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Sample records for isogenic non-transgenic counterpart

  1. Comparison of nutrition composition of transgenic maize (chitinase gene) with its non-transgenic counterpart

    OpenAIRE

    Ping-mei, Yan; Yu-kui, Rui; Xiao-yan, Yan; Zheng, Chai; Qing, Wang; Jian-zhong, Du; Yi, Sun

    2011-01-01

    In order to compare the nutrition components of transgenic maize seeds (chitinase gene), achieved by the pollen-mediated approach, with its non-transgenic counterpart, Vitamin B1, vitamin B2, fatty acids and essential amino acids of transgenic maize seeds and their counterparts were analyzed by the Chinese national standard methods or AOAC methods. The results showed that the contents of all the six kinds of fatty acids detected in transgenic maize seeds were significantly higher than those i...

  2. Comparison of nutritional value of transgenic peanut expressing bar and rcg3 genes with non-transgenic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robab, U.E.; )

    2014-01-01

    The transgenic peanut plants expressing bar and rcg3 genes were subjected to assessment of any change in nutritional value of the crop at various locations. The protein and fat contents of transgenic lines were compared with the non-transgenic parent varieties. Protein content in the transgenic lines was higher as compared to that in non-transgenic counterparts and differences among locations for fat and protein content were significant. No differences among fatty acids were recorded for genes, events and locations. Irrespective of small differences, all the values were in range described for this crop and transgenic lines appeared to be substantially equivalent to non-transgenic parent varieties. (author)

  3. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than its non-transgenic counterpart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Li

    Full Text Available Rice lines genetically modified with the crystal toxin genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have experienced rapid development, with biosafety certificates for two Bt rice lines issued in 2009. There has still been no commercial release of these lines yet due to public concerns about human health and environmental risks. Some studies confirmed that Bt rice was as safe as conventional rice to non-target organisms when pesticides were not applied, however, pesticides are still required in Bt rice to control non-lepidopteran pests. In this study, we assessed the environmental effects of two Bt rice lines expressing either the cry1Ab/1Ac or cry2A genes, respectively, by using zooplanktons as indicator species under normal field management practices using pesticides when required. In the whole rice growing season, non-Bt rice was sprayed 5 times while Bt rice was sprayed 2 times, which ensured both rice achieved a normal yield. Field investigations showed that rice type (Bt and non-Bt significantly influenced zooplankton abundance and diversity, which were up to 95% and 80% lower in non-Bt rice fields than Bt rice fields. Laboratory rearing showed that water from non-Bt rice fields was significantly less suitable for the survival and reproduction of Daphnia magna and Paramecium caudatum in comparison with water from Bt rice fields. Higher pesticide residues were detected in the water from non-Bt than Bt rice fields, accounting for the bad performance of zooplankton in non-Bt field water. Our results demonstrate that Bt rice is safer to aquatic ecosystems than non-Bt rice, and its commercialization will be beneficial for biodiversity restoration in rice-based ecosystems.

  4. Rapid characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean oils by chemometric methods using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Pinho, Jéssica S. A.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate classification were applied to discriminate soybean oil samples into non-transgenic and transgenic. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract relevant features from the spectral data and to remove the anomalous samples. The best results were obtained when with Support Vectors Machine-Discriminant Analysis (SVM-DA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) after mean centering plus multiplicative scatter correction. For SVM-DA the percentage of successful classification was 100% for the training group and 100% and 90% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively. For PLS-DA the percentage of successful classification was 95% and 100% in training group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively and 100% and 80% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic respectively. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can provide a rapid, nondestructive and reliable method to distinguish non-transgenic and transgenic soybean oils.

  5. Chemical compounds related to nutraceutical and industrial qualities of non-transgenic soybean genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, Constanza S; Dardanelli, Julio L; Soldini, Diego O

    2014-05-01

    Information about the chemical profile of soybean seed is valuable for breeding programs aimed at obtaining value-added products to meet the demands of niche markets. The objective of this study was to determine seed composition of non-transgenic soybean genotypes with specialty characters in different environments of Argentina. Protein and oil contents ranged from 396 to 424 g kg⁻¹ and from 210 to 226 g kg⁻¹, respectively. Oleic and linolenic acid ratio, the general indicator of oil quality, varied from 2.7 to 3.8. The oil contained high levels of total tocopherols (1429-1558 mg kg⁻¹) and the meal exhibited high levels of total isoflavones (2.91-4.62 mg g⁻¹). The biplot showed that oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids, γ-, δ- and total tocopherols, genistin, malonyl daidzin and genistin, acetyl daidzin and glycitin and total isoflavones allowed the greatest discrimination among the genotypes studied. Different chemical profiles of each non-transgenic genotype analyzed were established and, therefore, their identity was defined. These results are important for breeders who intend to obtain new genotypes with improved meal and oil quality, as well as for processors and exporters, who could use them directly as raw material for soyfood processing for nutraceutical purposes. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. A method for the production and expedient screening of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longzheng; Li, Wei; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Ding, Jing; Gu, Xianbin; Li, Yanjun; Gu, Tingting; Wang, Ren; Lin, Xinchun; Deng, Ziniu; McAvoy, Richard J; Gmitter, Frederick G; Deng, Zhanao; Zhao, Yunde; Li, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Developing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutants in asexually propagated perennial crop plants is challenging but highly desirable. Here, we report a highly useful method using an Agrobacterium -mediated transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene expression system to create non-transgenic mutant plants without the need for sexual segregation. We have also developed a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput mutant screening protocol based on Illumina sequencing followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Using tetraploid tobacco as a model species and the phytoene desaturase ( PDS ) gene as a target, we successfully created and expediently identified mutant plants, which were verified as tetra-allelic mutants. We produced pds mutant shoots at a rate of 47.5% from tobacco leaf explants, without the use of antibiotic selection. Among these pds plants, 17.2% were confirmed to be non-transgenic, for an overall non-transgenic mutation rate of 8.2%. Our method is reliable and effective in creating non-transgenic mutant plants without the need to segregate out transgenes through sexual reproduction. This method should be applicable to many economically important, heterozygous, perennial crop species that are more difficult to regenerate.

  7. Isogenic transgenic homozygous fish induced by artificial parthenogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Y K; Cho, Y S; Kim, D S

    2000-12-01

    As a model system for vertebrate transgenesis, fish have many attractive advantages, especially with respect to the characteristics of eggs, allowing us to produce isogenic, transgenic, homozygous vertebrates by combining with chromosome-set manipulation. Here, we describe the large-scale production of isogenic transgenic homozygous animals using our experimental organism, the mud loach Misgurnus mizolepis, by the simple process of artificial parthenogenesis in a single generation. These isogenic fish have retained transgenic homozygous status in a stable manner during the subsequent 5 years, and exhibited increased levels of transgene expression. Furthermore, their isogenic nature was confirmed by cloned transgenic homozygous offspring produced via another step of parthenogenic reproduction of the isogenic homozygous transgenic fish. These results demonstrate that a combination of transgenesis and artificial parthenogenesis will make the rapid utilization of genetically pure homozygous transgenic system in vertebrate transgenesis possible.

  8. Impact of industrial dry-milling on fumonisin redistribution in non-transgenic corn in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordini, Jaqueline Gozzi; Ono, Mario Augusto; Garcia, Glauco Tironi; Fazani, Victor Hugo Meconi; Vizoni, Édio; Rodrigues, Karem Caroline Bonacin; Hirooka, Elisa Yoko; Ono, Elisabete Yurie Sataque

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fate of fumonisins B 1 (FB 1 ) and B 2 (FB 2 ) during industrial dry-milling in two lots from 2014 (n=120) and 2015 (n=120) of non-transgenic corn and their fractions (germ, pericarp, endosperm, cornmeal and grits), collected from one of the major Brazilian milling industries. Fumonisins were concentrated in the germ and pericarp at a rate of 322% and 188% (lot 1) and 311% and 263% (lot 2), respectively. In the endosperm, cornmeal and grits fumonisin levels decreased from 60 to 95%. Fumonisin levels in cornmeal and grits were below the maximum limit tolerated by the European Commission. Therefore, corn industrial dry-milling can contribute to reducing fumonisin levels in corn products intended for human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ISOGEN: Interactive isotope generation and depletion code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkata Subbaiah, Kamatam

    2016-01-01

    ISOGEN is an interactive code for solving first order coupled linear differential equations with constant coefficients for a large number of isotopes, which are produced or depleted by the processes of radioactive decay or through neutron transmutation or fission. These coupled equations can be written in a matrix notation involving radioactive decay constants and transmutation coefficients, and the eigenvalues of thus formed matrix vary widely (several tens of orders), and hence no single method of solution is suitable for obtaining precise estimate of concentrations of isotopes. Therefore, different methods of solutions are followed, namely, matrix exponential method, Bateman series method, and Gauss-Seidel iteration method, as was followed in the ORIGEN-2 code. ISOGEN code is written in a modern computer language, VB.NET version 2013 for Windows operating system version 7, which enables one to provide many interactive features between the user and the program. The output results depend on the input neutron database employed and the time step involved in the calculations. The present program can display the information about the database files, and the user has to select one which suits the current need. The program prints the 'WARNING' information if the time step is too large, which is decided based on the built-in convergence criterion. Other salient interactive features provided are (i) inspection of input data that goes into calculation, (ii) viewing of radioactive decay sequence of isotopes (daughters, precursors, photons emitted) in a graphical format, (iii) solution of parent and daughter products by direct Bateman series solution method, (iv) quick input method and context sensitive prompts for guiding the novice user, (v) view of output tables for any parameter of interest, and (vi) output file can be read to generate new information and can be viewed or printed since the program stores basic nuclide concentration unlike other batch jobs. The sample

  10. A proteomic study to identify soya allergens--the human response to transgenic versus non-transgenic soya samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Rita; Martins, Isabel; Jeno, Paul; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto; Oliveira, Maria Margarida

    2007-01-01

    In spite of being among the main foods responsible for allergic reactions worldwide, soybean (Glycine max)-derived products continue to be increasingly widespread in a variety of food products due to their well-documented health benefits. Soybean also continues to be one of the elected target crops for genetic modification. The aim of this study was to characterize the soya proteome and, specifically, IgE-reactive proteins as well as to compare the IgE response in soya-allergic individuals to genetically modified Roundup Ready soya versus its non-transgenic control. We performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts from a 5% genetically modified Roundup Ready flour sample and its non-transgenic control followed by Western blotting with plasma from 5 soya-sensitive individuals. We used peptide tandem mass spectrometry to identify soya proteins (55 protein matches), specifically IgE-binding ones, and to evaluate differences between transgenic and non-transgenic samples. We identified 2 new potential soybean allergens--one is maturation associated and seems to be part of the late embryogenesis abundant proteins group and the other is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. None of the individuals tested reacted differentially to the transgenic versus non-transgenic samples under study. Soybean endogenous allergen expression does not seem to be altered after genetic modification. Proteomics should be considered a powerful tool for functional characterization of plants and for food safety assessment. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke

    2014-01-01

    induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots...

  12. Survival of Skin Graft between Transgenic Cloned Dogs and Non-Transgenic Cloned Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geon A; Oh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Min Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Choi, Jin; Park, Jung Eun; Park, Eun Jung; Lim, Sang Hyun; Yoon, Byung Il; Kang, Sung Keun; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2014-01-01

    Whereas it has been assumed that genetically modified tissues or cells derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) should be accepted by a host of the same species, their immune compatibility has not been extensively explored. To identify acceptance of SCNT-derived cells or tissues, skin grafts were performed between cloned dogs that were identical except for their mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes and foreign gene. We showed here that differences in mtDNA haplotypes and genetic modification did not elicit immune responses in these dogs: 1) skin tissues from genetically-modified cloned dogs were successfully transplanted into genetically-modified cloned dogs with different mtDNA haplotype under three successive grafts over 63 days; and 2) non-transgenic cloned tissues were accepted into transgenic cloned syngeneic recipients with different mtDNA haplotypes and vice versa under two successive grafts over 63 days. In addition, expression of the inserted gene was maintained, being functional without eliciting graft rejection. In conclusion, these results show that transplanting genetically-modified tissues into normal, syngeneic or genetically-modified recipient dogs with different mtDNA haplotypes do not elicit skin graft rejection or affect expression of the inserted gene. Therefore, therapeutically valuable tissue derived from SCNT with genetic modification might be used safely in clinical applications for patients with diseased tissues. PMID:25372489

  13. Effects of pre-irradiation on isogeneic and semi-isogeneic CFU growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buurman, W.A.; Bruggen, I. Van.

    1977-01-01

    The genetic resistance to a parental bone marrow transplant as demonstrated, when transplantation were performed early after irradiation, failed to occur if the interval between irradiation and transplantation was increased to 4 days. A similar radiation induced weakening of genetic resistance to a parental bone marrow graft in spleen and bone marrow would be demonstrated in mice, which has been irradiated with a sublethal dose at 7 days prior to the lethal irradiation and transplantation. The pre-irradiation of the recipient with a sublethal dose induced an enhancement of the growth in spleen and bone marrow of isogenic transplanted CFU. The pre-irradiation of a single tibia also resulted in a significant weakening of the resistance in the spleen. The experiments with partial body pre-irradiation suggested a local effect of the pre-irradiation, but it could be shown that the enhanced CFU growth is not caused by an enhanced seeding of CFU in pre-irradiation bone marrow. The role of microenvironment in the phenomenon of genetic resistance is discussed. (author)

  14. Postharvest firmness behaviour of near-isogenic lines of melon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Dos-Santos, N.; Jowkar, M.M.; Obando-Ulloa, J.M.; Moreno, E.; Schouten, R.E.; Monforte, A.J.; Fernández-Trujillo, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    In two consecutive seasons the firmness of 13¿15 near-isogenic lines (NILs) of melons (Cucumis melo L.) was followed during storage at 21 °C. Firmness was measured using non-destructive compression of whole melon fruit to a predefined compression distance of 2 mm. The same individuals (about 6 per

  15. Comparison of grain from corn rootworm resistant transgenic DAS-59122-7 maize with non-transgenic maize grain in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, X Y; Huang, K L; Li, X; Qin, W; Delaney, B; Luo, Y B

    2008-06-01

    DAS-59122-7 (59122) is a transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) that contains genes encoding Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner strain 149B1 and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) protein from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Expression of these proteins in planta confers resistance to corn rootworms and other Coleopteran parasites and tolerance to herbicides containing glufosinate ammonium, respectively. In the current study, processed flours from 59122 maize grain or its near isogenic control line (091) were used at two concentrations (50% and 70% wt/wt) to produce diets that were fed to rats for 90 days in accordance with Chinese toxicology guidelines (GB15193.13-2003). A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional negative control. No significant differences in body weight and feed utilization were observed between rats consuming diets formulated with 59122 and 091 Control corn. Statistical differences (p<0.05) were observed in certain hematology and serum chemistry response variables between rats consuming diets formulated with 59122 or 091 Control flour compared to AIN93G diet. However, the mean value of these response variables in the 59122 groups were not statistically different from those observed in diets formulated with corresponding high and low concentrations of the flour from the 091 Control maize grain. Therefore, the statistical differences were considered to be related to consumption of diets containing high concentrations of maize flour (compared to AIN93G diets) regardless of source rather than to consumption of flour from 59122 maize grain. The results from this study demonstrated that 59122 maize grain is as safe as non-transgenic maize grain.

  16. mlo-based powdery mildew resistance in hexaploid bread wheat generated by a non-transgenic TILLING approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Spencer, David; Thieron, Hannah; Reinstädler, Anja; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Phillips, Andrew L; Panstruga, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    Wheat is one of the most widely grown cereal crops in the world and is an important food grain source for humans. However, wheat yields can be reduced by many abiotic and biotic stress factors, including powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt). Generating resistant varieties is thus a major effort in plant breeding. Here, we took advantage of the non-transgenic Targeting Induced Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) technology to select partial loss-of-function alleles of TaMlo, the orthologue of the barley Mlo (Mildew resistance locus o) gene. Natural and induced loss-of-function alleles (mlo) of barley Mlo are known to confer durable broad-spectrum powdery mildew resistance, typically at the expense of pleiotropic phenotypes such as premature leaf senescence. We identified 16 missense mutations in the three wheat TaMlo homoeologues, TaMlo-A1, TaMlo-B1 and TaMlo-D1 that each lead to single amino acid exchanges. Using transient gene expression assays in barley single cells, we functionally analysed the different missense mutants and identified the most promising candidates affecting powdery mildew susceptibility. By stacking of selected mutant alleles we generated four independent lines with non-conservative mutations in each of the three TaMlo homoeologues. Homozygous triple mutant lines and surprisingly also some of the homozygous double mutant lines showed enhanced, yet incomplete, Bgt resistance without the occurrence of discernible pleiotropic phenotypes. These lines thus represent an important step towards the production of commercial non-transgenic, powdery mildew-resistant bread wheat varieties. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Composite potato plants with transgenic roots on non-transgenic shoots: a model system for studying gene silencing in roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Patricia; Santala, Johanna; Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Hühns, Maja; Broer, Inge; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2014-12-01

    Composite potato plants offer an extremely fast, effective and reliable system for studies on gene functions in roots using antisense or inverted-repeat but not sense constructs for gene inactivation. Composite plants, with transgenic roots on a non-transgenic shoot, can be obtained by shoot explant transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The aim of this study was to generate composite potato plants (Solanum tuberosum) to be used as a model system in future studies on root-pathogen interactions and gene silencing in the roots. The proportion of transgenic roots among the roots induced was high (80-100%) in the four potato cultivars tested (Albatros, Desirée, Sabina and Saturna). No wild-type adventitious roots were formed at mock inoculation site. All strains of A. rhizogenes tested induced phenotypically normal roots which, however, showed a reduced response to cytokinin as compared with non-transgenic roots. Nevertheless, both types of roots were infected to a similar high rate with the zoospores of Spongospora subterranea, a soilborne potato pathogen. The transgenic roots of composite potato plants expressed significantly higher amounts of β-glucuronidase (GUS) than the roots of a GUS-transgenic potato line event. Silencing of the uidA transgene (GUS) was tested by inducing roots on the GUS-transgenic cv. Albatros event with strains of A. rhizogenes over-expressing either the uidA sense or antisense transcripts, or inverted-repeat or hairpin uidA RNA. The three last mentioned constructs caused 2.5-4.0 fold reduction in the uidA mRNA expression. In contrast, over-expression of uidA resulted in over 3-fold increase in the uidA mRNA and GUS expression, indicating that sense-mediated silencing (co-suppression) was not functional in roots. The results suggest that composite plants offer a useful experimental system for potato research, which has gained little previous attention.

  18. Preliminarily study on the maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on gastropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tingbing; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Tanglin; Wang, Yaping; Hu, Wei; Olsen, Rolf Eric; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2017-10-01

    The present study preliminarily examined the differences in maximum handling size, prey size and species selectivity of growth hormone transgenic and non-transgenic common carp Cyprinus carpio when foraging on four gastropods species (Bellamya aeruginosa, Radix auricularia, Parafossarulus sinensis and Alocinma longicornis) under laboratory conditions. In the maximum handling size trial, five fish from each age group (1-year-old and 2-year-old) and each genotype (transgenic and non-transgenic) of common carp were individually allowed to feed on B. aeruginosa with wide shell height range. The results showed that maximum handling size increased linearly with fish length, and there was no significant difference in maximum handling size between the two genotypes. In the size selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on three size groups of B. aeruginosa. The results show that the two genotypes of C. carpio favored the small-sized group over the large-sized group. In the species selection trial, three pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on thin-shelled B. aeruginosa and thick-shelled R. auricularia, and five pairs of 2-year-old transgenic and non-transgenic carp were individually allowed to feed on two gastropods species (P. sinensis and A. longicornis) with similar size and shell strength. The results showed that both genotypes preferred thin-shelled Radix auricularia rather than thick-shelled B. aeruginosa, but there were no significant difference in selectivity between the two genotypes when fed on P. sinensis and A. longicornis. The present study indicates that transgenic and non-transgenic C. carpio show similar selectivity of predation on the size- and species-limited gastropods. While this information may be useful for assessing the environmental risk of transgenic carp, it does not necessarily demonstrate that transgenic common carp might

  19. Quantum experiments without classical counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavicic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We present a generalized and exhaustive method of finding the directions of the quantization axes of the measured eigenstates within experiments which have no classical counterparts. The method relies on a constructive and exhaustive definition of sets of such directions (which we call Kochen-Specker vectors) in a Hilbert space of any dimension as well as of all the remaining vectors of the space. Kochen-Specker vectors are elements of any set of orthonormal states, i.e., vectors in n-dim Hilbert space, Hn, n > 2 to which it is impossible to assign 1s and 0s in such a way that no two mutually orthogonal vectors from the set are both assigned 1 and that not all mutually orthogonal vectors are assigned 0. Our constructive definition of such Kochen-Specker vectors is based on algorithms that generate MMP diagrams corresponding to blocks of orthogonal vectors in Rn, on algorithms that single out those diagrams on which algebraic to 0-1 states cannot be defined, and on algorithms that solve nonlinear equations describing the orthogonalities of the vectors by means of statistically polynomially complex interval analysis and self-teaching programs. The algorithms are limited neither by the number of dimensions nor by the number of vectors. To demonstrate the power of the algorithms, all 4-dim KS vector systems containing up to 24 vectors were generated and described, all 3-dim vector systems containing up to 30 vectors were scanned, and several general properties of KS vectors were found. (author)

  20. The effects of Fe2O3 nanoparticles on physiology and insecticide activity in non-transgenic and Bt-transgenic cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan eLe Van

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the demands for nanotechnology and nanoparticle (NP applications in agriculture increase, the ecological risk has drawn more attention because of the unpredictable results of interactions between NPs and transgenic crops. In this study, we investigated the effects of various concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs on Bt-transgenic cotton in comparison with conventional cotton for 10 days. Each treatment was conducted in triplicate, and each experiment was repeated three times. Results demonstrated that Fe2O3 nanoparticles (NPs inhibited the plant height and root length of Bt-transgenic cotton and promoted root hairs and biomass of non-transgenic cotton. Nutrients such as Na and K in Bt-transgenic cotton roots increased, while Zn contents decreased with Fe2O3 NPs. Most hormones in the roots of Bt-transgenic cotton increased at low Fe2O3 NP exposure (100 mg·L−1 but decreased at high concentrations of Fe2O3 NPs (1000 mg·L−1. Fe2O3 NPs increased the Bt-toxin in leaves and roots of Bt-transgenic cotton. Fe2O3 NPs were absorbed into roots, then transported to the shoots of both Bt-transgenic and non-transgenic cottons. The bioaccumulation of Fe2O3 NPs in plants might be a potential risk for agricultural crops and affect the environment and human health.

  1. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS SPECIFIC TO COUNTERPART COMMERCIAL TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia PALIU - POPA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the lack of availability of funds in foreign currency, felt in many countries, especially in the developing and developed countries and the economic or financial crisis in the global foreign exchange, counterpart commercial transactions were imposed as a “disarming” condition of the international trade. In the counterpart a purchase transaction is combined with a sale transaction, an import with an export in order to ensure balanced trade between the partners, trade that involves eliminating or reducing the currency as a payment source and its replacement with trade of goods and services. Thus, in the context of an acute need to export of greatly industrialized countries, where the overproduction phenomenon tends to have a chronic character, the counterpart has become a highly complex and sustainable phenomenon, which has seen a steady increase in the volume of amounts, with a geographical area and large variety of forms and mechanisms of implementation. Based on the characteristics and structure of counterpart transactions, we shall describe in this paper the accounting models specific to international trade, as part of the combined foreign trade transactions without neglecting the tax treatments that influence the entry in the accounts

  2. Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    During the final moments of a binary black hole (BH) merger, the gravitational wave (GW) luminosity of the system is greater than the combined electromagnetic (EM) output of the entire observable universe. However, the extremely weak coupling between GWs and ordinary matter makes these waves very difficult to detect directly. Fortunately, the inspirating BH system will interact strongly-on a purely Newtonian level-with any surrounding material in the host galaxy, and this matter can in turn produce unique EM signals detectable at Earth. By identifying EM counterparts to GW sources, we will be able to study the host environments of the merging BHs, in turn greatly expanding the scientific yield of a mission like LISA. Here we present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the subject of EM counterparts, as well as a discussion of the theoretical and observational advances required to fully realize the scientific potential of the field.

  3. Biological formal counterparts of logical machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-diaz, R; Hernandez Guarch, F

    1983-01-01

    The significance of the McCulloch-Pitts formal neural net theory (1943) is still nowadays frequently misunderstood, and their basic units are wrongly considered as factual models for neurons. As a consequence, the whole original theory and its later addenda are unreasonably criticized for their simplicity. But, as it was proved then and since, the theory is after the modular neurophysiological counterpart of logical machines, so that it actually provides biologically plausible models for automata, turing machines, etc., and not vice versa. In its true context, no theory has surpassed its proposals. In McCulloch and Pitts memoriam and for the sake of future theoretical research, the authors stress this important historical point, including also some recent results on the neurophysiological counterparts of modular arbitrary probabilistic automata. 16 references.

  4. Comparative studies focusing on transgenic through cp4EPSPS gene and non-transgenic soybean plants: an analysis of protein species and enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Sandra C C; Barbosa, Herbert S; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Arruda, Marco A Z

    2013-11-20

    This work evaluates the activity of a few key enzymes involved in combating reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as ascorbate peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.11), catalase (EC 1.11.1.6), glutathione reductase (EC 1.6.4.2), and superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1), as well as the concentration of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in transgenic and non-transgenic soybean leaves. Additionally, differential protein species from leaves of both genotypes were evaluated by applying a regulation factor of ≥1.8 to further corroborate the hypothesis that genetic modification itself can be a stress factor for these plants. For this task, transgenic soybean plants were obtained from seeds modified with the cp4EPSPS gene. The results revealed higher activities of all evaluated enzymes in transgenic than in non-transgenic soybean leaves (ranging from 13.8 to 70.1%), as well as higher concentrations of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide in transgenic soybean leaves, clearly indicating a condition of oxidative stress established in the transgenic genotype. Additionally, 47 proteins were differentially abundant when comparing the leaves of both plants, with 26 species accurately identified, including the protein involved in the genetic modification (CP4EPSPS). From these results, it is possible to conclude that the plant is searching for a new equilibrium to maintain its metabolism because the stress condition is being maintained within levels that can be tolerated by the plant. The present paper is the first one in the literature where are shown translational aspects involving plant stress and the genetic modification for soybean involving the cp4 EPSPS gene. The main biological importance of this work is to make possible the demystification of the genetic modification, allowing answers for some questions that still remain unknown, and enlarge our knowledge about genetically modified organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Translational Plant Proteomics. Copyright

  5. An integrative analysis of reprogramming in human isogenic system identified a clone selection criterion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutova, Maria V; Surdina, Anastasia V; Ischenko, Dmitry S; Naumov, Vladimir A; Bogomazova, Alexandra N; Vassina, Ekaterina M; Alekseev, Dmitry G; Lagarkova, Maria A; Kiselev, Sergey L

    2016-01-01

    The pluripotency of newly developed human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is usually characterized by physiological parameters; i.e., by their ability to maintain the undifferentiated state and to differentiate into derivatives of the 3 germ layers. Nevertheless, a molecular comparison of physiologically normal iPSCs to the "gold standard" of pluripotency, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), often reveals a set of genes with different expression and/or methylation patterns in iPSCs and ESCs. To evaluate the contribution of the reprogramming process, parental cell type, and fortuity in the signature of human iPSCs, we developed a complete isogenic reprogramming system. We performed a genome-wide comparison of the transcriptome and the methylome of human isogenic ESCs, 3 types of ESC-derived somatic cells (fibroblasts, retinal pigment epithelium and neural cells), and 3 pairs of iPSC lines derived from these somatic cells. Our analysis revealed a high input of stochasticity in the iPSC signature that does not retain specific traces of the parental cell type and reprogramming process. We showed that 5 iPSC clones are sufficient to find with 95% confidence at least one iPSC clone indistinguishable from their hypothetical isogenic ESC line. Additionally, on the basis of a small set of genes that are characteristic of all iPSC lines and isogenic ESCs, we formulated an approach of "the best iPSC line" selection and confirmed it on an independent dataset.

  6. Gamma Ray Bursts-Afterglows and Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Gerald J

    1998-01-01

    Several breakthrough discoveries were made last year of x-ray, optical and radio afterglows and counterparts to gamma-ray bursts, and a redshift has been associated with at least one of these. These discoveries were made possible by the fast, accurate gamma-ray burst locations of the BeppoSAX satellite. It is now generally believed that the burst sources are at cosmological distances and that they represent the most powerful explosions in the Universe. These observations also open new possibilities for the study of early star formation, the physics of extreme conditions and perhaps even cosmology. This session will concentrate on recent x-ray, optical and radio afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts, associated redshift measurements, and counterpart observations. Several review and theory talks will also be presented, along with a summary of the astrophysical implications of the observations. There will be additional poster contributions on observations of gamma-ray burst source locations at wavelengths other than gamma rays. Posters are also solicited that describe new observational capabilities for rapid follow-up observations of gamma-ray bursts.

  7. Metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium in plant cell cultures of transgenic (rhizomania-resistant) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, B P; Zumdick, A; Schuphan, I; Schmidt, B

    2001-01-01

    The metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium was investigated in heterotrophic cell suspension and callus cultures of transgenic (bar-gene) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris). Similar studies were performed with suspensions of carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium). 14C-labelled chemicals were the (racemic) glufosinate, L-glufosinate, and D-glufosinate, as well as the metabolites N-acetyl L-glufosinate and 3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPP). Cellular absorption was generally low, but depended noticeably on plant species, substance and enantiomer. Portions of non-extractable residues ranged from 0.1% to 1.2% of applied 14C. Amounts of soluble metabolites resulting from glufosinate or L-glufosinate were between 0.0% and 26.7% of absorbed 14C in non-transgenic cultures and 28.2% and 59.9% in transgenic sugarbeet. D-Glufosinate, MPP and N-acetyl L-glufosinate proved to be stable. The main metabolite in transgenic sugarbeet was N-acetyl L-glufosinate, besides traces of MPP and 4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid (MPB). In non-transgenic sugarbeet, glufosinate was transformed to a limited extent to MPP and trace amounts of MPB. In carrot, D stramonium and D purpurea, MPP was also the main product; MPB was identified as a further trace metabolite in D stramonium and D purpurea.

  8. The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase in isogenous bacteria strains with different radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.I.; Goncharenko, E.N.; Yudz, T.I.; Samojlenko, I.I.

    1984-01-01

    The catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in isogenous bacterial strains with various radiosensitivity is investigated. In micrococcus radiodurans mutants with defects in the DNA repair systems the superoxide dismutase activity is lower than in the wild type cells. In investigated Escherichia coli strains differing in radiosensitivity, no alteration in catalase and superoxide dismutase activity is found. The conclusion is drawn that viability of bacteria subjected to the effect of ionizing radiations is determined by the efficiency of DNA repair systems whose functional reliability is sometimes connected with the catalase and suferoxide dismutase activity

  9. Genetic dissection of black grain rice by the development of a near isogenic line

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Omoteno, Motoyasu; Takarada, Takeshi; Fujita, Kenji; Murata, Kazumasa; Iyama, Yukihide; Kojima, Yoichiro; Morikawa, Makiko; Ozaki, Hidenobu; Mukaino, Naoyuki; Kidani, Yoshinori; Ebitani, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) can produce black grains as well as white. In black rice, the pericarp of the grain accumulates anthocyanin, which has antioxidant activity and is beneficial to human health. We developed a black rice introgression line in the genetic background of Oryza sativa L. ‘Koshihikari’, which is a leading variety in Japan. We used Oryza sativa L. ‘Hong Xie Nuo’ as the donor parent and backcrossed with ‘Koshihikari’ four times, resulting in a near isogenic line (NIL) for black g...

  10. Altered hematopoiesis in trisomy 21 as revealed through in vitro differentiation of isogenic human pluripotent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Glenn A.; Menne, Tobias F.; Guo, Guoji; Sanchez, Danielle J.; Park, In-Hyun; Daley, George Q.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2012-01-01

    Trisomy 21 is associated with hematopoietic abnormalities in the fetal liver, a preleukemic condition termed transient myeloproliferative disorder, and increased incidence of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. Human trisomy 21 pluripotent cells of various origins, human embryionic stem (hES), and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, were differentiated in vitro as a model to recapitulate the effects of trisomy on hematopoiesis. To mitigate clonal variation, we isolated disomic and trisomic subclones from the same parental iPS line, thereby generating subclones isogenic except for chromosome 21. Under differentiation conditions favoring development of fetal liver-like, γ-globin expressing, definitive hematopoiesis, we found that trisomic cells of hES, iPS, or isogenic origins exhibited a two- to fivefold increase in a population of CD43+(Leukosialin)/CD235+(Glycophorin A) hematopoietic cells, accompanied by increased multilineage colony-forming potential in colony-forming assays. These findings establish an intrinsic disturbance of multilineage myeloid hematopoiesis in trisomy 21 at the fetal liver stage. PMID:23045682

  11. Genetic dissection of black grain rice by the development of a near isogenic line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Omoteno, Motoyasu; Takarada, Takeshi; Fujita, Kenji; Murata, Kazumasa; Iyama, Yukihide; Kojima, Yoichiro; Morikawa, Makiko; Ozaki, Hidenobu; Mukaino, Naoyuki; Kidani, Yoshinori; Ebitani, Takeshi

    2014-06-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) can produce black grains as well as white. In black rice, the pericarp of the grain accumulates anthocyanin, which has antioxidant activity and is beneficial to human health. We developed a black rice introgression line in the genetic background of Oryza sativa L. 'Koshihikari', which is a leading variety in Japan. We used Oryza sativa L. 'Hong Xie Nuo' as the donor parent and backcrossed with 'Koshihikari' four times, resulting in a near isogenic line (NIL) for black grains. A whole genome survey of the introgression line using DNA markers suggested that three regions, on chromosomes 1, 3 and 4 are associated with black pigmentation. The locus on chromosome 3 has not been identified previously. A mapping analysis with 546 F2 plants derived from a cross between the black rice NIL and 'Koshihikari' was evaluated. The results indicated that all three loci are essential for black pigmentation. We named these loci Kala1, Kala3 and Kala4. The black rice NIL was evaluated for eating quality and general agronomic traits. The eating quality was greatly superior to that of 'Okunomurasaki', an existing black rice variety. The isogenicity of the black rice NIL to 'Koshihikari' was very high.

  12. Composition of arthropod species assemblages in Bt-expressing and near isogenic eggplants in experimental fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Di Leo, Grazia M; Fiore, Maria C; Schmidt, Jörg E U; Scardi, Michele

    2007-02-01

    The environmental impact of genetically modified (GM) plants in experimental fields has been examined in several ways, in particular with respect to the dynamics of specific nontarget organisms. The approach of sampling for biodiversity in agroecosystems to compare complex patterns could also be useful in studying potential disruptions caused by GM crops. In this study, we set up replicated field plots of Bt-expressing eggplants and near isogenic untransformed eggplants as a control. We monitored the presence and abundance of herbivore and predator arthropods in weekly visual samplings of the plant canopy for three growing seasons (2001-2003). Insect species were pooled in organismal taxonomic units (OTUs); three multivariate methods were used to compare species assemblage as an estimate of insect biodiversity. This multistep statistical approach proved to be efficient in recognizing association patterns, as evidenced by the data for the target species Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) clearly showing a significant association with the control plots. All the analyses indicate a comparable species assemblage between transgenic and near isogenic eggplant areas. Our results suggest that some taxa may warrant more specific study. For example, Alticinae beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were alternatively more abundant in either of the two treatments, and their overall abundance was significantly higher on transgenic eggplants. In light of these results and because of their taxonomic proximity to the target species, these herbivores may represent an important nontarget group to be further studied. Moreover, some sap feeders (e.g., Homoptera: Cicadellidae) were more abundant on Bt-expressing plants in some samples in all 3 yr.

  13. Fusarium spp. Associated with Field-Grown Grain of Near-Isogenic Low Lignin and Wild-Type Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium spp. associated with field-grown grain of near-isogenic low lignin and wild-type sorghum. Deanna Funnell-Harris and Jeff Pedersen, USDA-ARS, Lincoln, NE Previous studies indicated that low lignin brown midrib (bmr) sorghum may be more resistant to Fusarium spp. than wild-type and that phen...

  14. Optimizing searches for electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael W.; Tao, Duo; Chan, Man Leong; Chatterjee, Deep; Christensen, Nelson; Ghosh, Shaon; Greco, Giuseppe; Hu, Yiming; Kapadia, Shasvath; Rana, Javed; Salafia, Om Sharan; Stubbs11, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    With the detection of a binary neutron star system and its corresponding electromagnetic counterparts, a new window of transient astronomy has opened. Due to the size of the sky localization regions, which can span hundreds to thousands of square degrees, there are significant benefits to optimizing tilings for these large sky areas. The rich science promised by gravitational-wave astronomy has led to the proposal for a variety of proposed tiling and time allocation schemes, and for the first time, we make a systematic comparison of some of these methods. We find that differences of a factor of 2 or more in efficiency are possible, depending on the algorithm employed. For this reason, with future surveys searching for electromagnetic counterparts, care should be taken when selecting tiling, time allocation, and scheduling algorithms to optimize counterpart detection.

  15. An Inducible, Isogenic Cancer Cell Line System for Targeting the State of Mismatch Repair Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailis, Julie M.; Gordon, Marcia L.; Gurgel, Jesse L.; Komor, Alexis C.; Barton, Jacqueline K.; Kirsch, Ilan R.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) maintains genome stability through recognition and repair of single-base mismatches and small insertion-deletion loops. Inactivation of the MMR pathway causes microsatellite instability and the accumulation of genomic mutations that can cause or contribute to cancer. In fact, 10-20% of certain solid and hematologic cancers are MMR-deficient. MMR-deficient cancers do not respond to some standard of care chemotherapeutics because of presumed increased tolerance of DNA damage, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic drugs. Toward this goal, we generated isogenic cancer cell lines for direct comparison of MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient cells. We engineered NCI-H23 lung adenocarcinoma cells to contain a doxycycline-inducible shRNA designed to suppress the expression of the mismatch repair gene MLH1, and compared single cell subclones that were uninduced (MLH1-proficient) versus induced for the MLH1 shRNA (MLH1-deficient). Here we present the characterization of these MMR-inducible cell lines and validate a novel class of rhodium metalloinsertor compounds that differentially inhibit the proliferation of MMR-deficient cancer cells. PMID:24205301

  16. Reactivation of Immunological Response in Lethally X-Irradiated Mice Treated with Isogeneic Bone Marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankovic, V.; Slijepcevic, M.; Hrsak, I. [Institute Ruder Boskovic, Zagreb, Yugoslavia (Croatia)

    1968-08-15

    Male and female C57BL/H and CBA/H mice aged 10-12 weeks were used as recipients and donors, respectively. All recipient mice were given a lethal whole-body X-irradiation dose (850 R for C57BL and 950 R for CBA mice) followed by iv injection of 10 x 106 isogeneic eosin-negative bone-marrow cells suspended in 0.5 ml of Hank's solution. The number of eosin-positive cells was less than 10%. The state of immunological responsiveness of irradiated recipients was measured at different time intervals up to 86 days after irradiation. The immune response to bacterial antigen was measured with the titre of agglutinating antibodies in serum six days after iv antigenic stimulation with a suspension of 2 x 10{sup 7} killed Salmonella typhimurium cells. The immune response to tissue antigens was evaluated by: (a) the effectiveness of the spleen cells from isologous radiation chimeric parental mice in preventing bone marrow from F{sub 1} (C57BL x CBA) hybrid donor from therapeutically affecting lethally irradiated F j recipient mice; (b) the effectiveness of the spleen cells in inducing splenom egaly in recipient F{sub 1} hybrid mice (Simonsen test). It was found that the responsiveness to bacterial antigens reappears much earlier and increases much faster than the immunological responsiveness to tissue antigens. (author)

  17. Grain characterization and milling behaviour of near-isogenic lines differing by hardness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greffeuille, V; Abecassis, J; Rousset, M; Oury, F-X; Faye, A; L'Helgouac'h, C Bar; Lullien-Pellerin, V

    2006-12-01

    Wheat grain hardness is a major factor affecting the milling behaviour and end-product quality although its exact structural and biochemical basis is still not understood. This study describes the development of new near-isogenic lines selected on hardness. Hard and soft sister lines were characterised by near infrared reflectance (NIR) and particle size index (PSI) hardness index, grain protein content, thousand kernel weight and vitreousness. The milling behaviour of these wheat lines was evaluated on an instrumented micromill which also measures the grinding energy and flour particle size distribution was investigated by laser diffraction. Endosperm mechanical properties were measured using compression tests. Results pointed out the respective effect of hardness and vitreousness on those characteristics. Hardness was shown to influence both the mode of fracture and the mechanical properties of the whole grain and endosperm. Thus, this parameter also acts on milling behaviour. On the other hand, vitreousness was found to mainly play a role on the energy required to break the grain. This study allows us to distinguish between consequences of hardness and vitreousness. Hardness is suggested to influence the adhesion forces between starch granules and protein matrix whereas vitreousness would rather be related to the endosperm microstructure.

  18. [Dynamics of diazotrophic bacteria number in the root zone of wheat Vrn lines isogenic by genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoĭlov, A M; Zhmurko, V V

    2012-01-01

    The number of diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogenase activity in the root zone of isogenic monogene-dominant Vrn lines were measured in the field experiments throughout their vegetation from tillering to heading. The total number of diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogenase activity in the root zone of these lines during this period were increased irrespective of their genotypes. The above indices of the winter cultivar (Vrn loci bottom recessive) were lower than those of the spring lines--Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1. Plants of Vrn-B1 line have the lowest indices among the spring lines with the exception of some indices. This line plants flowered later than those of Vrn-A1 and Vrn-D1 lines. We hypothesized the differences between plants of these lines as to nitrogen fixation activity and the number of diazotrophic bacteria are mediately determined by Vrn loci through their effects on metabolism intensity and assimilate reflux in the form of root exudates, therefore the total number of diazotrophic bacteria and nitrogenase activity increases.

  19. A possible human counterpart of the principle of increasing entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Y.; An, K.N.; Yang, G.; Huang, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the principle of increasing entropy holds for isolated natural systems that contain non-adaptive molecules. Here we present, for the first time, an experimental evidence for a possible human counterpart of the principle in an isolated social system that involves adaptive humans. Our work shows that the human counterpart is valid even though interactions among humans in social systems are distinctly different from those among molecules in natural systems. Thus, it becomes possible to understand social systems from this natural principle, at least to some extent.

  20. Search for infrared counterparts of gamma-ray bursters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B.E.; Cline, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    The result of two searches for infrared counterparts of Gamma-ray Bursters (GRB's) is reported. The first search was made using data from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite and covered 23 positions. The second search was made with the Kitt Peak 1.5 m telescope and covered 3 positions. In neither of these two searches was any infrared candidate detected

  1. Continual Lie algebras and noncommutative counterparts of exactly solvable models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuevsky, A.

    2004-01-01

    Noncommutative counterparts of exactly solvable models are introduced on the basis of a generalization of Saveliev-Vershik continual Lie algebras. Examples of noncommutative Liouville and sin/h-Gordon equations are given. The simplest soliton solution to the noncommutative sine-Gordon equation is found.

  2. VARIABILITY OF OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS IN THE CHANDRA GALACTIC BULGE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Johnson, C. B.; Baldwin, A.; Collazzi, A.; Gossen, L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States); Jonker, P. G.; Torres, M. A. P. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Nelemans, G. [Department of Astrophysics, IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Maccarone, T. [Department of Physics, Texas Tech University, Box 41051, Science Building, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Steeghs, D.; Greiss, S. [Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Heinke, C. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, CCIS 4-183, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1 (Canada); Bassa, C. G. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Villar, A. [Department of Physics, Massachussettes Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States); Gabb, M. [Department of Physics, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, FL 33431-0991 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We present optical light curves of variable stars consistent with the positions of X-ray sources identified with the Chandra X-ray Observatory for the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (GBS). Using data from the Mosaic-II instrument on the Blanco 4 m Telescope at CTIO, we gathered time-resolved photometric data on timescales from ∼2 hr to 8 days over the 3/4 of the X-ray survey containing sources from the initial GBS catalog. Among the light curve morphologies we identify are flickering in interacting binaries, eclipsing sources, dwarf nova outbursts, ellipsoidal variations, long period variables, spotted stars, and flare stars. Eighty-seven percent of X-ray sources have at least one potential optical counterpart. Twenty-seven percent of these candidate counterparts are detectably variable; a much greater fraction than expected for randomly selected field stars, which suggests that most of these variables are real counterparts. We discuss individual sources of interest, provide variability information on candidate counterparts, and discuss the characteristics of the variable population.

  3. 76 FR 61090 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Counterpart Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ..., National Fire Plan Counterpart Regulation Alternative Consultation Agreements (ACAs). DATES: This is effective on October 1, 2011. ADDRESSES: The final decision of revocation is available on the internet at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/laws/esa/policies.htm#consultation and http://www.fws.gov/endangered/esa...

  4. Fitness of isogenic colony morphology variants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in murine airway infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Rakhimova

    Full Text Available Chronic lung infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa are associated with the diversification of the persisting clone into niche specialists and morphotypes, a phenomenon called 'dissociative behaviour'. To explore the potential of P. aeruginosa to change its morphotype by single step loss-of-function mutagenesis, a signature-tagged mini-Tn5 plasposon library of the cystic fibrosis airway isolate TBCF10839 was screened for colony morphology variants under nine different conditions in vitro. Transposon insertion into 1% of the genome changed colony morphology into eight discernable morphotypes. Half of the 55 targets encode features of primary or secondary metabolism whereby quinolone production was frequently affected. In the other half the transposon had inserted into genes of the functional categories transport, regulation or motility/chemotaxis. To mimic dissociative behaviour of isogenic strains in lungs, pools of 25 colony morphology variants were tested for competitive fitness in an acute murine airway infection model. Six of the 55 mutants either grew better or worse in vivo than in vitro, respectively. Metabolic proficiency of the colony morphology variant was a key determinant for survival in murine airways. The most common morphotype of self-destructive autolysis did unexpectedly not impair fitness. Transposon insertions into homologous genes of strain PAO1 did not reproduce the TBCF10839 mutant morphotypes for 16 of 19 examined loci pointing to an important role of the genetic background on colony morphology. Depending on the chosen P. aeruginosa strain, functional genome scans will explore other areas of the evolutionary landscape. Based on our discordant findings of mutant phenotypes in P. aeruginosa strains PAO1, PA14 and TBCF10839, we conclude that the current focus on few reference strains may miss modes of niche adaptation and dissociative behaviour that are relevant for the microevolution of complex traits in the wild.

  5. Search for Gravitational Wave Counterparts with Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The progenitor of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is believed to be the merger of two compact objects. This type of events will also produce gravitational waves. Since the gravitational waves discovery by LIGO, the search for a joint detection with an electromagnetic counterpart has been ongoing. Fermi GBM detects approximately 40 short GRBs per year, and we have been expanding our search looking for faint events in the GBM data that did not trigger onboard.

  6. Isogenic Cellular Systems Model the Impact of Genetic Risk Variants in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Wallet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At least 57 independent loci within the human genome confer varying degrees of risk for the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D. The majority of these variants are thought to contribute to overall genetic risk by modulating host innate and adaptive immune responses, ultimately resulting in a loss of immunological tolerance to β cell antigens. Early efforts to link specific risk variants with functional alterations in host immune responses have employed animal models or genotype-selected individuals from clinical bioresource banks. While some notable genotype:phenotype associations have been described, there remains an urgent need to accelerate the discovery of causal variants and elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which susceptible alleles alter immune functions. One significant limitation has been the inability to study human T1D risk loci on an isogenic background. The advent of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and genome-editing technologies have made it possible to address a number of these outstanding questions. Specifically, the ability to drive multiple cell fates from iPSC under isogenic conditions now facilitates the analysis of causal variants in multiple cellular lineages. Bioinformatic analyses have revealed that T1D risk genes cluster within a limited number of immune signaling pathways, yet the relevant immune cell subsets and cellular activation states in which candidate risk genes impact cellular activities remain largely unknown. In this review, we summarize the functional impact of several candidate risk variants on host immunity in T1D and present an isogenic disease-in-a-dish model system for interrogating risk variants, with the goal of expediting precision therapeutics in T1D.

  7. Construction and characterisation of near-isogenic Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) strains resistant to Cry1Ac toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Lei, Yanyuan; Yang, Yanjv; Baxter, Simon W; Li, Jianhong; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-02-01

    Resistance to insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins has arisen in multiple populations of the worldwide Brassica pest Plutella xylostella (L.). To help elucidate the mechanism of resistance to Bt Cry1Ac toxin in a population from Florida, two pairs of near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed. NILs were generated using either backcross or recombinant inbred line methodologies and evaluated for near-isogenicity with inter-simple-sequence-repeat (ISSR) markers. Backcross line BC6F4 maintained a similar level of Cry1Ac resistance to parental strain DBM1Ac-R (>5000-fold) yet showed 98.24% genetic similarity to the susceptible parental strain DBM1Ac-S. Single-pair backcrosses between DBM1Ac-S and BC6F4 revealed that Cry1Ac resistance was controlled by one recessive autosomal locus. BC6F4 exhibited high levels of cross-resistance to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ah but not to Cry1Ca or Cry1Ie. Near-isogenic strains were constructed to provide a reliable biological system to investigate the mechanism of Cry1Ac resistance in P. xylostella. These data suggest that resistance to Cry1Ac, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ah is probably caused by the alteration of a common receptor not recognised by Cry1Ca or Cry1Ie. Understanding Bt toxin cross-resistance provides valuable information to consider when developing pest control strategies to delay resistance evolution. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Transcriptional profiles of pulmonary innate immune responses to isogenic antibiotic-susceptible and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Vincent H; Pérez, Cynthia; Ledesma, Kimberly R; Lewis, Russell E

    2018-04-01

    The virulence of an isogenic pair of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains was studied under similar experimental conditions in two animal infection models. The time to death was significantly longer for the multidrug resistant (MDR) than the wild-type strain. The transcriptional profiles of 84 innate immune response genes in the lungs of immune competent Balb/C mice were further compared. Significantly weaker expression of genes involved in production of soluble pattern recognition receptor and complement were observed in animals infected with the MDR strain. Altered patterns of innate immune system activation may explain the attenuated virulence in MDR bacteria. © 2018 The Societies and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Identification of a Likely Radio Counterpart to the Rapid Burster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher B.; Rutledge, Robert E.; Fox, Derek W.; Guerriero, Robert A.; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Fender, Robert; van Paradijs, Jan

    2000-04-01

    We have identified a likely radio counterpart to the low-mass X-ray binary MXB 1730-335 (the Rapid Burster). The counterpart has shown 8.4 GHz radio on/off behavior correlated with the X-ray on/off behavior as observed by the RXTE/ASM during six VLA observations. The probability of an unrelated, randomly varying background source duplicating this behavior is 1%-3% depending on the correlation timescale. The location of the radio source is R.A. 17h33m24.61s, decl. -33 deg23'19.8" (J2000), +/-0.1". We do not detect 8.4 GHz radio emission coincident with type II (accretion-driven) X-ray bursts. The ratio of radio to X-ray emission during such bursts is constrained to be below the ratio observed during X-ray-persistent emission at the 2.9 σ level. Synchrotron bubble models of the radio emission can provide a reasonable fit to the full data set, collected over several outbursts, assuming that the radio evolution is the same from outburst to outburst but given the physical constraints the emission is more likely to be due to ~1 hr radio flares such as have been observed from the X-ray binary GRS 1915+105.

  10. Negative-strand RNA viruses: the plant-infecting counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormelink, Richard; Garcia, Maria Laura; Goodin, Michael; Sasaya, Takahide; Haenni, Anne-Lise

    2011-12-01

    While a large number of negative-strand (-)RNA viruses infect animals and humans, a relative small number have plants as their primary host. Some of these have been classified within families together with animal/human infecting viruses due to similarities in particle morphology and genome organization, while others have just recently been/or are still classified in floating genera. In most cases, at least two striking differences can still be discerned between the animal/human-infecting viruses and their plant-infecting counterparts which for the latter relate to their adaptation to plants as hosts. The first one is the capacity to modify plasmodesmata to facilitate systemic spread of infectious viral entities throughout the plant host. The second one is the capacity to counteract RNA interference (RNAi, also referred to as RNA silencing), the innate antiviral defence system of plants and insects. In this review an overview will be presented on the negative-strand RNA plant viruses classified within the families Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Ophioviridae and floating genera Tenuivirus and Varicosavirus. Genetic differences with the animal-infecting counterparts and their evolutionary descendants will be described in light of the above processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Driving protocol for a Floquet topological phase without static counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quelle, A.; Weitenberg, C.; Sengstock, K.; Morais Smith, C.

    2017-11-01

    Periodically driven systems play a prominent role in optical lattices. In these ultracold atomic systems, driving is used to create a variety of interesting behaviours, of which an important example is provided by topological states of matter. Such Floquet topological phases have a richer classification than their equilibrium counterparts. Although there exist analogues of the equilibrium topological phases that are characterised by a Chern number, the corresponding Hall conductivity, and protected edge states, there is an additional possibility. This is a phase that has a vanishing Chern number and no Hall conductivity, but nevertheless hosts anomalous topological edge states (Rudner et al (2013 Phys. Rev. X 3 031005)). Due to experimental difficulties associated with the observation of such a phase, it has not been experimentally realised in optical lattices so far. In this paper, we show that optical lattices prove to be a good candidate for its realisation and observation, because they can be driven in a controlled manner. Specifically, we present a simple shaking protocol that serves to realise this special Floquet phase, discuss the specific properties that it has, and propose a method to experimentally detect this fascinating topological phase that has no counterpart in equilibrium systems.

  12. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himanen, Sari J.; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Nissinen, Anne; Stewart, C. Neal; Poppy, Guy M.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants

  13. Elevated atmospheric ozone increases concentration of insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac protein in Bt Brassica napus and reduces feeding of a Bt target herbivore on the non-transgenic parent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himanen, Sari J. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: sari.himanen@uku.fi; Nerg, Anne-Marja [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); Nissinen, Anne [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland); MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Plant Protection, FIN-31600 Jokioinen (Finland); Stewart, C. Neal [University of Tennessee, Department of Plant Sciences, Knoxville, TN 37996-4561 (United States); Poppy, Guy M. [University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Southampton SO16 7PX (United Kingdom); Holopainen, Jarmo K. [University of Kuopio, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    Sustained cultivation of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crops requires stable transgene expression under variable abiotic conditions. We studied the interactions of Bt toxin production and chronic ozone exposure in Bt cry1Ac-transgenic oilseed rape and found that the insect resistance trait is robust under ozone elevations. Bt Cry1Ac concentrations were higher in the leaves of Bt oilseed rape grown under elevated ozone compared to control treatment, measured either per leaf fresh weight or per total soluble protein of leaves. The mean relative growth rate of a Bt target herbivore, Plutella xylostella L. larvae was negative on Bt plants in all ozone treatments. On the non-transgenic plants, larval feeding damage was reduced under elevated ozone. Our results indicate the need for monitoring fluctuations in Bt toxin concentrations to reveal the potential of ozone exposure for altering dosing of Bt proteins to target and non-target herbivores in field environments experiencing increasing ozone pollution. - Elevated atmospheric ozone can induce fluctuations in insecticidal protein concentrations in transgenic plants.

  14. [The influence of combinations of alien translocations on in vitro androgenesis in near-isogenic lines of spring bread wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibikeeva, Yu E; Sibikeev, S N

    2014-07-01

    The features of in vitro androgenesis were studied in Cultured anthers of spring bread wheats L503 and Dobrynya, having 7DS-7DL-7Ae#1 L translocation with genes Lrl9/Sr25 (Lrl9 translocation) from Agropyron elongatum (Host.) P.B. and their near-isogenic lines carrying combinations of Lrl9 translocation with translocations: 1BL-IR#1S with genes Pm8/Sr31/Lr26/Yr9 (Lr26translocation) from Secale cereal L., 4BS-4BL-2R#1L with genes Lr25/Pm7 (Lr25 translocation) from Secale cereal, 3DS-3DL-3Ae#1L with genes Lr24/Sr24 (Lr24 translocation) from Agropyron elongatum and 6BS-6BL-6U#1L with gene Lr9 (Lr9 translocation) from Aegilops umbellulata Zhuk. In comparison with those varieties having received the Lrl9 translocation, the following was established: (1) the combination of translocations Lr19+26 increased embryo frequency and green plant regeneration; (2) the combination of translocations Lr19+9 decreased embryo frequency but increased green plant regeneration; (3) the combination of translocations Lr19+24 decreased embryo frequency but increased green and albino plant regeneration; (4) the combination of translocations Lr19+25 increased embryo frequency and green plant regeneration but decreased albino plant regeneration. Thus, on near-isogenic lines of spring bread wheat, the influences of genotypes of four alien translocation combinations on in vitro androgenesis were determined.

  15. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2IFRS, but if confirmed, the increased AGN numbers at these redshifts will account for the unresolved part of the X-ray background. The identification of X-ray counterparts of IFRS is considered to be the smoking gun for this hypothesis. We propose to observe 8 IFRS using 30ks pointed observations. X-ray detections of IFRS with different ratios of radio-to-infrared fluxes, will constrain the class-specific SED.

  16. Gravitational Coleman–Weinberg potential and its finite temperature counterpart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit [Astroparticle Physics and Cosmology Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Discipline of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 382424 (India); Majumdar, Parthasarathi [Department of Physics, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananada University, Belur Math, Howrah 711202 (India)

    2014-08-15

    Coleman–Weinberg (CW) phenomena for the case of gravitons minimally coupled to massless scalar field is studied. The one-loop effect completely vanishes if there is no self-interaction term present in the matter sector. The one-loop effective potential is shown to develop an instability in the form of acquiring an imaginary part, which can be traced to the tachyonic pole in the graviton propagator. The finite temperature counterpart of this CW potential is computed to study the behaviour of the potential in the high and low temperature regimes with respect to the typical energy scale of the theory. Finite temperature contribution to the imaginary part of gravitational CW potential exhibits a damped oscillatory behaviour; all thermal effects are damped out as the temperature vanishes, consistent with the zero-temperature result.

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC COUNTERPARTS TO BLACK HOLE MERGERS DETECTED BY LIGO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-03-10

    Mergers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), such as GW150914 observed by Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts. However, the Fermi GBM detector identified a γ-ray transient 0.4 s after the gravitational wave (GW) signal GW150914 with consistent sky localization. I show that the two signals might be related if the BH binary detected by LIGO originated from two clumps in a dumbbell configuration that formed when the core of a rapidly rotating massive star collapsed. In that case, the BH binary merger was followed by a γ-ray burst (GRB) from a jet that originated in the accretion flow around the remnant BH. A future detection of a GRB afterglow could be used to determine the redshift and precise localization of the source. A population of standard GW sirens with GRB redshifts would provide a new approach for precise measurements of cosmological distances as a function of redshift.

  18. Unidentified EGRET sources and their possible Fermi counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyapin, A R; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Larin, D S

    2017-01-01

    Unidentified EGRET sources from 3EG catalog have been analyzed. Preliminary data analysis has shown at least 23 of these sources coincide with those in 3FGL Fermi catalogue within 1, 2 and 3 sigma error intervals of the coordinates and fluxes. Their properties are discussed in the presented work. Even 3-sigma difference allows supposing sources similarity because of more than 3-sigma distinctions in values of fluxes between identified EGRET sources and their Fermi counterparts. For instance, the coincidence between 3EG J1255-0549 and 3FGL J1256.1-0547 was reported in Fermi catalogues 1FGL, 2FGL, 3FGL. However, these sources fluxes (in units of 10 −8 photons × cm −2 × s −1 ) in the energy band E > 100 MeV were 179.7 ± 6.7 (3EG), 44.711 ± 0.724 (3FGL), 53.611 ± 0.997 (2FGL) and 67.939 ± 1.861 (1FGL). Such effect was observed for sufficient portion of identified EGRET sources. It could cause by troubles of particles identification by Fermi/LAT trigger system. Very often charged particles recognized as gamma-quanta because of wrong backsplash analysis. Nevertheless, gammas counts as charged particles due analogous reason and rejected during ground data processing. For example, it appears as geomagnetic modulation presence on gamma-quanta count rate latitudinal profiles in energy band E > 20 MeV. (paper)

  19. The Hunt for a Counterpart to GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    On 14 September 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) in a pre-operative testing state at the time detected its first sign of gravitational-waves. The LIGO team sprang into action, performing data-quality checks on this unexpected signal. Within two days, they had sent a notification to 63 observing teams at observatories representing the entire electromagnetic spectrum, from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths.Illustration of a binary neutron star merger. The neutron stars 1) inspiral, 2) can produce a short gamma-ray burst, 3) can fling out hot, radioactive material in the form of a kilonova, and 4) form a massive neutron star or black hole with a possible remnant debris disk around it. [NASA/ESA/A. Feild (STScI)]Thus began the very first hunt for an electromagnetic counterpart to a detected gravitational wave signal.What were they looking for?As two compact objects in a binary system merge, the system is expected to emit energy in the form of gravitational waves. If both of the compact objects are black holes, were unlikely to see any electromagnetic radiation in the process, unless the merger is occurring in an (improbable) environment filled with gas and dust.But if one or both of the two compact objects is a neutron star, then there are a number of electromagnetic signatures that could occur due to energetic outflows. If a relativistic jet forms, we could see a short gamma-ray burst and X-ray, optical, and radio afterglows. Sub-relativistic outflows could produce optical and near-infrared signals, or a radio blast wave.Timeline of observations of GW150914, separated by wavelength band, and relative to the time of the gravitational-wave trigger. The top row shows LIGO information releases. The bottom four rows show high-energy, optical, near-infrared, and radio observations, respectively. Click for a closer look! [Abbott et al. 2016]Surprise SignalSince LIGO and Virgo (LIGOs European counterpart), wereprimarily expecting to detect

  20. A dynamic counterpart of Lamb vector in viscous compressible aerodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L Q; Wu, J Z; Shi, Y P; Zhu, J Y

    2014-01-01

    The Lamb vector is known to play a key role in incompressible fluid dynamics and vortex dynamics. In particular, in low-speed steady aerodynamics it is solely responsible for the total force acting on a moving body, known as the vortex force, with the classic two-dimensional (exact) Kutta–Joukowski theorem and three-dimensional (linearized) lifting-line theory as the most famous special applications. In this paper we identify an innovative dynamic counterpart of the Lamb vector in viscous compressible aerodynamics, which we call the compressible Lamb vector. Mathematically, we present a theorem on the dynamic far-field decay law of the vorticity and dilatation fields, and thereby prove that the generalized Lamb vector enjoys exactly the same integral properties as the Lamb vector does in incompressible flow, and hence the vortex-force theory can be generalized to compressible flow with exactly the same general formulation. Moreover, for steady flow of polytropic gas, we show that physically the force exerted on a moving body by the gas consists of a transverse force produced by the original Lamb vector and a new longitudinal force that reflects the effects of compression and irreversible thermodynamics. (paper)

  1. Generation of a gene-corrected isogenic control hiPSC line derived from a familial Alzheimer's disease patient carrying a L150P mutation in presenilin 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poon, Anna Fong-Yee; Schmid, Benjamin; Pires, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    a familial AD patient carrying a L150P point mutation in PSEN1. Here we used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to correct for the single base pair mutation. This gene-corrected line, L150P-GC-hiPSC, serves as an isogenic control to the mutant line for future investigation of mechanisms and cellular phenotypes altered...

  2. Low Lignin (Brown Mid-rib) Sorghum Genotypes Restrict Growth of Fusarium Spp. as Compared with Near-Isogenic Wild-Type Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    To increase usability of sorghum for bioenergy and forages, two different brown midrib (bmr) genes, bmr-6 and bmr-12, were backcrossed into five elite backgrounds, resulting in reduced lignin near-isogenic genotypes. Field-grown grain from bmr-6 and bmr-12 plants had significantly reduced colonizati...

  3. Growth of broiler chicks fed diets containing tannin-free and tannin-containing near-isogenic lines of Faba bean (Vicia Faba L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Loon, van Y.P.J.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Norel, van A.; Poel, van der A.F.B.

    1996-01-01

    Seeds from six pairs of near-isogenic lines of Vicia faba L., each pair consisting of a tannin-free (TF) and a tannin-containing (TC) partner line, were used to study the effect of breeding for the absence of condensed tannins on the seed content of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), and starch

  4. Analysis of SCTF/CCTF counterpart test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Tsutomu; Sobajima, Makoto; Iwamura, Takamichi; Ohnuki, Akira; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Murao, Yoshio

    1990-06-01

    Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) and Cylindrical Core Test Facility (CCTF) are large scale experimental facilities of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) for the investigation of reflooding behavior during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in PWRs. Although the flow area scaling ratios of both facilities to a 1,000 MWe class PWR are the same and 1/21.4, the SCTF has the same core width as the radius of the reference PWR while the CCTF has a 1/4.5 times shorter core radius. Therefore, a few SCTF/CCTF counterpart tests were conducted in order to investigate the difference in core reflooding behavior between in the SCTF and CCTF tests as well as the effect of core radial length on core two-dimensional thermo-hydrodynamic behavior. This report present the test results and an analysis on them. Major results obtained are: (1) Taking account of the differences in test conditions and facility design, core reflooding behavior is considered to be similar between the SCTF and the CCTF test. Main difference of the facility design is in the effective core flow area and this is considered to result in the difference in core water accumulation behavior. (2) The effect of core radial length on core two-dimensional thermo-hydrodynamic behavior has been observed to be significant and heat transfer enhancement or degradation in radial direction is more significant for the longer radius core. (3) In addition, where the core power varies significantly in the radial direction, significant heat transfer enhancement has been observed in the higher power bundle during the LPCI period. Also, in the peripheral region, heat transfer degradation has been observed more significantly in the outer bundle even they have the same bundle power. (4) Magnitude of these heat transfer enhancement or degradation was larger at the higher elevation than the midplane level in the SCTF test, whereas smaller in the CCTF test. (author)

  5. A millifluidic study of cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth-rate and cell-division capability in populations of isogenic cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima P Damodaran

    Full Text Available To address possible cell-to-cell heterogeneity in growth dynamics of isogenic cell populations of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, we developed a millifluidic drop-based device that not only allows the analysis of populations grown from single cells over periods of a week, but is also able to sort and collect drops of interest, containing viable and healthy cells, which can be used for further experimentation. In this study, we used isogenic algal cells that were first synchronized in mixotrophic growth conditions. We show that these synchronized cells, when placed in droplets and kept in mixotrophic growth conditions, exhibit mostly homogeneous growth statistics, but with two distinct subpopulations: a major population with a short doubling-time (fast-growers and a significant subpopulation of slowly dividing cells (slow-growers. These observations suggest that algal cells from an isogenic population may be present in either of two states, a state of restricted division and a state of active division. When isogenic cells were allowed to propagate for about 1000 generations on solid agar plates, they displayed an increased heterogeneity in their growth dynamics. Although we could still identify the original populations of slow- and fast-growers, drops inoculated with a single progenitor cell now displayed a wider diversity of doubling-times. Moreover, populations dividing with the same growth-rate often reached different cell numbers in stationary phase, suggesting that the progenitor cells differed in the number of cell divisions they could undertake. We discuss possible explanations for these cell-to-cell heterogeneities in growth dynamics, such as mutations, differential aging or stochastic variations in metabolites and macromolecules yielding molecular switches, in the light of single-cell heterogeneities that have been reported among isogenic populations of other eu- and prokaryotes.

  6. Transcriptome Profile of Near-Isogenic Soybean Lines for β-Conglycinin α-Subunit Deficiency during Seed Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo; An, Lixin; Han, Yanjing; Gao, Hongxiu; Ren, Hongbo; Zhao, Xue; Wei, Xiaoshuang; Krishnan, Hari B; Liu, Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    Crossing, backcrossing, and molecular marker-assisted background selection produced a soybean (Glycine max) near-isogenic line (cgy-2-NIL) containing the cgy-2 allele, which is responsible for the absence of the allergenic α-subunit of β-conglycinin. To identify α-null-related transcriptional changes, the gene expressions of cgy-2-NIL and its recurrent parent DN47 were compared using Illumina high-throughput RNA-sequencing of samples at 25, 35, 50, and 55 days after flowering (DAF). Seeds at 18 DAF served as the control. Comparison of the transcript profiles identified 3,543 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the two genotypes, with 2,193 genes downregulated and 1,350 genes upregulated. The largest numbers of DEGs were identified at 55 DAF. The DEGs identified at 25 DAF represented a unique pattern of GO category distributions. KEGG pathway analyses identified 541 altered metabolic pathways in cgy-2-NIL. At 18DAF, 12 DEGs were involved in arginine and proline metabolism. The cgy-2 allele in the homozygous form modified the expression of several Cupin allergen genes. The cgy-2 allele is an alteration of a functional allele that is closely related to soybean protein amino acid quality, and is useful for hypoallergenic soybean breeding programs that aim to improve seed protein quality.

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of Rice Near-Isogenic Line Carrying Xa23 under Infection of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Rezwan; Wang, Chunlian; Qin, Tengfei; Xu, Feifei; Tang, Yongchao; Gao, Ying; Ji, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Kaijun

    2018-03-02

    Bacterial blight, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae ( Xoo ), is an overwhelming disease in rice-growing regions worldwide. Our previous studies revealed that the executor R gene Xa23 confers broad-spectrum disease resistance to all naturally occurring biotypes of Xoo . In this study, comparative transcriptomic profiling of two near-isogenic lines (NILs), CBB23 (harboring Xa23 ) and JG30 (without Xa23 ), before and after infection of the Xoo strain, PXO99 A , was done by RNA sequencing, to identify genes associated with the resistance. After high throughput sequencing, 1645 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between CBB23 and JG30 at different time points. Gene Ontlogy (GO) analysis categorized the DEGs into biological process, molecular function, and cellular component. KEGG analysis categorized the DEGs into different pathways, and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis was the most prominent pathway, followed by biosynthesis of plant hormones, flavonoid biosynthesis, and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. Further analysis led to the identification of differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) and different kinase responsive genes in CBB23, than that in JG30. Besides TFs and kinase responsive genes, DEGs related to ethylene, jasmonic acid, and secondary metabolites were also identified in both genotypes after PXO99 A infection. The data of DEGs are a precious resource for further clarifying the network of Xa23 -mediated resistance.

