positions. A total of 111 elite international players of Polish Ekstraklasa (the top division in Poland were examined during the 2010-2015 seasons. The players were classified into six positional roles: central defenders (CD, external defenders (ED, central midfielders (CM, external midfielders (EM, forwards (F, and goalkeepers (G. The concentric isokinetic strength (peak torque [PT] of quadriceps and hamstrings, H/Q ratios was calculated for the dominant leg and the non-dominant leg at angular velocity of 1.05 rad ·s-1, whereas to assess isokinetic muscle endurance, the total work [TW] at angular velocity of 4.19 rad ·s-1, was taken into consideration. The results showed that isokinetic strength performance varies significantly among players in different playing positions. The analysis of PT for quadriceps (PT-Q and hamstrings (PT-H generally showed that the goalkeepers and central midfielders had lower strength levels compared to other playing positions. In the case of PT-H and hamstring/quadricep (H/Q peak torque ratios, statistically significant differences were also noted for the legs, where mean values noted for the dominant leg were higher than for the non-dominant leg. For TW for quadriceps (TW-Q and hamstrings (TW-H, statistically significant differences were noted only between playing positions. TW-Q values for goalkeepers were lower than for central defenders and external midfielders. TW-H values for goalkeepers were lower than for central midfielders, central defenders and external midfielders. This study showed that specific functional activity of players in individual positions on the field influences the varied profile of isokinetic strength performance.

  4. Validity and reliability of isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial modalities for the assessment of quadriceps muscle strength in patients with total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienhard, K; Lauermann, S P; Schneider, D; Item-Glatthorn, J F; Casartelli, N C; Maffiuletti, N A

    2013-12-01

    Reliability of isometric, isokinetic and isoinertial modalities for quadriceps strength evaluation, and the relation between quadriceps strength and physical function was investigated in 29 total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients, with an average age of 63 years. Isometric maximal voluntary contraction torque, isokinetic peak torque, and isoinertial one-repetition maximum load of the involved and uninvolved quadriceps were evaluated as well as objective (walking parameters) and subjective physical function (WOMAC). Reliability was good and comparable for the isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial strength outcomes on both sides (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.947-0.966; standard error of measurement range: 5.1-9.3%). Involved quadriceps strength was significantly correlated to walking speed (r range: 0.641-0.710), step length (r range: 0.685-0.820) and WOMAC function (r range: 0.575-0.663), independent from the modality (P strength was also significantly correlated to walking speed (r range: 0.413-0.539), step length (r range: 0.514-0.608) and WOMAC function (r range: 0.374-0.554) (P 0.05). In conclusion, isometric, isokinetic, and isoinertial modalities ensure valid and reliable assessment of quadriceps muscle strength in TKA patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isometric and isokinetic muscle strength in patients with fibrositis syndrome. New characteristics for a difficult definable category of patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1987-01-01

    A common complaint among patients with fibrositis syndrome is exhaustion and fatique. It was therefore felt desirable to evaluate the muscle strength of these patients compared with normal subjects. Maximum isometric and isokinetic strength of knee extension was measured in 15 patients and 15...... healthy matched subjects, using an isokinetic dynamometer (Cybex II). Maximum isometric strength at various knee extension angles (90 degrees, 60 degrees and 30 degrees degrees) was significantly (p less than 0.001) lower in the fibrositis group than in controls, a reduction of approximately 58......-66%. Maximum isokinetic strength at various knee extension velocities (30-240 degrees per second) was also significantly (p less than 0.01) lower in the fibrositis group than in controls, the reduction being approximately 41-51%. In conclusion, isometric and isokinetic muscle strength is found to be lower...

  6. Effect of eccentric isokinetic strengthening in the rehabilitation of patients with knee osteoarthritis: Isogo, a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Femorotibial knee osteoarthritis is associated with muscle weakness in the lower limbs, particularly in the quadriceps, which results in disease progression. The interest of having muscular strengthening as part of the therapeutic arsenal for the medical treatment of knee osteoarthritis is now well established. The functional disability induced by knee osteoarthritis manifests itself principally when walking, notably downhill, during which the muscles are called upon to contract eccentrically. We can therefore think that eccentric muscular strengthening could bring a functional benefit that is superior to concentric muscular strengthening. Methods/Design This is a prospective, randomized, bicenter, parallel-group, international study. Eighty patients aged from 40 to 75 years old, suffering from medical-stage knee osteoarthritis, will undertake 6 weeks of isokinetic muscular strengthening. Randomization determines the mode of muscular strengthening: either exclusively eccentric or exclusively concentric. The principal objective is to demonstrate the superiority of the improvement in the quadriceps isokinetic torque after isokinetic muscular strengthening by the eccentric mode compared to the concentric mode. The following parameters are also evaluated: the variations in the level of pain, the parameters of walking (maximum speed over 10 and 200 meters, analysis on a computerized Gaitrite™ treadmill), static equilibrium (on a FUSYO™ force platform), and the functional status of the patient using the Western Ontario and MacMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) questionnaire after the strengthening period and at 6 months. Discussion A better knowledge of the most effective mode of muscular strengthening is needed to optimize the functional benefits to the patients. In case of superiority in terms of efficacy of the eccentric mode, the latter could be given priority in the rehabilitation treatment of knee osteoarthritis patients. Trial

  7. Experimental verification of air flow rate measurement for representative isokinetic air sampling in ventilation stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okruhlica, P.; Mrtvy, M.; Kopecky, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear facilities are obliged to monitor their discharge's influence on environment. Main monitored factions in NPP's ventilation stacks are usually noble gasses, particulates and iodine. These factions are monitored in air sampled from ventilation stack by means of sampling rosette and bypass followed with on-line measuring monitors and balance sampling devices with laboratory evaluations. Correct air flow rate measurement and representative iso-kinetic air sampling system is essential for physical correct and metrological accurate evaluation of discharge influence on environment. Pairs of measuring sensors (Anemometer, pressure gauge, thermometer and humidity meter) are symmetrically placed in horizontal projection of stack on positions based on measured air flow velocity distribution characteristic, Analogically diameter of sampling rosette nozzles and their placement in the middle of 6 - 7 annuluses are calculated for assurance of representative iso-kinetic sampling. (authors)

  8. Experimental verification of air flow rate measurement for representative isokinetic air sampling in ventilation stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okruhlica, P.; Mrtvy, M.; Kopecky, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear facilities are obliged to monitor their discharge's influence on environment. Main monitored factions in NPP's ventilation stacks are usually noble gasses, particulates and iodine. These factions are monitored in air sampled from ventilation stack by means of sampling rosette and bypass followed with on-line measuring monitors and balance sampling devices with laboratory evaluations. Correct air flow rate measurement and representative iso-kinetic air sampling system is essential for physical correct and metrological accurate evaluation of discharge influence on environment. Pairs of measuring sensors (Anemometer, pressure gauge, thermometer and humidity meter) are symmetrically placed in horizontal projection of stack on positions based on measured air flow velocity distribution characteristic, Analogically diameter of sampling rosette nozzles and their placement in the middle of 6- 7 annuluses are calculated for assurance of representative iso-kinetic sampling. (authors)

  9. Association with isokinetic ankle strength measurements and normal clinical muscle testing in sciatica patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustun, N; Erol, O; Ozcakar, L; Ceceli, E; Ciner, O Akar; Yorgancioglu, Z R

    2013-01-01

    Sensitive muscle strength tests are needed to measure muscle strength in the diagnosis and management of sciatica patients. The aim of this study was to assess the isokinetic muscle strength in sciatica patients' and control subjects' ankles that exhibited normal ankle muscle strength when measured clinically. Forty-six patients with L5 and/or S1 nerve compression, and whose age, sex, weight, and height matched 36 healthy volunteers, were recruited to the study. Heel-walking, toe-walking, and manual muscle testing were used to perform ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion strengths in clinical examination. Patients with normal ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion strengths assessed by manual muscle testing and heel-and toe-walking tests were included in the study. Bilateral isokinetic (concentric/concentric) ankle plantar-flexion-dorsiflexion measurements of the patients and controls were performed within the protocol of 30°/sec (5 repetitions). Peak torque and peak torque/body weight were obtained for each ankle motion of the involved limb at 30°/s speed. L5 and/or S1 nerve compression was evident in 46 patients (76 injured limbs). Mean disease duration was two years. The plantar flexion muscle strength of the patients was found to be lower than that of the controls (p=0.036). The dorsiflexion muscle strength of the patients was found to be the same as that of the controls (p=0.211). Isokinetic testing is superior to clinical muscle testing when evaluating ankle plantar flexion torque in sciatica patients. Therefore, isokinetic muscle testing may be helpful when deciding whether to place a patient into a focused rehabilitation program.

  10. Isokinetic strength testing does not predict hamstring injury in Australian Rules footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Bennell, K.; Wajswelner, H.; Lew, P.; Schall-Riaucour, A.; Leslie, S.; Plant, D.; Cirone, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relation of hamstring and quadriceps muscle strength and imbalance to hamstring injury using a prospective observational cohort study METHOD: A total of 102 senior male Australian Rules footballers aged 22.2 (3.6) years were tested at the start of a football season. Maximum voluntary concentric and eccentric torque of the hamstring and quadriceps muscles of both legs was assessed using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer at angular velocities of 60 and 180 degre...

  11. Isokinetic and isometric strength in osteoarthrosis of the knee. A comparative study with healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J; Balci, N; Sepici, V; Gener, F A

    1995-01-01

    Dynamic stability of the knee joint depends on the appropriate strength ratio of quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the maximum peak torque (MPT) and MPT ratios of hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q) muscles in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Two groups of patients were included in the study. The first group consisted of 30 patients (Group A) with the clinical and radiologic findings of knee OA. The second group consisted of 30 patients (Group B) exhibiting knee joint pain without roentgenologic findings of knee OA. The findings of two patient groups were compared with each other and also with 30 healthy subjects (Group C). Isokinetic (at 60 degrees/s and at 180 degrees/s) and isometric (at 30 degrees and at 60 degrees of knee flexion) tests were performed by the rate-limiting isokinetic dynamometer system. Isokinetic and isometric MPT loss of knee flexors and extensors was found in both patient groups with respect to controls, but MPT ratios of H/Q muscles did not show a statistically significant difference compared with the control group. This may be related to the equal strength loss of knee flexors and knee extensors in patients with knee OA. It is concluded that strengthening exercises of hamstring muscles is as important as quadriceps strengthening in rehabilitation of knee OA.

  12. Results and Conclusions from the NASA Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe 2009 IRT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reehorst, Andrew; Brinker, David

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has developed and tested a Total Water Content Isokinetic Sampling Probe. Since, by its nature, it is not sensitive to cloud water particle phase nor size, it is particularly attractive to support super-cooled large droplet and high ice water content aircraft icing studies. The instrument comprises the Sampling Probe, Sample Flow Control, and Water Vapor Measurement subsystems. Results and conclusions are presented from probe tests in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) during January and February 2009. The use of reference probe heat and the control of air pressure in the water vapor measurement subsystem are discussed. Several run-time error sources were found to produce identifiable signatures that are presented and discussed. Some of the differences between measured Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe and IRT calibration seems to be caused by tunnel humidification and moisture/ice crystal blow around. Droplet size, airspeed, and liquid water content effects also appear to be present in the IRT calibration. Based upon test results, the authors provide recommendations for future Isokinetic Total Water Content Probe development.

  13. Isokinetic analysis of ankle and ground reaction forces in runners and triathletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Mariana Silva Luna

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare the vertical component of ground reaction forces and isokinetic muscle parameters for plantar flexion and dorsiflexion of the ankle between long-distance runners, triathletes, and nonathletes. METHODS: Seventy-five males with a mean age of 30.26 (±6.5 years were divided into three groups: a triathlete group (n=26, a long-distance runner group (n = 23, and a non-athlete control group. The kinetic parameters were measured during running using a force platform, and the isokinetic parameters were measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The non-athlete control group and the triathlete group exhibited smaller vertical forces, a greater ground contact time, and a greater application of force during maximum vertical acceleration than the long-distance runner group. The total work (180º/s was greater in eccentric dorsiflexion and concentric plantar flexion for the non-athlete control group and the triathlete group than the long-distance runner group. The peak torque (60º/s was greater in eccentric plantar flexion and concentric dorsiflexion for the control group than the athlete groups. CONCLUSIONS: The athlete groups exhibited less muscle strength and resistance than the control group, and the triathletes exhibited less impact and better endurance performance than the runners.

  14. Thoracic posture, shoulder muscle activation patterns and isokinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor posture, scapular dyskinesia, altered scapular muscle recruitment patterns and ... postural deviation and incorrect shoulder kinematics.[5]. Knowledge of the .... the contra-lateral hand was placed as far down the spinal column as possible, and the ... produced by muscle contraction for rotation around a joint.[12] During.

  15. Shoulder isokinetic profile of male handball players of the Brazilian National Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marília S.; Vancini, Rodrigo L.; de Lira, Claudio A. B.; Mascarin, Naryana C.; Fachina, Rafael J. F. G.; da Silva, Antonio C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data obtained on an isokinetic dynamometer are useful to characterize muscle status and have been reported in muscle imbalance studies in different types of sport. However, few studies have assessed elite handball players to establish reference values. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare, for the dominant (D) and non-dominant (ND) side, the isokinetic profile of shoulder rotator muscle strength between male handball players (H) and asymptomatic non-athletes (NA). Method Isokinetic concentric and eccentric strength tests for D upper limbs were performed by the H group (n=20) and the NA group (n=12). Internal and external rotator muscle peak torque in concentric action was assessed at 60°/s and 300°/s and in eccentric action at 300°/s. We also calculated conventional balance (the ratio of external rotator peak torque to internal rotator peak torque in concentric action) and functional balance (the ratio of external rotator peak torque in eccentric action to internal rotator peak torque in concentric action). Results In the H group, dominant limbs were stronger in concentric action for external rotation at 60 and 300°/s. The conventional balance ratio for the D side was significantly lower at 60 and 300°/s for H compared to NA. The functional ratio for the D side was significantly lower at 300º/s for H compared to NA. Conclusions Compared to asymptomatic non-athletes, handball players presented significant muscular imbalance resulting from daily sports practice, a known risk factor for shoulder injuries. PMID:24271090

  16. Determination of concentric and eccentric peak moment values for trunk flexion and extension in sedentary asymptomatic individuals by isokinetic dynamometry: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaella Stradiotto Bernardelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spine has a direct influence on postural alignment and movement of the whole body. Lumbar muscles constitute a critical element in trunk performance while weakness of these muscles has been associated with low back pain. Hence, strength profiling of trunk muscles is clinically significant. The objective of this research was to determine, by means of isokinetic dynamometry, peak moment (PM values during isokinetic concentric and eccentric efforts of trunk flexion and extension in sedentary asymptomatic individuals. The sample consisted of 100 asymptomatic sedentary volunteers, fifty from each sex, aging 22.2 ± 3.3 years old. The sample underwent concentric and eccentric isokinetic assessment of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles at an angular velocity of 60 degrees/sec for each mode of contraction. The mean concentric PM for trunk flexion and extension were 139.5 and 166.6 Nm, respectively, while the respective values for the eccentric efforts were 188.8 and 221.2 Nm. The PM flexion/extension ratio was 0.87 and 0.89 for the concentric and eccentric efforts, respectively. These values of concentric and eccentric PM and PM ratio will serve as comparison parameters for future research, as well as for the assessment of symptomatic patients, and to help in the creation of the trunk muscle rebalance protocols.

  17. Isokinetic strength effects of FIFA'a "The 11+" injury prevention training programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brito, João; Figueiredo, Pedro; Fernandes, Luís

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) injury prevention programme, "The 11+", improves isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in sub-elite soccer players. Twenty players aged 22.3 ± 4.2 yr performed "The 11+" 3...... significantly improved the conventional H/Q ratio at 60°/s by 14.8{\\%} and the DCR by 13.8% in the non-dominant limb (pknee joint....

  18. Isokinetic muscle performance of the hip and ankle muscles in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetişgin, Alparslan; Tiftik, Tülay; Kara, Murat; Karabay, İlkay; Akkuş, Selami; Ersöz, Murat

    2016-06-01

    To compare isokinetic muscle performances of a proximal (hip) and a distal (ankle) muscle of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients with those of age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy subjects. Thirty female patients with FMS (mean age: 41.5 ± 6.7 years [range, 27-54]) and 30 age- (mean age: 40.6 ± 6.0 years [range, 27-54]) and BMI-matched female healthy controls were consecutively enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the subjects were recorded. Isokinetic measurements of hip and ankle flexion and extension at angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s, peak torques, flexor-extensor torque ratios, muscle fatigue resistance values and average power were obtained. Mean disease duration of FMS patients was 2.4 ± 1.9 years. Mean weight, height and BMI values were 70.4 ± 12.5 kg, 159.5 ± 6.0 cm and 27.7 ± 4.7 kg/m² (FMS patients) and 69.3 ± 10.1 kg, 161.7 ± 6.2 cm and 26.6 ± 4.3 kg/m² (control subjects), respectively (all P > 0.05). All isokinetic values were statistically decreased in the FMS group when compared with the control group, except for the peak torques at angular velocity of 180°/s on flexion of the hip and extension of the ankle and the total work and average power on extension of the ankle. We did not find any correlation between isokinetic values and disease related parameters of FMS patients. In the light of our results, we may conclude that muscle strength and muscle fatigue seem to decrease in FMS patients' both proximal and distal lower extremity muscles. © 2013 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Isokinetic knee strength qualities as predictors of jumping performance in high-level volleyball athletes: multiple regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Spasic, Miodrag; Osmankac, Nedzad; Vicente João, Paulo; Dervisevic, Edvin; Hadzic, Vedran

    2016-01-01

    Previous investigations noted potential importance of isokinetic strength in rapid muscular performances, such as jumping. This study aimed to identify the influence of isokinetic-knee-strength on specific jumping performance in volleyball. The secondary aim of the study was to evaluate reliability and validity of the two volleyball-specific jumping tests. The sample comprised 67 female (21.96±3.79 years; 68.26±8.52 kg; 174.43±6.85 cm) and 99 male (23.62±5.27 years; 84.83±10.37 kg; 189.01±7.21 cm) high- volleyball players who competed in 1st and 2nd National Division. Subjects were randomly divided into validation (N.=55 and 33 for males and females, respectively) and cross-validation subsamples (N.=54 and 34 for males and females, respectively). Set of predictors included isokinetic tests, to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors, and flexors for dominant and non-dominant leg. The main outcome measure for the isokinetic testing was peak torque (PT) which was later normalized for body mass and expressed as PT/Kg. Block-jump and spike-jump performances were measured over three trials, and observed as criteria. Forward stepwise multiple regressions were calculated for validation subsamples and then cross-validated. Cross validation included correlations between and t-test differences between observed and predicted scores; and Bland Altman graphics. Jumping tests were found to be reliable (spike jump: ICC of 0.79 and 0.86; block-jump: ICC of 0.86 and 0.90; for males and females, respectively), and their validity was confirmed by significant t-test differences between 1st vs. 2nd division players. Isokinetic variables were found to be significant predictors of jumping performance in females, but not among males. In females, the isokinetic-knee measures were shown to be stronger and more valid predictors of the block-jump (42% and 64% of the explained variance for validation and cross-validation subsample, respectively

  20. Comparison of isokinetic muscle strength and muscle power by types of warm-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Young-Je; Byun, Yong-Hyun; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of static stretching at warm-up on the isokinetic muscle torque (at 60°/sec) and muscle power (at 180°/sec) of the flexor muscle and extensor muscle of the knee joint. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 10 healthy students with no medically specific findings. The warm-up group and warm-up with stretching group performed their respective warm-up prior to the isokinetic muscle torque evaluation of the knee joint. One-way ANOVA was performed by randomized block design for each variable. [Results] The results were as follows: First, the flexor peak torque and extensor peak torque of the knee joint tended to decrease at 60°/sec in the warm-up with stretching group compared with the control group and warm-up group, but without statistical significance. Second, extensor power at 180°/sec was also not statistically significant. However, it was found that flexor power increased significantly in the warm-up with stretching group at 180°/sec compared with the control group and warm-up group in which stretching was not performed. [Conclusion] Therefore, it is considered that in healthy adults, warm-up including two sets of stretching for 20 seconds per muscle group does not decrease muscle strength and muscle power.

  1. Gas exchange kinetics following concentric-eccentric isokinetic arm and leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, U; Mookerjee, S; Steegmanns, A; Knicker, A; Hoffmann, U

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of exercise velocity (60, 150, 240deg∙s -1 ) and muscle mass (arm vs leg) on changes in gas exchange and arterio-venous oxygen content difference (avDO 2 ) following high-intensity concentric-eccentric isokinetic exercise. Fourteen subjects (26.9±3.1years) performed a 3×20-repetition isokinetic exercise protocol. Recovery beat-to-beat cardiac output (CO) and breath-by-breath gas exchange were recorded to determine post-exercise half-time (t 1/2 ) for oxygen uptake (V˙O 2 pulm), carbon dioxide output (V˙CO 2 pulm), and ventilation (V˙ E ). Significant differences of the t 1/2 values were identified between 60 and 150deg∙s -1 . Significant differences in the t 1/2 values were observed between V˙O 2 pulm and V˙CO 2 pulm and between V˙CO 2 pulm and V˙ E . The time to attain the first avDO 2 -peak showed significant differences between arm and leg exercise. The present study illustrates, that V˙O 2 pulm kinetics are distorted due to non-linear CO dynamics. Therefore, it has to be taken into account, that V˙O 2 pulm may not be a valuable surrogate for muscular oxygen uptake kinetics in the recovery phases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Total Work Measured During a High Intensity Isokinetic Fatigue Test Is Associated With Anaerobic Work Capacity

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    Laurent Bosquet, Kenan Gouadec, Nicolas Berryman, Cyril Duclos, Vincent Gremeaux, Jean Louis Croisier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine whether total work measured during a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test (TWFAT could be considered as a valid measure of anaerobic work capacity (AWC, such as determined by total work measured during a Wingate Anaerobic Test (TWWAnT. Twenty well-trained cyclists performed 2 randomly ordered sessions involving a high intensity isokinetic fatigue test consisting in 30 reciprocal maximal concentric contractions of knee flexors and extensors at 180°·s-1, and a Wingate Anaerobic Test. We found that TWFAT of knee extensors was largely lower than TWWAnT (4151 ± 691 vs 22313 ± 2901 J, respectively, p < 0.05, Hedge’s g = 4.27. Both measures were highly associated (r = 0.83, and the 95% limits of agreement (LoA represented 24.5% of TWWAnT. TWFAT of knee flexors (2151 ± 540 J was largely lower than TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 9.52. By contrast, both measures were not associated (r = 0.09, and the 95% LoA represented 31.1% of TWWAnT. Combining TWFAT of knee flexors and knee extensors into a single measure (6302 ± 818 J did not changed neither improved these observations. We still found a large difference with TWWAnT (p < 0.05, g = 5.26, a moderate association (r = 0.65 and 95% LoA representing 25.5% of TWWAnT. We concluded that TWFAT of knee extensors could be considered as a valid measure of AWC, since both measure were highly associated. However, the mean difference between both measures and their 95% LoA were too large to warrant interchangeability.

  3. Learning effect of isokinetic measurements in healthy subjects, and reliability and comparability of Biodex and Lido dynamometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Hans; Søndergaard, K; Zachariassen, T

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the learning effect during a set of isokinetic measurements, to evaluate the reliability of the Biodex System 3 PRO dynamometer, and to compare the Biodex System 3 PRO and the Lido Active dynamometers on both extension and flexion over the elbow and the knee a...

  4. Efficacy of kinesio taping on isokinetic quadriceps torque in knee osteoarthritis: a double blinded randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan; Sudarshan, Shobhalakshmi; Nagpal, Pratima

    2014-08-01

    Double blind pre-test post-test control group design. To compare the isokinetic quadriceps torque, standardized stair-climbing task (SSCT) and pain during SSCT between subjects diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis pre and post kinesio tape (KT) application with and without tension. Strength of the quadriceps and torque producing capability is frequently found to be compromised in knee osteoarthritis. The efficacy of KT in improving isokinetic quadriceps torque in knee osteoarthritis is unknown, forming the basis for this study. Forty subjects were randomly allocated to either the experimental (therapeutic KT with tension) or control group (sham KT without tension) with the allocation being concealed. Pre and post test measurements of isokinetic quadriceps torque, SSCT and pain during SSCT were carried out by a blinded assessor. A large effect size with significant improvements in the peak quadriceps torque (concentric and eccentric at angular velocities of 90° per second and 120° per second), SSCT and pain were obtained in the experimental group when compared to the control group. Application of therapeutic KT is effective in improving isokinetic quadriceps torque, SSCT and reducing pain in knee osteoarthritis.

  5. Reliability of a device for the knee and ankle isometric and isokinetic strength testing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamin, Marco; Gobbo, Stefano; Bullo, Valentina; Vendramin, Barbara; Duregon, Federica; Frizziero, Antonio; Di Blasio, Andrea; Cugusi, Lucia; Zaccaria, Marco; Ermolao, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Lower extremity muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance are critical determinants of independent functioning in later life. Isokinetic dynamometers are becoming very common in assessing different features of muscle strength, in both research and clinical practice; however, reliability studies are still needed to support the extended use of those devices. The purpose of this study is to assess the test-retest reliability of knee and ankle isokinetic and isometric strength testing protocols in a sample of older healthy subjects, using a new and untested isokinetic multi-joint evaluation system. Sixteen male and fourteen female older adults (mean age 65.2 ± 4.6 years) were assessed in two testing sessions. Each participant performed a randomized testing procedure that includes different isometric and isokinetic tests for knee and ankle joints. All participants concluded the trial safety and no subject reported any discomfort throughout the overall assessment. Coefficients of correlation between measures were calculated showing moderate to strong effects among all test-retest assessments and paired-sample t test showed only one significant difference (pisometric strength provided reliable test-retest measures in healthy older adults. Ib.

  6. Absolute and relative reliability of isokinetic and isometric trunk strength testing using the IsoMed-2000 dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Ralf; Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to assess the between day reliability of isokinetic and isometric peak torque (PT) during trunk measurement on an isokinetic device (IsoMed 2000). Test-retest-protocol on five separate days. Fifteen healthy sport students (8 female and 7 male) aged 21 to 26. PT was assessed in isometric back extension and flexion as well as right and left rotation. Isokinetic strength was captured at a speed of 60°/s and 150°/s for all tasks. For none of the assessed parameters a meaningful variation in PT during test days was observed. Relative reliability (ICC = 0.85-0.96) was excellent for all tasks. Estimates of absolute reliability as Coefficient of Variation (CoV) and Standard Error of Measurement (SEM in Nm/kg lean body mass) remained stable for isometric (6.9% strength measurement in flexion and extension or trunk rotation in either isometric or isokinetic condition is highly reliable. Therefore, it seems possible to elucidate changes which are smaller than 10% due to intervention programs when a preceding familiarization condition was applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hamstring and Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength Deficits Are Weak Risk Factors for Hamstring Strain Injuries: A 4-Year Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Whiteley, Rodney; Tol, Johannes L.; Kumar, Bhavesh D.; Hamilton, Bruce; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik

    2016-01-01

    A hamstring strain injury (HSI) has become the most common noncontact injury in soccer. Isokinetic muscle strength deficits are considered a risk factor for HSIs. However, underpowered studies with small sample sizes unable to determine small associations have led to inconclusive results regarding

  8. At return to play following hamstring injury the majority of professional football players have residual isokinetic deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Johannes L.; Hamilton, Bruce; Eirale, Cristiano; Muxart, Patrice; Jacobsen, Philipp; Whiteley, Rod

    2014-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal criteria for return to sport after an acute hamstring injury. Less than 10% isokinetic strength deficit is generally recommended but this has never been documented in professional football players after rehabilitation. Our aim was to evaluate

  9. Isometric and isokinetic muscle strength in the upper extremity can be reliably measured in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Elisabeth; Lexell, Jan; Brogårdh, Christina

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability of isometric and isokinetic muscle strength measurements in the upper extremity after stroke. A test-retest design. Forty-five persons with mild to moderate paresis in the upper extremity > 6 months post-stroke. Isometric arm strength (shoulder abduction, elbow flexion), isokinetic arm strength (elbow extension/flexion) and isometric grip strength were measured with electronic dynamometers. Reliability was evaluated with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), changes in the mean, standard error of measurements (SEM) and smallest real differences (SRD). Reliability was high (ICCs: 0.92-0.97). The absolute and relative (%) SEM ranged from 2.7 Nm (5.6%) to 3.0 Nm (9.4%) for isometric arm strength, 2.6 Nm (7.4%) to 2.9 Nm (12.6%) for isokinetic arm strength, and 22.3 N (7.6%) to 26.4 N (9.2%) for grip strength. The absolute and relative (%) SRD ranged from 7.5 Nm (15.5%) to 8.4 Nm (26.1%) for isometric arm strength, 7.1 Nm (20.6%) to 8.0 Nm (34.8%) for isokinetic arm strength, and 61.8 N (21.0%) to 73.3 N (25.6%) for grip strength. Muscle strength in the upper extremity can be reliably measured in persons with chronic stroke. Isometric measurements yield smaller measurement errors than isokinetic measurements and might be preferred, but the choice depends on the research question.

  10. Effects of isokinetic calf muscle exercise program on muscle strength and venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Sabriye; Çetin, Cem; Yavuz, Turhan; Demir, Hilmi M; Atalay, Yurdagül B

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the change of the ankle joint range of motion, the muscle strength values measured with an isokinetic dynamometer, pain scores, quality of life scale, and venous return time in chronic venous insufficiency diagnosed patients by prospective follow-up after 12-week exercise program including isokinetic exercises. Methods The patient group of this study comprised 27 patients (23 female, 4 male) who were diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency. An exercise program including isokinetic exercise for the calf muscle was given to patients three days per week for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, five of the patients left the study due to inadequate compliance with the exercise program. As a result, control data of 22 patients were included. Ankle joint range of active motion, isokinetic muscle strength, pain, quality of life, and photoplethysmography measurements were assessed before starting and after the exercise program. Results Evaluating changes of the starting and control data depending on time showed that all isokinetic muscle strength measurement parameters, range of motion, and overall quality of life values of patients improved. Venous return time values have also increased significantly ( p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, increase in muscle strength has been provided with exercise therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. It has been determined that the increase in muscle strength affected the venous pump and this ensured improvement in venous function and range of motion of the ankle. In addition, it has been detected that pain reduced and quality of life improved after the exercise program.

  11. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson S. C.; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    session, subjects performed treadmill running (~35 min) and the previously mentioned measurements were repeated immediately after running. Subsequently, subjects were randomized to training (n = 12) consisting of 24 sessions of maximal IERT knee extensors actions at 180° s(-1), or served as controls (n...... damages. However, IERT may not avoid reductions in explosive muscle actions. In turn, this may allow more intense training sessions to be performed, facilitating the adaptive response to running training.......The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...

  12. Analysis of isokinetic muscle function and postural control in individuals with intermittent claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Lanzarin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intermittent claudication (IC is a debilitating condition that mostly affects elderly people. IC is manifested by a decrease in ambulatory function. Individuals with IC present with motor and sensory nerve dysfunction in the lower extremities, which may lead to deficits in balance. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to measure postural control and isokinetic muscle function in individuals with intermittent claudication. METHOD: The study included 32 participants of both genders, 16 IC participants (mean age: 64 years, SD=6 and 16 healthy controls (mean age: 67 years, SD=5, which were allocated into two groups: intermittent claudication group (ICG and control group (CG. Postural control was assessed using the displacement and velocity of the center of pressure (COP during the sensory organization test (SOT and the motor control test (MCT. Muscle function of the flexor and extensor muscles of the knee and ankle was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer. Independent t tests were used to calculate the between-group differences. RESULTS: The ICG presented greater displacement (p =0.027 and speed (p =0.033 of the COP in the anteroposterior direction (COPap during the MCT, as well as longer latency (p =0.004. There were no between-group differences during the SOT. The ICG showed decreased muscle strength and power in the plantar flexors compared to the CG. CONCLUSION: Subjects with IC have lower values of strength and muscle power of plantiflexores, as well as changes in postural control in dynamic conditions. These individuals may be more vulnerable to falls than healthy subjects.

  13. Isokinetic strength and endurance after percutaneous and open surgical repair of Achilles tendon ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, David; Ayalon, Moshe; Nyska, Meir

    2005-04-01

    Reports on complete spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures and associated treatment have become more frequent in the literature in the past two decades, as has the request for treatments that enable the finest possible functional recovery. The best available treatment is a matter of considerable controversy in the literature. The purpose of this study was to compare the isokinetic strength and endurance of the plantarflexor muscle-tendon unit in subjects who sustained rupture of the Achilles tendon and underwent either open surgery or closed percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon. Twenty patients (18 males, 2 females) with spontaneous ruptures of the Achilles tendon were included in this study. Ten patients were treated by open surgery, and 10 patients were treated percutaneously. All patients had ruptured their Achilles tendon more than 6 months before the study, and all of the ruptures occurred 3.5 years or less before the day of the testing. All patients underwent an oriented physical examination. An isokinetic Biodex dynamometer (Biodex Medical System, Shirley, NY) was used to measure ankle joint angle, and in plantarflexion to calculate the torque at the ankle joint (Newton/meter), and the average work (jouls) for both maximal power and endurance. Each measurement was compared to the normal ankle. Biodex dynamometer evaluations at 90 deg/sec demonstrated a significant difference of maximal voluntary plantarflexor torque, endurance performance and range of motion at the ankle joint between the involved and uninvolved sides in patients treated by either mode of treatment. Yet, no statistically significant differences were revealed for the parameters mentioned above between the subjects that were treated either percutaneously or by an open surgery. In functional terms, the biomechanical outcomes of open surgery and percutaneous repair for acute ruptures of the Achilles tendon are both effective.