  8. Improved production, purification, and characterization of biosurfactants produced by Serratia marcescens SM3 and its isogenic SMRG-5 strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Galván, Nashbly Sarela; Martínez-Morales, Fernando; Marquina-Bahena, Silvia; Tinoco-Valencia, Raunel; Serrano-Carreón, Leobardo; Bertrand, Brandt; León-Rodríguez, Renato; Guzmán-Aparicio, Josefina; Alvaréz-Berber, Laura; Trejo-Hernández, María R

    2018-02-19

    In this study, the biosurfactants (Bs) production of two Serratia marcescens strains (SM3 and its isogenic SMRG-5 strain) was improved and the tenso-active agents were purified and characterized. A 2 3 factorial design was used to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and carbon sources on the surface tension (ST) reduction and emulsion index (EI 24 ) of the produced Bs. Optimum Bs production by SM3 was achieved at high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen, reducing ST to 26.5 ± 0.28 dynes/cm, with an EI 24 of 79.9 ± 0.2%. Meanwhile, the best results for SMRG-5 were obtained at low concentrations, reducing the ST to 25.2 ± 0.2 dynes/cm, with an EI 24 of 89.7 ± 0.28%. The optimal conditions for Bs production were scaled up in a 2-L reactor, yielding 4.8 and 5.2 g/L for SM3 and SMRG-5, respectively. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed the presence of two different lipopeptides (hidrofobic fractions: octadecanoic and hexadecanoic acid for SM3 and SMRG5, respectively). Both strains were capable of benzo [a] pyrene removal (59% after 72 H of culture). © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Examining the Transcriptional Response in Wheat Fhb1 Near-Isogenic Lines to Fusarium graminearum Infection and Deoxynivalenol Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna N. Hofstad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available head blight (FHB is a disease caused predominantly by the fungal pathogen that affects wheat and other small-grain cereals and can lead to severe yield loss and reduction in grain quality. Trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON, accumulate during infection and increase pathogen virulence and decrease grain quality. The locus on wheat chromosome 3BS confers Type II resistance to FHB and resistance to the spread of infection on the spike and has been associated with resistance to DON accumulation. To gain a better genetic understanding of the functional role of and resistance or susceptibility to FHB, we examined DON and ergosterol accumulation, FHB resistance, and the whole-genome transcriptomic response using RNA-seq in a near-isogenic line (NIL pair carrying the resistant and susceptible alleles for during infection and DON treatment. Our results provide a gene expression atlas for the resistant and susceptible wheat– interaction. The DON concentration and transcriptomic results show that the rachis is a key location for conferring Type II resistance. In addition, the wheat transcriptome analysis revealed a set of -responsive genes that may play a role in resistance and a set of DON-responsive genes that may play a role in trichothecene resistance. Transcriptomic results from the pathogen show that the genome responds differently to the host level of resistance. The results of this study extend our understanding of host and pathogen responses in the wheat– interaction.

  10. Systematic screening of isogenic cancer cells identifies DUSP6 as context-specific synthetic lethal target in melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittig-Blaich, Stephanie; Wittig, Rainer; Schmidt, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing has dramatically increased genome-wide profiling options and conceptually initiates the possibility for personalized cancer therapy. State-of-the-art sequencing studies yield large candidate gene sets comprising dozens or hundreds of mutated genes. However, few technolo......Next-generation sequencing has dramatically increased genome-wide profiling options and conceptually initiates the possibility for personalized cancer therapy. State-of-the-art sequencing studies yield large candidate gene sets comprising dozens or hundreds of mutated genes. However, few...... technologies are available for the systematic downstream evaluation of these results to identify novel starting points of future cancer therapies. We improved and extended a site-specific recombination-based system for systematic analysis of the individual functions of a large number of candidate genes......, a library of 108 isogenic melanoma cell lines was constructed and 8 genes were identified that significantly reduced viability in a discovery screen and in an independent validation screen. Here, we demonstrate the broad applicability of this recombination-based method and we proved its potential...

  11. The genetic characteristics in cytology and plant physiology of two wheat (Triticum aestivum) near isogenic lines with different freezing tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqiang; Hao, Qunqun; Wang, Wenlong; Li, Qinxue; Wang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Freezing tolerance in taft plants relied more upon an ABA-independent- than an ABA-dependent antifreeze signaling pathway. Two wheat (Triticum aestivum) near isogenic lines (NIL) named tafs (freezing sensitivity) and taft (freezing tolerance) were isolated in the laboratory and their various cytological and physiological characteristics under freezing conditions were studied. Proplastid, cell membrane, and mitochondrial ultrastructure were less damaged by freezing treatment in taft than tafs plants. Chlorophyll, ATP, and thylakoid membrane protein contents were significantly higher, but malondialdehyde content was significantly lower in taft than tafs plants under freezing condition. Antioxidant capacity, as indicated by reactive oxygen species accumulation and antioxidant enzyme activity, and the relative gene expression were significantly greater in taft than tafs plants. Soluble sugars and abscisic acid (ABA) contents were significantly higher in taft plants than in tafs plants under both normal and freezing conditions. The upregulated expression levels of certain freezing tolerance-related genes were greater in taft than tafs plants under freezing treatment. The addition of sodium tungstate, an ABA synthesis inhibitor, led to only partial freezing tolerance inhibition in taft plants and the down-regulated expression of some ABA-dependent genes. Thus, both ABA-dependent and ABA-independent signaling pathways are involved in the freezing tolerance of taft plants. At the same time, freezing tolerance in taft plants relied more upon an ABA-independent- than an ABA-dependent antifreeze signaling pathway.

  12. Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of 3 Proprietary Rotary File Brands and their Analogous EdgeEndo Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-26

    Resistance of 3 Proprietary Rotary File Brands and their Analogous EdgeEndo Counterparts. 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Sd...Endodontics 14. ABSTRACT Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of 3 Proprietary Rotary File Brands and their Analogous EdgeEndo Counterparts. David J. Weyh DDS...Resistance of 3 Proprietary Rotary File Brands and their Analogous EdgeEndo Counterparts. David J. Weyh DDS Jarom J. Ray DDS Introduction: The aim of this

  13. Linhagem isogênica no feijoeiro para resistência ao fungo da antracnose An isogenic dry bean line for resistance to the anthracnose fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sidney Pompeu

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available An isogenic dry bean line (Phaseolus vulgaris was developed using Rosinha 1454-10 as recurrent parent susceptible to Colletotrichum lindemuthiamun and Cornell 49-242 as the donor one. Ten backcrosses to the recurrent parent were made. Seedlings in the F1 generation of each backcross and in the F2 and F3 of the 10th backcross were inoculated using a spore suspension containing about 10(5 spores/ml, through a De Vilbiss atomizer, under greenhouse or laboratory conditions. The isogenic lines Rosinha 1454-10 and Rosinha 1454-10 Are Are will be used to estimate the losses of dry bean yield due to the anthracnose agent.

  14. Near-Isogenic Cry1F-Resistant Strain of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to Investigate Fitness Cost Associated With Resistance in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Renato J; Bernardi, Oderlei; Bernardi, Daniel; Okuma, Daniela M; Farias, Juliano R; Miraldo, Leonardo L; Amaral, Fernando S A; Omoto, Celso

    2016-04-01

    Field-evolved resistance to Cry1F maize in Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) populations in Brazil was reported in 2014. In this study, to investigate fitness costs, we constructed a near-isogenic S. frugiperda-resistant strain (R-Cry1F) using Cry1F-resistant and Cry1F-susceptible strains sharing a close genetic background. A near-isogenic R-Cry1F strain was obtained by eight repeated backcrossings, each followed by sib-mating and selection among resistant and susceptible strains. Fitness cost parameters were evaluated by comparing the biological performance of resistant, susceptible, and heterozygous strains on artificial diet. Fitness parameters monitored included development time and survival rates of egg, larval, pupal, and egg-to-adult periods; sex ratio; adult longevity; timing of preoviposition, oviposition, and postoviposition; fecundity; and fertility. A fertility life table was also calculated. The near-isogenic R-Cry1F strain showed lower survival rate of eggs (32%), when compared with Sus and reciprocal crosses (41 and 55%, respectively). The number of R-Cry1F insects that completed the life cycle was reduced to ∼25%, compared with the Sus strain with ∼32% reaching the adult stage. The mean generation time (T) of R-Cry1F strain was ∼2 d shorter than R-Cry1F♂×Sus♀ and Sus strains. The reproductive parameters of R-Cry1F strain were similar to the Sus strain. However, fewer females were produced by R-Cry1F strain than R-Cry1F♀×Sus♂ and more females than R-Cry1F♂×Sus♀. In summary, no relevant fitness costs are observed in a near-isogenic Cry1F-resistant strain of S. frugiperda, indicating stability of resistance to Cry1F protein in Brazilian populations of this species in the absence of selection pressure.

  15. Isogenic Human iPSC Parkinson’s Model Shows Nitrosative Stress-Induced Dysfunction in MEF2-PGC1α Transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Scott D.; Dolatabadi, Nima; Chan, Shing Fai; Zhang, Xiaofei; Akhtar, Mohd Waseem; Parker, James; Soldner, Frank; Sunico, Carmen R.; Nagar, Saumya; Talantova, Maria; Lee, Brian; Lopez, Kevin; Nutter, Anthony; Shan, Bing; Molokanova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by loss of A9 dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). An association has been reported between PD and exposure to mitochondrial toxins, including environmental pesticides paraquat, maneb, and rotenone. Here, using a robust, patient-derived stem cell model of PD allowing comparison of A53T α-synuclein (α-syn) mutant cells and isogenic mutation-corrected controls, we identify mitochondrial toxin-induced perturbations in A...

  16. Pathogenesis of infection with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in isogenic guinea pigs after intranasal or intratracheal inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersma, Lidewij C M; Vogelzang-van Trierum, Stella E; van Amerongen, Geert; van Run, Peter; Nieuwkoop, Nella J; Ladwig, Mechtild; Banneke, Stefanie; Schaefer, Hubert; Kuiken, Thijs; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F

    2015-03-01

    To elucidate the pathogenesis and transmission of influenza virus, the ferret model is typically used. To investigate protective immune responses, the use of inbred mouse strains has proven invaluable. Here, we describe a study with isogenic guinea pigs, which would uniquely combine the advantages of the mouse and ferret models for influenza virus infection. Strain 2 isogenic guinea pigs were inoculated with H1N1pdm09 influenza virus A/Netherlands/602/09 by the intranasal or intratracheal route. Viral replication kinetics were assessed by determining virus titers in nasal swabs and respiratory tissues, which were also used to assess histopathologic changes and the number of infected cells. In all guinea pigs, virus titers peaked in nasal secretions at day 2 after inoculation. Intranasal inoculation resulted in higher virus excretion via the nose and higher virus titers in the nasal turbinates than intratracheal inoculation. After intranasal inoculation, infectious virus was recovered only from nasal epithelium; after intratracheal inoculation, it was recovered also from trachea, lung, and cerebrum. Histopathologic changes corresponded with virus antigen distribution, being largely limited to nasal epithelium for intranasally infected guinea pigs and more widespread in the respiratory tract for intratracheally infected guinea pigs. In summary, isogenic guinea pigs show promise as a model to investigate the role of humoral and cell-mediated immunities to influenza and their effect on virus transmission. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kimiyo N; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R

    2011-08-01

    Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the US Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in seven isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of γH2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Whole transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of an isogenic M. tuberculosis clinical strain with a naturally occurring 15 Kb genomic deletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Duncan

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis remains one of the most difficult to control infectious diseases in the world. Many different factors contribute to the complexity of this disease. These include the ability of the host to control the infection which may directly relate to nutritional status, presence of co-morbidities and genetic predisposition. Pathogen factors, in particular the ability of different Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to respond to the harsh environment of the host granuloma, which includes low oxygen and nutrient availability and the presence of damaging radical oxygen and nitrogen species, also play an important role in the success of different strains to cause disease. In this study we evaluated the impact of a naturally occurring 12 gene 15 Kb genomic deletion on the physiology and virulence of M. tuberculosis. The strains denominated ON-A WT (wild type and ON-A NM (natural mutant were isolated from a previously reported TB outbreak in an inner city under-housed population in Toronto, Canada. Here we subjected these isogenic strains to transcriptomic (via RNA-seq and proteomic analyses and identified several gene clusters with differential expression in the natural mutant, including the DosR regulon and the molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis genes, both of which were found in lower abundance in the natural mutant. We also demonstrated lesser virulence of the natural mutant in the guinea pig animal model. Overall, our findings suggest that the ON-A natural mutant is less fit to cause disease, but nevertheless has the potential to cause extended transmission in at-risk populations.

  19. An integrable counterpart of the D-AKNS soliton hierarchy from so(3,R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Wen-Xiu

    2014-01-01

    An integrable counterpart of the D-AKNS soliton hierarchy is generated from a matrix spectral problem associated with so(3,R). Hamiltonian structures of the resulting counterpart soliton hierarchy are furnished by using the trace identity, which yields its Liouville integrability. -- Highlights: •Use the Lie algebra so(3,R) to generate a counterpart of the D-AKNS soliton hierarchy. •Generate Hamiltonian structures depending potentials by the trace identity. •Obtain hierarchies of independent commuting symmetries and conserved densities.

  20. Canopy architectural and physiological characterisation of near-isogenic wheat lines differing in the tiller inhibition gene tin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina eMoeller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tillering is a core constituent of plant architecture, and influences light interception to affect plant performance. Near-isogenic lines (NILs varying for a tiller inhibition (tin gene were investigated for tillering dynamics, organ size distribution, leaf area, light interception, red : far-red ratio, and chlorophyll content. Tillering ceased earlier in the tin lines to reduce the frequencies of later primary and secondary tillers, and demonstrated the genetically lower tillering plasticity of tin compared to free-tillering NILs. The distribution of organ sizes along shoots varied between NILs. In tin lines, internode elongation commenced at a lower phytomer, the peduncles were shorter, the flag leaves were larger, and the longest leaf blades were observed at higher phytomers. Total leaf area was reduced in tin lines. The tiller economy (ratio of seed-bearing shoots to numbers of shoots produced was 10% greater in the tin lines (0.73-0.76 compared to the free-tillering sisters (0.62-0.63. At maximum tiller number, the red: far-red ratio (light quality stimulus that is thought to induce the cessation of tillering at the plant-base was 0.18-0.22 in tin lines and 0.09-0.11 in free-tillering lines at levels of photosynthetic active radiation of 49-53% and 30-33%, respectively. The tin lines intercepted less radiation compared to their free-tillering sisters once genotypic differences in tiller numbers had established, and maintained green leaf area in the lower canopy later into the season. Greater light extinction coefficients (k in tin lines prior to, but reduced k after, spike emergence indicated that differences in light interception between NILs cannot be explained by leaf area alone but that geometric and optical canopy properties contributed. The characterisation of specifically-developed NILs is refining the development of a physiology-based model for tillering to enhance understanding of the value of architectural traits for use in cereal

  1. X(3872) and the search for its bottomonium counterpart at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Toms, Konstantin; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    X(3872) history and theoretical status overview. ATLAS study of the ψ(2S) and X(3872) production. Search for X(3872) bottomonium counterpart by ATLAS. Search for Xb at CMS. Determination of X(3872) quantum numbers at LHCb.

  2. Features of Ppd-B1 expression regulation and their impact on the flowering time of wheat near-isogenic lines

    OpenAIRE

    Kiseleva, Antonina A.; Potokina, Elena K.; Salina, Elena A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Photoperiod insensitive Ppd-1a alleles determine early flowering of wheat. Increased expression of homoeologous Ppd-D1a and Ppd-A1a result from deletions in the promoter region, and elevated expression of Ppd-B1a is determined by an increased copy number. Results In this study, using bread wheat cultivars Sonora and PSL2, which contrast in flowering time, and near-isogenic lines resulting from their cross, “Ppd-m” and “Ppd-w” with Ppd-B1a introgressed from Sonora, we investigated t...

  3. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaofei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work

  4. Mitochondrial Alterations by PARKIN in Dopaminergic Neurons Using PARK2 Patient-Specific and PARK2 Knockout Isogenic iPSC Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atossa Shaltouki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used patient-specific and isogenic PARK2-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs to show that mutations in PARK2 alter neuronal proliferation. The percentage of TH+ neurons was decreased in Parkinson’s disease (PD patient-derived neurons carrying various mutations in PARK2 compared with an age-matched control subject. This reduction was accompanied by alterations in mitochondrial:cell volume fraction (mitochondrial volume fraction. The same phenotype was confirmed in isogenic PARK2 null lines. The mitochondrial phenotype was also seen in non-midbrain neurons differentiated from the PARK2 null line, as was the functional phenotype of reduced proliferation in culture. Whole genome expression profiling at various stages of differentiation confirmed the mitochondrial phenotype and identified pathways altered by PARK2 dysfunction that include PD-related genes. Our results are consistent with current model of PARK2 function where damaged mitochondria are targeted for degradation via a PARK2/PINK1-mediated mechanism.

  5. Lack of fitness costs and inheritance of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ac toxin in a near-isogenic strain of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xun; Yang, Yanjv; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Xia, Jixing; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-02-01

    Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulations in insects may be associated with fitness costs. A lack of costs enables resistance alleles to persist, which may contribute to the rapid development and spread of resistance in populations. To assess the fitness costs associated with Bt Cry1Ac resistance in Plutella xylostella, life tables were constructed for a near-isogenic resistant strain (NIL-R) and a susceptible strain in this study. No fitness costs associated with Cry1Ac resistance in NIL-R were detected, based on the duration of egg and larval stages, the survival of eggs and larvae, adult longevity, fecundity, net reproductive rate, gross reproduction rate, finite rate of increase and mean generation time. Based on log dose-probit lines, resistance in NIL-R is incompletely recessive and results from a single, autosomal, recessive locus; the degree of dominance was estimated to be -0.74 and -0.71 for F1 (resistant ♀ × susceptible ♂) and F1 ' (susceptible ♀ × resistant ♂) progeny respectively. Assessment of near-isogenic Cry1Ac-resistant and Cry1Ac-susceptible strains of P. xylostella indicated that resistance is not accompanied with fitness costs, and that resistance is incompletely recessive. These findings should be useful in managing the development of Bt Cry1Ac resistance. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Virulence of luminescent and non-luminescent isogenic vibrios towards gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae and specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuoc, L H; Defoirdt, T; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2009-04-01

    This study was conducted to test the virulence of luminescent (L) and non-luminescent (NL) isogenic strains of Vibrio campbellii LMG21363, Vibrio harveyi BB120 (wild type) and quorum-sensing mutant strains derived from the wild type such as Vibrio harveyi BB152, BB170, MM30 and BB886. The NL strains could be obtained by culturing rifampicin-resistant luminescent strains in the dark under static condition. The virulence of the L and NL strains was tested in gnotobiotic Artemia franciscana larvae challenged with 10(4) CFU ml(-1) of bacteria. All luminescent isogenic tested strains showed higher virulence compared to the NL strains. The virulence of L and NL V. campbellii and V. harveyi BB120 was also tested in specific pathogen-free juvenile shrimp upon intramuscular injection with 10(6) CFU of bacteria. In contrast with Artemia, there was no significant difference in mortality between the groups challenged with L and NL strains (P > 0.05). The non-luminescent strains were not able to revert back to the luminescent state and quorum sensing did not influence this phenotypic shift. Luminescent Vibrio strains can switch to a non-luminescent state by culturing them in static conditions. The NL strains become less virulent as verified in Artemia. The luminescent state of Vibrio cells in a culture needs to be verified in order to assure maintenance of virulence.

  7. Massive scalar counterpart of gravitational waves in scalarized neutron star binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing [Sun Yat-sen University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-09-15

    In analogy with spontaneous magnetization of ferromagnets below the Curie temperature, a neutron star (NS), with a compactness above a certain critical value, may undergo spontaneous scalarization and exhibit an interior nontrivial scalar configuration. Consequently, the exterior spacetime is changed, and an external scalar field appears, which subsequently triggers a scalarization of its companion. The dynamical interplay produces a gravitational scalar counterpart of tensor gravitational waves. In this paper, we resort to scalar-tensor theory and demonstrate that the gravitational scalar counterpart from a double neutron star (DNS) and a neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) system become massive. We report that (1) a gravitational scalar background field, arising from convergence of external scalar fields, plays the role of gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized DNS binary, and the appearance of a mass-dimensional constant in a Higgs-like gravitational scalar potential is responsible for a massive gravitational scalar counterpart with a mass of the order of the Planck scale; (2) a dipolar gravitational scalar radiated field, resulting from differing binding energies of NS and WD, plays the role of a gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized orbital shrinking NS-WDs, which oscillates around a local and scalar-energy-density-dependent minimum of the gravitational scalar potential and obtains a mass of the order of about 10{sup -21} eV/c{sup 2}. (orig.)

  8. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) containing the bar gene is compositionally equivalent to the nontransgenic counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdoerfer, Regina B; Shillito, Raymond D; de Beuckeleer, Marc; Mitten, Donna H

    2005-03-09

    This publication presents an approach to assessing compositional equivalence between grain derived from glufosinate-tolerant rice grain, genetic event LLRICE62, and its nontransgenic counterpart. Rice was grown in the same manner as is common for commercial production, using either conventional weed control practices or glufosinate-ammonium herbicide. A two-season multisite trial design provided a robust data set to evaluate environmental effects between the sites. Statistical comparisons to test for equivalence were made between glufosinate-tolerant rice and a conventional counterpart variety. The key nutrients, carbohydrates, protein, iron, calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin, for which rice can be the principal dietary source, were investigated. The data demonstrate that rice containing the genetic locus LLRICE62 has the same nutritional value as its nontransgenic counterpart, and most results for nutritional components fall within the range of values reported for rice commodities in commerce.

  9. Observations of the First Electromagnetic Counterpart to a Gravitational-wave Source by the TOROS Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M. C.; Macri, L. M.; Garcia Lambas, D.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Nilo Castellón, J. L.; Ribeiro, T.; Sánchez, B.; Schoenell, W.; Abramo, L. R.; Akras, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Artola, R.; Beroiz, M.; Bonoli, S.; Cabral, J.; Camuccio, R.; Castillo, M.; Chavushyan, V.; Coelho, P.; Colazo, C.; Costa-Duarte, M. V.; Cuevas Larenas, H.; DePoy, D. L.; Domínguez Romero, M.; Dultzin, D.; Fernández, D.; García, J.; Girardini, C.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Gonçalves, T. S.; Gurovich, S.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Kanaan, A.; Lares, M.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.; López-Cruz, O.; Marshall, J. L.; Melia, R.; Molino, A.; Padilla, N.; Peñuela, T.; Placco, V. M.; Quiñones, C.; Ramírez Rivera, A.; Renzi, V.; Riguccini, L.; Ríos-López, E.; Rodriguez, H.; Sampedro, L.; Schneiter, M.; Sodré, L.; Starck, M.; Torres-Flores, S.; Tornatore, M.; Zadrożny, A.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of prompt optical follow-up of the electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational-wave event GW170817 by the Transient Optical Robotic Observatory of the South Collaboration. We detected highly significant dimming in the light curves of the counterpart ({{Δ }}g=0.17+/- 0.03 mag, {{Δ }}r=0.14+/- 0.02 mag, {{Δ }}I=0.10+/- 0.03 mag) over the course of only 80 minutes of observations obtained ˜35 hr after the trigger with the T80-South telescope. A second epoch of observations, obtained ˜59 hr after the event with the EABA 1.5 m telescope, confirms the fast fading nature of the transient. The observed colors of the counterpart suggest that this event was a “blue kilonova” relatively free of lanthanides.

  10. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B-Cell Normal Cellular Counterpart: Clues From a Functional Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, Walaa; Gubler, Brigitte; Marolleau, Jean-Pierre; Ghamlouch, Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by the clonal expansion of small mature-looking CD19+ CD23+ CD5+ B-cells that accumulate in the blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs. To date, no consensus has been reached concerning the normal cellular counterpart of CLL B-cells and several B-cell types have been proposed. CLL B-cells have remarkable phenotypic and gene expression profile homogeneity. In recent years, the molecular and cellular biology of CLL has been enriched by seminal insights that are leading to a better understanding of the natural history of the disease. Immunophenotypic and molecular approaches (including immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable gene mutational status, transcriptional and epigenetic profiling) comparing the normal B-cell subset and CLL B-cells provide some new insights into the normal cellular counterpart. Functional characteristics (including activation requirements and propensity for plasma cell differentiation) of CLL B-cells have now been investigated for 50 years. B-cell subsets differ substantially in terms of their functional features. Analysis of shared functional characteristics may reveal similarities between normal B-cell subsets and CLL B-cells, allowing speculative assignment of a normal cellular counterpart for CLL B-cells. In this review, we summarize current data regarding peripheral B-cell differentiation and human B-cell subsets and suggest possibilities for a normal cellular counterpart based on the functional characteristics of CLL B-cells. However, a definitive normal cellular counterpart cannot be attributed on the basis of the available data. We discuss the functional characteristics required for a cell to be logically considered to be the normal counterpart of CLL B-cells.

  11. Discovery of the optical counterpart and early optical observations of GRB 990712

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahu, K.C.; Vreesvijk, P.; Bakos, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present the discovery observations of the optical counterpart of the gamma-ray burst GRB 990712 taken 4.16 hr after the outburst and discuss its light curve observed in the V, R, and I bands during the first similar to 35 days after the outburst. The observed light curves were fitted with a po......We present the discovery observations of the optical counterpart of the gamma-ray burst GRB 990712 taken 4.16 hr after the outburst and discuss its light curve observed in the V, R, and I bands during the first similar to 35 days after the outburst. The observed light curves were fitted...

  12. Stability patterns for a size-structured population model and its stage-structured counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Pedersen, Michael; Lin, Zhigui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compare a general size-structured population model, where a size-structured consumer feeds upon an unstructured resource, to its simplified stage-structured counterpart in terms of equilibrium stability. Stability of the size-structured model is understood in terms of an equivale...... to the population level....

  13. Counterpart experimental study of ISP-42 PANDA tests on PUMA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Choi, Sung-Won; Lim, Jaehyok; Lee, Doo-Yong; Rassame, Somboon; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Counterpart tests were performed on two large-scale BWR integral facilities. ► Similarity of post-LOCA system behaviors observed between two tests. ► Passive core and containment cooling systems work as design in both tests. -- Abstract: A counterpart test to the Passive Nachwärmeabfuhr und Druckabbau Test Anlage (Passive Decay Heat Removal and Depressurization Test Facility, PANDA) International Standard Problem (ISP)-42 test was conducted at the Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility. Aimed to support code validation on a range of light water reactor (LWR) containment issues, the ISP-42 test consists of six sequential phases (Phases A–F) with separately defined initial and boundary conditions, addressing different stages of anticipated accident scenario and system responses. The counterpart test was performed from Phases A to D, which are within the scope of the normal integral tests performed on the PUMA facility. A scaling methodology was developed by using the PANDA facility as prototype and PUMA facility as test model, and an engineering scaling has been applied to the PUMA facility. The counterpart test results indicated that functions of passive safety systems, such as passive containment cooling system (PCCS) start-up, gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) discharge, PCCS normal operation and overload function were confirmed in both the PANDA and PUMA facilities with qualitative similarities

  14. Infrared Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Antennae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2007-03-01

    We use deep J (1.25 μm) and Ks (2.15 μm) images of the Antennae (NGC 4038/4039) obtained with the Wide-field InfraRed Camera on the Palomar 200 inch (5 m) telescope, together with the Chandra X-ray source list of Zezas and coworkers to search for infrared counterparts to X-ray point sources. We establish an X-ray/IR astrometric frame tie with ~0.5" rms residuals over a ~4.3' field. We find 13 ``strong'' IR counterparts brighter than Ks=17.8 mag and 99.9% confidence level that IR counterparts to X-ray sources are ΔMKs~1.2 mag more luminous than average non-X-ray clusters. We also note that the X-ray/IR matches are concentrated in the spiral arms and ``overlap'' regions of the Antennae. This implies that these X-ray sources lie in the most ``super'' of the Antennae's super star clusters, and thus trace the recent massive star formation history here. Based on the NH inferred from the X-ray sources without IR counterparts, we determine that the absence of most of the ``missing'' IR counterparts is not due to extinction, but that these sources are intrinsically less luminous in the IR, implying that they trace a different (possibly older) stellar population. We find no clear correlation between X-ray luminosity classes and IR properties of the sources, although small-number statistics hamper this analysis.

  15. Quantitative proteomics of fractionated membrane and lumen exosome proteins from isogenic metastatic and nonmetastatic bladder cancer cells reveal differential expression of EMT factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Dennis Kjølhede; Nawrocki, Arkadiusz; Jensen, Steffen Grann

    2014-01-01

    Cancer cells secrete soluble factors and various extracellular vesicles, including exosomes, into their tissue microenvironment. The secretion of exosomes is speculated to facilitate local invasion and metastatic spread. Here, we used an in vivo metastasis model of human bladder carcinoma cell line...... T24 without metastatic capacity and its two isogenic derivate cell lines SLT4 and FL3, which form metastases in the lungs and liver of mice, respectively. Cultivation in CLAD1000 bioreactors rather than conventional culture flasks resulted in a 13-16-fold increased exosome yield and facilitated...... quantitative proteomics of fractionated exosomes. Exosomes from T24, SLT4, and FL3 cells were partitioned into membrane and luminal fractions and changes in protein abundance related to the gain of metastatic capacity were identified by quantitative iTRAQ- proteomics. We identified several proteins linked...

  16. Communities of endophytic microorganisms in different developmental stages from a local variety as well as transgenic and conventional isogenic hybrids of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Kelly Justin; de Armas, Rafael Dutra; Soares, Cláudio Roberto F S; Ogliari, Juliana Bernardi

    2016-11-01

    The diversity of endophytic microorganisms may change due to the genotype of the host plant and its phenological stage. In this study we evaluated the effect of phenological stage, transgenes and genetic composition of maize on endophytic bacterial and fungal communities. The maize populations were composed of a local variety named Rosado (RS) and three isogenic hybrids. One isogenic hybrid was not genetically modified (NGM). Another hybrid (Hx) contained the transgenes cry1F and pat (T1507 event), which provide resistance to insects of the order Lepidoptera and tolerance to the glufosinate-ammonium herbicide, respectively. The third hybrid (Hxrr) contained the transgene cp4 epsps (NK603 event) combined with the transgenes cry1F and pat (T1507 event), which allow tolerance to the Roundup Ready herbicide, besides the characteristics of Hx. Evaluation of the foliar tissue was done through PCR-DGGE analysis, with specific primers for bacteria and fungi within four phenological stages of maize. The endophytic bacteria were only clustered by phenological stages; the structure of the fungal community was clustered by maize genotypes in each phenological stage. The fungal community from the local variety RS was different from the three hybrids (NGM, Hx and Hxrr) within the four evaluated stages. In the reproductive stage, the fungal community from the two transgenic hybrids (Hx and Hxrr) were separated, and the Hxrr was different from NGM, in the two field experiments. This research study showed that the genetic composition of the maize populations, especially the presence of transgenes, is the determining factor for the changes detected in the endophytic fungal community of maize leaves.

  17. The bioenergetic signature of isogenic colon cancer cells predicts the cell death response to treatment with 3-bromopyruvate, iodoacetate or 5-fluorouracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Aragó, María; Cuezva, José M

    2011-02-08

    Metabolic reprogramming resulting in enhanced glycolysis is a phenotypic trait of cancer cells, which is imposed by the tumor microenvironment and is linked to the down-regulation of the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial H+-ATPase (β-F1-ATPase). The bioenergetic signature is a protein ratio (β-F1-ATPase/GAPDH), which provides an estimate of glucose metabolism in tumors and serves as a prognostic indicator for cancer patients. Targeting energetic metabolism could be a viable alternative to conventional anticancer chemotherapies. Herein, we document that the bioenergetic signature of isogenic colon cancer cells provides a gauge to predict the cell-death response to the metabolic inhibitors, 3-bromopyruvate (3BrP) and iodoacetate (IA), and the anti-metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The bioenergetic signature of the cells was determined by western blotting. Aerobic glycolysis was determined from lactate production rates. The cell death was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Cellular ATP concentrations were determined using bioluminiscence. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to assess the relationship between the bioenergetic signature and the cell death response. In vivo tumor regression activities of the compounds were assessed using a xenograft mouse model injected with the highly glycolytic HCT116 colocarcinoma cells. We demonstrate that the bioenergetic signature of isogenic HCT116 cancer cells inversely correlates with the potential to execute necrosis in response to 3BrP or IA treatment. Conversely, the bioenergetic signature directly correlates with the potential to execute apoptosis in response to 5-FU treatment in the same cells. However, despite the large differences observed in the in vitro cell-death responses associated with 3BrP, IA and 5-FU, the in vivo tumor regression activities of these agents were comparable. Overall, we suggest that the determination of the bioenergetic signature of colon carcinomas could

  18. Isogenic FUS-eGFP iPSC Reporter Lines Enable Quantification of FUS Stress Granule Pathology that Is Rescued by Drugs Inducing Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Marrone

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Perturbations in stress granule (SG dynamics may be at the core of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Since SGs are membraneless compartments, modeling their dynamics in human motor neurons has been challenging, thus hindering the identification of effective therapeutics. Here, we report the generation of isogenic induced pluripotent stem cells carrying wild-type and P525L FUS-eGFP. We demonstrate that FUS-eGFP is recruited into SGs and that P525L profoundly alters their dynamics. With a screening campaign, we demonstrate that PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibition increases autophagy and ameliorates SG phenotypes linked to P525L FUS by reducing FUS-eGFP recruitment into SGs. Using a Drosophila model of FUS-ALS, we corroborate that induction of autophagy significantly increases survival. Finally, by screening clinically approved drugs for their ability to ameliorate FUS SG phenotypes, we identify a number of brain-penetrant anti-depressants and anti-psychotics that also induce autophagy. These drugs could be repurposed as potential ALS treatments. : Sterneckert and colleagues generate isogenic FUS-eGFP reporter iPSCs that enable the identification of stress granule (SG phenotypes specifically induced by the ALS mutation FUS P525L. Compound screening shows that modulation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway regulating autophagy ameliorates SG phenotypes. A second screen identifies similarly acting brain-penetrant US FDA-approved drugs that could be repurposed to treat ALS. Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, induced pluripotent stem cells, FUS, stress granules, autophagy, gene editing, CRISPR/Cas9n

  19. Comparison of growth, yield and fiber quality of the obsolete SA30 yellow leaf with four sets of modern yellow and green leaf near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Virescent Yellow leaf cotton line Seed Accession 30 (SA30) was crossed with four modern parental lines (DP5690, DES119, SG747 and MD51ne) to develop four sets of near isogenic lines (NILs) segregating for green and yellow leaves. Comparisons of these lines were made in the field in a two year re...

  20. IDENTIFYING ELUSIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC COUNTERPARTS TO GRAVITATIONAL WAVE MERGERS: AN END-TO-END SIMULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissanke, Samaya; Georgieva, Alexandra; Kasliwal, Mansi

    2013-01-01

    Combined gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) observations of compact binary mergers should enable detailed studies of astrophysical processes in the strong-field gravity regime. This decade, ground-based GW interferometers promise to routinely detect compact binary mergers. Unfortunately, networks of GW interferometers have poor angular resolution on the sky and their EM signatures are predicted to be faint. Therefore, a challenging goal will be to unambiguously pinpoint the EM counterparts of GW mergers. We perform the first comprehensive end-to-end simulation that focuses on: (1) GW sky localization, distance measures, and volume errors with two compact binary populations and four different GW networks; (2) subsequent EM detectability by a slew of multiwavelength telescopes; and (3) final identification of the merger counterpart amidst a sea of possible astrophysical false positives. First, we find that double neutron star binary mergers can be detected out to a maximum distance of 400 Mpc (or 750 Mpc) by three (or five) detector GW networks, respectively. Neutron-star-black-hole binary mergers can be detected a factor of 1.5 further out; their median to maximum sky localizations are 50-170 deg 2 (or 6-65 deg 2 ) for a three (or five) detector GW network. Second, by optimizing depth, cadence, and sky area, we quantify relative fractions of optical counterparts that are detectable by a suite of different aperture-size telescopes across the globe. Third, we present five case studies to illustrate the diversity of scenarios in secure identification of the EM counterpart. We discuss the case of a typical binary, neither beamed nor nearby, and the challenges associated with identifying an EM counterpart at both low and high Galactic latitudes. For the first time, we demonstrate how construction of low-latency GW volumes in conjunction with local universe galaxy catalogs can help solve the problem of false positives. We conclude with strategies that would

  1. MS-based analytical methodologies to characterize genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Simó, Carolina; León, Carlos; Ibáñez, Elena; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    The development of genetically modified crops has had a great impact on the agriculture and food industries. However, the development of any genetically modified organism (GMO) requires the application of analytical procedures to confirm the equivalence of the GMO compared to its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Moreover, the use of GMOs in foods and agriculture faces numerous criticisms from consumers and ecological organizations that have led some countries to regulate their production, growth, and commercialization. These regulations have brought about the need of new and more powerful analytical methods to face the complexity of this topic. In this regard, MS-based technologies are increasingly used for GMOs analysis to provide very useful information on GMO composition (e.g., metabolites, proteins). This review focuses on the MS-based analytical methodologies used to characterize genetically modified crops (also called transgenic crops). First, an overview on genetically modified crops development is provided, together with the main difficulties of their analysis. Next, the different MS-based analytical approaches applied to characterize GM crops are critically discussed, and include "-omics" approaches and target-based approaches. These methodologies allow the study of intended and unintended effects that result from the genetic transformation. This information is considered to be essential to corroborate (or not) the equivalence of the GM crop with its isogenic non-transgenic counterpart. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Do Foreign-Owned Firms Provide Better Working Conditions Than Their Domestic Counterparts? A Comparative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hijzen, Alexander; Martins, Pedro S.; Schank, Thorsten; Upward, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses to what extent working conditions in foreign-owned firms differ from those in their domestic counterparts. It makes three main contributions. First, we replicate the consensus in the empirical literature by applying a standardised methodology to firm-level data for three developed (Germany, Portugal, UK) and two emerging economies (Brazil, Indonesia). We show that, consistent with previous evidence, foreign-owned firms offer substantially higher average wages than domestic...

  3. HST/ACS Imaging of Omega Centauri: Optical Counterparts of Chandra X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Haggard, Daryl; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian; Anderson, Jay

    2013-02-01

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with nine pointings we cover the central ~10' × 10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, ~40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M 625 =10.4-12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously reported quiescent low-mass X-ray binary. We also identify 3 foreground stars and 11 probable active galactic nuclei. Finally, we report the discovery of a group of seven stars whose X-ray properties are suggestive of magnetically active binaries, and whose optical counterparts lie on or very near the metal-rich anomalous giant and subgiant branches in ω Cen. If the apparent association between these seven stars and the RGB/SGB-a stars is real, then the frequency of X-ray sources in this metal-rich population is enhanced by a factor of at least five relative to the other giant and subgiant populations in the cluster. If these stars are not members of the metal-rich population, then they bring the total number of red stragglers (also known as sub-subgiants) that have been identified in ω to Cen 20, the largest number yet known in any globular cluster.

  4. The credit counterparts of broad money : a structural base for macroeconomic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Tautological structures bring clarity to arguments in macroeconomics: familiar structures relate to the circulation of money, the circular flow of real income, and the balance of international payments. Less familiar is a structure incorporating all aspects of macroeconomic policy interventions. The origins and use of the credit counterparts of broad money are examined in the context of the application of UK monetary policy in the period since 1945.

  5. Finding X-ray counterparts for unidentified sources in the 105 months BAT survey - 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J. B.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Masetti, N.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-02-01

    We provide X-ray counterparts for the unidentified Swift/BAT sources listed in the 105 month catalogue (Oh et al. 2018, ApJS in press). These associations were found by cross-correlating the list of U1,U2 and U3 sources with the ROSAT Bright (RASSBSC, Voges et al. 1999, A & A, 349, 389) and the XMM-Newton Slew (XMMSlew, Saxton et al. 2008, A & A, 480, 611) catalogues.

  6. Finding X-ray counterparts for unidentified sources in the 105 months BAT survey - 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J. B.; Bassani, L.; Malizia, A.; Masetti, N.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-02-01

    We provide X-ray counterparts for unidentified Swift/BAT sources in the 105 month catalogue (Oh et al. 2018, ApJS in press). They were found by cross-correlating the list of U1,U2 and U3 sources with the ROSAT Bright (RASSBSC, Voges et al. 1999, A & A, 349, 389) and XMM-Newton Slew (XMMSlew, Saxton et al. 2008, A & A, 480, 611) catalogues and optically identified as reported in Atel #11340.

  7. The optical counterpart of IGR J00291+5934 in quiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avanzo, P.; Campana, S.; Covino, S.; Israel, G. L.; Stella, L.; Andreuzzi, G.

    2007-09-01

    Aims:The recent (December 2004) discovery of the sixth accretion-powered millisecond X-ray pulsar IGR J00291+5934 provides a very good chance to deepen our knowledge of such systems. Although these systems are well studied at high energies, poor informations are available for their optical/NIR counterparts during quiescence. Up to now, only for SAX J1808.4-3658, the first discovered system of this type, we have a secure multiband detection of its optical counterpart in quiescence. Among the seven known system IGR J00291+5934 is the one that resembles SAX J1808.4-3658 more closely. Methods: With the Italian 3.6 m TNG telescope, we have performed deep optical and NIR photometry of the field of IGR J00291+5934 during quiescence in order to look for the presence of a variable counterpart. Results: We present here the first multiband (VRIJH) detection of the optical and NIR counterpart of IGR J00291+5934 in quiescence as well as a deep upper limit in the K-band. We obtain an optical light curve that shows variability consistent with a sinusoidal modulation at the known 2.46 h orbital period and present evidence for a strongly irradiated companion. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  8. INVESTIGATING THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART CANDIDATES OF FOUR INTEGRAL SOURCES LOCALIZED WITH CHANDRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özbey Arabacı, Mehtap; Kalemci, Emrah; Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Halpern, Jules; Chaty, Sylvain; Rodriguez, Jerome; Rahoui, Farid

    2012-01-01

    We report on the optical spectroscopic follow-up observations of the candidate counterparts to four INTEGRAL sources: IGR J04069+5042, IGR J06552–1146, IGR J21188+4901, and IGR J22014+6034. The candidate counterparts were determined with Chandra, and the optical observations were performed with 1.5 m RTT-150 telescope (TÜBİTAK National Observatory, Antalya, Turkey) and 2.4 m Hiltner Telescope (MDM Observatory, Kitt Peak, Arizona). Our spectroscopic results show that one of the two candidates of IGR J04069+5042 and the one observed for IGR J06552–1146 could be active late-type stars in RS CVn systems. However, according to the likelihood analysis based on Chandra and INTEGRAL, two optically weaker sources in the INTEGRAL error circle of IGR J06552–1146 have higher probabilities to be the actual counterpart. The candidate counterparts of IGR J21188+4901 are classified as an active M-type star and a late-type star. Among the optical spectra of four candidates of IGR J22014+6034, two show Hα emission lines, one is a late-type star, and the other is an M type. The likelihood analysis favors a candidate with no distinguishing features in the optical spectrum. Two of the candidates classified as M-type dwarfs, are similar to some IGR candidates claimed to be symbiotic stars. However, some of the prominent features of symbiotic systems are missing in our spectra, and their NIR colors are not consistent with those expected for giants. We consider the IR colors of all IGR candidates claimed to be symbiotic systems and find that low-resolution optical spectrum may not be enough for conclusive identification.

  9. The optical counterpart of the bright X-ray transient Swift J1745-26

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz-Darias, T.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Russell, D.M.; Guziy, S.; Gorosabel, J.; Casares, J.; Armas Padilla, M.; Charles, P.A.; Fender, R.P.; Belloni, T.M.; Lewis, F.; Motta, S.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Mundell, C.G.; Sánchez-Ramirez, R.; Thöne, C.C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a 30-day monitoring campaign of the optical counterpart of the bright X-ray transient Swift J1745−26, starting only 19 min after the discovery of the source. We observe the system peaking at i′ ∼ 17.6 on day six (MJD 561 92) to then decay at a rate of ∼0.04 mag d−1. We show that the

  10. Strategic Wholesale Pricing for an Incumbent Supplier Facing with a Competitive Counterpart

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jianwu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuati...

  11. A comparative study between South African serial killers and their American counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    M.A. This dissertation explores the similarities and differences between South African serial killers and their American counterparts. Seven male candidates, each having committed their reign of terror within the relevant time period, have been included. The candidates compared well in home environments, number of friendships, emotional maturity, abuse undergone, temperament, and anti-social behaviour. Differences were found in comparing family bonding, wealth and education. This dissertat...

  12. Counterpart synchronization of duplex networks with delayed nodes and noise perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Xiang; Wu, Xiaoqun; Lu, Jun-an; Zhao, Junchan

    2015-01-01

    In the real world, many complex systems are represented not by single networks but rather by sets of interdependent ones. In these specific networks, nodes in one network mutually interact with nodes in other networks. This paper focuses on a simple representative case of two-layer networks (the so-called duplex networks) with unidirectional inter-layer couplings. That is, each node in one network depends on a counterpart in the other network. Accordingly, the former network is called the response layer and the latter network is the drive layer. Specifically, synchronization between each node in the drive layer and its counterpart in the response layer (counterpart synchronization (CS)) in these kinds of duplex networks with delayed nodes and noise perturbation is investigated. Based on the LaSalle-type invariance principle, a control technique is proposed and a sufficient condition is developed for realizing CS of duplex networks. Furthermore, two corollaries are derived as special cases. In addition, node dynamics within each layer can be varied and topologies of the two layers are not necessarily identical. Therefore, the proposed synchronization method can be applied to a wide range of multiplex networks. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the results. (paper)

  13. The bioenergetic signature of isogenic colon cancer cells predicts the cell death response to treatment with 3-bromopyruvate, iodoacetate or 5-fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuezva José M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic reprogramming resulting in enhanced glycolysis is a phenotypic trait of cancer cells, which is imposed by the tumor microenvironment and is linked to the down-regulation of the catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial H+-ATPase (β-F1-ATPase. The bioenergetic signature is a protein ratio (β-F1-ATPase/GAPDH, which provides an estimate of glucose metabolism in tumors and serves as a prognostic indicator for cancer patients. Targeting energetic metabolism could be a viable alternative to conventional anticancer chemotherapies. Herein, we document that the bioenergetic signature of isogenic colon cancer cells provides a gauge to predict the cell-death response to the metabolic inhibitors, 3-bromopyruvate (3BrP and iodoacetate (IA, and the anti-metabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. Methods The bioenergetic signature of the cells was determined by western blotting. Aerobic glycolysis was determined from lactate production rates. The cell death was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Cellular ATP concentrations were determined using bioluminiscence. Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to assess the relationship between the bioenergetic signature and the cell death response. In vivo tumor regression activities of the compounds were assessed using a xenograft mouse model injected with the highly glycolytic HCT116 colocarcinoma cells. Results We demonstrate that the bioenergetic signature of isogenic HCT116 cancer cells inversely correlates with the potential to execute necrosis in response to 3BrP or IA treatment. Conversely, the bioenergetic signature directly correlates with the potential to execute apoptosis in response to 5-FU treatment in the same cells. However, despite the large differences observed in the in vitro cell-death responses associated with 3BrP, IA and 5-FU, the in vivo tumor regression activities of these agents were comparable. Conclusions Overall, we suggest that the

  14. DISCOVERY OF A TRANSIENT GAMMA-RAY COUNTERPART TO FRB 131104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaunay, J. J.; Murase, K.; Mészáros, P.; Keivani, A.; Messick, C.; Mostafá, M. A.; Oikonomou, F.; Tešić, G.; Turley, C. F.; Fox, D. B.

    2016-01-01

    We report our discovery in Swift satellite data of a transient gamma-ray counterpart (3.2 σ confidence) to the fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 131104, the first such counterpart to any FRB. The transient has a duration T _9_0 ≳ 100 s and a fluence S_γ ≈ 4 × 10"−"6 erg cm"−"2, increasing the energy budget for this event by more than a billion times; at the nominal z ≈ 0.55 redshift implied by its dispersion measure, the burst’s gamma-ray energy output is E_γ ≈ 5 × 10"5"1 erg. The observed radio to gamma-ray fluence ratio for FRB 131104 is consistent with a lower limit we derive from Swift observations of another FRB, which is not detected in gamma-rays, and with an upper limit previously derived for the brightest gamma-ray flare from SGR 1806−20, which was not detected in the radio. X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical observations beginning two days after the FRB do not reveal any associated afterglow, supernova, or transient; Swift observations exclude association with the brightest 65% of Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows, while leaving the possibility of an associated supernova at much more than 10% the FRB’s nominal distance, D ≳ 320 Mpc, largely unconstrained. Transient high-luminosity gamma-ray emission arises most naturally in a relativistic outflow or shock breakout, such as, for example, from magnetar flares, GRBs, relativistic supernovae, and some types of galactic nuclear activity. Our discovery thus bolsters the case for an extragalactic origin for some FRBs and suggests that future rapid-response observations might identify long-lived counterparts, resolving the nature of these mysterious phenomena and realizing their promise as probes of cosmology and fundamental physics.

  15. INTERSTELLAR SCINTILLATION AND THE RADIO COUNTERPART OF THE FAST RADIO BURST FRB 150418

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Kazunori [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Haystack Observatory, Route 40, Westford, MA 01886 (United States); Johnson, Michael D., E-mail: kazu@haystack.mit.edu [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Keane et al. have recently reported the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150418, with a promising radio counterpart at 5.5 and 7.5 GHz—a rapidly decaying source, falling from 200–300 μ Jy to 100 μ Jy on timescales of ∼6 days. This transient source may be associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.492, providing the first firm spectroscopic redshift for an FRB and the ability to estimate the density of baryons in the intergalactic medium via the combination of known redshift and radio dispersion of the FRB. An alternative explanation, first suggested by Williams and Berger, is that the identified counterpart may instead be a compact active galactic nucleus (AGN). The putative counterpart’s variation may then instead be extrinsic, caused by refractive scintillation in the ionized interstellar medium of the Milky Way, which would invalidate the association with FRB 150418. We examine this latter explanation in detail and show that the reported observations are consistent with scintillating radio emission from the core of a radio-loud AGN having a brightness temperature T {sub b} ≳ 10{sup 9} K. Using numerical simulations of the expected scattering for the line of sight to FRB 150418, we provide example images and light curves of such an AGN at 5.5 and 7.5 GHz. These results can be compared with continued radio monitoring to conclusively determine the importance of scintillation for the observed radio variability, and they show that scintillation is a critical consideration for continued searches for FRB counterparts at radio wavelengths.

  16. DISCOVERY OF A TRANSIENT GAMMA-RAY COUNTERPART TO FRB 131104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLaunay, J. J.; Murase, K.; Mészáros, P.; Keivani, A.; Messick, C.; Mostafá, M. A.; Oikonomou, F.; Tešić, G.; Turley, C. F. [Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Fox, D. B., E-mail: jjd330@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    We report our discovery in Swift satellite data of a transient gamma-ray counterpart (3.2 σ confidence) to the fast radio burst (FRB) FRB 131104, the first such counterpart to any FRB. The transient has a duration T {sub 90} ≳ 100 s and a fluence S{sub γ} ≈ 4 × 10{sup −6} erg cm{sup −2}, increasing the energy budget for this event by more than a billion times; at the nominal z ≈ 0.55 redshift implied by its dispersion measure, the burst’s gamma-ray energy output is E{sub γ} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 51} erg. The observed radio to gamma-ray fluence ratio for FRB 131104 is consistent with a lower limit we derive from Swift observations of another FRB, which is not detected in gamma-rays, and with an upper limit previously derived for the brightest gamma-ray flare from SGR 1806−20, which was not detected in the radio. X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical observations beginning two days after the FRB do not reveal any associated afterglow, supernova, or transient; Swift observations exclude association with the brightest 65% of Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB) X-ray afterglows, while leaving the possibility of an associated supernova at much more than 10% the FRB’s nominal distance, D ≳ 320 Mpc, largely unconstrained. Transient high-luminosity gamma-ray emission arises most naturally in a relativistic outflow or shock breakout, such as, for example, from magnetar flares, GRBs, relativistic supernovae, and some types of galactic nuclear activity. Our discovery thus bolsters the case for an extragalactic origin for some FRBs and suggests that future rapid-response observations might identify long-lived counterparts, resolving the nature of these mysterious phenomena and realizing their promise as probes of cosmology and fundamental physics.

  17. INTERSTELLAR SCINTILLATION AND THE RADIO COUNTERPART OF THE FAST RADIO BURST FRB 150418

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Kazunori; Johnson, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Keane et al. have recently reported the discovery of a new fast radio burst (FRB), FRB 150418, with a promising radio counterpart at 5.5 and 7.5 GHz—a rapidly decaying source, falling from 200–300 μ Jy to 100 μ Jy on timescales of ∼6 days. This transient source may be associated with an elliptical galaxy at redshift z = 0.492, providing the first firm spectroscopic redshift for an FRB and the ability to estimate the density of baryons in the intergalactic medium via the combination of known redshift and radio dispersion of the FRB. An alternative explanation, first suggested by Williams and Berger, is that the identified counterpart may instead be a compact active galactic nucleus (AGN). The putative counterpart’s variation may then instead be extrinsic, caused by refractive scintillation in the ionized interstellar medium of the Milky Way, which would invalidate the association with FRB 150418. We examine this latter explanation in detail and show that the reported observations are consistent with scintillating radio emission from the core of a radio-loud AGN having a brightness temperature T _b ≳ 10"9 K. Using numerical simulations of the expected scattering for the line of sight to FRB 150418, we provide example images and light curves of such an AGN at 5.5 and 7.5 GHz. These results can be compared with continued radio monitoring to conclusively determine the importance of scintillation for the observed radio variability, and they show that scintillation is a critical consideration for continued searches for FRB counterparts at radio wavelengths.

  18. Bright optical synchrotron counterpart of the western hot spot in Pictor A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeser, H.J.; Meisenheimer, K.; Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Scotland)

    1987-01-01

    A B = 19.5 mag bright, highly polarized object was detected close to the western hot spot in Pictor A during an optical polarization survey of radio hot spots in classical double radio sources. The unresolved source exhibits a featureless continuum between 400 and 800 nm and is identified as the optical counterpart of the radio hot spot. It is surrounded by optical filaments aligned roughly perpendicular to the source axis. The hot spot is also marginally detected in an Einstein IPC frame. 17 references

  19. The radio and optical counterpart of the new Fermi LAT flaring source J0109+6134

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, J. M.; Martí, J.; Peracaula, M.

    2010-02-01

    Following the recent ATELs #2414, #2416 and #2420 concerning the Fermi-LAT, AGILE and Swift/XRT consistent detections of the new gamma-ray flaring source J0109+6134, we wish to remind that the proposed radio counterpart (VCS2 J0109+6133/GT 0106+613) was extensively observed nearly two decades ago by different authors in the context of the GT catalogue of Galactic Plane radio sources (Taylor and Gregory 1983, AJ, 88, 1784; Gregory and Taylor 1986, AJ 92, 371).

  20. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin

    2010-01-01

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  1. HST/ACS IMAGING OF OMEGA CENTAURI: OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF CHANDRA X-RAY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian; Haggard, Daryl; Anderson, Jay

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with nine pointings we cover the central ∼10' × 10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, ∼40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M 625 =10.4-12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously reported quiescent low-mass X-ray binary. We also identify 3 foreground stars and 11 probable active galactic nuclei. Finally, we report the discovery of a group of seven stars whose X-ray properties are suggestive of magnetically active binaries, and whose optical counterparts lie on or very near the metal-rich anomalous giant and subgiant branches in ω Cen. If the apparent association between these seven stars and the RGB/SGB-a stars is real, then the frequency of X-ray sources in this metal-rich population is enhanced by a factor of at least five relative to the other giant and subgiant populations in the cluster. If these stars are not members of the metal-rich population, then they bring the total number of red stragglers (also known as sub-subgiants) that have been identified in ω to Cen 20, the largest number yet known in any globular cluster.

  2. PSB-VVER counterpart experiment simulating a small cold leg break LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blinkov, V.N.; Melikhov, O.I.; Kapustin, A.V.; Lipatov, I.A.; Dremin, G.I.; Nikonov, S.M.; Rovnov, A.A.; Elkin, I.V.; Pylev, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: An experiment simulating a small break LOCA has been performed in PSB-VVER facility, under PSB-VVER OECD Project. The test is intended to be a counterpart one to an experiment performed in the LOBI integral test facility. The objectives of the PSB-VVER small cold leg break test are: to study VVER-1000 thermal hydraulic response following a small break in the cold leg, to provide data for code assessment regarding phenomena indicated in the VVER-1000 code validation matrix and to study the scaling effect. The scenario for the PSB-VVER experiment has been designed taking the LOBI BL-34 test as reference. The ratio of primary system volumes (without volume of the pressurizer and the surge line) has been chosen to scale the reference experiment conditions and to generate the conditions of PSB-VVER cold leg break experiment. The resulting conditions are compared with the LOBI cold leg break test conditions by means of different counterpart test criteria. Comparing the two experiments in terms of the criteria shows that basic requirements to the counterpart test are fulfilled. A pretest analysis with RELAP5/MOD3.2 code has shown that the PSBVVER small break experiment is expected to show the same relevant phenomena and main events as the LOBI BL-34 test. The predicted PSB-VVER primary pressure is very close to that measured in the LOBI facility. The measured pressure in the PSB-VVER primary system has turned out to be very close to that registered in LOBI BL-34 test. This verifies the approach used for developing the conditions of the PSB-VVER counterpart test. The experiment results and the RELAP5/MOD3.2 pretest calculation are in good agreement. A posttest calculation of the experiment with RELAP5/MOD3.2 code has been performed in order to assess the codes capability to simulate the phenomena relevant to the test. The code has shown a reasonable prediction of the phenomena measured in the experiment. (authors)

  3. PSB-VVER counterpart experiment simulating a small cold leg break LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinkov, V.N.; Melikhov, O.I.; Kapustin, A.V.; Lipatov, I.A.; Dremin, G.I.; Nikonov, S.M.; Rovnov, A.A. [Elektrogorsk Research and Engineering Center, EREC, Bezymiannaja Street, 6, Elektrogorsk, Moscow Region, 142530 (Russian Federation); Elkin, I.V.; Pylev, S.S. [NSI RRC ' Kurchatov Institute' , Kurchatov Sq., 1, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: An experiment simulating a small break LOCA has been performed in PSB-VVER facility, under PSB-VVER OECD Project. The test is intended to be a counterpart one to an experiment performed in the LOBI integral test facility. The objectives of the PSB-VVER small cold leg break test are: to study VVER-1000 thermal hydraulic response following a small break in the cold leg, to provide data for code assessment regarding phenomena indicated in the VVER-1000 code validation matrix and to study the scaling effect. The scenario for the PSB-VVER experiment has been designed taking the LOBI BL-34 test as reference. The ratio of primary system volumes (without volume of the pressurizer and the surge line) has been chosen to scale the reference experiment conditions and to generate the conditions of PSB-VVER cold leg break experiment. The resulting conditions are compared with the LOBI cold leg break test conditions by means of different counterpart test criteria. Comparing the two experiments in terms of the criteria shows that basic requirements to the counterpart test are fulfilled. A pretest analysis with RELAP5/MOD3.2 code has shown that the PSBVVER small break experiment is expected to show the same relevant phenomena and main events as the LOBI BL-34 test. The predicted PSB-VVER primary pressure is very close to that measured in the LOBI facility. The measured pressure in the PSB-VVER primary system has turned out to be very close to that registered in LOBI BL-34 test. This verifies the approach used for developing the conditions of the PSB-VVER counterpart test. The experiment results and the RELAP5/MOD3.2 pretest calculation are in good agreement. A posttest calculation of the experiment with RELAP5/MOD3.2 code has been performed in order to assess the codes capability to simulate the phenomena relevant to the test. The code has shown a reasonable prediction of the phenomena measured in the experiment. (authors)

  4. Optical and radio counterpart of Circinus X-1 (3U 1516-56)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, J A.J.; Murdin, P G; Peterson, B A [Anglo-Australian Observatory, Epping (Australia); and others

    1977-11-01

    Circinus X-1 (3U 1516-56) has a radio counterpart which, at high frequencies, show flares with the same 16.6 day periodicity as the X-ray intensity. In each cycle the radio flare occurs shortly after the intensity drop-off which defines the X-ray modulation. The radio source is positionally coincident with a faint red star having very strong H..cap alpha.. and weak He I emission lines which are probably variable. The object may be an early-type emission-line star or a symbiotic star, at a distance of 10 kpc.

  5. Ultraviolet radiation-induced mutability of isogenic uvrA and uvrB strains of Escherichia coli K-12 W3110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barfknecht, T.R.; Smith, K.C.

    1977-01-01

    E. coli K-12 W3110 uvrB5 strain has been shown to have a higher UV induced reversion frequency than its wild-type parent when plotted on the basis of mutation frequency versus survival. However for the E. coli B/r WP2s uvrA strain this higher mutability has been observed only at survival levels of 80-100%. A study was undertaken to determine if these differences in UV mutability were due primarily to the uvrA and uvrB mutations, or to other genetic background differences. Isogenic strains of E. coli K-12 W3110 carrying uvrA6, uvrB5, uvrA6 and uvrB5, and the uvrA allele from E.coli B/r WP2s were used. Results indicate that the enrichment of minimal medium with a small amount of nutrient broth is sufficient to inhibit minimal medium recovery (MMR) and to enhance leu + reversion of the leu B missense mutation in these uvr - strains. This suggests that there may be a relationship between MMR and error-free postreplication repair. Further research is in progress to clarify the relationship between MMR and broth enhancement of UV-induced mutagenesis in uvr - strains of E. Coli K-12 W3110. (author)

  6. Transcriptome sequencing and de novo analysis of a cytoplasmic male sterile line and its near-isogenic restorer line in chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS in F1 hybrid seed production of chili pepper is increasingly popular. However, the molecular mechanisms of cytoplasmic male sterility and fertility restoration remain poorly understood due to limited transcriptomic and genomic data. Therefore, we analyzed the difference between a CMS line 121A and its near-isogenic restorer line 121C in transcriptome level using next generation sequencing technology (NGS, aiming to find out critical genes and pathways associated with the male sterility. RESULTS: We generated approximately 53 million sequencing reads and assembled de novo, yielding 85,144 high quality unigenes with an average length of 643 bp. Among these unigenes, 27,191 were identified as putative homologs of annotated sequences in the public protein databases, 4,326 and 7,061 unigenes were found to be highly abundant in lines 121A and 121C, respectively. Many of the differentially expressed unigenes represent a set of potential candidate genes associated with the formation or abortion of pollen. CONCLUSIONS: Our study profiled anther transcriptomes of a chili pepper CMS line and its restorer line. The results shed the lights on the occurrence and recovery of the disturbances in nuclear-mitochondrial interaction and provide clues for further investigations.

  7. The Presenilin-1 ΔE9 Mutation Results in Reduced γ-Secretase Activity, but Not Total Loss of PS1 Function, in Isogenic Human Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Woodruff

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Presenilin 1 (PS1 is the catalytic core of γ-secretase, which cleaves type 1 transmembrane proteins, including the amyloid precursor protein (APP. PS1 also has γ-secretase-independent functions, and dominant PS1 missense mutations are the most common cause of familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD. Whether PS1 FAD mutations are gain- or loss-of-function remains controversial, primarily because most studies have relied on overexpression in mouse and/or nonneuronal systems. We used isogenic euploid human induced pluripotent stem cell lines to generate and study an allelic series of PS1 mutations, including heterozygous null mutations and homozygous and heterozygous FAD PS1 mutations. Rigorous analysis of this allelic series in differentiated, purified neurons allowed us to resolve this controversy and to conclude that FAD PS1 mutations, expressed at normal levels in the appropriate cell type, impair γ-secretase activity but do not disrupt γ-secretase-independent functions of PS1. Thus, FAD PS1 mutations do not act as simple loss of PS1 function but instead dominantly gain an activity toxic to some, but not all, PS1 functions.

  8. Identification of multiple PEPC isogenes in leaves of the facultative Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. cv. Tom Thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, H; Taybi, T; Kluge, M; Brulfert, J

    1995-12-27

    In the facultative Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) plant Kulanchoe blossfeldiana cv. Tom Thumb, CAM can be induced by short-day treatment or water deficiency stress. From young leaves of well-watered and water-stressed individuals of this plant, cDNA clones coding for a partial sequence of the key enzyme of CAM, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, were isolated after transcription of mRNA. cDNA polymorphism was established by enzyme restriction profiles and sequencing data. Four PEPC isogenes could be shown to exist in K. blossfeldiana forming two gene pairs, with 95%-98% homology inside and only 75% between the pairs. One cDNA sequence pair having a length of 1113 bp and an open reading frame of 371 AA was identified as PEPC isoform specific for the C3 state, whereas the pair having a length of 1116 bp and an open reading frame of 372 AA could be attributed to the CAM state. These results were confirmed by Southern Blot hybridization.

  9. Non-Destructive Assessment of Aroma Volatiles from a Climacteric Near-Isogenic Line of Melon Obtained by Headspace Stir-Bar Sorptive Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A climacteric aromatic near-isogenic line (NIL of melon (Cucumis melo L. SC3-5-1 contained an introgression of the non-climacteric Korean cultivar “Shongwan Charmi” accession PI 161375 (SC in the genetic background of the non-climacteric cultivar “Piel de Sapo” (PS. The aroma production was monitored during ripening at 21 °C in intact fruit using headspace sorptive bar extraction (HSSE. Bars were composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and aromas were desorbed and analyzed by gas-chromatography mass-spectrometry. The aromatic profile was composed of 70 aromatic compounds plus 21 alkanes with a predominance of esters, particularly acetate (2-methylbutyl acetate, 2-methylpropyl acetate, hexyl acetate, and phenylmethyl acetate. Some compounds were severely affected by postharvest time. The acetate esters (3-methylbutyl acetate, butan-2-yl acetate and phenylmethyl acetate decreased with ripening and sulfur-derived compounds (S-methyl butanethioate and S-methyl 3-methylbutanethioate increased gradually with ripening. A few compounds increased at the senescence phase (propyl ethanoate. Other compounds such as hexadecanoic acid showed a marked decrease after harvest, some decreasing from a relative maximum at harvest (2-methylpropyl hexanoate; n-hexanoic acid; nonanoic acid.

  10. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Broeke, Cindy J M; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2013-10-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains to be identified. N. ribisnigri populations virulent on the Nr-based resistance in lettuce have emerged in several locations in Europe since 2007. The objective of this study was to investigate the resistance mechanism mediated by the Nr gene in lettuce by detailed studies of aphid feeding behaviour and performance. Both avirulent (Nr:0) and virulent (Nr:1)biotypes of N. ribisnigri were studied on five resistant and two susceptible near isogenic lines (NILs). In addition, survival and colony development were quantified.Nr:0 aphids showed a strong decrease in sieve element ingestion and took longer to accept a sieve element on resistant NILs compared with susceptible NILs, and no aphids survived on the resistant NIL. Nr:1 aphids fed and performed equally well on the resistant and susceptible NILs. The resistance mechanism against Nr:0 aphids encoded by the Nr gene seems to be located in the phloem, although we also observed differences in feeding behaviour during the pathway phase to the phloem. Nr:1 aphids were highly virulent to the resistance conferred by the Nr gene. The consequences of the appearance of Nr:1 aphids for control of N. ribisnigri are discussed.

  11. Ultraviolet radiation-induced mutability of isogenic uvrA and uvrB strains of Escherichia coli K-12 W3110

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barfknecht, T R; Smith, K C [Stanford Univ., Calif. (USA). Dept. of Radiology

    1977-12-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 W3110 uvrB5 strain has been shown to have a higher uv-induced reversion frequency than its wild-type parent when plotted on the basis of mutation frequency versus survival. However for the E. coli B/r WP2s uvrA strain this higher mutability has been observed only at survival levels of 80 to 100%. A study was undertaken to determine if ly to the uvrA and uvrB mutations, or to other genetic background differences. Isogenic strains of E. coli K-12 W3110 carrying uvrA6, uvrB5, uvrA6, and uvrB5, and the uvrA allele from E.coli B/r WP2s were used. Results indicate that the enrichment of minimal medium with a small amount of nutrient broth is sufficient to inhibit minimal medium recovery (MMR) and to enhance leu/sup +/ reversion of the leu B missense mutation in these uvr/sup -/ strains. This suggests that there may be a relationship between MMR and error-free postreplication repair. Further research is in progress to clarify the relationship between MMR and broth enhancement of uv-induced mutagenesis in uvr/sup -/ strains of E. Coli K-12 W3110.

  12. THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE X-RAY COUNTERPART TO PSR J2021+4026

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Elsner, Ronald F.; O' Dell, Stephen L.; Tennant, Allyn F. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Space Science Office, VP62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Romani, Roger W. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Razzano, Massimiliano [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Belfiore, Andrea; Saz Parkinson, Pablo; Ziegler, Marcus; Dormody, Michael [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ray, Paul S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kerr, Matthew [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Harding, Alice [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 663, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Swartz, Douglas A. [Universities Space Research Association, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Space Science Office, VP62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Carraminana, Alberto [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Luis Enrique Erro 1, Tonantzintla, Puebla 72840 (Mexico); Becker, Werner; Kanbach, Gottfried [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); De Luca, Andrea [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Thompson, David J. [Astroparticle Physics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-12-10

    We report the probable identification of the X-ray counterpart to the {gamma}-ray pulsar PSR J2021+4026 using imaging with the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and timing analysis with the Fermi satellite. Given the statistical and systematic errors, the positions determined by both satellites are coincident. The X-ray source position is R.A. 20{sup h}21{sup m}30.{sup s}733, decl. +40 Degree-Sign 26'46.''04 (J2000) with an estimated uncertainty of 1.''3 combined statistical and systematic error. Moreover, both the X-ray to {gamma}-ray and the X-ray to optical flux ratios are sensible assuming a neutron star origin for the X-ray flux. The X-ray source has no cataloged infrared-to-visible counterpart and, through new observations, we set upper limits to its optical emission of i' > 23.0 mag and r' > 25.2 mag. The source exhibits an X-ray spectrum with most likely both a power law and a thermal component. We also report on the X-ray and visible light properties of the 43 other sources detected in our Chandra observation.

  13. GRB 170817A as a jet counterpart to gravitational wave trigger GW 170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Gavin P.; Kobayashi, Shiho

    2018-05-01

    Fermi/GBM (Gamma-ray Burst Monitor) and INTEGRAL (the International Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory) reported the detection of the γ-ray counterpart, GRB 170817A, to the LIGO (Light Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory)/Virgo gravitational wave detected binary neutron star merger, GW 170817. GRB 170817A is likely to have an internal jet or another origin such as cocoon emission, shock-breakout, or a flare from a viscous disc. In this paper we assume that the γ-ray emission is caused by energy dissipation within a relativistic jet and we model the afterglow synchrotron emission from a reverse- and forward-shock in the outflow. We show the afterglow for a low-luminosity γ-ray burst (GRB) jet with a high Lorentz-factor (Γ); a low-Γ and low-kinetic energy jet; a low-Γ, high kinetic energy jet; structured jets viewed at an inclination within the jet-half-opening angle; and an off-axis `typical' GRB jet. All jet models will produce observable afterglows on various timescales. The late-time afterglow from 10-110 days can be fit by a Gaussian structured jet viewed at a moderate inclination, however the GRB is not directly reproduced by this model. These jet afterglow models can be used for future GW detected NS merger counterparts with a jet afterglow origin.

  14. Tribological Response of Heat Treated AISI 52100 Steels Against Steel and Ceramic Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türedi E.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AISI 52100 bearing steels are commonly used in applications requiring high hardness and abrasion resistance. The bearing steels are working under dynamic loads in service conditions and their toughness properties become important. In order to provide the desired mechanical properties, various heat treatments (austenizing, quenching and tempering are usually applied. In this study, AISI 52100 bearing steel samples were austenized at 900°C for ½ h and water quenched to room temperature. Then tempering was carried out at 795°C, 400°C and 200°C for ½ h. In order to investigate the effect of heat treatment conditions on wear behavior, dry friction tests were performed according to ASTM G99-05 Standard with a ‘ball-on-disk’ type tribometer. The samples were tested against steel and ceramic counterparts using the parameters of 100 m distance and 30 N load and 0.063 m/s rotational speed. After wear test, the surface characterization was carried out using microscopy. Wear loss values were calculated using a novel optical method on both flat and counterpart specimens.

  15. THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE X-RAY COUNTERPART TO PSR J2021+4026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Elsner, Ronald F.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Tennant, Allyn F.; Romani, Roger W.; Razzano, Massimiliano; Belfiore, Andrea; Saz Parkinson, Pablo; Ziegler, Marcus; Dormody, Michael; Ray, Paul S.; Kerr, Matthew; Harding, Alice; Swartz, Douglas A.; Carramiñana, Alberto; Becker, Werner; Kanbach, Gottfried; De Luca, Andrea; Thompson, David J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the probable identification of the X-ray counterpart to the γ-ray pulsar PSR J2021+4026 using imaging with the Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and timing analysis with the Fermi satellite. Given the statistical and systematic errors, the positions determined by both satellites are coincident. The X-ray source position is R.A. 20 h 21 m 30. s 733, decl. +40°26'46.''04 (J2000) with an estimated uncertainty of 1.''3 combined statistical and systematic error. Moreover, both the X-ray to γ-ray and the X-ray to optical flux ratios are sensible assuming a neutron star origin for the X-ray flux. The X-ray source has no cataloged infrared-to-visible counterpart and, through new observations, we set upper limits to its optical emission of i' > 23.0 mag and r' > 25.2 mag. The source exhibits an X-ray spectrum with most likely both a power law and a thermal component. We also report on the X-ray and visible light properties of the 43 other sources detected in our Chandra observation.

  16. Motor skills in Czech children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and their neurotypical counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharoun, S M; Bryden, P J; Otipkova, Z; Musalek, M; Lejcarova, A

    2013-11-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most commonly diagnosed neurobehavioural disorder. Characterized by recurring problems with impulsiveness and inattention in combination with hyperactivity, motor impairments have also been well documented in the literature. The aim of this study was to compare the fine and gross motor skills of male and female children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts within seven skill assessments. This included three fine motor tasks: (1) spiral tracing, (2) dot filling, (3) tweezers and beads; and four gross motor tasks: (1) twistbox, (2) foot tapping, (3) small plate finger tapping, and (4) large plate finger tapping. It was hypothesized that children with ADHD would display poorer motor skills in comparison to neurotypical controls in both fine and gross motor assessments. However, statistically significant differences between the groups only emerged in four of the seven tasks (spiral tracing, dot filling, tweezers and beads and foot tapping). In line with previous findings, the complexity underlying upper limb tasks solidified the divide in performance between children with ADHD and their neurotypical counterparts. In light of similar research, impairments in lower limb motor skill were also observed. Future research is required to further delineate trends in motor difficulties in ADHD, while further investigating the underlying mechanisms of impairment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Probing extra dimension through gravitational wave observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hao; Gu, Bao-Min; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Xiao [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Huang, Fa Peng [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Meng, Xin-He, E-mail: yuh13@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: gubm15@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: huangfp@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: yqwang@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xhm@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2017-02-01

    The future gravitational wave (GW) observations of compact binaries and their possible electromagnetic counterparts may be used to probe the nature of the extra dimension. It is widely accepted that gravitons and photons are the only two completely confirmed objects that can travel along null geodesics in our four-dimensional space-time. However, if there exist extra dimensions and only GWs can propagate freely in the bulk, the causal propagations of GWs and electromagnetic waves (EMWs) are in general different. In this paper, we study null geodesics of GWs and EMWs in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time in the presence of the curvature of the universe. We show that for general cases the horizon radius of GW is longer than EMW within equal time. Taking the GW150914 event detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and the X-ray event detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor as an example, we study how the curvature k and the constant curvature radius l affect the horizon radii of GW and EMW in the de Sitter and Einstein-de Sitter models of the universe. This provides an alternative method for probing extra dimension through future GW observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts.

  18. A CANDIDATE OPTICAL COUNTERPART TO THE MIDDLE AGED γ -RAY PULSAR PSR J1741–2054

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mignani, R. P.; Marelli, M.; Luca, A. De; Salvetti, D.; Belfiore, A. [INAF—Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica Milano, via E. Bassini 15, I-20133, Milano (Italy); Testa, V. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monteporzio (Italy); Pierbattista, M. [Department of Astrophysics and Theory of Gravity, Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, ul. Radziszewskiego 10, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Razzano, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Shearer, A.; Moran, P. [Centre for Astronomy, National University of Ireland, Newcastle Road, Galway (Ireland)

    2016-07-10

    We carried out deep optical observations of the middle aged γ -ray pulsar PSR J1741−2054 with the Very Large Telescope (VLT). We identified two objects, of magnitudes m {sub v} = 23.10 ± 0.05 and m {sub v} = 25.32 ± 0.08, at positions consistent with the very accurate Chandra coordinates of the pulsar, the faintest of which is more likely to be its counterpart. From the VLT images we also detected the known bow-shock nebula around PSR J1741−2054. The nebula is displaced by ∼0.″9 (at the 3 σ confidence level) with respect to its position measured in archival data, showing that the shock propagates in the interstellar medium consistently with the pulsar proper motion. Finally, we could not find evidence of large-scale extended optical emission associated with the pulsar wind nebula detected by Chandra , down to a surface brightness limit of ∼28.1 mag arcsec{sup −2}. Future observations are needed to confirm the optical identification of PSR J1741−2054 and characterize the spectrum of its counterpart.

  19. THE VARIABLE NEAR-INFRARED COUNTERPART OF THE MICROQUASAR GRS 1758–258

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; Martí, Josep; Muñoz-Arjonilla, Álvaro J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new study of the microquasar system GRS 1758–258 in the near-infrared domain based on archival observations with the Hubble Space Telescope and the NICMOS camera. In addition to confirming the near-infrared counterpart pointed out by Muñoz-Arjonilla et al., we show that this object displays significant photometric variability. From its average magnitudes, we also find that GRS 1758–258 fits well within the correlation between the optical/near-infrared and X-ray luminosity known to exist for low-mass, black-hole candidate X-ray binaries in a hard state. Moreover, the spectral energy distribution built using all radio, near-infrared, and X-ray data available closest in time to the NICMOS observations can be reasonably interpreted in terms of a self-absorbed radio jet and an irradiated accretion disk model around a stellar-mass black hole. All these facts match the expected behavior of a compact binary system and strengthen our confidence in the counterpart identification

  20. Core-collapse supernovae as possible counterparts of IceCube neutrino multiplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strotjohann, Nora Linn; Kowalski, Marek; Franckowiak, Anna [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Voge, Markus [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Institut; Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    While an astrophysical neutrino flux has been detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory its sources remain so far unidentified. IceCube's Optical Follow-up Program is designed to search for the counterparts of neutrino multiplets using the full energy range of the IceCube detector down to 100 GeV. Two or more muon neutrinos arriving from the same direction within few seconds can trigger follow-up observations with optical and X-ray telescopes. Since 2010 the Palomar Transient Factory has followed up about 40 such neutrino alerts and detected several supernovae. Many of the detections are however likely random coincidences. In this talk I describe our search for supernovae and the prospects of identifying a supernova as a source of high-energy neutrinos.

  1. Strategic wholesale pricing for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianwu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuation in the competitive supplier's wholesale price, we integrate the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) measure in financial risk management into this study and derive an optimal wholesale price to maximize CVaR about profit for the incumbent supplier. Besides, the properties of the two optimal wholesale prices are discussed. Finally, some management insights are suggested for the incumbent supplier in a competitive setting.

  2. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 test S-06-4 (LOFT counterpart test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillins, R.L.; Sackett, K.E.; Coppin, C.E.

    1977-12-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-06-4 of the Semiscale Mod-1 LOFT counterpart test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-06-4 was conducted from initial conditions of 15,653 kPa and 564 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact loop to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. The heater rods in the electrically heated core were operated at an axial peak power density which was 100 percent of the maximum peak power density

  3. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 test S-06-1 (LOFT counterpart test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, B.L.; Patton, M.L. Jr.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-07-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-06-1 of the Semiscale Mod-1 LOFT counterpart test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying an hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-06-1 was conducted from initial conditions of 15 568 kPa and 564 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact loop to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. The heater rods in the electrically heated core were operated at an axial peak power density which was 30% of the maximum peak power density

  4. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 Test S-06-2 (LOFT counterpart test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, M.L. Jr.; Collins, B.L.; Sackett, K.E.

    1977-08-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-06-2 of the Semiscale Mod-1 LOFT counterpart test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying an hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-06-2 was conducted from initial conditions of 15 513 kPa and 563 K to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold leg of the intact loop to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. The heater rods in the electrically heated core were operated at an axial peak power density which was 50% of the maximum peak power density

  5. A systematic search for dwarf counterparts to ultra compact high velocity clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Paul; Sand, David J.; Crnojevic, Denija; Strader, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Observations of the Universe on scales smaller than typical, massive galaxies challenge the standard Lambda Cold Dark Matter paradigm for structure formation. It is thus imperative to discover and characterize the faintest dwarf galaxy systems, not just within the Local Group, but in relatively isolated environments as well in order to properly connect them with models of structure formation. Here we report on a systematic search of public ultraviolet and optical archives for dwarf galaxy counterparts to so-called Ultra Compact High Velocity Clouds (UCHVCs), which are compact, isolated HI sources recently found in the Galactic Arecibo L-band Feed Array-HI (GALFA-HI) and Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA-HI) surveys. Our search has uncovered at least three strong dwarf galaxy candidates, and we present their inferred star formation rate and structural properties here.

  6. Strategic Wholesale Pricing for an Incumbent Supplier Facing with a Competitive Counterpart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwu Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuation in the competitive supplier’s wholesale price, we integrate the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR measure in financial risk management into this study and derive an optimal wholesale price to maximize CVaR about profit for the incumbent supplier. Besides, the properties of the two optimal wholesale prices are discussed. Finally, some management insights are suggested for the incumbent supplier in a competitive setting.

  7. A SEARCH FOR AN OPTICAL COUNTERPART TO THE GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE EVENT GW151226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K. W.; Young, D. R.; Inserra, C.; Wright, D. E.; Jerkstrand, A.; Maguire, K.; Mueller, B. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Chambers, K. C.; Huber, M. E.; Denneau, L.; Flewelling, H.; Heinze, A.; Magnier, E. A.; Sherstyuk, A.; Stalder, B.; Schultz, A. S. B. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chen, T.-W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Coughlin, M. [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rest, A., E-mail: s.smartt@qub.ac.uk [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); and others

    2016-08-20

    We present a search for an electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational-wave source GW151226. Using the Pan-STARRS1 telescope we mapped out 290 square degrees in the optical i {sub P1} filter, starting 11.5 hr after the LIGO information release and lasting for an additional 28 days. The first observations started 49.5 hr after the time of the GW151226 detection. We typically reached sensitivity limits of i {sub P1} = 20.3–20.8 and covered 26.5% of the LIGO probability skymap. We supplemented this with ATLAS survey data, reaching 31% of the probability region to shallower depths of m ≃ 19. We found 49 extragalactic transients (that are not obviously active galactic nuclei), including a faint transient in a galaxy at 7 Mpc (a luminous blue variable outburst) plus a rapidly decaying M-dwarf flare. Spectral classification of 20 other transient events showed them all to be supernovae. We found an unusual transient, PS15dpn, with an explosion date temporally coincident with GW151226, that evolved into a type Ibn supernova. The redshift of the transient is secure at z = 0.1747 ± 0.0001 and we find it unlikely to be linked, since the luminosity distance has a negligible probability of being consistent with that of GW151226. In the 290 square degrees surveyed we therefore do not find a likely counterpart. However we show that our survey strategy would be sensitive to NS–NS mergers producing kilonovae at D{sub L} ≲ 100 Mpc, which is promising for future LIGO/Virgo searches.

  8. Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey for an optical counterpart of GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Utsumi, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki S.; Yasuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Furusawa, Hisanori; Kawabata, Koji S.; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Motohara, Kentaro; Ohsawa, Ryou; Ohta, Kouji; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Fumio; Aoki, Wako; Asakura, Yuichiro; Barway, Sudhanshu; Bond, Ian A.; Fujisawa, Kenta; Honda, Satoshi; Ioka, Kunihito; Itoh, Youichi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koshimoto, Naoki; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Miyazaki, Shota; Saito, Tomoki; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Sumi, Takahiro; Tristram, Paul J.

    2018-03-01

    We perform a z-band survey for an optical counterpart of the binary neutron star coalescence GW170817 with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. Our untargeted transient search covers 23.6 deg2 corresponding to the 56.6% credible region of GW170817 and reaches the 50% completeness magnitude of 20.6 mag on average. As a result, we find 60 candidate extragalactic transients, including J-GEM17btc (also known as SSS17a/DLT17ck). While J-GEM17btc is associated with NGC 4993, which is firmly located inside the 3D skymap of GW170817, the other 59 candidates do not have distance information in the GLADE v2 catalog or NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Among 59 of the candidates, 58 are located at the center of extended objects in the Pan-STARRS1 catalog, while one candidate has an offset. We present location, z-band apparent magnitude, and time variability of the candidates and evaluate the probabilities that they are located within the 3D skymap of GW170817. The probability for J-GEM17btc is 64%, which is much higher than for the other 59 candidates (9.3 × 10-3-2.1 × 10-1%). Furthermore, the possibility that at least one of the other 59 candidates is located within the 3D skymap is only 3.2%. Therefore, we conclude that J-GEM17btc is the most likely and distinguished candidate to be the optical counterpart of GW170817.

  9. Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey for an optical counterpart of GW170817‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Nozomu; Tanaka, Masaomi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Utsumi, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Masaki S.; Yasuda, Naoki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Fujiyoshi, Takuya; Furusawa, Hisanori; Kawabata, Koji S.; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Motohara, Kentaro; Ohsawa, Ryou; Ohta, Kouji; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Fumio; Aoki, Wako; Asakura, Yuichiro; Barway, Sudhanshu; Bond, Ian A.; Fujisawa, Kenta; Honda, Satoshi; Ioka, Kunihito; Itoh, Youichi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kim, Ji Hoon; Koshimoto, Naoki; Matsubayashi, Kazuya; Miyazaki, Shota; Saito, Tomoki; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Sumi, Takahiro; Tristram, Paul J.

    2018-02-01

    We perform a z-band survey for an optical counterpart of the binary neutron star coalescence GW170817 with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. Our untargeted transient search covers 23.6 deg2 corresponding to the 56.6% credible region of GW170817 and reaches the 50% completeness magnitude of 20.6 mag on average. As a result, we find 60 candidate extragalactic transients, including J-GEM17btc (also known as SSS17a/DLT17ck). While J-GEM17btc is associated with NGC 4993, which is firmly located inside the 3D skymap of GW170817, the other 59 candidates do not have distance information in the GLADE v2 catalog or NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database. Among 59 of the candidates, 58 are located at the center of extended objects in the Pan-STARRS1 catalog, while one candidate has an offset. We present location, z-band apparent magnitude, and time variability of the candidates and evaluate the probabilities that they are located within the 3D skymap of GW170817. The probability for J-GEM17btc is 64%, which is much higher than for the other 59 candidates (9.3 × 10-3-2.1 × 10-1%). Furthermore, the possibility that at least one of the other 59 candidates is located within the 3D skymap is only 3.2%. Therefore, we conclude that J-GEM17btc is the most likely and distinguished candidate to be the optical counterpart of GW170817.

  10. A Search for Optical Counterparts of Chandra Sources in Omega Centauri using ACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, D.; Fuller, A. D.; Dorfman, J. L.; Cool, A. M.; Anderson, J.; Edmonds, P. D.; Davies, M. B.

    2002-12-01

    The globular cluster Omega Centauri, with its high mass and large, moderate density core, is of interest both for its population of primordial binaries and for the large number of tidal-capture and/or exchange-collision binaries it may harbor. We have obtained a 3x3 mosaic of Wide Field Camera pointings with HST's Advanced Camera for Surveys, covering a 10'x10' field out to the cluster's half-mass radius. Containing ~1.7 million detected stars, the resulting mosaic represents the most complete image of Omega Cen yet obtained. Here we report preliminary findings of a search in these data for optical counterparts to more than 100 faint X-ray sources (Lx ~ 2 x 1030 - 5 x 1032 erg-s-1) detected in our prior study of Omega Cen using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Cluster X-ray sources are likely to consist primarily of accreting binary stars and close detached binaries with active coronae. Significant numbers of active galaxies in the background are also expected to be present. Using B, R, and H-alpha images, we are searching for optical counterparts that are H-alpha-bright and blue, as signatures of accretion in cataclysmic variables and/or quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries. Active binaries (e.g., BY Draconis stars) may appear as weaker H-alpha emitters lying on or slightly redward of the main sequence. This work is supported by NASA grant GO-9442 from the Space Telescope Science Institute.

  11. Follow Up of GW170817 and Its Electromagnetic Counterpart by Australian-Led Observing Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoni, I.; Ackley, K.; Cooke, J.; Acharyya, A.; Allison, J. R.; Anderson, G. E.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Baade, D.; Bailes, M.; Bannister, K.; Beardsley, A.; Bessell, M. S.; Bian, F.; Bland, P. A.; Boer, M.; Booler, T.; Brandeker, A.; Brown, I. S.; Buckley, D. A. H.; Chang, S.-W.; Coward, D. M.; Crawford, S.; Crisp, H.; Crosse, B.; Cucchiara, A.; Cupák, M.; de Gois, J. S.; Deller, A.; Devillepoix, H. A. R.; Dobie, D.; Elmer, E.; Emrich, D.; Farah, W.; Farrell, T. J.; Franzen, T.; Gaensler, B. M.; Galloway, D. K.; Gendre, B.; Giblin, T.; Goobar, A.; Green, J.; Hancock, P. J.; Hartig, B. A. D.; Howell, E. J.; Horsley, L.; Hotan, A.; Howie, R. M.; Hu, L.; Hu, Y.; James, C. W.; Johnston, S.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kasliwal, M.; Keane, E. F.; Kenney, D.; Klotz, A.; Lau, R.; Laugier, R.; Lenc, E.; Li, X.; Liang, E.; Lidman, C.; Luvaul, L. C.; Lynch, C.; Ma, B.; Macpherson, D.; Mao, J.; McClelland, D. E.; McCully, C.; Möller, A.; Morales, M. F.; Morris, D.; Murphy, T.; Noysena, K.; Onken, C. A.; Orange, N. B.; Osłowski, S.; Pallot, D.; Paxman, J.; Potter, S. B.; Pritchard, T.; Raja, W.; Ridden-Harper, R.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Sadler, E. M.; Sansom, E. K.; Scalzo, R. A.; Schmidt, B. P.; Scott, S. M.; Seghouani, N.; Shang, Z.; Shannon, R. M.; Shao, L.; Shara, M. M.; Sharp, R.; Sokolowski, M.; Sollerman, J.; Staff, J.; Steele, K.; Sun, T.; Suntzeff, N. B.; Tao, C.; Tingay, S.; Towner, M. C.; Thierry, P.; Trott, C.; Tucker, B. E.; Väisänen, P.; Krishnan, V. Venkatraman; Walker, M.; Wang, L.; Wang, X.; Wayth, R.; Whiting, M.; Williams, A.; Williams, T.; Wolf, C.; Wu, C.; Wu, X.; Yang, J.; Yuan, X.; Zhang, H.; Zhou, J.; Zovaro, H.

    2017-12-01

    The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement ( 2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.

  12. Inflammatory response of TLR4 deficient spleen macrophages (CRL 2471) to Brucella abortus S19 and an isogenic ΔmglA deletion mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jens; Makou, Patricia; Finke, Antje; Mielke, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide distributed zoonosis caused by members of the genus Brucella. One of them, Brucella abortus, is the etiological agent of bovine brucellosis. With the attenuated strain B. abortus S19 a vaccine is available. However, both, virulence (safety) and the ability to induce a protective B and T cell response (efficacy) have to be tested in suitable assays before successful use in the field. For this purpose, several macrophage cell lines of various origins have been used while splenic macrophages are the preferred host cells in vivo. We here characterized the in vitro response of the murine splenic macrophage cell line CRL 2471(I-13.35) to B. abortus. This cell line still depends on the presence of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF1) and is derived from LPS resistant (TLR4 deficient) C3H/HeJ mice. For infection the vaccine strain B. abortus S19A as well as the formerly described isogenic deletion mutant B. abortus S19A ΔmglA 3.14 were used. While numbers of viable bacteria did not differ significantly between the vaccine strain and the deletion mutant at 6h post infection, a higher bacterial load was measured in case of the mutant at 24h and 48h after infection. This was also true, when IFNγ was used for macrophage activation. A comprehensive gene expression profile of macrophages was analysed 6 and 24h after infection by means of an RT-PCR based gene expression array. The mutant strain B. abortus S19A ΔmglA 3.14 elicited a stronger cellular response of the splenic macrophages as compared to the parental vaccine strain. This was most prominent for the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α and IL6 as well as for the chemokine ligands CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL5, CCL7, CCL17 and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and ICAM1. While these differences were also present in IFNγ-stimulated macrophages, an addition of IFNγ after infection not only resulted in a dramatic increase of the translation of the afore mentioned genes but also

  13. Cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral status in near-isogenic Gossypium hirsutum cotton lines expressing fuzzy/linted and fuzzless/linted seed phenotypes under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is an important crop in the world and is a major source of oil for human consumption and cotton meal for livestock. Cottonseed nutrition (seed composition: protein, oil, and minerals determine the quality of seeds. Therefore, maintaining optimum levels of cottonseed nutrition is critical. Physiological and genetic mechanisms controlling the levels of these constituents in cottonseed are still largely unknown. Our previous research conducted under greenhouse conditions showed that seed and leaf nutrition differed between fuzzless and fuzzy seed isolines. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the seed fuzz phenotype (trait effects on seed protein, oil, N, C, S, and minerals in five sets of near-isogenic mutant cotton lines for seed fuzz in a two-year experiment under field condition to evaluate the stability of the effect of the trait on seed nutrition. The isolines (genotypes in each set differ for the seed fuzz trait (fuzzless/linted seed line, N lines, and fuzzy/linted seed line, F lines. Results showed that seed protein was higher in the fuzzy genotype in all sets, but seed oil was higher in fuzzless genotype in all sets. The concentrations of seed Ca and C were higher in all fuzzless genotypes, but N, S, B, Fe, and Zn were higher in most of the fuzzy genotypes. Generally, minerals were higher in leaves of F lines, suggesting the translocation of minerals from leaves to seeds was limited. The research demonstrated that fiber development could be involved in cottonseed composition. This may be due to the involvement of fiber development in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, and the mobility of nutrients from leaves (source to seed (sink. This information is beneficial to breeders to consider fuzzless cottonseed for potential protein and oil use and select for higher oil or higher protein content, and to physiologists to further understand the mobility of minerals to increase the quality of cottonseed nutrition for

  14. Development of 25 near-isogenic lines (NILs) with ten BPH resistance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.): production, resistance spectrum, and molecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, Kshirod K; Hechanova, Sherry Lou; Verdeprado, Holden; Prahalada, G D; Kim, Sung-Ryul

    2017-11-01

    A first set of 25 NILs carrying ten BPH resistance genes and their pyramids was developed in the background of indica variety IR24 for insect resistance breeding in rice. Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) is one of the most destructive insect pests in rice. Development of near-isogenic lines (NILs) is an important strategy for genetic analysis of brown planthopper (BPH) resistance (R) genes and their deployment against diverse BPH populations. A set of 25 NILs with 9 single R genes and 16 multiple R gene combinations consisting of 11 two-gene pyramids and 5 three-gene pyramids in the genetic background of the susceptible indica rice cultivar IR24 was developed through marker-assisted selection. The linked DNA markers for each of the R genes were used for foreground selection and confirming the introgressed regions of the BPH R genes. Modified seed box screening and feeding rate of BPH were used to evaluate the spectrum of resistance. BPH reaction of each of the NILs carrying different single genes was variable at the antibiosis level with the four BPH populations of the Philippines. The NILs with two- to three-pyramided genes showed a stronger level of antibiosis (49.3-99.0%) against BPH populations compared with NILs with a single R gene NILs (42.0-83.5%) and IR24 (10.0%). Background genotyping by high-density SNPs markers revealed that most of the chromosome regions of the NILs (BC 3 F 5 ) had IR24 genome recovery of 82.0-94.2%. Six major agronomic data of the NILs showed a phenotypically comparable agronomic performance with IR24. These newly developed NILs will be useful as new genetic resources for BPH resistance breeding and are valuable sources of genes in monitoring against the emerging BPH biotypes in different rice-growing countries.

  15. High-resolution mapping of the brown planthopper resistance gene Bph6 in rice and characterizing its resistance in the 9311 and Nipponbare near isogenic backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yongfu; Guo, Jianping; Jing, Shengli; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2010-11-01

    Brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål, BPH) is one of the most destructive insect pests of rice. Exploring resistance genes from diverse germplasms and incorporating them into cultivated varieties are critical for controlling this insect. The rice variety Swarnalata was reported to carry a resistance gene (designated Bph6), which has not yet been assigned to a chromosome location and the resistance mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we identified and mapped this gene using the F(2) and backcrossing populations and characterized its resistance in indica 9311 and japonica Nipponbare using near isogenic lines (NILs). In analysis of 9311/Swarnalata F(2) population, the Bph6 gene was located on the long arm of chromosome 4 between the SSR markers RM6997 and RM5742. The gene was further mapped precisely to a 25-kb region delimited between the STS markers Y19 and Y9; and the distance between these markers is 25-kb in Nipponbare genome. The Bph6 explained 77.5% of the phenotypic variance of BPH resistance in F(2) population and 84.9% in BC(2)F(2) population. Allele from Swarnalata significantly increased resistance to the BPH, resulted in a reduced damage score. In characterization of Bph6-mediated resistance, the BPH insects showed significant preference between NIL-9311 and 9311 in 3 h and between NIL-NIP and Nipponbare in 120 h after release. BPH growth and development were inhibited, and the insect's survival rates were lower on Bph6-NIL plants, compared with the parents 9311 and Nipponbare. The results indicate that the Bph6 exerted prolonged antixenotic and antibiotic effects in Bph6-NIL plants, and NIL-9311 plants showed a quicker and stronger effect toward BPH than NIL-NIP plants.

  16. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of two Brassica napus near-isogenic lines reveals a network of genes that influences seed oil accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxue Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus is an important oil seed crop, providing more than 13% of the world’s supply of edible oils. An in-depth knowledge of the gene network involved in biosynthesis and accumulation of seed oil is critical for the improvement of B. napus. Using available genomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified 1,750 acyl lipid metabolism (ALM genes that are distributed over 19 chromosomes in the B. napus genome. B. rapa and B. oleracea, two diploid progenitors of B. napus, contributed almost equally to the ALM genes. Genome collinearity analysis demonstrated that the majority of the ALM genes have arisen due to genome duplication or segmental duplication events. In addition, we profiled the expression patterns of the ALM genes in four different developmental stages. Furthermore, we developed two B. napus near isogenic lines (NILs. The high oil NIL, YC13-559, accumulates more than 10% of seed oil compared to the other, YC13-554. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of lipid biosynthesis-related regulatory genes in YC13-559, including SHOOTMERISTEMLESS, LEAFY COTYLEDON 1 (LEC1, LEC2, FUSCA3, ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3, ABI4, ABI5, and WRINKLED1, as well as structural genes, such as ACETYL-CoA CARBOXYLASE, ACYL-CoA DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE, and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-CoA SYNTHETASES. We observed that several genes related to the phytohormones, gibberellins, jasmonate, and indole acetic acid, were differentially expressed in the NILs. Our findings provide a broad account of the numbers, distribution, and expression profiles of acyl lipid metabolism genes, as well as gene networks that potentially control oil accumulation in B. napus seeds. The upregulation of key regulatory and structural genes related to lipid biosynthesis likely plays a major role for the increased seed oil in YC13-559.

  17. Dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics of Yumechikara near-isogenic wheat lines carrying different Glu-B3 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships of three allelic variations in Glu-B3 (ab, g, and h) with dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics using near-isogenic lines (NILs) of 'Yumechikara' that commonly carry Glu-A1a, Glu-B1b, Glu-D1d, Glu-A3f, Glu-B3ab and Glu-D3a. Measurement of peak time (PT) in a 2-g mixograph indicated that Glu-B3g was the most effective for a strong dough property, followed by Glu-B3ab, with Glu-B3h being the least effective. The results of measurement of mixing time during bread-making were similar to those for PTs, i.e., the lines carrying Glu-B3g showed the longest mixing time, followed by those of Glu-B3ab, and those of Glu-B3h showed the shortest mixing time. Since two parameters of bread-making quality, loaf volume (LV) and specific loaf volume (SLV), were affected by flour protein contents in all groups of the Glu-B3 genotype, we compared the effects of the three Glu-B3 alleles on those parameters using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to remove the effect of protein content. The results indicated that the Glu-B3h group showed the largest SLV, followed by the Glu-B3ab group, and the Glu-B3g group showed the smallest SLV. These results suggest that the introduction of Glu-B3h into 'Yumechikara' makes it possible to breed varieties with good bread-making quality-related characteristics.

  18. Experimental evolution, genetic analysis and genome re-sequencing reveal the mutation conferring artemisinin resistance in an isogenic lineage of malaria parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Hunt, Paul

    2010-09-16

    Background: Classical and quantitative linkage analyses of genetic crosses have traditionally been used to map genes of interest, such as those conferring chloroquine or quinine resistance in malaria parasites. Next-generation sequencing technologies now present the possibility of determining genome-wide genetic variation at single base-pair resolution. Here, we combine in vivo experimental evolution, a rapid genetic strategy and whole genome re-sequencing to identify the precise genetic basis of artemisinin resistance in a lineage of the rodent malaria parasite, Plasmodium chabaudi. Such genetic markers will further the investigation of resistance and its control in natural infections of the human malaria, P. falciparum.Results: A lineage of isogenic in vivo drug-selected mutant P. chabaudi parasites was investigated. By measuring the artemisinin responses of these clones, the appearance of an in vivo artemisinin resistance phenotype within the lineage was defined. The underlying genetic locus was mapped to a region of chromosome 2 by Linkage Group Selection in two different genetic crosses. Whole-genome deep coverage short-read re-sequencing (IlluminaSolexa) defined the point mutations, insertions, deletions and copy-number variations arising in the lineage. Eight point mutations arise within the mutant lineage, only one of which appears on chromosome 2. This missense mutation arises contemporaneously with artemisinin resistance and maps to a gene encoding a de-ubiquitinating enzyme.Conclusions: This integrated approach facilitates the rapid identification of mutations conferring selectable phenotypes, without prior knowledge of biological and molecular mechanisms. For malaria, this model can identify candidate genes before resistant parasites are commonly observed in natural human malaria populations. 2010 Hunt et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  19. Comparative transcriptome proifling of two maize near-isogenic lines differing in the allelic state for bacterial brown spot disease resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-jun; Xu Li; ZHAO Pan-feng; LI Na; WU Lei; HE Yan; WANG Shou-cai

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial brown spot disease (BBS), caused primarily by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae van Hal (Pss), reduces plant vigor, yield and quality in maize. To reveal the nature of the defense mechanisms and identify genes involved in the effective host resistance, the dynamic changes of defense transcriptome triggered by the infection of Pss were investigated and compared between two maize near-isogenic lines (NILs). We found that Pss infection resulted in a sophisticated tran-scriptional reprogramming of several biological processes and the resistant NIL employed much faster defense responses than the susceptible NIL. Numerous genes encoding essential components of plant basal resistance would be able to be activated in the susceptible NIL, such as PEN1, PEN2, PEN3, and EDR1, however, in a basic manner, such resistance might not be sufifcient for suppressing Pss pathogenesis. In addition, the expressions of a large number of PTI-, ETI-, PR-, and WRKY-related genes were pronouncedly activated in the resistant NIL, suggesting that maize employ a multitude of defense pathways to defend Pss infection. Six R-gene homologs were identiifed to have signiifcantly higher expression levels in the resistant NIL at early time point, indicating that a robust surveil ance system (gene-to-gene model) might operate in maize during Pss attacks, and these homolog genes are likely to be potential candidate resistance genes involved in BBS disease resistance. Furthermore, a holistic group of novel pathogen-responsive genes were deifned, providing the repertoire of candidate genes for further functional characterization and identiifcation of their regulation patterns during pathogen infection.

  20. AT 2017gfo: An Anisotropic and Three-component Kilonova Counterpart of GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Albino; Radice, David; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano

    2017-12-01

    The detection of a kilo/macronova electromagnetic counterpart (AT 2017gfo) of the first gravitational-wave signal compatible with the merger of two neutron stars (GW170817) has confirmed the occurrence of r-process nucleosynthesis in this kind of event. The blue and red components of AT 2017gfo have been interpreted as the signature of multi-component ejecta in the merger dynamics. However, the explanation of AT 2017gfo in terms of the properties of the ejecta and of the ejection mechanisms is still incomplete. In this work, we analyze AT 2017gfo with a new semi-analytic model of kilo/macronova inferred from general-relativistic simulations of the merger and long-term numerical models of the merger aftermath. The model accounts for the anisotropic emission from the three known mass ejecta components: dynamic, winds, and secular outflows from the disk. The early multi-band light curves of AT 2017gfo can only be explained by the presence of a relatively low-opacity component of the ejecta at high latitudes. This points to the key role of weak interactions in setting the ejecta properties and determining the nucleosynthetic yields. Our model also constrains the total ejected mass associated to AT 2017gfo to be between 0.042 and 0.077 {M}⊙ , the observation angle of the source to be between π /12 and 7π /36, and the mass of the disk to be ≳ 0.08 {M}⊙ .

  1. Moringa oleifera Root Induces Cancer Apoptosis more Effectively than Leave Nanocomposites and Its Free Counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Rabou, Ahmed A; Abdalla, Aboelfetoh M; Ali, Naglaa A; Zoheir, Khairy MA

    2017-01-01

    Medicinal plants are important elements of indigenous medical system that have persisted in developing countries. Many of the botanical chemo-preventions currently used as potent anticancer agents. However, some important anticancer agents are still extracted from plants because they cannot be synthesized chemically on a commercial scale due to their complex structures that often contain several chiral centers. The aim of this study was to test different extracts from the Moringa oleifera leaves (ML), its PLGA-CS-PEG nanocomposites (MLn), as well as root core (Rc) and outer (Ro) parts for activity against hepatocarcinoma HepG2, breast MCF7, and colorectal HCT 116/ Caco-2 cells in vitro. Nano-composites were prepared and characterized. Then, the nanocomposites and the free counterparts were screened on different propagated cancer cell lines. The underlying cytotoxic impact was followed using apoptosis measurements. All extracts kill the different cancer cells with different ratios, but intriguingly, the root core extract could kill the majority of cancer cells (approximately 70-80%), while sparing normal BHK-21 cells with minimal inhibitory effect (approximately 30-40%). Apoptotic cell increment came to confirm the cytotoxic effects of these extracts on HCT 116 cells (Rc: 212% and Ro: 180%, respectively) and HepG2 cells (ML: 567.5% and MLn: 608%, respectively) compared to control (100%) mechanistically wise. Moringa oleifera nanocomposites may have potential for use as a natural source of anti-cancer compounds. PMID:28843248

  2. Do Asian women do as well as their Caucasian counterparts in IVF treatment: Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Andrew; Leung, Peter; Luo, Kehui; Fay, Louise; Tan, Chunyan Leeann

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate if there is a difference in pregnancy rate between Asian and Caucasian women when they undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF). This was a retrospective cohort study set in a private reproductive medicine clinic. The study consisted of a total of 2594 patients (Asian, n = 522; Caucasian, n = 2072) undergoing IVF managed by a single doctor over a 10 year period. The main outcome measures were clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Logistic regression was used to control for confounding factors. Asian women achieved a significantly lower clinical pregnancy and live birth rate than their Caucasian counterparts, despite replacement of more embryos. This difference was not significant after controlling for age and duration of infertility. Despite higher doses of gonadotrophin, they achieved fewer oocytes and had resultant fewer embryos for transfer or cryopreservation. In a study designed to reduce the effect of confounding factors by looking at a large number of patients from a single IVF unit under the care of a single doctor, there does not appear to be a difference in IVF pregnancy rate as a result of race. Asian women tend to present for IVF treatment at a later age after having tried for a longer period of time and this contributes significantly to their lower pregnancy rate. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. iPTF SEARCH FOR AN OPTICAL COUNTERPART TO GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW150914

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Barlow, T.; Bellm, E.; Cook, D.; Duggan, G. E.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Lunnan, R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B.; Singer, L. P. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Corsi, A.; Palliyaguru, N. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Bhalerao, V. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Ferretti, R. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Frail, D. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); Horesh, A.; Manulis, I. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Kendrick, R. [Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Laher, R. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Masci, F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2016-06-20

    The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) autonomously responded to and promptly tiled the error region of the first gravitational-wave event GW150914 to search for an optical counterpart. Only a small fraction of the total localized region was immediately visible in the northern night sky, due both to Sun-angle and elevation constraints. Here, we report on the transient candidates identified and rapid follow-up undertaken to determine the nature of each candidate. Even in the small area imaged of 126 deg{sup 2}, after extensive filtering, eight candidates were deemed worthy of additional follow-up. Within two hours, all eight were spectroscopically classified by the Keck II telescope. Curiously, even though such events are rare, one of our candidates was a superluminous supernova. We obtained radio data with the Jansky Very Large Array and X-ray follow-up with the Swift satellite for this transient. None of our candidates appear to be associated with the gravitational-wave trigger, which is unsurprising given that GW150914 came from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes. This end-to-end discovery and follow-up campaign bodes well for future searches in this post-detection era of gravitational waves.

  4. Intramuscular keratocyst as a soft tissue counterpart of keratocystic odontogenic tumor: differential diagnosis by immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abé, Tatsuya; Maruyama, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Manabu; Essa, Ahmed; Babkair, Hamzah; Mikami, Toshihiko; Shingaki, Susumu; Kobayashi, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Takafumi; Cheng, Jun; Saku, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Keratocystic odontogenic tumor (KCOT), a developmental jaw cyst previously referred to as odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), typically arises in the jawbone. In this article, however, we report a case of KCOT located within the temporalis muscle. We compared its immunohistochemical profiles with those of authentic jaw KCOT, orthokeratinized odontogenic cyst, and epidermoid cyst in order to consider whether a soft tissue counterpart of KCOT could be a separate disease entity. The patient was a 46-year-old man with a well-defined cystic lesion within the left temporalis muscle. On computed tomographic images, the lesion was recognized as a cystic lesion, although KCOT was not included in the clinical differential diagnoses. The location of the lesion was not within bone but, rather, within the temporalis muscle that was attached to the jawbones. Our review of the literature has disclosed more than 20 peripheral KCOT cases of the oral mucosa and more than 10 cases of the skin, but only 1 case arising in muscle. Immunohistochemical investigation of the present intramuscular case reveals KCOT-characteristic profiles distinct from the other 3 types of cysts investigated. The results indicate that KCOT-like lesions can arise within soft tissues, although use of the term odontogenic might seem inappropriate in those cases. © 2013.

  5. Comparing gas separation performance between all known zeolites and their zeolitic imidazolate framework counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Álvarez, Paula; Hamad, Said; Haranczyk, Maciej; Ruiz-Salvador, A Rabdel; Calero, Sofia

    2016-01-07

    To find optimal porous materials for adsorption-based separations is a challenging task due to the extremely large number of possible pore topologies and compositions. New porous material classes such as Metal Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are emerging, and hope to replace traditionally used materials such as zeolites. Computational screening offers relatively fast searching for candidate structures as well as side-by-side comparisons between material families. This work is pioneering at examining the families comprised by the experimentally known zeolites and their respective Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework (ZIF) counterparts in the context of a number of environmental and industrial separations involving carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, oxygen, and argon. Additionally, unlike related published work, here all the targeted structures have been previously relaxed through energy minimization. On the first level of characterization, we considered a detailed pore characterization, identifying 24 zeolites as promising candidates for gas separation based on adsorbate sizes. The second level involved interatomic potential-based calculations to assess the adsorption performance of the materials. We found no correlation in the values of heat of adsorption between zeolites and ZIFs sharing the same topology. A number of structures were identified as potential experimental targets for CO2/N2, and CO2/CH4 affinity-based separations.

  6. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 Test S-06-5. (LOFT counterpart test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-06-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-06-5 of the Semiscale Mod-1 LOFT counterpart test series. These tests are among several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Test S-06-5 was conducted from initial conditions of 2272 psia and 536 0 F to investigate the response of the Semiscale Mod-1 system to a depressurization and reflood transient following a simulated double-ended offset shear of the broken loop cold leg piping. During the test, cooling water was injected into the cold legs of the intact and broken loops to simulate emergency core coolant injection in a PWR. The purpose of Test S-06-5 was to assess the influence of the break nozzle geometry on core thermal and system response and on the subcooled and low quality mass flow rates at the break locations

  7. VERY LONG BASELINE INTERFEROMETRY SEARCH FOR THE RADIO COUNTERPART OF HESS J1943+213

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabanyi, K. E. [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, Budapest H-1525 (Hungary); Dubner, G.; Giacani, E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA), CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paragi, Z.; Pidopryhora, Y. [Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Postbus 2, 7990 AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Frey, S., E-mail: gabanyi@konkoly.hu [FOeMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory, P.O. Box 585, H-1592 Budapest (Hungary)

    2013-01-01

    HESS J1943+213, a TeV point source close to the Galactic plane recently discovered by the H.E.S.S. Collaboration, was proposed to be an extreme BL Lacertae object, though a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature could not be completely discarded. To investigate its nature, we performed high-resolution radio observations with the European Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (EVN) and reanalyzed archival continuum and H I data. The EVN observations revealed a compact radio counterpart of the TeV source. The low brightness temperature and the resolved nature of the radio source are indications against the beamed BL Lacertae hypothesis. The radio/X-ray source appears immersed in a {approx}1' elliptical feature, suggesting a possible galactic origin (PWN nature) for the HESS source. We found that HESS J1943+213 is located in the interior of a {approx}1 Degree-Sign diameter H I feature and explored the possibility of them being physically related.

  8. Phylogenetic comparisons of a coastal bacterioplankton community with its counterparts in open ocean and freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappé; Vergin; Giovannoni

    2000-09-01

    In order to extend previous comparisons between coastal marine bacterioplankton communities and their open ocean and freshwater counterparts, here we summarize and provide new data on a clone library of 105 SSU rRNA genes recovered from seawater collected over the western continental shelf of the USA in the Pacific Ocean. Comparisons to previously published data revealed that this coastal bacterioplankton clone library was dominated by SSU rRNA gene phylotypes originally described from surface waters of the open ocean, but also revealed unique SSU rRNA gene lineages of beta Proteobacteria related to those found in clone libraries from freshwater habitats. beta Proteobacteria lineages common to coastal and freshwater samples included members of a clade of obligately methylotrophic bacteria, SSU rRNA genes affiliated with Xylophilus ampelinus, and a clade related to the genus Duganella. In addition, SSU rRNA genes were recovered from such previously recognized marine bacterioplankton SSU rRNA gene clone clusters as the SAR86, SAR11, and SAR116 clusters within the class Proteobacteria, the Roseobacter clade of the alpha subclass of the Proteobacteria, the marine group A/SAR406 cluster, and the marine Actinobacteria clade. Overall, these results support and extend previous observations concerning the global distribution of several marine planktonic prokaryote SSU rRNA gene phylotypes, but also show that coastal bacterioplankton communities contain SSU rRNA gene lineages (and presumably bacterioplankton) shown previously to be prevalent in freshwater habitats.

  9. Comparative evaluation of corrosion behaviour of type K thin film thermocouple and its bulk counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.K.; Barhai, P.K.; Srikanth, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Anodic vacuum arc deposited chromel and alumel films are more 'noble' in 5% NaCl solution than their respective wires. → Chromel undergoes localised corrosion while alumel shows uniform corrosion. → Virgin samples of chromel-alumel TFTCs exhibit good thermoelectric response. → Their thermoelectric outputs remain largely unaffected when shelved under normal atmospheric conditions. → After 288 h of exposure in salt spray environment, their thermoelectric outputs show noticeable change due to size effects. - Abstract: This paper investigates the corrosion behaviour of type K thermoelements and their thin films, and compares the performance of chromel-alumel thin film thermocouple with its wire counterpart before and after exposure to 5% NaCl medium. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests reveal that chromel and alumel films are more 'noble' than their respective wires. Alumel corrodes faster when coupled with chromel in films than as wires. Secondary electron micrographs and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that chromel shows localised corrosion while alumel undergoes uniform corrosion. Corrosion adversely affects the thermocouple output and introduces an uncertainty in the measurement.

  10. UPTF test 21D counterpart test in the MIDAS test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, B. C.; Ah, D. J.; Joo, I. C.; Kwon, T. S.; Park, W. M.; Song, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results of UPTF Test 21D counterpart tests in the downcomer during the late reflood phase of LBLOCA. The experiments have been performed in the MIDAS test facility using superheated steam and water. The test condition was determined,based on the test results of UPTF Test 21D, by applying the 'modified linear scaling method of 1/4.077 length scale. The tests of ECC direct bypass and void height are performed separately to estimate each phenomena quantitatively. The tests were carried out by varying the injection steam flow rate of intact cold legs widely to investigate the effect of steam flow rate on the direct bypass fraction and void height. In the tests, separate effect tests have been performed in cases of DVI-1,DVI- 2 and DVI-1 and 2 injections to see the direct bypass fraction according to the DVI nozzle combination. From the tests, we found that the fraction of direct ECC bypass and the void height observed in the MIDAS test facility reasonably well agree with those of UPTF test 21- D. It confirms that the applied 'modified linear scaling law' reproduces major thermal hydraulics phenomena in the downcomer during the LBLOCA reflood phase

  11. Elaboration of a guideline for counterpart testing of integral loop systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karwat, H.

    1988-01-01

    A previous study on the problems of scaling and extrapolation of experimental results indicated the necessity to overcome some uncertainty in the achievable code accuracy when applied to full size reactor systems. The empirical approach in simulating interfacial relationships within systems behaviour codes in combination with the liberty of nodalisation requires a careful assessment of the overall validity of the code verification concept. Several new test facilities are presently under construction to study fluid-dynamic effects of interest for the behaviour of PWRs under small break LOCA conditions in a larger dimension and with somewhat modified scaling considerations. The test results expected from these new facilities may be useful to assess the overall validity of the analytical simulation concept of the applied computer codes. Test facilities of interest within the European Community are the - LOBI Test Facility (vol. scaling 1/700) at JRC-Ispra - SPES Test Facility (vol. scaling 1/425) in Italy - BETHSY Facility (vol scaling 1/100) in France and outside Europe the - ROSA IV Facility (vol. scaling 1/50) in Japan. Main objective of the study was the elaboration of a guideline for the particular requirements of meaningful counterpart testing with the final aim to qualify the overall validity of code simulation concepts and the expected predictive accuracy of code applications for full size prototype PWRs

  12. THE SOCIALIST YOUTH UNION (1957–1976 – POLISH COUNTERPART OF KOMSOMOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Sadowska

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The political system of the Polish People’s Republic was modelled on the Soviet one. Polish youth organizations had the ambitions of being counterparts of Komsomol: they adopted similar work methods and tried to play a similar role in the country. The obvious differences resulted from the specificity of each country and the differences in the societies. The most deeply rooted in the memory of Poles is the Socialist Youth Union, which, being the most stable, existed for almost 20 years with nearly 1.3 million members in the early 1970s. The Union was closely connected with the Polish United Workers’ Party and it had to accomplish two main kinds of political task: to select and prepare future members of the Party, both ordinary and those in the managerial positions, and to educate the whole young generation. The Party indeed treated the organization as its agency, an office dealing with the affairs of youths. However, non-political activity of the Union (culture, entertainment, tourism, etc. was much more effective and evaluated more positively. Actually, there was much more falsehood in the Union: many members were almost completely passive and the work was often only simulated.

  13. Superatom spectroscopy and the electronic state correlation between elements and isoelectronic molecular counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppernick, Samuel J; Gunaratne, K D Dasitha; Castleman, A W

    2010-01-19

    Detailed in the present investigation are results pertaining to the photoelectron spectroscopy of negatively charged atomic ions and their isoelectronic molecular counterparts. Experiments utilizing the photoelectron imaging technique are performed on the negative ions of the group 10 noble metal block (i.e. Ni-, Pd-, and Pt-) of the periodic table at a photon energy of 2.33 eV (532 nm). The accessible electronic transitions, term energies, and orbital angular momentum components of the bound electronic states in the atom are then compared with photoelectron images collected for isoelectronic early transition metal heterogeneous diatomic molecules, M-X- (M = Ti,Zr,W; X = O or C). A superposition principle connecting the spectroscopy between the atomic and molecular species is observed, wherein the electronic structure of the diatomic is observed to mimic that present in the isoelectronic atom. The molecular ions studied in this work, TiO-, ZrO-, and WC- can then be interpreted as possessing superatomic electronic structures reminiscent of the isoelectronic elements appearing on the periodic table, thereby quantifying the superatom concept.

  14. Water adsorption and dissociation on Ni(110): How is it different from its close packed counterparts?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seenivasan, H.; Tiwari, Ashwani K., E-mail: ashwani@iiserkol.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur 741252 (India)

    2014-05-07

    Water adsorption and dissociation on Ni(110) surface is studied in detail and compared with its close packed counterparts using density functional theory calculations. Water adsorption occurs on the top site as found on Ni(100) and Ni(111) but the adsorption is stronger on Ni(110). H and OH preferably adsorb on the short bridge sites (brgshort) opposed to hollow sites on (100) and (111) surfaces. Energy barriers for water molecule dissociation on Ni(110) as obtained from the transition state (TS) calculations were low compared to other Ni low indexed surfaces. TS geometries at different positions of the lattice coordinate, Q, were obtained to study the effect of surface temperature on dissociation of H{sub 2}O molecules. These calculations revealed that second layer atoms were also involved in the TS. Dissociation probabilities are obtained using a semi-classical approximation by sampling Q for a Boltzmann distribution at different temperatures. Results showed that the increasing surface temperature significantly increases the dissociation probabilities at lower energies and saturates near the barrier for dissociation. Although the contribution from both top and second layers is similar at low surface temperatures, motion of top layer atoms contribute more towards dissociation probability at higher surface temperatures. Dissociation probabilities obtained are more than one order of magnitude higher than that on Ni(100) and Ni(111) surfaces suggesting Ni(110) to be more reactive among the low indexed Ni surfaces.

  15. The cocoon emission - an electromagnetic counterpart to gravitational waves from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2018-01-01

    Short gamma-ray bursts are believed to arise from compact binary mergers (either neutron star-neutron star or black hole-neutron star). If so, their jets must penetrate outflows that are ejected during the merger. As a jet crosses the ejecta, it dissipates its energy, producing a hot cocoon that surrounds it. We present here 3D numerical simulations of jet propagation in mergers' outflows, and we calculate the resulting emission. This emission consists of two components: the cooling emission, the leakage of the thermal energy of the hot cocoon, and the cocoon macronova that arises from the radioactive decay of the cocoon's material. This emission gives a brief (∼1 h) blue, wide angle signal. While the parameters of the outflow and jet are uncertain, for the configurations we have considered, the signal is bright (∼-14 to -15 absolute magnitude) and outshines all other predicted ultraviolet-optical signals. The signal is brighter when the jet breakout time is longer, and its peak brightness does not depend strongly on the highly uncertain opacity. A rapid search for such a signal is a promising strategy to detect an electromagnetic merger counterpart. A detected candidate could be then followed by deep infrared searches for the longer but weaker macronova arising from the rest of the ejecta.

  16. Identifying open magnetic field regions of the Sun and their heliospheric counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista, L. D.; Reinard, A.

    2017-12-01

    Open magnetic regions on the Sun are either long-lived (coronal holes) or transient (dimmings) in nature. Both phenomena are fundamental to our understanding of the solar behavior as a whole. Coronal holes are the sources of high-speed solar wind streams that cause recurrent geomagnetic storms. Furthermore, the variation of coronal hole properties (area, location, magnetic field strength) over the solar activity cycle is an important marker of the global evolution of the solar magnetic field. Dimming regions, on the other hand, are short-lived coronal holes that often emerge in the wake of solar eruptions. By analyzing their physical properties and their temporal evolution, we aim to understand their connection with their eruptive counterparts (flares and coronal mass ejections) and predict the possibility of a geomagnetic storm. The author developed the Coronal Hole Automated Recognition and Monitoring (CHARM) and the Coronal Dimming Tracker (CoDiT) algorithms. These tools not only identify but track the evolution of open magnetic field regions. CHARM also provides daily coronal hole maps, that are used for forecasts at the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center. Our goal is to better understand the processes that give rise to eruptive and non-eruptive open field regions and investigate how these regions evolve over time and influence space weather.

  17. “The Scum of the Earth”? Foreign People Smugglers and Their Local Counterparts in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Missbach

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008, the number of asylum seekers and refugees trying to reach Australia from Indonesia by boat has increased. With many of them hailing from conflict-ridden countries such as Afghanistan, Iraq and Sri Lanka, most entered Indonesia with short-term tourist visas or fraudulent papers or no documents at all. It is widely known that a significant number of these ‘irregular’ migrants pay various types of brokers (often labelled, accurately or otherwise, ‘human smugglers’ at least at one stage – either to enter the country or to escape it. As a non-signatory to the UN Refugee Convention, Indonesia does not permit local integration. While a substantial part of these migrants are detained in the 13 immigration detention centres scattered around the archipelago, many roam freely, looking for opportunities for onward migration. Due to the restrictive border protection arrangements between Australia and Indonesia and a number of bilateral intelligence measures for deterring ‘unwanted’ migrants, human smugglers have been gradually forced to adapt strategies, routes and prices. According to much of the available data, most human smugglers are not Indonesians but foreigners who have been lingering in Indonesia for many years. This article demonstrates, moreover, that these foreigners depend upon local contacts to successfully carry out their risky business. Most often, the Indonesian counterparts are solely facilitators or handymen, but in a number of cases Indonesian authorities have also been involved in this highly lucrative business.

  18. Access and Social Capital: A Profile of Community College and Global Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind Latiner Raby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alternatives to the traditional four-year public and private university include a sector of higher education that offers a more advanced curriculum than secondary school and serves as a local and often lower-cost pathway that gives options for university overflow for adult learners, displaced workers, life-long learners, workforce learners, developmental learners, and non-traditional learners (Raby and Valeau 2009. These institutional types are known by several names including College of Further Education, Community College, Polytechnic, Technical College, and Technical and Further Education (TAFE and are found on all continents. Based on a literature review of 1,083 academic publications these institutions share a mission that views educational access as necessary for growing the economic and social capital that is needed to help students improve lives. Central to this mission is the belief that any amount of post-secondary education is life-enhancing, regardless of length of study or level of completion. This article examines application of this mission at community colleges and global counterparts throughout the world.

  19. A Search for High-Energy Counterparts to Fast Radio Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Virginia A.; Cenko, Bradley

    2018-01-01

    We report on a search for high-energy counterparts to Fast Radio Bursts (FRBs) with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), and the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT). We find no significant associations for any of the 14 FRBs in our sample, but report upper limits to the high-energy fluence for each on timescales of ∼0.1, 1, 10, and 100 s. We report lower limits on the radio to high-energy fluence, fr / fγ, for timescales of ∼0.1 and 100 s. The non-detection of high-energy emission is expected if FRBs are analogous to the giant pulses seen from the Crab pulsar, but the observed radio fluences of FRBs are orders of magnitude larger than even the most extreme giant pulses would be at the implied cosmological distances. It has also been proposed that events similar to magnetar hyperflares produce FRBs; this might be a viable model, but our fr / fγ lower limits are in tension with the fr / fγ upper limit for the 2004 superburst of SGR 1806‑20, for 6 out of the 12 FRBs that we study. This demonstrates the utility of analyses of high-energy data for FRBs in tracking down the nature of these elusive sources.

  20. X-ray counterpart candidates for six new γ-ray pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyuzin, Dmitry A.; Karpova, Anna V.; Shibanov, Yuriy A.

    2018-05-01

    Using archival X-ray data, we have found point-like X-ray counterpart candidates positionally coincident with six γ-ray pulsars discovered recently in the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope data by the Einstein@Home project. The candidates for PSRs J0002+6216, J0554+3107, J1844-0346, and J1105-6037 are detected with Swift, and those for PSRs J0359+5414 and J2017+3625 are detected with Chandra. Despite a low count statistics for some candidates, assuming plausible constraints on the absorbing column density towards the pulsars, we show that X-ray spectral properties for all of them are consistent with those observed for other pulsars. J0359+5414 is the most reliably identified object. We detect a nebula around it, whose spectrum and extent suggest that this is a pulsar wind nebula powered by the pulsar. Associations of J0002+6216 and J1844-0346 with supernova remnants CTB 1 and G28.6-0.1 are proposed.

  1. Real-time Automatic Search for Multi-wavelength Counterparts of DWF Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher; Cucchiara, Antonino; Andreoni, Igor; Cooke, Jeff; Hegarty, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    The Deeper Wider Faster (DWF) survey aims to find and classify the fastest transients in the Universe. DWF utilizes the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), collecting a continuous sequence of 20s images over a 3 square degree field of view.Once an interesting transient is detected during DWF observations, the DWF collaboration has access to several facilities for rapid follow-up in multiple wavelengths (from gamma to radio).An online web tool has been designed to help with real-time visual classification of possible astrophysical transients in data collected by the DWF observing program. The goal of this project is to create a python-based code to improve the classification process by querying several existing archive databases. Given the DWF transient location and search radius, the developed code will extract a list of possible counterparts and all available information (e.g. magnitude, radio fluxes, distance separation).Thanks to this tool, the human classifier can make a quicker decision in order to trigger the collaboration rapid-response resources.

  2. Features of Ppd-B1 expression regulation and their impact on the flowering time of wheat near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, Antonina A; Potokina, Elena K; Salina, Elena A

    2017-11-14

    Photoperiod insensitive Ppd-1a alleles determine early flowering of wheat. Increased expression of homoeologous Ppd-D1a and Ppd-A1a result from deletions in the promoter region, and elevated expression of Ppd-B1a is determined by an increased copy number. In this study, using bread wheat cultivars Sonora and PSL2, which contrast in flowering time, and near-isogenic lines resulting from their cross, "Ppd-m" and "Ppd-w" with Ppd-B1a introgressed from Sonora, we investigated the putative factors that influence Ppd-B1a expression. By analyzing the Ppd-B1a three distinct copies, we identified an indel and the two SNPs, which distinguished the investigated allele from other alleles with a copy number variation. We studied the expression of the Ppd-A1, Ppd-B1a, and Ppd-D1 genes along with genes that are involved in light perception (PhyA, PhyB, PhyC) and the flowering initiation (Vrn-1, TaFT1) and discussed their interactions. Expression of Ppd-B1a in the "Ppd-m" line, which flowered four days earlier than "Ppd-w", was significantly higher. We found PhyC to be up-regulated in lines with Ppd-B1a alleles. Expression of PhyC was higher in "Ppd-m". Microsatellite genotyping demonstrated that in the line "Ppd-m", there is an introgression in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 5B from the early flowering parental Sonora, while the "Ppd-w" does not have this introgression. FHY3/FAR1 is known to be located in this region. Expression of the transcription factor FHY3/FAR1 was higher in the "Ppd-m" line than in "Ppd-w", suggesting that FHY3/FAR1 is important for the wheat flowering time and may cause earlier flowering of "Ppd-m" as compared to "Ppd-w". We propose that there is a positive bidirectional regulation of Ppd-B1a and PhyC with an FHY3/FAR1 contribution. The bidirectional regulation can be proposed for Ppd-A1a and Ppd-D1a. Using in silico analysis, we demonstrated that the specificity of the Ppd-B1 regulation compared to that of homoeologous genes involves not only a

  3. Resistance to gray leaf spot of maize: genetic architecture and mechanisms elucidated through nested association mapping and near-isogenic line analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jacqueline M; Poland, Jesse A; Benson, Brent M; Stromberg, Erik L; Nelson, Rebecca J

    2015-03-01

    Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis and Cercospora zeina, is one of the most important diseases of maize worldwide. The pathogen has a necrotrophic lifestyle and no major genes are known for GLS. Quantitative resistance, although poorly understood, is important for GLS management. We used genetic mapping to refine understanding of the genetic architecture of GLS resistance and to develop hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying quantitative disease resistance (QDR) loci. Nested association mapping (NAM) was used to identify 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for QDR to GLS, including seven novel QTL, each of which demonstrated allelic series with significant effects above and below the magnitude of the B73 reference allele. Alleles at three QTL, qGLS1.04, qGLS2.09, and qGLS4.05, conferred disease reductions of greater than 10%. Interactions between loci were detected for three pairs of loci, including an interaction between iqGLS4.05 and qGLS7.03. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm and fine-map three of the 16 QTL, and to develop hypotheses regarding mechanisms of resistance. qGLS1.04 was fine-mapped from an interval of 27.0 Mb to two intervals of 6.5 Mb and 5.2 Mb, consistent with the hypothesis that multiple genes underlie highly significant QTL identified by NAM. qGLS2.09, which was also associated with maturity (days to anthesis) and with resistance to southern leaf blight, was narrowed to a 4-Mb interval. The distance between major leaf veins was strongly associated with resistance to GLS at qGLS4.05. NILs for qGLS1.04 were treated with the C. zeae-maydis toxin cercosporin to test the role of host-specific toxin in QDR. Cercosporin exposure increased expression of a putative flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) gene, a candidate detoxification-related gene underlying qGLS1.04. This integrated approach to confirming QTL and characterizing the potential underlying mechanisms advances the understanding of QDR and will facilitate the

  4. Resistance to gray leaf spot of maize: genetic architecture and mechanisms elucidated through nested association mapping and near-isogenic line analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Benson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gray leaf spot (GLS, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis and Cercospora zeina, is one of the most important diseases of maize worldwide. The pathogen has a necrotrophic lifestyle and no major genes are known for GLS. Quantitative resistance, although poorly understood, is important for GLS management. We used genetic mapping to refine understanding of the genetic architecture of GLS resistance and to develop hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying quantitative disease resistance (QDR loci. Nested association mapping (NAM was used to identify 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL for QDR to GLS, including seven novel QTL, each of which demonstrated allelic series with significant effects above and below the magnitude of the B73 reference allele. Alleles at three QTL, qGLS1.04, qGLS2.09, and qGLS4.05, conferred disease reductions of greater than 10%. Interactions between loci were detected for three pairs of loci, including an interaction between iqGLS4.05 and qGLS7.03. Near-isogenic lines (NILs were developed to confirm and fine-map three of the 16 QTL, and to develop hypotheses regarding mechanisms of resistance. qGLS1.04 was fine-mapped from an interval of 27.0 Mb to two intervals of 6.5 Mb and 5.2 Mb, consistent with the hypothesis that multiple genes underlie highly significant QTL identified by NAM. qGLS2.09, which was also associated with maturity (days to anthesis and with resistance to southern leaf blight, was narrowed to a 4-Mb interval. The distance between major leaf veins was strongly associated with resistance to GLS at qGLS4.05. NILs for qGLS1.04 were treated with the C. zeae-maydis toxin cercosporin to test the role of host-specific toxin in QDR. Cercosporin exposure increased expression of a putative flavin-monooxygenase (FMO gene, a candidate detoxification-related gene underlying qGLS1.04. This integrated approach to confirming QTL and characterizing the potential underlying mechanisms advances the understanding of QDR and will

  5. Comparative analysis of root transcriptome profiles of two pairs of drought-tolerant and susceptible rice near-isogenic lines under different drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moumeni Ali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant roots are important organs to uptake soil water and nutrients, perceiving and transducing of soil water deficit signals to shoot. The current knowledge of drought stress transcriptomes in rice are mostly relying on comparative studies of diverse genetic background under drought. A more reliable approach is to use near-isogenic lines (NILs with a common genetic background but contrasting levels of resistance to drought stress under initial exposure to water deficit. Here, we examined two pairs of NILs in IR64 background with contrasting drought tolerance. We obtained gene expression profile in roots of rice NILs under different levels of drought stress help to identify genes and mechanisms involved in drought stress. Results Global gene expression analysis showed that about 55% of genes differentially expressed in roots of rice in response to drought stress treatments. The number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs increased in NILs as the level of water deficits, increased from mild to severe condition, suggesting that more genes were affected by increasing drought stress. Gene onthology (GO test and biological pathway analysis indicated that activated genes in the drought tolerant NILs IR77298-14-1-2-B-10 and IR77298-5-6-B-18 were mostly involved in secondary metabolism, amino acid metabolism, response to stimulus, defence response, transcription and signal transduction, and down-regulated genes were involved in photosynthesis and cell wall growth. We also observed gibberellic acid (GA and auxin crosstalk modulating lateral root formation in the tolerant NILs. Conclusions Transcriptome analysis on two pairs of NILs with a common genetic background (~97% showed distinctive differences in gene expression profiles and could be effective to unravel genes involved in drought tolerance. In comparison with the moderately tolerant NIL IR77298-5-6-B-18 and other susceptible NILs, the tolerant NIL IR77298-14-1-2-B-10 showed

  6. Alterations in tumor necrosis factor signaling pathways are associated with cytotoxicity and resistance to taxanes: a study in isogenic resistant tumor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel are widely used in the treatment of breast, ovarian, and other cancers. Although their cytotoxicity has been attributed to cell-cycle arrest through stabilization of microtubules, the mechanisms by which tumor cells die remains unclear. Paclitaxel has been shown to induce soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha (sTNF-α) production in macrophages, but the involvement of TNF production in taxane cytotoxicity or resistance in tumor cells has not been established. Our study aimed to correlate alterations in the TNF pathway with taxane cytotoxicity and the acquisition of taxane resistance. Methods MCF-7 cells or isogenic drug-resistant variants (developed by selection for surviving cells in increasing concentrations of paclitaxel or docetaxel) were assessed for sTNF-α production in the absence or presence of taxanes by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and for sensitivity to docetaxel or sTNF-α by using a clonogenic assay (in the absence or presence of TNFR1 or TNFR2 neutralizing antibodies). Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity was also measured with ELISA, whereas gene-expression changes associated with docetaxel resistance in MCF-7 and A2780 cells were determined with microarray analysis and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTqPCR). Results MCF-7 and A2780 cells increased production of sTNF-α in the presence of taxanes, whereas docetaxel-resistant variants of MCF-7 produced high levels of sTNF-α, although only within a particular drug-concentration threshold (between 3 and 45 nM). Increased production of sTNF-α was NF-κB dependent and correlated with decreased sensitivity to sTNF-α, decreased levels of TNFR1, and increased survival through TNFR2 and NF-κB activation. The NF-κB inhibitor SN-50 reestablished sensitivity to docetaxel in docetaxel-resistant MCF-7 cells. Gene-expression analysis of wild-type and docetaxel-resistant MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and A2780 cells identified changes

  7. A Comparative Theoretical and Computational Study on Robust Counterpart Optimization: I. Robust Linear Optimization and Robust Mixed Integer Linear Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zukui; Ding, Ran; Floudas, Christodoulos A.