  14. Effects of photobiomodulation on the fatigue level in elderly women: an isokinetic dynamometry evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassão, P G; Toma, R L; Antunes, H K M; Tucci, H T; Renno, A C M

    2016-02-01

    Aging is responsible by a series of morphological and functional modifications that lead to a decline of muscle function, particularly in females. Muscle tissue in elderly people is more susceptible to fatigue and, consequently, to an increased inability to maintain strength and motor control. In this context, therapeutic approaches able of attenuating muscle fatigue have been investigated. Among these, the photobiomodulation demonstrate positive results to interacts with biological tissues, promoting the increase in cell energy production. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of photobiomodulation (808 nm, 250 J/cm(2), 100 mW, 7 J each point) in the fatigue level and muscle performance in elderly women. Thirty subjects entered a crossover randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. Photobiomodulation was delivered on the rectus femoris muscle of the dominant limb immediately before the fatigue protocol. In both sessions, peripheral muscle fatigue was analyzed by surface electromyography (EMG) and blood lactate analysis. Muscle performance was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. The results showed that photobiomodulation was able of reducing muscle fatigue by a significant increase of electromyographic fatigue index (EFI) (p = 0.047) and decreasing significantly lactate concentration 6 min after the performance of the fatigue protocol (p = 0. 0006) compared the placebo laser session. However, the photobiomodulation was not able of increasing muscle performance measured by the isokinetic dynamometer. Thus, it can be conclude that the photobiomodulation was effective in reducing fatigue levels. However, no effects of photobiomodulation on muscle performance was observed.

  15. Quadriceps Strength in Patients With Isolated Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Results of Isokinetic Strength Measurements and Their Correlation With Clinical and Functional Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmüller, Anja; Andres, Tasja; Schoch, Wolfgang; Baur, Heiner; Konstantinidis, Lukas; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have found a significant deficit of maximum quadriceps strength after autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) of the knee. However, it is unclear whether muscular strength deficits in patients with cartilage damage exist prior to operative treatment. To isokinetically test maximum quadriceps muscle strength and quantify the impact of possible strength deficits on functional and clinical test results. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. To identify clinically relevant muscular strength deficits, 24 patients (5 females, 19 males; mean age, 34.5 years; body mass index, 25.9 kg/m 2 ) with isolated cartilage defects (mean onset, 5.05 years; SD, 7.8 years) in the knee joint underwent isokinetic strength measurements. Maximal quadriceps strength was recorded in 3 different testing modes: pure concentric contraction (flexors and extensors alternating work; con1), concentric-eccentric (only the extensors work concentrically and eccentrically; con2), and eccentric contraction in the alternating mode (ecc). Results were compared for functional performance (single-leg hop test), pain scales (visual analog scale [VAS], numeric rating scale [NRS]), self-reported questionnaires (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC], Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scale [KOOS]), and defect size (cm 2 ). Compared with the uninjured leg, significantly lower quadriceps strength was detected in the injured leg in all isokinetic working modes (con1 difference, 27.76 N·m [SD 17.47; P = .003]; con2 difference, 21.45 N·m [SD, 18.45; P =.025]; ecc difference, 29.48 N·m [SD, 21.51; P = .001]), with the largest deficits found for eccentric muscle performance. Moderate negative correlations were observed for the subjective pain scales NRS and VAS. The results of the IKDC and KOOS questionnaires showed low, nonsignificant correlations with findings in the isokinetic measurement. Moreover, defect sizes (mean, 3.13 cm 2 ) were of no importance regarding the

  16. Single-Leg Hop Test Performance and Isokinetic Knee Strength After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueyoshi, Ted; Nakahata, Akihiro; Emoto, Gen; Yuasa, Tomoki

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic strength and hop tests are commonly used to assess athletes' readiness to return to sport after knee surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the results of single-leg hop and isokinetic knee strength testing in athletes who underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) upon returning to sport participation as well as to study the correlation between these 2 test batteries. The secondary purpose was to compare the test results by graft type (patellar tendon or hamstring). It was hypothesized that there would be no statistically significant limb difference in either isokinetic knee strength or single-leg hop tests, that there would be a moderate to strong correlation between the 2 test batteries, and that there would be no significant difference between graft types. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty-nine high school and collegiate athletes who underwent ACLR participated in this study. At the time of return to full sport participation, a series of hop tests and knee extension/flexion isokinetic strength measurements were conducted. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Pearson correlation ( r ). The timed 6-m hop test was the only hop test that showed a significant difference between the involved and uninvolved limbs (2.3 and 2.2 seconds, respectively; P = .02). A significant difference between limbs in knee strength was found for flexion peak torque/body weight at 180 deg/s ( P = .03), flexion total work/body weight at 180 deg/s ( P = .04), and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s ( P = .03). The strongest correlation between the hop tests and knee strength was found between the total distance of the hop tests and flexion total work/body weight at 300 deg/s ( r = 0.69) and between the timed 6-m hop test and flexion peak torque/body weight at 300 deg/s ( r = -0.54). There was no statistically significant difference in hop test performance or isokinetic knee strength between graft types

  17. Isokinetic force of under-twenties soccer players: comparison of players in different field positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Mendes Ritti Dias

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available During a soccer match, countless movements involving muscular force are performed. While some studies have analyzed the force exerted by soccer players, their results have been divergent, particularly when force has been analyzed with respect to fi eld positions. The objective of this study was to compare peak torque, total muscular work, maximum power and isokinetic fatigue index of the knee fl exor and extensor muscles of soccer players in a variety of fi eld positions. Seventy-eight under-twenty soccer players were classifi ed according to the position they play: goalkeepers (n=7, full backs (n=14, wingers (n=16, defensive midfi elders (n=11, center midfi elders (n=14 and forwards (n=16. The concentric isokinetic force of knee fl exor and extensor muscles was evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer, Cybex® brand Norm™ 6000 model (CSMI, USA. Data was analyzed in terms of non-parametric statistics and results expressed in medians and semi-interquartile range. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied and when results were signifi cant to pRESUMO Durante uma partida de futebol são realizados inúmeros movimentos que envolvem a força muscular. Embora alguns estudos tenham analisado a força de jogadores de futebol, os resultados encontrados têm sido controversos, principalmente quando analisada a força em função da posição de jogo. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar o pico de torque, trabalho muscular total, potência máxima e índice de fadiga isocinético dos músculos fl exores e extensores de joelho de jogadores de futebol que atuam em diferentes posições de jogo. Foram incluídos 78 atletas de futebol, pertencentes à categoria Sub-20, foram agrupados de acordo com a posição em campo de jogo: goleiros (n=7, zagueiros (n=14, laterais (n=16, volantes (n=11, meio campo (n=14 e atacantes (n=16. Foi realizada avaliação da força isocinética concêntrica dos músculos fl exores e extensores de joelho em dinamômetro isocin

  18. BMD in elite female triathletes is related to isokinetic peak torque without any association to sex hormone concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Eva Wulff; Melin, Anna; Waaddegaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Female endurance athletes suffering from low energy availability and reproductive hormonal disorders are at risk of low BMD. Muscle forces acting on bone may have a reverse site-specific effect. Therefore we wanted to test how BMD in female elite triathletes was associated to isokinetic peak torque...... (IPT) and reproductive hormone concentrations (RHC). A possible effect of oral contraceptives (OCON's) is taken into consideration....

  19. The effect of peculiar complex core balance training on isokinetic muscle functions of the knee and lumbus

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myungsun; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of peculiar complex core balance training on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus to provide fundamental data for establishing a training program that focuses on improving the performance and prevention of injury by developing the core and low extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study included a total of ten high school athletes involved in a throwing event for over five years. The subje...

  20. Knee-joint proprioception during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, E. M.; Walby, W. F.; Ertl, A. C.; Dempster, P. T.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if daily isotonic exercise or isokinetic exercise training coupled with daily leg proprioceptive training, would influence leg proprioceptive tracking responses during bed rest (BR), 19 men (36 +/- SD 4 years, 178 +/- 7 cm, 76.8 +/- 7.8 kg) were allocated into a no-exercise (NOE) training control group (n = 5), and isotonic exercise (ITE, n = 7) and isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted during BR for two 30-min periods.d-1, 5 d.week-1. Only the IKE group performed proprioceptive training using a new isokinetic procedure with each lower extremity for 2.5 min before and after the daily exercise training sessions; proprioceptive testing occurred weekly for all groups. There were no significant differences in proprioceptive tracking scores, expressed as a percentage of the perfect score of 100, in the pre-BR ambulatory control period between the three groups. Knee extension and flexion tracking responses were unchanged with NOE during BR, but were significantly greater (*p < 0.05) at the end of BR in both exercise groups when compared with NOE responses (extension: NOE 80.7 +/- 0.7%, ITE 82.9* +/- 0.6%, IKE 86.5* +/- 0.7%; flexion: NOE 77.6 +/- 1.5%, ITE 80.0 +/- 0.8% (NS), IKE 83.6* +/- 0.8%). Although proprioceptive tracking was unchanged during BR with NOE, both isotonic exercise training (without additional proprioceptive training) and especially isokinetic exercise training when combined with daily proprioceptive training, significantly improved knee proprioceptive tracking responses after 30 d of BR.

  1. Knee-Joint Proprioception During 30-Day 6 deg Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, E. M.; Walby, W. F.; Ertl, A. C.; Dempster, P. T.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if daily isotonic exercise or isokinetic exercise training coupled with daily log proprioceptive training, would influence log proprioceptive tracking responses during Bed Rest (BR), 19 men (36 +/- SD 4 years, 178 +/- 7 cm, 76.8 +/- 7.8 kg) were allocated into a NO-Exercise (NOE) training control group (n = 5), and IsoTanic Exercise (ITE, n = 7) and IsoKinetic Exercise (IKE, n = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted during BR for two 30-min period / d, 5 d /week. Only the IKE group performed proprioceptive training using a now isokinetic procedure with each lower extremity for 2.5 min before and after the daily exercise training sessions; proprioceptive testing occurred weekly for all groups. There were no significant differences in proprioceptive tracking scores, expressed as a percentage of the perfect score of 100, in the pro-BR ambulatory control period between the three groups. Knee extension and flexion tracking responses were unchanged with NOE during BR, but were significantly greater (*p less than 0.05) at the end of BR in both exercise groups when compared with NOE responses (extension: NOE 80.7 +/- 0.7%, ITE 82.9 +/- 0.6%, IKE 86.5* +/- 0.7%; flexion: NOE 77.6 +/- 1.50, ITE 80.0 +/- 0.8% (NS), IKE 83.6* +/- 0.8%). Although proprioceptive tracking was unchanged during BR with NOE, both lsotonic exercise training (without additional propriaceptive training) and especially isokinetic exercise training when combined with daily proprioceptive training, significantly improved knee proprioceptive tracking responses after 30 d of BR.

  2. Seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscle strength is an important factor in soccer from the performance and health perspective. There is a lack of knowledge about changes in muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors and their ratios during annual training cycle. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal variability of the observed parameters of isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors in soccer players, U19, from the performance and health perspective. METHODS: The strength of the knee flexors and extensors was measured in players U19 category (n = 9; the average age 18.5 ±0.4 years on the isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in angular velocity 60° × s-1. Measurement was performed in concentric/concentric and excentric/excentric mode of muscle action at the beginning of the winter preparatory period, at the end of the preparatory period and at the end of the spring competitive period. Monitored parameters were absolute peak torque (PT, conventional H/Q ratio (H/QCON, functional H/Q ratio (H/QFUN and functional H/Q ratio in range 10-30° of knee flexion (H/QFUN_10-30. RESULTS: Significant change in PT (p < .05 was noted only in cases of the knee extensors of the nondominant leg in the concentric mode. The evaluation of imbalance of the knee flexors and extensors by H/QCON and H/QFUN ratios did not show any significant changes, but there was found a significant decrease of the H/QFUN_10-30 ratio in the dominant leg between measurements at the beginning and at the end of the winter preparatory period. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that throughout the monitored periods of the annual training cycle desirable changes in knee flexors and extensors strength did not occur. The values suggest the disruption of the dynamic stabilization of the knee joint and increase in injury risk. Different dynamics of the three observed ratios confirmed that they provide different information about the physical fitness of

  3. Gender Differences in Isokinetic Strength after 60 and 90 d Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, K. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R. J.; Cromwell, R. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that changes in muscle strength following disuse may differ between males and females. PURPOSE: To examine potential gender differences in strength changes following 60 and 90 d of experimental bed rest. METHODS: Isokinetic extensor and flexor strength of the knee (60deg and 180deg/s, concentric only), ankle (30deg/s, concentric and eccentric), and trunk (60deg/s, concentric only) were measured following 60 d (males: n=4, 34.5+/-9.6 y; females: n=4, 35.5+/-8.2 y) and 90 d (males: n=10, 31.4+/-4.8 y; females: n=5, 37.6+/-9.9 y) of 6-degree head-down-tilt bed rest (BR; N=23). Subjects were fed a controlled diet (55%/15%/ 30%, CHO/PRO/FAT) that maintained body weight within 3% of the weight recorded on Day 3 of bed rest. After a familiarization session, testing was conducted 6 d before BR and 2 d after BR completion. Peak torque and total work were calculated for the tests performed. To allow us to combine data from both 60- and 90-d subjects, we used a mixed-model statistical analysis in which time and gender were fixed effects and bed rest duration was a random effect. Log-transformations of strength measures were utilized when necessary in order to meet statistical assumptions. RESULTS: Main effects were seen for both time and gender (p<0.05), showing decreased strength in response to bed rest for both males and females, and males stronger than females for most strength measures. Only one interaction effect was observed: females exhibited a greater loss of trunk extensor peak torque at 60 d versus pre-BR, relative to males (p=0.004). CONCLUSION: Sixty and 90 d of BR induced significant losses in isokinetic muscle strength of the locomotor and postural muscles of the knee, ankle, and trunk. Although males were stronger than females for most of the strength measures that we examined, only changes in trunk extensor peak torque were greater for females than males at day 60 of bed rest

  4. [Chronic chondromalacia of the patella: comparison of morphological (magnetic resonance) and functional findings (isokinetic parameters) after rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, G; Avanza, F; Fiori, M; Brignoli, E; Rovescala, R

    1996-01-01

    The knee is a common site for injuries of the cartilage, capsule and ligament, which calls for the use of noninvasive techniques to assess injury severity properly and to plan adequate rehabilitation. Our study was aimed at comparing MR with isokinetic findings. To this purpose, 40 patients were examined; they were all affected with chondromalacia patellae, grades I-III, previously diagnosed at arthroscopy. Namely, 8 patients had grade I and 32 grades II and III chondromalacia. After MR and isokinetic exams, all patients were submitted to a standardized rehabilitation program. Our results indicate a marked decrease in quadriceps strength, especially in the most severe cases; in less severe cases, recovery was complete at 6 months, while the deficit remained in grades II and III injuries. MR yield was not relevant in 4 of 8 cases, while isokinetic findings were negative in one case. Both methods were positive in the most severe cases. At 6 months, both functional and MR findings were normal in grade I injuries, while some alterations remained in the others.

  5. Effects of the Competitive Season on the Isokinetic Muscle Parameters Changes in World-Class Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurelli, Olivier; Bernard, Pierre L; Dubois, Romain; Ahmaidi, Said; Prioux, Jacques

    2018-05-25

    Maurelli, O, Bernard, PL, Dubois, R, Ahmaidi, S, and Prioux, J. Effects of the competitive season on the isokinetic muscle parameters changes in world-class handball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the competitive season on isokinetic muscular parameters of the lower limbs in world-class handball players. Nineteen, male, world-class, handball players (age, 26.6 ± 5.4 years) participated in the study. Two bilateral isokinetic tests of knee joint flexors (H; hamstring) and extensors (Q; quadriceps) were performed in the beginning and end of the competitive season to determine the peak torque (PT), the mean power, and agonist-antagonist ratio, dominant-nondominant ratio (DNDR), and combined ratio. The results showed a significant decrease in PT values at low angular velocity (60°·s) in concentric mode for Q on dominant leg (p handball players. Accordingly, this study should help trainers to modify their planning to maximize strength and power qualities of the lower limbs of their players in addition to avoiding injuries.

  6. Poor correlation between handgrip strength and isokinetic performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles in community-dwelling elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicio, Diogo Carvalho; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Assumpção, Alexandra Miranda; de Jesus-Moraleida, Fabianna Resende; de Queiroz, Barbara Zille; da Silva, Juscelio Pereira; de Brito Rosa, Naysa Maciel; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between handgrip strength and performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles determined using an isokinetic dynamometer in community-dwelling elderly women. This was a cross-sectional study. Sample selection for the study was made by convenience, and 221 (71.07 ± 4.93 years) community-dwelling elderly women were included. Knee flexor and extensor muscle performance was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3 Pro. The isokinetic variables chosen for analysis were peak torque, peak torque/bodyweight, total work/bodyweight, total work, average power, and agonist/antagonist ratio at the angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s. Assessment of handgrip strength was carried out using the Jamar dynamometer. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to identify intervariable correlations. Only knee flexor peak torque (60°/s) and average power (60°/s), and knee extensor peak torque (180°/s) and total work (180°/s) were significantly (P women. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. The effect of peculiar complex core balance training on isokinetic muscle functions of the knee and lumbus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myungsun; Han, Gunsoo

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effect of peculiar complex core balance training on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus to provide fundamental data for establishing a training program that focuses on improving the performance and prevention of injury by developing the core and low extremity muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in this study included a total of ten high school athletes involved in a throwing event for over five years. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups: The experimental group (N=5) and the control group (N=5). The experimental group underwent peculiar complex core balance training. [Results] According to the analysis of covariance, there was a significant effect of peculiar complex core balance training. Therefore, the isokinetic muscle function of the knee joint and lumbus in the experimental group participating in peculiar complex core balance training was significantly increased compared to the control group. [Conclusion] It is concluded that peculiar complex core balance training had a positive effect on the isokinetic muscle function of the knee and lumbus in throwing event athletes.

  8. Hamstring and Quadriceps Isokinetic Strength Deficits Are Weak Risk Factors for Hamstring Strain Injuries: A 4-Year Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Nicol; Bahr, Roald; Whiteley, Rodney; Tol, Johannes L; Kumar, Bhavesh D; Hamilton, Bruce; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Witvrouw, Erik

    2016-07-01

    A hamstring strain injury (HSI) has become the most common noncontact injury in soccer. Isokinetic muscle strength deficits are considered a risk factor for HSIs. However, underpowered studies with small sample sizes unable to determine small associations have led to inconclusive results regarding the role of isokinetic strength and strength testing in HSIs. To examine whether differences in isokinetic strength measures of knee flexion and extension represent risk factors for hamstring injuries in a large cohort of professional soccer players in an adequately powered study design. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A total of 614 professional soccer players from 14 teams underwent isokinetic strength testing during preseason screening. Testing consisted of concentric knee flexion and extension at 60 deg/s and 300 deg/s and eccentric knee extension at 60 deg/s. A clustered multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with the risk of HSIs. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to determine sensitivity and specificity. Of the 614 players, 190 suffered an HSI during the 4 seasons. Quadriceps concentric strength at 60 deg/s (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% CI, 1.03-1.92; P = .03) and hamstring eccentric strength at 60 deg/s (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.01-1.85; P = .04) adjusted for bodyweight were independently associated with the risk of injuries. The absolute differences between the injured and uninjured players were 6.9 N·m and 9.1 N·m, with small effect sizes (d hamstring eccentric strength, respectively, indicating a failed combined sensitivity and specificity of the 2 strength variables identified in the logistic regression models. This study identified small absolute strength differences and a wide overlap of the absolute strength measurements at the group level. The small associations between lower hamstring eccentric strength and lower quadriceps concentric strength with HSIs can only be considered as weak

  9. Predictors of chronic ankle instability: Analysis of peroneal reaction time, dynamic balance and isokinetic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Guzmán, Rafael; Jiménez, Fernando; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have reported the factors contributing to chronic ankle instability, which could lead to more effective treatments. However, factors such as the reflex response and ankle muscle strength have not been taken into account in previous investigations. Fifty recreational athletes with chronic ankle instability and 55 healthy controls were recruited. Peroneal reaction time in response to sudden inversion, isokinetic evertor muscle strength and dynamic balance with the Star Excursion Balance Test and the Biodex Stability System were measured. The relationship between the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score and performance on each test was assessed and a backward multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. Participants with chronic ankle instability showed prolonged peroneal reaction time, poor performance in the Biodex Stability System and decreased reach distance in the Star Excursion Balance Test. No significant differences were found in eversion and inversion peak torque. Moderate correlations were found between the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score and the peroneal reaction time and performance on the Star Excursion Balance Test. Peroneus brevis reaction time and the posteromedial and lateral directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test accounted for 36% of the variance in the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. Dynamic balance deficits and delayed peroneal reaction time are present in participants with chronic ankle instability. Peroneus brevis reaction time and the posteromedial and lateral directions of the Star Excursion Balance Test were the main contributing factors to the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool score. No clear strength impairments were reported in unstable ankles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Isokinetic profile of elbow flexion and extension strength in elite junior tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, Todd S; Roetert, E Paul

    2003-02-01

    Descriptive study. To determine whether bilateral differences exist in concentric elbow flexion and extension strength in elite junior tennis players. The repetitive nature of tennis frequently produces upper extremity overuse injuries. Prior research has identified tennis-specific strength adaptation in the dominant shoulder and distal upper extremity musculature of elite players. No previous study has addressed elbow flexion and extension strength. Thirty-eight elite junior tennis players were bilaterally tested for concentric elbow flexion and extension muscle performance on a Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer at 90 degrees/s, 210 degrees/s, and 300 degrees/s. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to test for differences between extremities, muscle groups, and speed. Significantly greater (Pelbow extension peak torque values were measured at 90 degrees/s, 210 degrees/s, and 300 degrees/s for males. Significantly greater (Pelbow flexion muscular performance in males and for elbow flexion or extension peak torque and single-repetition work values in females. No significant difference between extremities was measured in elbow flexion/extension strength ratios in females and significant differences between extremities in this ratio were only present at 210 degrees/s in males (Pelbow in male elite junior tennis players but not females. These data have ramifications for clinicians rehabilitating upper extremity injuries in patients from this population.

  11. Adaptation of the DP 50 dust meter for measuring dust content under isokinetic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitek, J.; Novak, L.

    1985-03-01

    The DP 50 dust meter, developed by the Scientific Coal Research Institute Ostrava-Radvanice, is used for measuring dust content in the air in underground coal mines. Two versions of the system are used: a type developed in 1970 which is placed in a vertical position and used to measure the content of respirable coal particles in the air; and a type developed in 1983 for isokinetic measurement of dust content in the air. The latter is equipped with 8 cone-shaped adapters (with differing size and dimensions of the cone inlet adjusted to air flow rates from 0.25 to 8.00 m/s). Specifications of the 8 adapters are given in a table. The 1983 version of the DP 50 is placed in a horizontal position with the dust meter axis parallel to the direction of air flow ventilating a mine working. Recommendations for installation of dust meters in underground workings and effects of installation on measurement accuracy are discussed. 16 references.

  12. The effect of isokinetic and proprioception training on strength, movement and gait parameters after acute supination injury of the ankle ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mucha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of a three-week isokinetic training compared to typical proprio -ceptive training on parameters of strength, movement and gait function after acute ankle ligament sprain were investigated. Thirty-nine patients were randomly allocated to two comparison groups. In group 1 (n=20a proprioceptive training and in group 2 (n=19 an isokinetic strength training (Cybex 6000® were administered. Thepatients of both groups underwent training five times a week for three weeks. Before and at the end of the treatmentcourse, in both groups isokinetic strength was tested, the range of motion in the ankle joint was recorded and gait wasanalyzed (multicomponent strength measurement platform, Henschel-System®. The maximum isokinetic torque(60°/s [Nm] and the contact time (monopedal support time of the injured leg during gait cycle were the basis for evaluation.The data obtained show that in group 2 a significantly greater increase of the maximum isokinetic torque wasattained in almost all range of motion of the ankle joint in the course of treatment. A t the same time, in group 2 theshortening of the contact time in the stance phase of the injured leg could be compensated. The active range of motionin the ankle joint was less at the end of treatment in group 2 than in group 1. The isokinetic training obviously did notonly lead to better strength regeneration, but also to a functionally more stable ankle joint with a rhythmically moreevenly balanced stance phase of the gait cycle.  These results suggest that the used isokinetic training had positive effects on functional stability after acute ankle sprain.

  13. Analysis of the association between isokinetic knee strength with offensive and defensive jumping capacity in high-level female volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Esco, Michael R; Mahmutovic, Ifet; Hadzic, Vedran

    2015-09-01

    Isokinetic-knee-strength was hypothesized to be an important factor related to jumping performance. However, studies examining this relation among elite female athletes and sport-specific jumps are lacking. This investigation determined the influence of isokinetic-knee flexor/extensor strength measures on spike-jump (offensive) and block-jump (defensive) performance among high-level female volleyball players. Cross-sectional laboratory study. Eighty-two female volleyball athletes (age = 21.3 ± 3.8 years, height = 175.4 ± 6.76 cm, and weight = 68.29 ± 8.53 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The studied variables included spike-jump and block-jump performance and a set of isokinetic tests to evaluate the eccentric and concentric strength capacities of the knee extensors (quadriceps - Q), and flexors (hamstring - H) for both legs. Both jumping tests showed high intra-session reliability (ICC of 0.87 and 0.95 for spike-jump and block-jump, respectively). The athletes were clustered into three achievement-groups based on their spike-jump and block-jump performances. For the block-jump, ANOVA identified significant differences between achievement-groups for all isokinetic variables except the Right-Q-Eccentric-Strength. When observed for spike-jump, achievement-groups differed significantly in all tests but Right-H-Concentric-Strength. Discriminant canonical analysis showed that the isokinetic-strength variables were more associated with block-jump then spike-jump-performance. The eccentric isokinetic measures were relatively less important determinants of block-jump than for the spike-jump performance. Data support the hypothesis of the importance of isokinetic strength measures for the expression of rapid muscular performance in volleyball. The results point to the necessity of the differential approach in sport training for defensive and offensive duties. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Isokinetic hamstrings-to-quadriceps peak torque ratio: the influence of sport modality, gender, and angular velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos; De Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Koffes, Fabiana De Carvalho; Mascarin, Naryana Cristina; Benedito-Silva, Ana Amélia; Da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H/Q) peak torque ratios evaluated at different angular velocities between men and women who participate in judo, handball or soccer. A total of 166 athletes, including 58 judokas (26 females and 32 males), 39 handball players (22 females and 17 males), and 69 soccer players (17 females and 52 males), were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. The H/Q isokinetic peak torque ratios were calculated at angular velocities of 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ and 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. In the analysis by gender, female soccer players produced lower H/Q peak torque ratios at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ than males involved in the same sport. However, when H/Q peak torque ratio was assessed at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹, there were no significant differences between the sexes. In the analysis by sport, there were no differences among females at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹. In contrast, male soccer players had significantly higher H/Q peak torque ratios than judokas (66 ± 12% vs. 57 ± 14%, respectively). Female handball players produced significantly lower peak torque ratios at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹ than judokas or soccer players, whereas males presented no ratio differences among sports At 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. In the analysis by velocity, women's muscular ratios assessed at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ were significantly lower than at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹ for all sports; among men, only judokas presented lower ratios at 1.05 rad · s⁻¹ than at 5.23 rad · s⁻¹. The present results suggest that sport modality and angular velocity influence the isokinetic strength profiles of men and women.

  15. ACL deficient potential copers and non-copers reveal different isokinetic quadriceps strength profiles in the early stage after injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitzen, I; Eitzen, TJ; Holm, I; Snyder-Mackler, L; Risberg, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background Isokinetic muscle strength tests using the peak torque value is the most frequently included quadriceps muscle strength measurement for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured subjects. Aims The purpose of this study was to investigate quadriceps muscle performance during the whole isokinetic curve in ACL deficient subjects classified as potential copers or non-copers, and investigate whether these curve profiles were associated with single-leg hop performance. We hypothesized that quadriceps muscle torque at other knee flexion angles than peak torque would give more information about quadriceps muscle strength deficits. Furthermore, we hypothesized that there would be significant torque differences between potential copers and non-copers, and a significant relationship between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2 Methods Seventy-six individuals with a complete unilateral ACL rupture within the last 3 months were included. The subjects were classified into potential copers and non-copers according to the criteria from Fitzgerald et al12. Isokinetic quadriceps muscle tests were performed at 60°/sec (Biodex 6000). Mean torque values were calculated for peak torque as well as for specific knee flexion angles. The one-leg hop and the 6 meter timed hop tests were included and symmetry indices were used. Results The peak torque value did not identify the largest quadriceps muscle strength deficit. Rather, these were established at knee flexion angles of less than 40°. There were significant differences in angle specific torque values between potential copers and non-copers (p<0.05). Moderate to strong associations were disclosed between angle specific torque values and single-leg hop performance, but only for non-copers (r≥0.32– 0.58). Conclusions Angle specific quadriceps muscle torque values of less than 40° of knee flexion provide more information on the quadriceps

  16. Influence of functional knee bracing on the isokinetic and functional tests of anterior cruciate ligament deficient patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyousha Mortaza

    Full Text Available Use of functional knee braces has been suggested to provide protection and to improve kinetic performance of the knee in Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL-injured patients. However, many athletes might refrain from wearing the braces because of the fear of performance hindrance in the playing field. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three functional knee brace/sleeves upon the isokinetic and functional performance of ACL-deficient and healthy subjects. Six anterior cruciate ligament deficient (29.0 ± 5.3 yrs., 175.2 ± 5.4 cm, and 73.0 ± 10.0 kg and six healthy male subjects (27.2 ± 3.7 yrs., 176.4 ± 6.4 cm, and 70.3 ± 6.9 kg were selected. The effect of a custom-made functional knee brace, and two neoprene knee sleeves, one with four metal supports and one without support were examined via the use of isokinetic and functional tests in four sets (non-braced,wearing functional knee brace,and wearing the sleeves. Cross-over hop and single leg vertical jump test were performed and jump height, and hop distance were recorded. Peak torque to body weight ratio and average power in two isokinetic velocities(60°.s(-1,180°.s(-1 were recorded and the brace/sleeves effect was calculated as the changes in peak torque measured in the brace/sleeves conditions, expressed as a percentage of peak torque measured in non-braced condition. Frequency content of the isokinetic torque-time curves was also analyzed. Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the measured values in four test conditions within each control and ACL-deficient group,and Mann-Whitney U test was used for the comparison between the two groups. No significant differences in peak torque, average power, torque-time curve frequency content, vertical-jump and hop measurements were found within the experimental and the non-braced conditions (p>0.05. Although the examined functional knee brace/sleeves had no significant effect on the knee muscle performance, there have been

  17. Relation of 25-meter Swimming Performance with Physical Properties and Isokinetic Knee Strength in Amateur Young Swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    DOKUMACI, Bircan; AYGÜN, Cihan; ÇAKIR ATABEK, Hayriye

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between physical properties,isokinetic knee strength and swimming performance in young amateur athletes. Seventeen 18-24 year old amateur swimmers (n=13 males, mean age=20.0 ± 2.1 years; n=4 females, meanage=21.5 ± 1.7 years) volunteered to participate in this study. All athletes were member of thesame team who were engaged to the swim training at least for 4 years. Following the 5-minwarm up session, each participant performed thr...

  18. The effect of warm-ups with stretching on the isokinetic moments of collegiate men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyoung-Kil; Jung, Min-Kyung; Park, Eunkyung; Lee, Chang-Young; Jee, Yong-Seok; Eun, Denny; Cha, Jun-Youl; Yoo, Jaehyun

    2018-02-01

    Performing warm-ups increases muscle temperature and blood flow, which contributes to improved exercise performance and reduced risk of injuries to muscles and tendons. Stretching increases the range of motion of the joints and is effective for the maintenance and enhancement of exercise performance and flexibility, as well as for injury prevention. However, stretching as a warm-up activity may temporarily decrease muscle strength, muscle power, and exercise performance. This study aimed to clarify the effect of stretching during warm-ups on muscle strength, muscle power, and muscle endurance in a nonathletic population. The subjects of this study consisted of 13 physically active male collegiate students with no medical conditions. A self-assessment questionnaire regarding how well the subjects felt about their physical abilities was administered to measure psychological readiness before and after the warm-up. Subjects performed a non-warm-up, warm-up, or warm-up regimen with stretching prior to the assessment of the isokinetic moments of knee joints. After the measurements, the respective variables were analyzed using nonparametric tests. First, no statistically significant intergroup differences were found in the flexor and extensor peak torques of the knee joints at 60°/sec, which were assessed to measure muscle strength. Second, no statistically significant intergroup differences were found in the flexor and extensor peak torques of the knee joints at 180°/sec, which were assessed to measure muscle power. Third, the total work of the knee joints at 240°/sec, intended to measure muscle endurance, was highest in the aerobic-stretch-warm-ups (ASW) group, but no statistically significant differences were found among the groups. Finally, the psychological readiness for physical activity according to the type of warm-up was significantly higher in ASW. Simple stretching during warm-ups appears to have no effect on variables of exercise physiology in nonathletes

  19. Haptic control of a pneumatic muscle actuator to provide resistance for simulated isokinetic exercise; part II: control development and testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kara L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Neidhard-Doll, Amy T

    2015-01-01

    Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of resistance for strength training and rehabilitation. The objective of this work was to control a PMA for use in isokinetic exercise, potentially benefiting anyone in need of optimal strength training through a joint's range of motion. The controller, based on an inverse three-element phenomenological model and adaptive nonlinear control, allows the system to operate as a type of haptic device. A human quadriceps dynamic simulator was developed (as described in Part I of this work) so that control effectiveness and accommodation could be tested prior to human implementation. Tracking error results indicate that the control system is effective at producing PMA displacement and resistance necessary for a scaled, simulated neuromuscular actuator to maintain low-velocity isokinetic movement during simulated concentric and eccentric knee extension.