    2011-01-01

    Robust counterpart optimization techniques for linear optimization and mixed integer linear optimization problems are studied in this paper. Different uncertainty sets, including those studied in literature (i.e., interval set; combined interval and ellipsoidal set; combined interval and polyhedral set) and new ones (i.e., adjustable box; pure ellipsoidal; pure polyhedral; combined interval, ellipsoidal, and polyhedral set) are studied in this work and their geometric relationship is discussed. For uncertainty in the left hand side, right hand side, and objective function of the optimization problems, robust counterpart optimization formulations induced by those different uncertainty sets are derived. Numerical studies are performed to compare the solutions of the robust counterpart optimization models and applications in refinery production planning and batch process scheduling problem are presented. PMID:21935263

  8. Energetic particle counterparts for geomagnetic pulsations of Pc1 and IPDP types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Yahnina

    Full Text Available Using the low-altitude NOAA satellite particle data, we study two kinds of localised variations of energetic proton fluxes at low altitude within the anisotropic zone equatorward of the isotropy boundary. These flux variation types have a common feature, i.e. the presence of precipitating protons measured by the MEPED instrument at energies more than 30 keV, but they are distinguished by the fact of the presence or absence of the lower-energy component as measured by the TED detector on board the NOAA satellite. The localised proton precipitating without a low-energy component occurs mostly in the morning-day sector, during quiet geomagnetic conditions, without substorm injections at geosynchronous orbit, and without any signatures of plasmaspheric plasma expansion to the geosynchronous distance. This precipitation pattern closely correlates with ground-based observations of continuous narrow-band Pc1 pulsations in the frequency range 0.1–2 Hz (hereafter Pc1. The precipitation pattern containing the low energy component occurs mostly in the evening sector, under disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and in association with energetic proton injections and significant increases of cold plasma density at geosynchronous orbit. This precipitation pattern is associated with geomagnetic pulsations called Intervals of Pulsations with Diminishing Periods (IPDP, but some minor part of the events is also related to narrow-band Pc1. Both Pc1 and IPDP pulsations are believed to be the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves generated by the ion-cyclotron instability in the equatorial plane. These waves scatter energetic protons in pitch angles, so we conclude that the precipitation patterns studied here are the particle counterparts of the ion-cyclotron waves.

    Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  9. Energetic particle counterparts for geomagnetic pulsations of Pc1 and IPDP types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Yahnina

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the low-altitude NOAA satellite particle data, we study two kinds of localised variations of energetic proton fluxes at low altitude within the anisotropic zone equatorward of the isotropy boundary. These flux variation types have a common feature, i.e. the presence of precipitating protons measured by the MEPED instrument at energies more than 30 keV, but they are distinguished by the fact of the presence or absence of the lower-energy component as measured by the TED detector on board the NOAA satellite. The localised proton precipitating without a low-energy component occurs mostly in the morning-day sector, during quiet geomagnetic conditions, without substorm injections at geosynchronous orbit, and without any signatures of plasmaspheric plasma expansion to the geosynchronous distance. This precipitation pattern closely correlates with ground-based observations of continuous narrow-band Pc1 pulsations in the frequency range 0.1–2 Hz (hereafter Pc1. The precipitation pattern containing the low energy component occurs mostly in the evening sector, under disturbed geomagnetic conditions, and in association with energetic proton injections and significant increases of cold plasma density at geosynchronous orbit. This precipitation pattern is associated with geomagnetic pulsations called Intervals of Pulsations with Diminishing Periods (IPDP, but some minor part of the events is also related to narrow-band Pc1. Both Pc1 and IPDP pulsations are believed to be the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves generated by the ion-cyclotron instability in the equatorial plane. These waves scatter energetic protons in pitch angles, so we conclude that the precipitation patterns studied here are the particle counterparts of the ion-cyclotron waves.Key words. Ionosphere (particle precipitation – Magnetospheric physics (energetic particles, precipitating – Space plasma physics (wave-particle interactions

  10. Transcriptome analysis of adiposity in domestic ducks by transcriptomic comparison with their wild counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Luo, J; Li, J X; Li, J J; Wang, D Q; Tian, Y; Lu, L Z

    2015-06-01

    Excessive adiposity is a major problem in the duck industry, but its molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Genetic comparisons between domestic and wild animals have contributed to the exploration of genetic mechanisms responsible for many phenotypic traits. Significant differences in body fat mass have been detected between domestic and wild ducks. In this study, we used the Peking duck and Anas platyrhynchos as the domestic breed and wild counterpart respectively and performed a transcriptomic comparison of abdominal fat between the two breeds to comprehensively analyze the transcriptome basis of adiposity in ducks. We obtained approximately 350 million clean reads; assembled 61 250 transcripts, including 23 699 novel ones; and identified alternative 5' splice sites, alternative 3' splice sites, skipped exons and retained intron as the main alternative splicing events. A differential expression analysis between the two breeds showed that 753 genes exhibited differential expression. In Peking ducks, some lipid metabolism-related genes (IGF2, FABP5, BMP7, etc.) and oncogenes (RRM2, AURKA, CYR61, etc.) were upregulated, whereas genes related to tumor suppression and immunity (TNFRSF19, TNFAIP6, IGSF21, NCF1, etc.) were downregulated, suggesting adiposity might closely associate with tumorigenesis in ducks. Furthermore, 280 576 single-nucleotide variations were found differentiated between the two breeds, including 8641 non-synonymous ones, and some of the non-synonymous ones were found enriched in genes involved in lipid-associated and immune-associated pathways, suggesting abdominal fat of the duck undertakes both a metabolic function and immune-related function. These datasets enlarge our genetic information of ducks and provide valuable resources for analyzing mechanisms underlying adiposity in ducks. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. Independent introductions and admixtures have contributed to adaptation of European maize and its American counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Tristan Brandenburg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the local selection of landraces, humans have guided the adaptation of crops to a vast range of climatic and ecological conditions. This is particularly true of maize, which was domesticated in a restricted area of Mexico but now displays one of the broadest cultivated ranges worldwide. Here, we sequenced 67 genomes with an average sequencing depth of 18x to document routes of introduction, admixture and selective history of European maize and its American counterparts. To avoid the confounding effects of recent breeding, we targeted germplasm (lines directly derived from landraces. Among our lines, we discovered 22,294,769 SNPs and between 0.9% to 4.1% residual heterozygosity. Using a segmentation method, we identified 6,978 segments of unexpectedly high rate of heterozygosity. These segments point to genes potentially involved in inbreeding depression, and to a lesser extent to the presence of structural variants. Genetic structuring and inferences of historical splits revealed 5 genetic groups and two independent European introductions, with modest bottleneck signatures. Our results further revealed admixtures between distinct sources that have contributed to the establishment of 3 groups at intermediate latitudes in North America and Europe. We combined differentiation- and diversity-based statistics to identify both genes and gene networks displaying strong signals of selection. These include genes/gene networks involved in flowering time, drought and cold tolerance, plant defense and starch properties. Overall, our results provide novel insights into the evolutionary history of European maize and highlight a major role of admixture in environmental adaptation, paralleling recent findings in humans.

  12. Optical Counterparts for Low-Luminosity X-ray Sources in Omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Adrienne

    2002-07-01

    We propose to use narrow-band HAlpha imaging with ACS to search for the optical counterparts of low-luminosity X-ray sources {Lx 2 x 10^30 - 5 x 10^32 erg/s} in the globular cluster Omega Centauri. With 9 WFC fields, we will cover the inner two core radii of the cluster, and encompass about 90 of the faint sources we have identified with Chandra. Approximately 30-50 of these sources should be cluster members, the remainder being mostly background galaxies plus a smaller number of foreground stars. This large population of low-Lx cluster X-ray sources is second only to the more than 100 faint sources recently discovered in 47 Tuc with Chandra {Grindlay et al. 2001a}, which have been identified as a mixture of cataclysmic variables, quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries, millisecond pulsars, and coronally active main-sequence binaries. Our Cycle 6 WFPC2 program successfully identified 2 of the 3 then-known faint X-ray sources in the core of Omega Cen using H-alpha imaging. We now propose to expand the areal coverage by a factor of about 18 to encompass the much larger number of sources that have since been discovered with Chandra. The extreme crowding in the central regions of Omega Cen requires the resolution of HST to obtain optical IDs. These identifications are key to making meaningful comparisons between the populations of faint X-ray sources in different clusters, in an effort to understand their origins and role in cluster dynamics.

  13. Reversal of functional disorders by aspiration, expiration and cough reflexes and their voluntary counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan eTomori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agonal gasping provoked by asphyxia can save ~15% of mammals even from untreated ventricular fibrillation, but it fails to revive infants with sudden infant death syndrome. Our systematic study of airway reflexes in cats and other animals indicated that in addition to cough, there are 2 distinct airway reflexes that may contribute to auto-resuscitation. Gasp- and sniff-like spasmodic inspirations can be elicited by nasopharyngeal stimulation, strongly activating the brainstem generator for inspiration, which is also involved in the control of gasping. This aspiration reflex (AspR is characterized by spasmodic inspiration without subsequent active expiration and can be elicited during agonal gasping, caused by brainstem trans-sections in cats. Stimulation of the larynx can activate the generator for expiration to evoke the expiration reflex, manifesting with prompt expiration without preceding inspiration. Stimulation of the oro-pharynx and lower airways provokes the cough reflex which results from activating of both generators. The powerful potential of the AspR resembling auto-resuscitation by gasping can influence the control mechanisms of vital functions, mediating reversal of various functional disorders.The AspR in cats interrupted hypoxic apnea, laryngo- and bronchospasm, apneusis and even transient asphyxic coma, and can normalize various hypo- and hyper-functional disorders. Introduction of a nasogastric catheter evoked similar spasmodic inspirations in premature infants and interrupted hiccough attacks in adults. Coughing on demand can prevent anaphylactic shock and resuscitate the pertinent subject. Sniff representing nasal inspiratory pressure and maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures are voluntary counterparts of airway reflexes, and are useful for diagnosis and therapy of various cardio-respiratory and neuromuscular disorders.

  14. Multiband counterparts of two eclipsing ultraluminous X-ray sources in M 51

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, R.; Soria, R.; Johnston, H. M.; Pakull, M. W.; Motch, C.; Schwope, A.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Anderson, G. E.

    2018-04-01

    We present the discovery and interpretation of ionized nebulae around two ultraluminous X-ray sources in M 51; both sources share the rare property of showing X-ray eclipses by their companion stars and are therefore prime targets for follow-up studies. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope images, we found an elongated, 100-pc-long emission-line structure associated with one X-ray source (CXOM51 J132940.0+471237; ULX-1 for simplicity), and a more circular, ionized nebula at the location of the second source (CXOM51 J132939.5+471244; ULX-2 for simplicity). We observed both nebulae with the Large Binocular Telescope's Multi-Object Double Spectrograph. From our analysis of the optical spectra, we argue that the gas in the ULX-1 bubble is shock-ionized, consistent with the effect of a jet with a kinetic power of ≈2 × 1039 erg s-1. Additional X-ray photoionization may also be present, to explain the strength of high-ionization lines such as He II λ4686 and [Ne V] λ3426. On the other hand, the emission lines from the ULX-2 bubble are typical for photoionization by normal O stars suggesting that the nebula is actually an H II region not physically related to the ULX but is simply a chance alignment. From archival Very Large Array data, we also detect spatially extended, steep-spectrum radio emission at the location of the ULX-1 bubble (consistent with its jet origin), but no radio counterpart for ULX-2 (consistent with the lack of shock-ionized gas around that source).

  15. THE X-RAY COUNTERPART OF THE HIGH-B PULSAR PSR J0726–2612

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speagle, J. S.; Kaplan, D. L.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Middle-aged, cooling neutron stars are observed both as relatively rapidly spinning radio pulsars and as more slowly spinning, strongly magnetized isolated neutron stars (INSs), which stand out by their thermal X-ray spectra. The difference between the two classes may be that the INSs initially had much stronger magnetic fields, which decayed. To test this, we used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to observe 1RXS J072559.8–261229, a possible X-ray counterpart to PSR J0726–2612, which, with its 3.44 s period and 3 × 10 13 G inferred magnetic field strength, is the nearest and least extincted among the possible slowly spinning, strong-field INS progenitors (it likely is in the Gould Belt, at ∼1 kpc). We confirm the identification and find that the pulsar has a spectrum consistent with being purely thermal, with blackbody temperature kT = 87 ± 5 eV and radius R = 5.7 +2.6 –1.3 km at a distance of 1 kpc. We detect sinusoidal pulsations at twice the radio period with a semi-amplitude of 27% ± 5%. The properties of PSR J0726–2612 strongly resemble those of the INSs, except for its much shorter characteristic age of 200 kyr (instead of several Myr). We conclude that PSR J0726–2612 is indeed an example of a young INS, one that started with a magnetic field strength on the low end of those inferred for the INSs, and that, therefore, decayed by a relatively small amount. Our results suggest that the long-period, strong-field pulsars and the INSs are members of the same class, and open up new opportunities to understand the puzzling X-ray and optical emission of the INSs through radio observations of PSR J0726–2612.

  16. THE X-RAY COUNTERPART OF THE HIGH-B PULSAR PSR J0726-2612

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speagle, J. S.; Kaplan, D. L. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53211 (United States); Van Kerkwijk, M. H., E-mail: kaplan@uwm.edu, E-mail: joshuaspeagle@college.harvard.edu, E-mail: mhvk@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2011-12-20

    Middle-aged, cooling neutron stars are observed both as relatively rapidly spinning radio pulsars and as more slowly spinning, strongly magnetized isolated neutron stars (INSs), which stand out by their thermal X-ray spectra. The difference between the two classes may be that the INSs initially had much stronger magnetic fields, which decayed. To test this, we used the Chandra X-ray Observatory to observe 1RXS J072559.8-261229, a possible X-ray counterpart to PSR J0726-2612, which, with its 3.44 s period and 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} G inferred magnetic field strength, is the nearest and least extincted among the possible slowly spinning, strong-field INS progenitors (it likely is in the Gould Belt, at {approx}1 kpc). We confirm the identification and find that the pulsar has a spectrum consistent with being purely thermal, with blackbody temperature kT = 87 {+-} 5 eV and radius R = 5.7{sup +2.6}{sub -1.3} km at a distance of 1 kpc. We detect sinusoidal pulsations at twice the radio period with a semi-amplitude of 27% {+-} 5%. The properties of PSR J0726-2612 strongly resemble those of the INSs, except for its much shorter characteristic age of 200 kyr (instead of several Myr). We conclude that PSR J0726-2612 is indeed an example of a young INS, one that started with a magnetic field strength on the low end of those inferred for the INSs, and that, therefore, decayed by a relatively small amount. Our results suggest that the long-period, strong-field pulsars and the INSs are members of the same class, and open up new opportunities to understand the puzzling X-ray and optical emission of the INSs through radio observations of PSR J0726-2612.

  17. Life-cycle Analysis of Bioproducts and Their Conventional Counterparts in GREET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Adom, Felix [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sather, Norm [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Snyder, Seth [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); He, Chang [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Gong, Jian [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Yue, Dajun [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); You, Fengqi [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    To further expand upon the literature in this field and to develop a platform for bioproduct LCA, we developed LCA results for ten bioproducts produced either from algal glycerol or from corn stover-derived sugars. We used Argonne National Laboratory’s Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model as the platform for this study. The data and calculations reported herein are available to GREET users in a bioproducts module included in the fall 2015 GREET release. This report documents our approach to this analysis and the results. In Chapter 2, we review the process we underwent to select the bioproducts for analysis based on market and technology readiness criteria. In Chapter 3, we review key parameters for production of the two feedstocks we considered: corn stover and algae. Given the lack of publicly available information about the production of bioproducts, which is caused in large part by the emerging nature of the industry, we developed Aspen Plus® simulations of the processes that could be used to produce each bioproduct. From these simulations, we extracted the energy and material flows of these processes, which were important inputs to the GREET bioproducts module. Chapter 4 provides the details of these Aspen Plus simulations. It is important to compare the LCA results for bioproducts to those for their petroleum counterparts. We therefore also developed material and energy flow data for conventional products based mostly on the literature. These data are described in Chapter 5 and are also included in the GREET bioproducts module. In Chapter 6, we present results from this analysis and examine areas for refinement and future research.

  18. Search for the NIR counterpart to GRB130807A/SWIFTJ1759.2-2736 in quiescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiss, S.; Steeghs, D.; Jonker, P.G.; Maccarone, T.; Torres, M.A.P.; Heinke, C.; Wijnands, R.

    2013-01-01

    In order to search for the counterpart of the transient source SWIFTJ1759.2-2736 (Atel #5268), we investigated near-infrared (NIR) data of the Galactic Bulge region obtained as part of the VVV survey (Minniti et al. 2010, New Astronomy, Volume 15, 433). The observations took place while the source

  19. The second Herschel-ATLAS Data Release - III. Optical and near-infrared counterparts in the North Galactic Plane field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, C.; Dye, S.; Bourne, N.; Maddox, S.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S.; Valiante, E.; Smith, M. W.; Smith, D. J. B.; Ivison, R. J.; Ibar, E.

    2018-05-01

    This paper forms part of the second major public data release of the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (H-ATLAS). In this work, we describe the identification of optical and near-infrared counterparts to the submillimetre detected sources in the 177 deg2 North Galactic Plane (NGP) field. We used the likelihood ratio method to identify counterparts in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and in the United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope Imaging Deep Sky Survey within a search radius of 10 arcsec of the H-ATLAS sources with a 4σ detection at 250 μm. We obtained reliable (R ≥ 0.8) optical counterparts with r performance of the likelihood ratio method to identify optical and near-infrared counterparts taking into account the depth and area of both input catalogues. Using catalogues with the same surface density of objects in the overlapping ˜25 deg2 area, we obtained that the reliable fraction in the near-infrared (54.8 per cent) is significantly higher than in the optical (36.4 per cent). Finally, using deep radio data which covers a small region of the NGP field, we found that 80-90 per cent of our reliable identifications are correct.

  20. Aggression as a Motive for Gossip During Conflict : The Role of Power, Social Value Orientation, and Counterpart's Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, E.; Beersma, B.; ten Velden, F.S.; Dijkstra, M.T.M.

    Not much is known about the motives behind the use of gossip in conflict situations. We report a laboratory experiment that examined the influence of social value orientation, counterpart's behavior, and power on the motive to use gossip for indirect aggression in a conflict situation. Results

  1. Aggression as a motive for gossip during conflict: The role of power, social value orientation, and counterpart's behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuken, A. E.; Beersma, B.; Ten Velden, F.S.; Dijkstra, M.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Not much is known about the motives behind the use of gossip in conflict situations. We report a laboratory experiment that examined the influence of social value orientation, counterpart's behavior, and power on the motive to use gossip for indirect aggression in a conflict situation. Results

  2. THE SUB-mJy RADIO POPULATION OF THE E-CDFS: OPTICAL AND INFRARED COUNTERPART IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonzini, M.; Mainieri, V.; Padovani, P.; Rosati, P. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kellermann, K. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Miller, N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Tozzi, P.; Balestra, I. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131, Trieste (Italy); Vattakunnel, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universit di Trieste, piazzale Europa 1, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Xue, Y. Q., E-mail: mbonzini@eso.org [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2012-11-15

    We study a sample of 883 sources detected in a deep Very Large Array survey at 1.4 GHz in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South. This paper focuses on the identification of their optical and infrared (IR) counterparts. We use a likelihood-ratio technique that is particularly useful when dealing with deep optical images to minimize the number of spurious associations. We find a reliable counterpart for 95% of our radio sources. Most of the counterparts (74%) are detected at optical wavelengths, but there is a significant fraction (21%) that are only detectable in the IR. Combining newly acquired optical spectra with data from the literature, we are able to assign a redshift to 81% of the identified radio sources (37% spectroscopic). We also investigate the X-ray properties of the radio sources using the Chandra 4 Ms and 250 ks observations. In particular, we use a stacking technique to derive the average properties of radio objects undetected in the Chandra images. The results of our analysis are collected in a new catalog containing the position of the optical/IR counterpart, the redshift information, and the X-ray fluxes. It is the deepest multi-wavelength catalog of radio sources, which will be used for future study of this galaxy population.

  3. The Effect of Counterpart Material on the Sliding Wear of TiAlN Coatings Deposited by Reactive Cathodic Pulverization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michell Felipe Cano Ordoñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the effect of the counterpart materials (100Cr6, Al2O3 and WC-Co on the tribological properties of TiAlN thin films deposited on AISI H13 steel substrate by reactive magnetron co-sputtering. The structural characterization of the TiAlN films, performed by X-ray diffraction, showed (220 textured fcc crystalline structure. The values of hardness and elastic modulus obtained by nanoindentation were 27 GPa and 420 GPa, respectively, which resulted in films with a relatively high resistance to plastic deformation. Ball-on-disk sliding tests were performed using normal loads of 1 N and 3 N, and 0.10 m/s of tangential velocity. The wear coefficient of the films was determined by measuring the worn area using profilometry every 1000 cycles. The mechanical properties and the chemical stability of the counterpart material, debris formation and the contact stress influences the friction and the wear behavior of the studied tribosystems. Increasing the hardness of the counterpart decreases the coefficient of friction (COF due to lower counterpart material transference and tribofilm formation, which is able to support the contact pressure. High shear stress concentration at the coating/substrate interface was reported for higher load promoting failure of the film-substrate system for all tribopairs

  4. Post-test analysis of the ROSA/LSTF and PKL counterpart test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos, S., E-mail: scarlos@iqn.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); Querol, A., E-mail: anquevi@iqn.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); Instituto de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València (Spain); Gallardo, S., E-mail: sergalbe@iqn.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); Instituto de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofísica y Medioambiental, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València (Spain); Sanchez-Saez, F., E-mail: frasansa@etsii.upv.es [Departament d’Enginyeria Química i Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camí de Vera, 14, València Spain (Spain); and others

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • TRACE modelization for PKL and ROSA/LSTF installations. • Secondary-side depressurization as accident management action. • CET vs PCT relation. • Analysis of differences in the vessel models. - Abstract: Experimental facilities are scaled models of commercial nuclear power plants, and are of great importance to improve nuclear power plants safety. Thus, the results obtained in the experiments undertaken in such facilities are essential to develop and improve the models implemented in the thermal-hydraulic codes, which are used in safety analysis. The experiments and inter-comparisons of the simulated results are usually performed in the frame of international programmes in which different groups of several countries simulate the behaviour of the plant under the accidental conditions established, using different codes and models. The results obtained are compared and studied to improve the knowledge on codes performance and nuclear safety. Thus, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), in the nuclear safety work area, auspices several programmes which involve experiments in different experimental facilities. Among the experiments proposed in NEA programmes, one on them consisted of performing a counterpart test between ROSA/LSTF and PKL facilities, with the main objective of determining the effectiveness of late accident management actions in a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). This study was proposed as a result of the conclusion obtained by the NEA Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents, which analyzed different installations and observed differences in the measurements of core exit temperature (CET) and maximum peak cladding temperature (PCT). In particular, the transient consists of a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) in a hot leg with additional failure of safety systems but with accident management measures (AM), consisting of a fast secondary-side depressurization, activated by the CET. The paper

  5. Post-test analysis of the ROSA/LSTF and PKL counterpart test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, S.; Querol, A.; Gallardo, S.; Sanchez-Saez, F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TRACE modelization for PKL and ROSA/LSTF installations. • Secondary-side depressurization as accident management action. • CET vs PCT relation. • Analysis of differences in the vessel models. - Abstract: Experimental facilities are scaled models of commercial nuclear power plants, and are of great importance to improve nuclear power plants safety. Thus, the results obtained in the experiments undertaken in such facilities are essential to develop and improve the models implemented in the thermal-hydraulic codes, which are used in safety analysis. The experiments and inter-comparisons of the simulated results are usually performed in the frame of international programmes in which different groups of several countries simulate the behaviour of the plant under the accidental conditions established, using different codes and models. The results obtained are compared and studied to improve the knowledge on codes performance and nuclear safety. Thus, the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), in the nuclear safety work area, auspices several programmes which involve experiments in different experimental facilities. Among the experiments proposed in NEA programmes, one on them consisted of performing a counterpart test between ROSA/LSTF and PKL facilities, with the main objective of determining the effectiveness of late accident management actions in a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). This study was proposed as a result of the conclusion obtained by the NEA Working Group on the Analysis and Management of Accidents, which analyzed different installations and observed differences in the measurements of core exit temperature (CET) and maximum peak cladding temperature (PCT). In particular, the transient consists of a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) in a hot leg with additional failure of safety systems but with accident management measures (AM), consisting of a fast secondary-side depressurization, activated by the CET. The paper

  6. THE SCUBA-2 COSMOLOGY LEGACY SURVEY: MULTIWAVELENGTH COUNTERPARTS TO 10{sup 3} SUBMILLIMETER GALAXIES IN THE UKIDSS-UDS FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chian-Chou; Smail, Ian; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Simpson, James M.; Swinbank, A. Mark [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Ivison, Rob J.; Arumugam, Vinodiran; Mortlock, Alice; Dunlop, James S.; Michałowski, Michał J. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Almaini, Omar; Conselice, Christopher J.; Hartley, Will G. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Geach, James E. [Center for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Simpson, Chris [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Aretxaga, Itziar [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Luis Enrique Erro 1, Sta. Ma. Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Blain, Andrew [Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chapman, Scott C. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 6310 Coburg Road, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2 (Canada); Farrah, Duncan [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); and others

    2016-04-01

    We present multiwavelength identifications for the counterparts of 1088 submillimeter sources detected at 850 μm in the SCUBA-2 Cosmology Legacy Survey study of the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey-Ultra-Deep Survey (UDS) field. By utilizing an Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) pilot study on a subset of our bright SCUBA-2 sample as a training set, along with the deep optical–near-infrared (OIR) data available in this field, we develop a novel technique, Optical–IR Triple Color (OIRTC), using z − K, K − [3.6], [3.6] − [4.5] colors to select the candidate submillimeter galaxy (SMG) counterparts. By combining radio identification and the OIRTC technique, we find counterpart candidates for 80% of the Class = 1 ≥ 4σ SCUBA-2 sample, defined as those that are covered by both radio and OIR imaging and the base sample for our scientific analyses. Based on the ALMA training set, we expect the accuracy of these identifications to be 82% ± 20%, with a completeness of 69% ± 16%, essentially as accurate as the traditional p-value technique but with higher completeness. We find that the fraction of SCUBA-2 sources having candidate counterparts is lower for fainter 850 μm sources, and we argue that for follow-up observations sensitive to SMGs with S{sub 850} ≳ 1 mJy across the whole ALMA beam, the fraction with multiple counterparts is likely to be >40% for SCUBA-2 sources at S{sub 850} ≳ 4 mJy. We find that the photometric redshift distribution for the SMGs is well fit by a lognormal distribution, with a median redshift of z = 2.3 ± 0.1. After accounting for the sources without any radio and/or OIRTC counterpart, we estimate the median redshift to be z = 2.6 ± 0.1 for SMGs with S{sub 850} > 1 mJy. We also use this new large sample to study the clustering of SMGs and the far-infrared properties of the unidentified submillimeter sources by stacking their Herschel SPIRE far-infrared emission.

  7. Comparison of Physical Fitness Parameters with EUROFIT Test Battery of Male Adolescent Soccer Players and Sedentary Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ERİKOĞLU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness parameters of male adolescent soccer players and sedentary counterparts. A total of 26 male adolescents participated in this study voluntarily: Active soccer players (n: 3, age x : 13,00 ± 0,00 and sedentary counterparts (n: 13, age x :12,92 ± 0,75. The EUROFIT test battery was used to determine physical fitness. The test battery includes body height and weight measurements, touching the discs, flamingo balan ce, throwing health ball, vertical jumping, sit and reach, sit - up for 30 s, 20 meter sprint run, and 20 meter shuttle run tests. Data were analyzed by Mann Whitney U test. Significance was defined as p.05. In conclusion, children who do sports are more successful on most of the fitness parameters than sedentary children.

  8. THE NATURE OF THE BRIGHT ULX X-2 IN NGC 3921: A CHANDRA POSITION AND HST CANDIDATE COUNTERPART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonker, P. G.; Heida, M.; Torres, M. A. P.; Ratti, E. M. [SRON, Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Miller-Jones, J. C. A. [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Fabian, A. C.; Walton, D. J. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Miniutti, G. [Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), Departamento de Astrofisica, ESA, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain); Roberts, T. P., E-mail: p.jonker@sron.nl [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-10

    We report on Chandra observations of the bright ultraluminous X-ray (ULX) source in NGC 3921. Previous XMM-Newton observations reported in the literature show the presence of a bright ULX at a 0.5-10 keV luminosity of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}. Our Chandra observation finds the source at a lower luminosity of Almost-Equal-To 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}; furthermore, we provide a Chandra position of the ULX accurate to 0.''7 at 90% confidence. The X-ray variability makes it unlikely that the high luminosity is caused by several separate X-ray sources. In three epochs of archival Hubble Space Telescope observations, we find a candidate counterpart to the ULX. There is direct evidence for variability between the two epochs of WFPC2 F814W observations with the observation obtained in 2000 showing a brighter source. Furthermore, converting the 1994 F336W and 2000 F300W WFPC2 and the 2010 F336W WFC3 observations to the Johnson U-band filter assuming a spectral type of O7I, we find evidence for a brightening of the U-band light in 2000. Using the higher resolution WFC3 observations, we resolve the candidate counterpart into two sources of similar color. We discuss the nature of the ULX and the probable association with the optical counterpart(s). Finally, we investigate a potential new explanation for some (bright) ULXs as the decaying stages of flares caused by the tidal disruption of a star by a recoiled supermassive black hole. However, we find that there should be at most only one of such systems within z = 0.08.

  9. Search for high confidence AGN candidates and its counterparts in the Fermi-LAT unassociated sample using machine learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einecke, Sabrina [Technical University Dortmund (Germany); Doert, Marlene [Ruhr-University Bochum (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The third Fermi-LAT source catalog (3FGL) is the deepest all-sky survey in gamma-rays and comprises 3033 point sources. While for 2023 sources plausible associations have been found, 1010 remain unassociated. A search for active galactic nuclei (AGN) will help to reduce the number of unassociated sources, and will increase our knowledge of the population of gamma-ray emitting AGN. Several machine learning approaches applied to Fermi data have shown the capability of this method. The extension to multiwavelength data improves these studies, and at the same time offers the possibility to determine the most likely corresponding counterpart. As the 95% confidence region of the localization by the Fermi measurement is in the order of several arcminutes, generally multiple point sources at different wavelengths are located within this region and the association is ambiguous. To figure out the most likely counterpart, the associated sample is used to train machine learning classifiers as e.g. the random forest. Therefore, all possible combinations of the Fermi measurement and the measurements at a second wavelength are considered for a particular source. In this talk, the statistical model to obtain high confidence AGN counterpart candidates is described as well as the validation of the model to estimate the performance.

  10. Health and functional status and utilization of health care services among holocaust survivors and their counterparts in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iecovich, Esther; Carmel, Sara

    2010-01-01

    To examine differences in health and functional status and in utilization of health services between holocaust survivors and their counterparts; and (b) to investigate if holocaust survivor status is a significant predictor of health status, functional status, and utilization of health services. The study included 1255 respondents of whom 272 were holocaust survivors. Interviews were conducted face-to-face at the respondents' homes. Participants were asked about their health (self-rated health and comorbidity) and functional (ADL and IADL) status, utilization of inpatient and outpatient health care services, age, gender, education, marital status, length of residence in Israel, and if they were holocaust survivors. Holocaust survivors, who were frailer and more chronically ill compared to their counterparts, visited their family physician and the nurse at the health care clinic more often than their counterparts did, and received more homecare services. Yet, there were no differences between them in the utilization of other health care services such as visits to specialists, emergency department, and hospitalizations. Holocaust survivors are more homebound due to more morbidity and functional limitations and therefore receive more health home care services that offset the utilization of other health services. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Generation of an isogenic, gene-corrected iPSC line from a symptomatic 59-year-old female patient with frontotemporal dementia caused by an R406W mutation in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimsanor, Natakarn; Poulsen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Mikkel A.

    2016-01-01

    pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise to model FTDP-17 as such cells can be differentiated in vitro to the required cell type. Furthermore, gene-editing approaches allow generating isogenic gene-corrected controls that can be used as a very specific control. Here, we report the generation......Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17q21.2 (FTDP-17) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder. Mutations in the MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau) gene can cause FTDP-17, but the underlying pathomechanisms of the disease are still unknown. Induced...... of genetically corrected iPSCs from a 59-year-old female FTD-17 patient carrying an R406W mutation in the MAPT-gene....

  12. Generation of an isogenic, gene-corrected iPSC line from a symptomatic 57-year-old female patient with frontotemporal dementia caused by a P301L mutation in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimsanor, Natakarn; Kitiyanant, Narisorn; Poulsen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise to model FTDP-17 as such cells can be differentiated in vitro to the required cell type. Furthermore, gene-editing approaches allow generating isogenic gene-corrected controls that can be used as a very specific control. Here, we report the generation......Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17q21.2 (FTDP-17) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder. Mutations in the MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau)-gene can cause FTDP-17, but the underlying pathomechanisms of the disease are still unknown. Induced...... of genetically corrected iPSCs from a 57-year-old female FTD-17 patient carrying an P301L mutation in the MAPT-gene....

  13. Generation of an isogenic, gene-corrected iPSC line from a pre-symptomatic 28-year-old woman with an R406W mutation in the microtubule associated protein tau (MAPT) gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimsanor, Natakarn; Poulsen, Ulla; Rasmussen, Mikkel A.

    2016-01-01

    pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise to model FTDP-17 as such cells can be differentiated in vitro to the required cell type. Furthermore, gene-editing approaches allow generating isogenic gene-corrected controls that can be used as a very specific control. Here, we report the generation......Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17q21.2 (FTDP-17) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder. Mutations in the MAPT (microtubule-associated protein tau) gene can cause FTDP-17, but the underlying pathomechanisms of the disease are still unknown. Induced...... of genetically corrected iPSCs from a pre-symptomatic carrier of the R406W mutation in the MAPT-gene....

  14. QUEST FOR COSMOS SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY COUNTERPARTS USING CARMA AND VLA: IDENTIFYING THREE HIGH-REDSHIFT STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolčić, V.; Navarrete, F.; Bertoldi, F.; Aravena, M.; Sheth, K.; Ilbert, O.; Yun, M. S.; Salvato, M.; Finoguenov, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Diener, C.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D.; Wilson, G.; Riechers, D. A.; Capak, P.; Scoville, N. Z.; Karim, A.; Schinnerer, E.

    2012-01-01

    We report on interferometric observations at 1.3 mm at 2''-3'' resolution using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We identify multi-wavelength counterparts of three submillimeter galaxies (SMGs; F 1m > 5.5 mJy) in the COSMOS field, initially detected with MAMBO and AzTEC bolometers at low, ∼10''-30'', resolution. All three sources—AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8—are identified to coincide with positions of 20 cm radio sources. Cosbo-3, however, is not associated with the most likely radio counterpart, closest to the MAMBO source position, but with that farther away from it. This illustrates the need for intermediate-resolution (∼2'') mm-observations to identify the correct counterparts of single-dish-detected SMGs. All of our three sources become prominent only at NIR wavelengths, and their mm-to-radio flux based redshifts suggest that they lie at redshifts z ∼> 2. As a proof of concept, we show that photometric redshifts can be well determined for SMGs, and we find photometric redshifts of 5.6 ± 1.2, 1.9 +0.9 –0.5 , and ∼4 for AzTEC/C1, Cosbo-3, and Cosbo-8, respectively. Using these we infer that these galaxies have radio-based star formation rates of ∼> 1000 M ☉ yr –1 and IR luminosities of ∼10 13 L ☉ consistent with properties of high-redshift SMGs. In summary, our sources reflect a variety of SMG properties in terms of redshift and clustering, consistent with the framework that SMGs are progenitors of z ∼ 2 and today's passive galaxies.

  15. An Enhanced Method for Scheduling Observations of Large Sky Error Regions for Finding Optical Counterparts to Transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Javed; Singhal, Akshat; Gadre, Bhooshan; Bhalerao, Varun; Bose, Sukanta, E-mail: javed@iucaa.in [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2017-04-01

    The discovery and subsequent study of optical counterparts to transient sources is crucial for their complete astrophysical understanding. Various gamma-ray burst (GRB) detectors, and more notably the ground-based gravitational wave detectors, typically have large uncertainties in the sky positions of detected sources. Searching these large sky regions spanning hundreds of square degrees is a formidable challenge for most ground-based optical telescopes, which can usually image less than tens of square degrees of the sky in a single night. We present algorithms for better scheduling of such follow-up observations in order to maximize the probability of imaging the optical counterpart, based on the all-sky probability distribution of the source position. We incorporate realistic observing constraints such as the diurnal cycle, telescope pointing limitations, available observing time, and the rising/setting of the target at the observatory’s location. We use simulations to demonstrate that our proposed algorithms outperform the default greedy observing schedule used by many observatories. Our algorithms are applicable for follow-up of other transient sources with large positional uncertainties, such as Fermi -detected GRBs, and can easily be adapted for scheduling radio or space-based X-ray follow-up.

  16. Differential production of proteolytic enzymes by normal human fibroblasts and their counterparts transformed by treatment with 60Co gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishitani, Koji; Namba, Masayoshi; Ohkubo, Shigeki; Kimoto, Tetsuo

    1985-01-01

    Production of proteolytic enzymes by human fibroblasts in the process of transformation was investigated. The cells used were normal human fibroblasts (KSM-6) and their in vitro counterparts transformed by treatment with 60 Co gamma rays (KMST-6). Cells seeded by treatment with EDTA were cultured in a serum free medium. Proteolytic enzymes in the culture medium of cells were assayed using a synthetic substrate, N-α-(p-tosyl)-L-arginine ( 3 H) methyl ester hydrochloride. The transformed cells (KMST-6) produced a larger amount of enzymes than normal cells (KMS-6). The enzyme production in both cell lines was high in the exponential growth stage and then decreased as the cells reached confluency. The proteolytic enzymes produced by these cells were trypsin- and thrombin-like enzymes. Cell growth of KMST-6 or KMS-6 was not inhibited by the addition of protease inhibitors to the culture medium. (author)

  17. Distribution of apparent activation energy counterparts during thermo - And thermo-oxidative degradation of Aronia melanocarpa (black chokeberry).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, Bojan; Marinović-Cincović, Milena; Janković, Marija

    2017-09-01

    Kinetics of degradation for Aronia melanocarpa fresh fruits in argon and air atmospheres were investigated. The investigation was based on probability distributions of apparent activation energy of counterparts (ε a ). Isoconversional analysis results indicated that the degradation process in an inert atmosphere was governed by decomposition reactions of esterified compounds. Also, based on same kinetics approach, it was assumed that in an air atmosphere, the primary compound in degradation pathways could be anthocyanins, which undergo rapid chemical reactions. A new model of reactivity demonstrated that, under inert atmospheres, expectation values for ε a occured at levels of statistical probability. These values corresponded to decomposition processes in which polyphenolic compounds might be involved. ε a values obeyed laws of binomial distribution. It was established that, for thermo-oxidative degradation, Poisson distribution represented a very successful approximation for ε a values where there was additional mechanistic complexity and the binomial distribution was no longer valid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative study of He bubble formation in nanostructured reduced activation steel and its coarsen-grained counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. B.; Zhang, J. H.; Ji, Y. Z.; Xia, L. D.; Liu, H. P.; Yun, D.; He, C. H.; Zhang, C.; Yang, Z. G.

    2018-03-01

    High temperature (550 °C) He ions irradiation was performed on nanostructured (NS) and coarsen-grained (CG) reduced activation steel to investigate the effects of GBs/interfaces on the formation of bubbles during irradiation. Experimental results showed that He bubbles were preferentially trapped at dislocations and/or grain boundaries (GBs) for both of the samples. Void denuded zones (VDZs) were observed in the CG samples, while VDZs near GBs were unobvious in NS sample. However, both the average bubble size and the bubble density in peak damage region of the CG sample were significantly larger than that observed in the NS sample, which indicated that GBs play an important role during the irradiation, and the NS steel had better irradiation resistance than its CG counterpart.

  19. RODOS - The domestic counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamanu, Dan V.

    1999-01-01

    One term of reference for validly teaming up with Project RODOS (Real-Time-On-Line Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergencies in Europe) is to institutionally - contribute research initiatives geared towards emulating the RODOS functions on novel conceptual pathways, expand system's coverage of issues that are relevant in a nuclear crisis management and bring in a domestic perspective on how the system may best perform in each and every national - i.e. legal, managerial, logistic and cultural environment. On this line, one reviews the approach taken in the IFIN-HH RODOS Group to address the challenge, as well a number of representative outputs. These include: i) A phase-one, pre-RODOS, period (1990 - 1994), involving topical field orientation, feasibility demonstrations and expertise acquisition by hands-on training in environmental radiology modeling and DSS code development, the resulting products - codes in the 'APUD' and 'ACA-IFA' family, including custom versions developed by appointment of the IAEA Safety Section and AECL-Research, Ontario, Canada - being favourably reviewed by the NEA/OECD Data Bank; ii) A phase-two, upgrading and consolidation period (1994 -1996), assisted by the IAEA fellowship system and the US Government via the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Washington, D.C, having on record an effective participation in the development of the US NRC, EPA, and DOE's 'FRMAC Assessment Manual - The Federal manual for Assessing Environmental Data during a Radiological Emergency', and the 'RTM-95 International Technical Response Manual', and the research initiative of developing a software support for the manuals' implementation - the codes 'ROBOT' (Rule-Oriented Basic Operational Tool); iii) A phase-three period (1996 - ), evolving within the RODOS framework and featuring, inter alia: (a) the application of the ROBOT concept in the development of a standalone software platform, code-named NOTEPAD for DSS support in field operations, nuclear accident drills, expert service provision on issues such as siting and health and environmental impact assessment, mainly targeting the accident source near-field; (b) a likewise experiment in the summary assessment of the far-field consequences of an atmospheric release ('QuickFIX'); (c) a research initiative in modeling the dispersion in complex topography terrains, using linearized equations of the mesoscale meteorology and heuristic concepts; (d) the development, by appointment of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH-Zurich and under the joint guidance of Institut de protection et de surete nucleaire CEA-IPSN and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, of the technical specifications and working - prototypes of the 'CONTAINMENT' module in the software package 'STEPS' (Source Term Estimation based on Plant Status). (author)

  20. Biological characteristics and clinical outcome of triple negative primary breast cancer in older women - comparison with their younger counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binafsha M Syed

    Full Text Available Triple negative (ER, PgR and HER2 negative breast cancers (TNBCs are often considered as a poor prognostic phenotype. There is dearth of evidence showing the prevalence and biological behaviour of TNBCs in older women. This study aimed to analyse their biological characteristics in comparison with a well characterised younger series from a single centre with long term clinical follow-up. Over 37 years (1973-2010, 1,758 older (≥70 years women with early operable (<5 cm primary breast cancer were managed in a dedicated clinic and have complete clinical information available. Of these 813 patients underwent primary surgery and 575 had good quality tumour samples available for tissue microarray analysis using indirect immunohistochemistry. A total of 127 patients (22.1% had TNBCs and full biological analysis of 15 biomarkers was performed. The results were compared with those of their younger (<70 years counterparts 342 (18.9% from a previously characterised, consecutive series of primary breast cancer treated in the same unit (1986-1998. The 127 older patients with TNBCs showed lower rates of Ki67 and CK 7/8 positivity and high rates of bcl2 and CK18 positivity when compared with their younger counterparts (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the long term clinical outcome between the two age groups, despite the fact that 47% of the younger patients had adjuvant chemotherapy, while none in the older cohort received such treatment. EGFR, axillary stage and pathological size showed prognostic significance in older women with TNBCs on univariate analysis. Despite not having received adjuvant chemotherapy, the older series had clinical outcome similar to the younger patients almost half of whom had chemotherapy. This appears to be related to other biomarkers (in addition to ER/PgR/HER2 eg Ki67, bcl2 and cytokeratins which have different expression patterns influencing prognosis.

  1. The Discovery of the Electromagnetic Counterpart of GW170817: Kilonova AT 2017gfo/DLT17ck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenti, Stefano; Yang, Sheng; Tartaglia, Leonardo; Sand, David J.; Cappellaro, Enrico; Corsi, Alessandra; Jha, Saurabh W.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Haislip, Joshua; Kouprianov, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    During the second observing run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo Interferometer, a gravitational-wave signal consistent with a binary neutron star coalescence was detected on 2017 August 17th (GW170817), quickly followed by a coincident short gamma-ray burst trigger detected by the Fermi satellite. The Distance Less Than 40 (DLT40) Mpc supernova search performed pointed follow-up observations of a sample of galaxies regularly monitored by the survey that fell within the combined LIGO+Virgo localization region and the larger Fermi gamma-ray burst error box. Here we report the discovery of a new optical transient (DLT17ck, also known as SSS17a; it has also been registered as AT 2017gfo) spatially and temporally coincident with GW170817. The photometric and spectroscopic evolution of DLT17ck is unique, with an absolute peak magnitude of M _r = −15.8 ± 0.1 and an r -band decline rate of 1.1 mag day"−"1. This fast evolution is generically consistent with kilonova models, which have been predicted as the optical counterpart to binary neutron star coalescences. Analysis of archival DLT40 data does not show any sign of transient activity at the location of DLT17ck down to r ∼ 19 mag in the time period between 8 months and 21 days prior to GW170817. This discovery represents the beginning of a new era for multi-messenger astronomy, opening a new path by which to study and understand binary neutron star coalescences, short gamma-ray bursts, and their optical counterparts.

  2. Bimodal Long-lasting Components in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts: Promising Electromagnetic Counterparts to Neutron Star Binary Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisaka, Shota; Sakamoto, Takanori [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5258 (Japan); Ioka, Kunihito, E-mail: kisaka@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: tsakamoto@phys.aoyama.ac.jp, E-mail: kunihito.ioka@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Center for Gravitational Physics, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2017-09-10

    Long-lasting emission of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is crucial to reveal the physical origin of the central engine as well as to detect electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star binary mergers. We investigate 65 X-ray light curves of short GRBs, which is six times more than previous studies, by combining both Swift /BAT and XRT data. The light curves are found to consist of two distinct components at >5 σ with bimodal distributions of luminosity and duration, i.e., extended (with a timescale of ≲10{sup 3} s) and plateau emission (with a timescale of ≳10{sup 3} s), which are likely the central engine activities, but not afterglows. The extended emission has an isotropic energy comparable to the prompt emission, while the plateau emission has ∼0.01–1 times this energy. Half (50%) of our sample has both components, while the other half is consistent with having both components. This leads us to conjecture that almost all short GRBs have both the extended and plateau emission. The long-lasting emission can be explained by the jets from black holes with fallback ejecta, and could power macronovae (or kilonovae) like GRB 130603B and GRB 160821B. Based on the observed properties, we quantify the detectability of EM counterparts to GWs, including the plateau emission scattered to the off-axis angle, with CALET /HXM, INTEGRAL /SPI-ACS, Fermi /GBM, MAXI /GSC, Swift /BAT, XRT, the future ISS-Lobster /WFI, Einstein Probe /WXT, and eROSITA .

  3. The Discovery of the Electromagnetic Counterpart of GW170817: Kilonova AT 2017gfo/DLT17ck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenti, Stefano; Yang, Sheng; Tartaglia, Leonardo [Department of Physics, University of California, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616-5270 (United States); Sand, David J. [Department of Astronomy/Steward Observatory, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Room N204, Tucson, AZ 85721-0065 (United States); Cappellaro, Enrico [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Corsi, Alessandra [Physics and Astronomy Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Reichart, Daniel E.; Haislip, Joshua; Kouprianov, Vladimir [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    During the second observing run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) and Virgo Interferometer, a gravitational-wave signal consistent with a binary neutron star coalescence was detected on 2017 August 17th (GW170817), quickly followed by a coincident short gamma-ray burst trigger detected by the Fermi satellite. The Distance Less Than 40 (DLT40) Mpc supernova search performed pointed follow-up observations of a sample of galaxies regularly monitored by the survey that fell within the combined LIGO+Virgo localization region and the larger Fermi gamma-ray burst error box. Here we report the discovery of a new optical transient (DLT17ck, also known as SSS17a; it has also been registered as AT 2017gfo) spatially and temporally coincident with GW170817. The photometric and spectroscopic evolution of DLT17ck is unique, with an absolute peak magnitude of M {sub r} = −15.8 ± 0.1 and an r -band decline rate of 1.1 mag day{sup −1}. This fast evolution is generically consistent with kilonova models, which have been predicted as the optical counterpart to binary neutron star coalescences. Analysis of archival DLT40 data does not show any sign of transient activity at the location of DLT17ck down to r ∼ 19 mag in the time period between 8 months and 21 days prior to GW170817. This discovery represents the beginning of a new era for multi-messenger astronomy, opening a new path by which to study and understand binary neutron star coalescences, short gamma-ray bursts, and their optical counterparts.

  4. Nuclear counterparts of the cytoplasmic mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene: a problem of ancient DNA and molecular phylogenies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kuyl, A C; Kuiken, C L; Dekker, J T; Perizonius, W R; Goudsmit, J

    1995-06-01

    Monkey mummy bones and teeth originating from the North Saqqara Baboon Galleries (Egypt), soft tissue from a mummified baboon in a museum collection, and nineteenth/twentieth-century skin fragments from mangabeys were used for DNA extraction and PCR amplification of part of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Sequences aligning with the 12S rRNA gene were recovered but were only distantly related to contemporary monkey mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences. However, many of these sequences were identical or closely related to human nuclear DNA sequences resembling mitochondrial 12S rRNA (isolated from a cell line depleted in mitochondria) and therefore have to be considered contamination. Subsequently in a separate study we were able to recover genuine mitochondrial 12S rRNA sequences from many extant species of nonhuman Old World primates and sequences closely resembling the human nuclear integrations. Analysis of all sequences by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method indicated that mitochondrial DNA sequences and their nuclear counterparts can be divided into two distinct clusters. One cluster contained all temporary cytoplasmic mitochondrial DNA sequences and approximately half of the monkey nuclear mitochondriallike sequences. A second cluster contained most human nuclear sequences and the other half of monkey nuclear sequences with a separate branch leading to human and gorilla mitochondrial and nuclear sequences. Sequences recovered from ancient materials were equally divided between the two clusters. These results constitute a warning for when working with ancient DNA or performing phylogenetic analysis using mitochondrial DNA as a target sequence: Nuclear counterparts of mitochondrial genes may lead to faulty interpretation of results.

  5. A proportion of mutations fixed in the genomes of in vitro selected isogenic drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants can be detected as minority variants in the parent culture

    KAUST Repository

    Bergval, Indra; Coll, Francesc; Schuitema, Anja; de Ronde, Hans; Mallard, Kim; Pain, Arnab; McNerney, Ruth; Clark, Taane G.; Anthony, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    We studied genomic variation in a previously selected collection of isogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis laboratory strains subjected to one or two rounds of antibiotic selection. Whole genome sequencing analysis identified eleven single, unique mutations (four synonymous, six non-synonymous, one intergenic), in addition to drug resistance-conferring mutations, that were fixed in the genomes of six monoresistant strains. Eight loci, present as minority variants (five non-synonymous, three synonymous) in the genome of the susceptible parent strain, became fixed in the genomes of multiple daughter strains. None of these mutations are known to be involved with drug resistance. Our results confirm previously observed genomic stability for M. tuberculosis, although the parent strain had accumulated allelic variants at multiple locations in an antibiotic-free in vitro environment. It is therefore likely to assume that these so-called hitchhiking mutations were co-selected and fixed in multiple daughter strains during antibiotic selection. The presence of multiple allelic variations, accumulated under non-selective conditions, which become fixed during subsequent selective steps, deserves attention. The wider availability of 'deep' sequencing methods could help to detect multiple bacterial (sub)populations within patients with high resolution and would therefore be useful in assisting in the detailed investigation of transmission chains.

  6. A proportion of mutations fixed in the genomes of in vitro selected isogenic drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants can be detected as minority variants in the parent culture

    KAUST Repository

    Bergval, Indra

    2015-01-09

    We studied genomic variation in a previously selected collection of isogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis laboratory strains subjected to one or two rounds of antibiotic selection. Whole genome sequencing analysis identified eleven single, unique mutations (four synonymous, six non-synonymous, one intergenic), in addition to drug resistance-conferring mutations, that were fixed in the genomes of six monoresistant strains. Eight loci, present as minority variants (five non-synonymous, three synonymous) in the genome of the susceptible parent strain, became fixed in the genomes of multiple daughter strains. None of these mutations are known to be involved with drug resistance. Our results confirm previously observed genomic stability for M. tuberculosis, although the parent strain had accumulated allelic variants at multiple locations in an antibiotic-free in vitro environment. It is therefore likely to assume that these so-called hitchhiking mutations were co-selected and fixed in multiple daughter strains during antibiotic selection. The presence of multiple allelic variations, accumulated under non-selective conditions, which become fixed during subsequent selective steps, deserves attention. The wider availability of \\'deep\\' sequencing methods could help to detect multiple bacterial (sub)populations within patients with high resolution and would therefore be useful in assisting in the detailed investigation of transmission chains.

  7. NEW OPTICAL/ULTRAVIOLET COUNTERPARTS AND THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF NEARBY, THERMALLY EMITTING, ISOLATED NEUTRON STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D. L.; Kamble, A.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Ho, W. C. G.

    2011-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope optical and ultraviolet photometry for five nearby, thermally emitting neutron stars. With these measurements, all seven such objects have confirmed optical and ultraviolet counterparts. Combining our data with archival space-based photometry, we present spectral energy distributions for all sources and measure the 'optical excess': the factor by which the measured photometry exceeds that extrapolated from X-ray spectra. We find that the majority have optical and ultraviolet fluxes that are inconsistent with that expected from thermal (Rayleigh-Jeans) emission, exhibiting more flux at longer wavelengths. We also find that most objects have optical excesses between 5 and 12, but that one object (RX J2143.0+0654) exceeds the X-ray extrapolation by a factor of more than 50 at 5000 A, and that this is robust to uncertainties in the X-ray spectra and absorption. We consider explanations for this ranging from atmospheric effects, magnetospheric emission, and resonant scattering, but find that none is satisfactory.

  8. TOWARD UNDERSTANDING THE B[e] PHENOMENON. III. PROPERTIES OF THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART OF IRAS 00470+6429

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshnichenko, A. S.; Chentsov, E. L.; Klochkova, V. G.; Zharikov, S. V.; Grankin, K. N.; Kusakin, A. V.; Gandet, T. L.; Klingenberg, G.; Kildahl, S.; Rudy, R. J.; Lynch, D. K.; Venturini, C. C.; Mazuk, S.; Puetter, R. C.; Perry, R. B.; Carciofi, A. C.; Bjorkman, K. S.; Gray, R. O.; Bernabei, S.; Polcaro, V. F.

    2009-01-01

    FS CMa type stars are a group of Galactic objects with the B[e] phenomenon. They exhibit strong emission-line spectra and infrared excesses, which are most likely due to recently formed circumstellar dust. The group content and identification criteria were described in the first two papers of the series. In this paper we report our spectroscopic and photometric observations of the optical counterpart of IRAS 00470+6429 obtained in 2003-2008. The optical spectrum is dominated by emission lines, most of which have P Cyg type profiles. We detected significant brightness variations, which may include a regular component, and variable spectral line profiles in both shape and position. The presence of a weak Li I 6708 A line in the spectrum suggests that the object is most likely a binary system with a B2-B3 spectral-type primary companion of a luminosity log L/L sun = 3.9 ± 0.3 and a late-type secondary companion. We estimate a distance toward the object to be 2.0 ± 0.3 kpc from the Sun.

  9. Lysine residue 185 of Rad1 is a topological but not a functional counterpart of lysine residue 164 of PCNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niek Wit

    Full Text Available Monoubiquitylation of the homotrimeric DNA sliding clamp PCNA at lysine residue 164 (PCNA(K164 is a highly conserved, DNA damage-inducible process that is mediated by the E2/E3 complex Rad6/Rad18. This ubiquitylation event recruits translesion synthesis (TLS polymerases capable of replicating across damaged DNA templates. Besides PCNA, the Rad6/Rad18 complex was recently shown in yeast to ubiquitylate also 9-1-1, a heterotrimeric DNA sliding clamp composed of Rad9, Rad1, and Hus1 in a DNA damage-inducible manner. Based on the highly similar crystal structures of PCNA and 9-1-1, K185 of Rad1 (Rad1(K185 was identified as the only topological equivalent of PCNA(K164. To investigate a potential role of posttranslational modifications of Rad1(K185 in DNA damage management, we here generated a mouse model with a conditional deletable Rad1(K185R allele. The Rad1(K185 residue was found to be dispensable for Chk1 activation, DNA damage survival, and class switch recombination of immunoglobulin genes as well as recruitment of TLS polymerases during somatic hypermutation of immunoglobulin genes. Our data indicate that Rad1(K185 is not a functional counterpart of PCNA(K164.

  10. Thermodynamic Stability of Ice II and Its Hydrogen-Disordered Counterpart: Role of Zero-Point Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuya; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Yagasaki, Takuma; Tanaka, Hideki

    2016-03-03

    We investigate why no hydrogen-disordered form of ice II has been found in nature despite the fact that most of hydrogen-ordered ices have hydrogen-disordered counterparts. The thermodynamic stability of a set of hydrogen-ordered ice II variants relative to ice II is evaluated theoretically. It is found that ice II is more stable than the disordered variants so generated as to satisfy the simple ice rule due to the lower zero-point energy as well as the pair interaction energy. The residual entropy of the disordered ice II phase gradually compensates the unfavorable free energy with increasing temperature. The crossover, however, occurs at a high temperature well above the melting point of ice III. Consequently, the hydrogen-disordered phase does not exist in nature. The thermodynamic stability of partially hydrogen-disordered ices is also scrutinized by examining the free-energy components of several variants obtained by systematic inversion of OH directions in ice II. The potential energy of one variant is lower than that of the ice II structure, but its Gibbs free energy is slightly higher than that of ice II due to the zero-point energy. The slight difference in the thermodynamic stability leaves the possibility of the partial hydrogen-disorder in real ice II.

  11. A Dark Energy Camera Search for an Optical Counterpart to the First Advanced LIGO Gravitational Wave Event GW150914

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Santos, M.; Kessler, R.; Burger, E.; Annis, J.; Brout, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Chen, H.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Diehl, H.T.; Doctor, Z.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a deep search for an optical counterpart to the gravitational wave (GW) event GW150914, the first trigger from the Advanced LIGO GW detectors. We used the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to image a 102 deg(exp 2) area, corresponding to 38% of the initial trigger high-probability sky region and to 11% of the revised high-probability region. We observed in the i and z bands at 4-5, 7, and 24 days after the trigger. The median 5(sigma) point-source limiting magnitudes of our search images are i = 22.5 and z = 21.8 mag. We processed the images through a difference-imaging pipeline using templates from pre-existing Dark Energy Survey data and publicly available DECam data. Due to missing template observations and other losses, our effective search area subtends 40 deg(exp 2), corresponding to a 12% total probability in the initial map and 3% in the final map. In this area, we search for objects that decline significantly between days 4-5 and day 7, and are undetectable by day 24, finding none to typical magnitude limits of i = 21.5, 21.1, 20.1 for object colors (i-z)= 1, 0, -1, respectively. Our search demonstrates the feasibility of a dedicated search program with DECam and bodes well for future research in this emerging field.

  12. CYGNUS X-3: ITS LITTLE FRIEND’S COUNTERPART, THE DISTANCE TO CYGNUS X-3, AND OUTFLOWS/JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollough, M. L.; Dunham, M. M. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Corrales, L., E-mail: mmccollough@cfa.harvard.edu [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    Chandra observations have revealed a feature within 16″ of Cygnus X-3 that varied in phase with Cygnus X-3. This feature was shown to be a Bok globule that is along the line of sight to Cygnus X-3. We report on observations made with the Submillimeter Array to search for molecular emission from this globule, also known as Cygnus X-3's “Little Friend.” We have found a counterpart in both {sup 12}CO (2-1) and {sup 13}CO (2-1) emission. From the velocity shift of the molecular lines we are able to find two probable distances based on the Bayesian model of Milky Way kinematics of Reid et al. For the LF velocity of −47.5 km s{sup −1}, we find distances of 6.1 ± 0.6 kpc (62% probability) and 7.8 ± 0.6 kpc (38% probability). This yields distances to Cyg X-3 of 7.4 ± 1.1 kpc and 10.2 ± 1.2 kpc, respectively. Based on the probabilities entailed, we take 7.4 ± 1.1 kpc as the preferred distance to Cyg X-3. We also report the discovery of bipolar molecular outflow, suggesting that there is active star formation occurring within the Little Friend.

  13. UNVEILING THE NATURE OF THE UNIDENTIFIED GAMMA-RAY SOURCES. III. GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR-LIKE COUNTERPARTS AT LOW RADIO FREQUENCIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massaro, F.; Funk, S. [SLAC National Laboratory and Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); D' Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Tosti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Nori, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    About one-third of the {gamma}-ray sources listed in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog (2FGL) have no firmly established counterpart at lower energies and so are classified as unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs). Here, we propose a new approach to find candidate counterparts for the UGSs based on the 325 MHz radio survey performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in the northern hemisphere. First, we investigate the low-frequency radio properties of blazars, the largest known population of {gamma}-ray sources; then we search for sources with similar radio properties combining the information derived from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) with those of the NRAO Very Large Array Sky Survey. We present a list of candidate counterparts for 32 UGSs with at least one counterpart in the WENSS. We also performed an extensive research in the literature to look for infrared and optical counterparts of the {gamma}-ray blazar candidates selected using the low-frequency radio observations to confirm their nature. On the basis of our multifrequency research, we identify 23 new {gamma}-ray blazar candidates out of the 32 UGSs investigated. Comparison with previous results on the UGSs is also presented. Finally, we speculate on the advantages of using low-frequency radio observations to associate UGSs and to search for {gamma}-ray pulsar candidates.

  14. Older Korean adults have lower physical function despite longer exercise times compared to their Japanese counterparts: A Japan-Korea comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Songee; Okubo, Yoshiro; Osuka, Yosuke; Seino, Satoshi; Park, Joonsung; Nho, Hosung; Tanaka, Kiyoji

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to compare the level of physical function (PF) and habitual exercise between older Japanese and Korean adults. A comparative study was carried out on 1069 community-dwelling older Japanese and Korean adults (mean age 73.9 ± 5.2 years). The participants were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire regarding habitual exercise and covariates. PF age, a composite measure of PF, was derived from the 12 items, using principal component analysis. PF age and habitual exercise were compared between the Japanese and Korean adults, using analysis of covariance (ancova) and multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for all covariates using propensity scores. ancova showed that PF age in older Japanese adults was significantly younger than in their Korean counterparts. Older Japanese adults exercised significantly less frequently than their Korean counterparts. Furthermore, older Japanese adults practiced significantly less walking, mountain climbing and bicycling, but more calisthenics, resistance training, ball games and dances than their Korean counterparts. We found that older Korean adults had lower PF (3.7 years older in PF age) than their Japanese counterparts. Although the overall frequency and amount of habitual exercise in older Korean adults were higher than those in their Japanese counterparts, particular types of exercise might have contributed to the higher PF levels among older Japanese adults. Thus, older Korean adults might need to engage more in habitual exercises that are specifically effective in maintaining PF. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 576-583. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Melhoramento do cafeeiro: XXIII - Novos dados sôbre a variabilidade em linhas isogênicas de café Coffee breeding: XXIII variability in isogenic lines of cofeea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Mônaco

    1964-01-01

    turned to yield and plant height variability since among the progenies there were two isogenic lines obtained by doubling the chromosomes of two haploid coffee trees and the hybrid between them. Concerning plant height the variability of the hybrid was similar to that of both isogenic parents indicating no relation between heterozygosis for factors controlling plant height and the uniformity of the progenies. The yield variation of the hybrid was found to be higher,intermediate or lower than the parents depending on the year considered, but the differences between the variances were not statistically significant. The information so far gathered about genetic variability and homeostasis in coffee indicate that heterozygosity seems not to improve the plasticity of the individuals. Natural selection seems to have maintained in the original population genic combinations which would result in better homeostatic strength. It is also possible that the lines studied are genetically not so distinct and only a few loci would be in heterozygous condition. Additional data are required before deciding about the relation between homeostasis and heterozygosis in Coffea arabica.

  16. Intracellular activity of antibiotics in a model of human THP-1 macrophages infected by a Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variant strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient: pharmacodynamic evaluation and comparison with isogenic normal-phenotype and revertant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Denis, Olivier; Vergison, Anne; Theunis, Anne; Tulkens, Paul M; Struelens, Marc J; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2009-04-01

    Small-colony variant (SCV) strains of Staphylococcus aureus show reduced antibiotic susceptibility and intracellular persistence, potentially explaining therapeutic failures. The activities of oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, gentamicin, rifampin, vancomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, daptomycin, tigecycline, moxifloxacin, telavancin, and oritavancin have been examined in THP-1 macrophages infected by a stable thymidine-dependent SCV strain in comparison with normal-phenotype and revertant isogenic strains isolated from the same cystic fibrosis patient. The SCV strain grew slowly extracellularly and intracellularly (1- and 0.2-log CFU increase in 24 h, respectively). In confocal and electron microscopy, SCV and the normal-phenotype bacteria remain confined in acid vacuoles. All antibiotics tested, except tigecycline, caused a net reduction in bacterial counts that was both time and concentration dependent. At an extracellular concentration corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum (total drug), oritavancin caused a 2-log CFU reduction at 24 h; rifampin, moxifloxacin, and quinupristin-dalfopristin caused a similar reduction at 72 h; and all other antibiotics had only a static effect at 24 h and a 1-log CFU reduction at 72 h. In concentration dependence experiments, response to oritavancin was bimodal (two successive plateaus of -0.4 and -3.1 log CFU); tigecycline, moxifloxacin, and rifampin showed maximal effects of -1.1 to -1.7 log CFU; and the other antibiotics produced results of -0.6 log CFU or less. Addition of thymidine restored intracellular growth of the SCV strain but did not modify the activity of antibiotics (except quinupristin-dalfopristin). All drugs (except tigecycline and oritavancin) showed higher intracellular activity against normal or revertant phenotypes than against SCV strains. The data may help rationalizing the design of further studies with intracellular SCV strains.

  17. Comprehensive gene expression analysis of the NAC gene family under normal growth conditions, hormone treatment, and drought stress conditions in rice using near-isogenic lines (NILs) generated from crossing Aday Selection (drought tolerant) and IR64.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Sharoni, Akhter Most; Satoh, Kouji; Moumeni, Ali; Venuprasad, Ramiah; Serraj, Rachid; Kumar, Arvind; Leung, Hei; Attia, Kotb; Kikuchi, Shoshi

    2012-05-01

    The NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2) genes are plant-specific transcriptional factors known to play diverse roles in various plant developmental processes. We describe the rice (Oryza sativa) OsNAC genes expression profiles (GEPs) under normal and water-deficit treatments (WDTs). The GEPs of the OsNAC genes were analyzed in 25 tissues covering the entire life cycle of Minghui 63. High expression levels of 17 genes were demonstrated in certain tissues under normal conditions suggesting that these genes may play important roles in specific organs. We determined that 16 genes were differentially expressed under at least 1 phytohormone (NAA, GA3, KT, SA, ABA, and JA) treatment. To investigate the GEPs in the root, leaf, and panicle of three rice genotypes [e.g., 2 near-isogenic lines (NILs) and IR64], we used two NILs from a common genetic combination backcross developed by Aday Selection and IR64. WDTs were applied using the fraction of transpirable soil water at severe, mild, and control conditions. Transcriptomic analysis using a 44K oligoarray from Agilent was performed on all the tissue samples. We identified common and specific genes in all tissues from the two NILs under both WDTs, and the majority of the OsNAC genes that were activated were in the drought-tolerant IR77298-14-1-2-B-10 line compared with the drought-susceptible IR77298-14-1-2-B-13 or IR64. In IR77298-14-1-2-B-10, seventeen genes were very specific in their expression levels. Approximately 70 % of the genes from subgroups SNAC and NAM/CUC3 were activated in the leaf, but 37 % genes from subgroup SND were inactivated in the root compared with the control under severe stress conditions. These results provide a useful reference for the cloning of candidate genes from the specific subgroup for further functional analysis.

  18. Searching for gamma-ray counterparts to gravitational waves from merging binary neutron stars with the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricelli, B.; Stamerra, A.; Razzano, M.; Pian, E.; Cella, G.

    2018-05-01

    The merger of binary neutron star (BNS) systems are predicted to be progenitors of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs); the definitive probe of this association came with the recent detection of gravitational waves (GWs) from a BNS merger by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (GW170817), in coincidence with the short GRB 170817A observed by Fermi-GBM and INTEGRAL. Short GRBs are also expected to emit very-high energy (VHE, > 10S0 GeV) photons and VHE electromagnetic (EM) upper limits have been set with observations performed by ground-based gamma-ray detectors and during the intense EM follow-up campaign associated with GW170817/GRB 170817A. In the next years, the searches for VHE EM counterparts will become more effective thanks to the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA): this instrument will be fundamental for the EM follow-up of transient GW events at VHE, owing to its unprecedented sensitivity, rapid response (few tens of seconds) and capability to monitor large sky areas via survey-mode operation. We present a comprehensive study on the prospects for joint GW and VHE EM observations of merging BNSs with Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and CTA, based on detailed simulations of the multi-messenger emission and detection. We propose a new observational strategy optimized on the prior assumptions about the EM emission. The method can be further generalized to include other electromagnetic emission models. According to this study CTA will cover most of the region of the GW skymap for the intermediate and most energetic on-axis GRBs associated to the GW event. We estimate the expected joint GW and VHE EM detection rates and we found this rate goes from 0.08 up to 0.5 events per year for the most energetic EM sources.

  19. Paying for convenience: comparing the cost of takeaway meals with their healthier home-cooked counterparts in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Sally; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Xie, Pei; Lee, Amanda; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-09-01

    Convenience and cost impact on people's meal decisions. Takeaway and pre-prepared foods save preparation time but may contribute to poorer-quality diets. Analysing the impact of time on relative cost differences between meals of varying convenience contributes to understanding the barrier of time to selecting healthy meals. Six popular New Zealand takeaway meals were identified from two large national surveys and compared with similar, but healthier, home-made and home-assembled meals that met nutrition targets consistent with New Zealand Eating and Activity Guidelines. The cost of each complete meal, cost per kilogram, and confidence intervals of the cost of each meal type were calculated. The time-inclusive cost was calculated by adding waiting or preparation time cost at the minimum wage. A large urban area in New Zealand. For five of six popular meals, the mean cost of the home-made and home-assembled meals was cheaper than the takeaway meals. When the cost of time was added, all home-assembled meal options were the cheapest and half of the home-made meals were at least as expensive as the takeaway meals. The home-prepared meals were designed to provide less saturated fat and Na and more vegetables than their takeaway counterparts; however, the home-assembled meals provided more Na than the home-made meals. Healthier home-made and home-assembled meals were, except one, cheaper options than takeaways. When the cost of time was added, either the home-made or the takeaway meal was the most expensive. This research questions whether takeaways are better value than home-prepared meals.

  20. Associating Fast Radio Bursts with Extragalactic Radio Sources: General Methodology and a Search for a Counterpart to FRB 170107

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, T.; Berger, E.; Williams, P. K. G.; Blanchard, P. K.

    2018-06-01

    The discovery of a repeating fast radio burst (FRB) has led to the first precise localization, an association with a dwarf galaxy, and the identification of a coincident persistent radio source. However, further localizations are required to determine the nature of FRBs, the sources powering them, and the possibility of multiple populations. Here we investigate the use of associated persistent radio sources to establish FRB counterparts, taking into account the localization area and the source flux density. Due to the lower areal number density of radio sources compared to faint optical sources, robust associations can be achieved for less precise localizations as compared to direct optical host galaxy associations. For generally larger localizations that preclude robust associations, the number of candidate hosts can be reduced based on the ratio of radio-to-optical brightness. We find that confident associations with sources having a flux density of ∼0.01–1 mJy, comparable to the luminosity of the persistent source associated with FRB 121102 over the redshift range z ≈ 0.1–1, require FRB localizations of ≲20″. We demonstrate that even in the absence of a robust association, constraints can be placed on the luminosity of an associated radio source as a function of localization and dispersion measure (DM). For DM ≈1000 pc cm‑3, an upper limit comparable to the luminosity of the FRB 121102 persistent source can be placed if the localization is ≲10″. We apply our analysis to the case of the ASKAP FRB 170107, using optical and radio observations of the localization region. We identify two candidate hosts based on a radio-to-optical brightness ratio of ≳100. We find that if one of these is indeed associated with FRB 170107, the resulting radio luminosity (1029‑ 4 × 1030 erg s‑1 Hz‑1, as constrained from the DM value) is comparable to the luminosity of the FRB 121102 persistent source.

  1. Newly synthesized MgAl2Ge2: A first-principles comparison with its silicide and carbide counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanveer Karim, A. M. M.; Hadi, M. A.; Alam, M. A.; Parvin, F.; Naqib, S. H.; Islam, A. K. M. A.

    2018-06-01

    Using plane-wave pseudopotential density functional theory (DFT), the first-principle calculations are performed to investigate the structural aspects, mechanical behaviors and electronic features of the newly synthesized CaAl2Si2-prototype intermetallic compound, MgAl2Ge2 for the first time and the results are compared with those calculated for its silicide and carbide counterparts MgAl2Si2 and MgAl2C2. The calculated lattice constants agree fairly well with their corresponding experimental values. The estimated elastic tensors satisfy the mechanical stability conditions for MgAl2Ge2 along with MgAl2Si2 and MgAl2C2. The level of elastic anisotropy increases following the sequence of X-elements Ge → Si → C. MgAl2Ge2 and MgAl2Si2 are expected to be ductile and damage tolerant, while MgAl2C2 is a brittle one. MgAl2Ge2 and MgAl2Si2 should exhibit better thermal shock resistance and low thermal conductivity and accordingly these can be used as thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials. The Debye temperature of MgAl2Ge2 is lowest among three intermetallic compounds. MgAl2Ge2 and MgAl2Si2 should exhibit metallic conductivity; while the dual characters of weak-metals and semiconductors are expected for MgAl2C2. The values of theoretical Vickers hardness for MgAl2Ge2, MgAl2Si2, and MgAl2C2 are 3.3, 2.7, and 7.7 GPa, respectively, indicating that these three intermetallics are soft and easily machinable.

  2. Transcriptomal profiling of bovine ovarian granulosa and theca interna cells in primary culture in comparison with their in vivo counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Hatzirodos

    Full Text Available In vitro culture of ovarian granulosa cells and theca cells has been very important for our understanding of their function and regulation. One of the most eagerly sought attributes of cell culture is the use of chemically-defined conditions. However, even under such in vitro conditions cell behaviour could differ from the in vivo situation because of differences in oxygen tension, nutrients, adhesion matrix and other factors. To examine this further we compared the transcriptomes of both granulosa cells and cells from the theca interna that were cultured in what are arguably the best in vitro conditions for maintaining the 'follicular' phenotypes of both tissue types, as displayed by their respective freshly-isolated counterparts. The array data analysed are from recently published data and use the same sizes of bovine follicles (small antral 3-6 mm and the same Affymetrix arrays. We conducted analysis using Partek, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and GOEAST. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and hierarchical clustering clearly separated the in vivo from the in vitro groups for both cells types and transcriptomes were more homogeneous upon culture. In both cell cultures behaviours associated with cell adhesion, migration and interaction with matrix or substrate were more abundant. However, the pathways involved generally differed between the two cell types. With the thecal cultures a gene expression signature of an immune response was more abundant, probably by leukocytes amongst the cells cultured from the theca interna. These results indicate differences between in vivo and in vitro that should be considered when interpreting in vitro data.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase immobilization and characterization, and comparison of the activity of the porous silicon-immobilized enzyme with its free counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Muhammad; Rafiq, Muhammad; Seo, Sung-Yum; Lee, Ki Hwan

    2016-02-02

    A successful prescription is presented for acetylcholinesterase physically adsorbed on to a mesoporous silicon surface, with a promising hydrolytic response towards acetylthiocholine iodide. The catalytic behaviour of the immobilized enzyme was assessed by spectrophotometric bioassay using neostigmine methyl sulfate as a standard acetycholinesterase inhibitor. The surface modification was studied through field emission SEM, Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cathode luminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, photoluminescence measurement and spectrophotometric bioassay. The porous silicon-immobilized enzyme not only yielded greater enzyme stability, but also significantly improved the native photoluminescence at room temperature of the bare porous silicon architecture. The results indicated the promising catalytic behaviour of immobilized enzyme compared with that of its free counterpart, with a greater stability, and that it aided reusability and easy separation from the reaction mixture. The porous silicon-immobilized enzyme was found to retain 50% of its activity, promising thermal stability up to 90°C, reusability for up to three cycles, pH stability over a broad pH of 4-9 and a shelf-life of 44 days, with an optimal hydrolytic response towards acetylthiocholine iodide at variable drug concentrations. On the basis of these findings, it was believed that the porous silicon-immobilized enzyme could be exploited as a reusable biocatalyst and for screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from crude plant extracts and synthesized organic compounds. Moreover, the immobilized enzyme could offer a great deal as a viable biocatalyst in bioprocessing for the chemical and pharmaceutical industries, and bioremediation to enhance productivity and robustness. © 2016 Authors.

  4. Overweight and obesity among Ghanaian residents in the Netherlands: How do they weigh against their urban and rural counterparts in Ghana?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, C.; Owusu-Dabo, E.; Jonge, A. de; Martins, D.; Ogedegbe, G.; Stronks, K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in overweight and obesity between first-generation Dutch-Ghanaian migrants in The Netherlands and their rural and urban counterparts in Ghana. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 1471 Ghanaians (rural Ghanaians, n 532; urban Ghanaians, n 787;

  5. Near Infrared JHKs observations of the transient MAXI J1820+070 / ASASSN-18ey: Erratum on 2MASS counterpart designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, A. K.; Singh, A.; Stalin, C. S.; Chandra, S.; Gandhi, P.

    2018-03-01

    In ATel #11458, the correct 2MASS counterpart associated with MAXI J1820+070/ASASSN-18ey should have been stated as 2MASS J18202194+0711073. We apologise for any misunderstanding, and thank G. Stringfellow and M. Tanaka for bringing this to our attention. The photometric analyses and discussion in ATel #11458 remain unchanged.

  6. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  7. Heterogeneity in isogenic populations of microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Egholm

    heterogeneity was detected when the culture had been propagated according to the guidelines of the Copenhagen School of Bacterial Growth Physiology. The L. lactis GFP reporter strain was more challenging to analyze. The population profile for this reporter strain was shown to be dependent on the type of medium...... values for quantifiable variables are used. The reproducibility of an experiment could thus be affected by the presence of subpopulations or high levels of phenotypic variations. Ole Maaløe and colleagues did in the late 1950’ties observe that the growth rate, RNA, DNA and protein synthesis and cell...... factor per unit of time. The use of a balanced growing culture is a cornerstone in the Copenhagen School of Bacterial Growth Physiology headed by Ole Maaløe. Due to the size of the microorganism it is challenging to measure a quantifiable variable in a single cell. However, fluorescence, whether being...

  8. ON Bipolar Cells in Macaque Retina: Type-Specific Synaptic Connectivity with Special Reference to OFF Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Yoshihiko; Omi, Naoko

    2016-01-01

    To date, 12 macaque bipolar cell types have been described. This list includes all morphology types first outlined by Polyak (1941) using the Golgi method in the primate retina and subsequently identified by other researchers using electron microscopy (EM) combined with the Golgi method, serial section transmission EM (SSTEM), and immunohistochemical imaging. We used SSTEM for the rod-dense perifoveal area of macaque retina, reconfirmed ON (cone) bipolar cells to be classified as invaginating midget bipolar (IMB), diffuse bipolar (DB)4, DB5, DB6, giant bipolar (GB), and blue bipolar (BB) types, and clarified their type-specific connectivity. DB4 cells made reciprocal synapses with a kind of ON-OFF lateral amacrine cell, similar to OFF DB2 cells. GB cells contacted rods and cones, similar to OFF DB3b cells. Retinal circuits formed by GB and DB3b cells are thought to substantiate the psychophysical finding of fast rod signals in mesopic vision. DB6 cell output synapses were directed to ON midget ganglion (MG) cells at 70% of ribbon contacts, similar to OFF DB1 cells that directed 60% of ribbon contacts to OFF MG cells. IMB cells contacted medium- or long-wavelength sensitive (M/L-) cones but not short-wavelength sensitive (S-) cones, while BB cells contacted S-cones but not M/L-cones. However, IMB and BB dendrites had similar morphological architectures, and a BB cell contacting a single S-cone resembled an IMB cell. Thus, both IMB and BB may be the ON bipolar counterparts of the OFF flat midget bipolar (FMB) type, likewise DB4 of DB2, DB5 of DB3a, DB6 of DB1, and GB of DB3b OFF bipolar type. The ON DB plus GB, and OFF DB cells predominantly contacted M/L-cones and their outputs were directed mainly to parasol ganglion (PG) cells but also moderately to MG cells. BB cells directed S-cone-driven outputs almost exclusively to small bistratified ganglion (SBG) cells. Some FMB cells predominantly contacted S-cones and their outputs were directed to OFF MG cells. Thus, two

  9. Comparative neuropharmacology of N-(2-methoxybenzyl)-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (NBOMe) hallucinogens and their 2C counterparts in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Joshua S; Decker, Ann M; Sulima, Agnieszka; Rice, Kenner C; Partilla, John S; Blough, Bruce E; Baumann, Michael H

    2018-03-01

    2,5-Dimethoxyphenethylamines (2C compounds) are 5-HT 2A/2C receptor agonists that induce hallucinogenic effects. N-methoxybenzylation of 2C compounds markedly increases their affinity for 5-HT 2A receptors, and two such analogs, 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25C-NBOMe) and 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)methyl]ethanamine (25I-NBOMe), have emerged in recreational drug markets. Here, we investigated the neuropharmacology of 25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe in rats, as compared to their 2C analogs and the prototypical 5-HT 2A/2C agonist 1-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-2-amine (DOI). Compounds were tested in vitro using 5-HT 2A receptor binding and calcium mobilization assays. For in vivo experiments, 25C-NBOMe (0.01-0.3 mg/kg), 25I-NBOMe (0.01-0.3 mg/kg), 2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-C) (0.1-3.0 mg/kg), 2-(4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanamine (2C-I) (0.1-3.0 mg/kg) and DOI (0.03-1.0 mg/kg) were administered subcutaneously (sc) to male rats, and 5-HT 2A -mediated behaviors were assessed. NBOMes displayed higher affinity for 5-HT 2A receptors than their 2C counterparts but were substantially weaker in functional assays. 25C-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe were much more potent at inducing wet dog shakes (WDS) and back muscle contractions (BMC) when compared to 2C-C and 2C-I. Pretreatment with the selective 5-HT 2A antagonist (R)-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl){1-[2-(4-fluorophenyl)ethyl]-4-piperidinyl}methanol (M100907) reversed behaviors produced by all agonists. Interestingly, binding affinities at the 5-HT 2A receptor were significantly correlated with potencies to induce BMC but not WDS. Our findings show that NBOMes are highly potent 5-HT 2A agonists in rats, similar to effects in mice, and consistent with the reported hallucinogenic effects in human users. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Finding counterparts for all-sky X-ray surveys with NWAY: a Bayesian algorithm for cross-matching multiple catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvato, M.; Buchner, J.; Budavári, T.; Dwelly, T.; Merloni, A.; Brusa, M.; Rau, A.; Fotopoulou, S.; Nandra, K.

    2018-02-01

    We release the AllWISE counterparts and Gaia matches to 106 573 and 17 665 X-ray sources detected in the ROSAT 2RXS and XMMSL2 surveys with |b| > 15°. These are the brightest X-ray sources in the sky, but their position uncertainties and the sparse multi-wavelength coverage until now rendered the identification of their counterparts a demanding task with uncertain results. New all-sky multi-wavelength surveys of sufficient depth, like AllWISE and Gaia, and a new Bayesian statistics based algorithm, NWAY, allow us, for the first time, to provide reliable counterpart associations. NWAY extends previous distance and sky density based association methods and, using one or more priors (e.g. colours, magnitudes), weights the probability that sources from two or more catalogues are simultaneously associated on the basis of their observable characteristics. Here, counterparts have been determined using a Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) colour-magnitude prior. A reference sample of 4524 XMM/Chandra and Swift X-ray sources demonstrates a reliability of ∼94.7 per cent (2RXS) and 97.4 per cent (XMMSL2). Combining our results with Chandra-COSMOS data, we propose a new separation between stars and AGN in the X-ray/WISE flux-magnitude plane, valid over six orders of magnitude. We also release the NWAY code and its user manual. NWAY was extensively tested with XMM-COSMOS data. Using two different sets of priors, we find an agreement of 96 per cent and 99 per cent with published Likelihood Ratio methods. Our results were achieved faster and without any follow-up visual inspection. With the advent of deep and wide area surveys in X-rays (e.g. SRG/eROSITA, Athena/WFI) and radio (ASKAP/EMU, LOFAR, APERTIF, etc.) NWAY will provide a powerful and reliable counterpart identification tool.

  11. The effects of modeled microgravity on growth kinetics, antibiotic susceptibility, cold growth, and the virulence potential of a Yersinia pestis ymoA-deficient mutant and its isogenic parental strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Abidat; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Christina J; Erova, Tatiana E; Kozlova, Elena V; Sha, Jian; Chopra, Ashok K; Rosenzweig, Jason A

    2013-09-01

    Previously, we reported that there was no enhancement in the virulence potential (as measured by cell culture infections) of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis (YP) following modeled microgravity/clinorotation growth. We have now further characterized the effects of clinorotation (CR) on YP growth kinetics, antibiotic sensitivity, cold growth, and YP's virulence potential in a murine model of infection. Surprisingly, none of the aforementioned phenotypes were altered. To better understand why CR did not enhance YP's virulence potential as it did for other bacterial pathogens, a YP ΔymoA isogenic mutant in the KIM/D27 background strain that is unable to produce the histone-like YmoA protein and influences DNA topography was used in both cell culture and murine models of infection. YmoA represses type three secretion system (T3SS) virulence gene expression in the yersiniae. Similar to our CR-grown parental YP strain data, the CR-grown ΔymoA mutant induced reduced HeLa cell cytotoxicity with concomitantly decreased Yersinia outer protein E (YopE) and low calcium response V (LcrV) antigen production and secretion. Important, however, were our findings that, although no significant differences were observed in survival of mice infected intraperitoneally with either normal gravity (NG)- or CR-grown parental YP, the ΔymoA mutant induced significantly more mortality in infected mice than did the parental strain following CR growth. Taken together, our data demonstrate that CR did enhance the virulence potential of the YP ΔymoA mutant in a murine infection model (relative to the CR-grown parental strain), despite inducing less HeLa cell rounding in our cell culture infection assay due to reduced T3SS activity. Therefore, CR, which induces a unique type of bacterial stress, might be enhancing YP's virulence potential in vivo through a T3SS-independent mechanism when the histone-like YmoA protein is absent.

  12. Brucella-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide chimeras are less permeable to hydrophobic probes and more sensitive to cationic peptides and EDTA than are their native Brucella sp. counterparts.

    OpenAIRE

    Freer, E; Moreno, E; Moriyón, I; Pizarro-Cerdá, J; Weintraub, A; Gorvel, J P

    1996-01-01

    A rough (R) Brucella abortus 45/20 mutant was more sensitive to the bactericidal activity of polymyxin B and lactoferricin B than was its smooth (S) counterpart but considerably more resistant than Salmonella montevideo. The outer membrane (OM) and isolated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of S. montevideo showed a higher affinity for these cationic peptides than did the corresponding B. abortus OM and LPS. We took advantage of the moderate sensitivity of R B. abortus to cationic peptides to construc...

  13. A Counterpart Test of the VISTA-ITL SB-SIS-07 using the FESTA (SMART-ITL) Facility for the SMART Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyunsik; Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Seonguk; Yi, Sungjae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Yungjoo [System Engineering and Technology Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The SMART design is characterized by the introduction of simplified and improved safety systems such as PRHRS, and its integral arrangement of the reactor vessel assembly. The integrated reactor vessel assembly consists of a reactor core, eight steam generators, four reactor coolant pumps, and a steam pressurizer, and it has four trains of a secondary system and passive residual heat removal system. The SMART design was fully assessed through various thermal-hydraulic validation tests during the licensing review process. Among them, a small-scale integral effect test facility of VISTA-ITL was used to investigate various thermal-hydraulic phenomena during design basis accident scenarios such as SBLOCA and CLOF, and the acquired data were used to validate the related thermal-hydraulic models of the safety analysis codes such as MARS-KS and TASS/SMR-S. The VISTA-ITL facility is a reduced height, 1/1310-volume scaled test facility with a single train of a secondary system and PRHRS. Recently, a large-scale integral effect test facility of FESTA was constructed in KAERI and a set of integral effect tests for design basis accident scenarios is also being performed. The role of FESTA could be extended to examine and verify the normal, abnormal, and emergency operating procedures required during the construction phases of SMART. It could be called as a counterpart test when similar experiments are performed in differently scaled facilities. It is clear that transient scenarios measured in the experimental rigs cannot be directly extrapolated to the plant conditions. Nevertheless one of the objectives of counter-part tests is to evaluate the influence of the geometric dimensions of the loops upon the evolution of a given accident. In this paper the counterpart test results with both the VISTA-ITL and FESTA facilities will be compared on a SBLOCA scenario of the SIS line break for the SMART design. As counter-part tests for an SBLOCA for the SMART design, two integral effect

  14. Life Disparity before, during and after Stagnation of Danish Female Life Expectancy. a Cause of Death Analysis and a Comparison with Their Scandinavian Counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aburto, José Manuel; Wensink, Maarten Jan; Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

    that as Norway increasingly came to resemble Sweden in terms of high life expectancy, it also came to resemble Sweden in terms of low lifespan inequality. Next, we aim to make similar decompositions for Sweden and Norway, and aim to disentangle cohort effects from the question: what can Denmark do now...... cancers and non-infectious respiratory diseases, offsetting continuous improvement in cardiovascular mortality. Before and after stagnation, life expectancy increased as disparity decreased, as the cardiovascular revolution unfolded. Comparing Denmark and its Scandinavian counterparts, we find...

  15. Comparison of visual working memory in deaf and hearing-impaired students with normal counterparts: A research in people without sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Tangestani Zadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The hearing defects in deaf and hearing-impaired students also affect their cognitive skills such as memory in addition to communication skills. Hence, the aim of this study was to compare visual working memory in deaf and hearing-impaired students with that in normal counterparts.Method: In the present study, which was a causal-comparative study using the André Rey test, 30 deaf and 30 hearing-impaired students were compared with 30 students in a normal group, and they were matched based on gender, intelligence, educational grade, and socioeconomic status.Findings: Findings show that there is significant difference between the three groups’ subjects (p0.05.Conclusion: Function of deaf or hard-of-hearing students in the visual working memory task was weaker in comparison with the normal counterparts, while the two deaf and hard-of-hearing groups have similar functions. With a better identification and understanding of the factors that affect the development of this cognitive ability, we can offer new methods of teaching and reduce many of the disadvantages of this group of people in the different fields of cognitive science.

  16. Differential structural status of the RNA counterpart of an undecamer quasi-palindromic DNA sequence present in LCR of human β-globin gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Mahima; Kukreti, Shrikant

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work on structural polymorphism shown at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A → G) site located on HS4 region of locus control region (LCR) of β-globin gene has established a hairpin → duplex equilibrium corresponding to A → B like DNA transition (Kaushik M, Kukreti, R., Grover, D., Brahmachari, S.K. and Kukreti S. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003; Kaushik M, Kukreti S. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006). The G-allele of A → G SNP has been shown to be significantly associated with the occurrence of β-thalassemia. Considering the significance of this 11-nt long quasi-palindromic sequence [5'-TGGGG(G/A)CCCCA; HP(G/A)11] of β-globin gene LCR, we further explored the differential behavior of the same DNA sequence with its RNA counterpart, using various biophysical and biochemical techniques. In contrast to its DNA counterpart exhibiting a A → B structural transition and an equilibrium between duplex and hairpin forms, the studied RNA oligonucleotide sequence [5'-UGGGG(G/A)CCCCA; RHP(G/A)11] existed only in duplex form (A-conformation) and did not form hairpin. The single residue difference from A to G led to the unusual thermal stability of the RNA structure formed by the studied sequence. Since, naturally occurring mutations and various SNP sites may stabilize or destabilize the local DNA/RNA secondary structures, these structural transitions may affect the gene expression by a change in the protein-DNA recognition patterns.

  17. Mental wellbeing amongst younger and older migrant workers in comparison to their urban counterparts in Guangzhou city, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chang, Shu-Sen; Yip, Paul S F; Li, Juan; Jordan, Lucy P; Tang, Yunge; Hao, Yuantao; Huang, Xingmei; Yang, Ning; Chen, Chaoqi; Zeng, Qiaomei

    2014-12-16

    There has been a dramatic increase in internal migrant workers in China over recent decades, and there is a recent concern of poor mental health particularly amongst younger or "new generation" migrants who were born in 1980 or later. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Guangzhou city between May and July in 2012. Mental wellbeing was measured using the World Health Organization Five-item Well-Being Index Scale and the 36 Item Short Form Health Survey mental health scale. Linear and logistic regression models were used to investigate the differences between migrant workers and their urban counterparts and between younger and older migrants. Migrant workers (n = 914) showed a small but significant advantage in mental wellbeing compared to their urban counterparts (n = 814). There was some evidence for age modification effect (p for interaction = 0.055-0.095); better mental wellbeing in migrants than urbanites were mainly seen in the older compared to the younger group, and the difference attenuated somewhat after controlling for income satisfaction. Older migrants showed better mental health than younger migrants. Factors that were independently associated with poor mental health in migrants included being male, longer working hours, and income dissatisfaction, whilst older age, factory job, high income, and increased use of social support resources were associated with reduced risk. Efforts to promote mental health amongst migrant workers may be usefully targeted on younger migrants and include measures aimed to improve working conditions, strengthen the social support network, and address age-specific needs.

  18. Molecular alterations in lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands and their mammary counterparts including hidradenoma papilliferum, intraductal papilloma, fibroadenoma and phyllodes tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Vanecek, Tomas; Martinek, Petr; Kyrpychova, Liubov; Spagnolo, Dominic V; Stewart, Colin J R; Portelli, Francesca; Michal, Michal; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2017-06-01

    Lesions affecting anogenital mammary-like glands (AGMLG) are histopathologically very similar to those seen in the breast but whether this morphological similarity is also reflected at the genetic level is unknown. To compare the underlying molecular mechanisms in lesions of AGMLG and their mammary counterparts, we analyzed the mutational profile of 16 anogenital neoplasms including 5 hidradenomas papilliferum (HP), 1 lesion with features of HP and fibroadenoma (FA), 7 FA, 3 phyllodes tumors (PhT)) and 18 analogous breast lesions (6 intraductal papillomas (IDP), 9 FA, and 3 PhT) by high-coverage next generation sequencing (NGS) using a panel comprising 50 cancer-related genes. Additionally, all cases were analyzed for the presence of a mutation in the MED12 gene. All detected mutations with allele frequencies over 20% were independently validated by Sanger sequencing (concordance: 100%). Mutations in PIK3CA, AKT1, MET, ABL1 and TP53 genes were found in lesions of AGMLG and also their mammary counterparts. The PI3K-AKT cascade plays a role in tumors arising at both sites. It appears that some histopathologically similar anogenital and breast lesions develop along similar molecular pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Discovery of the near-infrared counterpart to the luminous neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary GX 3+1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, Maureen; Fridriksson, Joel K. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Homan, Jeroen [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Linares, Manuel, E-mail: M.C.vandenBerg@uva.nl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, E-38205, S/C de Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-10-01

    Using the High Resolution Camera on board the Chandra X-ray Observatory, we have measured an accurate position for the bright persistent neutron star X-ray binary and atoll source GX 3+1. At a location that is consistent with this new position, we have discovered the near-infrared (NIR) counterpart to GX 3+1 in images taken with the PANIC and FourStar cameras on the Magellan Baade Telescope. The identification of this K{sub s} = 15.8 ± 0.1 mag star as the counterpart is based on the presence of a Br γ emission line in an NIR spectrum taken with the Folded-port InfraRed Echelette spectrograph on the Baade Telescope. The absolute magnitude derived from the best available distance estimate to GX 3+1 indicates that the mass donor in the system is not a late-type giant. We find that the NIR light in GX 3+1 is likely dominated by the contribution from a heated outer accretion disk. This is similar to what has been found for the NIR flux from the brighter class of Z sources, but unlike the behavior of atolls fainter (L{sub X} ≈ 10{sup 36}-10{sup 37} erg s{sup –1}) than GX 3+1, where optically thin synchrotron emission from a jet probably dominates the NIR flux.

  20. Comparing the mental health of rural-to-urban migrant children and their counterparts in china: Protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Hua; Yan, Li-Xia; Yuan, Yang

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, the issue of migrant children with peasant parents working in cities has attracted widespread attention in recent years because of the sheer number and the benefits bundled in China's household. The focus has gradually extended from early education opportunities to all aspects of physical and mental development, especially the social adaptation and mental health of migrant children. The negative impact of environment changes on migrant children' mental health is very worrying for parents and the society. Some studies have found that immigrant children's mental health is significantly lower than their peers, but there are also studies that hold the opposite view. Thus, the mental health status of migrant children is still a controversial issue, which may have a certain relationship with the potential differences in the specific problems of mental health, regions, comparison objects, and researchers. The objective of this protocol is to investigate whether mental health and subdimensions differ between rural-to-urban migrant children and their counterparts living in China and examine study characteristics that might result in differences among studies. We will search PubMed, Embase, OVID, ERIC, Web of Science, and Chinese databases including CNKI, Chongqing VIP, and Wan Fang data from start to April 2018. Cross-sectional studies with a comparison of migrant children and their counterparts will be included. The primary outcome will be the mean and standard deviation of mental health and its sub-dimensions. Standardized mean difference is used as the main effect value. Subgroup analyses will be carried out by the location of studies and school type of. Sensitivity analyses will be conducted to assess the robustness of the findings. Analyses will be performed with RevMan and Stata software. This systematic review and meta-analysis will compare the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant children and their counterparts living in China. The results

  1. Estimating detection rates for the LIGO-Virgo search for gravitational-wave burst counterparts to gamma-ray bursts using inferred local GRB rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonor, I; Frey, R; Sutton, P J; Jones, G; Marka, S; Marka, Z

    2009-01-01

    One of the ongoing searches performed using the LIGO-Virgo network of gravitational-wave interferometers is the search for gravitational-wave burst (GWB) counterparts to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). This type of analysis makes use of GRB time and position information from gamma-ray satellite detectors to trigger the GWB search, and the GWB detection rates possible for such an analysis thus strongly depend on the GRB detection efficiencies of the satellite detectors. Using local GRB rate densities inferred from observations which are found in the science literature, we calculate estimates of the GWB detection rates for different configurations of the LIGO-Virgo network for this type of analysis.

  2. Russia needs a strong counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an interview with the head of OMV, Wolfgang Ruttenstorfer is published. There is extract from this interview: Q: There have been attempts to take over MOL for a quite long time. Do you think you can still succeed? Since the beginning we kept saying that this would not happen from one day to another. But it may take two to three years. But we are positive that it is justified. Q: Resistance from MOL and the Hungarian government is strong. We have tried to persuade the Hungarian government. We offered them a split company management. A part of the management would be in Budapest. We would locate the management of the largest division - the refinery, there. And of course only the best could be part of the management. We would not nominate people according to their nationality, it would not matter whether the person was Austrian, Hungarian or Slovak. We want a Central European company, not Hungarian, Romanian or Slovak company. Q: Would the transaction still be attractive if, because of pressure exercised by Brussels, you had to sell Slovnaft or your refinery in Szazhalobatta? We do not intend to sell any refineries. Q: Rumours are spreading that the Commission may ask you to sell a refinery? We do not want to speculate. Let us wait and see what happens. We do not want to sell refineries. Q: It is said that OMV is coordinating or at least consulting its attempts to acquire MOL with Gazprom. There are many rumours in Central Europe. But I can tell you this is not true. We are interested in this merger because we feel the increasing pressure exercised by Kazakhstan and Russia. We, of course, have a good relationship with Gazprom which we have had enjoyed for over forty years. As indeed Slovakia has. Q: A few weeks ago Austrian daily Wirtschaftsblatt published an article about Gazprom's interest in OMV shares. That is gossip that is more than ten years' old. Similarly to the rumours that Gazprom is a shareholder of MOL. There are no negotiations with Gazprom and no plans to start any. Q: And how can you be sure that the merged OMV/MOL will not end in Russian hands? We have two majority shareholders. The Austrian state and the investment holding Abu Dhabi IPIC. And long term contracts on them remaining majority shareholders have been signed. In addition OMV has major investments with Abu Dhabi. For instance a big ethylene cracking project. And you can believe me that the emirate does not want a different shareholder structure in OMV

  3. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. VII. Properties of the Host Galaxy and Constraints on the Merger Timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, P. K.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.; Nicholl, M.; Leja, J.; Conroy, C.; Alexander, K. D.; Margutti, R.; Williams, P. K. G.; Doctor, Z.; Chornock, R.; Villar, V. A.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Annis, J.; Brout, D.; Brown, D. A.; Chen, H.-Y.; Eftekhari, T.; Frieman, J. A.; Holz, D. E.; Metzger, B. D.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.

    2017-10-01

    We present the properties of NGC 4993, the host galaxy of GW170817, the first gravitational-wave (GW) event from the merger of a binary neutron star (BNS) system and the first with an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We use both archival photometry and new optical/near-IR imaging and spectroscopy, together with stellar population synthesis models to infer the global properties of the host galaxy. We infer a star formation history peaked at ≳ 10 {Gyr} ago, with subsequent exponential decline leading to a low current star formation rate of 0.01 {M}⊙ yr-1, which we convert into a binary merger timescale probability distribution. We find a median merger timescale of {11.2}-1.4+0.7 Gyr, with a 90% confidence range of 6.8{--}13.6 {Gyr}. This in turn indicates an initial binary separation of ≈ 4.5 {R}⊙ , comparable to the inferred values for Galactic BNS systems. We also use new and archival Hubble Space Telescope images to measure a projected offset of the optical counterpart of 2.1 kpc (0.64r e ) from the center of NGC 4993 and to place a limit of {M}r≳ -7.2 mag on any pre-existing emission, which rules out the brighter half of the globular cluster luminosity function. Finally, the age and offset of the system indicates it experienced a modest natal kick with an upper limit of ˜200 km s-1. Future GW-EM observations of BNS mergers will enable measurement of their population delay time distribution, which will directly inform their viability as the dominant source of r-process enrichment in the universe.

  4. South Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome exhibit greater sensitivity to gonadotropin stimulation with reduced fertilization and ongoing pregnancy rates than their Caucasian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palep-Singh, M; Picton, H M; Vrotsou, K; Maruthini, D; Balen, A H

    2007-10-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous syndrome. In vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is required for PCOS cases that are refractory to standard ovulation induction or have co-existing infertility factors in women with PCOS and Tubal factor subfertility. Assess ethnic variations in response to IVF/ICSI treatment. Observational Comparative study in a University hospital fertility clinic in women with PCOS and Tubal factor subfertility. Women with PCOS (Asians: AP=104; Caucasians: CP=220) and those with tubal factor infertility seeking fertility treatment were assessed (Asians: AC=84; Caucasians: CC=200). Six hundred and eight fresh IVF or ICSI cycles using long protocol of GnRHa suppression and resulting in a fresh embryo transfer were compared. The primary endpoint was to assess the dose of gonadotropins used in the cycles. The secondary outcomes were: total number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization and ongoing clinical pregnancy rates. We found that the South Asian women presented at a younger age for the management of sub-fertility. An extended stimulation phase and Caucasian ethnicity showed an inverse correlation with the number of oocytes retrieved in the PCOS subgroup. Caucasian ethnicity was associated with a higher fertilization rate however increase in body mass index (BMI) and the laboratory technique of IVF appeared to have a negative impact on fertilization rates in the PCOS subgroup. Commencing down regulation on day 1 of the cycles was negatively associated with fertilization rates in the tubal group. In terms of clinical pregnancy rates, the Caucasian PCOS had a 2.5 times (95% CI: 1.25-5) higher chance of an ongoing clinical pregnancy as compared with their Asian counterpart. Also, a unit increase in the basal FSH concentration reduced the odds of pregnancy by 18.6% (95% CI: 1.8-32.6%) in the PCOS group. The Asian PCOS have a greater sensitivity to gonadotropin stimulation with lower fertilization and

  5. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. VII. Properties of the Host Galaxy and Constraints on the Merger Timescale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, P. K.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.; Nicholl, M.; Leja, J.; Conroy, C.; Alexander, K. D.; Margutti, R.; Williams, P. K. G.; Doctor, Z.; Chornock, R.; Villar, V. A.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Annis, J.; Brout, D.; Brown, D. A.; Chen, H. -Y.; Eftekhari, T.; Frieman, J. A.; Holz, D. E.; Metzger, B. D.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.

    2017-10-16

    We present the properties of NGC 4993, the host galaxy of GW170817, the first gravitational wave (GW) event from the merger of a binary neutron star (BNS) system and the first with an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. We use both archival photometry and new optical/near-IR imaging and spectroscopy, together with stellar population synthesis models to infer the global properties of the host galaxy. We infer a star formation history peaked at $\\gtrsim 10$ Gyr ago, with subsequent exponential decline leading to a low current star formation rate of 0.01 M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$, which we convert into a binary merger timescale probability distribution. We find a median merger timescale of $11.2^{+0.7}_{-1.4}$ Gyr, with a 90% confidence range of $6.8-13.6$ Gyr. This in turn indicates an initial binary separation of $\\approx 4.5$ R$_{\\odot}$, comparable to the inferred values for Galactic BNS systems. We also use new and archival $Hubble$ $Space$ $Telescope$ images to measure a projected offset of the optical counterpart of $2.1$ kpc (0.64$r_{e}$) from the center of NGC 4993 and to place a limit of $M_{r} \\gtrsim -7.2$ mag on any pre-existing emission, which rules out the brighter half of the globular cluster luminosity function. Finally, the age and offset of the system indicates it experienced a modest natal kick with an upper limit of $\\sim 200$ km s$^{-1}$. Future GW$-$EM observations of BNS mergers will enable measurement of their population delay time distribution, which will directly inform their viability as the dominant source of $r$-process enrichment in the Universe.

  6. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. II. UV, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves and Comparison to Kilonova Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Berger, E.; Villar, V. A.; Metzger, B. D.; Nicholl, M.; Chornock, R.; Blanchard, P. K.; Fong, W.; Margutti, R.; Soares-Santos, M.; Alexander, K. D.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Brout, D.; Brown, D. A.; Butler, R. E.; Chen, H. -Y.; Diehl, H. T.; Doctor, Z.; Drout, M. R.; Eftekhari, T.; Farr, B.; Finley, D. A.; Foley, R. J.; Frieman, J. A.; Fryer, C. L.; García-Bellido, J.; Gill, M. S. S.; Guillochon, J.; Herner, K.; Holz, D. E.; Kasen, D.; Kessler, R.; Marriner, J.; Matheson, T.; Neilsen, E. H.; Quataert, E.; Palmese, A.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Scolnic, D. M.; Smith, N.; Tucker, D. L.; Williams, P. K. G.; Balbinot, E.; Carlin, J. L.; Cook, E. R.; Durret, F.; Li, T. S.; Lopes, P. A. A.; Lourenço, A. C. C.; Marshall, J. L.; Medina, G. E.; Muir, J.; Muñoz, R. R.; Sauseda, M.; Schlegel, D. J.; Secco, L. F.; Vivas, A. K.; Wester, W.; Zenteno, A.; Zhang, Y.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Banerji, M.; Bechtol, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Castander, F. J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D’Andrea, C. B.; Costa, L. N. da; Davis, C.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fernandez, E.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Giannantonio, T.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; Jain, B.; James, D. J.; Jeltema, T.; Johnson, M. W. G.; Johnson, M. D.; Kent, S.; Krause, E.; Kron, R.; Kuehn, K.; Nuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Lin, H.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Martini, P.; McMahon, R. G.; Menanteau, F.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R. L. C.; Plazas, A. A.; Roe, N.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, M.; Smith, R. C.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Thomas, R. C.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.; Yanny, B.; Zuntz, J.

    2017-10-16

    We present UV, optical, and NIR photometry of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave source from Advanced LIGO/Virgo, the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Our data set extends from the discovery of the optical counterpart at $0.47$ days to $18.5$ days post-merger, and includes observations with the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), Gemini-South/FLAMINGOS-2 (GS/F2), and the {\\it Hubble Space Telescope} ({\\it HST}). The spectral energy distribution (SED) inferred from this photometry at $0.6$ days is well described by a blackbody model with $T\\approx 8300$ K, a radius of $R\\approx 4.5\\times 10^{14}$ cm (corresponding to an expansion velocity of $v\\approx 0.3c$), and a bolometric luminosity of $L_{\\rm bol}\\approx 5\\times10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$. At $1.5$ days we find a multi-component SED across the optical and NIR, and subsequently we observe rapid fading in the UV and blue optical bands and significant reddening of the optical/NIR colors. Modeling the entire data set we find that models with heating from radioactive decay of $^{56}$Ni, or those with only a single component of opacity from $r$-process elements, fail to capture the rapid optical decline and red optical/NIR colors. Instead, models with two components consistent with lanthanide-poor and lanthanide-rich ejecta provide a good fit to the data, the resulting "blue" component has $M_\\mathrm{ej}^\\mathrm{blue}\\approx 0.01$ M$_\\odot$ and $v_\\mathrm{ej}^\\mathrm{blue}\\approx 0.3$c, and the "red" component has $M_\\mathrm{ej}^\\mathrm{red}\\approx 0.04$ M$_\\odot$ and $v_\\mathrm{ej}^\\mathrm{red}\\approx 0.1$c. These ejecta masses are broadly consistent with the estimated $r$-process production rate required to explain the Milky Way $r$-process abundances, providing the first evidence that BNS mergers can be a dominant site of $r$-process enrichment.

  7. The NASA POWER SSE: Deriving the Direct Normal Counterpart from the CERES SYN1deg Hourly Global Horizontal Irradiance during Early 2000 to Near Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T.; Stackhouse, P. W., Jr.; Westberg, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Prediction of Worldwide Energy Resource (POWER) Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) provides solar direct normal irradiance (DNI) data as well as a variety of other solar parameters. The currently available DNIs are monthly means on a quasi-equal-area grid system with grid boxes roughly equivalent to 1 degree longitude by 1 degree latitude around the equator from July 1983 to June 2005, and the data were derived from the GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) monthly mean global horizontal irradiance (GHI, Release 3) and regression analysis of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) data. To improve the quality of the DNI data and push the temporal coverage of the data to near present, we have applied a modified version of the DIRINDEX global-to-beam model to the GEWEX SRB (Release 3) all-sky and clear-sky 3-hourly GHI data and derived their DNI counterparts for the period from July 1983 to December 2007. The results have been validated against the BSRN data. To further expand the data in time to near present, we are now applying the DIRINDEX model to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data. The CERES SYN1deg (Edition 4A) offers hourly all-sky and clear-sky GHIs on a 1 degree longitude by 1 degree latitude grid system from March 2000 to October 2016 as of this writing. Comparisons of the GHIs with their BSRN counterparts show remarkable agreements. Besides the GHIs, the inputs will also include the atmospheric water vapor and surface pressure from the Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and the aerosol optical depth from the Max-Planck Institute Climatology (MAC-v1). Based on the performance of the DIRINDEX model with the GEWEX SRB GHI data, we expect at least equally good or even better results. In this paper, we will show the derived hourly, daily, and monthly mean DNIs from the CERES SYN1deg hourly GHIs from March 2000 to October 2016 and how they compare with the BSRN data.

  8. ROSA/LSTF Test and RELAP5 Analyses on PWR Cold Leg Small-Break LOCA with Accident Management Measure and PKL Counterpart Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Ohtsu, Iwao [Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokaimura (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    An experiment using the Primaerkreislaeufe Versuchsanlage (PKL) was performed for the OECD/NEA PKL-3 Project as a counterpart to a previous test with the large-scale test facility (LSTF) on a cold leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident with an accident management (AM) measure in a pressurized water reactor. Concerning the AM measure, the rate of steam generator (SG) secondary-side depressurization was controlled to achieve a primary depressurization rate of 200 K/h as a common test condition; however, the onset timings of the SG depressurization were different from each other. In both tests, rapid recovery started in the core collapsed liquid level after loop seal clearing, which caused whole core quench. Some discrepancies appeared between the LSTF and PKL test results for the core collapsed liquid level, the cladding surface temperature, and the primary pressure. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code predicted the overall trends of the major thermal-hydraulic responses observed in the LSTF test well, and indicated a remaining problem in the prediction of primary coolant distribution. Results of uncertainty analysis for the LSTF test clarified the influences of the combination of multiple uncertain parameters on peak cladding temperature within the defined uncertain ranges.

  9. ROSA/LSTF Test and RELAP5 Analyses on PWR Cold Leg Small-Break LOCA with Accident Management Measure and PKL Counterpart Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Takeda

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available An experiment using the Primӓrkreislӓufe Versuchsanlage (PKL was performed for the OECD/NEA PKL-3 Project as a counterpart to a previous test with the large-scale test facility (LSTF on a cold leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident with an accident management (AM measure in a pressurized water reactor. Concerning the AM measure, the rate of steam generator (SG secondary-side depressurization was controlled to achieve a primary depressurization rate of 200 K/h as a common test condition; however, the onset timings of the SG depressurization were different from each other. In both tests, rapid recovery started in the core collapsed liquid level after loop seal clearing, which caused whole core quench. Some discrepancies appeared between the LSTF and PKL test results for the core collapsed liquid level, the cladding surface temperature, and the primary pressure. The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code predicted the overall trends of the major thermal-hydraulic responses observed in the LSTF test well, and indicated a remaining problem in the prediction of primary coolant distribution. Results of uncertainty analysis for the LSTF test clarified the influences of the combination of multiple uncertain parameters on peak cladding temperature within the defined uncertain ranges.

  10. A comparison between SALT/SAAO observations and kilonova models for AT 2017gfo: the first electromagnetic counterpart of a gravitational wave transient - GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David A. H.; Andreoni, Igor; Barway, Sudhanshu; Cooke, Jeff; Crawford, Steven M.; Gorbovskoy, Evgeny; Gromadzki, Mariusz; Lipunov, Vladimir; Mao, Jirong; Potter, Stephen B.; Pretorius, Magaretha L.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni; Shara, Michael M.; Väisänen, Petri; Williams, Ted B.

    2018-02-01

    We report on SALT low-resolution optical spectroscopy and optical/IR photometry undertaken with other SAAO telescopes (MASTER-SAAO and IRSF) of the kilonova AT 2017gfo (a.k.a. SSS17a) in the galaxy NGC4993 during the first 10 d of discovery. This event has been identified as the first ever electromagnetic counterpart of a gravitational wave event, namely GW170817, which was detected by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave observatories. The event is likely due to a merger of two neutron stars, resulting in a kilonova explosion. SALT was the third observatory to obtain spectroscopy of AT 2017gfo and the first spectrum, 1.2 d after the merger, is quite blue and shows some broad features, but no identifiable spectral lines and becomes redder by the second night. We compare the spectral and photometric evolution with recent kilonova simulations and conclude that they are in qualitative agreement for post-merger wind models with proton:nucleon ratios of Ye = 0.25-0.30. The blue colour of the first spectrum is consistent with the lower opacity of the lanthanide-free r-process elements in the ejecta. Differences between the models and observations are likely due to the choice of system parameters combined with the absence of atomic data for more elements in the ejecta models.

  11. Amorphous/crystalline (A/C) thermodynamic "rules of thumb": estimating standard thermodynamic data for amorphous materials using standard data for their crystalline counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Diane; Jenkins, H Donald Brooke

    2012-05-07

    Standard thermochemical data (in the form of Δ(f)H° and Δ(f)G°) are available for crystalline (c) materials but rarely for their corresponding amorphous (a) counterparts. This paper establishes correlations between the sets of data for the two material forms (where known), which can then be used as a guideline for estimation of missing data. Accordingly, Δ(f)H°(a)/kJ mol(-1) ≈ 0.993Δ(f)H°(c)/kJ mol(-1) + 12.52 (R(2) = 0.9999; n = 50) and Δ(f)G°/kJ mol(-1) ≈ 0.988Δ(f)H°(c)/kJ mol(-1) + 0.70 (R(2) = 0.9999; n = 10). Much more tentatively, we propose that S°(298)(c)/J K(-1) mol(-1) ≈ 1.084S°(298)(c)/J K(-1) mol(-1) + 6.54 (R(2) = 0.9873; n = 11). An amorphous hydrate enthalpic version of the Difference Rule is also proposed (and tested) in the form [Δ(f)H°(M(p)X(q)·nH(2)O,a) - Δ(f)H°(M(p)X(q),a)]/kJ mol(-1) ≈ Θ(Hf)n ≈ -302.0n, where M(p)X(q)·nH(2)O represents an amorphous hydrate and M(p)X(q) the corresponding amorphous anhydrous parent salt.

  12. Dose fractionation effects in plateau-phase cultures of C3H 10T1/2 cells and their transformed counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, E.M.; Bedford, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of γ-ray dose fractionation effects was made using plateau-phase cultures of C3H 10T1/2 cells and their transformed counterparts in an attempt to simulate basically similar populations of cells that differ primarily in their turnover rates. The status of cell populations with respect to their turnover rates may be an important factor influencing dose fractionation effects in early- and late-responding tissues. In this cell culture system, the rate of cell turnover was approximately three times higher for the plateau-phase transformed cultures. While the single acute dose survival curves for log-phase cells were indistinguishable, there were significant differences between the survival curves for plateau-phase cultures of the two cell types. Both cell lines had a similar capacity for repair of sublethal damage, but untransformed cells had a much greater capacity to repair potentially lethal damage in plateau phase. Multifraction survival curves were determined for both cell lines for doses per fraction ranging from 9.0 to 0.8 Gy, and from these isoeffect curves of log total dose versus dose per fraction were derived. The isoeffect curve for the slowly cycling, untransformed cells was found to be appreciably steeper than that for the more rapidly cycling transformed cells, a finding consistent with previously reported differences in dose fractionation isoeffect curves for early- and late-responding tissues in vivo

  13. Mesenchymal stem cells from cortical bone demonstrate increased clonal incidence, potency, and developmental capacity compared to their bone marrow–derived counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Blashki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we show that matrix dense cortical bone is the more potent compartment of bone than bone marrow as a stromal source for mesenchymal stem cells as isolated from adult rats. Lineage-depleted cortical bone-mesenchymal stem cells demonstrated >150-fold enrichment of colony forming unit–fibroblasts per cell incidence. compared to lineage-depleted bone marrow-mesenchymal stem cells, corresponding to a 70-fold increase in absolute recovered colony forming unit–fibroblasts. The composite phenotype Lin−/CD45−/CD31−/VLA-1+/Thy-1+ enriched for clonogenic mesenchymal stem cells solely from cortical bone–derived cells from which 70% of clones spontaneously differentiated into all lineages of bone, cartilage, and adipose. Both populations generated vascularized bone tissue within subcutaneous implanted collagen scaffolds; however, cortical bone–derived cells formed significantly more osteoid than bone marrow counterparts, quantified by histology. The data demonstrate that our isolation protocol identifies and validates mesenchymal stem cells with superior clonal, proliferative, and developmental potential from cortical bone compared to the bone marrow niche although marrow persists as the typical source for mesenchymal stem cells both in the literature and current pre-clinical therapies.

  14. Identification of cis-acting elements on positive-strand subgenomic mRNA required for the synthesis of negative-strand counterpart in bovine coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Po-Yuan; Wu, Hung-Yi

    2014-07-30

    It has been demonstrated that, in addition to genomic RNA, sgmRNA is able to serve as a template for the synthesis of the negative-strand [(-)-strand] complement. However, the cis-acting elements on the positive-strand [(+)-strand] sgmRNA required for (-)-strand sgmRNA synthesis have not yet been systematically identified. In this study, we employed real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to analyze the cis-acting elements on bovine coronavirus (BCoV) sgmRNA 7 required for the synthesis of its (-)-strand counterpart by deletion mutagenesis. The major findings are as follows. (1) Deletion of the 5'-terminal leader sequence on sgmRNA 7 decreased the synthesis of the (-)-strand sgmRNA complement. (2) Deletions of the 3' untranslated region (UTR) bulged stem-loop showed no effect on (-)-strand sgmRNA synthesis; however, deletion of the 3' UTR pseudoknot decreased the yield of (-)-strand sgmRNA. (3) Nucleotides positioned from -15 to -34 of the sgmRNA 7 3'-terminal region are required for efficient (-)-strand sgmRNA synthesis. (4) Nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (-1) of sgmRNA 7 is correlated to the efficiency of (-)-strand sgmRNA synthesis. These results together suggest, in principle, that the 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences on sgmRNA 7 harbor cis-acting elements are critical for efficient (-)-strand sgmRNA synthesis in BCoV.

  15. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Two Varieties of Genetically Modified (GM) Embrapa 5.1 Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Non-GM Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Geisi M; Valentim-Neto, Pedro A; Mello, Carla S; Arisi, Ana C M

    2015-12-09

    The genetically modified (GM) common bean event Embrapa 5.1 was commercially approved in Brazil in 2011; it is resistant to golden mosaic virus infection. In the present work grain proteome profiles of two Embrapa 5.1 common bean varieties, Pérola and Pontal, and their non-GM counterparts were compared by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by mass spectrometry (MS). Analyses detected 23 spots differentially accumulated between GM Pérola and non-GM Pérola and 21 spots between GM Pontal and non-GM Pontal, although they were not the same proteins in Pérola and Pontal varieties, indicating that the variability observed may not be due to the genetic transformation. Among them, eight proteins were identified in Pérola varieties, and four proteins were identified in Pontal. Moreover, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 2-DE data, and variation between varieties was explained in the first two principal components. This work provides a first 2-DE-MS/MS-based analysis of Embrapa 5.1 common bean grains.

  16. A first-principles study of cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) and its alloyed counterparts: Elastic constants, elastic anisotropies, and isotropic elastic moduli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, G., E-mail: g-ghosh@northwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Robert R. McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208-3108 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    A comprehensive computational study of elastic properties of cementite (Fe{sub 3}C) and its alloyed counterparts (M{sub 3}C (M = Al, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Si, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zr, Cr{sub 2}FeC and CrFe{sub 2}C) having the crystal structure of Fe{sub 3}C is carried out employing electronic density-functional theory (DFT), all-electron PAW pseudopotentials and the generalized gradient approximation for the exchange-correlation energy (GGA). Specifically, as a part of our systematic study of cohesive properties of solids and in the spirit of materials genome, following properties are calculated: (i) single-crystal elastic constants, C{sub ij}, of above M{sub 3}Cs; (ii) anisotropies of bulk, Young’s and shear moduli, and Poisson’s ratio based on calculated C{sub ij}s, demonstrating their extreme anisotropies; (iii) isotropic (polycrystalline) elastic moduli (bulk, shear, Young’s moduli and Poisson’s ratio) of M{sub 3}Cs by homogenization of calculated C{sub ij}s; and (iv) acoustic Debye temperature, θ{sub D}, of M{sub 3}Cs based on calculated C{sub ij}s. We provide a critical appraisal of available data of polycrystalline elastic properties of alloyed cementite. Calculated single crystal properties may be incorporated in anisotropic constitutive models to develop and test microstructure-processing-property-performance links in multi-phase materials where cementite is a constituent phase.

  17. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. III. Optical and UV Spectra of a Blue Kilonova from Fast Polar Ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Kasen, D.; Metzger, B. D.; Elias, J.; Briceño, C.; Alexander, K. D.; Blanchard, P. K.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Eftekhari, T.; Fong, W.; Margutti, R.; Villar, V. A.; Williams, P. K. G.; Brown, W.; Annis, J.; Bahramian, A.; Brout, D.; Brown, D. A.; Chen, H. -Y.; Clemens, J. C.; Dennihy, E.; Dunlap, B.; Holz, D. E.; Marchesini, E.; Massaro, F.; Moskowitz, N.; Pelisoli, I.; Rest, A.; Ricci, F.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Strader, J.

    2017-10-16

    We present optical and ultraviolet spectra of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave (GW) source, the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Spectra were obtained nightly between 1.5 and 9.5 days post-merger, using the SOAR and Magellan telescopes; the UV spectrum was obtained with the \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} at 5.5 days. Our data reveal a rapidly-fading blue component ($T\\approx5500$ K at 1.5 days) that quickly reddens; spectra later than $\\gtrsim 4.5$ days peak beyond the optical regime. The spectra are mostly featureless, although we identify a possible weak emission line at $\\sim 7900$ \\AA\\ at $t\\lesssim 4.5$ days. The colours, rapid evolution and featureless spectrum are consistent with a "blue" kilonova from polar ejecta comprised mainly of light $r$-process nuclei with atomic mass number $A\\lesssim 140$. This indicates a sight-line within $\\theta_{\\rm obs}\\lesssim 45^{\\circ}$ of the orbital axis. Comparison to models suggests $\\sim0.03$ M$_\\odot$ of blue ejecta, with a velocity of $\\sim 0.3c$. The required lanthanide fraction is $\\sim 10^{-4}$, but this drops to $<10^{-5}$ in the outermost ejecta. The large velocities point to a dynamical origin, rather than a disk wind, for this blue component, suggesting that both binary constituents are neutron stars (as opposed to a binary consisting of a neutron star and a black hole). For dynamical ejecta, the high mass favors a small neutron star radius of $\\lesssim 12$ km. This mass also supports the idea that neutron star mergers are a major contributor to $r$-process nucleosynthesis.

  18. Characterization of canine osteosarcoma by array comparative genomic hybridization and RT-qPCR: signatures of genomic imbalance in canine osteosarcoma parallel the human counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstadt, Andrea Y; Motsinger-Reif, Alison; Thomas, Rachael; Kisseberth, William C; Guillermo Couto, C; Duval, Dawn L; Nielsen, Dahlia M; Modiano, Jaime F; Breen, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most commonly diagnosed malignant bone tumor in humans and dogs, characterized in both species by extremely complex karyotypes exhibiting high frequencies of genomic imbalance. Evaluation of genomic signatures in human OS using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has assisted in uncovering genetic mechanisms that result in disease phenotype. Previous low-resolution (10-20 Mb) aCGH analysis of canine OS identified a wide range of recurrent DNA copy number aberrations, indicating extensive genomic instability. In this study, we profiled 123 canine OS tumors by 1 Mb-resolution aCGH to generate a dataset for direct comparison with current data for human OS, concluding that several high frequency aberrations in canine and human OS are orthologous. To ensure complete coverage of gene annotation, we identified the human refseq genes that map to these orthologous aberrant dog regions and found several candidate genes warranting evaluation for OS involvement. Specifically, subsequenct FISH and qRT-PCR analysis of RUNX2, TUSC3, and PTEN indicated that expression levels correlated with genomic copy number status, showcasing RUNX2 as an OS associated gene and TUSC3 as a possible tumor suppressor candidate. Together these data demonstrate the ability of genomic comparative oncology to identify genetic abberations which may be important for OS progression. Large scale screening of genomic imbalance in canine OS further validates the use of the dog as a suitable model for human cancers, supporting the idea that dysregulation discovered in canine cancers will provide an avenue for complementary study in human counterparts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Identification of Cis-Acting Elements on Positive-Strand Subgenomic mRNA Required for the Synthesis of Negative-Strand Counterpart in Bovine Coronavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Yuan Yeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that, in addition to genomic RNA, sgmRNA is able to serve as a template for the synthesis of the negative-strand [(−-strand] complement. However, the cis-acting elements on the positive-strand [(+-strand] sgmRNA required for (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis have not yet been systematically identified. In this study, we employed real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to analyze the cis-acting elements on bovine coronavirus (BCoV sgmRNA 7 required for the synthesis of its (−-strand counterpart by deletion mutagenesis. The major findings are as follows. (1 Deletion of the 5'-terminal leader sequence on sgmRNA 7 decreased the synthesis of the (−-strand sgmRNA complement. (2 Deletions of the 3' untranslated region (UTR bulged stem-loop showed no effect on (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis; however, deletion of the 3' UTR pseudoknot decreased the yield of (−-strand sgmRNA. (3 Nucleotides positioned from −15 to −34 of the sgmRNA 7 3'-terminal region are required for efficient (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis. (4 Nucleotide species at the 3'-most position (−1 of sgmRNA 7 is correlated to the efficiency of (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis. These results together suggest, in principle, that the 5'- and 3'-terminal sequences on sgmRNA 7 harbor cis-acting elements are critical for efficient (−-strand sgmRNA synthesis in BCoV.

  20. Brucella-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide chimeras are less permeable to hydrophobic probes and more sensitive to cationic peptides and EDTA than are their native Brucella sp. counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, E; Moreno, E; Moriyón, I; Pizarro-Cerdá, J; Weintraub, A; Gorvel, J P

    1996-01-01

    A rough (R) Brucella abortus 45/20 mutant was more sensitive to the bactericidal activity of polymyxin B and lactoferricin B than was its smooth (S) counterpart but considerably more resistant than Salmonella montevideo. The outer membrane (OM) and isolated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of S. montevideo showed a higher affinity for these cationic peptides than did the corresponding B. abortus OM and LPS. We took advantage of the moderate sensitivity of R B. abortus to cationic peptides to construct live R B. abortus-S-LPS chimeras to test the activities of polymyxin B, lactoferricin B, and EDTA. Homogeneous and abundant peripheral distribution of the heterologous S-LPS was observed on the surface of the chimeras, and this coating had no effect on the viability or morphology of the cells. When the heterologous LPS corresponded to the less sensitive bacterium S B. abortus S19, the chimeras were more resistant to cationic peptides; in contrast, when the S-LPS was from the more sensitive bacterium S. montevideo, the chimeras were more susceptible to the action of peptides and EDTA. A direct correlation between the amount of heterologous S-LPS on the surface of chimeric Brucella cells and peptide sensitivity was observed. Whereas the damage produced by polymyxin B in S. montevideo and B. abortus-S. montevideo S-LPS chimeras was manifested mainly as OM blebbing and inner membrane rolling, lactoferricin B caused inner membrane detachment, vacuolization, and the formation of internal electron-dense granules in these cells. Native S and R B. abortus strains were permeable to the hydrophobic probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN). In contrast, only reduced amounts of NPN partitioned into the OMs of the S. montevideo and B. abortus-S. montevideo S-LPS chimeras. Following peptide exposure, accelerated NPN uptake similar to that observed for S. montevideo was detected for the B. abortus-S. montevideo LPS chimeras. The partition of NPN into native or EDTA-, polymyxin B-, or

  1. Brucella-Salmonella lipopolysaccharide chimeras are less permeable to hydrophobic probes and more sensitive to cationic peptides and EDTA than are their native Brucella sp. counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, E; Moreno, E; Moriyón, I; Pizarro-Cerdá, J; Weintraub, A; Gorvel, J P

    1996-10-01

    A rough (R) Brucella abortus 45/20 mutant was more sensitive to the bactericidal activity of polymyxin B and lactoferricin B than was its smooth (S) counterpart but considerably more resistant than Salmonella montevideo. The outer membrane (OM) and isolated lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of S. montevideo showed a higher affinity for these cationic peptides than did the corresponding B. abortus OM and LPS. We took advantage of the moderate sensitivity of R B. abortus to cationic peptides to construct live R B. abortus-S-LPS chimeras to test the activities of polymyxin B, lactoferricin B, and EDTA. Homogeneous and abundant peripheral distribution of the heterologous S-LPS was observed on the surface of the chimeras, and this coating had no effect on the viability or morphology of the cells. When the heterologous LPS corresponded to the less sensitive bacterium S B. abortus S19, the chimeras were more resistant to cationic peptides; in contrast, when the S-LPS was from the more sensitive bacterium S. montevideo, the chimeras were more susceptible to the action of peptides and EDTA. A direct correlation between the amount of heterologous S-LPS on the surface of chimeric Brucella cells and peptide sensitivity was observed. Whereas the damage produced by polymyxin B in S. montevideo and B. abortus-S. montevideo S-LPS chimeras was manifested mainly as OM blebbing and inner membrane rolling, lactoferricin B caused inner membrane detachment, vacuolization, and the formation of internal electron-dense granules in these cells. Native S and R B. abortus strains were permeable to the hydrophobic probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN). In contrast, only reduced amounts of NPN partitioned into the OMs of the S. montevideo and B. abortus-S. montevideo S-LPS chimeras. Following peptide exposure, accelerated NPN uptake similar to that observed for S. montevideo was detected for the B. abortus-S. montevideo LPS chimeras. The partition of NPN into native or EDTA-, polymyxin B-, or

  2. Disease features and outcomes in United States lupus patients of Hispanic origin and their Mestizo counterparts in Latin America: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte-Gil, Manuel F; Pons-Estel, Guillermo J; Molineros, Julio; Wojdyla, Daniel; McGwin, Gerald; Nath, Swapan K; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta; Alarcón, Graciela S

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate disease features and outcomes in two populations with significant Amerindian ancestry. Hispanic patients (from Texas) from the Lupus in Minorities: Nature versus Nurture (LUMINA) cohort and Mestizo patients from the Grupo Latino Americano De Estudio del Lupus or Latin American Group for the Study of Lupus (GLADEL) cohort were included. Disease features and outcomes were evaluated at baseline and last visit. Admixture informative markers of Mestizo Genoma de Lupus Eritematoso Sistémico Network consortium (GENLES) patients and Hispanic LUMINA patients were compared. Univariable analyses were performed using Chi square or Student's t test as appropriate. Multivariable analyses adjusting for possible confounders were carried out using Poisson, logistic or Cox regression models as appropriate. A total of 114 LUMINA and 619 GLADEL patients were included. GLADEL patients had accrued more damage at baseline, but the opposite was the case at last visit. Being from LUMINA was a risk factor for damage accrual, even after adjusting for possible confounders [relative risk (RR) 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58]. Also, LUMINA patients have a higher risk of mortality than GLADEL patients [hazard ratio (HR) 2.37, 95% CI 1.10, 5.15], having 5-year survival of 85.6% and 94.5%, respectively. In addition, 79 LUMINA patients and 744 Mestizo GENLES patients were evaluated in order to compare genetic ancestry between the two groups; GENLES patients had a higher proportion of European ancestry (48.5% vs 43.3%, P = 0.003) and a lower proportion of Asian ancestry (3.7% vs 4.9%, P = 0.048), but the proportions of Amerindian and African ancestry were comparable in both. USA Hispanic patients seemed to have a poorer prognosis than their counterparts from Latin America, despite having a comparable genetic background. Socioeconomic factors may account for these observations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights

  3. Influence of macrocyclic chelators on the targeting properties of (68Ga-labeled synthetic affibody molecules: comparison with (111In-labeled counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Strand

    Full Text Available Affibody molecules are a class of small (7 kDa non-immunoglobulin scaffold-based affinity proteins, which have demonstrated substantial potential as probes for radionuclide molecular imaging. The use of positron emission tomography (PET would further increase the resolution and quantification accuracy of Affibody-based imaging. The rapid in vivo kinetics of Affibody molecules permit the use of the generator-produced radionuclide (68Ga (T1/2=67.6 min. Earlier studies have demonstrated that the chemical nature of chelators has a substantial influence on the biodistribution properties of Affibody molecules. To determine an optimal labeling approach, the macrocyclic chelators 1,4,7,10-tetraazacylododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA, 1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N,N-triacetic acid (NOTA and 1-(1,3-carboxypropyl-1,4,7- triazacyclononane-4,7-diacetic acid (NODAGA were conjugated to the N-terminus of the synthetic Affibody molecule ZHER2:S1 targeting HER2. Affibody molecules were labeled with (68Ga, and their binding specificity and cellular processing were evaluated. The biodistribution of (68Ga-DOTA-ZHER2:S1, (68Ga-NOTA-ZHER2:S1 and (68Ga-NODAGA-ZHER2:S1, as well as that of their (111In-labeled counterparts, was evaluated in BALB/C nu/nu mice bearing HER2-expressing SKOV3 xenografts. The tumor uptake for (68Ga-DOTA-ZHER2:S1 (17.9 ± 0.7%IA/g was significantly higher than for both (68Ga-NODAGA-ZHER2:S1 (16.13 ± 0.67%IA/g and (68Ga-NOTA-ZHER2:S1 (13 ± 3%IA/g at 2 h after injection. (68Ga-NODAGA-ZHER2:S1 had the highest tumor-to-blood ratio (60 ± 10 in comparison with both (68Ga-DOTA-ZHER2:S1 (28 ± 4 and (68Ga-NOTA-ZHER2:S1 (42 ± 11. The tumor-to-liver ratio was also higher for (68Ga-NODAGA-ZHER2:S1 (7 ± 2 than the DOTA and NOTA conjugates (5.5 ± 0.6 vs.3.3 ± 0.6. The influence of chelator on the biodistribution and targeting properties was less pronounced for (68Ga than for (111In. The results of this study demonstrate that macrocyclic

  4. Spectroscopic study of the optical counterpart to the fast X-ray transient IGR J17544-2619 based on observations at the 1.5-m RTT-150 telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikmaev, I. F.; Nikolaeva, E. A.; Shimansky, V. V.; Galeev, A. I.; Zhuchkov, R. Ya.; Irtuganov, E. N.; Melnikov, S. S.; Sakhibullin, N. A.; Grebenev, S. A.; Sharipova, L. M.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of our long-term photometric and spectroscopic observations at the Russian-Turkish RTT-150 telescope for the optical counterpart to one of the best-known sources, representatives of the class of fast X-ray transients, IGR J17544-2619. Based on our optical data, we have determined for the first time the orbital and physical parameters of the binary system by the methods of Doppler spectroscopy.We have calculated theoretical spectra of the optical counterpart by applying non- LTE corrections for selected lines and obtained the parameters of the stellar atmosphere ( T eff = 33 000 K, log g = 3.85, R = 9.5 R ⊙, and M = 23 M ⊙). The latter suggest that the optical star is not a supergiant as has been thought previously.

  5. The Punta del Este Suspect Terrane: a possible counterpart in Eastern Uruguay of the Namaqua Complex and Gariep Belt in Western Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Basei, M.; Peel, E.