  20. Effects of fatiguing isometric and isokinetic ankle exercises on postural control while standing on firm and compliant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Etienne J; Remaud, Anthony; Boyas, Sébastien; Lajoie, Yves; Bilodeau, Martin

    2012-06-14

    Fatiguing exercises used across studies to induce alterations in postural control are diverse and may explain the different findings reported. This study aimed to compare the effects of two types of fatiguing plantarflexion exercises on postural control on a firm and a compliant surface. Ten healthy young men (29 ± 4 years) were asked to stand as steadily as possible for 30 s, blindfolded with feet together, on a firm and a compliant surface before and immediately after an isometric and an isokinetic fatiguing exercise. Maximal force reduction due to fatigue was found significant but similar between exercises. No significant difference was found between the fatiguing exercises on all Center of Pressure (CoP) parameters. Both fatiguing exercises induced increases in CoP excursion area, CoP variability and CoP velocity in both planes (antero-posterior, mediolateral) on the compliant surface. On the firm surface, both fatiguing exercises only induced increases in CoP variability and CoP velocity in the fatigued plane (antero-posterior). Isometric and isokinetic fatiguing exercises, when producing a similar level of force reduction, induce similar decreases in postural control. The effects of fatigue on postural control in healthy young men are more pronounced when standing on a compliant surface, i.e. when proprioceptive information at the ankle is altered.

  1. Intrarater reliability of the Humac NORM isokinetic dynamometer for strength measurements of the knee and shoulder muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habets, Bas; Staal, J Bart; Tijssen, Marsha; van Cingel, Robert

    2018-01-10

    To determine the intrarater reliability of the Humac NORM isokinetic dynamometer for concentric and eccentric strength tests of knee and shoulder muscles. 54 participants (50% female, average age 20.9 ± 3.1 years) performed concentric and eccentric strength measures of the knee extensors and flexors, and the shoulder internal and external rotators on two different Humac NORM isokinetic dynamometers, which were situated at two different centers. The knee extensors and flexors were tested concentrically at 60° and 180°/s, and eccentrically at 60° s. Concentric strength of the shoulder internal and external rotators, and eccentric strength of the external rotators were measured at 60° and 120°/s. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement, standard error of measurement expressed as a %, and the smallest detectable change to determine reliability and measurement error. ICCs for the knee tests ranged from 0.74 to 0.89, whereas ICC values for the shoulder tests ranged from 0.72 to 0.94. Measurement error was highest for the concentric test of the knee extensors and lowest for the concentric test of shoulder external rotators.

  2. Profile of isokinetic eccentric-to-concentric strength ratios of shoulder rotator muscles in elite female team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Marilia Dos Santos; Fleury, Anna Maria; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosia; Dubas, Joao Paulo; da Silva, Antonio Carlos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish the isokinetic profile of shoulder rotator muscles strength in female handball players. Twenty-seven handball players performed concentric and eccentric strength tests of both dominant and non-dominant upper limbs on an isokinetic dynamometer. Internal and external rotator muscles peak torque was assessed at 1.05, 3.14, and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in concentric mode and at 3.14 and 5.23 rad . s(-1) in eccentric mode. Concentric balance ratio and functional ratio were obtained. Bi-lateral deficiency was compared. Concentric strength for internal and external rotation was significantly greater for the dominant than for the non-dominant limb for all speeds (P muscles were stronger in the dominant than the non-dominant limb (P stronger than the non-dominant side, balance concentric ratios remained the same, with only the functional strength ratio different at 5.23 rad . s(-1). Our results suggest that concentric strength exercises be used for internal and external rotators on the non-dominant side, and functional exercise that improves eccentric rotation strength for prevention programmes.

  3. Effects of the application of ankle functional rehabilitation exercise on the ankle joint functional movement screen and isokinetic muscular function in patients with chronic ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Sung-Bum; Park, Gi Duck

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ankle functional rehabilitation exercise on ankle joint functional movement screen results and isokinetic muscular function in patients with chronic ankle sprain patients. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, 16 patients with chronic ankle sprain were randomized to an ankle functional rehabilitation exercise group (n=8) and a control group (n=8). The ankle functional rehabilitation exercise centered on a proprioceptive sense exercise program, which was applied 12 times for 2 weeks. To verify changes after the application, ankle joint functional movement screen scores and isokinetic muscular function were measured and analyzed. [Results] The ankle functional rehabilitation exercise group showed significant improvements in all items of the ankle joint functional movement screen and in isokinetic muscular function after the exercise, whereas the control group showed no difference after the application. [Conclusion] The ankle functional rehabilitation exercise program can be effectively applied in patients with chronic ankle sprain for the improvement of ankle joint functional movement screen score and isokinetic muscular function.

  4. Comparing passive angle-torque curves recorded simultaneously with a load cell versus an isokinetic dynamometer during dorsiflexion stretch tolerance assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Samuel L; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Costa, Pablo B; Ryan, Eric D; Herda, Trent J; Cramer, Joel T

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the passive angle-torque curves and the passive stiffness (PS, N m °(-)(1)) values recorded simultaneously from a load cell versus an isokinetic dynamometer during dorsiflexion stretch tolerance assessments in vivo. Nine healthy men (mean ± SD age = 21.4 ± 1.6 years) completed stretch tolerance assessments on a custom-built apparatus where passive torque was measured simultaneously from an isokinetic dynamometer and a load cell. Passive torque values that corresponded with the last 10° of dorsiflexion, verified by surface electromyographic amplitude, were analyzed for each device (θ1, θ2, θ3, …, θ10). Passive torque values measured with the load cell were greater (p ≤ 0.05) than the dynamometer torque values for θ4 through θ10. There were more statistical differentiations among joint angles for passive torque measured by the load cell, and the load cell measured a greater (p ≤ 0.01) increase in passive torque and PS than the isokinetic dynamometer. These findings suggested that when examining the angle-torque curves from passive dorsiflexion stretch tolerance tests, a load cell placed under the distal end of the foot may be more sensitive than the torque recorded from an isokinetic dynamometer. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined Effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis Supplementation and Resistance Training on Isokinetic Muscular Strength and Power, Anaerobic and Aerobic Fitness Level, and Immune Parameters in Young Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chee Keong; Hamdan, Nor Faeiza; Ooi, Foong Kiew; Wan Abd Hamid, Wan Zuraida

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of Lignosus rhinocerotis (LRS) supplementation and resistance training (RT) on isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters in young males. Participants were randomly assigned to four groups: Control (C), LRS, RT, and combined RT-LRS (RT-LRS). Participants in the LRS and RT-LRS groups consumed 500 mg of LRS daily for 8 weeks. RT was conducted 3 times/week for 8 weeks for participants in the RT and RT-LRS groups. The following parameters were measured before and after the intervention period: Anthropometric data, isokinetic muscular strength and power, and anaerobic and aerobic fitness. Blood samples were also collected to determine immune parameters. Isokinetic muscular strength and power were increased ( P anaerobic power and capacity and aerobic fitness in this group. Similarly, RT group had increases ( P anaerobic power and capacity, aerobic fitness, T lymphocytes (CD3 and CD4), and B lymphocytes (CD19) counts were observed in the RT group. RT elicited increased isokinetic muscular strength and power, anaerobic and aerobic fitness, and immune parameters among young males. However, supplementation with LRS during RT did not provide additive benefits.

  6. A method to reduce the number of measured parameters when using isokinetic muscle strength as a clinical indicator in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Theil Skovgaard, Lene; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to present a method enabling a reduction of the number of measurements when quantifying isokinetic muscle strength (IMS), and to describe an expression for IMS which is independent of measuring conditions. IMS is a measure of muscle strength used to categorise patients...

  7. The Effect of Ankle, Knee and Hip Isokinetic Fatigue on Shock Absorption and Rate of Loading during Pair-leg Landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Khodaveisi

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate that the fatigue protocol using Isokinetic devices with uniform speed, increases muscle strength due to generating stress at all the joints, thereby, compensating the active and passive joints for shock absorption, and load distribution on the lower extremities. 

  8. The Effect of Eight Weeks Plyometric Training on Anaerobic Power, Counter Movement Jumping and Isokinetic Strength in 15-18 Years Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adigüzel, Niyazi Sidki; Günay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks plyometric training on anaerobic power, counter movement jumping and isokinetic strength in 15-18 years aged basketball players. This study was including 30 male Basketball players. The subjects were divided into two groups as: the experimental group (n = 15) and the control…

  9. ANALYSIS OF ISOKINETIC KNEE EXTENSION / FLEXION IN MALE ELITE ADOLESCENT WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanli Sadi Kurdak

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wrestling requires strength of the upper and lower body musculature which is critical for the athletic performance. Evaluation of the adolescent's skeletal muscle is important to understand body movement, especially including those involved in sports. Strength, power and endurance capacity are defined as parameters of skeletal muscle biomechanical properties. The isokinetic dynamometer is an important toll for making this type of evaluation. However, load range phase of range of motion has to be considered to interpret the data correctly. With this in mind we aimed to investigate the lover body musculature contractile characteristics of adolescent wrestlers together with detailed analyses of load range phase of motion. Thirteen boys aged 12 - 14 years participated to this study. Concentric load range torque, work and power of knee extension and flexion were measured by a Cybex Norm dynamometer at angular velocities from 450°/sec to 30°/sec with 30°/sec decrements for each set. None of the wrestlers were able to attain load range for angular velocities above 390°/sec and 420°/sec for extension and flexion respectively. Detailed analyses of the load range resulted in statistically significant differences in the normalized load range peak torque for extension at 270°/sec (1.44 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 and 1.14 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range peak torque respectively, p < 0.05, and for flexion at 300°/sec (1.26 ± 0.28 Nm·kg-1 and 1.03 ± 0.23 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range peak torque respectively, p < 0.05, compared to total peak torque data. Similarly, the significant difference was found for the work values at 90°/sec (1.91 ± 0.23 Nm·kg-1 and 1.59 ± 0.24 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range work respectively for extension and 1.73 ± 0.21 Nm·kg-1 and 1.49 ± 0.19 Nm·kg-1 for total and load range work respectively for flexion, p < 0.05, and was evident at higher angular velocities (p < 0.001 for both extension and flexion. At

  10. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Cássio Marinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.. Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of jumper and runner athletes and compare them to those of a non-athletic population, evaluating dominance and balance between agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups. RESULTS: In the non-athlete group, we noted a higher asymmetry between the dominant and nondominant members. The jumpers had the highest values of the evaluated parameters of all groups, whereas parameters for the runners were intermediate between non-athletes and jumpers.

  11. Isokinetic peak torque and flexibility changes of the hamstring muscles after eccentric training: Trained versus untrained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Aziem, Amr Almaz; Soliman, Elsadat Saad; Abdelraouf, Osama Ragaa

    2018-05-23

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of eccentric isotonic training on hamstring flexibility and eccentric and concentric isokinetic peak torque in trained and untrained subjects. Sixty healthy subjects (mean age: 21.66 ± 2.64) were divided into three equal groups, each with 20 voluntary participants. Two experimental groups (untrained and trained groups) participated in a hamstring eccentric isotonic strengthening program (five days/week) for a six-week period and one control group that was not involved in the training program. The passive knee extension range of motion and hamstring eccentric and concentric isokinetic peak torque were measured at angular velocities 60° and 120°/s for all groups before and after the training period. Two-way analysis of variance showed that there was a significant increase in the hamstring flexibility of the untrained and trained groups (25.65 ± 6.32°, 26.55 ± 5.99°, respectively), (p  0.05). Moreover, there was a significant increase in eccentric isokinetic peak torque of both the untrained and trained groups (127.25 ± 22.60Nm, 139.65 ± 19.15Nm, 125.40 ± 21.61Nm, 130.90 ± 18.71Nm, respectively), (p  0.05) at both angular velocities. On the other hand, there was no significant increase in the concentric isokinetic peak torque of the three groups (92.50 ± 20.50Nm, 79.05 ± 18.95Nm, 92.20 ± 21.96Nm, 79.85 ± 18.97Nm, 100.45 ± 25.78Nm, 83.40 ± 23.73Nm, respectively), (p > 0.05) at both angular velocities. The change scores in the hamstring flexibility (06.25 ± 1.86°) and eccentric peak torque of the untrained group (16.60 ± 4.81Nm, 17.45 ± 5.40Nm, respectively) were significantly higher (p  0.05). After a six-week period of eccentric isotonic training, the hamstring eccentric peak torque and flexibility of trained and untrained groups improved without changes in the concentric peak torque. Moreover, the improvement of untrained subjects was higher than trained

  12. Avaliação isocinética no joelho do atleta Isokinetic evaluation of athletes' knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sérgio A.P. Terreri

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available A avaliação isocinética tem sido usada nas últimas três décadas como método para se determinar o padrão funcional da força e do equilíbrio muscular. No nosso meio cresceu nos últimos 10 anos. É possível quantificar valores absolutos do torque, do trabalho e da potência de grupos musculares, bem como valores relativos, ou seja, da proporção agonista/antagonista de tais grupos. Outro recurso valioso consiste como método auxiliar na reabilitação das lesões esportivas. O exame é realizado com velocidade angular constante e predeterminada, seja lenta, intermediária e/ou rápida. O joelho é a articulação em que se observa maior aplicação e estudos isocinéticos. Na prática esportiva, temos por um lado a importância da proporção do equilíbrio muscular agonista/antagonista, ou seja, do equilíbrio flexor/extensor representado, respectivamente, pelos isquiotibiais/quadríceps. De outro, a comparação dos valores absolutos da função muscular entre os lados direito e esquerdo, quer seja para o quadríceps, ou para os isquiotibiais. Resultados alterados estão relacionados, geralmente, às lesões esportivas ou suas seqüelas. De interesse para o atleta e para a equipe multidisciplinar é poder dispor de um método de avaliação funcional muscular objetivo e seguro, que forneça dados confiáveis e reprodutíveis. Aspecto relevante reside no fato do resultado do teste isocinético poder ser útil nos critérios de retorno a atividade esportiva pós-lesão. Este artigo de revisão consiste em abordar alguns aspectos práticos da avaliação isocinética no joelho e sua utilização para os indivíduos que realizam atividade física.The isokinetic evaluation has been used in the last three decades as a method to determine both the strength functional pattern and the muscle balance. In our environment, this evaluation has been spread over the last 10 years. It is possible to quantify absolute values of torque, effort, and

  13. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  14. [Isokinetic assessment with two years follow-up of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring tendons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condouret, J; Cohn, J; Ferret, J-M; Lemonsu, A; Vasconcelos, W; Dejour, D; Potel, J-F

    2008-12-01

    This retrospective multicentric study was designed to assess the outcome of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles two years after Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare muscles recovery depending on the type of graft and individual variables like age, gender, level of sport, but also in terms of discomfort, pain and functional score. The results focused on the subjective and objective IKDC scores, SF36, the existence or not of subjective disorders and their location. The review included isokinetic muscle tests concentric and eccentric extensors/flexors but also internal rotators/external rotators with analysis of mean work and mean power. One hundred and twenty-seven patients were included with an average age 29 years (+/-10). They all had an ACL reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring tendon with single or double bundles. In the serie, the average muscles deficit at two years was 10% for the flexors and extensors but with a significant dispersion. Significant differences were not noted in the mean values of all parameters in term of sex or age (over 30 years or not), neither the type of sport, nor of clinical assessment (Class A and B of objective IKDC score), nor the existence of anterior knee pain. There was a relationship between the level of extensor or flexor recovery and the quality of functional results with minimal muscle deficits close to 5% if the IKDC score was over 90 and deficits falling to 15% in the group with IKDC score less than 90. The type of reconstruction (patellar tendon versus hamstrings) had an influence on the muscle deficit. For extensors, the recovery was the same in the two groups, more than 90% at two years and the distribution of these two populations by level of deficit was quite the same. For flexors, residual deficits were significantly higher in the hamstrings group on the three studied parameters whatever the speed and the type of contraction (concentric or eccentric) with an average deficit of 14 to 18

  15. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matthew B; Nix, Carrie M; Greenwood, Lori D; Greenwood, Mike C

    2018-03-01

    Cooke, MB, Nix, C, Greenwood, L, and Greenwood, M. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 736-747, 2018-The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes and weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between 3 recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness, and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15 ± 3.53 years, 75.75 ± 11.91 kg, 180.52 ± 7.3 cm) were randomly matched by V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak (53.86 ± 6.65 ml·kg·min) and assigned to one of 3 recovery methods: anti-gravity treadmill (G-Trainer) (N = 8), conventional treadmill (N = 8) or static stretching (N = 9). Recovery methods were performed 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours after a 45-minute downhill run. Following eccentrically biased running, no significant differences were noted in isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque, systemic markers of muscle damage, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation such as serum creatine kinase (CK), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively, and subjective ratings of perceived muscle soreness between recovery methods. The G-Trainer group did however display a higher mood state as indicated by the Profile of Mood State global scores at 24 hours postexercise when compared to the conventional treadmill recovery group (p = 0.035). The improved mood state after the use of the anti-gravity treadmill may provide clinical relevance to other populations.

  16. Dinamometria isocinética de tronco em nadadores de diferentes estilos Isokinetic trunk dynamometry in diferent swimming strokes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Luiz Barretti Secchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Comparar a atividade muscular dos músculos flexores e extensores de tronco entre estilos de nado assimétrico e nado simétrico. MÉTODO: Catorze nadadores da elite, velocistas e especialistas em um dos quatro estilos da natação sem história prévia de lesões.. Divididos em dois grupos de sete atletas: 1. Grupo nado assimétrico (GNA: constituído por cinco atletas que nadam o estilo crawl e dois atletas que nadam o estilo costas. 2. Grupo nado simétrico (GNS formado por sete atletas: quatro atletas nadadores no estilo peito e três nadadores no estilo borboleta. Todos foram avaliados no dinamômetro isocinético Cybex 6000. RESULTADOS: O tempo de aceleração na velocidade de 120º/ s do grupo flexor do tronco foi maior no GNS (p=0,054. A potência do grupo extensor nas velocidades de 90 e 120º/ segundo foi maior no GNA que no GNS (p=0,053 e 0,052 respectivamente. Não houve diferença estatística significante nas demais variáveis analisadas. CONCLUSÃO: Os nados assimétricos (crawl e costas proporcionam uma resposta muscular (recrutamento mais eficiente nos grupo dos flexores do tronco, possivelmente pela manutenção constante da contração isométrica dos músculos abdominais.OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of asymmetric and symmetric swimming strokes on muscle activity of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles. METHODS: Fourteen elite speed swimmers, specialists in one of four swimming styles, all without any history of spinal cord injury, were divided in two groups: 1 asymmetric group, consisting of five athletes specializing in the freestyle stroke and three in the backstroke; and 2 symmetric group, consisting of four athletes specializing in the butterfly stroke and three in the breaststroke. All the swimmers were assessed using a Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: The acceleration time for the trunk flexor group at a speed of 120º per second was greater in the symmetric group (p=0.054. The power of the

  17. The association of trunk muscle cross-sectional area and magnetic resonance image parameters with isokinetic and psychophysical lifting strength and static back muscle endurance in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, L E; Latikka, P; Videman, T; Manninen, H; Battié, M C

    1997-10-01

    The relationship between trunk muscle morphology as measured on transverse magnetic resonance images and isokinetic lifting, psychophysical lifting, and static back muscle endurance testing was examined in 110 men, ages 35-67 years (mean, 48 years), who had been chosen based on their exposure to a wide variety of occupational and leisure-time physical activities. The computed T2-relaxation times and the T2-weighted and proton density-weighted signal intensities of the erector spinae, quadratus lumborum, and psoas major muscles had almost no association with any of the strength tests. The cross-sectional areas of the muscles had good correlations with isokinetic lifting strength (r = 0.46-0.53). They did not correlate well with psychophysical lifting and static back muscle endurance. Other characteristics or neurological or psychological factors may have more influence on those tests.

  18. Isokinetic strength assessment offers limited predictive validity for detecting risk of future hamstring strain in sport: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Brady; Bourne, Matthew N; Pizzari, Tania

    2018-03-01

    To examine the value of isokinetic strength assessment for predicting risk of hamstring strain injury, and to direct future research into hamstring strain injuries. Systematic review. Database searches for Medline, CINAHL, Embase, AMED, AUSPORT, SPORTDiscus, PEDro and Cochrane Library from inception to April 2017. Manual reference checks, ahead-of-press and citation tracking. Prospective studies evaluating isokinetic hamstrings, quadriceps and hip extensor strength testing as a risk factor for occurrence of hamstring muscle strain. Independent search result screening. Risk of bias assessment by independent reviewers using Quality in Prognosis Studies tool. Best evidence synthesis and meta-analyses of standardised mean difference (SMD). Twelve studies were included, capturing 508 hamstring strain injuries in 2912 athletes. Isokinetic knee flexor, knee extensor and hip extensor outputs were examined at angular velocities ranging 30-300°/s, concentric or eccentric, and relative (Nm/kg) or absolute (Nm) measures. Strength ratios ranged between 30°/s and 300°/s. Meta-analyses revealed a small, significant predictive effect for absolute (SMD=-0.16, P=0.04, 95% CI -0.31 to -0.01) and relative (SMD=-0.17, P=0.03, 95% CI -0.33 to -0.014) eccentric knee flexor strength (60°/s). No other testing speed or strength ratio showed statistical association. Best evidence synthesis found over half of all variables had moderate or strong evidence for no association with future hamstring injury. Despite an isolated finding for eccentric knee flexor strength at slow speeds, the role and application of isokinetic assessment for predicting hamstring strain risk should be reconsidered, particularly given costs and specialised training required. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks o...

  20. Effects of humeral head compression taping on the isokinetic strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of humeral head compression taping (HHCT) on the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with rotator cuff tendinitis were recruited. The shoulder external rotator strength was measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate within-group differences in the strength of the shoulder external rota...

  1. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players.

  2. Anthropometric, biomechanical, and isokinetic strength predictors of ball release speed in high-performance cricket fast bowlers.

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    Wormgoor, Shohn; Harden, Lois; Mckinon, Warrick

    2010-07-01

    Fast bowling is fundamental to all forms of cricket. The purpose of this study was to identify parameters that contribute to high ball release speeds in cricket fast bowlers. We assessed anthropometric dimensions, concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of selected knee and shoulder muscle groups, and specific aspects of technique from a single delivery in 28 high-performance fast bowlers (age 22.0 +/- 3.0 years, ball release speed 34.0 +/- 1.3 m s(-1)). Six 50-Hz cameras and the Ariel Performance Analysis System software were used to analyse the fast and accurate deliveries. Using Pearson's correlation, parameters that showed significant associations with ball release speed were identified. The findings suggest that greater front leg knee extension at ball release (r=0.52), shoulder alignment in the transverse plane rotated further away from the batsman at front foot strike (r=0.47), greater ankle height during the delivery stride (r=0.44), and greater shoulder extension strength (r=0.39) contribute significantly to higher ball release speeds. Predictor variables failed to allow their incorporation into a multivariate model, which is known to exist in less accomplished bowlers, suggesting that factors that determine ball release speed found in other groups may not apply to high-performance fast bowlers.

  3. The relationship between previous hamstring injury and the concentric isokinetic knee muscle strength of irish gaelic footballers

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    O'Ceallaigh Brian

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hamstring injury is one of the most common injuries affecting gaelic footballers, similar to other field sports. Research in other sports on whether residual hamstring weakness is present after hamstring injury is inconsistent, and no study has examined this factor in irish gaelic footballers. The aim of this study was to examine whether significant knee muscle weakness is present in male Irish gaelic footballers who have returned to full activity after hamstring injury. Methods The concentric isokinetic knee flexion and extension strength of 44 members of a university gaelic football team was assessed at 60, 180 and 300 degrees per second using a Contrex dynamometer. Results Fifteen players (34% reported a history of hamstring strain, with 68% of injuries affecting the dominant (kicking limb. The hamstrings were significantly stronger (p 0.05 using this comparison. The previously unilaterally injured hamstrings were significantly weaker (p Conclusion Hamstring muscle weakness was observed in male Irish gaelic footballers with a history of hamstring injury. This weakness is most evident when comparisons are made to multiple control populations, both within and between subjects. The increased strength of the dominant limb should be considered as a potential confounding variable in future trials. The study design does not allow interpretation of whether these changes in strength were present before or after injury.

  4. Isokinetic imbalance of adductor-abductor hip muscles in professional soccer players with chronic adductor-related groin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, K; Meftah, S; Mahir, L; Lmidmani, F; Elfatimi, A

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to compare the isokinetic profile of hip abductor and adductor muscle groups between soccer players suffering from chronic adductor-related groin pain (ARGP), soccer players without ARGP and healthy volunteers from general population. Study included 36 male professional soccer players, who were randomly selected and followed-up over two years. Of the 21 soccer players eligible to participate in the study, 9 players went on to develop chronic ARGP and 12 players did not. Ten healthy male volunteers were randomly selected from the general population as a control group. Comparison between the abductor and adductor muscle peak torques for players with and without chronic ARGP found a statistically significant difference on the dominant and non-dominant sides (p muscle significantly stronger than the adductor muscle. In the group of healthy volunteers, the adductor muscle groups were significantly stronger than the abductor muscle groups on both dominant and non-dominant sides (p muscle strength was also significantly decreased on the affected side. This imbalance appears to be a risk factor for adductor-related groin injury. Therefore, restoring the correct relationship between these two agonist and antagonist hip muscles may be an important preventative measure that should be a primary concern of training and rehabilitation programmes.

  5. THE EFFICACY OF ANGLE-MATCHED ISOKINETIC KNEE FLEXOR AND EXTENSOR STRENGTH PARAMETERS IN PREDICTING AGILITY TEST PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Matt; Naylor, James

    2017-10-01

    Agility is a fundamental performance element in many sports, but poses a high risk of injury. Hierarchical modelling has shown that eccentric hamstring strength is the primary determinant of agility performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between knee flexor and extensor strength parameters and a battery of agility tests. Controlled laboratory study. Nineteen recreational intermittent games players completed an agility battery and isokinetic testing of the eccentric knee flexors (eccH) and concentric knee extensors (conQ) at 60, 180 and 300°·s -1 . Peak torque and the angle at which peak torque occurred were calculated for eccH and conQ at each speed. Dynamic control ratios (eccH:conQ) and fast:slow ratios (300:60) were calculated using peak torque values, and again using angle-matched data, for eccH and conQ. The agility test battery differentiated linear vs directional changes and prescriptive vs reactive tasks. Linear regression showed that eccH parameters were generally a better predictor of agility performance than conQ parameters. Stepwise regression showed that only angle-matched strength ratios contributed to the prediction of each agility test. Trdaitionally calculated strength ratios using peak torque values failed to predict performance. Angle-matched strength parameters were able to account for 80% of the variation in T-test performance, 70% of deceleration distance, 55% of 10m sprint performance, and 44% of reactive change of direction speed. Traditionally calculated strength ratios failed to predict agility performance, whereas angle-matched strength ratios had better predictive ability and featured in a predictive stepwise model for each agility task. 2c.

  6. Isokinetic and isometric strength-endurance after 6 hours of immersion and 6 degrees head-down tilt in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer-Bailey, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Hutchinson, T. M.

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine weight (water) loss levels for onset of muscular strength and endurance changes during deconditioning. METHODS: Seven men (27-40 yr) performed maximal shoulder-, knee-, and ankle-joint isometric (0 degree.s(-1) load) and isokinetic (60 degrees, 120 degrees, 180 degrees.s(-1) velocity) exercise tests during ambulatory control (AC), after 6 h of 6 degrees head-down tilt (HDT; dry-bulb temp. = 23.2 +/- SD 0.6 degrees C, relative humidity = 31.1+/- 11.1%) and after 6 h of 80 degrees foot-down head-out water immersion (WI; water temp. = 35.0 +/- SD 0.1 degree C) treatments. RESULTS: Weight (water) loss after HDT (1.10 +/- SE 0.14 kg, 1.4 +/- 0.2% body wt) and WI (1.54+/- 0.19 kg, 2.0 +/- 0.2% body wt) were not different, but urinary excretion with WI (1,354 +/- 142 ml.6 h(-1)) was 28% greater (p strength was unchanged except for three knee-joint peak torques: AC torque (120 degrees.s(-1), 285 +/- 20 Nm) decreased to 268 +/- 21 Nm (delta = -6%, p strength and endurance decrements is more than 2% body weight (water) loss, while significant reduction in knee-joint muscular strength-endurance occurred only at moderate (120 degrees.s(-1) and lighter (180 degrees.s(-1)) loads with body weight loss of 1.4-2.0% following WI or HDT, respectively. These weight (water) losses and knee-joint strength decrements are somewhat less than the mean weight loss of 2.6% and knee-joint strength decrements of 6-20% of American astronauts after Skylab flights to 84 d.

  7. Age, weight, and the front abdominal power test as predictors of isokinetic trunk strength and work in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Patrick M; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Sottung, Kyle; Swensen, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    First we tested the reliability of two new field tests of core stability (plank to fatigue test [PFT] and front abdominal power test [FAPT]), as well as established measures of core stability (isokinetic trunk extension and flexion strength [TES and TFS] and work [TEW and TFW]) over 3 days in 8 young men and women (24.0 +/- 3.1 years). The TES, TFS, TFW, and FAPT were highly reliable, TEW was moderately reliable, and PFT were unreliable for use during a single testing session. Next, we determined if age, weight, and the data from the reliable field test (FAPT) were predictive of TES, TEW, TFS, and TFW in 50 young men and women (19.0 +/- 1.2 years). The FAPT was the only significant predictor of TES and TEW in young women, explaining 16 and 15% of the variance in trunk performance, respectively. Weight was the only significant predictor of TFS and TFW in young women, explaining 28 and 14% of the variance in trunk performance, respectively. In young men, weight was the only significant predictor of TES, TEW, TFS, and TFW, and explained 27, 35, 42, and 33%, respectively, of the variance in trunk performance. In conclusion, the ability of weight and the FAPT to predict TES, TEW, TFS, and TFW was more frequent in young men than women. Additionally, because the FAPT requires few pieces of equipment, is fast to administer, and predicts isokinetic TES and TEW in young women, it can be used to provide a field-based estimate of isokinetic TES and TEW in women without history of back or lower-extremity injury.