    2005-01-01

    two tectono-stratigraphic sets with the eastern portion occupied by parautochthonous units of a passive continental margin (Port Nolloth Zone) and a western allochthonous domain (Marmora Terrane). The evidences of blueschist facies metamorphism, countless times referred in the literature (Kröner, 1974; Porada, 1979), have been recently ruled out by Frimmel and Hartnady (1992). The sedimentation period of the Gariep Group is attributed to the Neoproterozoic because it lays discordantly on the rhyolite units (Ross Pinah Formation) dated by the single zircon evaporation technique as 735Ma (Frimmel, 1995). Meert §& Van der Voo (1994) correlated diamictite intercalations, probably of age between 580 and 560 Ma, in the upper portion of the Gariep Group with the glacial deposits of Vendian age. The northeastern portion of the Gariep Group is covered by not metamorphosed sediments of the Nama Group. In the South-American counterpart, that is, the South-Brazilian region and the Uruguayan territory, an old western domain is observed The Central Domain is represented by the Rio de La Plata Craton (sensus Almeida et al.,1973) ,by de Nico Perez Terrane (Bossi et al.,1992 ;Valentines Block,PavasTerrane (Preciozzi et al.,1979) and the Rivera granitic-gneissic complex ..All of them were generated or intensively reworked during the Neoproterozoic, distributed along its eastern border and as a whole organised in the NE-SW direction. In these domain, a granitic-migmatitic infrastructure and sedimentary basins and low- to medium metamorphic grade covers predominate, related to the Lavalleja-supergroup and Zanja del Cerro Grande Group The Rocha formation is developed as a metasedimentary cover in the Punta del Este Terrane,being associated to the Atlantic Domain. Geochronologic studies recently performed in the southeastern portion of Uruguay allowed the identification of igneous rocks with U-Pb ages in zircons ranging from 650 to 1000Ma. These ages, added to the geological

  6. Asynchronous spore germination in isogenic natural isolates of Saccharomyces paradoxus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelkens, Rike B; Miller, Eric L; Greig, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Spores from wild yeast isolates often show great variation in the size of colonies they produce, for largely unknown reasons. Here we measure the colonies produced from single spores from six different wild Saccharomyces paradoxus strains. We found remarkable variation in spore colony sizes, even among spores that were genetically identical. Different strains had different amounts of variation in spore colony sizes, and variation was not affected by the number of preceding meioses, or by spore maturation time. We used time-lapse photography to show that wild strains also have high variation in spore germination timing, providing a likely mechanism for the variation in spore colony sizes. When some spores from a laboratory strain make small colonies, or no colonies, it usually indicates a genetic or meiotic fault. Here, we demonstrate that in wild strains spore colony size variation is normal. We discuss and assess potential adaptive and non-adaptive explanations for this variation. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Quantitative Epigenetics Through Epigenomic Perturbation of Isogenic Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johannes, Frank; Colomé Tatché, Maria

    Interindividual differences in chromatin states at a locus (epialleles) can result in gene expression changes that are sometimes transmitted across generations. In this way, they can contribute to heritable phenotypic variation in natural and experimental populations independent of DNA sequence.

  8. Metabolome Comparison of Transgenic and Non-transgenic Rice by Statistical Analysis of FTIR and NMR Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keykhosrow Keymanesh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern biotechnology, based on recombinant DNA techniques, has made it possible to introduce new traits with great potential for crop improvement. However, concerns about unintended effects of gene transformation that possibly threaten environment or consumer health have persuaded scientists to set up pre-release tests on genetically modified organisms. Assessment of ‘substantial equivalence’ concept that established by comparison of genetically modified organism with a comparator with a history of safe use could be the first step of a comprehensive risk assessment. Metabolite level is the richest in performance of changes which stem from genetic or environmental factors. Since assessment of all metabolites in detail is very costly and practically impossible, statistical evaluation of processed data of grain spectroscopic values could be a time and cost effective substitution for complex chemical analysis. To investigate the ability of multivariate statistical techniques in comparison of metabolomes as well as testing a method for such comparisons with available tools, a transgenic rice in combination with its traditionally bred parent were used as test material, and the discriminant analysis were applied as supervised method and principal component analysis as unsupervised classification method on the processed data which were extracted from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data of powdered rice and rice extraction and barley grain samples, of which the latter was considered as control. The results confirmed the capability of statistics, even with initial data processing applications in metabolome studies. Meanwhile, this study confirms that the supervised method results in more distinctive results.

  9. Microfungi on the kernels of transgenic and non-transgenic maize damaged by the European corn borer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remešová, J.; Kolařík, Miroslav; Prášil, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 2 (2007), s. 205-213 ISSN 1211-0981 Grant - others:GA MZe(CZ) 1B53043 Program:1B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : bt-maize * microfungi * plant protection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  10. Extraction and separation of water soluble proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis-transgenic and non-transgenic maize species by CZE

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sázelová, Petra; Kašička, Václav; Ibanez, E.; Cifuentes, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 21 (2009), s. 3801-3808 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA203/09/0675 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bacillus thuringiensis -transgenic maize * CZE-UV profiling * Maize proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.551, year: 2009

  11. Transplante isogênico de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado de ratos: metodologia para separação e purificação das ilhotas de Langerhans Isogenic islet transplantation on the rat liver: Method for isolation and purification of the rat islets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleazar CHAIB

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A maior indicação do transplante de pâncreas ou de ilhotas de Langerhans é o diabetes mellitus do tipo I. O processo deve suprir as necessidades de insulina mantendo os níveis glicêmicos dentro da normalidade. Estudou-se o transplante isogênico de ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado de ratos WAG-RT1u. Com o método de separação e purificação das ilhotas de Langerhans obteve-se 2.834 ± 551,64 ilhotas com pureza de 83 ± 2,45%. O transplante de 2.834 ± 551,64 ilhotas de Langerhans no fígado destes animais, normalizou a glicemia que chegou a 35 mmol/L após indução do diabetes pela estreptozotocina, ficando em 9,62 ± 2,65 mmol/L nos primeiros 10 dias após o enxerto e 7,43 ± 0,27 mmol/L nos dias subseqüentes (P The major indication for pancreas or islet transplantation is diabetes mellitus type I. This process has to supply the insulin necessity keeping glucose under control. We have studied isogenic islet transplantation on the rat (WAG-RT1u liver. The method of isolation and purification of the islets obtained 2.834 ± 551,64 islets with purity of 83 ± 2,45%. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and seric glucose prior transplantation was 35 mmol/L. The islet transplantation of 2.834 ± 551,64 islets in the rat liver has normalized glucose test from 9,62 ± 2,65 mmol/L 10 days after transplantation to 7,43 ± 0,27 mmol/L later in the follow-up (P <0,05. The median survival time of the islets was 73 days. In conclusion both the method of isolation and purification of the islets and islet transplantation was effective in the control of the diabetes induced by streptozotocin with median survival time of both islet and rat more than 73 days when rats were sacrificied.

  12. Effect of surface reactions on steel, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} counterparts on their tribological performance with polytetrafluoroethylene filled composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, J.T.; Top, M. [Materials Innovation Institute M2i, Department of Applied Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Ivashenko, O.; Rudolf, P. [Department of Surfaces and Thin Films, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Pei, Y.T., E-mail: y.pei@rug.nl [Materials Innovation Institute M2i, Department of Applied Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Department of Advanced Production Engineering, Engineering and Technology Institute Groningen, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); De Hosson, J.Th.M., E-mail: j.t.m.de.hosson@rug.nl [Materials Innovation Institute M2i, Department of Applied Physics, Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • The influence of surface reactions with PTFE on the tribo-performance of different counterparts is revealed. • Experiments confirm that friction can be greatly reduced by two F-terminated surfaces sliding over each other. • Al−F and Fe−F chemical bonding form on the surface of alumina and steel counterpart balls during sliding against PTFE-containing composite. • No Si−F bonding formed on Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ball under the same condition, leading to higher friction and wear. - Abstract: The influence of surface reactions on the tribo-performance of steel, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} balls sliding against polytetrafluoroethylene/SiO{sub 2}/epoxy composites was investigated. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball were found to exhibit the best tribo-performance, namely a low coefficient of friction and the lowest wear rates of both the composites and the counterpart ball, when sliding against the PTFE filled composites. The difference in the tribo-performance of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball and the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ball can neither be attributed to the different morphology of the worn composite surfaces nor to the amount of PTFE transferred onto the wear surfaces. Instead we found that the friction is greatly reduced in the case of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ball because two fluoro-terminated surfaces are sliding over each other; in fact, the formation of Al−F bonding was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  13. Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, J. L.; Burns, E.; Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Jenke, P.; Blackburn, L.; Briggs, M. S.; Broida, J.; Camp, J.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012. At the time of the LIGO triggers on LVT151012 and GW151226, GBM was observing 68% and 83% of the localization regions, and LAT was observing 47% and 32%, respectively. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for characterizing the flux upper bounds across large areas of the sky. Due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, differences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.

  14. SEARCHING THE GAMMA-RAY SKY FOR COUNTERPARTS TO GRAVITATIONAL WAVE SOURCES: FERMI GAMMA-RAY BURST MONITO R AND LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF LVT151012 AND GW151226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racusin, J. L.; Camp, J.; Singer, L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Burns, E. [Physics Dept, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Littenberg, T.; Cleveland, W. [Universities Space Research Association, 320 Sparkman Dr. Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Hui, C. M. [Astrophysics Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Jenke, P.; Briggs, M. S.; Bhat, P. N. [CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Blackburn, L. [LIGO, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Broida, J.; Christensen, N. [Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, MN 55057 (United States); Shawhan, P. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Veitch, J. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fitzpatrick, G. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Stillorgan Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Gibby, M. H. [Jacobs Technology, Inc., Huntsville, AL (United States); Collaboration: Fermi LAT Collaboration; and others

    2017-01-20

    We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012. At the time of the LIGO triggers on LVT151012 and GW151226, GBM was observing 68% and 83% of the localization regions, and LAT was observing 47% and 32%, respectively. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for characterizing the flux upper bounds across large areas of the sky. Due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, differences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.

  15. 中国灾区重建对口支援政策之分析——以汶川地震为例%An Analysis on Counterpart Assistance Policy for Wenchuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文伟; 黄月珍

    2012-01-01

    本文就Popple&Leighninger’s(2011)“抉择分析”(ChoiceAnalysis),针对中国汶川救灾重建《对口支援》政策进行四个层面的分析:(一)筛选基础;(二)资金开源;(三)政策推行;(四)受益类型。进而,带出中国垂直的政策制定结构的特点,供国外治理灾害参考、对比。%The aim of this paper is to contribute to knowledge on the post-disaster restoration in China, within the context of a twinned provinces assistance policy. Using Popple & Leighninger's (2011) "choice analysis", this paper examines four dimensions of China's counterpart assistance policy decisions : bases of allocations; financing benefits; delivery structure; and types of benefits. Furthermore, much scholarship on China emphasizes its vertical policy-making structure and does not pay as much attention to its horizontal approach of policy administration. China's counterpart assistance policy serves to illustrate the horizontal nature of partnerships in China.

  16. Isoperiodic classical systems and their quantum counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asorey, M.; Carinena, J.F.; Marmo, G.; Perelomov, A.

    2007-01-01

    One-dimensional isoperiodic classical systems have been first analyzed by Abel. Abel's characterization can be extended for singular potentials and potentials which are not defined on the whole real line. The standard shear equivalence of isoperiodic potentials can also be extended by using reflection and inversion transformations. We provide a full characterization of isoperiodic rational potentials showing that they are connected by translations, reflections or Joukowski transformations. Upon quantization many of these isoperiodic systems fail to exhibit identical quantum energy spectra. This anomaly occurs at order O(h 2 ) because semiclassical corrections of energy levels of order O(h) are identical for all isoperiodic systems. We analyze families of systems where this quantum anomaly occurs and some special systems where the spectral identity is preserved by quantization. Conversely, we point out the existence of isospectral quantum systems which do not correspond to isoperiodic classical systems

  17. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. VI. Radio Constraints on a Relativistic Jet and Predictions for Late-time Emission from the Kilonova Ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, K. D.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.; Williams, P. K. G.; Guidorzi, C.; Margutti, R.; Metzger, B. D.; Annis, J.; Blanchard, P. K.; Brout, D.; Brown, D. A.; Chen, H. -Y.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Drout, M.; Eftekhari, T.; Frieman, J.; Holz, D. E.; Nicholl, M.; Rest, A.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Villar, V. A.

    2017-10-16

    We present Very Large Array (VLA) and Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array ALMA radio observations of GW\\,170817, the first Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo gravitational wave (GW) event from a binary neutron star merger and the first GW event with an electromagnetic (EM) counterpart. Our data include the first observations following the discovery of the optical transient at both the centimeter ($13.7$ hours post merger) and millimeter ($2.41$ days post merger) bands. We detect faint emission at 6 GHz at 19.47 and 39.23 days after the merger, but not in an earlier observation at 2.46 d. We do not detect cm/mm emission at the position of the optical counterpart at frequencies of 10-97.5 GHz at times ranging from 0.6 to 30 days post merger, ruling out an on-axis short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) for energies $\\gtrsim 10^{48}$ erg. For fiducial SGRB parameters, our limits require an observer viewer angle of $\\gtrsim 20^{\\circ}$. The radio and X-ray data can be jointly explained as the afterglow emission from an SGRB with a jet energy of $\\sim 10^{49}-10^{50}$ erg that exploded in a uniform density environment with $n\\sim 10^{-4}-10^{-2}$ cm$^{-3}$, viewed at an angle of $\\sim 20^{\\circ}-40^{\\circ}$ from the jet axis. Using the results of our light curve and spectral modeling, in conjunction with the inference of the circumbinary density, we predict the emergence of late-time radio emission from the deceleration of the kilonova (KN) ejecta on a timescale of $\\sim 5-10$ years that will remain detectable for decades with next-generation radio facilities, making GW\\,170817 a compelling target for long-term radio monitoring.

  18. Uncommon disorders and decay in near-isogenic lines of melon and reference cultivars Acidentes fisiológicos e podridões atípicas em linhas quase-isogénicas de melão e em cultivares de referência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Postharvest disorders and rots can produce important economic losses in fruits stored for long time for exportation. The genetic and physiological basis of some disorders in melon (Cucumis melo L. are unknown and particularly the possible relation with climacteric behavior. A collection of melon near-isogenic lines (NILs (SC3-5 and seven more showing climacteric and two non-climacteric ripening pattern were analyzed to study genetic and physiological aspects of fruit disorders and rots. Two non-climacteric (Nicolás; Inodorus Group; and Shongwan Charmi PI161375, Conomon Group and two climacteric cultivars (Fado, Reticulatus Group; Védrantais, Cantaloupensis Group were used as reference. The field was divided in eight blocks containing one three-plant replication for each NIL, two for the parental cultivar Piel de Sapo and one or two for the reference cultivars. Replications evaluated were more than six in the cultivars studied. Plant problems included aphids, powdery mildew, and leaf wind injury. Preharvest fruit disorders included whole fruit cracking in cultivar Védrantais and NIL 5M2, and stylar-end cracking in cultivar Fado. Climacteric NILs with yellow skin were particularly affected by over-ripening, stylar-end cracking, and sunburn during cultivation. At harvest, two NILs showed slight placental tissue necrosis which was inherited from SC and were also detected after storage. Other uncommon disorders seen at harvest or 30 days after storage at 8ºC included warted skin (scarring, flesh discoloration (light brown or translucent areas, hollow flesh disorder, and deep furrow netting inherited from SC. Less common rots included grey mould, bacterial soft rot, Penicillium rot, cottony leak and internal Cladosporium rot. Stylar-end hardness below 20 N·mm-1 was associated with cracking and softening. The incidence of the disorders and rots was too low to confirm that the genetic component played a role in their development

  19. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Osteoarthritic Synovium Are a Distinct Population Compared to Their Bone-Marrow Counterparts regarding Surface Marker Distribution and Immunomodulation of Allogeneic CD4+ T-Cell Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Hagmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The participation of an inflammatory joint milieu has been described in osteoarthritis (OA pathogenesis. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs play an important role in modulating inflammatory processes. Based on previous studies in an allogeneic T-cell coculture model, we aimed at further determining the role of synovial MSCs in OA pathogenesis. Methods. Bone-marrow (BM and synovial membrane (SM MSCs from hip joints of late stage OA patients and CD4+ T-cells from healthy donors were analysed regarding surface marker expression before and after coculture. Proliferation upon CD3/CD28 stimulation and cytokine analyses were compared between MSCs. Results. SM-MSCs differed from BM-MSCs in several surface markers and their osteogenic differentiation potential. Cocultures of both MSCs with CD4+ T-cells resulted in recruitment of CD45RA+ FoxP3+ regulatory T-cells. Upon stimulation, only SM-MSCs suppressed CD4+ T-cell proliferation, while both SM-MSCs and BM-MSCs modified cytokine profiles through suppressing IL-2 and TNF-α as well as increasing IL-6 secretion. Conclusions. Synovial MSCs from OA joints are a unique fraction that can be distinguished from their bone-marrow derived counterparts. Their unique ability to suppress CD3/CD28 induced CD4+ T-cell proliferation makes them a potential target for future therapeutic approaches.

  20. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. IV. Detection of Near-infrared Signatures of r -process Nucleosynthesis with Gemini-South

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chornock, R. [Astrophysical Institute, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 251B Clippinger Lab, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701 (United States); Berger, E.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Nicholl, M.; Villar, V. A.; Alexander, K. D.; Blanchard, P. K.; Eftekhari, T.; Williams, P. K. G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kasen, D. [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7300 (United States); Fong, W.; Margutti, R. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Annis, J.; Frieman, J. A. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Brout, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Brown, D. A. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse NY 13224 (United States); Chen, H.-Y. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Drout, M. R. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Farr, B. [Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Foley, R. J., E-mail: chornock@ohio.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2017-10-20

    We present a near-infrared spectral sequence of the electromagnetic counterpart to the binary neutron star merger GW170817 detected by Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo. Our data set comprises seven epochs of J + H spectra taken with FLAMINGOS-2 on Gemini-South between 1.5 and 10.5 days after the merger. In the initial epoch, the spectrum is dominated by a smooth blue continuum due to a high-velocity, lanthanide-poor blue kilonova component. Starting the following night, all of the subsequent spectra instead show features that are similar to those predicted in model spectra of material with a high concentration of lanthanides, including spectral peaks near 1.07 and 1.55 μ m. Our fiducial model with 0.04 M {sub ⊙} of ejecta, an ejection velocity of v = 0.1 c , and a lanthanide concentration of X {sub lan} = 10{sup −2} provides a good match to the spectra taken in the first five days, although it over-predicts the late-time fluxes. We also explore models with multiple fitting components, in each case finding that a significant abundance of lanthanide elements is necessary to match the broad spectral peaks that we observe starting at 2.5 days after the merger. These data provide direct evidence that binary neutron star mergers are significant production sites of even the heaviest r -process elements.

  1. A lithium-sensitive and sodium-tolerant 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase encoded by halA from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis is closely related to its counterparts from yeasts and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ju-Yuan; Zou, Jie; Bao, Qiyu; Chen, Wen-Li; Wang, Li; Yang, Huanming; Zhang, Cheng-Cai

    2006-01-01

    3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphatase (PAPase) is required for the removal of toxic 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP) produced during sulfur assimilation in various eukaryotic organisms. This enzyme is a well-known target of lithium and sodium toxicity and has been used for the production of salt-resistant transgenic plants. In addition, PAPase has also been proposed as a target in the treatment of manic-depressive patients. One gene, halA, which could encode a protein closely related to the PAPases of yeasts and plants, was identified from the cyanobacterium Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Phylogenic analysis indicated that proteins related to PAPases from several cyanobacteria were found in different clades, suggesting multiple origins of PAPases in cyanobacteria. The HalA polypeptide from A. platensis was overproduced in Escherichia coli and used for the characterization of its biochemical properties. HalA was dependent on Mg2+ for its activity and could use PAP or 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate as a substrate. HalA is sensitive to Li+ (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50] = 3.6 mM) but only slightly sensitive to Na+ (IC50 = 600 mM). The salt sensitivity of HalA was thus different from that of most of its eukaryotic counterparts, which are much more sensitive to both Li+ and Na+, but was comparable to the PAPase AtAHL (Hal2p-like protein) from Arabidopsis thaliana. The properties of HalA could help us to understand the structure-function relationship underlying the salt sensitivity of PAPases. The expression of halA improved the Li+ tolerance of E. coli, suggesting that the sulfur-assimilating pathway is a likely target of salt toxicity in bacteria as well.

  2. Capillary electrophoretic profiling of tryptic digests of water soluble proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis-transgenic and non-transgenic maize species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sázelová, Petra; Kašička, Václav; Leon, C.; Ibanez, E.; Cifuentes, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 3 (2012), s. 1607-1615 ISSN 0308-8146 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) 2008CZ0019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bt-transgenic maize * capillary zone electrophoresis * maize proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.334, year: 2012

  3. A comparative expression analysis of gene transcripts in brain tissue of non-transgenic and GH-transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio using a DDRT-PCR approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda A. Alves-Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of higher level of exogenous growth hormone (GH in transgenic animals could lead to several physiological alterations. A GH transgenic zebrafish (Danio rerio line was compared to nontransgenic (NT samples of the species through a DDRT-PCR approach, with the goal of identifying candidate differentially expressed transcripts in brain tissues that could be involved in GH overexpression. Densitometric analyses of two selected amplification products, p300 and ADCY2, pointed to a significant lower gene expression in the transgenic zebrafish (104.02 ± 57.71; 224.10 ± 91.73 when compared to NT samples (249.75 ± 30.08; 342.95 ± 65.19. The present data indicate that p300 and ADCY2 are involved in a regulation system for GH when high circulating levels of this hormone are found in zebrafishes.A presença de níveis mais elevados do hormônio de crescimento (GH em animais transgênicos poderia levar a várias alterações fisiológicas. Uma linhagem transgênica de paulistinha (Danio rerio para o GH foi comparada com amostras não transgênicas (NT desta espécie, através de uma abordagem de DDRT-PCR, com o objetivo de identificar transcritos candidatos diferencialmente expressos em tecido cerebral que poderiam estar envolvidos na superexpressão de GH. Análises densitométricas de dois produtos de amplificação selecionados, p300 e ADCY2, apontaram uma expressão gênica significativamente menor nas amostras transgênicas de paulistinha (104.02 ± 57.71; 224.10 ± 91.73, quando comparadas com as amostras NT (249.75 ± 30.08; 342.95±65.19. Os presentes dados indicam que p300 e ADCY2 estão envolvidos em um sistema de regulação do GH, quando altos níveis circulantes desse hormônio são encontrados em paulistinha.

  4. Considerations for Managing Agricultural Co-Existence between Transgenic and Non-Transgenic Cultivars of Outcrossing Perennial Forage Plants in Dairy Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of the major forage species used in agriculture are outcrossing and rely on the exchange of pollen between individuals for reproduction; this includes the major species used for dairy production in grazing systems: perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. and white clover (Trifolium repens L.. Cultivars of these species have been co-existing since contrasting cultivars were developed using plant breeding, but the consequences and need for strategies to manage co-existence have been made more prominent with the advent of genetic modification. Recent technological developments have seen the experimental evaluation of genetically modified (GM white clover and perennial ryegrass, although there is no current commercial growing of GM cultivars of these species. Co-existence frameworks already exist for two major cross-pollinated grain crops (canola and maize in Europe, and for alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. in the US, so many of the principles that the industry has developed for co-existence in these crops such as detection techniques, segregation, and agronomic management provide lessons and guidelines for outcrossing forage species, that are discussed in this paper.

  5. Evaluating biological variation in non-transgenic crops: executive summary from the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute workshop, November 16-17, 2009, Paris, France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerrer, Nancy; Ladics, Gregory; McClain, Scott

    2010-01-01

    established as a standardized assay, survey approaches such as the "-omics" techniques can be considered in a hypothesis-driven analysis of plants, such as determining unintended effects in genetically modified (GM) crops. However, the analysis should include both the GM and control varieties that have...... the same breeding history and exposure to the same environmental conditions. Importantly, the biological relevance and safety significance of changes in "-omic" data are still unknown. Furthermore, the current compositional assessment for evaluating the substantial equivalence of GM crops is robust...... shortcomings identified with "-omics" approaches, a paucity of reference materials, and a lack of focused strategy for their use that currently make them not conducive for the safety assessment of GM crops....

  6. Evaluating biological variation in non-transgenic crops: executive summary from the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute workshop, November 16-17, 2009, Paris, France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerrer, Nancy; Ladics, Gregory; McClain, Scott

    2010-01-01

    .e., genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) highlighted the workshop, and summaries of these presentations are published separately in this supplemental issue. This paper summarizes key messages, as well as the consensus points reached, in a roundtable discussion on eight specific questions posed during...

  7. Anglické překladové protějšky českých vět s částicemi copak a jestlipak : English Translation Counterparts of Czech Sentences Containing Copak and Jestlipak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Šebestová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines English translation counterparts of Czech sentences containing the particles copak and jestlipak. These two particles share the expressive and intensifying postfix -pak. They are elements of the ‘third syntactical plan’ (or level which consists of “components which place the content of the sentence in relation to the individual and his special ability to perceive, judge and assess” (Poldauf 1964: 242. The third syntactical plan is fully developed in Czech but to a much lesser degree in English. The aim of this paper is to identify and describe specific English means which correspond to these Czech particles in terms of their function. English counterparts of Czech sentences with copak/jestlipak are excerpted from the fiction component of the InterCorp parallel corpus. As opposed to the lexical means in Czech, the third syntactical plan in English is shown to rely on syntactic constructions, above all on different types of interrogative sentences. The English counterparts are used, at the same time, as markers of the functions of the Czech sentences containing copak and jestlipak, thereby further specifying the functional description of the two Czech particles. Apart from their expressivity and emotionally evaluative nature, the particles are shown to have two main functions: establishing contact and serving as means of epistemic modality.

  8. Changes in Actinomycetes community structure under the influence of Bt transgenic brinjal crop in a tropical agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amit Kishore; Singh, Major; Dubey, Suresh Kumar

    2013-05-29

    The global area under brinjal cultivation is expected to be 1.85 million hectare with total fruit production about 32 million metric tons (MTs). Brinjal cultivars are susceptible to a variety of stresses that significantly limit productivity. The most important biotic stress is caused by the Brinjal fruit and shoot Borer (FSB) forcing farmers to deploy high doses of insecticides; a matter of serious health concern. Therefore, to control the adverse effect of insecticides on the environment including the soil, transgenic technology has emerged as the effective alternative. However, the reports, regarding the nature of interaction of transgenic crops with the native microbial community are inconsistent. The effect of a Bt transgenic brinjal expressing the bio-insecticidal protein (Cry1Ac) on the rhizospheric community of actinomycetes has been assessed and compared with its non-transgenic counterpart. Significant variation in the organic carbon observed between the crops (non-Bt and Bt brinjal) may be due to changes in root exudates quality and composition mediated by genetic attributes of Bt transgenic brinjal. Real time quantitative PCR indicated significant differences in the actinomycetes- specific 16S rRNA gene copy numbers between the non-Bt (5.62-27.86) × 1011 g-1 dws and Bt brinjal planted soil (5.62-24.04) × 1011 g-1 dws. Phylogenetic analysis indicated 14 and 11, actinomycetes related groups in soil with non-Bt and Bt brinjal crop, respectively. Micrococaceaea and Nocardiodaceae were the dominant groups in pre-vegetation, branching, flowering, maturation and post-harvest stage. However, Promicromonosporaceae, Streptosporangiaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, Geodermatophilaceae, Frankiaceae, Kineosporaceae, Actisymmetaceae and Streptomycetaceae were exclusively detected in a few stages in non-Bt brinjal rhizosphere soil while Nakamurellaceae, Corynebactericeae, Thermomonosporaceae and Pseudonocardiaceae in Bt brinjal counterpart. Field trails envisage

  9. Bypassing Evolutionary Roadblocks: Phenotypic Diversity in Isogenic Population Bridges Tradeoff in Evolution of a New Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, K. L.; Meyer, J. R.

    2017-07-01

    A novel mechanism of innovation bridges fitness valleys by violating the one gene-one phenotype dogma. Protein products of a single gene partition into populations, some of which carry out a new function and some the old, avoiding tradeoffs.

  10. Biotransformation of the Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol in Fusarium Resistant and Susceptible Near Isogenic Wheat Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Lemmens, Marc; Michlmayr, Herbert; Malachova, Alexandra; Koutnik, Andrea; Maloku, Imer; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Krska, Rudolf; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a total of nine different biotransformation products of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) formed in wheat during detoxification of the toxin are characterized by liquid chromatography—high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The detected metabolites suggest that DON is conjugated to endogenous metabolites via two major metabolism routes, namely 1) glucosylation (DON-3-glucoside, DON-di-hexoside, 15-acetyl-DON-3-glucoside, DON-malonylglucoside) and 2) glutathione conjugation (DON-S-glutathione, “DON-2H”-S-glutathione, DON-S-cysteinyl-glycine and DON-S-cysteine). Furthermore, conjugation of DON to a putative sugar alcohol (hexitol) was found. A molar mass balance for the cultivar ‘Remus’ treated with 1 mg DON revealed that under the test conditions approximately 15% of the added DON were transformed into DON-3-glucoside and another 19% were transformed to the remaining eight biotransformation products or irreversibly bound to the plant matrix. Additionally, metabolite abundance was monitored as a function of time for each DON derivative and was established for six DON treated wheat lines (1 mg/ear) differing in resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Fhb1 and/or Qfhs.ifa-5A. All cultivars carrying QTL Fhb1 showed similar metabolism kinetics: Formation of DON-Glc was faster, while DON-GSH production was less efficient compared to cultivars which lacked the resistance QTL Fhb1. Moreover, all wheat lines harboring Fhb1 showed significantly elevated D3G/DON abundance ratios. PMID:25775425

  11. DNA methylation and transcriptional trajectories during human development and reprogramming of isogenic pluripotent stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roost, Matthias S; Slieker, Roderick C; Bialecka, Monika; van Iperen, Liesbeth; Gomes Fernandes, Maria M; He, Nannan; Suchiman, H Eka D; Szuhai, Karoly; Carlotti, Françoise; de Koning, Eelco J P; Mummery, Christine L; Heijmans, Bastiaan T; Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Susana M

    2017-01-01

    Determining cell identity and maturation status of differentiated pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) requires knowledge of the transcriptional and epigenetic trajectory of organs during development. Here, we generate a transcriptional and DNA methylation atlas covering 21 organs during human fetal

  12. Cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance in wheat near-isogenic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that wheat grain yield is seriously affected by drought stress, and leaf cuticular wax is reportedly associated with drought tolerance. However, most studies have focused on cuticular wax biosynthesis and model species. The effects of cuticular wax on wheat drought tolerance have rarely been studied. The aims of the current study were to study the effects of leaf cuticular wax on wheat grain yield under drought stress using the above-mentioned wheat NILs and to discuss the possible physiological mechanism of cuticular wax on high grain yield under drought stress. Compared to water-irrigated (WI conditions, the cuticular wax content (CWC in glaucous and non-glaucous NILs under drought-stress (DS conditions both increased; mean increase values were 151.1% and 114.4%, respectively, which was corroborated by scanning electronic microscopy images of large wax particles loaded on the surfaces of flag leaves. The average yield of glaucous NILs was higher than that of non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions in 2014 and 2015; mean values were 7368.37 kg·ha-1 and 7103.51 kg·ha-1. This suggested that glaucous NILs were more drought-tolerant than non-glaucous NILs (P = 0.05, which was supported by the findings of drought tolerance indices TOL and SSI in both years, the relatively high water potential and relative water content, and the low ELWL. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate (Pn of glaucous and non-glaucous wheat NILs under DS conditions decreased by 7.5% and 9.8%, respectively; however, glaucous NILs still had higher mean values of Pn than those of non-glaucous NILs, which perhaps resulted in the higher yield of glaucous NILs. This could be explained by the fact that glaucous NILs had a smaller Fv/Fm reduction, a smaller PI reduction and a greater ABS/RC increase than non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions. This is the first report to show that wheat cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance. Moreover, the leaf CWC can be an effective selection criterion in the development of drought-tolerant wheat cultivars.

  13. Development and evaluation of near-isogenic lines for brown planthopper resistance in rice cv. 9311

    OpenAIRE

    Cong Xiao; Jie Hu; Yi-Ting Ao; Ming-Xing Cheng; Guan-Jun Gao; Qing-Lu Zhang; Guang-Cun He; Yu-Qing He

    2016-01-01

    Brown planthopper (BPH) is the most destructive pest of rice in Asia. To date 29 BPH resistance genes have been identified, but only a few genes are being used in breeding due to inefficient markers for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and little knowledge of the real effects of the genes. In this study we individually transferred 13 genes or QTLs (Bph14, QBph3, QBph4, Bph17, Bph15, Bph20, Bph24, Bph6, Bph3, Bph9, Bph10, Bph18 and Bph21) into cultivar 9311 by marker assisted backcross breeding...

  14. Plasma cortisol and metabolite level profiles in two isogenic strains of common carp during confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruane, N.M.; Huisman, E.A.; Komen, J.

    2001-01-01

    A rapid increase in common carp Cyprinus carpio plasma cortisol levels was noted, in two experiments, after 30 mins of a 3 h net confinement, which was sustained while the fish were held in the nets. After release from the nets, cortisol levels returned to control values in 1 h. Plasma glucose and

  15. Construction and Use of Recombinant Isogenic Cell Libraries in Functional Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Helle

      While nowadays robotics enable performing whole genome functional screens within a few days, the availability of suitable cellular systems to investigate the function or pathway of choice represents as a major bottleneck. In most applications, it is desirable to use cell lines with stably...... or inactivation of a gene of choice in a constitutive or tetracycline-inducible fashion. We also provide proof-of-principle that this technique can be used for the construction of double recombinant cell lines, which allows for analyses at advanced levels of complexity, e. g. by the construction of double...

  16. Soil microbes and fauna under Bt maize or an isogenic control, with and without additional insecticide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, B. S.; Birch, A. N. E.; Caul, S.

    The experiment described is a component of the EU-funded project entitled 'Soil ecological and economic evaluation of genetically modified crops' (ECOGEN, www.ecogen.dk). The overall project has an emphasis on maize genetically modified to express the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin (Bt maize...

  17. Genotyping-by-sequencing of waxy and glossy near-isogenic broccoli lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild-type Brassica oleracea L. have matte blue-green leaves caused by an interaction between leaf pigmentation and a waxy bloom coating the surface. Glossy mutants have reduced and/or altered epicuticular wax giving the leaves a shiny green appearance and have been identified in most B. oleracea cro...

  18. Molecular profiling techniques as tools to detect potential unintended effects in genetically engineered maize

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Profiling Techniques as Tools to Detect Potential Unintended Effects in Genetically Engineered Maize Eugenia Barros Introduction In the early stages of production and commercialization of foods derived from genetically engineered (GE) plants... systems. In a recent paper published in Plant Biotechnology Journal,4 we compared two transgenic white maize lines with the non-transgenic counterpart to investigate two possible sources of variation: genetic engineering and environmental variation...

  19. Negative-strand RNA viruses: The plant-infecting counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormelink, R.J.M.; Garcia, M.L.; Goodin, M.; Sasaya, T.; Haenni, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    While a large number of negative-strand (-)RNA viruses infect animals and humans, a relative small number have plants as their primary host. Some of these have been classified within families together with animal/human infecting viruses due to similarities in particle morphology and genome

  20. Africanized honeybees are slower learners than their European counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillon, Margaret J.; Degrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Gronenberg, Wulfila

    2010-02-01

    Does cognitive ability always correlate with a positive fitness consequence? Previous research in both vertebrates and invertebrates provides mixed results. Here, we compare the learning and memory abilities of Africanized honeybees ( Apis mellifera scutellata hybrid) and European honeybees ( Apis mellifera ligustica). The range of the Africanized honeybee continues to expand, superseding the European honeybee, which led us to hypothesize that they might possess greater cognitive capabilities as revealed by a classical conditioning assay. Surprisingly, we found that fewer Africanized honeybees learn to associate an odor with a reward. Additionally, fewer Africanized honeybees remembered the association a day later. While Africanized honeybees are replacing European honeybees, our results show that they do so despite displaying a relatively poorer performance on an associative learning paradigm.

  1. Optical Counterparts of Undetermined Type γ-Ray Active Galactic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... of this optical spectroscopic analysis is to identify the AGN class for the source asso- .... absorption lines of an old stellar population, typical of ellipticals. .... AGNs is a fundamental science case for instruments designed to ...

  2. INTEGRAL results on the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereghetti, S.; Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.

    2018-01-01

    Thanks to its high orbit and a set of complementary detectors providing continuous coverage of the whole sky, the INTEGRAL satellite has unique capabilities for the identification and study of the electromagnetic radiation associated to gravitational waves signals and, more generally, for multi...

  3. Merger of binary neutron stars: Gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-12-15

    Late inspiral and merger phases of binary neutron stars are the valuable new experimental fields for exploring nuclear physics because (i) gravitational waves from them will bring information for the neutron-star equation of state and (ii) the matter ejected after the onset of the merger could be the main site for the r-process nucleosynthesis. We will summarize these aspects of the binary neutron stars, describing the current understanding for the merger process of binary neutron stars that has been revealed by numerical-relativity simulations.

  4. No counterpart of visual perceptual echoes in the auditory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkın İlhan

    Full Text Available It has been previously demonstrated by our group that a visual stimulus made of dynamically changing luminance evokes an echo or reverberation at ~10 Hz, lasting up to a second. In this study we aimed to reveal whether similar echoes also exist in the auditory modality. A dynamically changing auditory stimulus equivalent to the visual stimulus was designed and employed in two separate series of experiments, and the presence of reverberations was analyzed based on reverse correlations between stimulus sequences and EEG epochs. The first experiment directly compared visual and auditory stimuli: while previous findings of ~10 Hz visual echoes were verified, no similar echo was found in the auditory modality regardless of frequency. In the second experiment, we tested if auditory sequences would influence the visual echoes when they were congruent or incongruent with the visual sequences. However, the results in that case similarly did not reveal any auditory echoes, nor any change in the characteristics of visual echoes as a function of audio-visual congruence. The negative findings from these experiments suggest that brain oscillations do not equivalently affect early sensory processes in the visual and auditory modalities, and that alpha (8-13 Hz oscillations play a special role in vision.

  5. Morphometrics of Daucus (Apiaceae): A counterpart to a phylogenomic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular phylogenetics of genome-scale data sets (phylogenomics) often produces phylogenetic trees with unprecedented resolution. A companion phylogenomics analysis of Daucus (carrots) using 94 conserved nuclear orthologs supported many of the traditional species but showed unexpected results that ...

  6. Metaphors are Embodied, and so are Their Literal Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Eduardo; de Vega, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates whether understanding up/down metaphors as well as semantically homologous literal sentences activates embodied representations online. Participants read orientational literal sentences (e.g., she climbed up the hill), metaphors (e.g., she climbed up in the company), and abstract sentences with similar meaning to the metaphors (e.g., she succeeded in the company). In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to perform a speeded upward or downward hand motion while they were reading the sentence verb. The hand motion either matched or mismatched the direction connoted by the sentence. The results showed a meaning-action effect for metaphors and literals, that is, faster hand motion responses in the matching conditions. Notably, the matching advantage was also found for homologous abstract sentences, indicating that some abstract ideas are conceptually organized in the vertical dimension, even when they are expressed by means of literal sentences. In Experiment 3, participants responded to an upward or downward visual motion associated with the sentence verb by pressing a single key. In this case, the facilitation effect for matching visual motion-sentence meaning faded, indicating that the visual motion component is less important than the action component in conceptual metaphors. Most up and down metaphors convey emotionally positive and negative information, respectively. We suggest that metaphorical meaning elicits upward/downward movements because they are grounded on the bodily expression of the corresponding emotions.

  7. Hunting Gravitational Waves with Multi-Messenger Counterparts: Australia's Role

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howell, E.J.; Rowlinson, A.; Coward, D.M.; Lasky, P.D.; Kaplan, D.L.; Thrane, E.; Rowell, G.; Galloway, D.K.; Yuan, F.; Dodson, R.; Murphy, T.; Hill, G.C.; Andreoni, L.; Spitler, L.; Horton, A.

    2015-01-01

    The first observations by a worldwide network of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors offer a unique opportunity for the astronomical community. At design sensitivity, these facilities will be able to detect coalescing binary neutron stars to distances approaching 400 Mpc, and

  8. Metaphors are embodied, and so are their literal counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eSantana

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether understanding up/down metaphors as well as semantically homologous literal sentences activates embodied representations online. Participants read orientational literal sentences (e.g. she climbed up the hill, metaphors (e.g. she climbed up in the company, and abstract sentences with similar meaning to the metaphors (e.g. she succeeded in the company. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were asked to perform a speeded upward or downward hand motion while they were reading the sentence verb. The hand motion either matched or mismatched the direction connoted by the sentence. The results showed a meaning-action effect for metaphors and literals, that is faster hand motion responses in the matching conditions. Notably, the matching advantage was also found for homologous abstract sentences, indicating that some abstract ideas are conceptually organized in the vertical dimension, even when they are expressed by means of literal sentences. In Experiment 3, participants responded to an upward or downward visual motion associated with the sentence verb by pressing a single key. In this case, the facilitation effect for matching visual motion-sentence meaning faded, indicating that the visual motion component is less important than the action component in conceptual metaphors. Most up and down metaphors convey emotionally positive and negative information, respectively. We suggest that metaphorical meaning elicits upward/downward movements because they are grounded on the bodily expression of the corresponding emotions.

  9. Chromospheric counterparts of solar transition region unresolved fine structure loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tiago M. D.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc; Hansteen, Viggo H.; De Pontieu, Bart

    2018-04-01

    Low-lying loops have been discovered at the solar limb in transition region temperatures by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). They do not appear to reach coronal temperatures, and it has been suggested that they are the long-predicted unresolved fine structures (UFS). These loops are dynamic and believed to be visible during both heating and cooling phases. Making use of coordinated observations between IRIS and the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope, we study how these loops impact the solar chromosphere. We show for the first time that there is indeed a chromospheric signal of these loops, seen mostly in the form of strong Doppler shifts and a conspicuous lack of chromospheric heating. In addition, we find that several instances have a inverse Y-shaped jet just above the loop, suggesting that magnetic reconnection is driving these events. Our observations add several puzzling details to the current knowledge of these newly discovered structures; this new information must be considered in theoretical models. Two movies associated to Fig. 1 are available at http://https://www.aanda.org

  10. Automated detection of optical counterparts to GRBs with RAPTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wozniak, P. R.; Vestrand, W. T.; Evans, S.; White, R.; Wren, J.

    2006-01-01

    The RAPTOR system (RAPid Telescopes for Optical Response) is an array of several distributed robotic telescopes that automatically respond to GCN localization alerts. Raptor-S is a 0.4-m telescope with 24 arc min. field of view employing a 1k x 1k Marconi CCD detector, and has already detected prompt optical emission from several GRBs within the first minute of the explosion. We present a real-time data analysis and alert system for automated identification of optical transients in Raptor-S GRB response data down to the sensitivity limit of ∼ 19 mag. Our custom data processing pipeline is designed to minimize the time required to reliably identify transients and extract actionable information. The system utilizes a networked PostgreSQL database server for catalog access and distributes email alerts with successful detections

  11. Galaxy Strategy for Ligo-Virgo Gravitational Wave Counterpart Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil; Cannizzo, John K.; Kanner, Jonah; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Nissanke, Samaya; Singer, Leo P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we continue a line of inquiry begun in Kanner et al. which detailed a strategy for utilizing telescopes with narrow fields of view, such as the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), to localize gravity wave (GW) triggers from LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory) / Virgo. If one considers the brightest galaxies that produce 50 percent of the light, then the number of galaxies inside typical GW error boxes will be several tens. We have found that this result applies both in the early years of Advanced LIGO when the range is small and the error boxes large, and in the later years when the error boxes will be small and the range large. This strategy has the beneficial property of reducing the number of telescope pointings by a factor 10 to 100 compared with tiling the entire error box. Additional galaxy count reduction will come from a GW rapid distance estimate which will restrict the radial slice in search volume. Combining the bright galaxy strategy with a convolution based on anticipated GW localizations, we find that the searches can be restricted to about 18 plus or minus 5 galaxies for 2015, about 23 plus or minus 4 for 2017, and about 11 plus or minus for 2020. This assumes a distance localization at the putative neutron star-neutron star (NS-NS) merger range mu for each target year, and these totals are integrated out to the range. Integrating out to the horizon would roughly double the totals. For localizations with r (rotation) greatly less than mu the totals would decrease. The galaxy strategy we present in this work will enable numerous sensitive optical and X-ray telescopes with small fields of view to participate meaningfully in searches wherein the prospects for rapidly fading afterglow place a premium on a fast response time.

  12. The Firework of Electromagnetic Counterparts from GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    The gravitational-wave signal of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 was followed by a firework of electromagnetic transients across the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The gamma-ray emission has provided strong evidence for the association of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) with binary neutron star mergers and the ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared emission is consistent with a kilonova indicative of the formation of heavy elements in the merger ejecta by the rapid neutron capture process (r-process). In this talk, I will discuss and review theoretical scenarios to interpret the gamma-ray, X-ray, and radio observations. I will present recent results from general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations and discuss possible scenarios and mass ejection mechanisms that can give rise to the observed kilonova features. In particular, I will argue that massive winds from neutrino-cooled post-merger accretion disks most likely synthesized the heavy r-process elements in GW170817.

  13. Noncommutative conformally coupled scalar field cosmology and its commutative counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.D.

    2005-01-01

    We study the implications of a noncommutative geometry of the minisuperspace variables for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe with a conformally coupled scalar field. The investigation is carried out by means of a comparative study of the universe evolution in four different scenarios: classical commutative, classical noncommutative, quantum commutative, and quantum noncommutative, the last two employing the Bohmian formalism of quantum trajectories. The role of noncommutativity is discussed by drawing a parallel between its realizations in two possible frameworks for physical interpretation: the NC frame, where it is manifest in the universe degrees of freedom, and in the C frame, where it is manifest through θ-dependent terms in the Hamiltonian. As a result of our comparative analysis, we find that noncommutative geometry can remove singularities in the classical context for sufficiently large values of θ. Moreover, under special conditions, the classical noncommutative model can admit bouncing solutions characteristic of the commutative quantum Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. In the quantum context, we find nonsingular universe solutions containing bounces or being periodic in the quantum commutative model. When noncommutativity effects are turned on in the quantum scenario, they can introduce significant modifications that change the singular behavior of the universe solutions or that render them dynamical whenever they are static in the commutative case. The effects of noncommutativity are completely specified only when one of the frames for its realization is adopted as the physical one. Nonsingular solutions in the NC frame can be mapped into singular ones in the C frame

  14. Reproduction of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Bt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... ELISA detected Bt protein in soil and roots of Bt cotton but not in HART 89M ... as the use of organic amendments and nematicides with other .... isogenic counterpart to test the effect of the Bt gene ..... Bendezu and Starr (2003) identified two types of RKN ... soil texture, temperature, moisture, aeration and.

  15. Molecular partners of hNOT/ALG3, the human counterpart of the Drosophila NOT and yeast ALG3 gene, suggest its involvement in distinct cellular processes relevant to congenital disorders of glycosylation, cancer, neurodegeneration and a variety of further pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Benedikt; Schultheiß, Christoph; Döring, Michael; Kurzik-Dumke, Ursula

    2018-06-01

    This study provides first insights into the involvement of hNOT/ALG3, the human counterpart of the Drosophila Neighbour of TID and yeast ALG3 gene, in various putative molecular networks. HNOT/ALG3 encodes two translated transcripts encoding precursor proteins differing in their N-terminus and showing 33% identity with the yeast asparagine-linked glycosylation 3 (ALG3) protein. Experimental evidence for the functional homology of the proteins of fly and man in the N-glycosylation has still to be provided. In this study, using the yeast two-hybrid technique we identify 17 molecular partners of hNOT-1/ALG3-1. We disclose the building of hNOT/ALG3 homodimers and provide experimental evidence for its in vivo interaction with the functionally linked proteins OSBP, OSBPL9 and LRP1, the SYPL1 protein and the transcription factor CREB3. Regarding the latter, we show that the 55 kDa N-glycosylated hNOT-1/ALG3-1 molecule binds the N-glycosylated CREB3 precursor but does not interact with CREB3's proteolytic products specific to the endoplasmic reticulum and to the nucleus. The interaction between the two partners is a prerequisite for the proteolytic activation of CREB3. In case of the further binding partners, our data suggest that hNOT-1/ALG3-1 interacts with both OSBPs and with their direct targets LRP1 and VAMP/VAP-A. Moreover, our results show that various partners of hNOT-1/ALG3-1 interact with its diverse post translationally processed products destined to distinct cellular compartments. Generally, our data suggest the involvement of hNOT-1/ALG3-1 in various molecular contexts determining essential processes associated with distinct cellular machineries and related to various pathologies, such as cancer, viral infections, neuronal and immunological disorders and CDG.

  16. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  17. Comparison of two GM maize varieties with a near-isogenic non-GM variety using transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, E.; Lezar, S.; Anttonen, M.J.; Dijk, van J.P.; Rohlig, R.M.; Kok, E.J.; Engel, K.H.

    2010-01-01

    P>The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of four nontargeted analytical methodologies in the detection of unintended effects that could be derived during genetic manipulation of crops. Three profiling technologies were used to compare the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of two

  18. Survival and development of Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on isogenic tobacco lines with different levels of alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D Michael; Johnson, A W; Stephenson, M G

    2002-12-01

    Levels of pyridine alkaloids were measured in 18 tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L., entries from three parental isolines ('NC 95', 'SC 58', and 'Coker 139'), grown at Tifton, GA, Florence, SC, and Oxford, NC, in 1991. Levels of alkaloids in bud leaves (first fully unfolded leaf below the apical leaf bud) were negatively correlated to natural infestation ratings of tobacco budworm larvae, Heliothis virescens (F.), 7 wk after transplanting. For artificially infested bud leaves at Oxford, there was a significant negative correlation between levels of total alkaloids and larval weights after 1 wk of feeding. In 1992, four entries from the 'NC 95' isoline were grown at Oxford, and samples for alkaloid analyses were taken every 2 wk at several leaf positions on each plant. During weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16, second instar tobacco budworms were caged on individual, intact leaves inside perforated plastic bags in the field. The survival and development of tobacco budworm larvae after 1 wk were negatively correlated with levels of alkaloids at the various leaf positions. Larvae survived better and grew faster on the bud leaves of each entry where alkaloid levels were lower than they did on leaves further down the stalk where alkaloid levels were higher. More larvae survived on the lower leaves of the low alkaloid lines than on the lower leaves of the high alkaloid lines. Even moderate increases in pyridine alkaloids had negative effects on tobacco budworm survival and development. Nicotine constituted >97% of the pyridine alkaloids in the 'NC95' isoline each year.

  19. Comparison of two GM maize varieties with a near-isogenic non-GM variety using transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Barros, E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of four nontargeted analytical methodologies in the detection of unintended effects that could be derived during genetic manipulation of crops. Three profiling technologies were used to compare...

  20. Fast and accurate mutation detection in whole genome sequences of multiple isogenic samples with IsoMut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pipek, Orsolya; Ribli, Dezső; Molnar, Janos

    2017-01-01

    for testing purposes. Optimal values of the filtering parameters of IsoMut were determined in a thorough and strict optimization procedure based on these test sets. We show that IsoMut, when tuned correctly, decreases the false positive rate compared to conventional tools in a 30 sample experimental setup...

  1. Identification of genes and pathways associated with aluminum stress and tolerance using transcriptome profiling of wheat near-isogenic lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houde, Mario; Diallo, Amadou Oury

    2008-08-27

    Aluminum is considered the most limiting factor for plant productivity in acidic soils, which cover large areas of the world's potential arable lands. The inhibition of root growth is recognized as the primary effect of Al toxicity. To identify genes associated with Al stress and tolerance, transcriptome analyses of four different wheat lines (2 Al-tolerant and 2 Al sensitive) that differ in their response to Al were performed. Microarray expression profiling revealed that 83 candidate genes are associated with Al stress and 25 are associated with tolerance. The stress-associated genes include important enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase, alternative oxidase, and galactonolactone oxidase, ABC transporter and ascorbate oxido-reducatase. The Al tolerance-associated genes include the ALMT-1 malate transporter, glutathione S-transferase, germin/oxalate oxidase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, cysteine-rich proteins, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, cellulose synthase, zinc finger transcription factor, disease resistance response protein and F-box containing domain protein. In this survey, we identified stress- and tolerance-associated genes that may be involved in the detoxification of Al and reactive oxygen species. Alternative pathways could help maintain the supply of important metabolites (H2O2, ascorbate, NADH, and phosphate) needed for Al tolerance and root growth. The Al tolerance-associated genes may be key factors that regulate these pathways.

  2. Identification of genes and pathways associated with aluminum stress and tolerance using transcriptome profiling of wheat near-isogenic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diallo Amadou

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aluminum is considered the most limiting factor for plant productivity in acidic soils, which cover large areas of the world's potential arable lands. The inhibition of root growth is recognized as the primary effect of Al toxicity. To identify genes associated with Al stress and tolerance, transcriptome analyses of four different wheat lines (2 Al-tolerant and 2 Al sensitive that differ in their response to Al were performed. Results Microarray expression profiling revealed that 83 candidate genes are associated with Al stress and 25 are associated with tolerance. The stress-associated genes include important enzymes such as pyruvate dehydrogenase, alternative oxidase, and galactonolactone oxidase, ABC transporter and ascorbate oxido-reducatase. The Al tolerance-associated genes include the ALMT-1 malate transporter, glutathione S-transferase, germin/oxalate oxidase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, cysteine-rich proteins, cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, cellulose synthase, zinc finger transcription factor, disease resistance response protein and F-box containing domain protein. Conclusion In this survey, we identified stress- and tolerance-associated genes that may be involved in the detoxification of Al and reactive oxygen species. Alternative pathways could help maintain the supply of important metabolites (H2O2, ascorbate, NADH, and phosphate needed for Al tolerance and root growth. The Al tolerance-associated genes may be key factors that regulate these pathways.

  3. The oxidative DNA glycosylases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exhibit different substrate preferences from their Escherichia coli counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yin; Bandaru, Viswanath; Jaruga, Pawel; Zhao, Xiaobei; Burrows, Cynthia J; Iwai, Shigenori; Dizdaroglu, Miral; Bond, Jeffrey P; Wallace, Susan S

    2010-02-04

    The DNA glycosylases that remove oxidized DNA bases fall into two general families: the Fpg/Nei family and the Nth superfamily. Based on protein sequence alignments, we identified four putative Fpg/Nei family members, as well as a putative Nth protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. All four Fpg/Nei proteins were successfully overexpressed using a bicistronic vector created in our laboratory. The MtuNth protein was also overexpressed in soluble form. The substrate specificities of the purified enzymes were characterized in vitro with oligodeoxynucleotide substrates containing single lesions. Some were further characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of products released from gamma-irradiated DNA. MtuFpg1 has substrate specificity similar to that of EcoFpg. Both EcoFpg and MtuFpg1 are more efficient at removing spiroiminodihydantoin (Sp) than 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). However, MtuFpg1 shows a substantially increased opposite base discrimination compared to EcoFpg. MtuFpg2 contains only the C-terminal domain of an Fpg protein and has no detectable DNA binding activity or DNA glycosylase/lyase activity and thus appears to be a pseudogene. MtuNei1 recognizes oxidized pyrimidines on both double-stranded and single-stranded DNA and exhibits uracil DNA glycosylase activity. MtuNth recognizes a variety of oxidized bases, including urea, 5,6-dihydrouracil (DHU), 5-hydroxyuracil (5-OHU), 5-hydroxycytosine (5-OHC) and methylhydantoin (MeHyd). Both MtuNei1 and MtuNth excise thymine glycol (Tg); however, MtuNei1 strongly prefers the (5R) isomers, whereas MtuNth recognizes only the (5S) isomers. MtuNei2 did not demonstrate activity in vitro as a recombinant protein, but like MtuNei1 when expressed in Escherichia coli, it decreased the spontaneous mutation frequency of both the fpg mutY nei triple and nei nth double mutants, suggesting that MtuNei2 is functionally active in vivo recognizing both guanine and cytosine oxidation products. The kinetic parameters of the MtuFpg1, MtuNei1 and MtuNth proteins on selected substrates were also determined and compared to those of their E. coli homologs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A constraint-based bottom-up counterpart to definite clause grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A new grammar formalism, CHR Grammars (CHRG), is proposed that provides a constraint-solving approach to language analysis, built on top of the programming language of Constraint Handling Rules in the same way as Definite Clause Grammars (DCG) on Prolog. CHRG works bottom-up and adds the following......, integrity constraints, operators a la assumption grammars, and to incorporate other constraint solvers. (iv)~Context-sensitive rules that apply for disambiguation, coordination in natural language and tagger-like rules....

  5. Colloid formation in groundwater by subsurface aeration: characterisation of the geo-colloids and their counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthoorn, Anke; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Riemsdijk, Willem H. van

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface aeration is used to oxidise Fe in situ in groundwater to make the water potable. In a groundwater system with pH > 7, subsurface aeration results in a non-mobile Fe precipitate and mobile Fe colloids. Since originally the goal of subsurface aeration is to remove Fe in situ, the formation of non-mobile Fe precipitate is the desired result. In addition to this intended effect, subsurface aeration may also strongly enhance the microbiological removal of NH 4 in the purification station. A hypothesis is that mobile Fe colloids may be the link between subsurface aeration and the positive effect on the microbiological removal of NH 4 . The objective of this study is to characterise the mobile Fe colloids and to derive a synthetic substitute for the naturally formed Fe colloids in order to be able to apply the Fe colloids as a management tool to enhance the removal of NH 4 in the process of producing drinking water from groundwater. At a purification station in The Netherlands natural Fe colloids from an aerated well were sampled. Furthermore, eight synthetic Fe colloids were prepared by oxidising synthetic solutions differing in elemental composition. The colloids were analysed using chemical analysis and electron microscopy (SEM and SEM-EDAX). The Fe colloids sampled in the field contained Fe, Ca, Na, PO 4 and Mn. Also in the synthetic Fe colloids PO 4 , Ca, Na and Mn were the most important elements next to Fe. Phosphate and dissolved organic C strongly influenced the morphology of the synthetic Fe colloids. When both the elemental composition and the morphology of the Fe colloids are taken into account, the synthetic Fe colloids formed in the synthetic solution containing Fe, Mn, PO 4 , SiO 4 and dissolved organic matter best match the Fe colloids from the field

  6. Colloid formation in groundwater by subsurface aeration: characterisation of the geo-colloids and their counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthoorn, A.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface aeration is used to oxidise Fe in situ in groundwater to make the water potable. In a groundwater system with pH > 7, subsurface aeration results in a non-mobile Fe precipitate and mobile Fe colloids. Since originally the goal of subsurface aeration is to remove Fe in situ, the

  7. Colloid formation in groundwater by subsurface aeration: characterisation of the geo-colloids and their counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolthoorn, Anke; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Riemsdijk, Willem H. van

    2004-09-01

    Subsurface aeration is used to oxidise Fe in situ in groundwater to make the water potable. In a groundwater system with pH > 7, subsurface aeration results in a non-mobile Fe precipitate and mobile Fe colloids. Since originally the goal of subsurface aeration is to remove Fe in situ, the formation of non-mobile Fe precipitate is the desired result. In addition to this intended effect, subsurface aeration may also strongly enhance the microbiological removal of NH{sub 4} in the purification station. A hypothesis is that mobile Fe colloids may be the link between subsurface aeration and the positive effect on the microbiological removal of NH{sub 4}. The objective of this study is to characterise the mobile Fe colloids and to derive a synthetic substitute for the naturally formed Fe colloids in order to be able to apply the Fe colloids as a management tool to enhance the removal of NH{sub 4} in the process of producing drinking water from groundwater. At a purification station in The Netherlands natural Fe colloids from an aerated well were sampled. Furthermore, eight synthetic Fe colloids were prepared by oxidising synthetic solutions differing in elemental composition. The colloids were analysed using chemical analysis and electron microscopy (SEM and SEM-EDAX). The Fe colloids sampled in the field contained Fe, Ca, Na, PO{sub 4} and Mn. Also in the synthetic Fe colloids PO{sub 4}, Ca, Na and Mn were the most important elements next to Fe. Phosphate and dissolved organic C strongly influenced the morphology of the synthetic Fe colloids. When both the elemental composition and the morphology of the Fe colloids are taken into account, the synthetic Fe colloids formed in the synthetic solution containing Fe, Mn, PO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 4} and dissolved organic matter best match the Fe colloids from the field.

  8. Female adolescent elite handball players are more susceptible to shoulder problems than their male counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asker, Martin; Holm, Lena W; Källberg, Henrik; Waldén, Markus; Skillgate, Eva

    2018-02-10

    Shoulder problems are frequent among senior elite handball players. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of shoulder problems among adolescent elite handball players and to investigate potential differences in gender, school grade, playing position and playing level. During the 2014 and 2015 pre-season periods, 471 players (age 15-18 years, 54% female) completed a comprehensive baseline questionnaire regarding history of any shoulder pain and shoulder problems experienced during the past season. The players were monitored weekly for one competition season (September-April) regarding shoulder problems and the amount of match and training. Generalised linear models with a binomial link function were used to calculate a prevalence ratio (PR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) to compare the subgroups of players. In total, 110 players (23%) reported having substantial shoulder problems (defined as moderate/severe reduction in training volume, or moderate/severe reduction in performance, or complete inability to participate) at some point during the follow-up season, of which almost half reported complete inability to participate. Of those players reporting substantial problems, 43% (95% CI 39-48) did so for at least 3 consecutive weeks during the season. The prevalence was significantly higher in female players (PR 1.46, 95% 1.04-2.06) and in backcourt players (PR 1.58, 95% CI 1.08-2.32), but no differences were found for school grade (PR 1.21 95% CI 0.88-1.67) or playing level (PR 1.09 95% CI 0.76-1.56). The prevalence of substantial shoulder problems in adolescent elite handball players is high, especially among females, and this warrants further studies on risk factors for shoulder injury and the development of prevention strategies in handball players already before the age of 15. These findings also highlight the importance of introducing a clinical monitoring programme on a routine basis and improving the medical support, taking gender-related aspects into consideration, at handball-profiled secondary schools. II.

  9. Constructivism and Reflectivism as the Logical Counterparts in TESOL: Learning Theory versus Teaching Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Mahmud, Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    The gist of the entire constructivist learning theory is that learners are self-builders of their learning that occurs through a mental process in a social context or communication setting, and teachers as facilitators generate learning by creating the expected environment and/or utilizing the process. This article theoretically proves…

  10. A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, S. J.; Chen, T.-W.; Jerkstrand, A.; Coughlin, M.; Kankare, E.; Sim, S. A.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Maguire, K.; Chambers, K. C.; Huber, M. E.; Krühler, T.; Leloudas, G.; Magee, M.; Shingles, L. J.; Smith, K. W.; Young, D. R.; Tonry, J.; Kotak, R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Lyman, J. D.; Homan, D. S.; Agliozzo, C.; Anderson, J. P.; Angus, C. R.; Ashall, C.; Barbarino, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Berton, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Bulla, M.; Bulger, J.; Cannizzaro, G.; Cano, Z.; Cartier, R.; Cikota, A.; Clark, P.; De Cia, A.; Della Valle, M.; Denneau, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Dessart, L.; Dimitriadis, G.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Firth, R. E.; Flewelling, H.; Flörs, A.; Franckowiak, A.; Frohmaier, C.; Galbany, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Greiner, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Guelbenzu, A. Nicuesa; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hamanowicz, A.; Hanlon, L.; Harmanen, J.; Heintz, K. E.; Heinze, A.; Hernandez, M.-S.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Hook, I. M.; Izzo, L.; James, P. A.; Jonker, P. G.; Kerzendorf, W. E.; Klose, S.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Kowalski, M.; Kromer, M.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Lawrence, A.; Lowe, T. B.; Magnier, E. A.; Manulis, I.; Martin-Carrillo, A.; Mattila, S.; McBrien, O.; Müller, A.; Nordin, J.; O'Neill, D.; Onori, F.; Palmerio, J. T.; Pastorello, A.; Patat, F.; Pignata, G.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Pumo, M. L.; Prentice, S. J.; Rau, A.; Razza, A.; Rest, A.; Reynolds, T.; Roy, R.; Ruiter, A. J.; Rybicki, K. A.; Salmon, L.; Schady, P.; Schultz, A. S. B.; Schweyer, T.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Smith, M.; Sollerman, J.; Stalder, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sullivan, M.; Szegedi, H.; Taddia, F.; Taubenberger, S.; Terreran, G.; van Soelen, B.; Vos, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Walton, N. A.; Waters, C.; Weiland, H.; Willman, M.; Wiseman, P.; Wright, D. E.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yaron, O.

    2017-11-01

    Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short γ-ray burst. The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 ± 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 ± 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 ± 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.

  11. CALET UPPER LIMITS ON X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY COUNTERPARTS OF GW151226

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriani, O.; Bongi, M.; Castellini, G. [University of Florence, Via Sansone, 1, I-50019 Sesto, Fiorentino (Italy); Akaike, Y. [Universities Space Research Association, 7178 Columbia Gateway Drive, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Asano, K. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Asaoka, Y. [JEM Mission Operations and Integration Center, Human Spaceflight Technology Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 2-1-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8505 (Japan); Bagliesi, M. G.; Bigongiari, G.; Bonechi, S.; Brogi, P.; Felice, V. Di [National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), Piazza dei Caprettari, 70, I-00186 Rome (Italy); Binns, W. R.; Buckley, J. H. [Department of Physics, Washington University, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, MO 63130-4899 (United States); Cannady, N.; Cherry, M. L.; Guzik, T. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, 202 Nicholson Hall, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Checchia, C.; Collazuol, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Padova, Via Marzolo, 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Ebisawa, K.; Fuke, H., E-mail: nakahira@crab.riken.jp, E-mail: yoichi.asaoka@aoni.waseda.jp, E-mail: tsakamoto@phys.aoyama.ac.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-20

    We present upper limits in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray bands at the time of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) gravitational-wave event GW151226 derived from the CALorimetric Electron Telescope ( CALET ) observation. The main instrument of CALET , CALorimeter (CAL), observes gamma-rays from ∼1 GeV up to 10 TeV with a field of view of ∼2 sr. The CALET gamma-ray burst monitor (CGBM) views ∼3 sr and ∼2 π sr of the sky in the 7 keV–1 MeV and the 40 keV–20 MeV bands, respectively, by using two different scintillator-based instruments. The CGBM covered 32.5% and 49.1% of the GW151226 sky localization probability in the 7 keV–1 MeV and 40 keV–20 MeV bands respectively. We place a 90% upper limit of 2 × 10{sup −7} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the 1–100 GeV band where CAL reaches 15% of the integrated LIGO probability (∼1.1 sr). The CGBM 7 σ upper limits are 1.0 × 10{sup −6} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (7–500 keV) and 1.8 × 10{sup −6} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (50–1000 keV) for a 1 s exposure. Those upper limits correspond to the luminosity of 3–5 × 10{sup 49} erg s{sup −1}, which is significantly lower than typical short GRBs.

  12. Possible role of magnetic reconnection in the electromagnetic counterpart of binary black hole merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraschetti, F.

    2018-04-01

    We propose a qualitative scenario to interpret the argued association between the direct measurement of the gravitational wave event GW150914 by Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO)-Virgo collaborations and the hard X-ray transient detected by Fermi-Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) 0.4 sec after. In a binary system of two gravitationally collapsing objects with a non-vanishing electric charge, the compenetration of the two magnetospheres occurring during the coalescence, through magnetic reconnection, produces a highly collimated relativistic outflow that becomes optically thin and shines in the GBM field of view. We propose that this process should be expected as a commonplace in the future joint gravitational/electromagnetic detections and, in case of neutron star-neutron star merger event, might lead to detectable X- or γ-ray precursors to, or transients associated with, the gravitational bursts.

  13. Ooh La La! Oklahoma Culinary Programs Cook up Great Partnerships with French Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCharen, Belinda

    2009-01-01

    The dream of a Franco-Oklahoma partnership began over a year ago when Chantal Manes, now from the French Ministry of Education, visited Oklahoma. The Technologie Academie in Soissons, France, had a goal for all the career and technical students in the Picardie Region of France to have an international experience before completing their technical…

  14. Chandra position of IGR J17454-2919 and discovery of a possible NIR counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paizis, A.; Nowak, M.; Chati, S.

    2015-01-01

    On 2014 November 3, we observed the recently discovered INTEGRAL source IGR J17454-2919 (ATels #6530, #6574 and #6602) with Chandra HETGS for 20ks. The J2000.0 Chandra position we obtain is RA: 17 45 27.689 DEC: -29 19 53.83 (90% uncertainty of 0.6") This position (2.4" away from the Swift positi...

  15. Possible NIR counterpart to the AXP 1E 1547.0-5408

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mignani, R.P.; Rea, N.; Israel, G.L.; Testa, V.; Esposito, P.

    2008-01-01

    On 2008 October 3rd, Swift-BAT triggered on several short bursts from the direction of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar (AXP) 1E1547.0-5408 (Krimm et al. GCN 8311, 8312; Rea et al. Atel #1756). This is the second known transient radio AXP discovered to date (Gelfand & Gaensler 2007; Camilo et al. 2007),

  16. On the Comparison of Impulsivity between HIV Positive Persons, Drug-Dependent Persons, and Healthy Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nikoogoftar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to compare impulsive decision-making between AIDS sufferers, people suffering substance abuse, and nonclinical populations. Method: This was a causal-comparative study which was conducted within the six months of 2011. In this study, 30 AIDS sufferers, 30 drug abusers, and 30 healthy subjects from nonclinical population in the 15-67 age range were selected through convenience sampling. The selected participants were matched in terms of age, education, and gender. Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (1997 were administered to the three groups. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference among the three groups in impulsivity subscales. Conclusion: The results showed that there existed some degree of deficiency in decision-making processes in AIDS sufferers and drug dependent persons. It may be rooted in a number of personality traits neurological damage drug use the insufficiency of appropriate training in life skills, problem-solving, and decision-making the availability of emotions at paly and personal and cultural thoughts and beliefs around protective behaviors in sexual relationships.

  17. Attitudes towards screening for lung cancer among smokers and their non-smoking counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Gerard A; Nietert, Paul J; Zoller, James; Carter, Cindy; Bradford, David

    2007-02-01

    There has been resurgence of interest in lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography. The implications of directing a screening programme at smokers has been little explored. A nationwide telephone survey was conducted. Demographics, certain clinical characteristics and attitudes about screening for lung cancer were ascertained. Responses of current, former and never smokers were compared. 2001 people from the US were interviewed. Smokers were significantly (p < 0.05) more likely than never smokers to be male, non-white, less educated, and to report poor health status or having had cancer, and less likely to be able to identify a usual source of healthcare. Compared with never smokers, current smokers were less likely to believe that early detection would result in a good chance of survival (p < 0.05). Smokers were less likely to be willing to consider computed tomography screening for lung cancer (71.2% (current smokers) v 87.6% (never smokers) odds ratio (OR) 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.32 to 0.71). More never smokers as opposed to current smokers believed that the risk of disease (88% v 56%) and the accuracy of the test (92% v 71%) were important determinants in deciding whether to be screened (p < 0.05). Only half of the current smokers would opt for surgery for a screen-diagnosed cancer. The findings suggest that there may be substantial obstacles to the successful implementation of a mass-screening programme for lung cancer that will target cigarette smokers.