  8. Efeitos de diferentes intervalos de recuperação no desempenho muscular isocinético em idosos Effects of different rest intervals on isokinetic muscle performance among older adults

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    C Ernesto

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os efeitos de diferentes intervalos de recuperação (IR entre séries de contração isocinética no desempenho muscular em idosos. MÉTODOS: Vinte idosos voluntários (66,9±3,9 anos, 76,1±13,4kg, 169±5,2cm foram submetidos a três sessões de exercício resistido isocinético unilateral da musculatura extensora do joelho com diferentes IR (1 minuto, 2 minutos, e 3 minutos na velocidade de 60°•s-1. Cada sessão consistia em três séries de 10 repetições durante as quais foram avaliados o pico de torque (PT, trabalho total (TT e índice de fadiga (IF. ANOVA fatorial para medidas repetidas, com a análise de Post hoc por Bonferroni, foi utilizada para identificar possíveis diferenças entre os IR. O nível de significância estatístico utilizado foi de p0,05. Apesar de ter sido observado menor desempenho muscular na 3ª série em todos os IR, maiores quedas no PT, TT e IF foram observadas quando adotado o IR de 1minuto (pOBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different rest intervals (RI between sets of isokinetic contractions on muscle performance in older adults. METHODS: Twenty older participants (66.9±3.9 years; 76.1±13.4kg; 169±5.2cm underwent three sessions of unilateral isokinetic training for the knee extensor muscles, with different RI (1 minute, 2 minutes and 3 minutes at an angular velocity of 60°•s-1. Each session consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions, during which the peak torque (PT, total work (TW and fatigue index (FI were evaluated. Factorial ANOVA for repeated measurements, with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, was used to identify possible differences between the RI. The statistical significance level was set at p0.05. Although muscle performance was lower during the third sets with all RI, the greatest decreases in PT, TW and FI occurred with the 1 minute RI (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the RI variable has an important influence on isokinetic muscle performance in older

  9. 3D strength surfaces for ankle plantar- and dorsi-flexion in healthy adults: an isometric and isokinetic dynamometry study

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    Sara J. Hussain

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ankle is an important component of the human kinetic chain, and deficits in ankle strength can negatively impact functional tasks such as balance and gait. While peak torque is influenced by joint angle and movement velocity, ankle strength is typically reported for a single angle or movement speed. To better identify deficits and track recovery of ankle strength after injury or surgical intervention, ankle strength across a range of movement velocities and joint angles in healthy adults is needed. Thus, the primary goals of this study were to generate a database of strength values and 3-dimensional strength surface models for plantarflexion (PF and dorsiflexion (DF ankle strength in healthy men and women. Secondary goals were to develop a means to estimate ankle strength percentiles as well as examine predictors of maximal ankle strength in healthy adults. Methods Using an isokinetic dynamometer, we tested PF and DF peak torques at five joint angles (−10° [DF], 0° [neutral], 10° [PF], 20° [PF] and 30° [PF] and six velocities (0°/s, 30°/s, 60°/s, 90°/s, 120°/s and 180°/s in 53 healthy adults. These data were used to generate 3D plots, or “strength surfaces”, for males and females for each direction; surfaces were fit using a logistic equation. We also tested predictors of ankle strength, including height, weight, sex, and self-reported physical activity levels. Results Torque-velocity and torque-angle relationships at the ankle interact, indicating that these relationships are interdependent and best modeled using 3D surfaces. Sex was the strongest predictor of ankle strength over height, weight, and self-reported physical activity levels. 79 to 97 % of the variance in mean peak torque was explained by joint angle and movement velocity using logistic equations, for men and women and PF and DF directions separately. Conclusions The 3D strength data and surface models provide a more comprehensive dataset

  10. 3D strength surfaces for ankle plantar- and dorsi-flexion in healthy adults: an isometric and isokinetic dynamometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Sara J; Frey-Law, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The ankle is an important component of the human kinetic chain, and deficits in ankle strength can negatively impact functional tasks such as balance and gait. While peak torque is influenced by joint angle and movement velocity, ankle strength is typically reported for a single angle or movement speed. To better identify deficits and track recovery of ankle strength after injury or surgical intervention, ankle strength across a range of movement velocities and joint angles in healthy adults is needed. Thus, the primary goals of this study were to generate a database of strength values and 3-dimensional strength surface models for plantarflexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF) ankle strength in healthy men and women. Secondary goals were to develop a means to estimate ankle strength percentiles as well as examine predictors of maximal ankle strength in healthy adults. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, we tested PF and DF peak torques at five joint angles (-10° [DF], 0° [neutral], 10° [PF], 20° [PF] and 30° [PF]) and six velocities (0°/s, 30°/s, 60°/s, 90°/s, 120°/s and 180°/s) in 53 healthy adults. These data were used to generate 3D plots, or "strength surfaces", for males and females for each direction; surfaces were fit using a logistic equation. We also tested predictors of ankle strength, including height, weight, sex, and self-reported physical activity levels. Torque-velocity and torque-angle relationships at the ankle interact, indicating that these relationships are interdependent and best modeled using 3D surfaces. Sex was the strongest predictor of ankle strength over height, weight, and self-reported physical activity levels. 79 to 97 % of the variance in mean peak torque was explained by joint angle and movement velocity using logistic equations, for men and women and PF and DF directions separately. The 3D strength data and surface models provide a more comprehensive dataset of ankle strength in healthy adults than previously reported. These

  11. Avaliação isocinética em atletas paraolímpicos Isokinetic evaluation in paralympic athletes

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    Antônio Carlos Silva

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O equilíbrio dos parâmetros de força muscular nas articulações é de grande relevância, tanto no aspecto clínico como para o desempenho atlético. Informações sobre os valores desses parâmetros em atletas olímpicos e principalmente nos paraolímpicos são raras. Neste trabalho apresentamos os resultados da avaliação muscular isocinética (Cybex 6000 realizada na equipe brasileira que participou dos Jogos Paraolímpicos de Sidney 2000. Foram avaliados os músculos flexores e extensores dos joelhos de 11 jogadores de futebol (paralisia cerebral, idade 24,6 ± 4,8 anos; peso 67 ± 5,5kg; altura 177,7 ± 3,8cm e 12 de basquetebol (deficientes mentais, idade 24,7 ± 4,4 anos; peso 76,6 ± 13,4kg; altura 184,4 ± 10cm, e os músculos rotadores internos e rotadores externos de ombros de seis judocas (deficientes visuais, idade 29,8 ± 5,6 anos; peso 87 ± 21,6kg; altura 171,5 ± 6,9cm. Os jogadores de futebol apresentaram relação de equilíbrio muscular entre flexores e extensores de joelhos dentro dos parâmetros de normalidade apesar da fraqueza muscular imposta pela paralisia cerebral. Nos judocas o equilíbrio muscular entre rotadores externos e rotadores internos mostrou-se dentro dos limites de normalidade. A principal característica dos jogadores de basquetebol foi o valor de pico de torque próximo do esperado para indivíduos hígidos não atletas. Os valores numéricos estão apresentados no texto para serem usados como referência para profissionais da área.The balance between agonist and antagonist muscles in the joints is of great relevance to clinical practice and to sports performance. Information about these parameters amongst Olympic and especially Paralympic athletes is scarce. The purpose of this study was to present the results of the isokinetic evaluation (Cybex 6000 of the Brazilian team that participated in the Sydney Paralympic Games. The flexor and extensor muscles of the knee were evaluated in 11 soccer

  12. Haptic control of a pneumatic muscle actuator to provide resistance for simulated isokinetic exercise: Part I--dynamic test station and human quadriceps dynamic simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kara L; Phillips, Chandler A; Reynolds, David B; Mohler, Stanley R; Rogers, Dana B; Neidhard-Doll, Amy T

    2014-01-01

    Pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs) have a high power to weight ratio and possess unique characteristics which make them ideal actuators for applications involving human interaction. PMAs are difficult to control due to nonlinear dynamics, presenting challenges in system implementation. Despite these challenges, PMAs have great potential as a source of resistance for strength training and rehabilitation. The objective of this work was to control a PMA for use in isokinetic exercise, potentially benefiting anyone in need of optimal strength training through a joint's range of motion. A human quadriceps dynamic simulator (HQDS) was developed so that control effectiveness and accommodation could be tested prior to human implementation. The experimental set-up and HQDS are discussed in Part I of this work. The development of a PMA haptic controller and its interaction with the HQDS are discussed in Part II.

  13. Effects of humeral head compression taping on the isokinetic strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of humeral head compression taping (HHCT) on the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty patients with rotator cuff tendinitis were recruited. The shoulder external rotator strength was measured using a Biodex isokinetic dynamometer system. A paired t-test was performed to evaluate within-group differences in the strength of the shoulder external rotator muscle. [Results] Significantly higher shoulder external rotator peak torque and peak torque per body weight were found in the HHCT condition than in the no-taping condition. [Conclusion] HHCT may effectively increase the shoulder external rotator muscle strength in patients with rotator cuff tendinitis.

  14. The Relationship between Isokinetic Relative Torque of Hip, Knee and Ankle Joints and the Height of Guide Leg Jump in Young Men

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    Saeed Nikoukheslat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between isokinetic relative torques of hip, knee and ankle joints and the height of guide leg jump in young men. Methods: 27 college male athletes with mean age of 25±3.5 years, height 178.5±7.8 cm and weight of 75.7±10.7 kg voluntarily participated in this study. Isokinetic torque of hip, knee and ankle joints and the height of vertical jump were measured using BIODEX SYSTEM PRO 4 and digital vertical jumping tester systems respectively. Pearson correlation test at p<0.05 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Results showed that there were significant correlations between height of jump and hip joint flexion (p= 0.047 & r= 0.39 and extension (p= 0.003 & r= 0.55 torques of guide leg, hip joint extension torque of support leg (p= 0.020 & r=0.45 and knee joint flexion (p= 0.019 & r=0.45 and extension torques of support leg (p=0.006 & r=0.52. Conclusion: The results of this study show that flexion and extension torques of hip joint in guide leg and knee joint in support leg and also extension torque of hip joint in support leg have main effect on height of guide leg jump. Thus, in designing a specific training program for athletes in whom the nature of jump in their sports is guide leg jump, particular attention should be given to hip and knee joints strength.

  15. Shoulder rotator isokinetic strength profile in young swimmers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n5p545

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    Pablo Tomas-Carus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering that some studies suggest that shoulder rotators muscle imbal­ances are related to joint pain and injury, and that there are no normative data for young swimmers, the aim of this study was: i to describe the muscle balance, fatigue and isokinetic strength profile of the shoulder rotators in young swimmers; ii to compare the results between swimmers and a group of young non-practitioners; iii to contribute to the acquisition of normative data of unilateral ratios of shoulder rotators. We evaluated the shoulder rotators concentric strength and unilateral ratios (ratio between torque of external and internal rotators of 60 swimmers (age: 14.55 ± 0.5 years old; body mass: 61.16 ± 7.08 kg and 60 non-practitioners (age: 14.62 ± 0.49 years old; body mass: 60.22 ± 10.01 kg. The evaluation was performed in the sitting position (90° abduction and elbow flexion at 60º.s-1 and 180º.s-1 angular speeds using an isokinetic dynamometer (Biodex System 3. The results of the fatigue ratios revealed no differences between the groups. Swimmers showed unilateral ratios of 73.39 ± 17.26% in the dominant limb (DL and 77.89 ± 15,23% in the non-dominant limb (NDL for assessments at 60º.s-1. At 180º.s-1, ratios were 74.77± 13.99% for DL and 70.11 ± 14.57% for NDL. Swimmers presented greater muscle imbalance, and differed from non-practitioners in the ability to produce power with the internal rotators, which was significantly higher in the former group.

  16. Efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy on isokinetic muscle performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Cid André Fidelis de Paula; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; El-Hage, Yasmin; Politti, Fabiano; Gonzalez, Tabajara de Oliveira; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; de Oliveira, Adriano Rodrigues; Frigero, Marcelo; Antonialli, Fernanda Colella; Vanin, Adriane Aver; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo

    2014-04-09

    Type 2 diabetes, also known non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most prevalent type of the disease and involves defects in the secretion and action of insulin. The aim of the proposed study is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on muscle performance of the quadriceps femoris in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial will be carried out in two treatment phases. In the first phase, quadriceps muscle performance will be evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer and the levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase (biochemical markers of muscle damage) will be determined. The participants will then be allocated to four LLLT groups through a randomization process using opaque envelopes: Group A (4 Joules), Group B (6 Joules), Group C (8 Joules) and Group D (0 Joules; placebo). Following the administration of LLLT, the participants will be submitted to an isokinetic eccentric muscle fatigue protocol involving the quadriceps muscle bilaterally. Muscle performance and biochemical markers of muscle damage will be evaluated again immediately after as well as 24 and 48 hours after the experimental protocol. One week after the last evaluation the second phase will begin, during which Groups A, B and C will receive the LLLT protocol that achieved the best muscle performance in phase 1 for a period of 4 weeks. At the end of this period, muscle performance will be evaluated again. The protocol for this study is registered with the World Health Organization under Universal Trial Number U1111-1146-7109. The purpose of this randomized clinical trial is to evaluate the efficacy of pre-exercise LLLT on the performance of the quadriceps muscle (peak torque, total muscle work, maximum power and fatigue index - normalized by body mass) in individuals with DM-2. The study will support the practice of evidence-based to the use of LLLT in improving muscle performance in Individuals with DM-2

  17. Effects of Six Weeks of Medicine Ball Training on Throwing Velocity, Throwing Precision, and Isokinetic Strength of Shoulder Rotators in Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeder, Christian; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of medicine ball training (MBT) on throwing velocity, throwing precision, and isokinetic strength of shoulder rotators in competitive female handball players. Twenty-eight players (mean ± SD; age: 20.8 ± 3.3 years, height: 170.5 ± 5.6 cm, body mass: 65.2 ± 8.0 kg) were randomly assigned to an MBT group (TG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 13). TG performed a supervised MBT program, 3 times a week for a total of 6 weeks, focusing on handball-specific movement patterns. Both groups, TG and CG, also conducted a supervised shoulder injury prevention program with elastic tubes, as part of the warm-up, finishing with regular handball throws. Results showed a significant group × time interaction in throwing velocity (p handball players, whereas throwing precision remained unaffected. Medicine ball training exercises seem to be a useful and inexpensive strength training strategy in enhancing functional performance by closely mimicking sport-specific movement activities.

  18. Comparison of knee flexion isokinetic deficits between seated and prone positions after ACL reconstruction with hamstrings graft: Implications for rehabilitation and return to sports decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutras, Georgios; Bernard, Manfred; Terzidis, Ioannis P; Papadopoulos, Pericles; Georgoulis, Anastasios; Pappas, Evangelos

    2016-07-01

    Hamstrings grafts are commonly used in ACL reconstruction, however, the effect of graft harvesting on knee flexion strength has not been longitudinally evaluated in functional positions. We hypothesized that greater deficits in knee flexion strength exist in the prone compared to the seated position and these deficits remain as rehabilitation progresses. Case series. Forty-two consecutive patients who underwent ACL reconstruction with a hamstrings graft were followed prospectively for 9 months. Isokinetic knee flexion strength at a slow and a fast speed were collected at 3, 4, 6, and 9 months in two different positions: conventional (seated) and functional (0° of hip flexion). Peak torque knee flexion deficits were higher in the prone position compared to the seated position by an average of 6.5% at 60°/s and 9.1% at 180°/s (p<0.001). Measuring knee flexion strength in prone demonstrates higher deficits than in the conventional seated position. Most athletes would not be cleared to return to sports even at 9 months after surgery with this method. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early postoperative repair status after rotator cuff repair cannot be accurately classified using questionnaires of patient function and isokinetic strength evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jessica; Wang, Allan; Joss, Brendan; Ebert, Jay; Koh, Eamon; Breidahl, William; Ackland, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated if patients with an intact tendon repair or partial-thickness retear early after rotator cuff repair display differences in clinical evaluations and whether early tendon healing can be predicted using these assessments. We prospectively evaluated 60 patients at 16 weeks after arthroscopic supraspinatus repair. Evaluation included the Oxford Shoulder Score, 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand, visual analog scale for pain, 12-item Short Form Health Survey, isokinetic strength, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Independent t tests investigated clinical differences in patients based on the Sugaya MRI rotator cuff classification system (grades 1, 2, or 3). Discriminant analysis determined whether intact repairs (Sugaya grade 1) and partial-thickness retears (Sugaya grades 2 and 3) could be predicted. No differences (P repair was intact. The ability to discriminate between groups was enhanced with up to 5 variables entered; however, only 87% of the partial-retear group and 36% of the intact-repair group were correctly classified. No differences in clinical scores existed between patients stratified by the Sugaya MRI classification system at 16 weeks. An intact repair or partial-thickness retear could not be accurately predicted. Our results suggest that correct classification of healing in the early postoperative stages should involve imaging. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of isokinetic passive exercise and isometric muscle contraction on passive stiffness

    OpenAIRE

    寺田, 茂; Terada, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    博士論文要旨Abstract 要約Outline 以下に掲載:Journal of Physical Therapy Science 25(10) pp.1347-1352. The Society of Physical Therapy Science. 共著者:Shigeru Terada, Hiroichi Miaki, Keita Uchiyama, Shozo Hayakawa, Toshiaki Yamazaki

  1. Effects of a single whole body cryotherapy (-110°C) bout on neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors during isokinetic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Vieira, C A; Soares, S R S; Guedes, R; Rocha Junior, V A; Simoes, H G; Brown, L E; Bottaro, M

    2014-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that body cooling may decrease neuromuscular performance. However, the effect of a single session of whole body cryotherapy (-110°C) on neuromuscular performance has not been well documented. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single exposure of WBC on elbow flexor neuromuscular performance. Thirteen physically active, healthy young men (age=27.9±4.2 years, mass=79.4±9.7 kg, height=176.7±5.2 cm) were randomly exposed to 2 different experimental conditions separated by a minimum of 72 h: 1) whole body cryotherapy- 3 min at -110°C; 2) control- 3 min at 21°C. All subjects were tested for maximal isokinetic elbow flexion at 60°.s(-1) 30 min before and 10 min after each condition. There were no significant differences in peak torque, average power, total work or muscle activity between conditions. Peak torque was lower at post-test compared to pre-test in both conditions (F=6.58, p=0.025). However, there were no differences between pre-test and post-test for any other variables. These results indicate that strength specialists, athletic trainers and physical therapists might utilize whole body cryotherapy before training or rehabilitation without compromising neuromuscular performance of the elbow flexors. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Relationships between the mechanomyographic amplitude patterns of response and concentric isokinetic fatiguing tasks of the leg extensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Fry, Andrew C; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Phillip M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible correlations between the b terms (slopes) form the log-transformed mechanomyographic amplitude (MMG RMS )–force relationships and the fatigue index calculated from 50 maximal concentric contractions. Forty healthy subjects (age = 21 ± 2 yr) performed isometric ramp contractions from 5% to 85% of their maximal voluntary contraction followed by a 50-repetition concentric fatigue protocol of the leg extensors, fatigue index (%) was calculated from the 50-repetitions. MMG was recorded during the ramp contractions from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). The b terms (slopes) were calculated from the log-transformed MMG RMS –force relationships. Correlations were performed comparing the b terms from the MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL and RF with the fatigue index. Significant positive correlations were found among the b terms from the MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL (p = 0.007, r = 0.417) and RF (p = 0.014, r = 0.386) with the fatigue index. The b terms from the log-transformed MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL and RF may have reflected muscle fiber type composition and, thus, correlated with the fatigue index. This adds further support that the MMG RMS –force relationships may reflect muscle fiber type composition. (paper)

  3. ISOKINETIC COMPARISON OF THE ROTATOR CUFF BETWEEN WATERPOLO AND TENNIS PLAYERS/ COMPARAREA ISOKINETICĂ A COIFULUI ROTATORILOR ÎNTRE JUCĂTORII DE POLLO ŞI CEI DE TENIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linde FJ

    Full Text Available Isokinetic evaluation is an objective method that allows rapid and reliable comparison of the relationship between the muscle groups of the rotator cuff, during dynamic exercise. At shoulder level, balance between the rotator cuff muscle groups is essential for keeping joint stability. The purpose of this study is to detect significant differences in muscular performance strength values of the muscles of the rotator cuff by isokinetic tests, in two overhead sport specialities: water polo and tennis. Comparison could be realized analyzing various parameters derivate of the test. Material and methods. We undertook an isokinetic study in a group of 36 high-level athletes: 30 water polo players (12 women and 18 men and 6 tennis players (2 women and 4 men. The parameters analyzed were: peak torque (PT, maximal repetition work (MRW, muscle asymmetry between dominant and no dominant shoulder, and ratio between external and internal rotators. Results. For all tested values of PT, the dominant limb has always been stronger than the no dominant in both sports, but differences in tennis players were much higher in favor of the dominant than water polo players with specific reference to IR. With regard to MRW, water polo players had values higher than tennis players in ER of both sides, but the IR of the dominant limb is greater in tennis players. Conclusions. In water polo players, due to the environment in which specific work is developed and the symmetrical content of simming, the ratios in both extremities were very symmetrical (related to PT; in tennis players, the dominant limb had more normal ratio values but this doesn’t happen in the no dominant possibly because it comes into play shortly.

  4. Multiple time step molecular dynamics in the optimized isokinetic ensemble steered with the molecular theory of solvation: Accelerating with advanced extrapolation of effective solvation forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omelyan, Igor; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2013-01-01

    We develop efficient handling of solvation forces in the multiscale method of multiple time step molecular dynamics (MTS-MD) of a biomolecule steered by the solvation free energy (effective solvation forces) obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation (three-dimensional reference interaction site model complemented with the Kovalenko-Hirata closure approximation). To reduce the computational expenses, we calculate the effective solvation forces acting on the biomolecule by using advanced solvation force extrapolation (ASFE) at inner time steps while converging the 3D-RISM-KH integral equations only at large outer time steps. The idea of ASFE consists in developing a discrete non-Eckart rotational transformation of atomic coordinates that minimizes the distances between the atomic positions of the biomolecule at different time moments. The effective solvation forces for the biomolecule in a current conformation at an inner time step are then extrapolated in the transformed subspace of those at outer time steps by using a modified least square fit approach applied to a relatively small number of the best force-coordinate pairs. The latter are selected from an extended set collecting the effective solvation forces obtained from 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps over a broad time interval. The MTS-MD integration with effective solvation forces obtained by converging 3D-RISM-KH at outer time steps and applying ASFE at inner time steps is stabilized by employing the optimized isokinetic Nosé-Hoover chain (OIN) ensemble. Compared to the previous extrapolation schemes used in combination with the Langevin thermostat, the ASFE approach substantially improves the accuracy of evaluation of effective solvation forces and in combination with the OIN thermostat enables a dramatic increase of outer time steps. We demonstrate on a fully flexible model of alanine dipeptide in aqueous solution that the MTS-MD/OIN/ASFE/3D-RISM-KH multiscale method of molecular dynamics

  5. The effect of a 6-week land and resistance training of 13-16 years old swimmers groups to lower limb isokinetic strength values and to swimming performance13-16 yaş grubu yüzücülerde 6 haftalık kara ve direnç antrenmanlarının alt ekstremite izokinetik kuvvet performansına ve yüzme derecelerine etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Yapıcı, Ayşegül; Maden, Barış; Fındıkoğlu, Gülin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a 6-week land and resistance training of 13-16 year old swimmers groups to lower limb isokinetic strength values and to swimming performance. 22 swimmers participated in this study. The subjects were divided into three groups (A-B-C) according to their 50m swimming degrees. 25m underwater,25m,50m,75m and 100m freestyle swimming degrees of swimmers were recorded. As isokinetic measurements was applied at 60°/s,180°/s and 240°/s speed and th...

  6. A laserterapia de baixa potência melhora o desempenho muscular mensurado por dinamometria isocinética em humanos Low-level laser therapy enhances muscular performance as measured by isokinetic dynamometry in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cesar Pinto Leal Junior

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A fadiga muscular é uma nova área de pesquisa em laserterapia, com poucos estudos conduzidos. Embora a laserterapia de baixa potência (LBP previamente ao exercício tenha apresentado resultados positivos no retardo da fadiga musculoesquelética, ainda não foi estudada utilizando-se a dinamometria isocinética para mensurar desempenho e fadiga muscular. Este estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da LBP (655 nm, 50 mW, 2,4 J por ponto e 12 J de energia total sobre o desempenho e fadiga muscular do músculo tibial anterior, utilizando dinamometria isocinética (30 repetições de contração concêntrica em 14 indivíduos saudáveis sedentários do sexo masculino. Os voluntários foram avaliados ao efetuar 30 repetições isocinéticas de dorsiflexão de tornozelo à velocidade angular de 240°.seg-1. Os resultados mostram que, quando os voluntários foram tratados com LBP antes do exercício, os valores do pico de torque (30,91±5,86 N.m foram significativamente superiores, comparados a três medições anteriores sem a aplicação de LBP (24,92±7,45 N.m, pSkeletal muscle fatigue is a novel research area in laser therapy, there being few studies carried out. Though low-level laser therapy (LLLT applied prior to exercise has showed positive results in delaying skeletal muscle fatigue, no studies could be found that measured muscle performance and fatigue by means of isokinetic dynamometry. This clinical trial aims at assessing the effects of LLLT (655 nm, 50 mW and 12 J total energy delivered on anterior tibialis muscle performance and fatigue by means of isokinetic dynamometry (30 concentric-mode repetitions at 240º.sec-1 angular speed in 14 healthy male subjects. Results show that, when volunteers had been treated with LLLT prior to exercise, torque peak values (30.91±5.86 N.m were significantly higher than those of three previous measurements with no LLLT (24.92±7.45 N.m, p<0.001; 26.83±7.74 N.m, p<0.01; and 26.00±7.88 N.m, p<0

  7. The Fate of the Iliopsoas Muscle in Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction With a Medial Approach in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. Part 2: Isokinetic Muscle Strength Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Ersoz, Murat; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    The impact on long-term weakness of hip flexion of complete iliopsoas tenotomy during open reduction of developmental hip dysplasia with a medial approach has not yet been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the isokinetic muscle strength (IMS) of hip flexor and extensor muscles in these patients and also to analyze the effect of spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas muscle on IMS measurements. The study included 20 patients. Earlier magnetic resonance imaging examination of all the patients revealed spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas in 18 (90%) patients. IMS measurements were performed at 60 and 150 degrees/s. The peak torque, total work (TW), average power (AP), work fatigue, and agonist to antagonist muscle ratio of the operated and nonoperated hips were recorded separately for flexors and extensors. The effect of iliopsoas reattachment on IMS was also evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 16.65±2.16 (13 to 20) years. Total work (P=0.013) and average power (P=0.009) of the flexor muscles and work fatigue of the extensor muscles (P=0.030) of the operated hip were significantly decreased when compared with the nonoperated hips at 150 degrees/s. There was no significant difference between the flexor muscles of the operated and nonoperated hips (Phips. Flexor muscle strength was decreased in the operated hip against low resistance in long-term follow-up after iliopsoas tenotomy. This may reflect that hip muscle strength was decreased after prolonged activities such as sports. However, in forceful activities flexor muscle strength was retained due to iliopsoas reattachment. On the basis of this study we thought that spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas tendon substantially preserves muscle strength. Nonetheless possible efforts should be made to surgically reattach the psoas tendon to preserve strength of the muscle. Therapeutic level IV.

  8. Isokinetic assessment of knee flexor/extensor muscular strength in elderly women Avaliação isocinética do torque muscular flexor-extensor do joelho em mulheres com idade entre 75-83 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Amorim Aquino

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess knee flexor-extensor muscular strength in elderly women with no previous history of musculoskeletal disorders on the lower limbs using an isokinetic dynamometer, in order to obtain data that could be used as a comparative parameter in the evaluation of elderly women with knee disorders, thus facilitating a better rehabilitation of these patients. METHODS: Twenty-six volunteers aged 75 to 83 years were studied using a Cybex® 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. The chosen angular velocity was 60 º/s, and concentric exercise was used for either flexion or extension. The studied parameters were: peak torque, angle of peak torque, and flexor-extensor torque rate. RESULTS: There were no differences between dominant (D and nondominant (ND knee peak torque values. This was true for both flexor (D = 42.46 ± 9.09 Nm / ND = 40.65 ± 9.38 Nm and extensor (D = 76.92 ± 13.97 Nm / ND = 77.65 ± 15.21 Nm movements. The descriptive statistical analysis of the values obtained for the flexor-extensor peak torque rate and for the angle of occurrence of peak torque was the same for the dominant and nondominant sides. CONCLUSIONS: The values of peak torque for the contralateral side can be used as a reference during rehabilitation of elderly women with acute disease of the knee, and the angular velocity of 60 º/s is proper and safe for isokinetic assessment of elderly people.OBJETIVO: Avaliar, isocineticamente, o torque dos músculos flexores e extensores dos joelhos de mulheres idosas sem afecções do sistema músculo-esquelético em membros inferiores, obtendo dados que possam servir como parâmetro de comparação na avaliação de mulheres idosas portadoras de afecções nos joelhos, colaborando para uma melhor reabilitação dessas pacientes. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis voluntárias foram avaliadas. O estudo foi realizado através de um dinamômetro isocinético marca CYBEXâ modelo 6000 na velocidade angular de 60º/s. O tipo do

  9. Análise isocinética da articulação do cotovelo em crianças com paralisia cerebral Isokinetic analysis of the elbow joint in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Martins Franciulli

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A quantidade de torque aplicado na articulação é uma medida de aptidão física importante para crianças com paralisia cerebral. O presente estudo analisou parâmetros cinéticos na articulação do cotovelo em crianças saudáveis e com paralisia cerebral. Participaram 10 crianças com paralisia cerebral e 10 crianças sem comprometimento neurológico. Avaliou-se a média do pico de torque, média do ângulo do pico de torque, coeficiente de variação do torque e aceleração angular do movimento de flexo-extensão do cotovelo nas velocidades com um dinamômetro isocinético. A média de pico de torque (extensão, aceleração (flexão e coeficiente de variação (flexão e extensão são diferentes entre grupos. Conclui-se que o torque e aceleração sofreram interferências no movimento de flexo-extensão; as principais diferenças encontradas foram entre os extremos das velocidades; não houve diferenças no ângulo do pico de torque. A espasticidade não interferiu na força dos músculos agonistas do movimento de flexão da articulação do cotovelo.The joint torque is an important variable related to children with cerebral palsy. The present study analyzed kinetic parameters during elbow flexion and extension movements in healthy and cerebral palsy children. Ten healthy and 10 cerebral palsy children participated of the study. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the elbow mean peak torque, mean angle peak torque, coefficient of variation and acceleration during flexion and extension movements at different angular speeds. The mean peak torque on extension movement in healthy children group was significant higher compared to the cerebral palsy group. The coefficient of variation on both flexion and extension movements was significantly higher in cerebral palsy group. However there were significantly difference on both groups compared the lowest and highest velocities. Although the results showed no difference in flexor peak

  10. Influência do volume de alongamento estático dos músculos isquiotibiais nas variavéis isocinéticas Influence of static stretching volume in isokinetic variables of harmstrings

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    Anselmo Grego Neto

    2009-04-01

    trabalho ao longo de algumas repetições não é.Stretching exercises are commonly prescribed before training sessions and competitions aiming at performance improvement and reduction of injury risk. However, many studies have shown that muscular torque production capacity may be reduced just after stretching. Therefore, the stretching duration necessary to produce these acute force deficits, as well as the physiological mechanisms responsible for them are relevant issues. The aim of this work was to investigate the acute effects of static stretching protocols with different durations on the isokinetic hamstrings performance. Thirty-six young male volunteers took part in this study and were evenly distributed in three groups: E1, E2 and C. All of them performed a systemic warm-up for five minutes and went through active range of motion (AROM of hip flexion and isokinetic assessment. The participants of groups E1 and E2 performed static stretching protocols of 180s (4 x 45s and 360s (8 x 45s respectively, and were evaluated again. The participants of group C (control remained at rest for a period of 270s and were evaluated again. The variables considered were AROM, peak torque, maximum work and total work. Both stretching protocols were able to produce increase in AROM; however, only the longest protocol produced deficits on peak torque and maximum work. Total work was not affected by any of the stretching protocols, though. Therefore, these results suggest that changes in muscular stiffness, that caused AROM gain, would not be responsible alone for the force deficits. Moreover, one can conclude that the maximum muscular strength depends on the stretching duration, but the muscular work along some repetitions of an exercise does not.

  11. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  12. Effect of contraction mode of slow-speed resistance training on the maximum rate of force development in the human quadriceps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Horne, Sara; Cannavan, Dale

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slow-speed resistance training involving concentric (CON, n = 10) versus eccentric (ECC, n = 11) single-joint muscle contractions on contractile rate of force development (RFD) and neuromuscular activity (EMG), and its maintenance through detraining. Isokinetic...

  13. Efeito do intervalo de recuperação entre séries de extensões isocinéticas de joelho em homens jovens destreinados Effect of recovery interval between sets of isokinetic knee extensions among untrained young men

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    R Celes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito de dois diferentes Intervalos de Recuperação (IR entre séries de extensões isocinéticas de joelho no Pico de Torque (PT e no Trabalho Total (TT em jovens destreinados. MÉTODOS: Dezoito homens (24,22±2,58 anos; 80,42±11,41 kg realizaram três séries de 10 extensões isocinéticas com o joelho direito a 60° e 180°/s. O IR entre as séries foram de 1 e 2 minutos, contrabalanceados entre os dois dias de teste, separados por, no mínimo, 48 horas. A taxa de trabalho-recuperação foi de 1:3 e 1:6 para 60°/s e 1:6 e 1:12 para 180°/s. Os voluntários não participavam de programas de treinamento resistido há pelo menos 6 meses. A análise estatística foi a ANOVA de medidas repetidas 2 x 3 [IR (1 e 2 minutos x série (1ª, 2ª e 3ª]. O nível de significância foi aOBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of two recovery intervals (RIs between sets of isokinetic knee extension exercises on peak torque (PT and total work (TW, among untrained young men. METHODS: Eighteen men (24.22±2.58 years; 80.42±11.41 kg performed three sets of ten isokinetic extensions of the right knee, at 60° and 180°/s. The RIs between the sets were one and two minutes long, spread over two test days separated by a minimum of 48 hours. The work-to-recovery ratio was 1:3 and 1:6 for 60°/s, and 1:6 and 1:12 for 180°/s. The subjects had not participated in any resistance training programs within the last six months. The statistical analysis consisted of 2 x 3 repeated-measures ANOVA [RI (one or two minutes x set (1st, 2nd or 3rd]. The significance level was a<0.05. RESULTS: Neither one minute nor two minutes RIs maintained the PT and TW throughout the three sets (p<0.05. However, at 60°/s, two minutes RIs enabled better PT and TW in the second and third sets than one minute RIs (p<0.05. At 180°/s, two minutes RIs were only better (p<0.05 than one minute RIs for TW in the third set. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that, during an isokinetic

  14. Peak torque and knee kinematics during gait after eccentric isokinetic training of quadriceps in healthy subjects O pico de torque e a cinemática do joelho durante a marcha após treino isocinético excêntrico do quadríceps em sujeitos saudáveis

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    PR Poletto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of eccentric isokinetic training on knee range of motion (ROM of healthy subjects. METHODS: The knee extensor and flexor isokinetic peak torques and ROM of flexion/extension and varus/valgus knee movements during gait of 18 healthy men (21.7±2.2 years; 1.73±0.10m; 68.7±9.4kg; body mass index: 22.6±2kg/m² were analyzed, before and after six weeks of bilateral eccentric isokinetic training of the knee extensors at 30º/s. RESULTS: The knee extensor torque increased in both limbs (right, from 229±54 to 304±53Nm; pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos do treino isocinético excêntrico sobre a amplitude de movimento (ADM do joelho em sujeitos saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os picos de torque isocinético dos extensores e flexores do joelho e a ADM de flexo/extensão e valgo/varo, durante a marcha, de 18 homens saudáveis (21,7±2,2 anos; 1,73±0,10m; 68,7±9,4kg; índice de massa corpórea: 22,6±2kg/m² antes e após seis semanas de treino isocinético excêntrico bilateral dos extensores do joelho a 30º/s. RESULTADOS: O torque extensor do joelho aumentou em ambos os membros, direito (de 229±54 para 304±53Nm; p<0,01 e esquerdo (de 228±59 para 311±63Nm; p<0,01 sem diferença de ganho de torque entre eles. O pico de torque flexor aumentou (de 114±30 para 123±22Nm; p<0,05, mas a razão isquiotibiais/quadríceps (I/Q diminuiu (de 0,5±0,08 para 0,39±0,07; p<0,01 após o treino. Não houve diferença para os movimentos de flexo/extensão e valgo/varo após o treino, exceto uma pequena mudança (4° no valgo para o joelho esquerdo. CONCLUSÕES: O treino isocinético excêntrico dos extensores do joelho aumentou o torque extensor e diminuiu a razão I/Q, entretanto o efeito sobre o padrão da marcha parece desprezível em sujeitos saudáveis. Um treino associado dos flexores, complementar ao treino dos extensores parece ser necessário para o equilíbrio entre agonistas e antagonistas do joelho.

  15. Avaliação isocinética de 18 pacientes do sexo masculino submetidos à correção cirúrgica da luxação acromioclavicular aguda com seguimento mínimo de dois anos Isokinetic evaluation of eighteen male patients submitted to surgical corretion of acute acromioclavicular luxation with a minimum two-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Almeida Salles

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 18 pacientes submetidos ao tratamento cirúrgico de luxação acromioclavicular aguda do grau III da classificação de ALLMAN-TOSSY, todos do sexo masculino com idade média de 36 anos, foram avaliados sob o ponto de vista isocinético com tempo de evolução variando de 24 até 127 meses. A avaliação isocinética foi realizada através de um dinamômetro computadorizado marca CYBEX® modelo 6000 na velocidade angular de 60º/segundo e demonstrou resultados significantes no movimento de abdução no plano neutro, com déficit no pico de torque do lado operado, quando comparado com o lado contra-lateral. Quando comparados os ombros com e sem subluxação, os com subluxação demonstraram défcit no trabalho total tanto na adução quanto na abdução no plano neutro.Eighteen male patients, mean age 36 years, submitted to surgical treatment of ALLMAN-TOSSY grade III acute acromioclavicular luxation were studied. They were isokinetically evaluated during an evolution period ranging from 24 to 127 months. The isokinetic evaluation was carried out with a Cybex® 6000 computerized dynamometer, at a 60º/s angular speed, showing significant results in vertical abduction, with a deficit in peak torque in the operated on shoulder as compared to the contralateral side. When the groups with and without subluxation were compared a deficit in total work was observed in the group with subluxation both in adduction and abduction.

  16. Isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors of adolescent soccer players and its changes based on movement speed and age [Izokinetická síla flexorů a extenzorů kolena u adolescentních fotbalistů a její změny s rychlostí pohybu a s věkem

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    Rudolf Psotta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During childhood and adolescence there is growth in muscle strength. The dynamics of change in muscle strength and its causes have not yet been fully clarified and may differ within individuals and specific groups. The knowledge of current isokinetic strength levels among athletes of varying ages and disciplines represents important information from the point of view of sport performance, as well as health prevention. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine within a group of highly trained adolescent soccer players (n = 45; age = 17 ± 1.2 years; body height 178.4 ± 5.3 cm, body weight 68.5 ± 7.6 kg the isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors and to judge whether it is significantly influenced by age and movement speed. METHODS: A group of players was further divided according to age into 3 subgroups – U16 (n = 16; U17 (n = 14; U18 (n = 15. Unilateral strength was measured by the isokinetic dynamometer ISOMED 2000 (D. & R. Ferstl GmbH, Hemau, Germany at angular speeds of 60° • s-1, 180° • s-1 and 360° • s-1. The parameter evaluated was the isokinetic peak torque (PT; Nm. RESULTS: The ANOVA results demonstrate that there was a significant decrease in the PT within the entire group of players with an increase in speed during both flexion and extension (dominant extremity: p < 0.001 resp. p < 0.019; non-dominant extremity: p < 0.001; resp. p < 0.001. The difference in PT among the age categories was not significant for both flexors and extensors at the speed of 60° ∙ s-1 (p = 0.005; resp. p = 0.036 and the speed of 180° ∙ s-1 (p = 0.036; resp. p = 0.033. However, significant differences in PT among individual categories were confirmed only in some cases and, by contrast, an insignificant decrease was marked with nondominant leg extensors. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated the state of the strength readiness of the highly trained soccer players in the junior category and the potential

  17. Eccentric training for shoulder abductors improves pain, function and isokinetic performance in subjects with shoulder impingement syndrome: a case series Treino excêntrico para abdutores do ombro melhora dor, função e desempenho isocinético em sujeitos com síndrome do impacto: série de casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. Camargo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conservative treatments have been proposed for people with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS, such as strengthening of the rotator cuff and scapular muscles and stretching of the soft tissues of the shoulder. However, there is a lack of studies analyzing the effectiveness of eccentric training in the treatment of SIS. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of eccentric training for shoulder abductors on pain, function, and isokinetic performance during concentric and eccentric abduction of the shoulder in subjects with SIS. METHODS: Twenty subjects (7 females, 34.2 SD 10.2 years, 1.7 SD 0.1 m, 78.0 SD 16.3 kg with unilateral SIS completed the study protocol. Bilateral isokinetic eccentric training at 60º/s for shoulder abductors was performed for six consecutive weeks, twice a week, on alternate days. For each training day, three sets of 10 repetitions were performed with a 3-minute rest period between the sets for each side. The range of motion trained was 60° (ranging from 80° to 20°. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH questionnaire was used to evaluate functional status and symptoms of the upper limbs. Peak torque, total work and acceleration time were measured during concentric and eccentric abduction of the arm at 60º/s and 180º/s using an isokinetic dynamometer. RESULTS: DASH scores, peak torque, total work and acceleration time improved (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Tratamentos conservadores têm sido propostos para pessoas com síndrome do impacto (SI do ombro, como fortalecimento do manguito rotador e dos músculos escapulares e alongamento dos tecidos moles do ombro. No entanto, são escassos os estudos que analisaram a eficácia do treinamento excêntrico no tratamento da SI. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos do treinamento excêntrico para abdutores do ombro na dor, função e desempenho isocinético durante a abdução concêntrica e excêntrica do ombro em indivíduos com SI. MÉTODOS: Vinte indivíduos (sete

  18. KNEE ISOKINETIC TORQUE IMBALANCE IN FEMALE FUTSAL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina de Mello Alves Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The specificity of sports training can lead to muscle specialization with a possible change in the natural hamstring/quadriceps torque ratio (HQ ratio, constituting a risk factor for muscle injury at the joint angles in which muscle imbalance may impair dynamic stability. Objective: The aim was to evaluate the torque distribution of the hamstrings and quadriceps and the HQ ratio throughout the range of motion in order to identify possible muscle imbalances at the knee of female futsal athletes. Methods: Nineteen amateur female futsal athletes had their dominant limb HQ ratio evaluated in a series of five maximum repetitions of flexion/extension of the knee at 180°/second in the total joint range of motion (30° to 80°. The peak flexor and extensor torque and the HQ ratio (% were compared each 5° of knee motion using one-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test (p<0.05 to determine the joint angles that present muscular imbalance. Results: Quadriceps torque was higher than 50° to 60° of knee flexion, while hamstrings torque was higher than 55° to 65°. The HQ ratio presented lower values than 30° to 45° of knee flexion and four athletes presented values lower than 60%, which may represent a risk of injury. However, the HQ ratio calculated by the peak torque showed only one athlete with less than 60%. Conclusion: The HQ ratio analyzed throughout the knee range of motion allowed identifying muscle imbalance at specific joint angles in female futsal players.

  19. Thoracic posture, shoulder muscle activation patterns and isokinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shoulder injuries are the most severe injuries in rugby union players, accounting for almost 20% of ... under demanding circumstances such as participation in sport.[6,7] ..... from a biomechanical point of view, especially in the game of rugby.

  20. Posture and isokinetic shoulder strength in female water polo players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    pathological injuries, such as rotator cuff tendinitis, shoulder instability and shoulder ... and specific postural characteristics, which will be useful in future studies. ... concentric and eccentric IR and ER shoulder muscle strength in 15 club-level ...

  1. Enthalpy–entropy compensation and the isokinetic temperature in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Athel Cornish-Bowden

    2017-11-07

    Nov 7, 2017 ... (1964) drew attention to the possibility that statistical arte- facts might ... effects were caused by 'a ubiquitous property of water'. (Lumry and ..... design of potent and isozyme-selective inhibitors of the enzyme. Biochemistry 53 ...

  2. Isokinetic torque peak and hamstrings/quadriceps ratios in endurance athletes with anterior cruciate ligament laxity Pico de torque isocinético e relação ísquios-tibiais/quadríceps em atletas de endurance com frouxidão do ligamento cruzado anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Magaieski Portes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate torque and the hamstring/quadriceps ratio of the knee of athletes with and without anterior cruciate ligament laxity. METHODS: Twenty-eight male athletes, 19 without anterior cruciate ligament laxity and 9 with anterior cruciate ligament laxity, were evaluated with an isokinetic machine model Cybex 770. The peak torque of quadriceps and hamstrings was compared, and the hamstring/quadriceps ratio on the constant angular speed of 60º per second were also compared. RESULTS: In athletes with anterior cruciate ligament laxity, the peak torque values (right and left knees of flexors (120 ± 15 and 116 ± 15 Nm and of extensors (218 ± 36 Nm and 207 ± 26 Nm were not different than those of athletes without laxity (109 ± 21 Nm and 111 ± 22 Nm; 191 ± 5 Nm and 188 ± 35 Nm. The hamstring/quadriceps ratio of athletes with laxity (right: 57 ± 6% and left: 56 ± 8% did not differ from those without anterior cruciate ligament laxity (right: 58 ± 9% and left: 58 ± 7%. CONCLUSIONS: The anterior cruciate ligament laxity of long distances running athletes did not significantly alter the peak torque of flexors and of extensors or the hamstring/quadriceps ratio.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o torque e a relação de forças entre ísquios-tibiais/quadríceps dos joelhos de atletas corredores de longas distâncias com e sem frouxidão do ligamento cruzado anterior. METODOLOGIA: Vinte e oito atletas do gênero masculino, 19 sem frouxidão do ligamento cruzado anterior e 9 com frouxidão do ligamento cruzado anterior foram avaliados com aparelho isocinético modelo Cybex 770. Comparou-se o pico de torque dos quadríceps e dos ísquios-tibiais e a relação ísquios-tibiais/quadríceps na velocidade angular constante de 60º por segundo. Os dados obtidos foram comparados por meio dos testes t de Student e para dados pareados (membros direito e esquerdo e o nível de significância estabelecido foi p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Nos atletas com frouxidão do

  3. Aplicación de la dinamometría isocinética para establecer perfiles de riesgo de lesión isquiosural en futbolistas profesionales. [The use of isokinetic dynamometry to establish risk profiles of hamstring injury in professional football players].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Moreno-Perez

    2013-10-01

    torque of the hamstring musculature was found, are useful variables to establish risk profiles for hamstring injury in professional football players. Twenty players of a Second Division team of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional bilaterally performed an isokinetic test of eccentric knee flexion at 30º/s and concentric knee extension at 240º/s during the pre-season. The Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratio and the knee angle of peak torque were calculated, and the players’ injuries were registered throughout the season. The results showed that two of the five injured players had Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratios lower than 0.89, value that has been previously used to determine the imbalance between knee flexor and extensor strength and the risk of injury (Croisier, Ganteaume, Binet, Genty, and Ferret, 2008. In addition, another two injured players obtained ratios between 0.93 and 1.00. On the other hand, no differences in the knee angle of peak torque between injured and non-injured players were found. These results indicate that the Flexexc30/Extcon240 ratio may be a useful index to determine the risk of hamstring injury in professional football players.http://dx.doi.org/10.5232/ricyde2013.03403

  4. Avaliação muscular isocinética da articulação do joelho em atletas das seleções brasileiras infanto e juvenil de voleibol masculino Evaluación muscular isocinetica de la articulación de la rodilla en atletas de las selecciones brasileras infanto y juveniles de voleibol masculino Isokinetic muscle evaluation of the knee joint in athletes of the Under-19 and Under-21 Male Brazilian National Volleyball Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Franco N. Bittencourt

    2005-12-01

    . El estudio presente puede servir así, como base para las comparaciones de estudios futuros que evalúen la función muscular isocinética en atletas del voleibol.The vertical jump is a basic volleyball practice that demands a high ability to generate strength and work in the muscles involved, mainly in the quadriceps muscle. Due to such demand, muscle imbalances between extensor and flexor muscles may be present, causing an overloading on the muscle-tendinous structures of the knee joint. Thus, the establishment of normal parameters for the muscle function related to that joint in volleyball athletes is necessary. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess through isokinetic dynamometry the peak torque, work peak, agonist/antagonist ratio, and fatigue index of the flexor and extensor of the knee among both volleyball athlete population. The isokinetic flexion and extension tests of the knees were performed in the concentric-concentric seat mode at 60 and 300º/sec. velocity in thirty-six athletes (20 under 19-under 21, and 16 under 21. The data allowed to set the parameters for the muscle function of the knee joint among athletes of the 2003 Under 19-Under 21 and Under 21 Brazilian National Team Selection of Male Volleyball. Athletes presented peak torque and work peak values normalized by the body mass to the upper quadriceps to the mean normal values for the athletes and non-athletes populations. Compared to other categories, the under 21 athletes presented significantly higher values for the agonist/antagonist ratio, and peak work ratio of the knee flexors at 60º/sec. velocity. Furthermore, the agonist/antagonist ratio was lower than the reference value expected for both categories, thus characterizing predominance in the extensor musculature over the flexor musculature. The fatigue index was close to what would be expected for the majority of athletes. The present study may be useful as comparison basis for future studies aiming evaluate the isokinetic

  5. Força muscular isocinética de jogadores de futebol da seleção paraolímpica brasileira de portadores de paralisia cerebral Fuerza muscular isocinética en jugadores de futbol de la selección paraolímpica brasileña de portadores de parálisis cerebral Isokinetic muscular strength of paralympic athletes with cerebral palsy (CP from the Brazilian soccer team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília dos Santos Andrade

    2005-10-01

    fué utilizado para analizar la deficiencia contra-lateral en relación entre los músculos flexores y extensores de la rodilla y la flaqueza muscular comparados con valores previstos para individuos normales (Neder et al., 1999. El test t-Student apareado fué utilizado para el análisis estadístico (p INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The muscle weakness, strength asymmetries and imbalance between antagonist muscles are risk factors for knee injuries. It is possible that these risk factors increase in soccer players with cerebral palsy (CP due to their pathology and to the sport activity. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the presence of these factors in paralympic athletes with CP from the Brazilian paralympic seven-a-side soccer team. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-one soccer players with CP and spastic hemiplegia were submitted to isokinetic muscle evaluation of their knees flexors and extensors muscles by means of the Cybex 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. The analysis of the muscle strength was performed with a peak torque at 60°/s. The study analyzed the contralateral deficit, the balance between flexor and extensor muscles and compared muscles weakness to the expected values for normal individuals (Neder et al. 1999. The paired t-Student test was used for the statistical analysis with p < 0.05. RESULTS: The peak torque values of the involved flexors (FPT and extensors (EPT knee muscles (FPT = 88.4 ± 26.0 Nm and EPT 155.4 ± 37.2 Nm presented significantly smaller ratios than those of the uninvolved ones (FPT = 116.2 ± 24.8 Nm and EPT = 201.6 ± 38.8 Nm. Only extensor muscles of the involved side were weaker than expected. However, the flexor muscles were weaker than expected in nine out of 21 individuals. The measures of strength of uninvolved knee muscles were not significantly different from the expected values. The average balance between flexors and extensors was within the normal range, although three individuals presented results below the

  6. Complex myograph allows the examination of complex muscle contractions for the assessment of muscle force, shortening, velocity, and work in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhschulte Hainer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The devices used for in vivo examination of muscle contractions assess only pure force contractions and the so-called isokinetic contractions. In isokinetic experiments, the extremity and its muscle are artificially moved with constant velocity by the measuring device, while a tetanic contraction is induced in the muscle, either by electrical stimulation or by maximal voluntary activation. With these systems, experiments cannot be performed at pre-defined, constant muscle length, single contractions cannot be evaluated individually and the separate examination of the isometric and the isotonic components of single contractions is not possible. Methods The myograph presented in our study has two newly developed technical units, i.e. a. a counterforce unit which can load the muscle with an adjustable, but constant force and b. a length-adjusting unit which allows for both the stretching and the contraction length to be infinitely adjustable independently of one another. The two units support the examination of complex types of contraction and store the counterforce and length-adjusting settings, so that these conditions may be accurately reapplied in later sessions. Results The measurement examples presented show that the muscle can be brought to every possible pre-stretching length and that single isotonic or complex isometric-isotonic contractions may be performed at every length. The applied forces act during different phases of contraction, resulting into different pre- and after-loads that can be kept constant – uninfluenced by the contraction. Maximal values for force, shortening, velocity and work may be obtained for individual muscles. This offers the possibility to obtain information on the muscle status and to monitor its changes under non-invasive measurement conditions. Conclusion With the Complex Myograph, the whole spectrum of a muscle's mechanical characteristics may be assessed.

  7. Avaliação isocinética da musculatura envolvida na flexão e extensão do tronco: efeito do método Pilates® Evaluación isocinética de la musculatura comprendida en la flexion y en la extensión del tronco: efecto del método Pilates® Isokinetic evaluation of the musculature involved in trunk flexion and extension: Pilates© method effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inélia Ester Garcia Garcia Kolyniak

    2004-12-01

    . Por tanto, fueron seleccionadas 20 personas (16 mujeres con edad media: 34,06 ± 7,21; 4 hombres con edad media 33,5 ± 6,68 con habilidad para ejecutar los ejercicios de nivel intermediario-avanzado, que completaran 25 sesiones durante 12 semanas. Los voluntarios fueron sometidos al test isocinético de evaluación de la flexión y extensión del tronco en el inicio y al final del período de entrenamiento. La función de los extensores del tronco presentó aumento en todos los parámetros analizados (pico de torque - 25%, p = 0,0004; trabajo total - 28%, p = 0,0002; potencia - 30%, p = 0,0002; cantidad total de trabajo - 21%, p = 0,002 en relación al período pre-entrenamento. Con relación a los músculos flexores, fue detectado un discreto aumento para trabajo total (10%, p = 0,0003 y para cantidad total de trabajo (10%, p = 0,002. Analizando la relación flexo-extensor en todos los parámetros fue detectado una reducción significativa en relación a los índices obtenidos en el pre-entrenamiento (pico de torque - 24%, p = 0,0001; trabajo total - 23%, p = 0,002; potencia - 25%, p = 0,01; cantidad total de trabajo - 14%, p = 0,04. El método Pilates® (nivel intermediarioavanzado se mostró como una eficiente herramienta para el fortalecimiento de la musculatura extensora del tronco, atenuando el desequilibrio entre la función de los músculos comprendidos en la extensión y flexión del tronco.Trunk extensors and flexors muscles imbalance is strong indication of the etiology of low back pain. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of Pilates© method upon trunk flexors and extensors isokinetic function. To do so, we selected 20 volunteers (16 women 34.06 ± 7.21 yrs; 4 men 33.5 ± 6.68 yrs capable to perform the intermediate-advanced level of Pilates© method (25 sessions during 12 weeks. Trunk extensor function was improved in all parameters evaluated (peak torque - 25%, p = 0.0004; total work - 28%, p = 0.0002; average power - 30%, p = 0

  8. A comparison of two Shuttle launch and entry suits - Reach envelope, isokinetic strength, and treadmill tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Lauren E.; Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1992-01-01

    A quantification has been conducted of any existing differences between the performance, in operational conditions, of the Space Shuttle crew Launch Entry Suit (LES) and the new Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES). While LES is a partial-pressure suit, the ACES system which is being considered as a replacement for LES is a full-pressure suit. Three tests have been conducted with six subjects to ascertain the suits' reach envelope, strength, and treadmill performance. No significant operational differences were found between the two suit designs.

  9. Comparison of isokinetic peak force and power in adults with partial and total blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Michael; Ray, Christopher; Nocera, Joe; Croce, Ron

    2006-08-01

    For many populations the ability to move efficiently is compromised by an impaired muscular functioning. Strength development is necessary to overcome the effects of gravity to maintain posture and generate movement responses for mobility. The strength and power capabilities of individuals with total blindness (n = 12) were compared to those with partial vision (n = 12) to evaluate effects of vision on performance. Results indicate that (1) no significant differences were apparent between total blindness and partial vision, (2) significant sex differences were evident in each group, and (3) better performance was apparent at lower velocities. It was concluded that physical performance in individuals with blindness and partial vision are equally deficient.

  10. Comparison of hamstring/quadriceps ratio between isoinertial and isokinetic measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Da Silva, Bruna G C; Bottaro, Martim; Weber, Fernanda S.; Radaelli, Regis; Gaya, Anelise R.; Cardoso, Marcelo S.; Brown, Lee E.; Carregaro, Rodrigo; Pinto, Ronei S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the applicability and predictive accuracy of an isoinertial resistance machine for the assessment of hamstring/quadriceps conventional (concentric) ratio (CR). METHOD: Thirty-two resistance trained young men (23.53 ± 3.2 yrs) were tested using dedicated instruments to obtain

  11. Sex differences in neuromuscular function after repeated eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrea; Baxter, Jake; Eischer, Claire; Gage, Matt; Hunter, Sandra; Yoon, Tejin

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the mechanisms for force and power reduction during and up to 48 h after maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles in young men and women. 13 men (22.8 ± 2.6 years) and 13 women (21.6 ± 2.2 years) performed 150 maximal effort eccentric contractions (5 sets of 30) with the knee extensor muscles at 60° s -1 . Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and maximal voluntary concentric contractions (MVCC) were performed before and after the 150 eccentric contractions. The MVCCs involved a set of two isokinetic contractions at 60° s -1 and sets of isotonic contractions performed at seven different resistance loads (1 N m, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% MVIC). Electrical stimulation was used during the MVICs and at rest to determine changes in voluntary activation and contractile properties. At baseline, men were stronger than women (MVIC: 276 ± 48 vs. 133 ± 37 N m) and more powerful (MVCC: 649 ± 77 vs. 346 ± 78 W). At termination of the eccentric contractions, voluntary activation, resting twitch amplitude, and peak power during concentric contractions at the seven loads and at 60° s -1 decreased (P  0.05) with no sex differences. Central mechanisms were primarily responsible for the depressed maximal force production up to 48 h after repeated eccentric contractions of the knee extensors and these mechanisms were similar in men and women.

  12. Systemic inflammatory responses to maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peake, Jonathan M; Nosaka, Kazunori; Muthalib, Makii; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2006-01-01

    We compared changes in markers of muscle damage and systemic inflammation after submaximal and maximal lengthening muscle contractions of the elbow flexors. Using a cross-over design, 10 healthy young men not involved in resistance training completed a submaximal trial (10 sets of 60 lengthening contractions at 10% maximum isometric strength, 1 min rest between sets), followed by a maximal trial (10 sets of three lengthening contractions at 100% maximum isometric strength, 3 min rest between sets). Lengthening contractions were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer. Opposite arms were used for the submaximal and maximal trials, and the trials were separated by a minimum of two weeks. Blood was sampled before, immediately after, 1 h, 3 h, and 1-4 d after each trial. Total leukocyte and neutrophil numbers, and the serum concentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1 were elevated after both trials (P < 0.01), but there were no differences between the trials. Serum IL-6 concentration was elevated 3 h after the submaximal contractions (P < 0.01). The concentrations of serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-1 receptor antagonist, IL-10, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor and plasma C-reactive protein remained unchanged following both trials. Maximum isometric strength and range of motion decreased significantly (P < 0.001) after both trials, and were lower from 1-4 days after the maximal contractions compared to the submaximal contractions. Plasma myoglobin concentration and creatine kinase activity, muscle soreness and upper arm circumference all increased after both trials (P < 0.01), but were not significantly different between the trials. Therefore, there were no differences in markers of systemic inflammation, despite evidence of greater muscle damage following maximal versus submaximal lengthening contractions of the elbow flexors.

  13. Importance of contraction history on muscle force of porcine urinary bladder smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Robin; Böl, Markus; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a comprehensive dataset of porcine urinary bladder smooth muscle properties. Particularly, the history dependence of force production, namely force depression (FD) following shortening and force enhancement (FE) following stretch, was analysed. During active micturition, the circumference of the urinary bladder changes enormously. Thus, FD might be an important phenomenon during smooth muscle contraction. Electrically stimulated, intact urinary bladder strips from pigs (n = 10) were suspended in an aerated-filled organ bath, and different isometric, isotonic, and isokinetic contraction protocols were performed to determine the force-length and the force-velocity relation. FD and FE were assessed in concentric and eccentric contractions with different ramp lengths and ramp velocities. Bladder smooth muscles exhibit considerable amounts of FD and FE. The amount of FD increased significantly with ramp length, while FE did not change. However, FE and FD were independent of ramp velocity. The results imply that smooth muscle bladder strips exhibit similar muscle properties and history-dependent behaviour compared to striated muscles. The provided dataset of muscle properties is important for bladder modelling as well as for the analyses and interpretation of dynamic bladder filling and voiding.

  14. Evaluation of the Combined Application of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Volitional Contractions on Thigh Muscle Strength, Knee Pain and Physical Performance in Women at Risk for Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabe, Kaitlin G; Matsuse, Hiroo; Jackson, Anthony; Segal, Neil A

    2018-05-28

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability that is associated with quadriceps weakness. However, strengthening in people with or with risk factors for knee OA can be poorly tolerated. To assess the efficacy of a twelve-week low-load exercise program, using a hybrid training system (HTS) that utilizes the combination of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and volitional contractions, for improving thigh muscle strength, knee pain and physical performance in women with or with risk factors for knee OA. Randomized, single-blind, controlled trial SETTING: Exercise training laboratory PARTICIPANTS: Forty-two women, age 44-85 years, with risk factors for knee OA INTERVENTIONS: Participants randomized to 12 weeks of biweekly low-load resistance training either with HTS or on an isokinetic dynamometer (control). Maximum isokinetic knee extensor torque. Secondary measures included: maximum isokinetic knee flexor torque, knee pain (KOOS), and timed 20-meter walk and chair-stand tests. HTS and control both resulted in muscle strengthening, reduced knee pain and improved physical performance. HTS group quadriceps and hamstring strength increased by 0.06±0.04 Nm/kg (p>.05) and 0.05±0.02 Nm/kg (p=.02), respectively. Control group quadriceps and hamstring strength increased by 0.03±0.04 Nm/kg (p>.05) and 0.06±0.02 Nm/kg (p=.009), respectively. Knee pain improved by 11.9±11.5 points (pmeter walk time decreased by 1.60±2.04 seconds (p=.005) and 0.95±1.2 seconds (p=.004), and chair stand time decreased by 4.8±10.0 seconds (p>.05) and 1.9±4.7 seconds (p>.05) in the HTS and control groups, respectively. These results did not differ statistically between HTS and control groups. These results suggest HTS is effective for improving pain and physical performance in women with risk factors for knee OA. However, HTS does not appear to be superior to low-load resistance training for improving muscle strength, pain or physical function. Copyright © 2018 American

  15. Isokinetic evaluation of internal/external tibial rotation strength after the use of hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Tanya; Forwell, Lorie; Litchfield, Robert; Kirkley, Alexandra; Amendola, Ned; Fowler, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of the knee after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the use of the semitendinosus and gracilis (hamstring) autografts has primarily focused on flexion and extension strength. The semitendinosus and gracilis muscles contribute to internal tibial rotation, and it has been suggested that harvest of these tendons for the purpose of an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction contributes to internal tibial rotation weakness. Internal tibial rotation strength may be affected by the semitendinosus and gracilis harvest after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Prospective evaluation of internal and external tibial rotation strength. Inclusion criteria for subjects (N = 30): unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at least 2 years previously, a stable anterior cruciate ligament (problems after initial knee reconstruction, a normal contralateral knee, and the ability to comply with the testing protocol. In an attempt to minimize unwanted subtalar joint motion, subjects were immobilized using an ankle brace and tested at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s, 120 degrees /s, and 180 degrees /s at a knee flexion angle of 90 degrees . The mean peak torque measurements for internal rotation strength of the operative limb (60 degrees /s, 17.4 +/- 4.5 ft-lb; 120 degrees /s, 13.9 +/- 3.3 ft-lb; 180 degrees /s, 11.6 +/- 3.0 ft-lb) were statistically different compared to the nonoperated limb (60 degrees /s, 20.5 +/- 4.7 ft-lb; 120 degrees /s, 15.9 +/- 3.8 ft-lb; 180 degrees /s, 13.4 +/- 3.8 ft-lb) at 60 degrees /s (P = .012), 120 degrees /s (P = .036), and 180 degrees /s (P = .045). The nonoperative limb demonstrated greater strength at all speeds. The mean torque measurements for external rotation were statistically similar when compared to the nonoperated limb at all angular velocities. We have shown through our study that patients who undergo surgical intervention to repair a torn anterior cruciate ligament with the use of autogenous hamstring tendons demonstrate with weaker internal tibial rotation postoperatively at 2 years when compared to the contralateral limb.

  16. A Study on Special Characteristics of Sports Aerobics Competitor : The Capacity of Aerobic Power and Isokinetic Strength of Knee Joint

    OpenAIRE

    菊地, はるひ; 佐々木, 浩子

    2004-01-01

    Sports Aerobics is the competitive sports including the complex aerobic step combination and difficulty elements. The competition time is 1 minute and 45±5 seconds. Sports Aerobics requires mainly anaerobic energy for competitive performance. But also it is very important to get the high capacity of aerobic power for performing the perfect execution. In this study, we tried to find out the characteristics for aerobic capacity and leg muscle strength in Sports Aerobics world champions (2 males...

  17. Isokinetic and Isometric Muscle Strength in a Healthy Population – with Special Reference to Age and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneskiold-Samsøe, B; Bartels, E M; Bülow, P M

    2009-01-01

    decreases in a linear fashion from the age of 25 years down to between 54% and 89% at the age of 75 years, and seems not highly dependent on any other parameter than age. For women, the muscle strength is dependent on weight and is only related to age from around 40 years of age. The decrease in muscle...

  18. A Comparison of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Following Maximal Eccentric Contractions in Men and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-08-01

    Research regarding exercise-induced muscle-damage mainly focuses on adults. The present study examined exercise-induced muscle-damage responses in adults compared with children. Eleven healthy boys (10-12 y) and 15 healthy men (18-45 y) performed 5 sets of 15 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Range of motion (ROM), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during squat and walking, and peak isometric, concentric and eccentric torque were assessed before, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postexercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity was assessed before and 72 hr postexercise. Eccentric exercise resulted in DOMS during squat that persisted for up to 96h in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .05), and DOMS during walking that persisted for up to 72 hr in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .01). The ROM was lower in both age groups 48 hr postexercise (p < .001). Isometric (p < .001), concentric (p < .01) and eccentric (p < .01) force decreased post, and up to 48 hr postexercise in men. Except for a reduction in isometric force immediately after exercise, no other changes occurred in boys' isokinetic force. CK activity increased in men at 72 hr postexercise compared with pre exercise levels (p = .05). Our data provide further confirmation that children are less susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage compared with adults.

  19. A New Training for Older Adults Using Combined Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Volitional Contraction: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Yoshio; Matsuse, Hiroo; Tsukada, Yuuya; Omoto, Masayuki; Hashida, Ryuki; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    The hybrid training system (HTS) resists the motion of a volitionally contracting agonist muscle using force generated by its electrically stimulated antagonist. We have developed a new training method using the principle of HTS. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of HTS with electrical stimulation on muscle strength and physical function by comparing it against training without electrical stimulation in older adults. 16 subjects were randomly divided into two groups: the squat and single leg lift training (control, CTR) group, and the CTR with HTS training group. Some electrical stimulation was applied to the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in the HTS group. The subjects performed training for 25 min per session 3 times a week for 12 weeks. At points before and after the research maximal isokinetic torque, knee-flexors (KFT) and knee-extensors (KET), a one-leg standing test (OLT), a functional reach test (FRT), a 10-meter maximal gait time (10MGT) and Timed up & go test (TUG) were conducted. None of the subjects had any injuries during the study period. TUG significantly improved after the training period in both the HTS group (7.15 sec to 6.01 sec P = 0.01) and in the CTR.