  18. Human Resource Management in Selected Japanese Firms, Their Foreign Subsidiaries and Locally Owned Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Hem C.

    1990-01-01

    Examines differences between Japanese and North American personnel management philosophies. Considers to what extent practices of Japanese corporations have been transferred to subsidiaries in Canada, India, Malaysia, and Singapore, compared to locally owned firms. Shows how cultural factors affect styles of personnel management. (SK)

  19. Preparation and characterization of an aromatic polyester/polyaniline composite and its improved counterpart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT composites containing polyaniline (PANI were prepared using a melt-blending process. Maleic anhydride-grafted PBT (PBT-g-MA and PANI were used to improve the compatibility of PANI within the PBT matrix. PBT-g-MA/PANI composites exhibited noticeably superior mechanical properties compared with those of PBT/PANI due to greater compatibility with the added PANI. The antibacterial and antistatic properties of the composites were also evaluated. Escherichia coli were chosen as the standard bacteria for determining the antibacterial properties of the composite materials. The PBT-g-MA/PANI composites showed markedly enhanced antibacterial and antistatic properties compared to PBT/PANI composites due to the formation of imide bonds from condensation of the anhydride carboxyl acid groups of PBT-g-MA with the amino groups of PANI. The optimal level of PANI in the composites was 9 wt%, as excess PANI led to separation of the two organic phases, lowering their compatibility.

  20. Lifestyle intervention program in deprived obese adult patients and their non-deprived counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Loddo

    Full Text Available Although it is known that the prevalence of obesity is high in deprived patients, the link between deprivation and obesity, and the impact of deprivation on compliance and efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program are not known.Deprivation was assessed in 40 patients (23 Females, mean±SD age: 49±17 years from the diabetology department and 140 patients (101 Females, age: 50±15 years from the nutrition department of Bordeaux University hospital. Eighty-seven patients suffering from obesity were evaluated before and after a tailored, multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention. Deprivation was assessed using EPICES scores. Deprivation was defined with an EPICES score > 30.Deprived patients suffering from obesity had significantly higher current (43.8 ±8.4 versus 40.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2, p = 0,02 and maximal BMI (46.1± 8.6 versus 42.3± 5.2 kg/m2, p = 0.002 compared to non-deprived obese. Percentage of body weight loss was not different according to deprivation (4.74 ± 0.75 versus 4.65 ± 1.04%, p = 0.9. EPICES scores were not different according to adherence to lifestyle intervention program (20.5 ± 8.5 versus 29.9 ± 3.9 versus 29.0 ±2.5, no follow up versus partial follow up versus total follow up, p = 0,58.Deprived patients suffering from obesity have a more serious disease than non-deprived patients. However, neither compliance to the lifestyle intervention program nor body weight loss differed between deprived patients with obesity and non-deprived ones. Deprivation should not be a limitation when enrolling patients with obesity in lifestyle intervention programs.

  1. Achilles tendon injuries in elite athletes: lessons in pathophysiology from their equine counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Kane, Janet C; Rich, Tina

    2014-01-01

    Superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) injury in equine athletes is one of the most well-accepted, scientifically supported companion animal models of human disease (i.e., exercise-induced Achilles tendon [AT] injury). The SDFT and AT are functionally and clinically equivalent (and important) energy-storing structures for which no equally appropriate rodent, rabbit, or other analogues exist. Access to equine tissues has facilitated significant advances in knowledge of tendon maturation and aging, determination of specific exercise effects (including early life), and definition of some of the earliest stages of subclinical pathology. Access to human surgical biopsies has provided complementary information on more advanced phases of disease. Importantly, equine SDFT injuries are only a model for acute ruptures in athletes, not the entire spectrum of human tendonopathy (including chronic tendon pain). In both, pathology begins with a potentially prolonged phase of accumulation of (subclinical) microdamage. Recent work has revealed remarkably similar genetic risk factors, including further evidence that tenocyte dysfunction plays an active role. Mice are convenient but not necessarily accurate models for multiple diseases, particularly at the cellular level. Mechanistic studies, including tendon cell responses to combinations of exercise-associated stresses, require a more thorough investigation of cross-species conservation of key stress pathway auditors. Molecular evidence has provided some context for the poor performance of mouse models; equines may provide better systems at this level. The use of horses may be additionally justifiable based on comparable species longevity, lifestyle factors, and selection pressure by similar infectious agents (e.g., herpesviruses) on general cell stress pathway evolution. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Stock Market Integration and Volatility Spillover:India and its Major Asian Counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Dr. Kedar nath; Mishra, Dr. R. K.

    2008-01-01

    Return and volatility spillover among Indian stock market with that of 12 other developed and emerging Asian countries over a period from November 1997 to April 2008 is studied. Daily opening and closing prices of all major equity indices from the sample countries are examined by applying the GARCH model [Engle (1982) and Bollerslev (1986)] to explore the possibility of stock market integration and volatility spillover among India and its major Asian counterparties. Apart from different degre...

  3. PROBABLE IDENTIFICATION OF THE ON-DISK COUNTERPART OF SPICULES IN HINODE Ca II H OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Wijn, A. G., E-mail: dwijn@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    I present a study of high-resolution time series of Ca II H images and Fe I 630.15 nm spectra taken with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode spacecraft. There is excellent correspondence between the Ca II H and the Fe I line core intensity, except tenuous emission around the network field concentrations in the former that is absent in the latter. Analysis of on-disk observations and a comparison with limb observations suggests that this 'network haze' corresponds to spicules, and likely to type-II spicules in particular. They are known to appear in emission in on-disk broadband Ca II H diagnostics and the network haze is strongest in those areas where features similar to type-II spicules are produced in simulations.

  4. Implementation and Testing of the First Prompt Search for Gravitational Wave Transients with Electromagnetic Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Aims. A transient astrophysical event observed in both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) channels would yield rich scientific rewards. A first program initiating EM follow-ups to possible transient GW events has been developed and exercised by the LIGO and Virgo community in association with several partners. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the methods used to promptly identify and localize GW event candidates and to request images of targeted sky locations. Methods. During two observing periods (Dec. 17, 2009 to Jan. 8, 2010 and Sep. 2 to Oct. 20, 2010), a low-latency analysis pipeline was used to identify GW event candidates and to reconstruct maps of possible sky locations. A catalog of nearby galaxies and MilkyWay globular clusters was used to select the most promising sky positions to be imaged, and this directional information was delivered to EM observatories with time lags of about thirty minutes. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the low-latency GW pipeline's ability to reconstruct source positions correctly. Results. For signals near the detection threshold, our low-latency algorithms often localized simulated GW burst signals to tens of square degrees, while neutron star/neutron star inspirals and neutron star/black hole inspirals were localized to a few hundred square degrees. Localization precision improves for moderately stronger signals. The correct sky location of signals well above threshold and originating from nearby galaxies may be observed with 50% or better probability with a few pointings of wide-field telescopes.

  5. Lifestyle intervention program in deprived obese adult patients and their non-deprived counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loddo, Celine; Pupier, Emilie; Amour, Rémy; Monsaingeon-Henry, Maud; Mohammedi, Kamel; Gatta-Cherifi, Blandine

    2017-01-01

    Although it is known that the prevalence of obesity is high in deprived patients, the link between deprivation and obesity, and the impact of deprivation on compliance and efficacy of a lifestyle intervention program are not known. Deprivation was assessed in 40 patients (23 Females, mean±SD age: 49±17 years) from the diabetology department and 140 patients (101 Females, age: 50±15 years) from the nutrition department of Bordeaux University hospital. Eighty-seven patients suffering from obesity were evaluated before and after a tailored, multidisciplinary lifestyle intervention. Deprivation was assessed using EPICES scores. Deprivation was defined with an EPICES score > 30. Deprived patients suffering from obesity had significantly higher current (43.8 ±8.4 versus 40.9 ± 5.5 kg/m2, p = 0,02) and maximal BMI (46.1± 8.6 versus 42.3± 5.2 kg/m2, p = 0.002) compared to non-deprived obese. Percentage of body weight loss was not different according to deprivation (4.74 ± 0.75 versus 4.65 ± 1.04%, p = 0.9). EPICES scores were not different according to adherence to lifestyle intervention program (20.5 ± 8.5 versus 29.9 ± 3.9 versus 29.0 ±2.5, no follow up versus partial follow up versus total follow up, p = 0,58). Deprived patients suffering from obesity have a more serious disease than non-deprived patients. However, neither compliance to the lifestyle intervention program nor body weight loss differed between deprived patients with obesity and non-deprived ones. Deprivation should not be a limitation when enrolling patients with obesity in lifestyle intervention programs.

  6. Imaginal action: towards a Jungian conception of enactment, and an extraverted counterpart to active imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robin S

    2018-04-01

    This theoretical paper considers the fashion in which Jung's psychology radically challenges modern assumptions concerning the nature of subjectivity. With an eye for the clinical implications of Jung's late work, the author introduces the idea of imaginal action. In order to explain what is meant by this, the paper begins by exploring how Jung's thinking demonstrates an underlying bias towards introversion. It is argued that while Jung's interest in synchronicity ultimately resulted in his developing a worldview that might address the introverted biases of his psychology, the clinical implications of this shift have not been sufficiently clarified. With reference to some short examples from experience, the author outlines a conception of relational synchronicity wherein the intrapsychic emerges non-projectively within the interpersonal field itself. Comparing and contrasting these occurrences to the more introverted practice of active imagination, it is claimed that such a notion is implicit in Jung's work and is needed as a corrective to his emphasis on interiority. The author suggests that imaginal action might be conceived as a distinctly Jungian approach to the psychoanalytic notion of enactment. It is also shown how the idea outlined might find further support from recent developments in the field of transpersonal psychology. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. Morphology, taxonomy and ecology of Thraustochytrids and Labyrinthulids, the marine counterparts of zoosporic fungi

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RaghuKumar, S.

    ecology and the fact that mycologists have traditionally studied these unique organisms, their inclusion in the discipline of mycology is well justified. In this, followed are the arguments put forth by Barr (1992) for including the Chytridiomycota...

  8. Technical meeting of project counterparts on 'Cyclotron production of Iodine-123'. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Several cyclotron laboratory facilities are very much interested in the production of Iodine-123 for medical applications in view of its optimal physical and chemical properties. Some of these countries have in the past used the solid target technology based on utilization of enriched Tellurium targets and are currently involved in the development of enriched Xenon-124 gas targets to improved radionuclidic purity as required by the needs of modern nuclear medicine. With the purpose of discussing the advances in the later route of production and to foster mutual co-operation among the developing countries interested in this technology, a meeting was convened with the participation of scientists from Argentina, Brazil, Iran, Korea and Syria. A scientist from the United States was also invited as an expert to provide advise on particular aspects of the technology. This publication contains as an annex technical reports from the participating institutions. All of these reports have been separately indexed and provided with abstracts

  9. An Instructor’s Guide for the Building and Sustaining Foreign Counterpart Organizations Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Philippines . She has also worked in China, Korea, Japan, Okinawa, Italy, Belgium, Germany, and England. D-1 AppendixE Universalism Versus Particularism...the provincial department of agriculture? I’ve just marked down staff tardiness and failure to comply. What do you think is going wrong with your

  10. Property and privacy paradigms of "marketable spit": an ethical and legal counterpart to blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernillo, Anthony Thomas; Wolpe, Paul Root

    2010-01-01

    Major advances in the testing of oral fluid (e.g., saliva) may lead to the diagnosis and treatment of previously undiagnosed conditions and may enable dentists to manage oral disease more effectively. Such use of another body fluid, blood, is already well established. Blood is a complex tissue that has been extensively researched and is now used for a wide variety of diagnostic tests. It is also regarded as a form of property with ethical and legal dimensions. If saliva is to fulfill a similar role, it should perhaps be granted those same protections. This paper advances the concept that saliva should be considered a form of property, possibly within personal biological materials law. The emerging potential for the development of marketable products from oral fluids raises the issue of protecting the research participant's ethical and legal rights. In particular, violation of privacy and genetic discrimination may arise from the testing of salivary DNA. Respect for autonomy requires that the clinician inform a patient or research participant about his or her rights to property and privacy as these may pertain to oral fluid.

  11. SN 2012au: A GOLDEN LINK BETWEEN SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR LOWER-LUMINOSITY COUNTERPARTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Margutti, Raffaella; Drout, Maria R.; Marion, G. Howie; Sanders, Nathan E.; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Pete; Kirshner, Robert P.; Dittmann, Jason; Bieryla, Allyson; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T.; Levesque, Emily M.

    2013-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2012au, a slow-evolving supernova (SN) with properties that suggest a link between subsets of energetic and H-poor SNe and superluminous SNe. SN 2012au exhibited conspicuous Type-Ib-like He I lines and other absorption features at velocities reaching ≈2 × 10 4 km s –1 in its early spectra, and a broad light curve that peaked at M B = –18.1 mag. Models of these data indicate a large explosion kinetic energy of ∼10 52 erg and 56 Ni mass ejection of M Ni ≈ 0.3 M ☉ on par with SN 1998bw. SN 2012au's spectra almost one year after explosion show a blend of persistent Fe II P-Cyg absorptions and nebular emissions originating from two distinct velocity regions. These late-time emissions include strong [Fe II], [Ca II], [O I], Mg I], and Na I lines at velocities ∼> 4500 km s –1 , as well as O I and Mg I lines at noticeably smaller velocities ∼ –1 . Many of the late-time properties of SN 2012au are similar to the slow-evolving hypernovae SN 1997dq and SN 1997ef, and the superluminous SN 2007bi. Our observations suggest that a single explosion mechanism may unify all of these events that span –21 ∼ B ∼< –17 mag. The aspherical and possibly jetted explosion was most likely initiated by the core collapse of a massive progenitor star and created substantial high-density, low-velocity Ni-rich material.

  12. First low-latency LIGO plus Virgo search for binary inspirals and their electromagnetic counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadie, J.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Rabeling, D.S.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The detection and measurement of gravitational-waves from coalescing neutron-star binary systems is an important science goal for ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. In addition to emitting gravitational-waves at frequencies that span the most sensitive bands of the LIGO and Virgo

  13. A case study of the counterpart technical support policy to improve rural health services in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There is, globally, an often observed inequality in the health services available in urban and rural areas. One strategy to overcome the inequality is to require urban doctors to spend time in rural hospitals. This approach was adopted by the Beijing Municipality (population of 20.19 million) to improve rural health services, but the approach has never been systematically evaluated. Methods Drawing upon 1.6 million cases from 24 participating hospitals in Beijing (13 urban and 11 rural hospitals) from before and after the implementation of the policy, changes in the rural–urban hospital performance gap were examined. Hospital performance was assessed using changes in six indices over-time: Diagnosis Related Groups quantity, case-mix index (CMI), cost expenditure index (CEI), time expenditure index (TEI), and mortality rates of low- and high-risk diseases. Results Significant reductions in rural–urban gaps were observed in DRGs quantity and mortality rates for both high- and low-risk diseases. These results signify improvements of rural hospitals in terms of medical safety, and capacity to treat emergency cases and more diverse illnesses. No changes in the rural–urban gap in CMI were observed. Post-implementation, cost and time efficiencies worsened for the rural hospitals but improved for urban hospitals, leading to a widening rural–urban gap in hospital efficiency. Conclusions The strategy for reducing urban–rural gaps in health services adopted, by the Beijing Municipality shows some promise. Gains were not consistent, however, across all performance indicators, and further improvements will need to be tried and evaluated. PMID:23272703

  14. Physically Active Men Show Better Semen Parameters than Their Sedentary Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalinde-Acevedo, Paula C; Mayorga-Torres, B Jose Manuel; Agarwal, Ashok; du Plessis, Stefan S; Ahmad, Gulfam; Cadavid, Ángela P; Cardona Maya, Walter D

    2017-10-01

    The quality of semen depends upon several factors such as environment, life style, physical activity, age, and occupation. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the conventional and functional semen parameters in men practicing vigorous physical activity to those of sedentary men. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, semen samples of 17 physically active men and 15 sedentary men were collected for analysis. Semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, while functional parameters were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results showed that several semen parameters (semen volume, viability, progressive motility, total motility, normal morphology, and moribund cells) were superior in the physically active group in comparison with the sedentary group. Semen parameters such as viability, progressive motility and total motility, as well as the percentage of moribund spermatozoa were significantly different between both groups. However, sperm DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial potential were not significantly different among the groups. Nevertheless, the physical activity shows better semen parameters than sedentary group. Taken together, our results demonstrate that regular physical activity has beneficial impact in sperm fertility parameters and such a life style can enhance the fertility status of men. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  15. Physically Active Men Show Better Semen Parameters than Their Sedentary Counterparts

    OpenAIRE

    Lalinde-Acevedo, Paula C.; Mayorga-Torres, B. Jose Manuel; Agarwal, Ashok; du Plessis, Stefan S.; Ahmad, Gulfam; Cadavid, Ángela P.; Cardona Maya, Walter D.

    2017-01-01

    Background The quality of semen depends upon several factors such as environment, life style, physical activity, age, and occupation. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the conventional and functional semen parameters in men practicing vigorous physical activity to those of sedentary men. Materials and Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, semen samples of 17 physically active men and 15 sedentary men were collected for analysis. Semen analysis was performe...

  16. A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, S J; Chen, T-W; Jerkstrand, A; Coughlin, M; Kankare, E; Sim, S A; Fraser, M; Inserra, C; Maguire, K; Chambers, K C; Huber, M E; Krühler, T; Leloudas, G; Magee, M; Shingles, L J; Smith, K W; Young, D R; Tonry, J; Kotak, R; Gal-Yam, A; Lyman, J D; Homan, D S; Agliozzo, C; Anderson, J P; Angus, C R; Ashall, C; Barbarino, C; Bauer, F E; Berton, M; Botticella, M T; Bulla, M; Bulger, J; Cannizzaro, G; Cano, Z; Cartier, R; Cikota, A; Clark, P; De Cia, A; Della Valle, M; Denneau, L; Dennefeld, M; Dessart, L; Dimitriadis, G; Elias-Rosa, N; Firth, R E; Flewelling, H; Flörs, A; Franckowiak, A; Frohmaier, C; Galbany, L; González-Gaitán, S; Greiner, J; Gromadzki, M; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Gutiérrez, C P; Hamanowicz, A; Hanlon, L; Harmanen, J; Heintz, K E; Heinze, A; Hernandez, M-S; Hodgkin, S T; Hook, I M; Izzo, L; James, P A; Jonker, P G; Kerzendorf, W E; Klose, S; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Kowalski, M; Kromer, M; Kuncarayakti, H; Lawrence, A; Lowe, T B; Magnier, E A; Manulis, I; Martin-Carrillo, A; Mattila, S; McBrien, O; Müller, A; Nordin, J; O'Neill, D; Onori, F; Palmerio, J T; Pastorello, A; Patat, F; Pignata, G; Podsiadlowski, Ph; Pumo, M L; Prentice, S J; Rau, A; Razza, A; Rest, A; Reynolds, T; Roy, R; Ruiter, A J; Rybicki, K A; Salmon, L; Schady, P; Schultz, A S B; Schweyer, T; Seitenzahl, I R; Smith, M; Sollerman, J; Stalder, B; Stubbs, C W; Sullivan, M; Szegedi, H; Taddia, F; Taubenberger, S; Terreran, G; van Soelen, B; Vos, J; Wainscoat, R J; Walton, N A; Waters, C; Weiland, H; Willman, M; Wiseman, P; Wright, D E; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Yaron, O

    2017-11-02

    Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short γ-ray burst. The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 ± 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 ± 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 ± 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.

  17. Optical polarimetry of TXS 0506+056 (possible counterpart of IceCube-170922A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, I. A.; Jermak, H.; Copperwheat, C.

    2018-03-01

    ATel #11419 reports enhanced Gamma Ray Activity of TXS 0506+056 detected by Fermi-LAT on 2018 March 13. A previous Fermi-LAT high state of this source in the period 2017 Sept 15-27 was potentially associated with the Ice Cube Neutrino detection 170922A (ATel #10791).

  18. A specialist toxicity database (TRACE) is more effective than its larger, commercially available counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, C.A.; Copestake, P.T.; Robinson, L.

    2000-01-01

    The retrieval precision and recall of a specialist bibliographic toxicity database (TRACE) and a range of widely available bibliographic databases used to identify toxicity papers were compared. The analysis indicated that the larger size and resources of the major bibliographic databases did not,

  19. Enumeration of virtual libraries of combinatorial modular macrocyclic (bracelet, necklace) architectures and their linear counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Du, Hai; Lindsey, Jonathan S

    2013-09-23

    A wide variety of cyclic molecular architectures are built of modular subunits and can be formed combinatorially. The mathematics for enumeration of such objects is well-developed yet lacks key features of importance in chemistry, such as specifying (i) the structures of individual members among a set of isomers, (ii) the distribution (i.e., relative amounts) of products, and (iii) the effect of nonequal ratios of reacting monomers on the product distribution. Here, a software program (Cyclaplex) has been developed to determine the number, identity (including isomers), and relative amounts of linear and cyclic architectures from a given number and ratio of reacting monomers. The program includes both mathematical formulas and generative algorithms for enumeration; the latter go beyond the former to provide desired molecular-relevant information and data-mining features. The program is equipped to enumerate four types of architectures: (i) linear architectures with directionality (macroscopic equivalent = electrical extension cords), (ii) linear architectures without directionality (batons), (iii) cyclic architectures with directionality (necklaces), and (iv) cyclic architectures without directionality (bracelets). The program can be applied to cyclic peptides, cycloveratrylenes, cyclens, calixarenes, cyclodextrins, crown ethers, cucurbiturils, annulenes, expanded meso-substituted porphyrin(ogen)s, and diverse supramolecular (e.g., protein) assemblies. The size of accessible architectures encompasses up to 12 modular subunits derived from 12 reacting monomers or larger architectures (e.g. 13-17 subunits) from fewer types of monomers (e.g. 2-4). A particular application concerns understanding the possible heterogeneity of (natural or biohybrid) photosynthetic light-harvesting oligomers (cyclic, linear) formed from distinct peptide subunits.

  20. Color-color analysis of the optical counterparts of high energy sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimon, Vojtěch; Hudec, René; Pizzichini, G.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 1 (2010), s. 356-361 ISSN 0037-8720. [Multifrequency behaviour of high energy cosmic sources. Vulcano, 25.05.2009-30.05. 2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:ESA(XE) ESA- PECS project No. 98058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-rays binaries * gamma rays * accretion, accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  1. Implementation and Testing of the First Prompt for Electromagnetic Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    A transient astrophysical event observed in both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) channels would yield rich scientific rewards. A first program initiating EM follow-ups to possible transient GW events has been developed and exercised by the LIGO and Virgo community in association with several partners. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the methods used to promptly identify and localize GW event candidates and to request images of targeted sky locations. Methods. During two observing periods (Dec 17 2009 to Jan 8 2010 and Sep 2 to Oct 20 2010), a low-latency analysis pipeline was used to identify GW-event candidates and to reconstruct-maps of possible sky locations. A catalog of nearby galaxies and Milky Way globular clusters was used to select the most promising sky positions to be imaged, and this directional information was delivered to EM observatories with time lags of about thirty minutes. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the low-latency GW pipeline s ability to reconstruct source positions correctly. Results. For signals near the detection threshold, our low-latency algorithms often localized simulated GW burst signals to tens of square degrees, while neutron star/neutron star inspirals and neutron star/black hole inspirals were localized to a few hundred square degrees. Localization precision improves for moderately stronger signals. The correct sky location of signals well above threshold and originating from nearby galaxies may be observed with 50% or better probability with a few pointings of wide-field telescopes.

  2. Counter-part Test and Code Analysis of the Integral Test Loop, SNUF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Goon Cherl; Bae, B. U.; Lee, K. H.; Cho, Y. J.

    2007-02-01

    The thermal-hydraulic phenomena of Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) line Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) in pressurized water reactor, APR1400, were investigated. The reduced-height and reduced-pressure integral test loop, SNUF (Seoul National University Facility), was constructed with scaling down the prototype. For the appropriate test conditions in the experiment of SNUF, the energy scaling methodology was suggested as scaling the coolant mass inventory and thermal power for the reduced-pressure condition. From the MARS code analysis, the energy scaling methodology was confirmed to show the reasonable transient when ideally scaled-down SNUF model was compared to the prototype model. In the experiments according to the conditions determined by energy scaling methodology, the phenomenon of downcomer seal clearing had a dominant role in decrease of the system pressure and increase of the coolant level of core. The experimental results was utilized to validate the calculation capability of MARS

  3. Canine spontaneous head and neck squamous cell carcinomas represent their human counterparts at the molecular level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deli Liu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous canine head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC represents an excellent model of human HNSCC but is greatly understudied. To better understand and utilize this valuable resource, we performed a pilot study that represents its first genome-wide characterization by investigating 12 canine HNSCC cases, of which 9 are oral, via high density array comparative genomic hybridization and RNA-seq. The analyses reveal that these canine cancers recapitulate many molecular features of human HNSCC. These include analogous genomic copy number abnormality landscapes and sequence mutation patterns, recurrent alteration of known HNSCC genes and pathways (e.g., cell cycle, PI3K/AKT signaling, and comparably extensive heterogeneity. Amplification or overexpression of protein kinase genes, matrix metalloproteinase genes, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition genes TWIST1 and SNAI1 are also prominent in these canine tumors. This pilot study, along with a rapidly growing body of literature on canine cancer, reemphasizes the potential value of spontaneous canine cancers in HNSCC basic and translational research.

  4. Does organic school food service provide more healthy eating environments than their non organic counterparts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    Organic food strategies are increasingly developing within European school food services at the same time as these services are being involved in measures aiming at promoting healthy eating at school and counter acting obesity. Schools have an important role to play in teaching children fundamental...... as sustainable consumption strategies are contributing to shaping the future school food culture. It is therefore imperative to study how these changes in agendas influences each other and to study the associations between healthy eating and organic supply strategies at school....... life skills, including good food habits according to a number of authoritative policy papers from Council of Europe, the WHO and the EU platform. Although there are great national differences, European school food culture seems to be in a transitional state in which both healthy eating as well...

  5. Are Proplyds the Low-Energy Counterpart of Clouds Populating the AGNs Broad Line Region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, H.

    2000-11-01

    The stability of the clouds producing the broadening of permitted lines in A GNs is a challenge for the persistence of these features during the galactic nucleus active fase lifetime. The formation of succesive generations of clouds in this very agressive enviroment, seems not to be the more adequated scenarion to explain this phenomenon. Why should new clouds be formed in regions where the UV radiation is so intense as to destroy the previously existing ones? The discovery of proplyds in Orion and NGC3603, as well as in 30Dor, shows that the formation of stars with protostars with surrounding disk is a common phenomenon in HII regions with very different radiation fields. We discuss that as a mechanism to explain the persistence of the clouds in the AGNs broad line regions.

  6. A Comparison of Tactical Leader Decision Making Between Automated and Live Counterparts in a Virtual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    33 b. Netbeans and Websocket Gateway .........................................34 c. Global Mapper...used to execute the experiment included the Virtual Battlespace Simulation 2 program, Netbeans , Websocket Gateway, and Global Mapper. Hardware used...collection and post analysis of results included notepad, JMP Pro 10, and Microsoft Excel. 1. Software Virtual Battlespace Simulation 2, Netbeans

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: UV counterparts in HI clouds using ALFA surveys (Donovan+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan Meyer, J.; Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M.; Grcevich, J.

    2017-10-01

    GALFA-HI is a survey of Galactic HI conducted with the ALFA seven-beam feed array on the 305 m Arecibo antenna. The survey has both high spatial (FWHM~4') and velocity (0.18 km/s) resolution over 13000 (7520 in DR1) degrees2 of sky between -650 and 650 km/s. Details of the observations and data reduction can be found in Peek et al. (2011ApJS..194...20P). The ALFALFA HI-line survey, now 40% complete, also uses the Arecibo Observatory and its seven-beam feed array to detect potential dwarf galaxies in the vicinity of the Milky Way. The survey, which covers over 7000 (2800 in α.40) deg2 of sky out to 18000 km/s, has the sensitivity to detect 105 Mȯ clouds with 20 km/s linewidths at a distance of 1 Mpc. (2 data files).

  8. Molecular characteristics of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors and comparison with testicular counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraggerud, Sigrid Marie; Hoei-Hansen, Christina E; Alagaratnam, Sharmini

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the molecular characteristics and development of rare malignant ovarian germ cell tumors (mOGCTs). We provide an overview of the genomic aberrations assessed by ploidy, cytogenetic banding, and comparative genomic hybridization. We summarize and discuss the transcriptome pr...

  9. Comparing Dimensional Accuracy Between a Polyvinyl Chloride Skull and Its Virtually Constructed Counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    sectioned, viewed in 3-D, drawn upon, treatment planned for direct prosthodontic dental work and even bonded using virtual orthodontic brackets ... orthodontics and oral and maxillofacial surgery, there is a hope that this technology will eliminate the inadequate diagnostic quality of 2-D imaging and...and up to 15 years in most states. This is a big challenge for many dentists, especially orthodontists since most orthodontic patients require

  10. Functional Characterization of Alanine Racemase from Schizosaccharomyces pombe: a Eucaryotic Counterpart to Bacterial Alanine Racemase

    OpenAIRE

    Uo, Takuma; Yoshimura, Tohru; Tanaka, Naotaka; Takegawa, Kaoru; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe has an open reading frame, which we named alr1+, encoding a putative protein similar to bacterial alanine racemase. We cloned the alr1+ gene in Escherichia coli and purified the gene product (Alr1p), with an Mr of 41,590, to homogeneity. Alr1p contains pyridoxal 5′-phosphate as a coenzyme and catalyzes the racemization of alanine with apparent Km and Vmax values as follows: for l-alanine, 5.0 mM and 670 μmol/min/mg, respectively, and for d-alanine, 2.4 mM and 350 μmo...

  11. F(R Gravity’s Rainbow and Its Einstein Counterpart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Hendi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by UV completion of general relativity with a modification of a geometry at high energy scale, it is expected to have an energy dependent geometry. In this paper, we introduce charged black hole solutions with power Maxwell invariant source in the context of gravity’s rainbow. In addition, we investigate two classes of F(R gravity’s rainbow solutions. At first, we study energy dependent F(R gravity without energy-momentum tensor, and then we obtain F(R gravity’s rainbow in the presence of conformally invariant Maxwell source. We study geometrical properties of the mentioned solutions and compare their results. We also give some related comments regarding thermodynamical behavior of the obtained solutions and discuss thermal stability of the solutions.

  12. Biochemical studies on the conversion of tumor cells to their counterpart normal cells(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Taik Koo; Lim, In Kyoung; Lee, Kee Ho; Lee, Do Jong

    1986-12-01

    We describe here the expression of c-fos oncogene in the growth stimulated cells e.g., mouse prenatal tissues, FCS treated NIH-3T3 fibroblast and A549 human lung cancer cells. Total cellular RNA was isolated from A/J and C57BL/5J mouse embryos at the 13 and 17 day of pregnancy. NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast and A549 lung cancer cells were stimulated using the 15% FCS after serum depletion for 2-3 days. During the serum stimulation, c-fos expression was detected at time intervals by the dot blot analysis using the 32 P-labelled c-fos DNA probe. RNAs isolated from mouse prenatal tissues were strongly hybridized with c-fos. c-fos induction was detected from 30 minutes after serum stimulation in NIH-3T3 cells, and turned off after 2hrs. On the other hand, c-fos in the A549 lung cancer cells was independent on the serum stimulation and very strongly expressed even in the serum depleted codition. These results indicate the possible implication of growth control by the turning off the oncogene expression. (Author)

  13. The plant PTS1 receptor : similarities and differences to its human and yeast counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimmer, C; Schmid, Markus; Veenhuis, M; Gietl, C

    1998-01-01

    Two targeting signals, PTS1 and PTS2, mediate import of proteins into the peroxisomal matrix. We have cloned and sequenced the watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) cDNA homologue to the PTS1 receptor gene (PEX5). Its gene product, CvPex5p, belongs to the family of tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR)

  14. Coexistence of sexual individuals and genetically isolated asexual counterparts in a thrips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Yoshimura, Jin; Hasegawa, Eisuke

    2013-11-21

    Sex is a paradoxical phenomenon because it is less efficient compared with asexual reproduction. To resolve this paradox we need a direct comparison between sexual and asexual forms. In many organisms, however, sexual and asexual forms do not occur in the same habitat, or at the same time. In a few cases where sexual and asexual forms are found in a single population, some (though rare) genetic exchange is usually detected between the two forms. When genetic exchange occurs a direct comparison is impossible. Here we investigate a thrips exhibiting both sexual and asexual forms (lineages) that are morphologically indistinguishable. We examine if the two forms are genetically isolated. Phylogeny based on nuclear genes confirms that the sexual and asexual lineages are genetically differentiated. Thus we demonstrate that the current system has certain advantages over existing and previously used model systems in the evolution of sexual reproduction.

  15. Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei from extragalactic pulsars and the effect of their Galactic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Ke; Olinto, Angela V.; Kotera, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    The acceleration of ultrahigh energy nuclei in fast spinning newborn pulsars can explain the observed spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and the trend towards heavier nuclei for energies above 10 19 eV as reported by the Auger Observatory. Pulsar acceleration implies a hard injection spectrum ( ∼ E −1 ) due to pulsar spin down and a maximum energy E max ∼ Z 10 19 eV due to the limit on the spin rate of neutron stars. We have previously shown that the escape through the young supernova remnant softens the spectrum, decreases slightly the maximum energy, and generates secondary nuclei. Here we show that the distribution of pulsar birth periods and the effect of propagation in the interstellar and intergalactic media modifies the combined spectrum of all pulsars. By assuming a normal distribution of pulsar birth periods centered at 300 ms, we show that the contribution of extragalactic pulsar births to the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum naturally gives rise to a contribution to very high energy cosmic rays (VHECRs, between 10 16 and 10 18 eV) by Galactic pulsar births. The required injected composition to fit the observed spectrum depends on the absolute energy scale, which is uncertain, differing between Auger Observatory and Telescope Array. The contribution of Galactic pulsar births can also bridge the gap between predictions for cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants and the observed spectrum just below the ankle, depending on the composition of the cosmic rays that escape the supernova remnant and the diffusion behavior of VHECRs in the Galaxy

  16. Dynamics of continuous-time bidirectional associative memory neural networks with impulses and their discrete counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Haifeng; Li Wantong

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the global stability characteristics of a system of equations modelling the dynamics of continuous-time bidirectional associative memory neural networks with impulses. Sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence of a unique equilibrium and its exponential stability of the networks are obtained. For the goal of computation, discrete-time analogues of the corresponding continuous-time bidirectional associative memory neural networks with impulses are also formulated and studied. Our results show that the above continuous-time and discrete-time systems with impulses preserve the dynamics of the networks without impulses when we make some modifications and impose some additional conditions on the systems, the convergence characteristics dynamics of the networks are preserved by both continuous-time and discrete-time systems with some restriction imposed on the impulse effect.

  17. Methyl group dynamics in a glass and its crystalline counterpart by neutron scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, A J; Colmenero, J; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    Methyl group dynamics in the same sample of sodium acetate trihydrate in crystalline and glassy states have been investigated by neutron scattering. Measurements have been carried out in the whole temperature range covering the crossover from rotational tunneling to classical hopping. The results in the crystalline sample have been analyzed according to the usual single-particle model, while those in the glass were analyzed in terms of a broad Gaussian distribution of single-particle potentials, with a standard deviation of 205 K. The average barrier in the glass (417 K) takes, within the experimental error, the same value as the unique barrier in the crystal. (orig.)

  18. Discovery of the optical counterparts to four energetic Fermi millisecond pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, R. P. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Van Kerkwijk, M. H. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Roberts, M. S. E. [Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Suite 100, Oakland, CA 94602-3017 (United States); Hessels, J. W. T. [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Camilo, F. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West, 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); McLaughlin, M. A. [Department of Physics, White Hall, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Ransom, S. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ray, P. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7655, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Stairs, I. H., E-mail: r.breton@soton.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years, over 43 millisecond radio pulsars have been discovered by targeted searches of unidentified γ-ray sources found by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A large fraction of these millisecond pulsars are in compact binaries with low-mass companions. These systems often show eclipses of the pulsar signal and are commonly known as black widows and redbacks because the pulsar is gradually destroying its companion. In this paper, we report on the optical discovery of four strongly irradiated millisecond pulsar companions. All four sources show modulations of their color and luminosity at the known orbital periods from radio timing. Light curve modeling of our exploratory data shows that the equilibrium temperature reached on the companion's dayside with respect to their nightside is consistent with about 10%-30% of the available spin-down energy from the pulsar being reprocessed to increase the companion's dayside temperature. This value compares well with the range observed in other irradiated pulsar binaries and offers insights about the energetics of the pulsar wind and the production of γ-ray emission. In addition, this provides a simple way of estimating the brightness of irradiated pulsar companions given the pulsar spin-down luminosity. Our analysis also suggests that two of the four new irradiated pulsar companions are only partially filling their Roche lobe. Some of these sources are relatively bright and represent good targets for spectroscopic follow-up. These measurements could enable, among other things, mass determination of the neutron stars in these systems.

  19. Discovery of the Optical Counterparts to Four Energetic Fermi Millisecond Pulsars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breton, R.P.; van Kerkwijk, M.H.; Roberts, M.S.E.; Hessels, J.W.T.; Camilo, F.; McLaughlin, M.A.; Ransom, S.M.; Ray, P.S.; Stairs, I.H.

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, over 43 millisecond radio pulsars have been discovered by targeted searches of unidentified γ-ray sources found by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A large fraction of these millisecond pulsars are in compact binaries with low-mass companions. These systems often show

  20. A thermodynamic counterpart of the Axelrod model of social influence: The one-dimensional case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandica, Y.; Medina, E.; Bonalde, I.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a thermodynamic version of the Axelrod model of social influence. In one-dimensional (1D) lattices, the thermodynamic model becomes a coupled Potts model with a bonding interaction that increases with the site matching traits. We analytically calculate thermodynamic and critical properties for a 1D system and show that an order-disorder phase transition only occurs at T=0 independent of the number of cultural traits q and features F. The 1D thermodynamic Axelrod model belongs to the same universality class of the Ising and Potts models, notwithstanding the increase of the internal dimension of the local degree of freedom and the state-dependent bonding interaction. We suggest a unifying proposal to compare exponents across different discrete 1D models. The comparison with our Hamiltonian description reveals that in the thermodynamic limit the original out-of-equilibrium 1D Axelrod model with noise behaves like an ordinary thermodynamic 1D interacting particle system.

  1. Exact Robust Counterparts of Ambiguous Stochastic Constraints Under Mean and Dispersion Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postek, Krzysztof; Ben-Tal, A.; den Hertog, Dick; Melenberg, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider ambiguous stochastic constraints under partial information consisting of means and dispersion measures of the underlying random parameters. Whereas the past literature used the variance as the dispersion measure, here we use the mean absolute deviation from the mean (MAD).

  2. Professional Soccer Player Neuromuscular Responses and Perceptions to Acute Whole Body Vibration Differ from Amateur Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Cloak, Andrew Lane, Matthew Wyon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute whole body vibration (WBV is an increasingly popular training technique amongst athletes immediately prior to performance and during scheduled breaks in play. Despite its growing popularity, evidence to demonstrate its effectiveness on acute neuromuscular responses is unclear, and suggestions that athlete ability impacts effectiveness warrant further investigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the neuromuscular effects of acute WBV and perceptions of whether WBV is an effective intervention between amateur and professional soccer players. Participants were 44 male soccer players (22 professional and 22 amateur; age: 23.1 ± 3.7 years, body mass: 75.6 ± 8.8 kg and height: 1.77 ± 0.05 m. Participants in each group were randomly assigned to either an intervention of 3 x 60 s of WBV at 40 Hz (8mm peak-to-peak displacement or control group. Peak knee isometric force, muscle activation and post activation potentiation (PAP of the knee extensors along with self-report questionnaire of the perceived benefits of using the intervention were collected. A three-way ANOVA with repeated measures revealed professional players demonstrated a significant 10.6% increase (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.22 in peak knee isometric force following acute WBV with no significant differences among amateur players. A significant difference (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.16 in PAP amongst professional players following acute WBVT was also reported. No significant differences amongst amateur players were reported across measurements. Results also indicated professional players reported significantly stronger positive beliefs in the effectiveness of the WBV intervention (p < 0.01, Partial Eta2 = 0.27 compared to amateur players. Acute WBV elicited a positive neuromuscular response amongst professional players identified by PAP and improvements in knee isometric peak force as well as perceived benefits of the intervention, benefits not found among amateur players.

  3. In Pursuit of 1 Sri Lanka: Lessons from a Malaysian Counterpart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Yusuf

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La búsqueda de la unidad nacional se ha convertido en un desafío para el liderazgo de sucesivos gobernantes tanto en Malasia como en Sri Lanka. Mientras ambos países presentan notables diferencias tanto en sus contextos como en sus orígenes históricos, existen igualmente grandes parecidos. Lo que sigue es un artículo basado en el estudio de dos países llevado a cabo por el autor con el fin de analizar y explorar el Programa "1 Malasia" lanzado en el 2009 tras la elección del primer ministro de Malasia, Tun Najib Razak durante su primer mandato. La autora pasó dos semanas en la Fundación "1 Malasia" en Malasia durante el verano del 2012 para estudiar las facetas del programa que había sido formulado con la intención de resolver las tensiones étnicas que llevan afectando a Malasia desde su acceso a la independencia (Merdeka. El propósito de esta búsqueda es triple: primero, identificar y extraer aquellos aspectos del Programa "1 Malasia" relevantes para el contexto de Sri Lanka para poder así formular un potencial Programa "1 Sri Lanka" que tenga en cuenta las variables en juego. Segundo, el artículo busca criticar el marco ya existente del Programa "1 Malasia" ofreciendo recomendaciones para las mejoras pertinentes. Tercero, iniciar un diálogo y deliberaciones sobre el rico aprendizaje y el intercambio que se pueden cultivar entre los dos países ofreciendo un marco para la cooperación bilateral entre los gobiernos de Malasia y Sri Lanka.

  4. Benchmarking of DFLAW Solid Secondary Wastes and Processes with UK/Europe Counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Elvie E. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Swanberg, David J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Surman, J. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Kay, R. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, K. [Hanford Site (HNF), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-08

    This report provides information and background on UK solid wastes and waste processes that are similar to those which will be generated by the Direct-Feed Low Activity Waste (DFLAW) facilities at Hanford. The aim is to further improve the design case for stabilizing and immobilizing of solid secondary wastes, establish international benchmarking and review possibilities for innovation.

  5. Three-color photometry of HDE 226868: The optical counterpart of cygnus X-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.F.; Nolt, I.G.; Stearns, S.A.; Straton, P.; Radostitz, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    The results of UBV photoelectric observations of HDE 226868 (Cyg X-1) obtained on fifty nights during 1974 are presented. These observations show a light curve with the following characteristics: two unequal light maxima and minima during the 5/sup d/.6 orbital period which exhibit a peak-to-peak magnitude change of approx.0.07 mag in all colors;a small phase-dependent color variation which results in a reddening in both color indices of approx.0.003 mag at times of light minima; erratic light variability on a general time scale of days with an amplitude of +- 0.01 to 0.02 mag and no apparent color dependence

  6. Infrared emission from four Be stars optical counterparts of galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persi, P.; Ferrari-Toniolo, M.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary results of our infrared observations from 2.3 up to 10 and 20 microns of the Be-X-ray stars X Per, γ Cas and HDE 245770, indicate the presence of an ionized circumstellar disk with an electron density law of the type nsub(e) proportional to rsup(-3.5). X Per and γ Cas show besides, variable infrared excess at 10μ suggesting variability in the stellar wind. LS I+65 0 010 presents an anomalous infrared energy distribution for a Be star. (Auth.)

  7. Bizarre tubercles on the vertebrae of Eocene fossil birds indicate an avian disease without modern counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald

    2007-08-01

    Remains of fossil birds with numerous bony tubercles on the cervical vertebrae are reported from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany and the Late Eocene of the Quercy fissure fillings in France. These structures, which are unknown from extant birds and other vertebrates, were previously described for an avian skeleton from Messel but considered a singular feature of this specimen. The new fossils are from a different species of uncertain phylogenetic affinities and show that tuberculated vertebrae have a wider taxonomic, temporal, and geographic distribution. In contrast to previous assumptions, they are no ontogenetic feature and arise from the vertebral surface. It is concluded that they are most likely of pathologic origin and the first record of a Paleogene avian disease. Their regular and symmetrical arrangement over most of the external vertebral surface indicates a systemic disorder caused by factors that do not affect extant birds, such as especially high-dosed phytohormones or extinct pathogens.

  8. Environment-Mediated Accumulation of Diacyl Lipoproteins over Their Triacyl Counterparts in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Kenji; Kim, Min-Su; Ichikawa, Rie; Ryu, Kyoung-Hwa; Dohmae, Naoshi

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are believed to exist in only one specific lipid-modified structure, such as the diacyl form or the triacyl form, in each bacterium. In the case of Staphylococcus aureus, recent extensive matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis revealed that S. aureus lipoproteins exist in the α-aminoacylated triacyl form. Here, we discovered conditions that induce the accumulation of diacyl lipoproteins that lack α-aminoacylation in S. aureus. The accumulation of diacyl lipoproteins required a combination of conditions, including acidic pH and a post-logarithmic-growth phase. High temperatures and high salt concentrations additively accelerated the accumulation of the diacyl lipoprotein form. Following a post-logarithmic-growth phase where S. aureus MW2 cells were grown at pH 6, SitC lipoprotein was found almost exclusively in its diacyl structure rather than in its triacyl structure. This is the first report showing that the environment mediates lipid-modified structural alterations of bacterial lipoproteins. PMID:22467779

  9. SN 2012au: A GOLDEN LINK BETWEEN SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE AND THEIR LOWER-LUMINOSITY COUNTERPARTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milisavljevic, Dan; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Margutti, Raffaella; Drout, Maria R.; Marion, G. Howie; Sanders, Nathan E.; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Foley, Ryan J.; Challis, Pete; Kirshner, Robert P.; Dittmann, Jason; Bieryla, Allyson; Kamble, Atish; Chakraborti, Sayan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hsiao, Eric Y. [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); Fesen, Robert A.; Parrent, Jerod T. [6127 Wilder Lab, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Levesque, Emily M., E-mail: dmilisav@cfa.harvard.edu [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); and others

    2013-06-20

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of SN 2012au, a slow-evolving supernova (SN) with properties that suggest a link between subsets of energetic and H-poor SNe and superluminous SNe. SN 2012au exhibited conspicuous Type-Ib-like He I lines and other absorption features at velocities reaching Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} km s{sup -1} in its early spectra, and a broad light curve that peaked at M{sub B} = -18.1 mag. Models of these data indicate a large explosion kinetic energy of {approx}10{sup 52} erg and {sup 56}Ni mass ejection of M{sub Ni} Almost-Equal-To 0.3 M{sub Sun} on par with SN 1998bw. SN 2012au's spectra almost one year after explosion show a blend of persistent Fe II P-Cyg absorptions and nebular emissions originating from two distinct velocity regions. These late-time emissions include strong [Fe II], [Ca II], [O I], Mg I], and Na I lines at velocities {approx}> 4500 km s{sup -1}, as well as O I and Mg I lines at noticeably smaller velocities {approx}< 2000 km s{sup -1}. Many of the late-time properties of SN 2012au are similar to the slow-evolving hypernovae SN 1997dq and SN 1997ef, and the superluminous SN 2007bi. Our observations suggest that a single explosion mechanism may unify all of these events that span -21 {approx}< M{sub B} {approx}< -17 mag. The aspherical and possibly jetted explosion was most likely initiated by the core collapse of a massive progenitor star and created substantial high-density, low-velocity Ni-rich material.

  10. THE TIDAL ORIGIN OF THE MAGELLANIC STREAM AND THE POSSIBILITY OF A STELLAR COUNTERPART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, Jonathan D.; Bekki, Kenji, E-mail: jdiaz@ast.cam.ac.uk [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia, 6009 (Australia)

    2012-05-01

    We present an N-body model that reproduces the morphology and kinematics of the Magellanic Stream (MS), a vast neutral hydrogen (H I) structure that trails behind the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC and SMC, respectively) in their orbit about the Milky Way (MW). After investigating 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} possible orbits consistent with the latest proper motions, we adopt an orbital history in which the LMC and SMC have only recently become a strongly interacting binary pair. We find that their first close encounter {approx}2 Gyr ago provides the necessary tidal forces to disrupt the disk of the SMC and thereby create the MS. The model also reproduces the on-sky bifurcation of the two filaments of the MS, and we suggest that a bound association with the MW is required to reproduce the bifurcation. Additional H I structures are created during the tidal evolution of the SMC disk, including the Magellanic Bridge, the 'Counter-Bridge', and two branches of leading material. Insights into the chemical evolution of the LMC are also provided, as a substantial fraction of the material stripped away from the SMC is engulfed by the LMC. Lastly, we compare three different N-body realizations of the stellar component of the SMC, which we model as a pressure-supported spheroid motivated by recent kinematical observations. We find that an extended spheroid is better able to explain the stellar periphery of the SMC, and the tidal evolution of the spheroid may imply the existence of a stellar stream akin to the gaseous MS.

  11. Subchronic feeding study of DAS-59122-7 maize grain in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, Linda A; Everds, Nancy E; Reynolds, Julia; Mann, Peter C; Lamb, Ian; Rood, Tracy; Schmidt, Jean; Layton, Raymond J; Prochaska, Lee M; Hinds, Mark; Locke, Mary; Chui, Chok-Fun; Claussen, Fred; Mattsson, Joel L; Delaney, Bryan

    2007-07-01

    59122 is a transgenic maize line containing event DAS-59122-7 that expresses the corn rootworm (CRW) specific pesticidal Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Berliner strain PS149B1 and the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (PAT) protein from Streptomyces viridochromogenes for tolerance to the herbicidal ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. For the current study, 59122 maize grain, non-transgenic near-isogenic maize grain (091), and a commercially available non-transgenic reference maize grain (33R77) were grown under conditions simulating commercial farming practices. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats (12/sex/group) were fed diets formulated with 35% maize grain from either 59122, 091, or 33R77, or one of two separate lots of commercially available rodent chow prepared with commercially available corn (35%) in accordance with the standards of Purina Mills Labdiet 5002 for approximately 90 days. All diets possessed similar nutritional and contaminant profiles. The transgenic proteins were detected only in diets prepared with 59122 maize grain and were stable over the course of the study. Compared to control groups, no adverse diet-related differences were observed in rats fed diets formulated with 59122 maize grain with respect to body weight/gain, food consumption/efficiency, clinical signs of toxicity, mortality, ophthalmology, neurobehavioral (FOB and motor activity) assessments, clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis), and pathology (organ weights and gross and microscopic pathology). Results from this study indicate that 59122 maize grain is nutritionally equivalent to and as safe as conventional maize grain.

  12. Comparative Profiling of microRNA Expression in Soybean Seeds from Genetically Modified Plants and their Near-Isogenic Parental Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Lan, Qingkuo; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Wentao; Li, Feiwu; Wang, Qinying; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely demonstrated to play fundamental roles in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. To date, there has been no study describing the miRNA composition in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, small RNAs from dry seeds of two GM soybean lines and their parental cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, several differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were found between the GM and non-GM soybeans. Meanwhile, more differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were identified between distantly relatednon-GM soybeans, indicating that the miRNA components of soybean seeds varied among different soybean lines, including the GM and non-GM soybeans, and the extent of difference might be related to their genetic relationship. Additionally, fourteen novel gma-miRNA candidates were predicted in soybean seeds including a potential bidirectionally transcribed miRNA family with two genomic loci (gma-miR-N1). Our findings firstly provided useful data for miRNA composition in edible GM crops and also provided valuable information for soybean miRNA research. PMID:27214227

  13. Gene expression analyses in tomato near isogenic lines provide evidence for ethylene and abscisic acid biosynthesis fine-tuning during arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracetto, Giselle Gomes Monteiro; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Plant responses to the environment and microorganisms, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, involve complex hormonal interactions. It is known that abscisic acid (ABA) and ethylene may be involved in the regulation of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and that part of the detrimental effects of ABA deficiency in plants is due to ethylene overproduction. In this study, we aimed to determine whether the low susceptibility to mycorrhizal colonization in ABA-deficient mutants is due to high levels of ethylene and whether AM development is associated with changes in the steady-state levels of transcripts of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ethylene and ABA. For that, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ethylene overproducer epinastic (epi) mutant and the ABA-deficient notabilis (not) and sitiens (sit) mutants, in the same Micro-Tom (MT) genetic background, were inoculated with Rhizophagus clarus, and treated with the ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG). The development of AM, as well as the steady-state levels of transcripts involved in ethylene (LeACS2, LeACO1 and LeACO4) and ABA (LeNCED) biosynthesis, was determined. The intraradical colonization in epi, not and sit mutants was significantly reduced compared to MT. The epi mutant completely restored the mycorrhizal colonization to the levels of MT with the application of 10 µM of AVG, probably due to the inhibition of the ACC synthase gene expression. The steady-state levels of LeACS2 and LeACO4 transcripts were induced in mycorrhizal roots of MT, whereas the steady-state levels of LeACO1 and LeACO4 transcripts were significantly induced in sit, and the steady-state levels of LeNCED transcripts were significantly induced in all genotypes and in mycorrhizal roots of epi mutants treated with AVG. The reduced mycorrhizal colonization in sit mutants seems not to be limited by ethylene production via ACC oxidase regulation. Both ethylene overproduction and ABA deficiency impaired AM fungal colonization in tomato roots, indicating that, besides hormonal interactions, a fine-tuning of each hormone level is required for AM development.

  14. Experimental evolution, genetic analysis and genome re-sequencing reveal the mutation conferring artemisinin resistance in an isogenic lineage of malaria parasites

    KAUST Repository

    Hunt, Paul; Martinelli, Axel; Modrzynska, Katarzyna; Borges, Sofia; Creasey, Alison; Rodrigues, Louise; Beraldi, Dario; Loewe, Laurence; Fawcett, Richard; Kumar, Sujai; Thomson, Marian; Trivedi, Urmi; Otto, Thomas D; Pain, Arnab; Blaxter, Mark; Cravo, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    was mapped to a region of chromosome 2 by Linkage Group Selection in two different genetic crosses. Whole-genome deep coverage short-read re-sequencing (IlluminaSolexa) defined the point mutations, insertions, deletions and copy-number variations arising

  15. Generation of an isogenic, gene-corrected control cell line of the spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 patient-derived iPSC line H266

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthaler, Adele Gabriele; Tubsuwan, Alisa; Schmid, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting the cerebellum. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease and, to date, no cure or treatment is available. We have successfully generated bona fide induced pluripotent stem cell...

  16. Generation of an isogenic, gene-corrected control cell line of the spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 patient-derived iPSC line H271

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthaler, Adele Gabriele; Schmid, Benjamin; Tubsuwan, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting the cerebellum. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease and, to date, no cure or treatment is available. We have successfully generated bona fide induced pluripotent stem cell...

  17. Generation of an isogenic, gene-corrected control cell line of the spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 patient-derived iPSC line H196

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthaler, Adele Gabriele; Schmid, Benjamin; Tubsuwan, Alisa

    2016-01-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a neurodegenerative disease primarily affecting the cerebellum. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease and, to date, no cure or treatment is available. We have successfully generated bona fide induced pluripotent stem cell...

  18. Generation of a gene-corrected isogenic control cell line from an Alzheimer's disease patient iPSC line carrying a A79V mutation in PSEN1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Carlota; Schmid, Benjamin; Petræus, Carina

    2016-01-01

    mutation in PSEN1 as an in vitro disease model. Here we generated a gene-corrected version from this hiPSC line by substituting the point mutation with the wild-type sequence. The reported A79V-GC-iPSCs line is a very useful resource in combination with the A79V-iPSC line in order to study pathological...

  19. Comparison of fumonisin contamination using HPLC and ELISA methods in bt and near-isogenic maize hybrids infested with European corn borer or western bean cutworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Erin; Hellmich, Richard; Munkvold, Gary

    2014-07-09

    Field trials were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to compare grain fumonisin levels among non-Bt maize hybrids and Bt hybrids with transgenic protection against manual infestations of European corn borer (ECB) and Western bean cutworm (WBC). HPLC and ELISA were used to measure fumonisin levels. Results of the methods were highly correlated, but ELISA estimates were higher. Bt hybrids experienced less insect injury, Fusarium ear rot, and fumonisin contamination compared to non-Bt hybrids. WBC infestation increased fumonisin content compared to natural infestation in non-Bt and hybrids expressing Cry1Ab protein in five of eight possible comparisons; in Cry1F hybrids, WBC did not impact fumonisins. These results indicate that WBC is capable of increasing fumonisin levels in maize. Under WBC infestation, Cry1F mitigated this risk more consistently than Cry1Ab or non-Bt hybrids. Transgenically expressed Bt proteins active against multiple lepidopteran pests can provide broad, consistent reductions in the risk of fumonisin contamination.

  20. Toxoplasma gondii vs ionizing radiation: cell and humoral immunity in spleen and gut of isogenic mice immunized with 60Co irradiated tachyzoites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galisteo Junior, Andres Jimenez

    2008-01-01

    We are developing a vaccine for toxoplasmosis, using ionizing radiation as a tool. Here we analyzed the production of systemic and intestinal immunity, with protection studies, in several strains of inbred mice, by oral or parenteral route, using 255 Gy irradiated tachyzoites of T. gondii RH strain, with challenge with cysts of ME- 49 strain. C57Bl/6j, BALB/c and C57Bl/6j IFN-γ -/- mice were immunized with 10 7 irradiated tachyzoites, be parenteral or oral route. Those preparations, both by parenteral or oral routes, induced the production of specific IgG, mainly of the lgG2b subclass, and IgA immunoglobulins in serum, , as determined by ELISA. IgM production was negligible. Parenteral immunized mice showed higher IgG avidity maturation, as compared to oral immunized mice. Fecal excretion of IgG, IgA and IgM was detected in stools of immunized animals, more intense in oral immunized mice. In cellular immunity studies, induced by antigen, with detection of cytokine production by quantitative real-time PCR, there are a great production of IFN-y by spleen cells, with lower levels in Peyer patches cells, where there are a greater IL-2 production. Challenge studies in immunized mice demonstrated protection to infection in all used schedules, greater in BALB/c mice. C57Bl/6j IFN-γ - /- mice, when immunized, showed no signs of disease and produced similar or greater levels of antibodies than wild type mice. They also excreted S-lgA and S-IgM in stools, but with low numbers of brain cysts in parenteral immunized mice, despite similar mortality. Our data points to a fair possibility of use of those irradiated parasites as an oral vaccine, devised to use for veterinary or wild felines vaccination, reducing the production of oocysts by those hosts and interrupting the chain transmission of human toxoplasmosis. (author)

  1. Comparative Profiling of microRNA Expression in Soybean Seeds from Genetically Modified Plants and their Near-Isogenic Parental Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Lan, Qingkuo; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Wentao; Li, Feiwu; Wang, Qinying; Chen, Rui

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been widely demonstrated to play fundamental roles in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. To date, there has been no study describing the miRNA composition in genetically modified organisms (GMOs). In this study, small RNAs from dry seeds of two GM soybean lines and their parental cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, several differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were found between the GM and non-GM soybeans. Meanwhile, more differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were identified between distantly relatednon-GM soybeans, indicating that the miRNA components of soybean seeds varied among different soybean lines, including the GM and non-GM soybeans, and the extent of difference might be related to their genetic relationship. Additionally, fourteen novel gma-miRNA candidates were predicted in soybean seeds including a potential bidirectionally transcribed miRNA family with two genomic loci (gma-miR-N1). Our findings firstly provided useful data for miRNA composition in edible GM crops and also provided valuable information for soybean miRNA research.

  2. Comparative Profiling of microRNA Expression in Soybean Seeds from Genetically Modified Plants and their Near-Isogenic Parental Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been widely demonstrated to play fundamental roles in gene regulation in most eukaryotes. To date, there has been no study describing the miRNA composition in genetically modified organisms (GMOs. In this study, small RNAs from dry seeds of two GM soybean lines and their parental cultivars were investigated using deep sequencing technology and bioinformatic approaches. As a result, several differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were found between the GM and non-GM soybeans. Meanwhile, more differentially expressed gma-miRNAs were identified between distantly relatednon-GM soybeans, indicating that the miRNA components of soybean seeds varied among different soybean lines, including the GM and non-GM soybeans, and the extent of difference might be related to their genetic relationship. Additionally, fourteen novel gma-miRNA candidates were predicted in soybean seeds including a potential bidirectionally transcribed miRNA family with two genomic loci (gma-miR-N1. Our findings firstly provided useful data for miRNA composition in edible GM crops and also provided valuable information for soybean miRNA research.

  3. Performance and feeding behaviour of two biotypes of the black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, on resistant and susceptible Lactuca sativa near-isogenic lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, ten C.J.M.; Dicke, M.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The black currant-lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is an important pest of cultivated lettuce, Lactuca sativa. Since 1982, the control of this aphid on lettuce is largely based on host plant resistance, conferred by the Nr gene, introgressed from Lactuca virosa. The resistance mechanism remains

  4. Agronomic performance of insect-protected and herbicide-tolerant MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 corn is equivalent to that of conventional corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cerqueira, Denise T Rezende; Schafer, Ariane C; Fast, Brandon J; Herman, Rod A

    2017-07-03

    Agronomic characteristics of genetically modified (GM) MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 (PowerCore™ Enlist™), MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 (PowerCore™), and DAS-40278-9 (Enlist™) corn, a non-GM near-isogenic hybrid, and 2 commercial non-GM hybrids were assessed in a field study to determine if the agronomic performance of the GM corn hybrids is equivalent to that of non-transgenic hybrid corn. The MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278-9 hybrid corn was developed through stacking of 4 individual transgenic events, MON 89034, TC1507, NK603, and DAS-40278-9 by traditional breeding and contains the cry1A.105 and cry2Ab2 (MON 89034), cry1F and pat (TC1507), cp4 epsps (NK603) and aad-1 (DAS-40278-9) transgenes. These transgenes encode the proteins Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2, and Cry1F, which confer insect resistance, PAT, CP4 EPSPS, and AAD-1, which confer herbicide tolerance. The following agronomic characteristics were assessed in the study: initial and final stand count, seedling vigor, time to silk, time to pollen shed, pollen viability, plant height, ear height, stalk lodging, root lodging, days to maturity, stay green, disease incidence, insect damage, herbicide injury, and yield. The agronomic assessment was conducted in 2 regions of Brazil (Indianopolis-MG; Cravinhos-SP). The agronomic attributes for all GM entries were statistically indistinguishable from the non-GM near-isogenic hybrid. In addition, most of the agronomic assessments fell within the range of the commercial varieties included in the study. Taken together, MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603 × DAS-40278, MON 89034 × TC1507 × NK603, and DAS-40278-9 were found to be agronomically equivalent to non-GM corn.

  5. Influence of Phytase Transgenic Corn on the Intestinal Microflora and the Fate of Transgenic DNA and Protein in Digesta and Tissues of Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sufen; Li, Ang; Zhang, Liyang; Liu, Zhenhua; Luo, Xugang

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on intestinal microflora, and the fate of transgenic DNA and protein in the digesta and tissues of broilers. A total of 160 1-day-old Arbor Acres commercial male broilers were randomly assigned to 20 cages (8 chicks per cage) with 10 cages (replicates) for each treatment. Birds were fed with a diet containing either PTC (54.0% during 1–21 days and 61.0% during 22–42 days) or non-transgenic isogenic control corn (CC) for a duration of 42 days. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between birds fed with the PTC diets and those fed with the CC diets in the quantities of aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, colibacillus and lactobacilli, or microbial diversities in the contents of ileum and cecum. Transgenic phyA2 DNA was not detected, but phyA2 protein was detected in the digesta of duodenum and jejunum of broilers fed with the PTC diets. Both transgenic phyA2 DNA and protein fragments were not found in the digesta of the ileum and rectum, heart, liver, kidney, and breast or thigh muscles of broilers fed with the PTC diets. It was concluded that PTC had no adverse effect on the quantity and diversity of gut microorganisms; Transgenic phyA2 DNA or protein was rapidly degraded in the intestinal tract and was not transferred to the tissues of broilers. PMID:26599444

  6. Adolescents’ Perceptions Regarding Effective Tobacco Use Prevention Strategies for their Younger Counterparts: A Qualitative Study in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Zin, Faridah; Hillaluddin, Azlin Hilma; Mustaffa, Jamaludin

    2016-12-01

    Purpose:The present qualitative study explored adolescents’ perceptions regarding effective strategies to prevent adolescents from using tobacco products (TP). Apart from the commercial TPs, there has been emerging use of alternatives such as vapes, e-cigarettes and shisha. This unfortunate phenomenon continues despite the currently available preventive strategies. Thus, understanding of the perceptions of the current generation would be valuable to provide new insights. Methods: Purposive sampling was utilized to recruit 40 adolescents between the age of 15 and 16 years old attending public daily secondary schools. Eight focus group discussions were conducted among the TP users, ex-users and non-users. Data were analyzed using a thematic content analysis procedure with NVivo. Results: Among barriers with the currently available strategies were having teachers who smoke tobacco, addiction to nicotine and self-perceptions of being healthy. The content of any program should include knowledge on negative outcomes of using tobacco products and awareness of the legislation together with ways to overcome peer and family influence including improving self-efficacy and refusal skills. Strategies were suggested to be delivered using information technology which provides interactive learning and visual effects. Conclusions: Adolescents agreed that the content and delivery of tobacco use prevention strategies need to be revised to suit the current generation to ensure sustainability. Creative Commons Attribution License

  7. Influenza B virus M2 protein can functionally replace its influenza A virus counterpart in promoting virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanitchang, Asawin; Wongthida, Phonphimon; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2016-01-01

    The M2 protein (AM2 and BM2) of influenza A and B viruses function as a proton channel essential for viral replication. They also carry a cytoplasmic tail whose functions are not fully delineated. It is currently unknown whether these proteins could be replaced functionally in a viral context. Here, we generated single-cycle influenza A viruses (scIAV-ΔHA) carrying various M2-2A-mCherry constructs in the segment 4 (HA) and evaluated their growth in complementing cells. Intriguingly, the scIAV-ΔHA carrying AM2 and that bearing BM2 grew comparably well in MDCK-HA cells. Furthermore, while the virus carrying chimeric B-AM2 in which the BM2 transmembrane fused with the AM2 cytoplasmic tail produced robust infection, the one bearing the AM2 transmembrane fused with the BM2 cytoplasmic tail (A-BM2) exhibited severely impaired growth. Altogether, we demonstrate that AM2 and BM2 are functionally interchangeable and underscore the role of compatibility between transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail of the M2 protein. -- Highlights: •Flu A M2 protein (AM2) can be functionally replaced by that of Flu B (BM2). •Both AM2 and BM2 with extended cytoplasmic tail are functional. •Compatibility between the ion channel and the cytoplasmic tail is critical for M2 function. •M2 with higher ion channel activity may augment influenza virus replication.

  8. Deconvolution of Thermal Emissivity Spectra of Mercury to their Endmember Counterparts measured in Simulated Mercury Surface Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varatharajan, I.; D'Amore, M.; Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Hiesinger, H.

    2017-12-01

    The Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (MERTIS) payload of ESA/JAXA Bepicolombo mission to Mercury will map the thermal emissivity at wavelength range of 7-14 μm and spatial resolution of 500 m/pixel [1]. Mercury was also imaged at the same wavelength range using the Boston University's Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager (MIRSI) mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii with the minimum spatial coverage of 400-600km/spectra which blends all rocks, minerals, and soil types [2]. Therefore, the study [2] used quantitative deconvolution algorithm developed by [3] for spectral unmixing of this composite thermal emissivity spectrum from telescope to their respective areal fractions of endmember spectra; however, the thermal emissivity of endmembers used in [2] is the inverted reflectance measurements (Kirchhoff's law) of various samples measured at room temperature and pressure. Over a decade, the Planetary Spectroscopy Laboratory (PSL) at the Institute of Planetary Research (PF) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) facilitates the thermal emissivity measurements under controlled and simulated surface conditions of Mercury by taking emissivity measurements at varying temperatures from 100-500°C under vacuum conditions supporting MERTIS payload. The measured thermal emissivity endmember spectral library therefore includes major silicates such as bytownite, anorthoclase, synthetic glass, olivine, enstatite, nepheline basanite, rocks like komatiite, tektite, Johnson Space Center lunar simulant (1A), and synthetic powdered sulfides which includes MgS, FeS, CaS, CrS, TiS, NaS, and MnS. Using such specialized endmember spectral library created under Mercury's conditions significantly increases the accuracy of the deconvolution model results. In this study, we revisited the available telescope spectra and redeveloped the algorithm by [3] by only choosing the endmember spectral library created at PSL for unbiased model accuracy with the RMS value of 0.03-0.04. Currently, the telescope spectra are investigated for its calibrations and the results will be presented at AGU. References: [1] Hiesinger, H. and J. Helbert (2010) PSS, 58(1-2): 144-165. [2] Sprague, A.L. et al (2009) PSS, 57, 364-383. [3] Ramsey and Christiansen (1998) JGR, 103, 577-596

  9. Gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype: as a gastric counterpart of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae Lee Won

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of gastric adenocarcinoma can be simply diagnosed by microscopic examination of biopsy specimen. Rarely the structural and cellular atypia of tumor cells is too insignificant to discriminate from benign foveolar epithelium. Case presentation A 67-year-old male presented with a gastric mass incidentally found on the abdominal computed tomography (CT for routine medical examination. Gastric endoscopic examination revealed a huge fungating mass at the cardia and mucosal biopsy was performed. Microscopically the biopsy specimen showed proliferation of bland looking foveolar epithelia in the inflammatory background and diagnosed as foveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Because the clinical and endoscopic features of this patient were strongly suggestive of malignancy, the patient underwent radical total gastrectomy. The resected stomach revealed a huge fungating tumor at the cardia. The cut surface of the tumor was whitish gelatinous. Microscopically the tumor was sharply demarcated from surrounding mucosa and composed of very well formed glandular structures without significant cellular atypia, which invaded into the whole layer of the gastric wall. Tumor glands were occasionally complicated or dilated, and glandular lumina were filled with abundant mucin. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells revealed no overexpression of p53 protein but high Ki-67 labeling index. The tumor cells and intraluminal mucin were diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC5AC and only focally expressed MUC2. On abdominal CT taken after 12 months demonstrated peritoneal carcinomatosis and multiple metastatic foci in the lung. Conclusion The clinicopathologic profiles of gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype include cardiac location, fungating gross type, very similar histology to foveolar epithelial hyperplasia, foveolar mucin phenotype, lack of p53 overexpressoin and high proliferative index.