  20. Electrically Stimulated Antagonist Muscle Contraction Increased Muscle Mass and Bone Mineral Density of One Astronaut - Initial Verification on the International Space Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Naoto; Matsuse, Hiroo; Takano, Yoshio; Yoshimitsu, Kazuhiro; Omoto, Masayuki; Hashida, Ryuki; Tagawa, Yoshihiko; Inada, Tomohisa; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS). We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS) to maintain an astronaut's musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system's orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut's musculoskeletal atrophy. HTS was attached to the non-dominant arm of an astronaut staying on the ISS, and his dominant arm without HTS was established as the control (CTR). 10 sets of 10 reciprocal elbow curls were one training session, and 12 total sessions of training (3 times per week for 4 weeks) were performed. Pre and post flight ground based evaluations were performed by Biodex (muscle performance), MRI (muscle volume), and DXA (BMD, lean [muscle] mass, fat mass). Pre and post training inflight evaluations were performed by a hand held dynamometer (muscle force) and a measuring tape (upper arm circumference). The experiment was completed on schedule, and HTS functioned well without problems. Isokinetic elbow extension torque (Nm) changed -19.4% in HTS, and -21.7% in CTR. Isokinetic elbow flexion torque changed -23.7% in HTS, and there was no change in CTR. Total Work (Joule) of elbow extension changed -8.3% in HTS, and +0.3% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -23.3% in HTS and -32.6% in CTR. Average Power (Watts) of elbow extension changed +22.1% in HTS and -8.0% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -6.5% in HTS and -4.8% in CTR. Triceps muscle volume according to MRI changed +11.7% and that of biceps was +2.1% using HTS, however -0.1% and -0.4% respectively for CTR. BMD changed +4.6% in the HTS arm and -1.2% for CTR. Lean (muscle) mass of the arm changed only +10.6% in HTS. Fat mass changed -12.6% in HTS and -6.4% in CTR. These results showed the orbital operation

  1. Electrically Stimulated Antagonist Muscle Contraction Increased Muscle Mass and Bone Mineral Density of One Astronaut - Initial Verification on the International Space Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Shiba

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal atrophy is one of the major problems of extended periods of exposure to weightlessness such as on the International Space Station (ISS. We developed the Hybrid Training System (HTS to maintain an astronaut's musculoskeletal system using an electrically stimulated antagonist to resist the volitional contraction of the agonist instead of gravity. The present study assessed the system's orbital operation capability and utility, as well as its preventative effect on an astronaut's musculoskeletal atrophy.HTS was attached to the non-dominant arm of an astronaut staying on the ISS, and his dominant arm without HTS was established as the control (CTR. 10 sets of 10 reciprocal elbow curls were one training session, and 12 total sessions of training (3 times per week for 4 weeks were performed. Pre and post flight ground based evaluations were performed by Biodex (muscle performance, MRI (muscle volume, and DXA (BMD, lean [muscle] mass, fat mass. Pre and post training inflight evaluations were performed by a hand held dynamometer (muscle force and a measuring tape (upper arm circumference.The experiment was completed on schedule, and HTS functioned well without problems. Isokinetic elbow extension torque (Nm changed -19.4% in HTS, and -21.7% in CTR. Isokinetic elbow flexion torque changed -23.7% in HTS, and there was no change in CTR. Total Work (Joule of elbow extension changed -8.3% in HTS, and +0.3% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -23.3% in HTS and -32.6% in CTR. Average Power (Watts of elbow extension changed +22.1% in HTS and -8.0% in CTR. For elbow flexion it changed -6.5% in HTS and -4.8% in CTR. Triceps muscle volume according to MRI changed +11.7% and that of biceps was +2.1% using HTS, however -0.1% and -0.4% respectively for CTR. BMD changed +4.6% in the HTS arm and -1.2% for CTR. Lean (muscle mass of the arm changed only +10.6% in HTS. Fat mass changed -12.6% in HTS and -6.4% in CTR.These results showed the orbital

  2. Characteristics of myogenic response and ankle torque recovery after lengthening contraction-induced rat gastrocnemius injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Hongsun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although muscle dysfunction caused by unfamiliar lengthening contraction is one of most important issues in sports medicine, there is little known about the molecular events on regeneration process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the temporal and spatial expression patterns of myogenin, myoD, pax7, and myostatin after acute lengthening contraction (LC-induced injury in the rat hindlimb. Methods We employed our originally developed device with LC in rat gastrocnemius muscle (n = 24. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized with isoflurane (aspiration rate, 450 ml/min, concentration, 2.0%. The triceps surae muscle of the right hindlimb was then electrically stimulated with forced isokinetic dorsi-flexion (180°/sec and from 0 to 45°. Tissue contents of myoD, myogenin, pax7, myostatin were measured by western blotting and localizations of myoD and pax7 was measured by immunohistochemistry. After measuring isometric tetanic torque, a single bout of LC was performed in vivo. Results The torque was significantly decreased on days 2 and 5 as compared to the pre-treatment value, and recovered by day 7. The content of myoD and pax7 showed significant increases on day 2. Myogenin showed an increase from day 2 to 5. Myostatin on days 5 and 7 were significantly increased. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that myoD-positive/pax7-positive cells increased on day 2, suggesting that activated satellite cells play a role in the destruction and the early recovery phases. Conclusion We, thus, conclude that myogenic events associate with torque recovery after LC-induced injury.

  3. Renewable Energy Testing Center for US Army Contract W15QKN-05-D-0030 Task 5 RETC, WBS #4.6.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    repeatability. · Establish equipment needed to meter inputs and outputs and establish protocols to measure or test other materials. · Establish... meters for the PEAT PTDR-100 · City water for the PEAT PTDR-100 · Chilled water for the PEAT PTDR-100 · Waste water drain lines and collection sump...diameter were used to isokinetically remove stack gas samples. The method of analysis for collected fi lterable particulate and condensable particulate

  4. Fatigue during maximal sprint cycling: unique role of cumulative contraction cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Aleksandar; Ross, Emma Z; Martin, James C

    2010-07-01

    Maximal cycling power has been reported to decrease more rapidly when performed with increased pedaling rates. Increasing pedaling rate imposes two constraints on the neuromuscular system: 1) decreased time for muscle excitation and relaxation and 2) increased muscle shortening velocity. Using two crank lengths allows the effects of time and shortening velocity to be evaluated separately. We conducted this investigation to determine whether the time available for excitation and relaxation or the muscle shortening velocity was mainly responsible for the increased rate of fatigue previously observed with increased pedaling rates and to evaluate the influence of other possible fatiguing constraints. Seven trained cyclists performed 30-s maximal isokinetic cycling trials using two crank lengths: 120 and 220 mm. Pedaling rate was optimized for maximum power for each crank length: 135 rpm for the 120-mm cranks (1.7 m x s(-1) pedal speed) and 109 rpm for the 220-mm cranks (2.5 m x s(-1) pedal speed). Power was recorded with an SRM power meter. Crank length did not affect peak power: 999 +/- 276 W for the 120-mm crank versus 1001 +/- 289 W for the 220-mm crank. Fatigue index was greater (58.6% +/- 3.7% vs 52.4% +/- 4.8%, P < 0.01), and total work was less (20.0 +/- 1.8 vs 21.4 +/- 2.0 kJ, P < 0.01) with the higher pedaling rate-shorter crank condition. Regression analyses indicated that the power for the two conditions was most highly related to cumulative work (r2 = 0.94) and to cumulative cycles (r2 = 0.99). These results support previous findings and confirm that pedaling rate, rather than pedal speed, was the main factor influencing fatigue. Our novel result was that power decreased by a similar increment with each crank revolution for the two conditions, indicating that each maximal muscular contraction induced a similar amount of fatigue.

  5. Microvascular oxygen extraction during maximal isometric contraction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fernandes Manfredi de Freitas

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: COPD presents decrease in oxidative metabolism with possible losses of cardiovascular adjustments, suggesting slow kinetics microvascular oxygen during intense exercise. Objective: To test the hypothesis that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients have lower muscle performance in physical exercise not dependent on central factors, but also greater muscle oxygen extraction, regardless of muscle mass. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 11 COPD patients and nine healthy subjects, male, paired for age. Spirometry and body composition by DEXA were evaluated. Muscular performance was assessed by maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC in isokinetic dynamometer and muscle oxygen extraction by the NIRS technique. Student t-test and Pearson correlation were applied. A significance level of p<0.05 was adopted. Results: Patients had moderate to severe COPD (FEV1 = 44.5 ± 9.6% predicted; SpO2 = 94.6 ± 1.6%. Lean leg mass was 8.3 ± 0.9 vs. 8.9 ± 1.0 kg (p =0.033, when comparing COPD and control patients, respectively. The decreased muscle oxygen saturation corrected by muscle mass was 53.2% higher (p=0.044 in the COPD group in MVIC-1 and 149.6% higher (p=0.006 in the MVIC-2. Microvascular extraction rate of oxygen corrected by muscle mass and total work was found to be 114.5% higher (p=0.043 in the COPD group in MVIC-1 and 210.5% higher (p=0.015 in the MVIC-2. Conclusion: COPD patients have low muscle performance and high oxygen extraction per muscle mass unit and per unit of work. The high oxygen extraction suggests that quantitative and qualitative mechanisms can be determinants of muscle performance in patients with COPD.

  6. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty studies covering 316 PPSH were included. High intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) inter- and intrasession reliability was reported for isokinetic dynamometry, which was independent of the tested muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity...

  7. Torque and mechanomyogram relationships during electrically-evoked isometric quadriceps contractions in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibitoye, Morufu Olusola; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Abdul Wahab, Ahmad Khairi; Islam, Md Anamul; Kean, Victor S P; Davis, Glen M

    2016-08-01

    The interaction between muscle contractions and joint loading produces torques necessary for movements during activities of daily living. However, during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES)-evoked contractions in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI), a simple and reliable proxy of torque at the muscle level has been minimally investigated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between muscle mechanomyographic (MMG) characteristics and NMES-evoked isometric quadriceps torques in persons with motor complete SCI. Six SCI participants with lesion levels below C4 [(mean (SD) age, 39.2 (7.9) year; stature, 1.71 (0.05) m; and body mass, 69.3 (12.9) kg)] performed randomly ordered NMES-evoked isometric leg muscle contractions at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion angles on an isokinetic dynamometer. MMG signals were detected by an accelerometer-based vibromyographic sensor placed over the belly of rectus femoris muscle. The relationship between MMG root mean square (MMG-RMS) and NMES-evoked torque revealed a very high association (R(2)=0.91 at 30°; R(2)=0.98 at 60°; and R(2)=0.97 at 90° knee angles; Ptorque, between 0.65 and 0.79 for MMG-RMS, and from 0.67 to 0.73 for MMG-PTP. Their standard error of measurements (SEM) ranged between 10.1% and 31.6% (of mean values) for torque, MMG-RMS and MMG-PTP. The MMG peak frequency (MMG-PF) of 30Hz approximated the stimulation frequency, indicating NMES-evoked motor unit firing rate. The results demonstrated knee angle differences in the MMG-RMS versus NMES-isometric torque relationship, but a similar torque related pattern for MMG-PF. These findings suggested that MMG was well associated with torque production, reliably tracking the motor unit recruitment pattern during NMES-evoked muscle contractions. The strong positive relationship between MMG signal and NMES-evoked torque production suggested that the MMG might be deployed as a direct proxy for muscle torque or fatigue measurement during

  8. Persistence of long term isokinetic strength deficits in subjects with lateral ankle sprain as measured with a protocol including maximal preloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Marc; Moffet, Hélène; Nadeau, Sylvie; Hébert, Luc J; Belzile, Sylvain

    2014-12-01

    The assessment of muscle function is a cornerstone in the management of subjects who have sustained a lateral ankle sprain. The ankle range of motion being relatively small, the use of preloading allows to measure maximal strength throughout the whole amplitude and therefore to better characterize ankle muscles weaknesses. This study aimed to assess muscle strength of the injured and uninjured ankles in subjects with a lateral ankle sprain, to document the timeline of strength recovery, and to determine the influence of sprain grade on strength loss. Maximal torque of the periarticular muscles of the ankle in a concentric mode using a protocol with maximal preloading was tested in 32 male soldiers at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury. The evertor muscles of the injured ankles were weaker than the uninjured ones at 8 weeks and 6 months post-injury (Pankles at 8 weeks (P=0.0014, effect size=0.52-0.58) while at 6 months, only the subjects with a grade II sprain displayed such weaknesses (Pankle sprain in very active individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of short-term isokinetic training with reciprocal knee extensors agonist and antagonist muscle actions: A controlled and randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that preloading an antagonist muscle may increase the acute agonist neuromuscular performance. In addition, studies have suggested that very short-term resistance exercise (RE programs may also be useful to increase strength and muscular performance. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of three days of RE using a reciprocal action method on the muscular performance of healthy men and to compare these effects with those of a traditional RE group. METHOD: Thirty-three men (21.1 ± 2.3 years were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 reciprocal (REC; knee flexion immediately followed by a knee extension exercise; 2 traditional (TRA; non-preload; a concentric knee extension exercise; and 3 control (CON; no exercise. The REC and TRA subjects performed four sets of 10 repetitions at 60º/s with one minute of rest. The pre- and post-RE tests included two sets of four maximal concentric repetitions at 60º/s and 180º/s. A 3x2 ANOVA with Tukey post-hoc was used to analyze the differences in peak torque (PT, rating of acceleration development (RAD and time to peak torque (TIMEtorque. RESULTS: A significant PT increase was found for REC and TRA (p CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Estudos demonstraram que a pré-ativação de músculos antagonistas pode aumentar o desempenho neuromuscular agonista. Além disso, estudos sugerem que programas de exercício resistido (ER de curta duração podem ser úteis para aumentar a força muscular e o desempenho. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos de três sessões de ER por meio do método de ações recíprocas no desempenho muscular de homens sadios e comparar com um grupo de ER tradicional. MÉTODO: Trinta e três homens (21,1 ± 2,3 anos foram randomicamente alocados em três grupos: Recíproco (REC: uma repetição de flexão do joelho imediatamente seguida por uma de extensão do joelho; Tradicional (TRA: exercício concêntrico de extensão do joelho e Controle (CON: não realizaram exercício. O REC e o TRA realizaram quatro séries de dez repetições a 60º.s-1 com um minuto entre séries. As avaliações pré e pós-ER foram caracterizadas por duas séries de quatro repetições máximas a 60º.s-1 e 180º.s-1. Utilizou-se ANOVA 3x2, com post-hoc de Tukey para verificar diferenças no pico de torque (PT, taxa de desenvolvimento de aceleração (TDA e tempo para atingir o PT (TEMPtorque. RESULTADOS: Houve um aumento do PT para o REC e o TRA (p<0.05 a 60º.s-1 e apenas para o REC a 180º.s-1 (p<0,05. Houve diminuição da TDA para o REC e o TRA (p<0,05 e, apenas no REC, o TEMPtorque apresentou quedas significantes. A análise intergrupos mostrou que o REC foi mais efetivo que o TRA para os ganhos de PT em ambas as velocidades (p<0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Sugere-se que a modalidade recíproca seja vantajosa para a prática de profissionais envolvidos no processo de reabilitação neuromuscular.

  10. Effects of short-term isokinetic training with reciprocal knee extensors agonist and antagonist muscle actions : A controlled and randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunha, Rafael; Carregaro, Rodrigo L.; Martorelli, André; Vieira, Amilton; Oliveira, Ana B.; Bottaro, Martim

    Background: Previous studies have shown that preloading an antagonist muscle may increase the acute agonist neuromuscular performance. In addition, studies have suggested that very short-term resistance exercise (RE) programs may also be useful to increase strength and muscular performance.

  11. Effect of enzyme replacement therapy on isokinetic strength for all major muscle groups in four patients with Pompe disease-a long-term follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Christer Swan; Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Vissing, John

    2014-01-01

    Pompe disease is a rare, inherited metabolic myopathy characterized by progressive weakness of the proximal limb and respiratory muscles. We report the findings from four patients with late-onset Pompe disease treated with α-glucosidase (Myozyme) for 2 (n=2) and 6 (n=2) years, and monitored with ...

  12. Isokinetic dynamometry on the internal rotator and adductor muscles of the swimmers' shoulders: no differences between asymmetrical and symmetrical swimming strokes

    OpenAIRE

    Secchi, Leonardo Luiz Barretti; Brech, Guilherme Carlos; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In this study, we compare muscular strength of the internal rotators and adductors of the shoulder between asymmetrical (backstroke and freestyle) and symmetrical (breaststroke and butterfly) swimming strokes. METHOD: We evaluated: shoulders of (a) asymmetrical swimmers (aged 21.8 ± 3.8 years), (b) symmetrical swimmers (aged 20.3 ± 4.5 years), (c) recreational swimmers (aged 24.5 ± 4.5 years), and (d) control individuals (aged 25.8 ± 3.5 years). All evaluations were performed on a...

  13. Desempenho muscular isocinético dos ombros em atletas de rúgbi = Isokinetic muscle performance of shoulders in rugby athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadiello, Gerson Saciloto

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSÕES: Os atletas amadores de rúgbi apresentaram um desempenho muscular inferior do membro não dominante quando comparado ao membro dominante na análise do pico de torque. Essa diferença não havia sido encontrada nos demais estudos com atletas de rúgbi e acreditamos que este resultado se justifique pela falta de treinamentos mais frequentes e adequados desses atletas amadores

  14. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  15. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  16. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  17. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  18. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  19. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  20. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  1. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how......When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  2. Turnkey contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  4. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  6. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  7. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  8. Pelvic floor muscle training decreases hip adductors isometric peak torque in incontinent women: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grasiéla Nascimento Correia

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The pelvic floor muscle (PFM training is the most common treatment for urinary incontinence (UI, however many women performed the contraction of PFM with associated contraction of abdominal, gluteus and hip adductors muscles. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of pelvic floor muscle (PFM training on isometric and isokinetic hip adductors peak torque (PT among women suffering from urinary incontinence (UI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: It is a longitudinal and prospective exploratory study. This study included 15 physically active women aged 45 years old and over, who presented complaints of UI. The PFM function (digital evaluation and perineometry, isometric and isokinetic hip adductors PT and one hour pad test were performed before and after treatment. The PFM training was performed in group, one hour once a week for 12 sessions. RESULTS: Significant improvement of PFM function and pressure level (p = 0.003, and significant decrease of hip adductors isometric PT and one-hour pad test, were found post-treatment. Moderate negative correlations between PFM contraction pressure and hip adductors isokinetic PT for dominant side (DS (r = -0.62; p = 0.03 and non-dominant side (NDS (r = -0.64; p = 0.02; and between PFM fast fibers contraction and hip adductors isometric PT for DS (r = -0.60; p = 0.03 and NDS (r = -0.59; p = 0.04 were also found. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM training decreased hip adductors PT and improved PFM functions and UI.

  9. The acute response of pericytes to muscle-damaging eccentric contraction and protein supplementation in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisio, Michael; Farup, Jean; Sukiennik, Richard A; Clevenger, Nicole; Nallabelli, Julian; Nelson, Brett; Ryan, Kelly; Rahbek, Stine K; de Paoli, Frank; Vissing, Kristian; Boppart, Marni D

    2015-10-15

    Skeletal muscle pericytes increase in quantity following eccentric exercise (ECC) and contribute to myofiber repair and adaptation in mice. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine pericyte quantity in response to muscle-damaging ECC and protein supplementation in human skeletal muscle. Male subjects were divided into protein supplement (WHY; n = 12) or isocaloric placebo (CHO; n = 12) groups and completed ECC using an isokinetic dynamometer. Supplements were consumed 3 times/day throughout the experimental time course. Biopsies were collected prior to (PRE) and 3, 24, 48, and 168 h following ECC. Reflective of the damaging protocol, integrin subunits, including α7, β1A, and β1D, increased (3.8-fold, 3.6-fold and 3.9-fold, respectively, P muscle-damaging ECC increases α7β1 integrin content in human muscle, yet pericyte quantity is largely unaltered. Future studies should focus on the capacity for ECC to influence pericyte function, specifically paracrine factor release as a mechanism toward pericyte contribution to repair and adaptation postexercise. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Reviving Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellecy, Ryan

    2003-12-01

    Ulysses contracts have faced paternalism objections since they first were proposed. Since the contracts are designed to override a present request from a legally competent patient in favor of a past request made by that patient, enforcement of these contracts was argued to be unjustifiable strong paternalism. Recent legal developments and new theories of practical reasoning suggest that the discussion of Ulysses contracts should be revived. This paper argues that with a proper understanding of the future-directed planning embodied in Ulysses contracts, the charge of strong paternalism can be answered, and the enforcement of some Ulysses contracts may be justified under the rubric of weak paternalism.

  11. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  12. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  13. Concept of contracting authority

    OpenAIRE

    Kasiliauskaitė, Vitalija

    2016-01-01

    Concept of Contracting Authority Law on Public Procurement the procurement concept implies the conclusion that public procurement be declared only such purchases are carried out by the contracting authority. The contracting authorities can be a subject of state and municipal management institutes, whose assignment authority is determined by a functional approach. Also, contracting authorities may be public and legal entities, but that the public interest and operates non-commercial activities...

  14. Inflation Forecast Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new type of incentive contract for central bankers: inflation forecast contracts, which make central bankers’ remunerations contingent on the precision of their inflation forecasts. We show that such contracts enable central bankers to influence inflation expectations more effectively, thus facilitating more successful stabilization of current inflation. Inflation forecast contracts improve the accuracy of inflation forecasts, but have adverse consequences for output. On balanc...

  15. Teaching about Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  16. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  17. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... a risk that taxpayer funds will be spent on contracts that are wasteful, inefficient, subject to... mission. In such cases, the agency must ensure that the risks associated with noncompetitive contracts are...

  18. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  19. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  20. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  1. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  2. The effects of electromyostimulation training and basketball practice on muscle strength and jumping ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffiuletti, N A; Cometti, G; Amiridis, I G; Martin, A; Pousson, M; Chatard, J C

    2000-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a 4-week electromyostimulation training program on the strength of the knee extensors and the vertical jump performance of 10 basketball players. Electromyostimulation sessions were carried out 3 times weekly; each session consisted of 48 contractions. Testing was carried out before and after the electromyostimulation training program (week 4) and once more after 4 weeks of normal basketball training (week 8). At week 4, isokinetic strength increased significantly (p training increased also isometric strength at the two angles adjacent to the training angle (p jump increased significantly by 14% at week 4 (p jump showed no change. At week 8, gains in isokinetic, isometric strength and squat-jump performance were maintained and the counter movement jump performance increased significantly by 17% (ptraining program enhanced knee extensor strength and squat jump performance of basketball players.

  3. Motor performance during and following acute alcohol intoxication in healthy non-alcoholic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Buch; Jakobsen, Johannes Klitgaard; Andersen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse has adverse effects on skeletal muscle, and reduced muscle strength is frequently seen in chronic alcoholics. In this study the acute effects of moderate alcohol intoxication on motor performance was evaluated in 19 non-alcoholic healthy subjects (10 women, 9 men......). A randomised double-blinded placebo controlled design was applied to subjects receiving alcohol in juice and pure juice at two separate test periods. Isokinetic and isometric muscle strength and endurance were determined before, during, 24 and 48 h after the ingestion of alcohol in juice and juice (placebo......). To detect a reduced activation of the central motor pathways superimposed external electrical stimulations during voluntary contractions were applied. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured to detect any alcohol-induced changes in sarcolemmal integrity. No change was seen in isokinetic as well as in isometric...

  4. Stretching of Active Muscle Elicits Chronic Changes in Multiple Strain Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Anthony David; Richmond, Dominic; Talbot, Chris; Mina, Minas; Baross, Anthony William; Blazevich, Anthony John

    2016-07-01

    The muscle stretch intensity imposed during "flexibility" training influences the magnitude of joint range of motion (ROM) adaptation. Thus, stretching while the muscle is voluntarily activated was hypothesized to provide a greater stimulus than passive stretching. The effect of a 6-wk program of stretch imposed on an isometrically contracting muscle (i.e., qualitatively similar to isokinetic eccentric training) on muscle-tendon mechanics was therefore studied in 13 healthy human volunteers. Before and after the training program, dorsiflexion ROM, passive joint moment, and maximal isometric plantarflexor moment were recorded on an isokinetic dynamometer. Simultaneous real-time motion analysis and ultrasound imaging recorded gastrocnemius medialis muscle and Achilles tendon elongation. Training was performed twice weekly and consisted of five sets of 12 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions at 10°·s. Significant increases (P tendon stiffness) was detected (-1.5%, P > 0.05), a significant increase in tendon stiffness (31.2%, P tendon stiffness simultaneous with significant increases in tendon stiffness and decreases in passive muscle stiffness indicates that tissue-specific effects were elicited.

  5. The effects of a repeated bout of eccentric exercise on indices of muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddon-Jones, D; Muthalib, M; Jenkins, D

    2000-03-01

    This study examined markers of muscle damage following a repeated bout of maximal isokinetic eccentric exercise performed prior to full recovery from a previous bout. Twenty non-resistance trained volunteers were randomly assigned to a control (CON, n=10) or experimental (EXP, n=10) group. Both groups performed 36 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the elbow flexors of the non-dominant arm (ECC1). The EXP group repeated the same eccentric exercise bout two days later (ECC2). Total work and peak eccentric torque were recorded during each set of ECC1 and ECC2. Isometric torque, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), flexed elbow angle and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were measured prior to and immediately following ECC1 and ECC2. at 24h intervals for 7 days following ECC1 and finally on day 11. In both groups, all dependent variables changed significantly during the 2 days following ECC1. A further acute post-exercise impairment in isometric torque (30 +/- 5%) and flexed elbow angle (20 +/- 4%) was observed following ECC2 (p0.05). These findings suggest that when maximal isokinetic eccentric exercise is repeated two days after experiencing of contraction-induced muscle damage, the recovery time course is not significantly altered.

  6. New staff contract policy

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  7. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  8. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  9. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  10. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  11. Contract Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  12. Whither Performance Contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman S.

    This report describes briefly performance contracts; discusses their shortcomings, pitfalls, and advantages; and gives some insight into the future development of this new concept. Two shortcomings of performance contracting include (1) teaching to the test and (2) board abdication of its responsibility for making final decisions about educational…

  13. Comparing contracting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    . Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...

  14. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts. In this p...

  15. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  16. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  17. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  18. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  19. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  20. JURIDICAL WILL IN CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian CIONGARU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the business law, almost all judicial relationships of private law are obligational juridical relationships which are made up of legal acts and facts. The most important legal act is the contract since it is the basis of the social life in any community meaning that it represents the most important economic and juridical instrument for the participants to a contract. The persons are free and equal in society and, consequently, no power is valid and fundamental unless it relies on their consent, namely on a contract. So, the existence of a civil contract relies on the principles of consensualism, a perception based on moral rules to observe one’s promises, to have good faith and to observe the interests of your fellow creature. The exterior manifestation, the expression or declaration of the juridical will constitutes the consent of such person in making the structure of contract. The declared will must correspond to the person’s real will and the adoption and declaration of the juridical will must take place consciously. Any contract that does not derive from juridical will is null and the civilizing character is inexistent. The principles giving sense to consensualism is the one of agreement between parties so as to produce legal effects by itself and it is enough for the conclusion of a contract, regardless of the form in which it is exteriorized, a principle expressed by the Latin adagio pacta sunt servanda.

  1. Significance of acceleration period in a dynamic strength testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W L; Su, F C; Chou, Y L

    1994-06-01

    The acceleration period that occurs during isokinetic tests may provide valuable information regarding neuromuscular readiness to produce maximal contraction. The purpose of this study was to collect the normative data of acceleration time during isokinetic knee testing, to calculate the acceleration work (Wacc), and to determine the errors (ERexp, ERwork, ERpower) due to ignoring Wacc during explosiveness, total work, and average power measurements. Seven male and 13 female subjects attended the test by using the Cybex 325 system and electronic stroboscope machine for 10 testing speeds (30-300 degrees/sec). A three-way ANOVA was used to assess gender, direction, and speed factors on acceleration time, Wacc, and errors. The results indicated that acceleration time was significantly affected by speed and direction; Wacc and ERexp by speed, direction, and gender; and ERwork and ERpower by speed and gender. The errors appeared to increase when testing the female subjects, during the knee flexion test, or when speed increased. To increase validity in clinical testing, it is important to consider the acceleration phase effect, especially in higher velocity isokinetic testing or for weaker muscle groups.

  2. Bottlenecks and contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The report surveys the central points in the literature about contracts on geographical price differences and transmission rights in the power market. It is commonly believed that such contracts may reduce market power and contribute to better network investments. The theoretical debate is in part unfinished and largely based on very stylised assumptions. There is some indication that such contracts may not be very useful in practice. But they may be useful in some cases, perhaps in particular when power is transported outside limited surplus areas and for certain investment decisions where there is no systems operator with a natural responsibility

  3. Contract management survey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-10-01

    Spending on clinical contracts continues to outpace spending on business services, but may be leveling off. The 12th annual Contract Management Survey shows that the performance of clinical vendors is now comparable to business service vendors in meeting savings targets. Both business and clinical vendors are receiving higher marks from hospital leaders, but execs quickly respond to low marks by bringing the service back in-house of changing vendors. This report examines trends in outsourcing, satisfaction levels, the decision-making process, contract features and performance, and spending.

  4. 2001 contract management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    For the second year running, hospitals are spending more on clinical outsourcing than on business services. The Eleventh Annual Contract Services Survey shows that, in clinical areas, executives use outsourcing to acquire specialized expertise with cost savings secondary. Reducing costs and FTEs are the primary reasons for outsourcing business operations. Business service contracts are more likely to meet expectations for cost savings. Overall, satisfaction levels are up, but in some areas there's still a lot of room for improvement. This report examines current trends in outsourcing, strategies for the future, satisfaction levels, the decisionmaking process, contract features, and costs.

  5. The contract - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The contract is the last and final step of project planning and the first step of project implementation. The contract has to specify in detail and to the point, as concisely as possible, the complete scope of supplies and work, define all technical particulars and requirements, put forward the conditions of legal, regulatory, administrative and financial procedure, prepare for operating and maintenance instructions to be issued after commissioning. In short, the contract is expected to be a reliable instrument during the manufacturing and construction period as well as a guide-book to assist the owner afterwards in the operation and maintenance of the plant. (orig./FW) [de

  6. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  7. Industrial Services Contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Industrial Services contracts at CERN, including the probable expenditure in 2006 and the estimated expenditure for 2007. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note of the revised amount in 2006 for Industrial Services contracts referred to in this document of 138.02 MCHF at 2006 prices compared to the previously anticipated amount of 122.67 MCHF at 2005 prices; - to take note that the estimated amount in 2007 for the contracts referred to in this document will be 112.54 MCHF at 2006 prices; - for the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is also invited to approve the requests for the contracts presented and highlighted in the Annexes.

  8. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its September 2000 meeting, the Finance Committee approved a second one-year extension of the four existing temporary labour contracts (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE) until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the estimated annual expenditure on temporary labour in 2001 will amount to approximately 4 500 000 Swiss francs against the previously estimated 6 000 000 Swiss francs; - to approve the extension of the four existing contracts by six months to 30 June 2002 for an overall amount not exceeding 1 500 000 Swiss francs; - to take note that new contracts for the Swiss part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in December 2001 and that new contracts for the French part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in the course of 2002.

  9. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  10. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  11. Contracting as a Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer (PCO)–program manager (PM) relationship in...marketing terms, finding that disconfirmed expectations lead to consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The former approach presents the idea that if an...individual exerts effort, the expectation is that successful performance will occur leading to a desired result. In contracting, the theory might be

  12. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  13. Evaluación isocinética de los músculos de la rodilla en jugadores de fútbol : Análisis discriminante

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazuquin, Bruno Fles; Pereira, Ligia Maxwell; Dias, Josilainne Marcelino; Batista, João Pedro; Silva, Mônica Angélica Cardoso; Finatti, Matheus Elmer; Leme, Lucas Carvalho; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz; Moura, Felipe Arruda; Cardoso, Jefferson Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Muscle activity in soccer players can be measured by isokinetic dynamometer, which is a reliable tool for assessing human performance. Objectives: To perform isokinetic analyses and to determine which variables differentiate the under-17 (U17) soccer category from the professional

  14. Sex Comparisons for Relative Peak Torque and Electromyographic Mean Frequency during Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S.; Beck, Travis W.; DeFreitas, Jason M.; Ye, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared the relative peak torque and normalized electromyographic (EMG) mean frequency (MNF) responses during fatiguing isokinetic muscle actions for men versus women. Method: Twenty men M[subscript age] ± SD = 22 ± 2 years) and 20 women M[subscript age] ± SD = 22 ± 1 years) performed 50 maximal concentric isokinetic muscle…

  15. Effects of Fuel Specification and Additives on Soot Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    17 3 Isokinetic Sampling ..................................... 17 C. 4 Chemical Strlture of Amberlite XAD-20...drawbacksof rake probes is their inability to provide spatial differentiation and, unless very sophisticated, isokinetic sampling across the entire flow...is quite effective but necessitates more complex probes and metering systems, and care must be taken to prevent any undesirable reactions or effects

  16. 40 CFR Appendix M to Part 51 - Recommended Test Methods for State Implementation Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... greater than PM10, and an in-stack glass fiber filter is used to collect the PM10. To maintain isokinetic...., should be available to allow isokinetic sampling to be conducted over a range of flow rates. Calibrate... and power leads of sufficient length to connect probe to meter and flow control console. 2.1.8 Vacuum...

  17. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  18. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  19. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  20. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L 021/PE, L 022/PE, L 023/PE and L 024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) reached the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. At CERN?s request, in September 1999 the Finance Committee approved an extension of these contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs (CERN/FC/4196). In December 1999, one of the five contractors, FIRCROFT, withdrew from its contract for 2000. Following the satisfactory execution of the four remaining contracts during 2000, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2001 for the second of the two optional years provided for in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the existing contracts until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices.

  1. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  2. Capitation, contracts, and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  3. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  4. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  5. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  6. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  7. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  8. Is Contract Law Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...

  9. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  10. Do contracts help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable team structure exists if teams produce public goods or if the quota is two. However, these existence results no longer hold if efforts are verifiable....

  11. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    and commissive acts. The findings show that the language of the law characteristically selects patterns of regulative distinct from, for example, the patterns typically selected in everyday conversational English. The characteristics of the language of the law can be interpreted within the adherence to legal......This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...

  12. Consensus, contracts, and committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J D

    1991-08-01

    Following a brief account of the puzzle that ethics committees present for the Western Philosophical tradition, I will examine the possibility that social contract theory can contribute to a philosophical account of these committees. Passing through classical as well as contemporary theories, particularly Rawls' recent constructivist approach, I will argue that social contract theory places severe constraints on the authority that may legitimately be granted to ethics committees. This, I conclude, speaks more about the suitability of the theory to this level of analysis than about the ethics committee phenomenon itself.

  13. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  14. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tirole, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  15. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  16. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  17. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  18. Copyright or Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Most authors and publishers of electronic information believe that current copyright law does not address technical capabilities or reader uses and have turned to contracts or licenses to define the rights of owners and users. Discusses copyrights, fair use, and licenses and highlights licensing's unresolved issues: use and users; archiving;…

  19. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  20. Reconciling Contracts and Relational Governance through Strategic Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Østergaard, Kim

    2018-01-01

    on contract types, such as strategic versus conventional, may reconcile the enduring research controversy between the substitution and complements perspectives. Practical implications: Today, formal contracts with foreign distributors tend to resemble “prenuptial agreements”. The opportunity for relational...