  10. Structure in the Radio Counterpart to the 2004 Dec 27 Giant Flare From SGR1806-20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fender, Rob P.; Muxlow, T.W.B.; Garrett, M.A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Gaensler, B.M.; Garrington, S.T.; Paragi, Z.; Tudose, V.; Miller-Jones, J.C.A.; Spencer, R.E.; Wijers,; Taylor, G.B.; /Southampton U. /Jodrell Bank /JIVE, Dwingeloo /NASA, Marshall /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Amsterdam U., Astron. Inst. /Astron. Inst. Romanian

    2006-01-11

    The formation of an expanding, moving, and fading radio source. We report observations of this radio source with the Multi-Element Radio-Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The observations confirm the elongation and expansion already reported based on observations at lower angular resolutions, but suggest that at early epochs the structure is not consistent with the very simplest models such as a smooth flux distribution. In particular there appears to be significant structure on small angular scales, with {approx}10% of the radio flux arising on angular scales <= 100 milliarcsec. This structure may correspond to localized sites of particle acceleration during the early phases of expansion and interaction with the ambient medium.

  11. Anatomical study of the renal excretory system in pigs. A review of its characteristics as compared to its human counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, F A; Ballesteros, L E; Estupiñán, H Y

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of the pyelocalyceal system in the pig as an experimental model, there is little information about this particular anatomical subject. We determined the morphological characteristics of the renal excretory system in pigs. This descriptive cross-sectional study evaluated 130 pairs of kidneys of pigs destined to slaughter. The pyelocalyceal system was subjected to injection technique - corrosion by infusion of polyester resin (85% Palatal and 15% Styrene) and subsequent infusion in potassium hydroxide (KOH) for 10 days. The significance level used was p renal excretory system is characterised by the presence of type A major cranial and caudal calyxes seen in 34.3% of the kidneys (type A1 in 30% and type A2 in 4.3%). type B calyxes, corresponding to minor calyxes draining directly into the renal pelvis, were present in 65.7% of the specimens (type B1 59.2%; type B2 6.5% of the cases). The number of minor calyxes in the collector system was 7.9 ± 2.27 with statistically significant differences in side (p = 0.0047). The morphometric characteristics of the kidneys in this study are slightly smaller than reported in humans. Similarly, the incidence of type A renal excretory system distribution is highest in humans and lowest in pigs. Due to its few morphological differences, the pig kidney is an excellent model for teaching- -learning processes, for research purposes, and for training of urologic applications.

  12. Nucleoprotein of influenza B virus binds to its type A counterpart and disrupts influenza A viral polymerase complex formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaru-ampornpan, Peera; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Wanitchang, Asawin; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •FluB nucleoprotein (BNP) can bind to FluA nucleoprotein (ANP). •BNP–ANP interaction inhibits FluA polymerase activity. •BNP binding prevents ANP from forming a functional FluA polymerase complex. •Nuclear localization of BNP is necessary for FluA polymerase inhibition. •Viral RNA is not required for the BNP–ANP interaction. -- Abstract: Upon co-infection with influenza B virus (FluB), influenza A virus (FluA) replication is substantially impaired. Previously, we have shown that the nucleoprotein of FluB (BNP) can inhibit FluA polymerase machinery, retarding the growth of FluA. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this inhibitory action awaited further investigation. Here, we provide evidence that BNP hinders the proper formation of FluA polymerase complex by competitively binding to the nucleoprotein of FluA. To exert this inhibitory effect, BNP must be localized in the nucleus. The interaction does not require the presence of the viral RNA but needs an intact BNP RNA-binding motif. The results highlight the novel role of BNP as an anti-influenza A viral agent and provide insights into the mechanism of intertypic interference

  13. Infrared observations of the possible X-ray counterpart to the 1992 May 1 gamma-ray burst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaes, O; Hurt, T; Antonucci, R; Hurley, K; Smette, A

    1997-01-01

    We present the results of deep infrared imaging in J, H, and K of the quiescent X-ray source located within the 1992 May 1 gamma-ray burst error box. The field is crowded, containing both stars and galaxies, and we discuss the Likelihood that they are associated with the X-ray source. Two objects

  14. Efficacy of chicken litter and wood biochars and their activated counterparts in heavy metal clean up from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is known that properties of activated biochars are tightly associated with those of the original feedstock as well as pyrolysis and activation conditions. This study examined two feedstock types, pine wood shavings and chicken litter, to produce biochars at two different pyrolysis temperatures a...

  15. Influenza B virus M2 protein can functionally replace its influenza A virus counterpart in promoting virus replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanitchang, Asawin; Wongthida, Phonphimon; Jongkaewwattana, Anan, E-mail: anan.jon@biotec.or.th

    2016-11-15

    The M2 protein (AM2 and BM2) of influenza A and B viruses function as a proton channel essential for viral replication. They also carry a cytoplasmic tail whose functions are not fully delineated. It is currently unknown whether these proteins could be replaced functionally in a viral context. Here, we generated single-cycle influenza A viruses (scIAV-ΔHA) carrying various M2-2A-mCherry constructs in the segment 4 (HA) and evaluated their growth in complementing cells. Intriguingly, the scIAV-ΔHA carrying AM2 and that bearing BM2 grew comparably well in MDCK-HA cells. Furthermore, while the virus carrying chimeric B-AM2 in which the BM2 transmembrane fused with the AM2 cytoplasmic tail produced robust infection, the one bearing the AM2 transmembrane fused with the BM2 cytoplasmic tail (A-BM2) exhibited severely impaired growth. Altogether, we demonstrate that AM2 and BM2 are functionally interchangeable and underscore the role of compatibility between transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail of the M2 protein. -- Highlights: •Flu A M2 protein (AM2) can be functionally replaced by that of Flu B (BM2). •Both AM2 and BM2 with extended cytoplasmic tail are functional. •Compatibility between the ion channel and the cytoplasmic tail is critical for M2 function. •M2 with higher ion channel activity may augment influenza virus replication.

  16. Local adaptation of Ruellia nudiflora (Acanthaceae) to biotic counterparts: complex scenarios revealed when two herbivore guilds are considered

    OpenAIRE

    Ortegón-Campos, I.; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Abdala-Roberts, Luis; Herrera, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the herb Ruellia nudiflora is locally adapted to a specialist insect seed predator (SP) and insect folivores, and if plant local adaptation (LA) to the former is more likely. A reciprocal transplant experiment was conducted using three sites in Yucatan (Mexico) (n = 864 plants). A third of the plants of each origin were placed at each site, and we recorded the following during a 9-month period: fruit number, leaf ...

  17. Local adaptation of Ruellia nudiflora (Acanthaceae) to biotic counterparts: complex scenarios revealed when two herbivore guilds are considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortegón-Campos, I; Parra-Tabla, V; Abdala-Roberts, L; Herrera, C M

    2009-11-01

    This study evaluated whether the herb Ruellia nudiflora is locally adapted to a specialist insect seed predator (SP) and insect folivores, and if plant local adaptation (LA) to the former is more likely. A reciprocal transplant experiment was conducted using three sites in Yucatan (Mexico) (n = 864 plants). A third of the plants of each origin were placed at each site, and we recorded the following during a 9-month period: fruit number, leaf damage, and fruits attacked by SP. Results indicated lack of plant LA for all the variables measured. Instead, seed predation was c. 100% greater for native plants at one study site, suggesting insect LA or plant maladaptation; folivory was homogeneous across sites/origins. Based on these results, we discuss differences in the potential each herbivore guild has to promote plant LA, as well as divergent evolutionary outcomes of plant-herbivore interactions across sites.

  18. GCN CIRCULAR 21507, LIGO/Virgo G298048: INTEGRAL detection of a prompt gamma-ray counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savchenko, V.; Mereghetti, S.; Ferrigno, C.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated serendipitous INTEGRAL observations carried out at thetime of the LIGO/Virgo burst candidate G298048. The satellite was covering a fraction of the probability of the LIGO-Virgo localization. The best sensitivity depends on the source location. We investigated the SPI-ACS light...... analysis is ongoing, and will be reported in the coming circulars....

  19. International cooperation during radiological emergencies. NRC program guidance for the provision of technical advice to foreign counterpart organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senseney, R.

    1986-04-01

    This report defines the scope, application, and limits of the technical cooperation the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) would provide, upon request, to a foreign regulatory agency in a nuclear emergency. It outlines the basis for such cooperation, offers a model written agreement, and describes recent cases of NRC assistance. It also identifies non-NRC sources of emergency advisory assistance available to foreign organizations

  20. The Japanese Fighters Are More Skillful than their Chinese Counterparts, or when the Context is more important than the Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gutiérrez García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study proposes a reflection on different elements (political, economic, military, social, cultural… that condition the perception, introduction and acceptance of the martial arts in other cultures. Particularly several Chinese and Japanese martial arts articles that were published in different Spanish illustrated magazines (1899-early 20th century are analyzed. Then we point out differences between the international success of Japan and its jujutsu, when compared to the difficulties that China faced at that time and the lack of representation of its martial practices in such international context.

  1. Life without TV? cultivation theory and psychosocial health characteristics of television-free individuals and their television-viewing counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammermeister, Jon; Brock, Barbara; Winterstein, David; Page, Randy

    2005-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the amount of time Americans spend watching television. Cultivation theory has been important in exploring behavioral effects of television viewing for many years. However, psychosocial health has received much less scrutiny in relation to television viewing time. This investigation examined the hypotheses that television-free individuals and viewers adhering to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations (up to 2 hr of viewing per day) would display a more positive psychosocial health profile when compared with more frequent television viewers. Results confirmed the hypothesis for women, but not for men. Our analysis showed that moderate television viewing, as defined by the AAP, provides a similar relation with psychosocial health as being television-free. Results are discussed in a cultivation theory framework.

  2. Characterization of iminothiosulfine-type ions [HNCS 2] rad +/ rad - and their neutral counterparts by mass spectrometry and computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekananda, S.; Raghunath, P.; Bhanuprakash, K.; Srinivas, R.; Trikoupis, Moschoula A.; Terlouw, Johan K.

    2000-12-01

    Electron ionization of rhodanine yields iminothiosulfine ions H- N C- S- Srad + , 1brad + , which readily communicate with the higher energy cyclic isomer H- N CS2rad + , 1arad + . CBS-QB3 and G AUSSIAN-2 model chemistries predict that one electron reduction reverses the stability order but that the (singlet) neutrals remain connected via a negligible energy barrier. Neutralization-reionization (NR) experiments demonstrate that singlet 1a and its heterocumulene isomer 1b are stable species in the gas-phase. However, the co-generated triplet species readily dissociate into 3S2rad + + HNC. Confirmatory experimental evidence comes from charge reversal (CR) and NR experiments on the cyclic anion H- N CS2rad - , 1arad - .

  3. A novel Bayesian approach to quantify clinical variables and to determine their spectroscopic counterparts in 1H NMR metabonomic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaski Kimmo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A key challenge in metabonomics is to uncover quantitative associations between multidimensional spectroscopic data and biochemical measures used for disease risk assessment and diagnostics. Here we focus on clinically relevant estimation of lipoprotein lipids by 1H NMR spectroscopy of serum. Results A Bayesian methodology, with a biochemical motivation, is presented for a real 1H NMR metabonomics data set of 75 serum samples. Lipoprotein lipid concentrations were independently obtained for these samples via ultracentrifugation and specific biochemical assays. The Bayesian models were constructed by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC and they showed remarkably good quantitative performance, the predictive R-values being 0.985 for the very low density lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TG, 0.787 for the intermediate, 0.943 for the low, and 0.933 for the high density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, LDL-C and HDL-C, respectively. The modelling produced a kernel-based reformulation of the data, the parameters of which coincided with the well-known biochemical characteristics of the 1H NMR spectra; particularly for VLDL-TG and HDL-C the Bayesian methodology was able to clearly identify the most characteristic resonances within the heavily overlapping information in the spectra. For IDL-C and LDL-C the resulting model kernels were more complex than those for VLDL-TG and HDL-C, probably reflecting the severe overlap of the IDL and LDL resonances in the 1H NMR spectra. Conclusion The systematic use of Bayesian MCMC analysis is computationally demanding. Nevertheless, the combination of high-quality quantification and the biochemical rationale of the resulting models is expected to be useful in the field of metabonomics.

  4. Preparation of a bio-based epoxy with comparable properties to those of petroleum-based counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Q. Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a bio-based epoxy with outstanding thermal and mechanical properties was synthesized using a rosin-based epoxy monomer and a rosin-based curing agent. The chemical structures of rosin based epoxy monomer and curing agent were confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR and Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR spectra. The flexural mechanical and dynamic mechanical properties as well as thermal stability of the cured epoxy were investigated. The results showed that the cured epoxy exhibited a glass transition temperature (Tg of 164°C and its flexural strength and modulus were as high as 70 and 2200 MPa, respectively. This indicated that a wholly bio-based epoxy resin possessing high performance was successfully obtained.

  5. Alternative NADH dehydrogenase (NDH2): intermembrane-space-facing counterpart of mitochondrial complex I in the procyclic Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Verner, Zdeněk; Škodová, Ingrid; Poláková, S.; Ďurišová-Benkovičková, V.; Horváth, A.; Lukeš, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 3 (2013), s. 328-337 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032; GA ČR GA204/09/1667 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosoma * mitochondrion * dehydrogenase * respiration * NDH2 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2013 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8838254

  6. Optical counterparts of two Fermi millisecond pulsars: PSR J1301+0833 and PSR J1628–3205

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Miao; Halpern, Jules P.; Thorstensen, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1.3 m and 2.4 m Telescopes of the MDM Observatory, we identified the close companions of two eclipsing millisecond radio pulsars that were discovered by the Green Bank Telescope in searches of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope sources, and measured their light curves. PSR J1301+0833 is a black widow pulsar in a 6.5 hr orbit whose companion star is strongly heated on the side facing the pulsar. It varies from R = 21.8 to R > 24 around the orbit. PSR J1628–3205 is a 'redback', a nearly Roche-lobe-filling system in a 5.0 hr orbit whose optical modulation in the range 19.0 < R < 19.4 is dominated by strong ellipsoidal variations, indicating a large orbital inclination angle. PSR J1628–3205 also shows evidence for a long-term variation of about 0.2 mag, and an asymmetric temperature distribution possibly due to either off-center heating by the pulsar wind, or large starspots. Modeling of its light curve restricts the inclination angle to i > 55°, the mass of the companion to 0.16 < M c < 0.30 M ☉ , and the effective temperature to 3560 < T eff < 4670 K. As is the case for several redbacks, the companion of PSR J1628–3205 is less dense and hotter than a main-sequence star of the same mass.

  7. Porcine neonatal blood dendritic cells, but not monocytes, are more responsive to TLRs stimulation than their adult counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gael Auray

    Full Text Available The neonatal immune system is often considered as immature or impaired compared to the adult immune system. This higher susceptibility to infections is partly due to the skewing of the neonatal immune response towards a Th2 response. Activation and maturation of dendritic cells (DCs play an important role in shaping the immune response, therefore, DCs are a target of choice for the development of efficient and protective vaccine formulations able to redirect the neonatal immune response to a protective Th1 response. As pigs are becoming more important for vaccine development studies due to their similarity to the human immune system, we decided to compare the activation and maturation of a subpopulation of porcine DCs in adult and neonatal pigs following stimulation with different TLR ligands, which are promising candidates for adjuvants in vaccine formulations. Porcine blood derived DCs (BDCs were directly isolated from blood and consisted of a mix of conventional and plasmacytoid DCs. Following CpG ODN (TLR9 ligand and imiquimod (TLR7 ligand stimulation, neonatal BDCs showed higher levels of expression of costimulatory molecules and similar (CpG ODN or higher (imiquimod levels of IL-12 compared to adult BDCs. Another interesting feature was that only neonatal BDCs produced IFN-α after TLR7 or TLR9 ligand stimulation. Stimulation with CpG ODN and imiquimod also induced enhanced expression of several chemokines. Moreover, in a mixed leukocyte reaction assay, neonatal BDCs displayed a greater ability to induce lymphoproliferation. These findings suggest that when stimulated via TLR7 or TLR9 porcine DCs display similar if not better response than adult porcine DCs.

  8. FIBRILLAR CHROMOSPHERIC SPICULE-LIKE COUNTERPARTS TO AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET AND SOFT X-RAY BLOWOUT CORONAL JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Harra, Louise K.

    2010-01-01

    We observe an erupting jet feature in a solar polar coronal hole, using data from Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), and X-Ray Telescope (XRT), with supplemental data from STEREO/EUVI. From extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray (SXR) images we identify the erupting feature as a blowout coronal jet: in SXRs it is a jet with a bright base, and in EUV it appears as an eruption of relatively cool (∼50,000 K) material of horizontal size scale ∼30'' originating from the base of the SXR jet. In SOT Ca II H images, the most pronounced analog is a pair of thin (∼1'') ejections at the locations of either of the two legs of the erupting EUV jet. These Ca II features eventually rise beyond 45'', leaving the SOT field of view, and have an appearance similar to standard spicules except that they are much taller. They have velocities similar to that of 'type II' spicules, ∼100 km s -1 , and they appear to have spicule-like substructures splitting off from them with horizontal velocity ∼50 km s -1 , similar to the velocities of splitting spicules measured by Sterling et al. Motions of splitting features and of other substructures suggest that the macroscopic EUV jet is spinning or unwinding as it is ejected. This and earlier work suggest that a subpopulation of Ca II type II spicules are the Ca II manifestation of portions of larger scale erupting magnetic jets. A different subpopulation of type II spicules could be blowout jets occurring on a much smaller horizontal size scale than the event we observe here.

  9. Mollusc life and death assemblages on a tropical rocky shore as proxies for the taphonomic loss in a fossil counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Surlyk, Finn

    2013-01-01

    a lower taxonomic agreement to the death assemblage than found in previous published studies. Rocky shore life and death assemblages thus appear to show lower taxonomic agreement compared to muddy or sandy shelf assemblages due to the mix after death with the sandy beach assemblage. A hypothetical fossil......Comparison of a modern rocky shore mollusc life assemblage from Thailand with the associated death assemblage, and interpretation of the fossilization potential of the latter, are used to investigate the fidelity in reconstruction of ancient analogues. The fauna from the death assemblage represents...... species from the rocky shore and the associated sandy pocket beaches, and only a few exotic species from other, completely different habitats are present. The environmental fidelity between the life and death assemblage is thus high, with the majority of species from the death assemblage representing...

  10. Herschel/PACS observations of young sources in Taurus : The far-infrared counterpart of optical jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podio, L.; Kamp, I.; Flower, D.; Howard, C.; Sandell, G.; Mora, A.; Aresu, G.; Brittain, S.; Dent, W. R. F.; Pinte, C.; White, G. J.

    Context. Observations of the atomic and molecular line emission associated with jets and outflows emitted by young stellar objects provide sensitive diagnostics of the excitation conditions, and can be used to trace the various evolutionary stages they pass through as they evolve to become main

  11. Comparing U.S. Army Systems with Foreign Counterparts: Identifying Possible Capability Gaps and Insights from Other Armies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    25 Advanced Artillery System: SIAC 155/52, brochure , Madrid: General Dynamics European Land Systems, January 2012. GHN-45 155/52 APU SBT SLWH...1Z and UH-1Y, Naval Air Systems Command, PMA-276 pamphlet , 2013. 40 warfare suite that includes a radar warning receiver; a missile launch...Magazine, October 1, 2010; Sikorsky UH-60M Black Hawk Helicopter, brochure , Sikorsky.com, July 2009; “UH-60M Evolution,” PowerPoint presentation

  12. Leveling the Playing Field: Assessment of Gross Motor Skills in Low Socioeconomic Children to their Higher Socioeconomic Counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M. Adkins

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fundamental movements (FM of children influence the willingness to engage in physical activity (PA. Thus, proper FM skills are the foundation for a lifespan of PA. Objective: This study examined what factors may affect children’s PA in relation to FM pattern capabilities. Methods: The study examined the influence of SES when three low-income schools were provided additional PA opportunities on days PE was not taught. FM patterns in relation to object control (OC and locomotor skill (LC development were evaluated on K (n = 871, 1st (n = 893, and 2nd graders (n = 829 using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 (TGMD-2 instrument (Ulrich, 2000. Schools were dichotomized and categorized as being low SES (n = 2008 and high SES (n = 578 status. Results: A significant relationship was revealed with LC (r = 0.264; p = 0.001, OC (r = 0.171; p = 0.001, and total TGMD-2 (r = 0.264; p = 0.001. Low and high SES schools significantly improved overall TGMD-2 scores. High SES schools children were significantly higher in LC [F, (2, 1272 = 29.31, p = 0.001], OC [F, (2, 1272 = 23.14, p = 0.001], and total TGMD-2 [F, (1, 1272 = 38.11, p = 0.001]. Conclusion: Low SES schools need to concentrate on PA-based activities to engage students in FM patterns, to help narrow the gap in FM capabilities. In addition, the increase in PA opportunities for lower SES schools could positively impact brain function, cardiovascular fitness, and overall well-being.

  13. Atm heterozygous mice are more sensitive to radiation-induced cataracts than are their wild-type counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worgul, Basil V.; Smilenov, Lubomir; Brenner, David J.; Junk, Anna; Zhou, Wei; Hall, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    It is important to know whether the human population includes genetically predisposed radiosensitive subsets. In vitro studies have shown that cells from individuals homozygous for ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are much more radiosensitive than cells from unaffected individuals. Although cells heterozygous for the ATM gene (ATM(+/-)) may be slightly more radiosensitive in vitro, it remained to be determined whether the greater susceptibility of ATM(+/-) cells translates into an increased sensitivity for late effects in vivo, though there is a suggestion that radiotherapy patients that are heterozygous for the ATM gene may be more at risk of developing late normal tissue damage. We chose cataractogenesis in the lens as a means to assay for the effects of ATM deficiency in a late-responding tissue. One eye of wild-type, Atm heterozygous and homozygous knockout mice was exposed to 0.5-, 1.0-, 2.0-, or 4.0-Gy x rays. The animals were followed weekly for cataract development by conventional slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Cataract development in the animals of all three groups was strongly dependent on dose. The lenses of homozygous mice were the first to opacify at any given dose. Most important in the present context is that cataracts appeared earlier in the heterozygous versus wild-type animals. The data suggest that ATM heterozygotes in the human population may also be radiosensitive. This may influence the choice of individuals destined to be exposed to higher than normal doses of radiation, such as astronauts, and may also suggest that radiotherapy patients who are ATM heterozygotes could be predisposed to increased late normal tissue damage.

  14. Obscured asymptotic giant branch stars in the Magellanic Clouds .2. Near-infrared and mid-infrared counterparts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, AA; Loup, C; Waters, LBFM; Whitelock, PA; vanLoon, JT; Guglielmo, F

    1996-01-01

    We have carried out an infrared search for obscured asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars in the Magellanic Clouds. Fields were observed in the vicinity of IRAS sources with colours and flux densities consistent with such a classification. The survey uncovered a number of obscured AGE stars as well as

  15. Cooperation between Counterparts in Parliament from an Agenda-Setting Perspective: Legislative Coalitions as a Trade of Criticism and Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Flemming Juul; Seeberg, Henrik Bech

    2016-01-01

    Governments may bargain with parties in parliament to silence them. This insight follows from the agenda-setting literature, which emphasises the power of the opposition to criticise the government. The literature on legislatures points to the fear of loss of future voter support as a motivation....... By offering the opposition noteworthy policy influence in legislative coalitions, governments avoid opposition criticism in return, in addition to having initiatives passed. In order to test this argument, a large dataset is compiled on opposition criticism in parliament and the media before and after the 325...

  16. A Comparison of Sexual Minority Youth Who Attend Religiously Affiliated Schools and Their Nonreligious-School-Attending Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Brandon T.; Heck, Nicholas C.; Cochran, Bryan N.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are an at-risk group for negative health outcomes. The present study compares descriptive characteristics and outness of sexual minority youth who attend religious schools to sexual minorities who do not attend religious schools, and also investigates if attending religiously affiliated schools is associated with levels of…

  17. Trace-element analysis of Antarctic H chondrites: Chemical weathering and comparisons with their non-Antarctic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Large numbers of meteorites have been discovered in Antarctica over the last decade (7000 fragments probably representing over 1200 separate events). They are important for their numbers and for their complement of unique or rare specimens; they also have long terrestrial ages (up to 1,000,000 years) compared to non-Antarctic falls (usually < 200 years). We report compositional data for mobile/volatile trace elements Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Ti, U, and Zn in a suite of Antarctic H chondrites. Our data show that heavily oxidized H chondrites are leached of a portion of their trace elements and, therefore, have been chemically compromised by their stay in Antarctica. The less oxidized specimens seem to have retained their chemical integrity. We suggest possibilities for using chemical data to measure the degree of a chondrite's chemical weathering. We compare our data to that obtained previously for non-Antarctic H chondrites (Linger et al., 1986), by petrologic type (H4, H5, H6, H4-6) and shock-loading (moderately shocked facies a-c, heavily shocked facies d-f). Many statistically significant differences are found between non-Antarctic and Victoria Land, Antarctica H chondrites of each petrologic type and of shock facies d-f

  18. Analysis of Critical Success Factors of Online International Learning Exchange of Korean School Pupils with English-Speaking Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Yeon; Park, Sanghoon

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies the factors influencing the success of online international learning exchange (ILE) among Korean school pupils who partnered with American and Australian pupils. In particular, it examined the effects of self-efficacy (SE), exchange infrastructure (EI) and quality of exchange activities (QEA) on the students' learning…

  19. Evaluation of cadmium, lead, zinc and copper levels in selected ecological cereal food products and their non-ecological counterparts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slepecka Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the everyday human diet, cereal products are considered to be basics. Such food should have healthy properties and not contain harmful additives, especially heavy metals as exposure to low doses of such xenobiotics can adversely affect human health. Ecological farming is the answer to consumer expectations regarding food safety, and ecological products are recommended as a basis for proper nutrition, despite the higher cost of their purchase. The present study was carried out to evaluate the content of heavy metals in ecological cereal products and their non-ecological analogues.

  20. The endogenous langur type D retrovirus PO-1-Lu and its exogenous counterparts in macaque and langur monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfelt, Maja A.; Harkestad, Nina; Hunter, Eric

    2003-01-01

    PO-1-Lu, the endogenous type D retrovirus of langurs (Trachypithecus obscurus) has previously been considered a progenitor to the prototype type D retrovirus, Mason Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV/SRV-3), that became established in macaque monkeys (Macaca spp.) following a zoonosis. This study reevaluates this hypothesis to include other exogenous SRVs. New sequence information from the gp70(SU)-encoding region of PO-1-Lu shows striking similarity to the newly identified exogenous langur retrovirus, SRV-6, recently isolated from the Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus). An unrooted, bootstrapped neighbor-joining tree derived from env gene nucleotide sequences shows PO-1-Lu and SRV-6 appear more closely related genetically to SRV-2 than SRV-1 or SRV-3 (M-PMV). This is also reflected in our observations that the M-PMV envelope glycoprotein precursor gPr86 Env and gp70(SU) were antigenically distinct from PO-1-Lu, although the gp22(TM) glycoproteins were antigenically cross-reactive. The potential that SRV-6 represents an exogenous form of PO-1-Lu that has arisen following a recent zoonosis is discussed

  1. Spectroscopic Comparison of Metal-rich RRab Stars of the Galactic Field with their Metal-poor Counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadid, Merieme [Université Nice Sophia–Antipolis, Observatoire de la Côte dAzur, UMR 7293, Parc Valrose, F-06108, Nice Cedex 02 (France); Sneden, Christopher [Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, The University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Preston, George W., E-mail: chadid@unice.fr, E-mail: chris@verdi.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: gwp@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We investigate atmospheric properties of 35 stable RRab stars that possess the full ranges of period, light amplitude, and metal abundance found in Galactic RR Lyrae stars. Our results are derived from several thousand echelle spectra obtained over several years with the du Pont telescope of Las Campanas Observatory. Radial velocities of metal lines and the H α line were used to construct curves of radial velocity versus pulsation phase. From these we estimated radial velocity amplitudes for metal lines (formed near the photosphere) and H α Doppler cores (formed at small optical depths). We also measured H α emission fluxes when they appear during primary light rises. Spectra shifted to rest wavelengths, binned into small phase intervals, and co-added were used to perform model atmospheric and abundance analyses. The derived metallicities and those of some previous spectroscopic surveys were combined to produce a new calibration of the Layden abundance scale. We then divided our RRab sample into metal-rich (disk) and metal-poor (halo) groups at [Fe/H] = −1.0; the atmospheres of RRab families, so defined, differ with respect to (a) peak strength of H α emission flux, (b) H α radial velocity amplitude, (c) dynamical gravity, (d) stellar radius variation, (e) secondary acceleration during the photometric bump that precedes minimum light, and (f) duration of H α line-doubling. We also detected H α line-doubling during the “bump” in the metal-poor family, but not in the metal-rich one. Although all RRab probably are core helium-burning horizontal branch stars, the metal-rich group appears to be a species sui generis.

  2. Efficacy of Chicken Litter and Wood Biochars and Their Activated Counterparts in Heavy Metal Clean up from Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel M. Lima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that properties of activated biochars are tightly associated with those of the original feedstock as well as pyrolysis and activation conditions. This study examined two feedstock types, pine wood shavings and chicken litter, to produce biochars at two different pyrolysis temperatures and subsequently activated by steam, acid or base. In order to measure activation efficiency, all materials were characterized for their properties and ability to remediate two well-known heavy metals of concern: copper and arsenic. Base activated biochars were superior in arsenic adsorption, to acid or steam activated samples, but increase in adsorption was not significant to warrant use. For wood biochars, significant increases of surface functionality as related to oxygen bearing groups and surface charge were observed upon acid activation which led to increased copper ion adsorption. However, oxygen bearing functionalities were not sufficient to explain why chicken litter biochars and steam activated biochars appeared to be significantly superior to wood shavings in positively charged metal ion adsorption. For chicken litter, functionality of respective biochars could be related to phosphate containing groups inherited from feedstock composition, favorably positioning this feedstock in metal ion remediation applications.

  3. Idiomatic Expressions of the Sewing Frame in English and Their Persian Counterparts: Nida's Dynamic Equivalence Theory in Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafel, Banafsheh; Rasekh, Abbass Eslami; Pazhakh, Abdolreza

    2011-01-01

    Translation is an act of communication across dissimilar cultures. In as such, cultural expressions or idioms are a particularly salient translation challenge, especially when translating between two distinct languages spoken by two different nations. Idioms convey rich cultural connotations, and so require consideration of both cultural and…

  4. Nuclear counterparts of the cytoplasmic mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene: a problem of ancient DNA and molecular phylogenies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kuyl, A. C.; Kuiken, C. L.; Dekker, J. T.; Perizonius, W. R.; Goudsmit, J.

    1995-01-01

    Monkey mummy bones and teeth originating from the North Saqqara Baboon Galleries (Egypt), soft tissue from a mummified baboon in a museum collection, and nineteenth/twentieth-century skin fragments from mangabeys were used for DNA extraction and PCR amplification of part of the mitochondrial 12S

  5. Multi-instrument observations of the ionospheric counterpart of a bursty bulk flow in the near-Earth plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grocott

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available On 07 September 2001 the Cluster spacecraft observed a "bursty bulk flow" event in the near-Earth central plasma sheet. This paper presents a detailed study of the coincident ground-based observations and attempts to place them within a simple physical framework. The event in question occurs at ~22:30 UT, some 10min after a southward turning of the IMF. IMAGE and SAMNET magnetometer measurements of the ground magnetic field reveal perturbations of a few tens of nT and small amplitude Pi2 pulsations. CUTLASS radar observations of ionospheric plasma convection show enhanced flows out of the polar cap near midnight, accompanied by an elevated transpolar voltage. Optical data from the IMAGE satellite also show that there is a transient, localised ~1 kR brightening in the UV aurora. These observations are consistent with the earthward transport of plasma in the tail, but also indicate the absence of a typical "large-scale" substorm current wedge. An analysis of the field-aligned current system implied by the radar measurements does suggest the existence of a small-scale current "wedgelet", but one which lacks the global scale and high conductivities observed during substorm expansions.

    Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionospheremagnetosphere interactions; plasma convection

  6. Searching for the UV counterpart of the extraordinary X-ray UFO in the NLSy1 IRAS17020+4544

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krongold, Yair

    2017-08-01

    We recently reported the first unambiguous discovery in high resolution X-ray data of an ultra fast outflow (UFO) with velocity .1c. This wind, in Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy IRAS17020+4544, represents so far the most compelling detection of an UFO, with many different absorption lines that give rise to very high significance detections. The charge states that form the wind clearly indicate a large range of ionization states in the gas, and significant absorption by Ly alpha, C IV, Si IV and N V (among other ions) is expected in the UV band. The goal of our proposed program is to observe an characterize the best X-ray detected UFO in the UV. These observations are crucial to study in great detail the UFO phenomenon, and understand its nature and its relation to the narrow absorption line low velocity systems. Only through detection of Ly alpha absorption in the UV data, measurements of the metallicity of these winds will be possible. The proposed program will help guide new theoretical models of UFOs origins, beyond the simple actual picture that predicts only very high ionization Fe absorption. UV data are required to understand the wind nature and launching mechanism (whether due to radiation pressure via line or continuum opacity, or magnetic forces). Fully characterizing the wind properties will put stronger constraints in the mass outflow and kinetic outflow rates of these systems, as well as in their geometry. Such estimates will give a much clearer picture of UFOs feedback potential, and will provide clues on the feedback mode in action (e.g. energy conserving vs. momentum conserving).

  7. Back to Office Report. Mission no.1 to Tanzania as counterpart institution to Cleaner Production Centre of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1996-01-01

    A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania......A presentation of some important actors and institutions in the capacity building within cleaner production in Tanzania...

  8. T'ao-t'ieh, a motif of Chinese funerary art as the iconographic counterpart of Cinnabar, an alchemical drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S

    1982-01-01

    The agency conferring resurrection is soul or its emblem. The earliest conception of soul is blood. Its Redness penetrates subsoil and is taken up by serpent, from whence arises snake-soul, later snake-god. Blood vapours is the other fraction arising upwards. It becomes wraith bird, later soul bird, and finally bird god. Blood as whole gave snake-god plus bird-god. A winged-cobra became snake-god and bird-god or together, one-as-all. Red Cock was its equivalent. As substance came cinnabar, red like blood and sublimable like soul. Dragon was idealized snake-god. Then Dragon-god plus Bird-god became the equal of blood soul, the magical power. T'ao-t'ieh is Dragon-plus-Bird, snake-god plus bird-god, the equivalent of Cosmic soul. Then cinnabar as the equal of blood soul and T'ao-t'ieh, the emblem of Cosmic soul, each were capable of conferring resurrection and have been interred in Chinese graves.

  9. Ectopically hTERT expressing adult human mesenchymal stem cells are less radiosensitive than their telomerase negative counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Christensen, Rikke; Graakjaer, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    -detected alkaline DNA unwinding assay together with Western blot analyses for phosphorylated H2AX and Q-FISH was applied for investigation of telomeric damage. Our results indicate that hMSC and TERT-immortalized hMSCs can cope with relatively high doses of gamma-rays and that overall DNA repair is similar...... in the two cell lines. The telomeres were extensively destroyed after irradiation in both cell types suggesting that telomere caps are especially sensitive to radiation. The TERT-immortalized hMSCs showed higher stability at telomeric regions than primary hMSCs indicating that cells with long telomeres...

  10. Selected Foreign Counterparts of U.S. Army Ground Combat Systems and Implications for Combat Operations and Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-18

    responsibility is to defeat other nations’ combat formations on the battlefield. In order to accomplish this, nations indigenously develop, maintain, and improve...defeat other nations’ combat formations on the battlefield. In order to accomplish this, nations indigenously develop, maintain, and improve a variety...catastrophic kill. A number of foreign tracked IFVs mount either hard kill 13 or soft kill 14 APS and the Army is presently examining both non

  11. Emergency department patients self-report higher patient inertia, hopelessness, and harmful lifestyle choices than community counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, JaNae; Moore, Ashley R; Mount, David L; Simmons, Debra R; Ferrario, Carlos M; Cline, David M

    2012-12-01

    Patient inertia is defined as an individual's failure to take responsibility for proactive lifestyle change and health conditions including hypertension. Generalized and hypertension-specific patient inertia factors were compared in 110 patients (48% women; 52% African American) from a Forsyth County, NC, emergency department (ED) and 104 community members (79% women; 70% African American) using the patient inertia-facilitated survey Patient Inertia-36. Statistically, more ED than community participants added salt to food at the table and consumed fast foods 5 to 7 days a week. ED patients agreed less often with health literacy questions about salt and BP. Hypertension associated Patient inertia questions asked of 45 ED and 40 community participants with a personal history of hypertension revealed a statistically higher sense of hopelessness surrounding blood pressure management in ED participants. Past BP control experiences of family members had statistically greater impact on community participants regarding their own BP control. Using a logistic regression model, advancing age and being surveyed in the ED were correlated with hopelessness towards BP control. ED patients make unhealthier diet choices and possess heightened generalized and hypertension-specific patient inertia including hopelessness towards controlling their BP that increases with age. These factors may contribute to this population's poor BP control, particularly self-efficacy barriers. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Nucleoprotein of influenza B virus binds to its type A counterpart and disrupts influenza A viral polymerase complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaru-ampornpan, Peera, E-mail: peera.jar@biotec.or.th; Narkpuk, Jaraspim; Wanitchang, Asawin; Jongkaewwattana, Anan, E-mail: anan.jon@biotec.or.th

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •FluB nucleoprotein (BNP) can bind to FluA nucleoprotein (ANP). •BNP–ANP interaction inhibits FluA polymerase activity. •BNP binding prevents ANP from forming a functional FluA polymerase complex. •Nuclear localization of BNP is necessary for FluA polymerase inhibition. •Viral RNA is not required for the BNP–ANP interaction. -- Abstract: Upon co-infection with influenza B virus (FluB), influenza A virus (FluA) replication is substantially impaired. Previously, we have shown that the nucleoprotein of FluB (BNP) can inhibit FluA polymerase machinery, retarding the growth of FluA. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this inhibitory action awaited further investigation. Here, we provide evidence that BNP hinders the proper formation of FluA polymerase complex by competitively binding to the nucleoprotein of FluA. To exert this inhibitory effect, BNP must be localized in the nucleus. The interaction does not require the presence of the viral RNA but needs an intact BNP RNA-binding motif. The results highlight the novel role of BNP as an anti-influenza A viral agent and provide insights into the mechanism of intertypic interference.

  13. The impact of the pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and its beneficial counterpart Bacillus amyloliquefaciens on the indigenous lettuce microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin eErlacher

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lettuce belongs to the most commonly raw eaten food worldwide and its microbiome plays an important role for both human and plant health. Yet, little is known about the impact of potentially occurring pathogens and beneficial inoculants of the indigenous microorganisms associated with lettuce. To address this question we studied the impact of the phytopathogenic fungus Rhizoctonia solani and the biological control agent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 on the indigenous rhizosphere and phyllosphere community of greenhouse-grown lettuce at two plant stages. The rhizosphere and phyllosphere gammaproteobacterial microbiomes of lettuce plants showed clear differences in their overall and core microbiome composition as well as in corresponding diversity indices. The rhizosphere was dominated by Xanthomonadaceae (48% and Pseudomonadaceae (37% with Rhodanobacter, Pseudoxanthomonas, Dokdonella, Luteimonas, Steroidobacter, Thermomonas as core inhabitants, while the dominating taxa associated to phyllosphere were Pseudomonadaceae (54%, Moraxellaceae (16% and Enterobacteriaceae (25% with Alkanindiges, Pantoea and a group of Enterobacteriaceae unclassified at genus level. The preferential occurrence of enterics in the phyllosphere was the most significant difference between both habitats. Additional enhancement of enterics on the phyllosphere was observed in bottom rot diseased lettuce plants, while Acinetobacter and Alkanindiges were identified as indicators of healthy plants. Interestingly, the microbial diversity was enhanced by treatment with both the pathogen, and the co-inoculated biological control agent. The highest impact and bacterial diversity was found by Rhizoctonia inoculation, but FZB42 lowered the impact of Rhizoctonia on the microbiome. This study shows that the indigenous microbiome shifts as a consequence to pathogen attack but FZB42 can compensate these effects, which supports their role as biocontrol agent and suggests a novel mode of action.

  14. Search for near-infrared counterparts of IRAS embedded sources in the M17 SW giant molecular cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, D.M.; Phillips, J.; Beck, K.; Thomas, H.; Howard, J.

    1988-01-01

    Wide-field near-infrared and blue band plates of the region containing the M17 giant molecular cloud complex have been blinked to locate bright near-infrared stars that may be embedded in the M17 SW giant molecular cloud. Twenty such stars coincided with the positions of IRAS point sources that appeared embedded based on color-color diagrams. Some of these stars may be the sources of the infrared luminosities. Of the 20 stars, seven were too faint to appear on the B band plate. The optical magnitudes and colors determined from the plate image diameters were measured for the other 13 coincident stars; they are most likely upper main-sequence or pre-main-sequence stars with extinctions of 7 mag. The IRAS luminosity-temperature diagram indicates that the embedded sources in M17 are more massive than those in the Orion cloud. 35 references

  15. Nuclei of dwarf spheroidal galaxies KKs3 and ESO269-66 and their counterparts in our Galaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Sharina, M. E.; Shimansky, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2017-01-01

    We present the analysis of medium-resolution spectra obtained at the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) for nuclear globular clusters (GCs) in two dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). The galaxies have similar star formation histories, but they are situated in completely different environments. ESO269-66 is a close neighbour of the giant S0 NGC5128. KKs3 is one of the few truly isolated dSphs within 10 Mpc. We estimate the helium abundance $Y=0.3$, $\\rm age=12.6\\pm1$ Gyr, $[Fe/H]=-1.5,-1.5...

  16. Nuclei of dwarf spheroidal galaxies KKs 3 and ESO 269-66 and their counterparts in our Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharina, M. E.; Shimansky, V. V.; Kniazev, A. Y.

    2017-10-01

    We present the analysis of medium-resolution spectra obtained at the Southern African Large Telescope for nuclear globular clusters (GCs) in two dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). The galaxies have similar star formation histories, but they are situated in completely different environments. ESO 269-66 is a close neighbour of the giant S0 NGC 5128. KKs 3 is one of the few truly isolated dSphs within 10 Mpc. We estimate the helium abundance Y = 0.3, age = 12.6 ± 1 Gyr, [Fe/H] = -1.5, -1.55 ± 0.2 dex, and abundances of C, N, Mg, Ca, Ti, and Cr for the nuclei of ESO 269-66 and KKs 3. Our surface photometry results using Hubble Space Telescope images yield the half-light radius of the cluster in KKs 3, rh = 4.8 ± 0.2 pc. We demonstrate the similarities of medium-resolution spectra, ages, chemical compositions, and structure for GCs in ESO 269-66 and KKs 3 and for several massive Galactic GCs with [Fe/H] ∼ -1.6 dex. All Galactic GCs posses Extended Blue Horizontal Branches and multiple stellar populations. Five of the selected Galactic objects are iron-complex GCs. Our results indicate that the sample GCs observed now in different environments had similar conditions of their formation ∼1 Gyr after the Big Bang.

  17. Effectively universal behavior of rotating neutron stars in general relativity makes them even simpler than their Newtonian counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, George; Apostolatos, Theocharis A

    2014-03-28

    Recently, it was shown that slowly rotating neutron stars exhibit an interesting correlation between their moment of inertia I, their quadrupole moment Q, and their tidal deformation Love number λ (the I-Love-Q relations), independently of the equation of state of the compact object. In the present Letter a similar, more general, universality is shown to hold true for all rotating neutron stars within general relativity; the first four multipole moments of the neutron star are related in a way independent of the nuclear matter equation of state we assume. By exploiting this relation, we can describe quite accurately the geometry around a neutron star with fewer parameters, even if we don't know precisely the equation of state. Furthermore, this universal behavior displayed by neutron stars could promote them to a more promising class of candidates (next to black holes) for testing theories of gravity.

  18. Erratum: ``Infrared Counterparts to Chandra X-Ray Sources in the Antennae'' (ApJ, 658, 319 [2007])

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. L.; Barry, D. J.; Ptak, A. F.; Colbert, E. J. M.

    2007-10-01

    In equation (2), we incorrectly labeled one of the variables. Equations (1) and (2) should read:r1=ax1+by1+c,d1=dx1+ey1+f. (1) (2)These equations were used only to explain our image frame-tie method, and this change does not affect our results.

  19. Evaluation of the quality and pharmacoeconomics of some generic drugs versus their reputed counterpart brands in the Saudi market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farouk M Sakr

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Pharmacopeial examinations showed that generic tablets are quantitatively and qualitatively equivalent to their internationally reputed brands within the tested tablet groups with the advantage for the generic drugs being significantly the cheapest.

  20. Analysis of transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harboring a maize (Zea mays L.) gene for plastid EF-Tu: segregation pattern, expression and effects of the transgene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jianming; Ristic, Zoran

    2010-06-01

    We previously reported that transgenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) carrying a maize (Zea mays L.) gene (Zmeftu1) for chloroplast protein synthesis elongation factor, EF-Tu, displays reduced thermal aggregation of leaf proteins, reduced injury to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoids), and enhanced rate of CO(2) fixation following exposure to heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C) [Fu et al. in Plant Mol Biol 68:277-288, 2008]. In the current study, we investigated the segregation pattern and expression of the transgene Zmeftu1 and determined the grain yield of transgenic plants after exposure to a brief heat stress (18 h at 45 degrees C). We also assessed thermal aggregation of soluble leaf proteins in transgenic plants, testing the hypothesis that increased levels of EF-Tu will lead to a non-specific protection of leaf proteins against thermal aggregation. The transgenic wheat displayed a single-gene pattern of segregation of Zmeftu1. Zmeftu1 was expressed, and the transgenic plants synthesized and accumulated three anti-EF-Tu cross-reacting polypeptides of similar molecular mass but different pI, suggesting the possibility of posttranslational modification of this protein. The transgenic plants also showed better grain yield after exposure to heat stress compared with their non-transgenic counterparts. Soluble leaf proteins of various molecular masses displayed lower thermal aggregation in transgenic than in non-transgenic wheat. The results suggest that overexpression of chloroplast EF-Tu can be beneficial to wheat tolerance to heat stress. Moreover, the results also support the hypothesis that EF-Tu contributes to heat tolerance by acting as a molecular chaperone and protecting heat-labile proteins from thermal aggregation in a non-specific manner.

  1. Zebrafish ( Danio rerio) as a model for investigating the safety of GM feed ingredients (soya and maize); performance, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissener, Nini H; Johannessen, Lene E; Hevrøy, Ernst M; Wiik-Nielsen, Christer R; Berdal, Knut G; Nordgreen, Andreas; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn

    2010-01-01

    A 20-d zebrafish (Danio rerio) feeding trial, in which a near doubling of fish weight was achieved, was conducted with GM feed ingredients to evaluate feed intake, growth, stress response and uptake of dietary DNA. A partial aim of the study was to assess zebrafish as a model organism in GM safety assessments. Roundup Ready soya (RRS), YieldGard Bt maize (MON810) and their non-modified, maternal, near-isogenic lines were used in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Soya variety and maize variety were the main factors, both with two levels; non-GM and GM. Compared with fish fed non-GM maize, those fed GM maize exhibited significantly better growth, had lower mRNA transcription levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-1 and a tendency (non-significant) towards lower transcription of heat shock protein 70 in liver. Sex of the fish and soya variety had significant interaction effects on total RNA yield from the whole liver and transcription of SOD-1, suggesting that some diet component affecting males and females differently was present in different levels in the GM and the non-GM soya used in the present study. Dietary DNA sequences were detected in all of the organs analysed, but not all of the samples. Soya and maize rubisco (non-transgenic, multicopy genes) were most frequently detected, while MON810 transgenic DNA fragments were detected in some samples and RRS fragments were not detected. In conclusion, zebrafish shows promise as a model for this application.

  2. Transgene inheritances and genetic similarities of near isogenic lines of genetically modified common beans Herança de transgenes e similaridade genética de linhagens quase isogênicas de feijoeiro-comum geneticamente modificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Valle Pinheiro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to determine the inheritance and stability of transgenes of a transgenic bean line expressing the genes rep-trap-ren from Bean golden mosaic virus and the bar gene. Crosses were done between the transgenic line and four commercial bean cultivars, followed by four backcrosses to the commercial cultivars. Progenies from each cross were evaluated for the presence of the transgenes by brushing the leaves with glufosinate ammonium and by polymerase chain reaction using specific oligonucleotides. Advanced generations were rub-inoculated with an isolate of Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV. The transgenes were inherited consistently in a Mendelian pattern in the four crosses studied. The analyzed lines recovered close to 80% of the characteristics of the recurrent parent, as determined by the random amplified DNA markers used, besides maintaining important traits such as resistance to BCMNV. The presence of the transgene did not cause any detectable undesirable effect in the evaluated progenies.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a herança e a estabilidade de transgenes de uma linhagem de feijoeiro-comum com expressão dos genes rep-trap-ren, do Bean golden mosaic virus, e do gene bar. Foram realizados cruzamentos entre a linhagem transgênica e quatro cultivares comerciais de feijão, seguidos de quatro retrocruzamentos. As progênies de cada cruzamento foram avaliadas quanto à presença dos transgenes, com aplicação do glifosinato de amônia nas folhas e por meio da reação da polimerase em cadeia com uso de oligonucleotídeos específicos. O vírus do mosaico comum necrótico do feijoeiro, Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV, foi inoculado mecanicamente nas gerações avançadas. Os transgenes foram herdados em padrão mendeliano nos quatro cruzamentos estudados. As linhagens analisadas apresentaram cerca de 80% das características do parental recorrente, conforme determinado por análises com uso de marcadores de DNA, além de manter caracteres importantes, tais como resistência ao BCMNV. A presença do transgene não causou efeitos indesejáveis que pudessem ser detectados nas progênies avaliadas.

  3. Discriminating isogenic cancer cells and identifying altered unsaturated fatty acid content as associated with metastasis status, using k-means clustering and partial least squares-discriminant analysis of Raman maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Martin; Krafft, Christoph; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2010-01-01

    level of a few proteins and genes. Raman maps were recorded of single cells after fixation and drying using 785 nm laser excitation. K-means clustering reduced the amount of data from each cell and improved the signal-to-noise ratio of cluster-averaged spectra. Spectra representing the nucleus were...

  4. Impact of low-level fluoroquinolone resistance genes qnrA1, qnrB19 and qnrS1 on ciprofloxacin treatment of isogenic Escherichia coli strains in a murine urinary tract infection model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte; Cattoir, Vincent; Jensen, Klaus S

    2012-01-01

    To study the impact of qnrA1, qnrB19 and qnrS1 on the ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI).......To study the impact of qnrA1, qnrB19 and qnrS1 on the ciprofloxacin treatment of urinary tract infection (UTI)....

  5. Significant competitive advantage conferred by meiosis and syngamy in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsell, J; Wills, C

    1996-01-01

    The presumed advantages of genetic recombinations are difficult to demonstrate directly. To investigate the effects of recombination and background heterozygosity on competitive ability, we have performed serial-transfer competition experiments between isogenic sexual and asexual strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The members of these diploid pairs of strains differed only in being heterozygous (sexual) or homozygous (asexual) at the mating type or MAT locus. Competing pairs had either a completely homozygous or a heterozygous genetic background, the latter being heterozygous at many different loci throughout the genome. A round of meiotic recombination (automixis) conferred a large and statistically significant enhancement of competitive ability on sexual strains with a heterozygous genetic background. By contrast, in homozygous background competitions, meiosis decreased the sexual strains' initial relative competitive ability. In all cases, however, the sexual strains outcompeted their isogenic asexual counterparts, whether meiotic recombination had occurred or not. In some genetic backgrounds, this was due in part to an overdominance effect on competitive advantage of heterozygosity at the MAT locus. The advantage of the sexual strains also increased significantly during the course of the homozygous background competitions, particularly when meiosis had occurred. This latter effect either did not occur or was very weak in heterozygous background competitions. Overall, sexual strains with heterozygous genetic backgrounds had a significantly higher initial relative competitive ability than those with homozygous backgrounds. The advantage of mating type heterozygosity in this organism extends far beyond the ability to recombine meiotically. PMID:8570658

  6. Does a 'non-committed' government always generate lower social welfare than its 'committed' counterpart? Strategic trade policy when consumer surplus matters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigić, Krešimir

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2011), s. 533-556 ISSN 0147-5967 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : government commitment * social welfare * optimal tariffs and export subsidies Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.028, year: 2011

  7. Bridging the Gap: Capturing the Lyα Counterpart of a Type-II Spicule and its Heating Evolution with VAULT2.0 and IRIS Campaign Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintzoglou, G.; De Pontieu, B.; Martinez-Sykora, J.; Mendes Domingos Pereira, T.; Vourlidas, A.; Tun Beltran, S.

    2017-12-01

    We present the analysis of data from the observing campaign in support to the VAULT2.0 sounding rocket launch on September 30, 2014. VAULT2.0 is a Lyα (1216 Å) spectroheliograph capable of providing fast cadence spectroheliograms of high-spectral purity. High resolution Lyα observations are highly complementary with the IRIS observations of the upper chromosphere and the low transition region but have previously been unavailable. The VAULT2.0 data provide critical, new upper-chromospheric constraints for numerical models. The observing campaign was closely coordinated with the IRIS mission. Taking advantage of this simultaneous multi-wavelength coverage of target AR 12172 and by using state-of-the-art radiative-MHD simulations of spicules, we are able to perform a detailed investigation of a type-II spicule associated with a fast apparent network jet recorded in the campaign observations during the VAULT2.0 flight. Our unique analysis suggests that spicular material exists suspended in lower temperatures until it rapidly gets heated and becomes visible in transition-region temperatures as an apparent network jet.

  8. Are MS in Economics Programs in Departments That Also Have a PhD Program in Economics Different from Their Counterparts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkman, Martin I.; Marjadi, Riza; McCoy, James P.

    2016-01-01

    This is the first article that compares terminal master's degree programs in economics from universities that have a PhD program in economics with those that do not offer PhD programs in economics. The authors compare these differences based on surveys in 2002 and 2012. They examine differences in general program characteristics, department…

  9. Side-effects of domestication: cultivated legume seeds contain similar tocopherols and fatty acids but less carotenoids than their wild counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Milla, Rubén; Martín-Robles, Nieves; Arc, Erwann; Kranner, Ilse; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2014-12-20

    Lipophilic antioxidants play dual key roles in edible seeds (i) as preservatives of cell integrity and seed viability by preventing the oxidation of fats, and (ii) as essential nutrients for human and animal life stock. It has been well documented that plant domestication and post-domestication evolution frequently resulted in increased seed size and palatability, and reduced seed dormancy. Nevertheless, and surprisingly, it is poorly understood how agricultural selection and cultivation affected the physiological fitness and the nutritional quality of seeds. Fabaceae have the greatest number of crop species of all plant families, and most of them are cultivated for their highly nutritious edible seeds. Here, we evaluate whether evolution of plants under cultivation has altered the integrated system formed by membranes (fatty acids) and lipophilic antioxidants (carotenoids and tocopherols), in the ten most economically important grain legumes and their closest wild relatives, i.e.: Arachis (peanut), Cicer (chickpea), Glycine (soybean), Lathyrus(vetch), Lens (lentil), Lupinus (lupin), Phaseolus (bean), Pisum (pea), Vicia (faba bean) and Vigna (cowpea). Unexpectedly, we found that following domestication, the contents of carotenoids, including lutein and zeaxanthin, decreased in all ten species (total carotenoid content decreased 48% in average). Furthermore, the composition of carotenoids changed, whereby some carotenoids were lost in most of the crops. An undirected change in the contents of tocopherols and fatty acids was found, with contents increasing in some species and decreasing in others, independently of the changes in carotenoids. In some species, polyunsaturated fatty acids (linolenic acid especially), α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol decreased following domestication. The changes in carotenoids, tocopherols and fatty acids are likely side-effects of the selection for other desired traits such as the loss of seed dormancy and dispersal mechanisms, and selection for seed storability and taste. This work may serve as baseline to broaden our knowledge on the integrated changes on crop fitness and nutritional quality following domestication.

  10. How do psychosocial determinants in migrant women in the Netherlands differ from these among their counterparts in their country of origin? A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nierkens, V.; van der Ploeg, M.V.; van Eer, M.Y.; Stronks, K.

    2011-01-01

    Migration of non-Western women into Western countries often results in an increase in smoking prevalence among migrant women. To gain more insight into how to prevent this increase, we compared psychosocial determinants of smoking between Surinamese women in Suriname and those in the Netherlands.

  11. Evaluation of cognition in children with beta-thalassemia major and healthy counterparts in terms of abstract thinking and visual organization

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    Samaneh Homayouni-Meymandi

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: The results show the potential impact of the disease on children›s cognitive levels and suggest that children with beta-thalassemia major need more attention in the field of education to promote their understanding.

  12. The 11S globulin Sin a 2 from yellow mustard seeds shows IgE cross-reactivity with homologous counterparts from tree nuts and peanut

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    Sirvent Sofía

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 11S globulin Sin a 2 is a marker to predict severity of symptoms in mustard allergic patients. The potential implication of Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity with tree nuts and peanut has not been investigated so far. In this work, we studied at the IgG and IgE level the involvement of the 11S globulin Sin a 2 in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut. Methods Eleven well-characterized mustard-allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2 were included in the study. A specific anti-Sin a 2 serum was obtained in rabbit. Skin prick tests (SPT, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, immunoblotting and IgG or IgE-inhibition immunoblotting experiments using purified Sin a 2, Sin a 1, Sin a 3, mustard, almond, hazelnut, pistachio, walnut or peanut extracts were performed. Results The rabbit anti-Sin a 2 serum showed high affinity and specificity to Sin a 2, which allowed us to demonstrate that Sin a 2 shares IgG epitopes with allergenic 11S globulins from tree nuts (almond, hazelnut, pistachio and walnut but not from peanut. All the patients included in the study had positive skin prick test to tree nuts and/or peanut and we subdivided them into two different groups according to their clinical symptoms after ingestion of such allergenic sources. We showed that 11S globulins contain conserved IgE epitopes involved in cross-reactivity among mustard, tree nuts and peanut as well as species-specific IgE epitopes. Conclusions The allergenic 11S globulin Sin a 2 from mustard is involved in cross-reactivity at the IgE level with tree nuts and peanut. Although the clinical relevance of the cross-reactive IgE epitopes present in 11S globulins needs to be investigated in further detail, our results contribute to improve the diagnosis and management of mustard allergic patients sensitized to Sin a 2.

  13. Molecular analysis of immunoglobulin variable genes supports a germinal center experienced normal counterpart in primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham-Ledard, Anne; Prochazkova-Carlotti, Martina; Deveza, Mélanie; Laforet, Marie-Pierre; Beylot-Barry, Marie; Vergier, Béatrice; Parrens, Marie; Feuillard, Jean; Merlio, Jean-Philippe; Gachard, Nathalie

    2017-11-01

    Immunophenotype of primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg-type (PCLBCL-LT) suggests a germinal center-experienced B lymphocyte (BCL2+ MUM1+ BCL6+/-). As maturation history of B-cell is "imprinted" during B-cell development on the immunoglobulin gene sequence, we studied the structure and sequence of the variable part of the genes (IGHV, IGLV, IGKV), immunoglobulin surface expression and features of class switching in order to determine the PCLBCL-LT cell of origin. Clonality analysis with BIOMED2 protocol and VH leader primers was done on DNA extracted from frozen skin biopsies on retrospective samples from 14 patients. The clonal DNA IGHV sequence of the tumor was aligned and compared with the closest germline sequence and homology percentage was calculated. Superantigen binding sites were studied. Features of selection pressure were evaluated with the multinomial Lossos model. A functional monoclonal sequence was observed in 14 cases as determined for IGHV (10), IGLV (2) or IGKV (3). IGV mutation rates were high (>5%) in all cases but one (median:15.5%), with superantigen binding sites conservation. Features of selection pressure were identified in 11/12 interpretable cases, more frequently negative (75%) than positive (25%). Intraclonal variation was detected in 3 of 8 tumor specimens with a low rate of mutations. Surface immunoglobulin was an IgM in 12/12 cases. FISH analysis of IGHM locus, deleted during class switching, showed heterozygous IGHM gene deletion in half of cases. The genomic PCR analysis confirmed the deletions within the switch μ region. IGV sequences were highly mutated but functional, with negative features of selection pressure suggesting one or more germinal center passage(s) with somatic hypermutation, but superantigen (SpA) binding sites conservation. Genetic features of class switch were observed, but on the non functional allele and co-existing with primary isotype IgM expression. These data suggest that cell-of origin is germinal center experienced and superantigen driven selected B-cell, in a stage between germinal center B-cell and plasma cell. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. -CH2- lengthening of the internucleotide linkage in the ApA dimer can improve its conformational compatibility with its natural polynucleotide counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanu, J.; Barvík, I.; Ruszová-Chmelová, K.; ŠtÆpánek, J.; Turpin, P.-Y.; Bok, J.; Rosenberg, I.; Petrová-Endová, M.

    2001-01-01

    The complete family of ApA phosphonate analogues with the internucleotide linkage elongated by insertion of a -CH2- group was prepared and the hybridisation and structural properties of its members in interaction with polyuridylic acid were investigated using an original 2D Raman approach. Except for the conformationally restricted ACHpA(2′3′endo-5′) modification, all of the isopolar, non-isosteric analogues form triplex-like complexes with poly(rU) at room temperature, in which two polymer strands are bound by Watson–Crick and Hoogsteen bonds to a central pseudostrand consisting of a ‘chain’ of A-dimers. For all of these dimers, the overall conformation of the triplexes was found to be similar according to their extracted Raman spectra. A simple semi-empirical model was introduced to explain the observed dependency of the efficiency of triplex formation on the adenine concentration. Apparently, for most of the modifications studied, the creation of a stable complex at room temperature requires the formation of a central pseudostrand, consisting of several adenine dimers. Molecular dynamics calculations were finally performed to interpret the differences in ‘cooperative’ behaviour between the different dimers studied. The results indicate that the exceptional properties of the ApCH2A(3′-5′) dimer could be caused by the 3D conformational compatibility of this modified linkage with the second (Hoogsteen) poly(rU) strand. PMID:11812852

  15. Differential impacts of social support on mental health: A comparison study of Chinese rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and their urban counterparts in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiao Yu; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung

    2017-02-01

    The number of internal migrant children in China has reached 35.8 million by the end of 2010. Previous studies revealed inconsistent findings regarding the mental health status of rural-to-urban migrant adolescents, as well as the impact of peer, teacher and parental support on the mental health of Chinese adolescent migrants. Using a comparative approach, this study attempted to compare the mental health status between migrant and urban-born adolescents and to clarify the specific roles of different sources of social support in the mental health of migrant and urban adolescents. A cross-sectional survey using a cluster convenience sampling strategy was performed in Beijing, China. A structured questionnaire was filled out by 368 rural-to-urban migrant adolescents and 325 urban-born adolescents. A significant difference was found only for positive affect (PA) but not for negative affect (NA) between the two groups, favouring the urban-born adolescents. Social support from all the three sources were all predictive of PA among rural-to-urban migrant adolescents, while only peer support contributed to PA among urban-born adolescents. Unexpectedly, teachers' support contributed to an increase in NA among urban-born adolescents. The findings contribute to understanding of the mental health status of migrant adolescents in China and the differential impact of the various sources of social support on migrant and urban-born adolescents. Also the findings may inform the development of mental health services and programmes that can potentially benefit a large number of internal migrant adolescents in China.

  16. Novel clostridial fusants in comparison with co-cultured counterpart species for enhanced production of biobutanol using green renewable and sustainable feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Kashif; Dahman, Yaser

    2015-11-01

    In this work, biobutanol was produced through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of wheat straw (WS) that traditionally produces acetone, butanol and ethanol solvents (ABE). Thermal stability was imparted to two mesophilic clostridial wild strains (Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium acetobutylicum) through protoplast fusion with that of a corresponding thermophilic clostridial species (Clostridium thermocellum). Production was pursued by the fused strains at 45 °C compared to that of the corresponding co-cultures at 35 °C. Results showed that the fused strains generally achieved higher production at 45 °C than that of the corresponding co-cultures at 35 °C. Highest butanol production of 13.82 g/L was recorded with C. beijerinckii fusant, with ABE solvents production of 23 g/L (yields of 0.17 and 0.57, respectively). Total sugar consumption of this strain was the highest among all strains and was 84%. Fused strains also showed immense level of tolerance towards butanol toxicity compared to the wild strains. Filter paper enzyme assay demonstrated that fused strains were able to produce cellulolytic enzymes in the range of 58.73-68.52 FPU/ml. Cellulosome producing C. thermocellum and its ability to ferment sugars offers a promising future in biofuels through eliminating the need to add external enzymes. Generally, productions reported in the present study were higher than literature where biobutanol stripping systems were employed to eliminate toxicity during production. This demonstrates a clear potential for improving productivity and yield at a larger-scale facility.

  17. Reversible Activation of Halophilic β-lactamase from Methanol-Induced Inactive Form: Contrast to Irreversible Inactivation of Non-Halophilic Counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Hiroko; Maeda, Junpei; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Masao

    2017-06-01

    Effects of a water-miscible organic solvent, methanol, on the structure and activity of halophilic β-lactamase derived from Chromohalobacter sp.560 (HaBla), were investigated by means of circular dichroism (CD) measurement and enzymatic activity determination. Beta-lactamase activity was enhanced about 1.2-fold in the presence of 10-20% methanol. CD measurement of HaBla revealed different structures depending on the methanol concentration: native-like active form (Form I) in 10-20% methanol and methanol-induced inactive form at higher concentration (Form II in 40-60% and Form III in 75-80% methanol). Incubation of HaBla with 40% methanol led to the complete loss of activity within ~80 min accompanied by the formation of Form II, whose activity was recovered promptly up to ~80% of full activity upon dilution of the methanol concentration to 10%. In addition, when the protein concentration was sufficiently high (e.g., 0.7 mg/ml), HaBla activity of Form III in 75% methanol could be recovered in the same way (with slightly slower recovery rate), upon dilution of the methanol concentration. In contrast, non-halophilic β-lactamase from Escherichia coli K12 strain MG1655 (EcBla) was irreversibly denatured in the presence of 40% methanol. HaBla showed remarkable ability to renature from the methanol-induced inactive states.

  18. Vascular aging processes accelerate following a cubic kinetic: pulse wave velocity as an objective counterpart that time, as we age, goes by faster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabutti L

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Luca Gabutti, Rosaria Del Giorno Department of Internal Medicine and Nephrology, Bellinzona Regional Hospital, Bellinzona, SwitzerlandArterial stiffness is a marker of vascular aging and is considered to be the most reliable parameter expressing, like an integral in mathematics, the cumulative consequences, on the vascular wall, of degenerative and adaptive changes occurring throughout life.1 The efficiency of the reparative processes, the cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF, and early life and genetic determinants, all play a relevant role.1 Among CVRF, the acceleration in arterial stiffness progression related to age is mainly influenced by hypertension.1 A pathological acceleration translates into the concept of early vascular aging, a concept that can be quantified calculating the gap between the subject’s chronological (estimated on the basis of the epidemiological data obtained in the normal population and effective vascular age.2 Data of subpopulations without active risk factors for accelerated vascular aging can be found mainly in three large epidemiological studies, performed respectively in Portugal,3 Argentina,4 and seven different European countries (Belgium, Czech Republic, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, and UK gathered in a collaborative investigation.5 Those doing this secondary analysis were aware of the limitation related to the use of cross-sectional data to extrapolate longitudinal changes, and their aims were combining the abovementioned epidemiological data concerning the normal population to calculate with the highest possible accuracy 1 the age-related increase in acceleration of the pulse wave velocity (PWV and to estimate both 2 the age-specific relative amount of time equivalent to that necessary to progress 1 year in vascular age at 20, and 3 the cumulative relative age calculated in year equivalents. 

  19. Does supplementation of formula with evening primrose and fish oils augment long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status of low birthweight infants to that of breast-fed counterparts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Okken, A; Muskiet, FAJ

    We investigated whether formulae with evening primrose and fish oils raise long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in plasma cholesterol esters (CE), erythrocytes (RSC) and platelets (PLT) to levels encountered in breast-fed infants. Low birthweight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g)

  20. New 2-alkynyl derivatives of the acyclic nucleoside 9-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)adenine and their 6-guanidinopurine counterparts as potential effectors of adenosine receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Česnek, Michal; Holý, Antonín; Masojídková, Milena

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 11 (2003), s. 2201-2218 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IBS4055109; GA MŠk OC D13.20 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : adenosine receptors * alkynes * purines Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.041, year: 2003