  1. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    contracting command xv KO contracting officer KTR contractor LSC lead service component MGAA Mesopotamia Group Atlas Apache NAT National Afghanistan...and Contract Authority Understanding the roles of contracting versus command authority and command relationships is a fundamental that must be...Audit 12-7 (2012) described the CENTCOM-JTSCC (C- JTSCC) formation and command relationship : In April 2010, CENTCOM issued a fragmentary order to

  2. Muscle strength and power in persons with multiple sclerosis - A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Mlk; Dalgas, U; Wens, I; Hvid, L G

    2017-05-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease in the central nervous system which causes a number of physical symptoms including impairments of muscle mechanical function (muscle strength, muscle power and explosive muscle strength (~rate of force development, RFD)). However, a full overview of the existing knowledge regarding muscle mechanical function in persons with MS (PwMS) is still pending. To systematically review 1) the psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry testing in PwMS, and 2) studies comparing muscle mechanical function in PwMS to matched healthy controls (HC). In addition, a meta-analysis will evaluate 3) the effects of progressive resistance training on muscle mechanical function in PwMS. A systematic literature search was performed in eight databases. To be included in the review, the study had to 1) enroll participants with a confirmed diagnosis of MS; 2) assess muscle mechanical function 3) had undergone peer-review. The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Comparison of muscle strength between PwMS and HC was performed across contraction velocities, contraction modes and muscle groups, as were the rate of force development. The effects of progressive resistance training on muscle mechanical function were evaluated in a meta-analysis using a random effects model and standardized mean difference (SMD). A total of four, twenty-four, and ten studies were identified for aim 1, 2, and 3, respectively. High Intraclass correlations coefficients (range: 0.87-0.99) for isokinetic dynamometry was reported when assessing knee extensor and knee flexor muscle strength independent of contraction velocity. Compared to match HC, PwMS display impaired muscle strength, power and explosive muscle strength. Muscle strength impairments were most pronounced during maximal moderate to fast dynamic muscle contractions of the lower extremities. Progressive resistance training

  3. Contracting in a Foreign Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodeschin, Darrin

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis investigates and compares the different contracting structures of the U.S. Army, the UN, and Apple as well as the duties and responsibilities of the contracting individuals within these organizations...

  4. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  5. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  6. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  7. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  8. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  9. Contracting for Complex Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    asymmetries, and barriers to market entry and exit (e.g., Mankiw , et al., 2002). Goods may be non-rivalrous or non-excludable so that transferable property...investments. Expenditures are asset specific to the extent they have no economic value outside the product being produced (Williamson, 2005). For...example, some research in the US space program produced economic value outside the contract (e.g., Tang), while other research produced little value

  10. Contract types - turnkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  11. Between Status and Contract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Keiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with unfree labour in Germany from the early modern age until the beginning of the 20th century. It presents the main conclusions of a book published in 2013 on this subject in German. Unfree labour is not identified in the first place with slavery or any other labour relationship based on status. Instead, this study aims at an analysis of freedom and coercion in contractual labour relationships. It will be argued that in Germany contractual labour relationships before 1800 were embedded in a legal system that strongly restricted contractual autonomy and aimed at the suppression of free labour markets. The scope of this legislation was to guarantee efficient labour performance, which was not only perceived as being in the personal interest of an employer, but as a fundamental element of the common good. After 1800 the system changed to more incentive-based legislation that established freedom of contract for labour relations. Nevertheless, coercion in order to perform the contractual duties of a work contract remained important for many groups of workers, especially farmhands and industrial workers. The last criminal sanctions for breaches of labour contracts were only abolished in the revolution of 1919. This development shows the difficulties German law had in extending the principles of private law to workers. When a system of free labour was fully established, the issue of unemployment and economic problems, especially in the Weimar Republic, required a new system of protective rules. The history of free market based labour contracts in Germany was therefore very short, with state intervention shi ing from control and coercion to social assistance.

  12. Comparisons in the Recovery Response From Resistance Exercise Between Young and Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Joseph A; Hoffman, Jay R; Arroyo, Eliott; Varanoske, Alyssa N; Coker, Nicholas A; Gepner, Yftach; Wells, Adam J; Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H

    2017-12-01

    Gordon, JA III, Hoffman, JR, Arroyo, E, Varanoske, AN, Coker, NA, Gepner, Y, Wells, AJ, Stout, JR, and Fukuda, DH. Comparisons in the recovery response from resistance exercise between young and middle-aged men. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3454-3462, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a bout of high-volume isokinetic resistance exercise protocol (HVP) on lower-body strength and markers of inflammation and muscle damage during recovery between young and middle-aged adult men. Nineteen recreationally trained men were classified as either a young adult (YA: 21.8 ± 2.0 years; 90.7 ± 11.6 kg) or a middle-aged adult (MA: 47.0 ± 4.4 years; 96.0 ± 21.5 kg) group. The HVP consisted of 8 sets of 10 repetitions, with 1 minute of rest between each set, performed on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°·s. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions and isokinetic peak torque (PKT) and average torque (AVGT) (measured at 240° and 60°·s, respectively) were assessed at baseline (BL), immediately post (IP), 120 minutes, 24, and 48 hours after HVP. Blood was obtained at BL, IP, 30, 60, 120 minute, 24, and 48 hours after HVP to assess muscle damage and inflammation. All performance data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of covariance, whereas all inflammatory and muscle damage markers were analyzed using a 2-way (time × group) repeated measures analysis of variance. Results revealed no between-group differences for PKT, AVGT, or rate of torque development at 200 ms (RTD200). No between-group differences in myoglobin, creatine kinase, C-reactive protein, or interleukin-6 were observed. Although BL differences in muscle performance were observed between YA and MA, no between-group differences were noted in performance recovery measures from high-volume isokinetic exercise in recreationally trained men. These results also indicate that the inflammatory and muscle damage response from high-volume isokinetic exercise is similar between

  13. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  14. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  15. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  16. Non-turnkey contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face with troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf. (orig./FW) [de

  17. Non-turnkey contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, S

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have a chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf.

  18. Practical guide on contract of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chiho

    1991-12-01

    This book gives descriptions of practical guide on contract of technology, which deals with basic of contract like meaning, function term, singing and sealing, contract and stamp tax, common things on contract of research like keeping secret and prevention and treat of dispute, compensation for damages, notice, expiration date of contract and measurement at end of contract, contract of joint research such as meaning and necessity, note at contract, check list at contract, and return of the research product.

  19. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  20. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address

  1. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  2. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  3. Service quality in contracted facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Pradhan, Nousheen Akber; Zaidi, Shehla; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Yousuf, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. A balanced scorecard (BSC) was used as the assessment framework. Using a cross-sectional study design, two rural health centers (RHCs) contracted out to Aga Khan Health Service, Pakistan were compared with four government managed RHCs. A BSC was designed to assess RHC readiness to deliver good quality MNH care. In total 20 indicators were developed, representing five BSC domains: health facility functionality, service provision, staff capacity, staff and patient satisfaction. Validated data collection tools were used to collect information. Pearson χ2, Fisher's Exact and the Mann-Whitney tests were applied as appropriate to detect significant service quality differences among the two facilities. Contracted facilities were generally found to be better than non-contracted facilities in all five BSC domains. Patients' inclination for facility-based delivery at contracted facilities was, however, significantly higher than non-contracted facilities (80 percent contracted vs 43 percent non-contracted, p=0.006). The study shows that contracting out initiatives have the potential to improve MNH care. This is the first study to compare MNH service delivery quality across contracted and non-contracted facilities using BSC as the assessment framework.

  4. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  5. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  6. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  7. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  8. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  9. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  10. The Danish Contracting System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    The paper is mainly concerned with the institutional framework of the Danish construction industry, describing structures, rules and actors' roles within a perspective of nationally defined procedural guidelines on construction projects. These aspects are treated under the concept of a "contracting...... system". After a short introduction to the structure and activities of the industry the post-war development is reviewed, in particular emphasising the importance of the early industrialisation process which in an international perspective represents quite unique features. Furthermore the most recent...

  11. IPP fuel contracts - creating certain contracts for uncertain times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, I. [Coddington International Pty. Ltd., Milsons Point, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Coal contracts for the new Asian Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are examined. Since most IPPs will be selling to state electricity utilities, often in competition with power plant using other fuels, coal based IPPs must negotiate advantageous coal supply contracts several years before the commissioning of a plant, and must ensure security of supply for at least the life of the construction loan. A more recent trend in the developed world is the Merchant IPP, where there is no guaranteed electricity sale. Lenders are wary of IPPs relying an imported coal, and insist on binding fuel contracts, while coal companies are wary of the quantity of information demanded by these lenders. A full understanding of the risks involved is needed; and a method of price indexation for the contracts. Contracts must also specify security of supply, coal quality, freight contracts and other details. 2 figs.

  12. Characteristics of nuclear contracts. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.

    1976-01-01

    While the object of nuclear contracts is specific, these contracts are concluded according to proven techniques based on general regulations on contracts. Following a review of contract classification, they are differentiated according to the nature of the co-contracting parties, the purpose of the contract itself, the procedure for drawing up the contracts, and payment. The operations prior to the contract vary in that they may include a call for tenders, an option for delays or a letter of intent. (NEA) [fr

  13. 48 CFR 315.371 - Contract preparation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.371 Contract... the contract until the finance office certifies that the funds are available for obligation. ...

  14. TraceContract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  15. Contracts in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka GRZESIOK-HOROSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present makes a contribution to the discussion on contracts in administration under Polish law. It concentrates on theoretical issues, but ones of considerable practical significance. Prior Work though relatively poorly explored, field. This paper is a result of academic considerations on the classical institution of civil law, namely a bilateral juridical act significance of this area may be demonstrated by the fact that one scientific conference and a collection of papers have been devoted to contracts in administration. as research method, the analysis of jurisprudence and doctrinal writings referring to law currently in force. The paper discusses as well the draft of the administrative law, and includes comparative remarks. put forward certain comments pertainin legislation. The authors formulate as well outline theses interesting but complicated matters. As a voice in the doctrinal dispute it can als useful for law students. Value composition. Starting from gener the binding law and proposed amendments. The functioning in foreign countries and proposals of regulatory solutions.

  16. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  17. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a clause...

  18. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  19. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  20. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) [Reserved] (b) USAID may... Agency-specific indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using...

  1. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and operating...

  2. Exercise and heat stress: cerebral challenges and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2007-01-01

    , the elevated ratings of perceived exertion and increased release of hypothalamic hormones. While the slowing of the electroencephalographic (EEG), the decreased endurance and hampered ability to activate the skeletal muscles maximally during sustained isometric and repeated isokinetic contractions appear...... that the dopaminergic system is important, but several other factors may interact and feedback from the skeletal muscles and internal temperature sensors are probably also involved. The complexity of brain fatigue response is discussed based on our own investigations and in the light of recent literature....

  3. Comparing electro- and mechano-myographic muscle activation patterns in self-paced pediatric gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, Katherine; Samadani, Ali; Chau, Tom

    2017-10-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is the standard modality for measuring muscle activity. However, the convenience and availability of low-cost accelerometer-based wearables makes mechanomyography (MMG) an increasingly attractive alternative modality for clinical applications. Literature to date has demonstrated a strong association between EMG and MMG temporal alignment in isometric and isokinetic contractions. However, the EMG-MMG relationship has not been studied in gait. In this study, the concurrence of EMG- and MMG-detected contractions in the tibialis anterior, lateral gastrocnemius, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris muscles were investigated in children during self-paced gait. Furthermore, the distribution of signal power over the gait cycle was statistically compared between EMG-MMG modalities. With EMG as the reference, muscular contractions were detected based on MMG with balanced accuracies between 88 and 94% for all muscles except the gastrocnemius. MMG signal power differed from that of EMG during certain phases of the gait cycle in all muscles except the biceps femoris. These timing and power distribution differences between the two modalities may in part be related to muscle fascicle length changes that are unique to muscle motion during gait. Our findings suggest that the relationship between EMG and MMG appears to be more complex during gait than in isometric and isokinetic contractions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment......We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources. It extends Eber and Peyton Jones’s declarative language for specifying financial contracts (Jones et al. in The Fun of Programming. 2003) to the exchange of money, goods and services...... amongst multiple parties and complements McCarthy’s Resources, Events and Agents (REA) accounting model (McCarthy in Account Rev. LVII(3), 554–578, 1982) with a view- independent formal contract model that supports definition of user-defined contracts, automatic monitoring under execution and user...

  5. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  6. Incentive contracts and time use

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Viking Eriksson; Jaime Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies on incentive contracts have primarily been concerned with the effects on employees’ productivity and earnings. The productivity increases associated with such contracts may, however, come at the expense of quality of life at or outside work. In this paper we study the effect on the employees’ non-work activities, testing whether incentive contracts lead to a change in the allocation of time across work and non-work activities. In doing so, we distinguish between two effects,...

  7. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some c...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  8. Judges, commerce and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Gava, John

    2010-01-01

    John Gava, Reader at Adelaide Law School, considers the question how should judges decide commercial cases, in particular, contract cases? He looks at the circumstances and impact of the use of contract law, with attention on common law contract and market needs. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by SALS at the IALS (Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, School of Advanced Study, Un...

  9. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  10. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  11. Comparison of coarse coal dust sampling techniques in a laboratory-simulated longwall section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patts, Justin R; Barone, Teresa L

    2017-05-01

    Airborne coal dust generated during mining can deposit and accumulate on mine surfaces, presenting a dust explosion hazard. When assessing dust hazard mitigation strategies for airborne dust reduction, sampling is done in high-velocity ventilation air, which is used to purge the mining face and gallery tunnel. In this environment, the sampler inlet velocity should be matched to the air stream velocity (isokinetic sampling) to prevent oversampling of coarse dust at low sampler-to-air velocity ratios. Low velocity ratios are often encountered when using low flow rate, personal sampling pumps commonly used in underground mines. In this study, with a goal of employing mine-ready equipment, a personal sampler was adapted for area sampling of coarse coal dust in high-velocity ventilation air. This was done by adapting an isokinetic nozzle to the inlet of an Institute of Occupational Medicine (Edinburgh, Scotland) sampling cassette (IOM). Collected dust masses were compared for the modified IOM isokinetic sampler (IOM-MOD), the IOM without the isokinetic nozzle, and a conventional dust sampling cassette without the cyclone on the inlet. All samplers were operated at a flow rate typical of personal sampling pumps: 2 L/min. To ensure differences between collected masses that could be attributed to sampler design and were not influenced by artifacts from dust concentration gradients, relatively uniform and repeatable dust concentrations were demonstrated in the sampling zone of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health experimental mine gallery. Consistent with isokinetic theory, greater differences between isokinetic and non-isokinetic sampled masses were found for larger dust volume-size distributions and higher ventilation air velocities. Since isokinetic sampling is conventionally used to determine total dust concentration, and isokinetic sampling made a difference in collected masses, the results suggest when sampling for coarse coal dust the IOM-MOD may

  12. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published in early April 2011. In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened this spring is available at the following address: Indefinite contract posts - spring 2011 A second exercise will take place in autumn 2011 and, as of 2012, the indefinite contract award procedure will only be held once a year, in autumn. For more information please consult: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp  

  13. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  14. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  15. Unfair contract terms in B2C contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Loos, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its textual similarity to the Unfair Terms Directive 1993, Chapter 8 of the proposed CESL, on ‘Unfair contract terms’, can benefit from two decades of interpretative experience which is likely to provide a comparably high degree of instant legal certainty to contracting parties.

  16. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contract so different from other contracts. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by these two concepts.

  17. The Relationship of Temperature to Strength and Power Production in Intact Human Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-06-01

    newton- meters (Nm). The use of the Cybex II isokinetic device has been similarly described by Thorstensson et al. (1976). The peak torque value, or the... isokinetic testing device at four lever arm speeds (0,60,180 and 300*/sec).Maximal knee exter- sions at the different lever arm speeds were evaluated for...Each subject was tested on the Cybex II isokinetic testing device at four lever arm speeds (0,60,180 and $Osec).Maximal knee exten- sions at the

  18. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...

  19. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    mining companies can concentrate on their core businesses while using specialists for ... 2 Definition of Contract and Owner. Mining ... equipment maintenance, scheduling and budgeting ..... No. Region. Amount Spent on. Contract Mining. ($ billion). Percent of. Total. 1 ... cost and productivity data based on a large range.

  20. Army Contract Writing System (ACWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval...Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 5 Program Status 6 Schedule 7 Performance...Program Information Program Name Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) DoD Component Army Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS

  1. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  2. On CNC Commuting Contractive Tuples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characteristic function has been an important tool for studying completely non-unitary contractions on Hilbert spaces. In this note, we consider completely non-coisometric contractive tuples of commuting operators on a Hilbert space H . We show that the characteristic function, which is now an operator-valued analytic ...

  3. Eccentric Torque-Producing Capacity is Influenced by Muscle Length in Older Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ruth C; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Quitério, Robison J; Salvini, Tânia F; Catai, Aparecida M

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of muscle strength to functional capacity in the elderly, the study investigated the effects of age on isokinetic performance and torque production as a function of muscle length. Eleven younger (24.2 ± 2.9 years) and 16 older men (62.7 ± 2.5 years) were subjected to concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extension/flexion at 60 and 120° · s(-1) through a functional range of motion. The older group presented lower peak torque (in newton-meters) than the young group for both isokinetic contraction types (age effect, p torque deficits in the older group were near 30 and 29% for concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively. Concentric peak torque was lower at 120° · s(-1) than at 60° · s(-1) for both groups (angular velocity effect, p torque was the only exercise tested that showed an interaction effect between age and muscle length (p torque responses to the muscle length between groups. Compared with the young group, the eccentric knee extension torque was 22-56% lower in the older group, with the deficits being lower in the shortened muscle length (22-27%) and higher (33-56%) in the stretched muscle length. In older men, the production of eccentric knee strength seems to be dependent on the muscle length. At more stretched positions, older subjects lose the capacity to generate eccentric knee extension torque. More studies are needed to assess the mechanisms involved in eccentric strength preservation with aging and its relationship with muscle length.

  4. Alternative staffing services. Contract transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, C

    1992-03-01

    Contract medical transcription services can be of great assistance in meeting the demands for transcription, without jeopardizing patient, physician, or institutional confidentiality. You simply must require the contract service to provide at least the same degree of protection and preservation of confidentiality that you should require inhouse. To achieve this you must make these requirements explicit, comprehensive, comprehensible, believable, and enforceable. Discuss the requirements with prospective contractors. Review them at least annually with existing contractors and when contracts are due for renewal. Be sure to specify the consequence of breaching confidentiality, and if there are breaches, enforce the terms of the contract. Consult your institution's legal counsel both in developing the contract and in enforcing its provisions. Take into consideration your department's and institution's policies, AHIMA's statement on confidentiality, as well as local, state, and federal laws. Above all, never lose sight of the patient. Ultimately, it is not patient information that you are obligated to protect. It is the patient.

  5. Choreography Synthesis as Contract Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a formal model for distributed systems, where each participant advertises its requirements and obligations as behavioural contracts, and where multiparty sessions are started when a set of contracts allows to synthesise a choreography. Our framework is based on the CO2 calculus for contract-oriented computing, and borrows concepts and results from the session type literature. It supports sessions where the number of participants is not determined beforehand, and keeps CO2's ability to rule out participants that are culpable if contracts are not fulfilled at runtime. We show that we have progress and session fidelity in CO2, as a result of the honesty of participants — i.e., their ability to always adhere to their contracts.

  6. Standard form contracts and a smart contract future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin B. Cornelius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With a budding market of widespread smart contract implementation on the horizon, there is much conversation about how to regulate this new technology. Discourse on standard form contracts (SFCs and how they have been adopted in a digital environment is useful toward predicting how smart contracts might be interpreted. This essay provides a critical review of the discourse surrounding digitised SFCs and applies it to issues in smart contract regulation. An exploration of the literature surrounding specific instances SFCs finds that it lacks a close examination of the textual and documentary aspects of SFCs, which are particularly important in a digital environment as a shift in medium prompts a different procedural process. Instead, common perspectives are either based on outdated notions of paper versions of these contracts or on ideologies of industry and business that do not sufficiently address the needs of consumers/users in the digital age. Most importantly, noting the failure of contract law to address the inequities of SFCs in this environment can help prevent them from being codified further with smart contracts.

  7. [Ulysses contract in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Saya, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Over the last twenty years we have witnessed a growing focus on the rights of the ill people. The debate on informed consent and a new redefinition of the therapeutic relationship is constantly evolving. With this article, we propose a critical literature review of the so-called "Ulysses contract" or "psychiatric advance directives". It refers to the will that a subject expresses in writing, or orally, about the treatments he or she wishes or does not wish to be subject to if the time comes when it may be impossible to express his/her consent. This can especially occur in those with psychiatric disorders with serious clinical involvement and remitting-relapse (typically bipolar disorder, but also chronic delusional disorders and schizophrenia). In this context, the question is whether during intercritical periods the patient may or may not leave instructions to their care-givers. This aspect opens up to a series of interdisciplinary problems. In this article, we want to show the complexity of this debate from a clinical, ethical, legal and psychodynamic point of view, emphasizing the strengths and the major criticisms of the psychiatric advance directives for each area.

  8. Landsat 6 contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

  9. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  10. 7 CFR 631.14 - Contract violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.14 Contract violations. Contract violations, determinations and appeals will be handled in accordance with the terms of the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations. 631.14 Section 631.14 Agriculture...

  11. 48 CFR 46.314 - Transportation contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation contracts... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.314 Transportation contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-14, Inspection of Transportation, in solicitations and contracts for freight...

  12. 24 CFR 891.560 - HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract. 891.560 Section 891... Assistance § 891.560 HAP contract. (a) HAP contract. The housing assistance payments contract sets forth.... (b) HAP contract execution. (1) Upon satisfactory completion of the project, the Borrower and HUD...

  13. 77 FR 3288 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... as the baseline contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the GREP Contracts 1 product... Classification Schedule language for GREP Contracts 1. The Postal Service identifies general contract terms that... methodology, the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are similar, if not the same, as the relevant...

  14. 77 FR 71458 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Contracts 1. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract (Contracts 1).\\1\\ It seeks to have the instant Contract included...

  15. 48 CFR 926.7104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 926.7104... 1993. 926.7104 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR (DEAR) 952.226-74, Displaced Employee Hiring Preference, in contracts (except for contracts for commercial items...

  16. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance, in...

  17. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work...

  18. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract. ...

  19. Ontologies for commitment-based smart contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijff, Joost; Weigand, Hans; Panetto, H; Debruyne, C.; Gaaloul, W.; Papazoglou, M.; Paschke, A.; Ardagna, C.A.; Meersman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts gain rapid exposure since the inception of blockchain technology. Yet there is no unified ontology for smart contracts. Being categorized as coded contracts or substitutes of conventional legal contracts, there is a need to reduce the conceptual ambiguity of smart contracts. We

  20. Analysis of the 314th Contracting Squadrons Contract Management Capability Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Jr, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project is to analyze the 314th Contracting Squadron contracting processes and requirement target areas for improvement efforts by the application of the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM...

  1. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  2. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  3. Physics of muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called ‘descending limb’ of the isometric tetanus.

  4. Physics of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M; Truskinovsky, L

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called 'descending limb' of the isometric tetanus.

  5. Contraction ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskij, Yu.B.; Kulikov, V.V.; Nekutchaev, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge and a definition of their arising propagation mechanism accounting for the specificity of elementary pocesses characteristic of argon are presented. (author)

  6. Defense Threat Reduction Agency > Contracts > Contract Award Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Command Senior Enlisted Leader Media News News Archive Strategic Plan Videos Mission Research Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current Justifications & Approvals Careers Who We Are Our Values Strategic Recruiting Programs Professional

  7. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-01-01

    The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is...

  8. The North Sea contracting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, P.J.C.

    1996-09-01

    The North Sea Contracting Industry provides in-depth profiles of major contracting organisations including manpower, facilities, expertise, future directions and financial details. It addresses key issues such as: how will the role of operators and contractors change toward 2000 and beyond?; how will the contractor-operator relationship develop?; will the contractors take a more speculative role in projects such as leasing and contract to produce?; does the future belong to broad skilled providers or small specialised niche players, or both?; and how will rapid technological improvements affect the industry? (author)

  9. 77 FR 76091 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... an expired International Business Reply Service (IBRS) competitive contract.\\1\\ The Postal Service... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 1 Negotiated Service Agreement, December 14, 2012... history. The Commission added International Business Reply Service Contract 1 to the competitive product...

  10. 78 FR 11699 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... additional International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 negotiated service agreement... International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service Agreement, February 11, 2013.... 684, Order Approving International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3 Negotiated Service...

  11. 48 CFR 542.1107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Production Surveillance and Reporting 542.1107 Contract... clause may be used in indefinite-delivery definite-quantity contracts for Stock or Special Order Program...

  12. 42 CFR 422.504 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Application Procedures and Contracts for Medicare Advantage... determinations of amounts payable under the contract. (iv) Properly reflect all direct and indirect costs claimed..., contracts, and subcontracts. (vi) Franchise, marketing, and management agreements. (vii) Schedules of...

  13. Bottomland Hardwood Planting: Example Contract Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humprey, Monica

    2002-01-01

    This technical note provides an example of contract specifications that can be used as a template by USACE biologists, engineers, or contracting officers for contracting the planting of bottomland hardwood (BLH) seedlings...

  14. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  15. 24 CFR 983.206 - HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract amendments (to add or... Contract § 983.206 HAP contract amendments (to add or substitute contract units). (a) Amendment to substitute contract units. At the discretion of the PHA and subject to all PBV requirements, the HAP contract...

  16. 23 CFR 635.121 - Contract time and contract time extensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRAFFIC OPERATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.121 Contract time and contract time extensions. (a) The STD should have adequate written procedures for the determination of contract... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract time and contract time extensions. 635.121...

  17. Price management mechanisms and the gas contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Pricing objectives and risk management strategies that can be achieved through the proper use of the standard gas contract, were discussed. Main topics of discussion were: (1) gas sales contract and convertible pricing, (2) gas contract and imbedded hedging, gas contracts and exchange traded instruments, (4) gas contracts fixed for floating swaps, and OTC options and exotics, (5) options and exotic price structures, and (6) advantages and disadvantages of using the gas contract versus the swap agreement

  18. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form...... of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &...... in developing a common European legal culture. The European Parliament has twice called for the creation of a European Civil Code. The principles of European contract law are essential steps in these projects. This text provides a comprehensive guide to the Principles of European contract law. They have been...

  19. Framework for Structuring Procurement Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Borg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a new framework for structuring contract types and payment methods. Concerning procurement contracts, the first important new feature of this framework is a stepwise structure with three main steps in the contract design: (1 what will be procured—should the contract only include construction, or should it include both construction and operation/maintenance (2 who will do the detailed design of the premise and (3 how many contractors will the client use? The second important new feature of this framework is that both step 2 and step 3 include a continuum of alternatives. Concerning payment methods, the new framework is primarily based on how the specific risks of the project are shared. These frameworks can be useful for policy formulation in that they can help to avoid some problematic ways of formulating policies.

  20. Contracting and Performance in Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Houlberg Salomonsen, Heidi; Rennison, Betina Wolfgang

    As part of New Public Management (NPM), contracting represents a supplement to the traditional hierarchical and rule-based managing of relations between actors in order to improve performance (Fortin and van Hassel 2000; Greve and Ejersbo 2002; Drewry et al. 2005; Verhoest 2005). To various degrees...... higher goal attainment when agency head experience that the department balance dialogue and autonomy with some element of control in the process of internal contracting (Bjørnholt and Salomonsen 2011). This implies, that effective steering include a combination of decentralized management...... and how a balanced use of internal contracting leads to a better performance. These findings are then theoretically interpreted based upon a combination of literature on agencification as well as public management. We compare contracting across all Danish agencies based on a combination of survey...

  1. Contract Reform Self Assessment Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this self assessment is to report on the Department of Energy's progress in implementing the Contract Reform initiative launched in February 1994 and to discuss remaining challenges...

  2. Contraction of the solar nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The concept of Roche limit is applied to the Laplacian theory of the origin of the solar system to study the contraction of a spherical gas cloud (solar nebula). In the process of contraction of the solar nebula, it is assumed that the phenomenon of supersonic turbulent convection is operative and brings about the halt at various stages of contraction. It is found that the radius of the contracting solar nebula follows the Titius-Bode law. The consequences of the relation are also discussed. The aim is to attempt to explain, on the basis of the concept of Roche limit, the distribution of planets in the solar system and try to understand the physics underlying it. (Auth.)

  3. Construction contracts law and management

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Will; Murdoch, John

    2015-01-01

    The fifth edition of this bestselling textbook has been thoroughly revised to provide the most up-to-date and comprehensive coverage of the legislation, administration and management of construction contracts. It now includes comparisons of working with JCT, NEC3, and FIDIC contracts throughout. Introducing this topic at the core of construction law and management, this book provides students with a one-stop reference on construction contracts. Significant new material covers: procurement tendering developments in dispute settlement commentary on all key legislation, case law and contract amendments In line with new thinking in construction management research, this authoritative guide is essential reading for every construction undergraduate and an extremely useful source of reference for practitioners.

  4. Multifamily Assistance Section 8 Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — he information regarding the Multifamily Assistance and Section 8 contracts, and properties is being furnished for the convenience of interested parties. The...

  5. Non-renewal of contracts

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2007-01-01

    A new illegal practice is appearing in certain sectors of the Organization: the non-renewal of renewable three-year limited-duration (LD) contracts, despite a more than satisfactory performance and an obvious commitment to the Organization.

  6. Contractions of quantum algebraic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doikou, A.; Sfetsos, K.

    2010-01-01

    A general framework for obtaining certain types of contracted and centrally extended algebras is reviewed. The whole process relies on the existence of quadratic algebras, which appear in the context of boundary integrable models. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2013 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts to indefinite contracts) was officially launched last week.  The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 9 August 2013 for a period of four weeks (until 8 September 2013). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: Information on the location of these sessions will be provided in due course on the CERN announcements page. HR Department

  8. Contractions of affine spherical varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, I V

    1999-01-01

    The language of filtrations and contractions is used to describe the class of G-varieties obtainable as the total spaces of the construction of contraction applied to affine spherical varieties, which is well-known in invariant theory. These varieties are local models for arbitrary affine G-varieties of complexity 1 with a one-dimensional categorical quotient. As examples, reductive algebraic semigroups and three-dimensional SL 2 -varieties are considered

  9. Analysis of Developed Country's Export Contract and Contract Risk and Development of Sample Contract and Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, K. S.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, B. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yang, M. H.

    2008-10-01

    This paper aimed at developing legal support for the non nuclear power plant industry's export. This study aids establishing government policy and promoting export of non nuclear power plant industry. This paper treated analysis of contractual risk and caution before entering into contract. To promote continuing export result, governmental and legal aids and guide will be required continuously. This study showed risks related with export contract and explained export control acts and procedures

  10. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. ... of isokinetic leg strength in professional soccer and basketball players, Abstract ... Vol 39, No 3 (2017), Comparisons of performance indicators between Super ...

  11. 40 CFR 60.675 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distance between the observer and the emission source shall be 4.57 meters (15 feet). (ii) The observer... isokinetic sampling rates. ER28AP09.007 Where: Ve = average building vent velocity (feet per minute); Qf...

  12. Relationships of Functional Tests Following ACL Reconstruction: Exploratory Factor Analyses of the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFabio, Melissa; Slater, Lindsay V; Norte, Grant; Goetschius, John; Hart, Joseph M; Hertel, Jay

    2018-03-01

    After ACL reconstruction (ACLR), deficits are often assessed using a variety of functional tests, which can be time consuming. It is unknown whether these tests provide redundant or unique information. To explore relationships between components of a battery of functional tests, the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol (LEAP) was created to aid in developing the most informative, concise battery of tests for evaluating ACLR patients. Descriptive, cross-sectional. Laboratory. 76 ACLR patients (6.86±3.07 months postoperative) and 54 healthy participants. Isokinetic knee flexion and extension at 90 and 180 degrees/second, maximal voluntary isometric contraction for knee extension and flexion, single leg balance, 4 hopping tasks (single, triple, crossover, and 6-meter timed hop), and a bilateral drop vertical jump that was scored with the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Peak torque, average torque, average power, total work, fatigue indices, center of pressure area and velocity, hop distance and time, and LESS score. A series of factor analyses were conducted to assess grouping of functional tests on the LEAP for each limb in the ACLR and healthy groups and limb symmetry indices (LSI) for both groups. Correlations were run between measures that loaded on retained factors. Isokinetic and isometric strength tests for knee flexion and extension, hopping, balance, and fatigue index were identified as unique factors for all limbs. The LESS score loaded with various factors across the different limbs. The healthy group LSI analysis produced more factors than the ACLR LSI analysis. Individual measures within each factor had moderate to strong correlations. Isokinetic and isometric strength, hopping, balance, and fatigue index provided unique information. Within each category of measures, not all tests may need to be included for a comprehensive functional assessment of ACLR patients due to the high amount of shared variance between them.

  13. Hip abduction-adduction strength and one-leg hop tests: test-retest reliability and relationship to function in elite ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kea, J; Kramer, J; Forwell, L; Birmingham, T

    2001-08-01

    Single group, test-retest. To determine: (1) hip abduction and adduction torques during concentric and eccentric muscle actions, (2) medial and lateral one-leg hop distances, (3) the test-retest reliability of these measurements, and (4) the relationship between isokinetic measures of hip muscle strength and hop distances in elite ice hockey players. The skating motion used in ice hockey requires strong contractions of the hip and knee musculature. However, baseline scores for hip strength and hop distances, their test-retest reliability, and measures of the extent to which these tests are related for this population are not available. The dominant leg of 27 men (mean age 20 +/- 3 yrs) was tested on 2 occasions. Hip abduction and adduction movements were completed at 60 degrees.s(-1) angular velocity, with the subject lying on the non-test side and the test leg moving vertically in the subject's coronal plane. One-leg hops requiring jumping from and landing on the same leg without losing balance were completed in the medial and lateral directions. Hip adduction torques were significantly greater than abduction torques during both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, while no significant difference was observed between medial and lateral hop distances. Although hop test scores produced excellent ICCs (> 0.75) when determined using scores on 1 occasion, torques needed to be averaged over 2 test occasions to reach this level. Correlations between the strength and hop tests ranged from slight to low (r = -0.26 to 0.27) and were characterized by wide 95% confidence intervals (-0.54 to 0.61). Isokinetic tests of hip abduction and adduction did not provide a strong indication of performance during sideways hop tests. Although isokinetic tests can provide a measure of muscular strength under specific test conditions, they should not be relied upon as a primary indicator of functional abilities or readiness to return to activity.

  14. Psychological contracts of hospice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Audrey Elizabeth; Sambrook, Sally

    2010-12-01

    Psychological contracts have been described as individuals' beliefs regarding the obligations, expectations, and contributions that exist between them and their employer. They can be influenced by the organization's culture and philosophy, through human resources policies, and through the employee's personality and characteristics. Owing to the recent economic crisis, hospices in the UK are currently in a transitional phase and are being expected to demonstrate efficiencies that might be more in line with a business model than a health-care environment. This may conflict with the philosophical views of hospice nurses. To support nurses through this transition, it might be helpful to understand the antecedents of hospice nurses' behaviour and how they construct their psychological contracts. Failure to offer adequate support might lead to negative outcomes such as a desire to leave the organisation, poorer quality work, or disruptive behaviour. This study used a modified grounded theory approach involving in-depth interviews to explore the context and content of the psychological contracts of hospice nurses in the UK. Four main themes emerged: the types of psychological contracts formed, how the contracts are formed, their contents, and the breaches and potential violations the nurses perceive.

  15. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the awa...

  16. Next Indefinite Contract review exercise

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2015-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, We are pleased to inform you that the 2015 LD2IC exercise (selection process for the conversion of limited-duration contracts into indefinite contracts) has been officially launched. The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of indefinite contracts will be published on 3 August 2015 for a period of four weeks (until 31 August 2015). The CERN Contract Review Boards (candidate interviews) will be held between the end of September and mid-November. The LD to IC procedure, Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) and a calendar for the exercise are now available in the Admin e-guide. In addition, general information sessions on the procedure will be organised for candidates on the following dates: We would like to remind you that all staff members holding a limited-duration contract who have successfully completed their probation period at the time of application and who meet the eligibility criteria in the vacancy notices (VNs) are eligible to apply for posts for the award of a...

  17. Termination of Commercial Contracts by giving Notice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Some long-term contracts are brought to an end if one of the parties gives notice. Usually, such a step is not considered a breach of contract. It causes the contract to end in accordance with the contract. When no express rules cover the situation, it is often not entirely clear whether or not t...

  18. 24 CFR 242.52 - Construction contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; a construction management contract with a guaranteed maximum price, the final costs of which are... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Construction contracts. 242.52... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Construction § 242.52 Construction contracts. (a) Awarding of contract. A...

  19. 48 CFR 39.107 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., in solicitations and contracts for information technology which require security of information technology, and/or are for the design, development, or operation of a system of records using commercial... CONTRACTING ACQUISITION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY General 39.107 Contract clause. The contracting officer...

  20. 48 CFR 904.7201 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 904.7201... MATTERS Public Affairs 904.7201 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.204-75, Public Affairs, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to release...

  1. 48 CFR 803.7001 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 803.7001... Practices 803.7001 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.203-71, Display of Department of Veterans Affairs Hotline poster, in solicitations and contracts expected to equal or...

  2. 48 CFR 819.7009 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 819.7009... Acquisition Program 819.7009 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert VAAR clause 852.219-10... Veteran-Owned Small Business Set-Aside in solicitations and contracts for acquisitions under this subpart. ...

  3. 48 CFR 745.106 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 745.106 Section 745.106 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY General 745.106 Contract clauses. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the...

  4. 48 CFR 846.710 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 846.710 Section 846.710 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Warranties 846.710 Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at...

  5. 48 CFR 903.971 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 903.971... Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 952.203-70, Whistleblower Protection for Contractor Employees, in contracts that involve work to be done on behalf of DOE directly related...

  6. 48 CFR 747.507 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 747.507 Section 747.507 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Ocean Transportation by U.S.-Flag Vessels 747.507 Contract clauses. Contracting...

  7. 48 CFR 871.212 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 871.212... Rehabilitation and Employment Service 871.212 Contract clauses. Contracting officers must use the following clauses, as appropriate, in solicitations and contracts for vocational rehabilitation and employment...

  8. 48 CFR 53.111 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 53.111... AND FORMS FORMS General 53.111 Contract clause. Contracting officers shall insert the clause at 52.253-1, Computer Generated Forms, in solicitations and contracts that require the contractor to submit...

  9. 48 CFR 833.215 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 833.215 Section 833.215 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PROTESTS, DISPUTES, AND APPEALS Disputes and Appeals 833.215 Contract clause. The contracting...

  10. 48 CFR 947.7002 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 947.7002 Section 947.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Foreign Travel 947.7002 Contract clause. When foreign travel may be required under the contract...

  11. 48 CFR 811.404 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.404... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Delivery or Performance Schedules 811.404 Contract clause. When delivery is required by or on a particular date for f.o.b. destination contracts, the contracting officer...

  12. 48 CFR 925.7004 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 925.7004... FOREIGN ACQUISITION Acquisition of Nuclear Hot Cell Services 925.7004 Contract clause. The contracting... solicitations and contracts involving nuclear hot cell services. This clause does not flow down to second-tier...

  13. 77 FR 71642 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Services 3 contract. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related... Expedited Package Services (GEPS) 3 contract (Contract).\\1\\ The Notice was filed in accordance with 39 CFR...

  14. 77 FR 54937 - International Mail Postal Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... recently-filed Postal Service filing addressing a new International Business Reply Service Contract 3. It... contract within the International Business Reply Service (IBRS) Competitive Contract 3 grouping.\\1\\ The... Service Filing of a Functionally Equivalent International Business Reply Service Competitive Contract 3...

  15. 48 CFR 22.610 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act 22.610... Contracts Act, in solicitations and contracts covered by the Act (see 22.603, 22.604, and 22.605). [61 FR... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 22.610...

  16. 48 CFR 970.1504 - Contract pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract pricing. 970.1504 Section 970.1504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Contracting by Negotiation 970.1504 Contract pricing. ...

  17. 48 CFR 432.412 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 432.412 Section 432.412 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Advance Payments for Non-Commercial Items 432.412 Contract clause. The decision...

  18. Incentive contracts for development projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, David T.; Smith, Byron; DeGroff, B.

    2012-09-01

    Finding a contract vehicle that balances the concerns of the customer and the contractor in a development project can be difficult. The customer wants a low price and an early delivery, with as few surprises as possible as the project progresses. The contractor wants sufficient cost and schedule to cover risk. Both want to clearly define what each party will provide. Many program offices do not want to award cost plus contracts because their funding sources will not allow it, their boards do not want an open ended commitment, and they feel like they lose financial control of the project. A fixed price incentive contract, with a mutually agreed upon target cost, provides the owner with visibility into the project and input into the execution of the project, encourages both parties to save costs, and stimulates a collaborative atmosphere by aligning the respective interests of customers and contractors.

  19. Claims in civil engineering contracts

    CERN Document Server

    Speirs, N A

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers claims arising during civil engineering construction contracts. The meaning of the word 'claim' is considered and its possible implications for additional cost and time to completion. The conditions of the construction contract selected will influence the risk apportionment between contractor and client and the price offered by the contractor for the work. Competitive bidding constraints and profit margins in the construction industry, however, may also influence the price offered. This in turn can influence the likelihood of claims arising. The client from his point of view is concerned to complete the work within an agreed time and budget. The circumstances under which claims may arise are reviewed in relation to typical conditions of contract. These circumstances are then related to the CERN LHC civil works. Ways of avoiding claims, where this is possible, are considered. Finally, the means of evaluation of claims and their settlement are considered.

  20. Terms of payment in the sales contract

    OpenAIRE

    Harmáčková, Iva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis makes an analysis of price and terms of payment in the sales contract. Both elements are conceived in terms of legal framework and in terms of importance for the parties to an international sales contract. The theoretical part deals with the role of the sales contract in business relations, structure and legal norms of the international sales contract. The practical part includes an analysis of specific international sales contract.

  1. Outsourcing Contract Success: A Quality Management Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vanita Yadav; B.A. Metri

    2010-01-01

    Despite the phenomenal growth in outsourcing of various business functions like Enterprise Systems outsourcing, IT outsourcing, and Business Process outsourcing, there has been relatively less attention given to the high-risk area of outsourcing contracts. In this regard, contract has been the conventional medium for governing outsourcing relationships. This study aims to bring forward the importance of quality in the entire contracting process, involving contract planning, pre-contract negot...

  2. A survey of formal languages for contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvitved, Tom

    2010-01-01

    In this short paper we present the current status on formal languages and models for contracts. By a formal model is meant an unambiguous and rigorous representation of contracts, in order to enable their automatic validation, execution, and analysis — activates that are collectively referred...... to as contract lifecycle management (CLM). We present a set of formalism requirements, which represent features that any ideal contract model should support, based on which we present a comparative survey of existing contract formalisms....

  3. New Advances in Molecular Therapy for Muscle Repair after Diseases and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    throughout. Eleven weeks after the injury, an isokinetic test of the hamstrings was performed showing an essentially normal result. In summary...all isokinetic testing parameters were within a normal range compared to the contralateral leg and well below the usual time of typically healing of a...significant increase in the nu mber a nd in the dia meter of regenerating myofibers in the s uramin tr eated gr oup ( 2.5 mg) when co mpared with

  4. Injury Prevention and Performance Enhancement in 101st Airborne Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    assessments consisting of strength, cardiorespiratory, anaerobic, and body composition tests. Isokinetic strength testing 10 was performed on the...a meter or more. Moreover, the maximum VGRF experienced during landing tasks performed in the field could be much greater than the standardized... isokinetic strength. Subjects were assigned to groups based on the DoD’s standard for body fat (Group 1: ≤18% BF; Group 2 >18% BF). Soldiers who met

  5. Injuries and Injury Prevention in the US Army Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-30

    given tests which included: 1) horizontal shoulder flexion and extension and vertical shoulder flexion and extension on a Cybex isokinetic device at 60...rehearsal of the herald trumpets (see Appendix E). Measurements were made using a Larson Davis (LD) Type 800B sound level meter and a LD Type 2559...activity of the trunk musculature during a Feldenkrais Awareness Through Movement lesson. Isokinet Exerc Sci 4: 216-221, 1991. 139. Chinn J, Trujillo D

  6. Respirator Filter Efficiency Testing Against Particulate and Biological Aerosols Under Moderate to High Flow Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    flow rate through the test filter. The flow rate was measured using a mass flow meter (Series 4000, TSI, Shoreview, MN). Several modifications were made...operating conditions. This included assessing the effect of non- isokinetic sampling, flow calibrations, and characterization of the challenge...sampling bias on the measured penetrations due to the non- isokinetic sampling downstream. 3.3.2.2 System Characterization. Shakedown tests were

  7. The Contracting Parties' Ability To Conclude The Employment Contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Constantina NENU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study's main objective is to analyze certain effects produced by the changes of the Labor Code and by the entry into force of the current Romanian Civil Code. These effects refer to one of the fundamental conditions for the valid conclusion of the individual employment contract, that is, to the legal capacity of employers and employees. Thus, a complete analysis of legal regulations and of the correlations between different provisions on the legal capacity of parties to the individual employment contract is required to identify the existing noncompliance and to propose solutions. The research demonstrated that the current regulatory framework governing the legal capacity of the parties to an individual employment contract does not entirely correspond to the social reality. Therefore, only the employer benefits from a relatively comprehensive statutory regulation on the legal capacity to conclude an individual employment contract. The employee, however, does not benefit from the same attention from legislature. Considering the above, the study represents a significant scientific contribution, whose value lies in the proposed changes to modify legislature, so that the legal capacity of job holders would benefit from fair regulation, in accordance with the principle of legal protection of employee rights.

  8. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published as from the last week of September.  In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened is available at the following address: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/Autumn_2011_listofslots.pdf Information sessions for candidates are being organised for 26 and 27 September 2011. For more information please consult:  https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp

  9. Some ancestors of contraction analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    Contraction analysis is a recent tool for analyzing the convergence behavior of nonlinear systems in state-space form (see Lohmiller and Slotine [16] for the main reference). However, it seems that earlier results derived by mathematicians in the 1950s closely match some of the results of contrac......Contraction analysis is a recent tool for analyzing the convergence behavior of nonlinear systems in state-space form (see Lohmiller and Slotine [16] for the main reference). However, it seems that earlier results derived by mathematicians in the 1950s closely match some of the results...

  10. Team incentives in relational contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaloey, Ola

    2003-01-01

    Incentive schemes for teams are compared. I ask: under which conditions are relational incentive contracts based on joint performance evaluation, relative performance evaluation and independent performance evaluation self-enforceable. The framework of Che and Yoo (2001) on team incentives is combined with the framework of Baker, Gibbons and Murphy (2002) on relational contracts. In a repeated game between one principal and two agents, I find that incentives based on relative or independent performance are expected to dominate when the productivity of effort is high, while joint performance evaluation dominates when productivity is low. Incentives based on independent performance are more probable if the agents own critical assets. (author)

  11. Debt renegotiation with incomplete contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Melo Jorge Neto

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A debt contract usually does not include a provision about renegotiation. The right to seize the borrower’s asset and the rules of this process are usually stipulated in the contract. Such a promise not to renegotiate is not credible since renegotiation can mitigate the dead-weight loss of liquidating insolvent borrowers. Once the initial contract may not consider the renegotiation procedure and renegotiation may occur, this paper investigates why a complete contract is not offered. It shows that the lender does not need to stipulate the renegotiation procedure on the initial contract because he is indifferent about committing or not to the terms of a contract. This indicates that a complete contract gives the lender the same expected return as an incomplete contract, in which the renegotiation process is determined after the occurrence of default.Um contrato de débito geralmente não inclui uma cláusula sobre renegociação. O direito de liquidar os ativos do tomador e as regras do processo são habitualmente estipuladas no contrato. Tal promessa de não renegociar não é crível, já que a renegociação pode mitigar a perda bruta de se liquidar tomadores insolventes. Uma vez que o contrato inicial pode não considerar os procedimentos de renegociação, e esta pode, de fato, vir a ocorrer, este artigo investiga a razão de um contrato completo não ser ofertado. Mostra-se que o emprestador não precisa estipular os procedimentos de renegociação no contrato inicial porque ele é indiferente entre se comprometer ou não aos termos do contrato. Isto indica que um contrato completo dá ao emprestador o mesmo retorno esperado de um contrato incompleto, no qual os procedimentos de renegociação são determinados após a declaração de default.

  12. 29 CFR 4.122 - Contracts for operation of postal contract stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.122 Contracts for operation of postal contract stations. The Act, in paragraph (7) of section 7, exempts from its provisions “any... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts for operation of postal contract stations. 4.122...

  13. SSC Test Operations Contract Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleim, Kerry D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Test Operations Contract at the Stennis Space Center (SSC). There are views of the test stands layouts, and closer views of the test stands. There are descriptions of the test stand capabilities, some of the other test complexes, the Cryogenic propellant storage facility, the High Pressure Industrial Water (HPIW) facility, and Fluid Component Processing Facility (FCPF).

  14. Jazzing up the Psychological Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Nell Tabor

    2010-01-01

    Helping students and practitioners to understand and utilize the Psychological Contract is often a difficult task. Unlike fault-finding research, this paper presents the PC as a positive, vibrant and valuable tool. In an effort to make the concept less elusive, the paper draws upon the metaphor of jazz. The metaphor is an accepted tool of…

  15. The Strange Notion of Contract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lock, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    The notion of contract is not as unproblematic as might at first sight appear. Its theoretical basis in particular is very difficult to decipher. It is arguable that whereas the Middle Ages and 16th century produced an exceptionally subtle foundational account, the rise of modernity largely

  16. Informal Institutions and Intergenerational Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer; Lilleør, Helene Bie

    This paper carries out a theoretical and empirical investigation of the role of informal institutions in facilitating intergenerational contracts governing investments in schooling and payments of pensions in the form of remittances. We show, using detailed household level data from rural Tanzania...

  17. Forestry contracting in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khosa, M

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available of their workers directly to a contractor system. For example, forest contractors are now hired to carry out planting, tending and silvicultural operations. Sappi Forests, Mondi Forests and Safcol are all contracting certain work out and are currently assisting...

  18. Supply contract and portfolio insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runsheng Yin; Bob Izlar

    2001-01-01

    The long-term growth of institutional timberland investments depends on the ability of timberland investment management organizations (TIMO) to deal effectively with securitization, leveraging, arbitraging, supply contracting, portfolio insurance, tax efficiency enhancement, and other issues. Financial engineering holds great promise for many of these issues. This...

  19. AGILE DRAFTING OF OUTSOURCING CONTRACTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Storgaard, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    and in several parallel tracks using different competencies. By the use of an illustrative case-study, this paper explores how scrum can be applied to enhance the process of drafting outsourcing contracts. The analysis indicates that the use of an agile method, such as Scrum, can be beneficial in this context...

  20. Incomplete contract and divisional structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, T.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we want to analyze the internal divisional structure within an organi- zation in the framework of incomplete contract theory. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) and define the managerial control structure as \\sequence of search". A key feature of this paper which

  1. Construction contract revenue recording comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Bohušová

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Publicly traded companies prepare their consolidated accounts in conformity with the international accounting standards (IAS/IFRS in accordance with the Regulation No. 1606/2002. This is obliged for all publicly traded joint-stock companies in the Czech Republic. Other companies prepare financial statements in accordance with national accounting standards. There are Accounting Act No. 563/1991 of Coll. and Regulation No. 500/2002 of Coll., Czech Accounting Standards in the Czech Republic. Both systems are based on different principles so there are many differences. The Czech Accounting System (CAS is based on the rules while IAS/IFRS are based on principles (Kovanicová, 2005. These differences are mainly caused by the different philosophy. CAS prefers the fiscal policy to the economic substance while IAS/IFRS prefere the economic substance. One of the most significant dif­fe­ren­ces is in the field of revenue recording. There are two standards concerning the revenues recording (IAS 18 − Revenue, IAS 11 – Construction Contracts in IAS/IFRS. CAS 019 – Expenses and Revenue are dealing with the revenue recording in the Czech Republic. The paper is aimed at the comparison of the methodical approaches for revenue recording used by IAS/IFRS and by CAS. The most important differences are caused by the different approach to the long term contracts (construction contracts, software development contracts revenues recording.

  2. Towards Certified Management of Financial Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Berthold, Jost; Elsman, Martin

    2014-01-01

    . The seminal work by Peyton-Jones and Eber on financial contracts shows how an algebraic approach to contract specification can be used for valuation of contracts (when combined with a model of the underlying observables) and for managing how contracts evolve under so-called fixings and decision......-taking, with the contracts eventually evaporating into the empty contract, for which no party have further obligations. The ideas have emerged into Eber's company LexiFi, which has become a leading software provider for a range of financial institutions, with all contract management operations centralised around a domain......Banks and financial institutions nowadays often use domain-specific languages (DSLs) for describing complex financial contracts, in particular, for specifying how asset transfers for a specific contract depend on underlying observables, such as interest rates, currency rates, and stock prices...

  3. Financial Management: Reopening of Contracts in the Mechanization of Contract Administration Services System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    2003-01-01

    .... In anticipation of transitioning to the new contract payment system, the Defense Finance and Accounting Service and the Defense Contract Management Agency were attempting to close out as many contracts as possible...

  4. Iterative Contracts as Proactive Law Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, René Franz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the use of proactive law in contracts illustrated by the use of a particular type of contract within the IT industry, the so-called iterative contract. This type of contract has its root in a special software development process called iterative and incre...... the potential to create more business success. However, empirical research still needs to be done in order to confirm that these types of contracts are better at securing business success than traditional contract forms....

  5. Effects of knee and ankle muscle fatigue on postural control in the unipedal stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizid, Riadh; Margnes, Eric; François, Yrieix; Jully, Jean Louis; Gonzalez, Gerard; Dupui, Philippe; Paillard, Thierry

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute muscle fatigue of the ankle and knee musculature on postural control by immediate measures after performing fatiguing tasks (POST condition). One group of subjects (n = 8) performed a fatiguing task by voluntary contractions of the triceps surae (group TRI) and the other (n = 9) performed a fatiguing task by voluntary contractions of the quadriceps femoris (group QUA). Each muscle group was exercised until the loss of maximal voluntary contraction torque reached 50% (isokinetic dynamometer). Posture was assessed by measuring the centre of foot pressure (COP) with a force platform during a test of unipedal quiet standing posture with eyes closed. Initially (in PRE condition), the mean COP velocity was not significantly different between group TRI and group QUA. In POST condition, the mean COP velocity increased more in group QUA than in group TRI. The postural control was more impaired by knee muscle fatigue than by ankle muscle fatigue.

  6. Contract Design, Supply Chain Complexity, and Accountability in Federal Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    both the extent to which there is a risk of disruption within the supply chain and external to the supply chain as well. We suggest that the formal...governance mechanisms that are favored under different conditions of endogenous and exogenous supply chain risk reflect the risk management...share risk by agreeing to incentive contracts. Introduction Supply chains are complex in at least two fundamental aspects—the complexity or

  7. Defense Contract Management: DOD's Lack of Adherence to Key Contracting Principles on Iraq Oil Contract Put Government Interests at Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hutton, John P; Ahearn, Marie; Augustine, Penny B; Campbell, Greg; James, Jr., Arthur; Lesonsky, Eric; Lord, Stephen; McDonough-Hughes, Anne; McKelvey, Janet; Patton, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    .... The contract was also used to ensure adequate fuel supplies inside Iraq. RIO I was a cost-plus-award-fee type contract that provided for payment of the contractor's costs, a fixed fee determined at inception of the contract, and a potential award fee...

  8. Dynamic contracting mechanism for pavement maintenance management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirel, H.C.; De Ridder, H.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances, financial possibilities and changes of demands have increasingly affected the pavement maintenance environment for outsourcing in recent years. This induces complexity in the contracting methods of pavement maintenance activities. Despite the fact that current contracting

  9. 48 CFR 23.804 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... refrigerant, such as air conditioners, including motor vehicles, refrigerators, chillers, or freezers. [61 FR... Equipment and Air Conditioners, in solicitations and contracts for services when the contract includes the...

  10. 7 CFR 1780.75 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing, Bidding, Contracting... including the manner by which it will be effected and the basis for settlement. In addition, such contracts...

  11. Defense Contract Audit Agency Compensation Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... The Defense Contract Audit Agency (DCAA) assists the administrative contracting officer in accomplishing that responsibility by determining whether the contractor's compensation system is sound, reliable, consistently applied, and results...

  12. 48 CFR 19.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 19.808 Section 19.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC....808 Contract negotiation. ...

  13. Linkage between Psychological Contract and Employee Retention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    strengthened by clearly stating expectations during recruitment and ... Impact of psychological contract in a work environment vis-à-vis employee retention, ..... psychological contract that will incite a faithful, fruitful and fulfilled work team.

  14. The Public Sector and Obligation to Contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Karsten Naundrup; Indén, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the situation where public sector bodies are forced to enter into contracts. These obligations to contract are analysed from two angles. First, the paper offers an analysis of the reasons for imposing such obligations to contract under Swedish and Danish law. Secondly the paper...... discusses some consequences of the public entities’ obligations to contract, more specific consequences for the use of rules that usually regulate contracts and the fact that obligations to contract imposed on public entities establish a new market and at the same time the obligations deprive the entities...... of the freedom to contract which is a fundamental to market behaviour. Finally attention is drawn to the fact that obligations to contract are also imposed on private entities. The paper takes Swedish and Danish regulations as a point of departure and provides an insight into regulations from these two countries...

  15. Renewable Energy Contract Development Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information on how available resources can help organizations effectively navigate the solar contract development process with the goal of RFP and contract transparency, completeness, and accountability of all involved parties.

  16. Contract Training: Progress and Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; Drisko, Ronald

    1985-01-01

    Provides results of a national survey of community college contract training programs, including data on the extent of the colleges' involvement, centralization/decentralization of contract training, problems and benefits, and future trends. Discusses future policy trends. (HB)

  17. Contract & agency labour: beyond self-regulation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cotton, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    A paper about the regulation of contract labour. Academic and legal aspects as well as case studies of global union federation work to organise and regulate contract labour in Thailand, Pakistan, Colombia, South Korea and at international level.

  18. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  19. corporate social responsibility and psychological contract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal

    2017-07-04

    Jul 4, 2017 ... KEYWORDS: Corporate social responsibilities, Psychological contract, Nigeria, Niger delta, ... The concept of Corporate Social ... CSR initiatives rather than mere financial ..... fundamental idea in such a contract (PC) is the.

  20. Energy service contracting in DOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahle, D.E.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) annually consumes about $3 Billion in energy to operate facilities at military installations worldwide, representing about 80% of utility operating expense for all Federal facilities. Recent legislation and a Presidential Executive Order have directed DOD by Fiscal Year 2000 to reduce facility energy consumption by 20%, from the level of energy used in Fiscal Year 1985. To achieve this goal it is estimated that energy efficiency improvement investments between $2-3 billion would be required. Considering the competition for resources within DOD as it experiences downsizing and restructuring, DOD will need to seek opportunities to tap alternative investment strategies through energy service contracting to leverage Federal resources. Shared Energy Savings and Operations and Maintenance Energy Services contracting activities in the Department of the Navy will be used to address how such acquisition methods can contribute to achieving DOD energy efficiency goals

  1. New transport and handling contract

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Department

    2008-01-01

    A new transport and handling contract entered into force on 1.10.2008. As with the previous contract, the user interface is the internal transport/handling request form on EDH: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TransportRequest/ To ensure that you receive the best possible service, we invite you to complete the various fields as accurately as possible and to include a mobile telephone number on which we can reach you. You can follow the progress of your request (schedule, completion) in the EDH request routing information. We remind you that the following deadlines apply: 48 hours for the transport of heavy goods (up to 8 tonnes) or simple handling operations 5 working days for crane operations, transport of extra-heavy goods, complex handling operations and combined transport and handling operations in the tunnel. For all enquiries, the number to contact remains unchanged: 72202. Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 72672 - 160319

  2. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  3. The NYMEX electricity futures contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer-Huggins, D.

    1998-01-01

    Members of the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) include bankers, industry (such as refiners, producers, and electricity marketers) brokerage houses, and individuals. NYMEX is the largest physical commodity futures exchange in the world. The primary economic role of the commodity exchange industry was discussed, with special emphasis on open interest, volume, and liquidity. Hedge dynamics were also reviewed. A hedge was described as a financial instrument used to lock in prices, costs, and profit margins. Futures contracts in general, and electricity futures contracts in particular were defined ('a firm commitment to deliver or to receive a specified quantity or grade of commodity at a specific location within a designated month'). Results expected from hedging, - cost control, predictable margins, securing a certain market share, price stabilization - , the nature of options trading, and its benefits were also reviewed. 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. Contractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ... Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & ...

  5. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....

  6. Strategic Inventories in Vertical Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan Anand; Ravi Anupindi; Yehuda Bassok

    2008-01-01

    Classical reasons for carrying inventory include fixed (nonlinear) production or procurement costs, lead times, nonstationary or uncertain supply/demand, and capacity constraints. The last decade has seen active research in supply chain coordination focusing on the role of incentive contracts to achieve first-best levels of inventory. An extensive literature in industrial organization that studies incentives for vertical controls largely ignores the effect of inventories. Does the ability to ...

  7. Determinants of Service Contract Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    5–24. Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research , 14(3), 396–402. Ausink...for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research , 16(1), 64–73. Coalition of Service Industries (CSI). (2007...with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research , 18, 39–50. GAO. (2001a, May). Contract management: Trends and

  8. Custom, contract, and kidney exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Kieran; Krawiec, Kimberly D

    2012-01-01

    In this Essay, we examine a case in which the organizational and logistical demands of a novel form of organ exchange (the nonsimultaneous, extended, altruistic donor (NEAD) chain) do not map cleanly onto standard cultural schemas for either market or gift exchange, resulting in sociological ambiguity and legal uncertainty. In some ways, a NEAD chain resembles a form of generalized exchange, an ancient and widespread instance of the norm of reciprocity that can be thought of simply as the obligation to “pay it forward” rather than the obligation to reciprocate directly with the original giver. At the same time, a NEAD chain resembles a string of promises and commitments to deliver something in exchange for some valuable consideration--that is, a series of contracts. Neither of these salient "social imaginaries" of exchange--gift giving or formal contract--perfectly meets the practical demands of the NEAD system. As a result, neither contract nor generalized exchange drives the practice of NEAD chains. Rather, the majority of actual exchanges still resemble a simpler form of exchange: direct, simultaneous exchange between parties with no time delay or opportunity to back out. If NEAD chains are to reach their full promise for large-scale, nonsimultaneous organ transfer, legal uncertainties and sociological ambiguities must be finessed, both in the practices of the coordinating agencies and in the minds of NEAD-chain participants. This might happen either through the further elaboration of gift-like language and practices, or through a creative use of the cultural form and motivational vocabulary, but not necessarily the legal and institutional machinery, of contract.

  9. Government Contract Law (9th Edition)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    This Ninth Edition, like its predecessors, will serve as the textbook for the Government Contract Law taught at the School of Systems and Logistics...drawn from Government Contract Law -Cases, 1987 edition, for a rounded approach to the subject. This edition of the text includes coverage of the...Government Contract Law complements the Federal Acquisition Regulation and provides a preventive law treatment for contracting personnel. While it may

  10. Analysis of international oil and gas contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.

    1992-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to describe the main types of international petroleum contracts, to give the reader methods for comparing contract qualities and analyzing the profitability of petroleum field models under basic contract terms, to describe methods for assessing tradeoffs between various terms of a contract, to describe briefly U.S. Taxation of international petroleum extraction income, and to discuss certain special considerations that apply to the international arena

  11. Legal Considerations for International Collaborative Research Contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Oh, K. B.; Kim, H. J.; Lee, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    Though collaborative research is pure academic activity the research plan and resource allocation for the research are shaped under foam of contract. Thus, legal binding effect and compulsive instrument is adopted at the research contract. This paper aimed at guiding equal collaborative research contract in legal aspect. To reach the goal (1) enforceability and elements of international collaborative contract, (2) damage calculation and related issues with those topics shall be discussed in each section

  12. Manipulation of Cash-Settled Futures Contracts.

    OpenAIRE

    Pirrong, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of delivery settlement of futures contracts with cash settlement is frequently proposed to reduce the frequency of market manipulation. This article shows that it is always possible to design a delivery-settled futures contract that is less susceptible to cornering by a large long than any given cash-settled contract. Such a contract is more susceptible to manipulation by large shorts, however. Therefore, cash settlement does not uniformly dominate delivery settlement as a means o...

  13. Optimal Long-term Contracting with Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Jianfeng Yu; Bin Wei; Zhiguo He

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces profitability uncertainty into an infinite-horizon variation of the classic Holmstrom and Milgrom (1987) model, and studies optimal dynamic contracting with endogenous learning. The agent's potential belief manipulation leads to the hidden information problem, which makes incentive provisions intertemporally linked in the optimal contract. We reduce the contracting problem into a dynamic programming problem with one state variable, and characterize the optimal contract w...

  14. Optional forward contracts for electric power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedra, T.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper extends the idea of callable forward contracts, which are potentially useful as demand-side (interruptible-load) contracts, to their supply-side analogues. Together, these contracts allow market participants to take advantage of flexibility in generation or consumption to obtain a monetary benefit, while simultaneously removing the risk of market price fluctuations. This paper also considers the effects of strategic behavior on the part of market participants in their contract sales/purchase decisions

  15. Contract Dynamics : Lessons from Empirical Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Chaudey

    2010-01-01

    Working paper GATE 2010-35; The recognition that contracts have a time dimension has given rise to a very abundant literature since the end of the 1980s. In such a dynamic context, the contract may take place over several periods and develop repeated interactions. Then, the principal topics of the analysis are commitment, reputation, memory and the renegotiation of the contract. Few papers have tried to apply the predictions of dynamic contract theory to data. The examples of applications int...

  16. A Contract That Manages Itself: The Time Has Arrived

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    technology inspires contracting. The Smart Contract The paradigm of a contract as a static document is about to change. The days of a contract being read...efficiency is of paramount importance in order for an organization to perform its mission. The Smart Contract as an Object In discussions about...the contract object ( smart contract ) exists, the contract will be able to interact with other objects. That will enable the contract to know how

  17. Periodic review in natural resource contracts | Mandelbaum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Periodic contract review mechanisms, which are provisions in contracts that formally require parties to meet at particular intervals to review the terms of the contract, are mechanisms that may facilitate the process of negotiating contractual changes to accommodate changing circumstances over the term of extractive ...

  18. 48 CFR 2432.908 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 2432.908 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 2432.908 Contract clauses. (c)(1) The... other than the submission of an invoice or voucher, e.g., directly from proceeds of property sales. [71...

  19. 48 CFR 619.808 - Contract negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract negotiation. 619.808 Section 619.808 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Contracting with the Small Business Administration (The 8(a) Program) 619.808 Contract negotiation...

  20. 77 FR 5280 - Service Contracts Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0023] Service Contracts Inventory AGENCY: Nuclear...) is providing for public information its Inventory of Contracts for Services for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011. The inventory includes service contract actions over $25,000 that were awarded in FY 2011. ADDRESSES...